WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal evolution bioturbation

  1. Stabilization of the coupled oxygen and phosphorus cycles by the evolution of bioturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. A.; Dahl, T. W.; Dale, A. W.; Shields-Zhou, G. A.; Zhu, M.; Brasier, M. D.; Canfield, D. E.; Lenton, T. M.

    2014-09-01

    Animal burrowing and sediment-mixing (bioturbation) began during the run up to the Ediacaran/Cambrian boundary, initiating a transition between the stratified Precambrian and more well-mixed Phanerozoic sedimentary records, against the backdrop of a variable global oxygen reservoir probably smaller in size than present. Phosphorus is the long-term limiting nutrient for oxygen production via burial of organic carbon, and its retention (relative to carbon) within organic matter in marine sediments is enhanced by bioturbation. Here we explore the biogeochemical implications of a bioturbation-induced organic phosphorus sink in a simple model. We show that increased bioturbation robustly triggers a net decrease in the size of the global oxygen reservoir--the magnitude of which is contingent upon the prescribed difference in carbon to phosphorus ratios between bioturbated and laminated sediments. Bioturbation also reduces steady-state marine phosphate levels, but this effect is offset by the decline in iron-adsorbed phosphate burial that results from a decrease in oxygen concentrations. The introduction of oxygen-sensitive bioturbation to dynamical model runs is sufficient to trigger a negative feedback loop: the intensity of bioturbation is limited by the oxygen decrease it initially causes. The onset of this feedback is consistent with redox variations observed during the early Cambrian rise of bioturbation, leading us to suggest that bioturbation helped to regulate early oxygen and phosphorus cycles.

  2. Stabilization of the coupled oxygen and phosphorus cycles by the evolution of bioturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Richard; Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Dale, A. W.;

    2014-01-01

    between bioturbated and laminated sediments. Bioturbation also reduces steady-state marine phosphate levels, but this effect is offset by the decline in iron-adsorbed phosphate burial that results from a decrease in oxygen concentrations. The introduction of oxygen-sensitive bioturbation to dynamical...

  3. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  4. Protracted development of bioturbation through the early Palaeozoic Era

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    Tarhan, Lidya G.; Droser, Mary L.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Johnston, David T.

    2015-11-01

    Bioturbation, the physical and chemical mixing of sediment by burrowing animals, exerts an important control on the character of modern marine sediments and biogeochemical cycling. Here we show that the mixing of sediments on marine shelves remained limited until at least the late Silurian, 120 million years after the Precambrian-Cambrian transition. We present ichnological, stratigraphic and taphonomic data from a range of lower Phanerozoic siliciclastic successions spanning four palaeocontinents. The protracted development of the sediment mixed layer is also consistent with sulphur data and global sulphur model simulations. The slow increase in the intensity of bioturbation in the sediment record suggests that evolutionary advances in sediment colonization outpaced advances in sediment mixing. We conclude that ecosystem restructuring caused by the onset of significant infaunal mobile deposit feeding (`bulldozing’) occurred well after both the Cambrian Explosion and the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.

  5. Water Velocity and Bioturbation Alter Sediment Resuspension and Biogeochemistry in an Experimental Freshwater Mesocosm System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, A.; Vanni, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    the control treatments. However, once the water velocity was greater than 0.08 m s-1 there was no difference in TSS concentrations across the bioturbation treatments. Sediment resuspension rates were highest in control and manually disturbed treatments, possibly because these treatments had the lowest initial TSS concentrations. Overall, our results indicate that bioturbation and water velocity affect sediment nutrient dynamics and resuspension. By extension, disturbances that affect surficial sediments may also impact algal growth rates by altering nutrient and light levels. Thus it is important to consider how benthic animal communities and species identity interact with water velocity to influence sediment biogeochemical processes.

  6. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

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    Afonnikov Dmitry A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events.

  7. Microbes Drive Evolution of Animals and Plants: the Hologenome Concept

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    Eugene Rosenberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hologenome concept of evolution postulates that the holobiont (host plus symbionts with its hologenome (host genome plus microbiome is a level of selection in evolution. Multicellular organisms can no longer be considered individuals by the classical definitions of the term. Every natural animal and plant is a holobiont consisting of the host and diverse symbiotic microbes and viruses. Microbial symbionts can be transmitted from parent to offspring by a variety of methods, including via cytoplasmic inheritance, coprophagy, direct contact during and after birth, and the environment. A large number of studies have demonstrated that these symbionts contribute to the anatomy, physiology, development, innate and adaptive immunity, and behavior and finally also to genetic variation and to the origin and evolution of species. Acquisition of microbes and microbial genes is a powerful mechanism for driving the evolution of complexity. Evolution proceeds both via cooperation and competition, working in parallel.

  8. The cell's view of animal body-plan evolution.

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    Lyons, Deirdre C; Martindale, Mark Q; Srivastava, Mansi

    2014-10-01

    An adult animal's form is shaped by the collective behavior of cells during embryonic development. To understand the forces that drove the divergence of animal body-plans, evolutionary developmental biology has focused largely on studying genetic networks operating during development. However, it is less well understood how these networks modulate characteristics at the cellular level, such as the shape, polarity, or migration of cells. We organized the "Cell's view of animal body plan evolution" symposium for the 2014 The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting with the explicit goal of bringing together researchers studying the cell biology of embryonic development in diverse animal taxa. Using a broad range of established and emerging technologies, including live imaging, single-cell analysis, and mathematical modeling, symposium participants revealed mechanisms underlying cells' behavior, a few of which we highlight here. Shape, adhesion, and movements of cells can be modulated over the course of evolution to alter adult body-plans and a major theme explored during the symposium was the role of actomyosin in coordinating diverse behaviors of cells underlying morphogenesis in a myriad of contexts. Uncovering whether conserved or divergent genetic mechanisms guide the contractility of actomyosin in these systems will be crucial to understanding the evolution of the body-plans of animals from a cellular perspective. Many speakers presented research describing developmental phenomena in which cell division and tissue growth can control the form of the adult, and other presenters shared work on studying cell-fate specification, an important source of novelty in animal body-plans. Participants also presented studies of regeneration in annelids, flatworms, acoels, and cnidarians, and provided a unifying view of the regulation of cellular behavior during different life-history stages. Additionally, several presentations highlighted technological

  9. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  10. Earth's oxygen cycle and the evolution of animal life

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    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Olson, Stephanie L.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Erwin, Douglas H.

    2016-08-01

    The emergence and expansion of complex eukaryotic life on Earth is linked at a basic level to the secular evolution of surface oxygen levels. However, the role that planetary redox evolution has played in controlling the timing of metazoan (animal) emergence and diversification, if any, has been intensely debated. Discussion has gravitated toward threshold levels of environmental free oxygen (O2) necessary for early evolving animals to survive under controlled conditions. However, defining such thresholds in practice is not straightforward, and environmental O2 levels can potentially constrain animal life in ways distinct from threshold O2 tolerance. Herein, we quantitatively explore one aspect of the evolutionary coupling between animal life and Earth’s oxygen cycle—the influence of spatial and temporal variability in surface ocean O2 levels on the ecology of early metazoan organisms. Through the application of a series of quantitative biogeochemical models, we find that large spatiotemporal variations in surface ocean O2 levels and pervasive benthic anoxia are expected in a world with much lower atmospheric pO2 than at present, resulting in severe ecological constraints and a challenging evolutionary landscape for early metazoan life. We argue that these effects, when considered in the light of synergistic interactions with other environmental parameters and variable O2 demand throughout an organism’s life history, would have resulted in long-term evolutionary and ecological inhibition of animal life on Earth for much of Middle Proterozoic time (˜1.8-0.8 billion years ago).

  11. What is bioturbation? The need for a precise definition for fauna in aquatic sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Delefosse, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    referred to as particle reworking, while water movement (if considered) is re ferred to as bioirrigation in many cases. For consistency, we therefore propose that, for contemporary aquatic scientific disciplines, faunal bioturbation in aquatic environments includes all transport processes carried out...... by animals that directly or indirectly affect sediment matrices. These processes include both particle reworking and burrow ventilation. With this definition, bioturbation acts as an ‘umbrella’ term that covers all transport processes and their physical effects on the substratum. Particle reworking occurs...... through burrow construction and maintenance, as well as ingestion and defecation, and causes biomixing of the substratum. Organic matter and microorganisms are thus displaced vertically and laterally within the sediment matrix. Particle reworking animals can be categorized as biodiffusors, upward...

  12. Adaptive evolution of centromere proteins in plants and animals

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    Henikoff Steven

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Centromeres represent the last frontiers of plant and animal genomics. Although they perform a conserved function in chromosome segregation, centromeres are typically composed of repetitive satellite sequences that are rapidly evolving. The nucleosomes of centromeres are characterized by a special H3-like histone (CenH3, which evolves rapidly and adaptively in Drosophila and Arabidopsis. Most plant, animal and fungal centromeres also bind a large protein, centromere protein C (CENP-C, that is characterized by a single 24 amino-acid motif (CENPC motif. Results Whereas we find no evidence that mammalian CenH3 (CENP-A has been evolving adaptively, mammalian CENP-C proteins contain adaptively evolving regions that overlap with regions of DNA-binding activity. In plants we find that CENP-C proteins have complex duplicated regions, with conserved amino and carboxyl termini that are dissimilar in sequence to their counterparts in animals and fungi. Comparisons of Cenpc genes from Arabidopsis species and from grasses revealed multiple regions that are under positive selection, including duplicated exons in some grasses. In contrast to plants and animals, yeast CENP-C (Mif2p is under negative selection. Conclusions CENP-Cs in all plant and animal lineages examined have regions that are rapidly and adaptively evolving. To explain these remarkable evolutionary features for a single-copy gene that is needed at every mitosis, we propose that CENP-Cs, like some CenH3s, suppress meiotic drive of centromeres during female meiosis. This process can account for the rapid evolution and the complexity of centromeric DNA in plants and animals as compared to fungi.

  13. ZOONET: perspectives on the evolution of animal form. Meeting report.

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    Fischer, Antje H L; Arboleda, Enrique; Egger, Bernhard; Hilbrant, Maarten; McGregor, Alistair P; Cole, Alison G; Daley, Allison C

    2009-11-15

    What drives evolution? This was one of the main questions raised at the final ZOONET meeting in Budapest, Hungary, in November 2008. The meeting marked the conclusion of ZOONET, an EU-funded Marie-Curie Research Training Network comprising nine research groups from all over Europe (Max Telford, University College London; Michael Akam, University of Cambridge; Detlev Arendt, EMBL Heidelberg; Maria Ina Arnone, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn Napoli; Michalis Averof, IMBB Heraklion; Graham Budd, Uppsala University; Richard Copley, University of Oxford; Wim Damen, University of Cologne; Ernst Wimmer, University of Göttingen). ZOONET meetings and practical courses held during the past four years provided researchers from diverse backgrounds--bioinformatics, phylogenetics, embryology, palaeontology, and developmental and molecular biology--the opportunity to discuss their work under a common umbrella of evolutionary developmental biology (Evo Devo). The Budapest meeting emphasized in-depth discussions of the key concepts defining Evo Devo, and bringing together ZOONET researchers with external speakers who were invited to present their views on the evolution of animal form. The discussion sessions addressed four main topics: the driving forces of evolution, segmentation, fossils and phylogeny, and the future of Evo Devo.

  14. Middle Ordovician Bioturbation Structures from Southeastern Margin of Ordos Basin and Their Environmentary Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Trace fossils were discovered in the Middle Ordovician Badou Member of Fengfeng Formation and the Member 1 of Jinsushan Formation in Mt. Jinsu of the Fuping region which lies at the southeastern margin of the Ordos basin. The rocks of the fore-mentioned parts contain a considerable amount of bioturbation structures, in which ichnogenus and ichnospecies can not be identified, and abundant stromatolites.The distributions and characteristics of the bioturbation structures are analyzed and summarized in this paper. The paleoenvironments of related formations and members were interpreted in the method of semiquantitative analysis of bioturbation structures with researches on stromatolites and sedimentology. It is suggested that Fuping zone, located in the southeastern margin of the Ordos basin, was a carbonate platform where stromatolite-developing tidal flat and low-energy subtidal open platform environments dominated. Also that this zone experienced three paleogeographic evolutions from tidal flat to low-energy subtidal open platform environments, that is, three larger-scale eustatisms occurred during the sedimentary period of Middle Ordovician Badou Member of Fengfeng Formation to the Member 1 of Jinsushan Formation.

  15. An open source simulation model for soil and sediment bioturbation.

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    Schiffers, Katja; Teal, Lorna Rachel; Travis, Justin Mark John; Solan, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Bioturbation is one of the most widespread forms of ecological engineering and has significant implications for the structure and functioning of ecosystems, yet our understanding of the processes involved in biotic mixing remains incomplete. One reason is that, despite their value and utility, most mathematical models currently applied to bioturbation data tend to neglect aspects of the natural complexity of bioturbation in favour of mathematical simplicity. At the same time, the abstract nature of these approaches limits the application of such models to a limited range of users. Here, we contend that a movement towards process-based modelling can improve both the representation of the mechanistic basis of bioturbation and the intuitiveness of modelling approaches. In support of this initiative, we present an open source modelling framework that explicitly simulates particle displacement and a worked example to facilitate application and further development. The framework combines the advantages of rule-based lattice models with the application of parameterisable probability density functions to generate mixing on the lattice. Model parameters can be fitted by experimental data and describe particle displacement at the spatial and temporal scales at which bioturbation data is routinely collected. By using the same model structure across species, but generating species-specific parameters, a generic understanding of species-specific bioturbation behaviour can be achieved. An application to a case study and comparison with a commonly used model attest the predictive power of the approach.

  16. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model.

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    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-03-01

    We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris), for illustration, we describe the evolutionary peculiarities during the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of a long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability, which were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the data of the fox experiment and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these changes. We ascribe the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to the selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects.

  17. The magnitude of innovation and its evolution in social animals.

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    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-08

    Innovative behaviour in animals, ranging from invertebrates to humans, is increasingly recognized as an important topic for investigation by behavioural researchers. However, what constitutes an innovation remains controversial, and difficult to quantify. Drawing on a broad definition whereby any behaviour with a new component to it is an innovation, we propose a quantitative measure, which we call the magnitude of innovation, to describe the extent to which an innovative behaviour is novel. This allows us to distinguish between innovations that are a slight change to existing behaviours (low magnitude), and innovations that are substantially different (high magnitude). Using mathematical modelling and evolutionary computer simulations, we explored how aspects of social interaction, cognition and natural selection affect the frequency and magnitude of innovation. We show that high-magnitude innovations are likely to arise regularly even if the frequency of innovation is low, as long as this frequency is relatively constant, and that the selectivity of social learning and the existence of social rewards, such as prestige and royalties, are crucial for innovative behaviour to evolve. We suggest that consideration of the magnitude of innovation may prove a useful tool in the study of the evolution of cognition and of culture.

  18. Bioturbation: a fresh look at Darwin's last idea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2006-01-01

    Bioturbation refers to the biological reworking of soils and sediments, and its importance for soil processes and geomorphology was first realised by Charles Darwin, who devoted his last scientific book to the subject. Here, we review some new insights into the evolutionary and ecological role of bi

  19. Quantifying bioturbation and soil thickening over the late Quaternary

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    Wilkinson, M. T.; Pietsch, T.; Fox, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    We present geochemistry and biochemistry data to explore how bioturbation has operated in a residual sandstone-derived soil that thickened during the Holocene following aeolian deflation during the Last Glacial Maximum. Our site is located on a plateau cut into Triassic sandstones in humid Blue Mountains, SE Australia, where precipitation is ~1100 mm/a, and the mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures are 17°C and 5°C, respectively. Vegetation cover increase occurred ~13 ka, based on nearby palaeodune activity and pollen data from other highland sites. Our interpretation of terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclides (TCN) data suggests that ~30 cm of soil thickening has taken place since 13 ka, which includes 16 cm of bedrock lowering. Biofabrics preserve a short-term picture of biotically-displaced soil. In general, bioturbation decreases exponentially with increasing soil depth. The upper 21 cm of the profile is ~95% bioturbated; the middle 13 cm is 13 - 32% bioturbated; and the lowest 52 cm is 1 - 6% bioturbated. Tree roots penetrate weakness in the sandstone below this depth. Fallout radionuclides (7Be, 210Pb, and 137Cs) in the profile also suggest that vertical mixing in the upper 20 - 40 cm occurs over short—decadal—timescales. Optically stimulated luminescene (OSL) data records the time that quartz grains were last at the surface, and are used here to demonstrate vertical mixing of the profile over tens of thousands of years. OSL data indicates that some soil grains at all burial depths were once at the surface, consistent with modern process observations. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic values (delta 13C and delta 15N) of soil organic matter support the existence of soil organic matter turnover in the upper 30 cm of the soil column when regressed with log(SOC) and log(TN). Our carbon isotope data defy typical trends below ~30 cm for residual, undisturbed soils. We suggest this may reflect the absence of bioturbation during the LGM when the climate was cold

  20. Bioturbation in different ecosystems at Forsmark and Oskarshamn

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    Persson, Tryggve; Lenoir, Lisette; Taylor, Astrid [Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University or Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) carries out extensive investigations on factors that can affect long-term storage of nuclear waste. Earthworms consume organic soil materials and when doing so they transport and mix mineral soil particles as well as litter and humus materials. Ants do not consume soil materials, but they collect and mix mineral soil particles and litter materials to construct their nests. This process of material displacement by earthworms and ants is called bioturbation and can be a mechanism for the redistribution (vertical and horizontal) of radionuclides within the soil profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the quantitative impact of earthworms and ants on bioturbation of soil in different ecosystems at Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Earthworms were sampled at four 20x20 cm{sup 2} sub-plots at each site and were determined, dried and weighed in the laboratory. Gut passage time and faeces production were determined in a laboratory experiment at constant temperature. Temperature dependence of earthworm growth was studied at 3, 6, 10 and 20 deg C, and it was assumed that defecation mirrored growth as regards temperature dependence. Ant species composition, ant nest density and nest volume were investigated in the field by using pitfall traps and a transect method to enumerate ant nests. Dry weights of ant nests were determined after weighing in the laboratory. Earthworm abundances and biomasses were high in moist/wet alder forests and deciduous woodlands and low in pine and pine/spruce forests at both Forsmark and Oskarshamn. In mesic spruce forests, high estimates of abundance/biomass of earthworms were found at Forsmark but low at Oskarshamn, whereas grazed pastures had high estimates at Oskarshamn and ungrazed abandoned fields had relatively low estimates at Forsmark. High pH at Forsmark and low pH at Oskarshamn as well as high groundwater tables at some of the Forsmark sites can explain the difference between

  1. Possible evolution of mobile animals in association with microbial mats

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    Gingras, Murray; Hagadorn, James W.; Seilacher, Adolf; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Petrash, Daniel; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2011-06-01

    Complex animals first evolved during the Ediacaran period, between 635 and 542 million years ago, when the oceans were just becoming fully oxygenated. In situ fossils of the mobile forms of these animals are associated with microbial sedimentary structures, and the animal's trace fossils generally were formed parallel to the surface of the seabed, at or below the sediment-water interface. This evidence suggests the earliest mobile animals inhabited settings with high microbial populations, and may have mined microbially bound sediments for food resources. Here we report the association of mobile animals--insect larvae, oligochaetes and burrowing shore crabs--with microbial mats in a modern hypersaline lagoon in Venezuela. The lagoon is characterized by low concentrations of dissolved O2 and pervasive biomats dominated by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria, both analogous to conditions during the Ediacaran. We find that, during the day, O2 levels in the biomats are four times higher than in the overlying water column. We therefore conclude that the animals harvest both food and O2 from the biomats. In doing so, the animals produce horizontal burrows similar to those found in Ediacaran-aged rocks. We suggest that early mobile animals may have evolved in similar environments during the Ediacaran, effectively exploiting oases rich in O2 that formed within low oxygen settings.

  2. Cognitive Phenotypes and the Evolution of Animal Decisions.

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    Mendelson, Tamra C; Fitzpatrick, Courtney L; Hauber, Mark E; Pence, Charles H; Rodríguez, Rafael L; Safran, Rebecca J; Stern, Caitlin A; Stevens, Jeffrey R

    2016-11-01

    Despite the clear fitness consequences of animal decisions, the science of animal decision making in evolutionary biology is underdeveloped compared with decision science in human psychology. Specifically, the field lacks a conceptual framework that defines and describes the relevant components of a decision, leading to imprecise language and concepts. The 'judgment and decision-making' (JDM) framework in human psychology is a powerful tool for framing and understanding human decisions, and we apply it here to components of animal decisions, which we refer to as 'cognitive phenotypes'. We distinguish multiple cognitive phenotypes in the context of a JDM framework and highlight empirical approaches to characterize them as evolvable traits.

  3. Developmental plasticity and the evolution of animal complex life cycles.

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    Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2010-02-27

    Metazoan life cycles can be complex in different ways. A number of diverse phenotypes and reproductive events can sequentially occur along the cycle, and at certain stages a variety of developmental and reproductive options can be available to the animal, the choice among which depends on a combination of organismal and environmental conditions. We hypothesize that a diversity of phenotypes arranged in developmental sequence throughout an animal's life cycle may have evolved by genetic assimilation of alternative phenotypes originally triggered by environmental cues. This is supported by similarities between the developmental mechanisms mediating phenotype change and alternative phenotype determination during ontogeny and the common ecological condition that favour both forms of phenotypic variation. The comparison of transcription profiles from different developmental stages throughout a complex life cycle with those from alternative phenotypes in closely related polyphenic animals is expected to offer critical evidence upon which to evaluate our hypothesis.

  4. Animated Autoethnographies: Stop Motion Animation as a Tool for Self-Inquiry and Personal Evolution

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    Blair, Jeremy Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article will present the autoethnographic animations and processes from three select preservice art educators that enrolled in the Applications of Technology in Art Education course. These students created stop motion animations using small objects, toys, and their bodies; accessing culturally constructed fears, investigating impactful…

  5. Oxygen and animal evolution: Did a rise of atmospheric oxygen trigger the origin of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies challenge the classical view that the origin of animal life was primarily controlled by atmospheric oxygen levels. For example, some modern sponges, representing early-branching animals, can live under 200 times less oxygen than currently present in the atmosphere - levels commonly...... thought to have been maintained prior to their origination. Furthermore, it is increasingly argued that the earliest animals, which likely lived in low oxygen environments, played an active role in constructing the well-oxygenated conditions typical of the modern oceans. Therefore, while oxygen is still...

  6. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, R. A.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    of benthic fauna. Results show that even shallow bioturbation at that time may have had a significant impact on P burial. Our model provides support for a recent study that proposed that faunal radiation in ocean sediments led to enhanced P burial and, possibly, a stabilization of atmospheric O2 levels....... The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd....

  7. Kin selection and the evolution of social information use in animal conflict.

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    Baker, Christopher C M; Dall, Sasha R X; Rankin, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Animals often use social information about conspecifics in making decisions about cooperation and conflict. While the importance of kin selection in the evolution of intraspecific cooperation and conflict is widely acknowledged, few studies have examined how relatedness influences the evolution of social information use. Here we specifically examine how relatedness affects the evolution of a stylised form of social information use known as eavesdropping. Eavesdropping involves individuals escalating conflicts with rivals observed to have lost their last encounter and avoiding fights with those seen to have won. We use a game theoretical model to examine how relatedness affects the evolution of eavesdropping, both when strategies are discrete and when they are continuous or mixed. We show that relatedness influences the evolution of eavesdropping, such that information use peaks at intermediate relatedness. Our study highlights the importance of considering kin selection when exploring the evolution of complex forms of information use.

  8. Molecular evolution of dentin phosphoprotein among toothed and toothless animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Larry W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP is the largest member of the SIBLING family and is the most abundant noncollagenous protein in dentin. DSPP is also expressed in non-mineralized tissues including metabolically active ductal epithelia and some cancers. Its function, however, is poorly defined. The carboxy-terminal fragment, dentin phosphoprotein (DPP is encoded predominantly by a large repetitive domain that requires separate cloning/sequencing reactions and is, therefore, often incomplete in genomic databases. Comparison of DPP sequences from at least one member of each major branch in the mammalian evolutionary tree (including some "toothless" mammals as well as one reptile and bird may help delineate its possible functions in both dentin and ductal epithelia. Results The BMP1-cleavage and translation-termination domains were sufficiently conserved to permit amplification/cloning/sequencing of most species' DPP. While the integrin-binding domain, RGD, was present in about half of species, only vestigial remnants of this tripeptide were identified in the others. The number of tandem repeats of the nominal SerSerAsp phosphorylation motif in toothed mammals (including baleen whale and platypus which lack teeth as adults, ranged from ~75 (elephant to >230 (human. These repeats were not perfect, however, and patterns of intervening sequences highlight the rapidity of changes among even closely related species. Two toothless anteater species have evolved different sets of nonsense mutations shortly after their BMP1 motifs suggesting that while cleavage may be important for DSPP processing in other tissues, the DPP domain itself may be required only in dentin. The lizard DSPP had an intact BMP1 site, a remnant RGD motif, as well as a distinctly different Ser/Asp-rich domain compared to mammals. Conclusions The DPP domain of DSPP was found to change dramatically within mammals and was lost in two truly toothless animals. The

  9. The evolution of animal 'cultures' and social intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; van Schaik, Carel P

    2007-04-29

    Decades-long field research has flowered into integrative studies that, together with experimental evidence for the requisite social learning capacities, have indicated a reliance on multiple traditions ('cultures') in a small number of species. It is increasingly evident that there is great variation in manifestations of social learning, tradition and culture among species, offering much scope for evolutionary analysis. Social learning has been identified in a range of vertebrate and invertebrate species, yet sustained traditions appear rarer, and the multiple traditions we call cultures are rarer still. Here, we examine relationships between this variation and both social intelligence--sophisticated information processing adapted to the social domain--and encephalization. First, we consider whether culture offers one particular confirmation of the social ('Machiavellian') intelligence hypothesis that certain kinds of social life (here, culture) select for intelligence: 'you need to be smart to sustain culture'. Phylogenetic comparisons, particularly focusing on our own study animals, the great apes, support this, but we also highlight some paradoxes in a broader taxonomic survey. Second, we use intraspecific variation to address the converse hypothesis that 'culture makes you smart', concluding that recent evidence for both chimpanzees and orangutans support this proposition.

  10. Evolution of animal models in cancer vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei-Zen; Jones, Richard F; Juhasz, Csaba; Gibson, Heather; Veenstra, Jesse

    2015-12-16

    Advances in cancer vaccine development are facilitated by animal models reflecting key features of human cancer and its interface with host immunity. Several series of transplantable preneoplastic and neoplastic mouse mammary lesions have been used to delineate mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity. Mimicking immune tolerance to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) such as HER2/neu, transgenic mice developing spontaneous mammary tumors are strong model systems for pre-clinical vaccine testing. In these models, HER2 DNA vaccines are easily administered, well-tolerated, and induce both humoral and cellular immunity. Although engineered mouse strains have advanced cancer immunotherapy, basic shortcomings remain. For example, multiple mouse strains have to be tested to recapitulate genetic regulation of immune tolerance in humans. Outbred domestic felines more closely parallel humans in the natural development of HER2 positive breast cancer and their varying genetic background. Electrovaccination with heterologous HER2 DNA induces robust adaptive immune responses in cats. Importantly, homologous feline HER2 DNA with a single amino acid substitution elicits unique antibodies to feline mammary tumor cells, unlocking a new vaccine principle. As an alternative approach to targeted vaccination, non-surgical tumor ablation such as cryoablation induces anti-tumor immunity via in situ immunization, particularly when combined with toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist. As strategies for vaccination advance, non-invasive monitoring of host response becomes imperative. As an example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning following administration of tryptophan metabolism tracer [11C]-alpha-methyl-tryptophan (AMT) provides non-invasive imaging of both tumor growth and metabolic activities. Because AMT is a substrate of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that produces the immune regulatory molecule kynurenine, AMT imaging can provide

  11. [From animal communication to the human language and cognition: evolution or revolution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernigovskaia, T V

    2008-09-01

    The paper discusses the problem of language and cognitive specificity in humans as compared to other species. The main hypotheses of human evolution and the emergence of language seem to be well researched on genetic basis of higher functions. Cognitive abilities of other animals and their communication signals and the main views on basic principles of brain underlying these functions are described.

  12. Evolution of homeobox gene clusters in animals: the Giga-cluster and primary versus secondary clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellard Keith Ferrier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hox gene cluster has been a major focus in evolutionary developmental biology. This is because of its key role in patterning animal development and widespread examples of changes in Hox genes being linked to the evolution of animal body plans and morphologies. Also, the distinctive organisation of the Hox genes into genomic clusters in which the order of the genes along the chromosome corresponds to the order of their activity along the embryo, or during a developmental process, has been a further source of great interest. This is known as Colinearity, and it provides a clear link between genome organisation and the regulation of genes during development, with distinctive changes marking evolutionary transitions. The Hox genes are not alone, however. The homeobox genes are a large super-class, of which the Hox genes are only a small subset, and an ever-increasing number of further gene clusters besides the Hox are being discovered. This is of great interest because of the potential for such gene clusters to help understand major evolutionary transitions, both in terms of changes to development and morphology as well as evolution of genome organisation. However, there is uncertainty in our understanding of homeobox gene cluster evolution at present. This relates to our still rudimentary understanding of the dynamics of genome rearrangements and evolution over the evolutionary timescales being considered when we compare lineages from across the animal kingdom. A major goal is to deduce whether particular instances of clustering are primary (conserved from ancient ancestral clusters or secondary (reassortment of genes into clusters in lineage-specific fashion. The following summary of the various instances of homeobox gene clusters in animals, and the hypotheses about their evolution, provides a framework for the future resolution of this uncertainty.

  13. Insights into the early evolution of animal calcium signaling machinery: a unicellular point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xinjiang; Wang, Xiangbing; Patel, Sandip; Clapham, David E

    2015-03-01

    The basic principles of Ca(2+) regulation emerged early in prokaryotes. Ca(2+) signaling acquired more extensive and varied functions when life evolved into multicellular eukaryotes with intracellular organelles. Animals, fungi and plants display differences in the mechanisms that control cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations. The aim of this review is to examine recent findings from comparative genomics of Ca(2+) signaling molecules in close unicellular relatives of animals and in common unicellular ancestors of animals and fungi. Also discussed are the evolution and origins of the sperm-specific CatSper channel complex, cation/Ca(2+) exchangers and four-domain voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Newly identified evolutionary evidence suggests that the distinct Ca(2+) signaling machineries in animals, plants and fungi likely originated from an ancient Ca(2+) signaling machinery prior to early eukaryotic radiation.

  14. Cytonuclear Interactions in the Evolution of Animal Mitochondrial tRNA Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Walker; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2015-06-27

    The evolution of mitochondrial information processing pathways, including replication, transcription and translation, is characterized by the gradual replacement of mitochondrial-encoded proteins with nuclear-encoded counterparts of diverse evolutionary origins. Although the ancestral enzymes involved in mitochondrial transcription and replication have been replaced early in eukaryotic evolution, mitochondrial translation is still carried out by an apparatus largely inherited from the α-proteobacterial ancestor. However, variation in the complement of mitochondrial-encoded molecules involved in translation, including transfer RNAs (tRNAs), provides evidence for the ongoing evolution of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Here, we investigate the evolution of the mitochondrial translational machinery using recent genomic and transcriptomic data from animals that have experienced the loss of mt-tRNAs, including phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora, as well as some representatives of all four classes of Porifera. We focus on four sets of mitochondrial enzymes that directly interact with tRNAs: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase, tRNA(Ile) lysidine synthetase, and RNase P. Our results support the observation that the fate of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins is influenced by the evolution of molecules encoded in mitochondrial DNA, but in a more complex manner than appreciated previously. The data also suggest that relaxed selection on mitochondrial translation rather than coevolution between mitochondrial and nuclear subunits is responsible for elevated rates of evolution in mitochondrial translational proteins.

  15. The cytochrome P450 genesis locus: the origin and evolution of animal cytochrome P450s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David R; Goldstone, Jared V; Stegeman, John J

    2013-02-19

    The neighbourhoods of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in deuterostome genomes, as well as those of the cnidarians Nematostella vectensis and Acropora digitifera and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens were examined to find clues concerning the evolution of CYP genes in animals. CYP genes created by the 2R whole genome duplications in chordates have been identified. Both microsynteny and macrosynteny were used to identify genes that coexisted near CYP genes in the animal ancestor. We show that all 11 CYP clans began in a common gene environment. The evidence implies the existence of a single locus, which we term the 'cytochrome P450 genesis locus', where one progenitor CYP gene duplicated to create a tandem set of genes that were precursors of the 11 animal CYP clans: CYP Clans 2, 3, 4, 7, 19, 20, 26, 46, 51, 74 and mitochondrial. These early CYP genes existed side by side before the origin of cnidarians, possibly with a few additional genes interspersed. The Hox gene cluster, WNT genes, an NK gene cluster and at least one ARF gene were close neighbours to this original CYP locus. According to this evolutionary scenario, the CYP74 clan originated from animals and not from land plants nor from a common ancestor of plants and animals. The CYP7 and CYP19 families that are chordate-specific belong to CYP clans that seem to have originated in the CYP genesis locus as well, even though this requires many gene losses to explain their current distribution. The approach to uncovering the CYP genesis locus overcomes confounding effects because of gene conversion, sequence divergence, gene birth and death, and opens the way to understanding the biodiversity of CYP genes, families and subfamilies, which in animals has been obscured by more than 600 Myr of evolution.

  16. Earth’s oxygen cycle and the evolution of animal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Olson, Stephanie L.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Erwin, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and expansion of complex eukaryotic life on Earth is linked at a basic level to the secular evolution of surface oxygen levels. However, the role that planetary redox evolution has played in controlling the timing of metazoan (animal) emergence and diversification, if any, has been intensely debated. Discussion has gravitated toward threshold levels of environmental free oxygen (O2) necessary for early evolving animals to survive under controlled conditions. However, defining such thresholds in practice is not straightforward, and environmental O2 levels can potentially constrain animal life in ways distinct from threshold O2 tolerance. Herein, we quantitatively explore one aspect of the evolutionary coupling between animal life and Earth’s oxygen cycle—the influence of spatial and temporal variability in surface ocean O2 levels on the ecology of early metazoan organisms. Through the application of a series of quantitative biogeochemical models, we find that large spatiotemporal variations in surface ocean O2 levels and pervasive benthic anoxia are expected in a world with much lower atmospheric pO2 than at present, resulting in severe ecological constraints and a challenging evolutionary landscape for early metazoan life. We argue that these effects, when considered in the light of synergistic interactions with other environmental parameters and variable O2 demand throughout an organism’s life history, would have resulted in long-term evolutionary and ecological inhibition of animal life on Earth for much of Middle Proterozoic time (∼1.8–0.8 billion years ago). PMID:27457943

  17. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  18. Convergent evolution of chromosomal sex-determining regions in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James A; Diezmann, Stephanie; Subaran, Ryan L; Allen, Andria; Lengeler, Klaus B; Dietrich, Fred S; Heitman, Joseph

    2004-12-01

    Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and by mating type (MAT) loci in fungi. Comparative analysis of the MAT locus from a species cluster of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus revealed sequential evolutionary events that fashioned this large, highly unusual region. We hypothesize that MAT evolved via four main steps, beginning with acquisition of genes into two unlinked sex-determining regions, forming independent gene clusters that then fused via chromosomal translocation. A transitional tripolar intermediate state then converted to a bipolar system via gene conversion or recombination between the linked and unlinked sex-determining regions. MAT was subsequently subjected to intra- and interallelic gene conversion and inversions that suppress recombination. These events resemble those that shaped mammalian sex chromosomes, illustrating convergent evolution in sex-determining structures in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

  19. Enzyme-coding genes as molecular clocks: the molecular evolution of animal alpha-amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, D A; Benkel, B F; Boer, P H; Genest, Y; Abukashawa, S; Ben-David, G

    1987-01-01

    We constructed a cDNA library for the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. This library was screened using a cloned amylase gene from Drosophila melanogaster as a molecular probe. Beetle amylase cDNA clones were isolated from this bank, and the nucleotide sequence was obtained for a cDNA clone with a coding capacity for 228 amino acids. Both the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence were compared to our recent results for D. melanogaster alpha-amylases, along with published sequences for other alpha-amylases. The results show that animal alpha-amylases are highly conserved over their entire length. A broader comparison, which includes plant and microbial alpha-amylase sequences, indicates that parts of the gene are conserved between prokaryotes, plants, and animals. We discuss the potential importance of this and other enzyme-coding genes for the construction of molecular phylogenies and for the study of the general question of molecular clocks in evolution.

  20. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  1. Comprehensive analysis of animal TALE homeobox genes: new conserved motifs and cases of accelerated evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Krishanu; Bürglin, Thomas R

    2007-08-01

    TALE homeodomain proteins are an ancient subgroup within the group of homeodomain transcription factors that play important roles in animal, plant, and fungal development. We have extracted the full complement of TALE superclass homeobox genes from the genome projects of seven protostomes, seven deuterostomes, and Nematostella. This was supplemented with TALE homeobox genes from additional species and phylogenetic analyses were carried out with 276 sequences. We found 20 homeobox genes and 4 pseudogenes in humans, 21 genes in mouse, 8 genes in Drosophila, and 5 genes plus one truncated gene in Caenorhabditis elegans. Apart from the previously identified TALE classes MEIS, PBC, IRO, and TGIF, a novel class is identified, termed MOHAWK (MKX). Further, we show that the MEIS class can be divided into two families, PREP and MEIS. Prep genes have previously only been described in vertebrates but are lacking in Drosophila. Here we identify orthologues in other insect taxa as well as in the cnidarian Nematostella. In C. elegans, a divergent Prep protein has lost the homeodomain. Full-length multiple sequence alignment of the protostome and deuterostome sequences allowed us to identify several novel conserved motifs within the MKX, TGIF, and MEIS classes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed fast-evolving PBC class genes; in particular, some X-linked PBC genes in nematodes are subject to rapid evolution. In addition, several instances of gene loss were identified. In conclusion, our comprehensive analysis provides a defining framework for the classification of animal TALE homeobox genes and the understanding of their evolution.

  2. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

  3. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ANIMAL EFFECTIVES IN EU – 25 AND IN ROMANIA IN THE PERIOD 2002 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ANDA MILIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study will analyze the evolution of the animal production and the animal effectives in the period 2002 – 2004 in EU and in Romania. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the differences between the Romanian and EU zootechnics according to the in formation supplied by the EU and national statistics. We analyzed the zoo-technical production, its percentage from the total agricultural production, the evolution of the animal effectives comparing the present situation in EU – 15, EU – 25 and Romania.

  4. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments: Significance for phosphorus burial in the early Paleozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, Richard A.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Wallmann, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    A diagenetic model is used to simulate the diagenesis and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and phosphorus (P) in marine sediments underlying anoxic versus oxic bottom waters. The latter are physically mixed by animals moving through the surface sediment (bioturbation) and ventilated by burrowing, tube-dwelling organisms (bioirrigation). The model is constrained using an empirical database including burial ratios of Corg with respect to organic P (Corg:Porg) and total reactive P (Corg:Preac), burial efficiencies of Corg and Porg, and inorganic carbon-to-phosphorus regeneration ratios. If Porg is preferentially mineralized relative to Corg during aerobic respiration, as many previous studies suggest, then the simulated Porg pool is found to be completely depleted. A modified model that incorporates the redox-dependent microbial synthesis of polyphosphates and Porg (termed the microbial P pump) allows preferential mineralization of the bulk Porg pool relative to Corg during both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and is consistent with the database. Results with this model show that P burial is strongly enhanced in sediments hosting fauna. Animals mix highly labile Porg away from the aerobic sediment layers where mineralization rates are highest, thereby mitigating diffusive PO43- fluxes to the bottom water. They also expand the redox niche where microbial P uptake occurs. The model was applied to a hypothetical shelf setting in the early Paleozoic; a time of the first radiation of benthic fauna. Results show that even shallow bioturbation at that time may have had a significant impact on P burial. Our model provides support for a recent study that proposed that faunal radiation in ocean sediments led to enhanced P burial and, possibly, a stabilization of atmospheric O2 levels. The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments.

  5. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  6. The apoptotic initiator caspase-8: its functional ubiquity and genetic diversity during animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kouhei; Iwata, Hiroaki; Imai, Kenichiro; Satou, Yutaka; Funayama, Noriko; Nozaki, Masami; Yajima, Mamiko; Nishimura, Osamu; Higuchi, Mayura; Chiba, Kumiko; Yoshimoto, Michi; Kimura, Haruna; Gracey, Andrew Y; Shimizu, Takashi; Tomii, Kentaro; Gotoh, Osamu; Akasaka, Koji; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    The caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, play multiple roles in apoptosis, inflammation, and cellular differentiation. Caspase-8 (Casp8), which was first identified in humans, functions as an initiator caspase in the apoptotic signaling mediated by cell-surface death receptors. To understand the evolution of function in the Casp8 protein family, casp8 orthologs were identified from a comprehensive range of vertebrates and invertebrates, including sponges and cnidarians, and characterized at both the gene and protein levels. Some introns have been conserved from cnidarians to mammals, but both losses and gains have also occurred; a new intron arose during teleost evolution, whereas in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the casp8 gene is intronless and is organized in an operon with a neighboring gene. Casp8 activities are near ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Exogenous expression of a representative range of nonmammalian Casp8 proteins in cultured mammalian cells induced cell death, implying that these proteins possess proapoptotic activity. The cnidarian Casp8 proteins differ considerably from their bilaterian counterparts in terms of amino acid residues in the catalytic pocket, but display the same substrate specificity as human CASP8, highlighting the complexity of spatial structural interactions involved in enzymatic activity. Finally, it was confirmed that the interaction with an adaptor molecule, Fas-associated death domain protein, is also evolutionarily ancient. Thus, despite structural diversity and cooption to a variety of new functions, the ancient origins and near ubiquitous distribution of this activity across the animal kingdom emphasize the importance and utility of Casp8 as a central component of the metazoan molecular toolkit.

  7. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  8. Is our heart a well-designed pump? The heart along animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettex, Dominique A; Prêtre, René; Chassot, Pierre-Guy

    2014-09-07

    A carrier system for gases and nutrients became mandatory when primitive animals grew larger and developed different organs. The first circulatory systems are peristaltic tubes pushing slowly the haemolymph into an open vascular tree without capillaries (worms). Arthropods developed contractile bulges on the abdominal aorta assisted by accessory hearts for wings or legs and by abdominal respiratory motions. Two-chamber heart (atrium and ventricle) appeared among mollusks. Vertebrates have a multi-chamber heart and a closed circulation with capillaries. Their heart has two chambers in fishes, three chambers (two atria and one ventricle) in amphibians and reptiles, and four chambers in birds and mammals. The ventricle of reptiles is partially divided in two cavities by an interventricular septum, leaving only a communication of variable size leading to a variable shunt. Blood pressure increases progressively from 15 mmHg (worms) to 170/70 mmHg (birds) according to the increase in metabolic rate. When systemic pressure exceeds 50 mmHg, a lower pressure system appears for the circulation through gills or lungs in order to improve gas exchange. A four-chamber heart allows a complete separation of systemic and pulmonary circuits. This review describes the circulatory pumping systems used in the different classes of animals, their advantages and failures, and the way they have been modified with evolution.

  9. [Effects of invertebrate bioturbation on vertical hydraulic conductivity of streambed for a river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chao-Liang; Song, Jin-Xi; Yang, Xiao-Gang; Xue, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is a key factor influencing water exchange between surface water and groundwater. However, the streambed invertebrate bioturbation has a great effect on the hydraulic conductivity. In order to determine the impact of invertebrate bioturbation on streambed hydraulic conductivity, the investigation of invertebrate bioturbation and in-situ test of vertical hydraulic conductivity of streambed are simultaneously conducted at five points along the main stream of the Weihe River. Firstly, correlation between the streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity and grain size distribution is analyzed. Secondly, type and density of the invertebrate and their correlation to hydraulic conductivity are determined. Finally, the effect of invertebrate bioturbation on the streambed hydraulic conductivity is illustrated. The results show that the vertical hydraulic conductivity and biological density of invertebrate are 18.479 m x d(-1) and 139 ind x m(-2), respectively for the Caotan site, where sediment composition with a large amount of sand and gravel particles. For Meixian site, the sediment constitutes a large amount of silt and clay particles, in which the vertical hydraulic conductivity and biological density of invertebrate are 2.807 m x d(-1) and 2 742 ind x m(-2) respectively. Besides, for the low permeability of four sites (Meixian, Xianyang, Lintong and Huaxian), grain size particles are similar while the vertical hydraulic conductivity and biological density of invertebrate are significantly different from one site to another. However, for each site, the vertical hydraulic conductivity closely related to biological density of invertebrate, the Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.987. It can be concluded that both grain size particles and invertebrate bioturbation influence sediment permeability. For example, higher values of streambed hydraulic conductivity from strong permeability site mainly due to the large amount of large-size particles

  10. Quantification of termite bioturbation in a savannah ecosystem: Application of OSL dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jeppe Ågård; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    Luminescence dating is one of the most promising technique available for studying bioturbation on pedological timescales. In this study, we use multi-grain and single-grain quartz OSL to quantify termite bioturbation processes (Macrotermes natalensis) in a savannah ecosystem in Ghana. Termites...... is effectively bleached during the erosion process allowing us to quantify retrospectively, for the first time, the surface deposition rate, the inverse of the upwards transport rate. At this site, this is ~0.28 mm year-1 and began about 4.000 years ago. Downward mixing through subsurface galleries may replace...

  11. Bioturbation delays attenuation of DDT by clean sediment cap but promotes sequestration by thin-layered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Diana; Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Werner, David; Luthy, Richard G

    2014-01-21

    The effects of bioturbation on the performance of attenuation by sediment deposition and activated carbon to reduce risks from DDT-contaminated sediment were assessed for DDT sediment-water flux, biouptake, and passive sampler (PE) uptake in microcosm experiments with a freshwater worm, Lumbriculus variegatus. A thin-layer of clean sediment (0.5 cm) did not reduce the DDT flux when bioturbation was present, while a thin (0.3 cm) AC cap was still capable of reducing the DDT flux by 94%. Bioturbation promoted AC sequestration by reducing the 28-day DDT biouptake (66%) and DDT uptake into PE (>99%) compared to controls. Bioturbation further promoted AC-sediment contact by mixing AC particles into underlying sediment layers, reducing PE uptake (55%) in sediment compared to the AC cap without bioturbation. To account for the observed effects from bioturbation, a mass transfer model together with a biodynamic model were developed to simulate DDT flux and biouptake, respectively, and models confirmed experimental results. Both experimental measurements and modeling predictions imply that thin-layer activated carbon placement on sediment is effective in reducing the risks from contaminated sediments in the presence of bioturbation, while natural attenuation process by clean sediment deposition may be delayed by bioturbation.

  12. ASAS Centennial Paper: Animal breeding research and the Journal of Animal Science: A century of co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenboken, W D

    2009-01-01

    Animal breeding reports in the Journal of Animal Science (JAS) and in its predecessor, Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Production, were counted and categorized. In 22 volumes of the Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Production, 155 articles had animal breeding content, of which 54% were research reports, 17% extension communications, and 28% syntheses or reviews. Several of the latter featured advice from the livestock industry to the scientific community. Thirty-one percent of articles concerned swine, whereas beef cattle, dairy cattle, and sheep each accounted for an additional 20%. In the 67 yr of JAS publication, 3,045 research papers were identified with animal breeding content, nearly half of them published since 1990. Growth in publication output was modest during the 1950s, robust in the 1960s through 1980s, moderate in the 1990s, and static in the 2000s. Important topics included genetic resource evaluation (a subject in 55% of all manuscripts), genetic parameter estimation, selection programs, and nonrandom mating systems. Maternal effects and genotype x environment interactions were featured in 17 and 15% of all manuscripts, respectively, whereas 6% dealt with a simply inherited trait. Only 4% of manuscripts included economic analysis of a breeding program or intervention. Interest in molecular biology and biometry has surged in the 1990s and 2000s. Approximately 50% of all papers involved cattle, a fifth of which concerned dairy cattle or beef x dairy crossbreds. A quarter of papers concerned swine, 15% concerned sheep, and 3% considered laboratory rodents, with the proportional contribution of sheep research decreasing across time. Authors from the Midwestern and Southern sections of the American Society of Animal Science had greater proportional contributions than Western and Northeastern section authors, and contributions of university and state experiment station authors outnumbered those of USDA-ARS authors. The

  13. Measurement in Learning Games Evolution: Review of Methodologies Used in Determining Effectiveness of "Math Snacks" Games and Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Karen; Chamberlin, Barbara; Wiburg, Karin; Armstrong, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article captures the evolution of research goals and methodologies used to assess the effectiveness and impact of a set of mathematical educational games and animations for middle-school aged students. The researchers initially proposed using a mixed model research design of formative and summative measures, such as user-testing,…

  14. Bioturbation in a declining oxygen environment, in situ observations from Wormcam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kersey Sturdivant

    Full Text Available Bioturbation, the displacement and mixing of sediment particles by fauna or flora, facilitates life supporting processes by increasing the quality of marine sediments. In the marine environment bioturbation is primarily mediated by infaunal organisms, which are susceptible to perturbations in their surrounding environment due to their sedentary life history traits. Of particular concern is hypoxia, dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations ≤2.8 mg l(-1, a prevalent and persistent problem that affects both pelagic and benthic fauna. A benthic observing system (Wormcam consisting of a buoy, telemetering electronics, sediment profile camera, and water quality datasonde was developed and deployed in the Rappahannock River, VA, USA, in an area known to experience seasonal hypoxia from early spring to late fall. Wormcam transmitted a time series of in situ images and water quality data, to a website via wireless internet modem, for 5 months spanning normoxic and hypoxic periods. Hypoxia was found to significantly reduce bioturbation through reductions in burrow lengths, burrow production, and burrowing depth. Although infaunal activity was greatly reduced during hypoxic and near anoxic conditions, some individuals remained active. Low concentrations of DO in the water column limited bioturbation by infaunal burrowers and likely reduced redox cycling between aerobic and anaerobic states. This study emphasizes the importance of in situ observations for understanding how components of an ecosystem respond to hypoxia.

  15. Studying phenotypic evolution in domestic animals: a walk in the footsteps of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin used domesticated plants and animals as proof of principle for his theory on phenotypic evolution by means of natural selection. Inspired by Darwin's work, we developed an intercross between the wild boar and domestic pigs to study the genetic basis for phenotypic changes during domestication. The difference in coat color is controlled by two major loci. Dominant white color is due to two consecutive mutations in the KIT gene: a 450-kb duplication and a splice mutation. Black spotting is caused by the combined effect of two mutations in MC1R: a missense mutation for dominant black color and a 2-bp insertion leading to a frameshift. A major discovery made using this pedigree is the identification of a single-nucleotide substitution in intron 3 of the gene for insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) that is underlying a quantitative trait locus affecting muscle growth, size of the heart, and fat deposition. The mutation disrupts the interaction with a repressor and leads to threefold increased IGF2 expression in postnatal muscle. In a recent study, we have identified the IGF2 repressor, and this previously unknown protein, named ZBED6, is specific for placental mammals and derived from a domesticated DNA transposon.

  16. Review of "Animal Models in the Light of Evolution" by Niall Shanks, Ph.D., and C. Ray Greek, M.D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolpert Lewis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal Models in the Light of Evolution provides persuasive evidence that animal models should be used with great caution when applying the results to human diseases. Mice and other model animals are both similar and different, in their biology, to humans.

  17. Physiology and evolution of voltage-gated calcium channels in early diverging animal phyla: Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium (Cav channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling, gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling, pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling, regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca2+-sensitive ion channels. In recent years, genome sequencing has provided significant insights into the molecular evolution of Cav channels. Furthermore, expanded gene datasets have permitted improved inference of the species phylogeny at the base of Metazoa, providing clearer insights into the evolution of complex animal traits which involve Cav channels, including the nervous system. For the various types of metazoan Cav channels, key properties that determine their cellular contribution include: ion selectivity, pore gating, and, importantly, cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions that direct sub-cellular localization and functional complexing. It is unclear when many of these defining features, many of which are essential for nervous system function, evolved. In this review, we highlight some experimental observations that implicate Cav channels in the physiology and behavior of the most early-diverging animals from the phyla Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora. Given our limited understanding of the molecular biology of Cav channels in these basal animal lineages, we infer insights from better-studied vertebrate and invertebrate animals. We also highlight some apparently conserved cellular functions of Cav channels, which might have emerged very early on during metazoan evolution, or perhaps predated it.

  18. Physiology and Evolution of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Early Diverging Animal Phyla: Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Adriano; Raiss, Hamad; Le, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling), gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling), pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling), regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca2+-sensitive ion channels. In recent years, genome sequencing has provided significant insights into the molecular evolution of Cav channels. Furthermore, expanded gene datasets have permitted improved inference of the species phylogeny at the base of Metazoa, providing clearer insights into the evolution of complex animal traits which involve Cav channels, including the nervous system. For the various types of metazoan Cav channels, key properties that determine their cellular contribution include: Ion selectivity, pore gating, and, importantly, cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions that direct sub-cellular localization and functional complexing. It is unclear when these defining features, many of which are essential for nervous system function, evolved. In this review, we highlight some experimental observations that implicate Cav channels in the physiology and behavior of the most early-diverging animals from the phyla Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera, and Ctenophora. Given our limited understanding of the molecular biology of Cav channels in these basal animal lineages, we infer insights from better-studied vertebrate and invertebrate animals. We also highlight some apparently conserved cellular functions of Cav channels, which might have emerged very early on during metazoan evolution, or perhaps predated it. PMID:27867359

  19. Bioturbation in near-surface sediments from the COMRA Polymetallic Nodule Area:evidence from excess 210Pb measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qunhui; ZHOU Huaiyang

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate bioturbation in sediments from the COMRA Polymetallic Nodule Area in the northeast tropical Pacific, excess 210Pb profiles in sediments cores collected with multiple corers during R/V DAYANGYIHAO Environmental Program Cruise in 1998 were measured by direct gamma assay using Ortec HPGe GWL series well-type coaxial low background intrinsic germanium detectors. A steady-state diffusion model of excess 210Pb profiles suggests that bioturbation mixing depths and biodiffusion coefficients are 16 cm and 2.75 cm2/a in East Zone, and 6 cm and 0.26 cm2/a in West Zone, respectively. Furthermore, the observations of macrofauna and measurements of total organic carbon (TOC) content in sediments suggest that bioturbation is directly controlled by species and abundance of benthic fauna, such as polychaete, and the bioturbation mixing depth and intensity are positively correlated with the organic matter content.

  20. The evolution of animal welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-03-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is essential. In the evolving global landscape of enhanced attention to animal welfare, a widely accepted path to achieving this goal is the successful integration of the 3Rs in animal care and use programs. Currently, awareness of the 3Rs, their implementation, and the resulting animal care and use standards and practices vary across countries. This variability has direct effects on the animals used in research and potentially the data generated and may also have secondary effects on the country's ability to be viewed as a global research partner. Here we review the status of implementation of the 3Rs worldwide and focus on 3 countries-Brazil, China and India-with increasing economic influence and an increasing footprint in the biomedical research enterprise.

  1. Upper Cretaceous bioturbated fine-to-medium sands: A problem for deep-water exploration in Campos Basin, Offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carminatti, M.; Zimmermann, L.; Jahnert, R.; Pontes, C.

    1996-08-01

    The presence of bioturbation in oil-prone turbidite deposits has detained a better exploration of upper Cretaceous siliciclastic reservoirs in Campos Basin. Bioturbated sandstones have degraded their permo-porosity with impact in oil production. They occur associated to unbioturbated sandstones with similar seismic amplitude, becoming difficult to separate them in seismic mapping. A comprehensive study in order to reduce the exploratory risk must consider firstly the recognition of genetic facies association through cores, and secondly the calibration of sonic well-logs and seismic velocity sections with rock data. This study deals with sedimentary facies association. The range of main facies in such reservoirs includes: (1) medium-to-coarse siliciclastic sandstone with cross stratification; (2) fine-to-medium massive sandstone with thin traction carpets, bioturbated by opportunistic ichnofabrics and, (3) bioturbated, muddy, fine-to-medium, quartz-feldspatic and glauconitic sandstone over 60 in thick. The genetic facies associations suggest that the sandwich reservoirs were formed by high density turbidite currents deposited en masse or by thin traction carpets. The bioturbated sandstone was originated by reworking of bottom currents rich in nutrients and oxygen. Detritic and biogenic glauconite covered and/or filled bioturbations indicate a basinward movement of the bottom currents. The successive alternation of high-energy with low-energy ichnofabrics reflects cyclic variations in current velocities.

  2. New Trends and Perspectives in the Evolution of Neurotransmitters in Microbial, Plant, and Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchina, Victoria V

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary perspective on the universal roles of compounds known as neurotransmitters may help in the analysis of relations between all organisms in biocenosis-from microorganisms to plant and animals. This phenomenon, significant for chemosignaling and cellular endocrinology, has been important in human health and the ability to cause disease or immunity, because the "living environment" influences every organism in a biocenosis relationship (microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-animal, plant-animal, plant-plant and animal-animal). Non-nervous functions of neurotransmitters (rather "biomediators" on a cellular level) are considered in this review and ample consideration is given to similarities and differences that unite, as well as distinguish, taxonomical kingdoms.

  3. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Moran, Yehu

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes). By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a ‘two-speed’ mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion) in the evolutionary history of the species–the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia–the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections in

  4. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Moran, Yehu

    2015-10-01

    Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes). By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a 'two-speed' mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion) in the evolutionary history of the species-the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia-the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections in shaping animal

  5. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Sunagar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes. By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a 'two-speed' mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion in the evolutionary history of the species-the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia-the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections

  6. Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Emerging Enteric Picobirnaviruses of Animal Origin and Their Relationship to Human Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal S. Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Picobirnavirus (PBV which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae.” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior. Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated. Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses. Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach. Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains.

  7. On the origin of laminated-bioturbated chalk cycles in the Upper Maastrichtian, Danish Central Graben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ineson, J.R.; Buchardt, B.; Lassen, S.; Rasmussen, J.A.; Schovsbo, N.H.; Schioeler, P.; Sheldon, E.; Surlyk, F.

    2004-07-01

    Metre-scale laminated-bioturbated chalk cycles form a characteristic motif in the lower levels of the Upper Maastrichtian chalks in the Dan Field area, southern Danish Central Graben. They have most recently been interpreted in the literature to reflect cycles of relative oxygenation on the sea floor, the laminated half-cycles recording poorly oxygenated conditions. Sedimentological, isotopic, palynofacies and palaeoecological (nannofossils, dinoflagellates, foraminifers) analysis was undertaken of a close suite of samples across a composite cyclic interval to investigate the validity of this interpretation and the possible factors controlling periodic variation in bottom-water ventilation. The data from benthic organisms clearly demonstrate a hostile sea-floor environment and outline a cyclicity in bottom water conditions that parallels, yet is lightly out of phase with, the laminated-bioturbated cycles. Interestingly, the planktonic foraminiferal data suggest that during periods with the most hostile bottom water conditions, the upper water masses were relatively stable whereas slight amelioration at the sea floor coincided with stressed, changeable conditions in the surface waters. Data from palynofacies and dinoflagellate analysis indicate a low productivity, oligotrophic setting and no evidence of relative sea-level variation in phase with the cycles is observed. Similarly, the calcareous plankton show no indications of major productivity peaks related to the onset of lamination in the sediment; conversely, minor peaks in productivity indicators in the nannofossil dataset correlate with the transition from laminated to bioturbated chalk i.e. are the result, rather than the cause of oxygen deprivation at the sea floor. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that these short-term cycles were probably controlled by cyclic variations in mean wind stress resulting in the alternation of a weakly stratified shelf sea, in which local dysoxia developed in

  8. Animal deoxyribonucleoside kinases: 'forward' and 'retrograde' evolution of their substrate specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Sandrini, Michael; Knecht, Wolfgang;

    2004-01-01

    specificity. Recent studies suggest that in the animal lineage one of the brogenitor kinases, the so-called dCK/dGK/TK2-like gene, was duplicated prior to separation of the insect and mammalian lineages. Thereafter, insects lost all but one kinase, dNK (EC 2.7.1.145), which subsequently, through remodelling...

  9. Something gone awry: unsolved mysteries in the evolution of asymmetric animal genitalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The great diversity in genital shape and function across and within the animal phyla hamper the identification of specific evolutionary trends that stretch beyond the limits of the group under study. Asymmetry might be a trait in genital morphology that could play a unifying role in the evolutionary

  10. Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal personalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, M.; Van Doorn, G.S.; Leimar, O.; Weissing, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years evidence has been accumulating that personalities are not only found in humans(1) but also in a wide range of other animal species(2-8). Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural tendencies and the behaviour in one context is correlated with the behaviour in multiple other

  11. An empiricist guide to animal personality variation in ecology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha R.X. Dall

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of animal personality variation promises to provide significant new insight into the way that behaviour evolves in animals, along with its ecological and evolutionary influences. We strongly advocate more empirical work in this exciting and rapidly expanding research area, but hope that new studies adopt a more hypothesis-driven and/or experimental approach than seems to be usual at the moment. Here we outline what we feel is good practice to the many empiricists that are keen on pursuing work in this field. We highlight the substantial body of theoretical work that exists for providing well-reasoned hypotheses, which new empirical studies should be designed to test. Furthermore, using a brief review of existing work on the behavioural ecology of animal personality variation in the zebra finch - one of the more widely used model systems in this field - we stress the importance of understanding the ecology of the chosen study animal, and the problems that are likely to arise by neglecting to identify or account for the structure of behavioural variation that is often likely to occur.

  12. Effects of tubificid bioturbation on pore structures in sediment and the migration of sediment particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaorui; Hua, Xiuyi; Zheng, Fang; Dong, Deming; Liang, Dapeng; Guo, Zhiyong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of tubificid bioturbation near the water-sediment interface on pore structures and the migration of sediment particles were evaluated using a series of simulations. In these experiments, the distribution and variation of the tubificid burrows and the macropores in the sediment were investigated by X-ray computed tomography (CT) and digital image collecting, without sampling or disturbing the sediment. The migration of the sediment particles was also determined using CT by adding BaSO4 microspheres to the sediment as a tracer. The effects of tubificid bioturbation on the distribution and migration of contaminants in the sediment were verified by adding Pb-containing sediment layers to the sediment. The results indicate that after the addition of the tubificids, both the burrows and the macropores in the sediments increased with time, and the rate of increase slowed gradually. With the increased worm density, the burrows and the pore structures also increased. The in-depth distribution of the burrows and macropores was determined by the settlement time of the worms: with the settlement time increasing from 3 to 19 days, the depth of the zone with the highest density of burrows and macropores increased from 0-30 to 30-50 mm and from 0-10 to 30-60 mm, respectively. The distribution of the burrows and macropores was closely related to the distribution of the tubificids. Thickening of the oxidized zones in the superficial sediments in the presence of tubificid bioturbation was also observed. The main action of tubificids on the sediment particles was the transport of particles from the inner sediment (especially in the range of 30-50 mm in depth) to the water-sediment interface. The migration of Pb in the contaminated sediment with tubificid bioturbation could be interpreted by the variation in the burrows and macropores and the migration of sediment particles. Both the formation and the variation in the burrows and macropores, as well as

  13. The role of natural enemies in the expression and evolution of mixed mating in hermaphroditic plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steets, Janette A; Wolf, Diana E; Auld, Josh R; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2007-09-01

    Although a large portion of plant and animal species exhibit intermediate levels of outcrossing, the factors that maintain this wealth of variation are not well understood. Natural enemies are one relatively understudied ecological factor that may influence the evolutionary stability of mixed mating. In this paper, we aim for a conceptual unification of the role of enemies in mating system expression and evolution in both hermaphroditic animals and plants. We review current theory and detail the potential effects of enemies on fundamental mating system parameters. In doing so, we identify situations in which consideration of enemies alters expectations about the stability of mixed mating. Generally, we find that inclusion of the enemy dimension may broaden conditions in which mixed mating systems are evolutionarily stable. Finally, we highlight avenues ripe for future theoretical and empirical work that will advance our understanding of enemies in the expression and evolution of mixed mating in their hosts/victims, including examination of feedback cycles between victims and enemies and quantification of mating system-related parameters in victim populations in the presence and absence of enemies.

  14. The influence of body size and net diversification rate on molecular evolution during the radiation of animal phyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welch John J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular clock dates, which place the origin of animal phyla deep in the Precambrian, have been used to reject the hypothesis of a rapid evolutionary radiation of animal phyla supported by the fossil record. One possible explanation of the discrepancy is the potential for fast substitution rates early in the metazoan radiation. However, concerted rate variation, occurring simultaneously in multiple lineages, cannot be detected by "clock tests", and so another way to explore such variation is to look for correlated changes between rates and other biological factors. Here we investigate two possible causes of fast early rates: change in average body size or diversification rate of deep metazoan lineages. Results For nine genes for phylogenetically independent comparisons between 50 metazoan phyla, orders, and classes, we find a significant correlation between average body size and rate of molecular evolution of mitochondrial genes. The data also indicate that diversification rate may have a positive effect on rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution. Conclusion If average body sizes were significantly smaller in the early history of the Metazoa, and if rates of diversification were much higher, then it is possible that mitochondrial genes have undergone a slow-down in evolutionary rate, which could affect date estimates made from these genes.

  15. The evolution of juvenile animal testing for small and large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Recent formalised regulatory requirements for ensuring safe use of new drugs in children has increased the requirement, when considered relevant, to perform juvenile animal testing before commencing paediatric clinical trials. A key goal of this work is to identify or examine for a developmental or toxicity finding not seen in other toxicology testing. With our current knowledge, this paper examines what types of testing are occurring, what novel findings are being seen and their relevance in the safety evaluation process. Furthermore, trends for now and the future in the type of juvenile animal testing will be described including a need for more focused study designs and more published data on modern cross-species postnatal development.

  16. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  17. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resner, Kathryn [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Yoo, Kyungsoo, E-mail: kyoo@umn.edu [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Hale, Cindy [University of Minnesota Duluth, The Natural Resources Research Institute, 5013 Miller Trunk Hwy. Duluth, MN 55811 (United States); Aufdenkampe, Anthony [Assistant Research Scientist - Isotope and Organic Geochemistry, Stroud Water Research Center, 970 Spencer Road, Avondale, PA 19311 (United States); Blum, Alex [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Sebestyen, Stephen [Research Hydrologist, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, MN 55744-3399 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically

  18. Contaminants, benthic communities, and bioturbation: potential for PAH mobilisation in Arctic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalov, D.; Renaud, P.E.; Berge, J.; Voronkov, A.Y.; Cochrane, S.K.J. [Polar Environmental Center, Tromso (Norway)

    2010-07-01

    Marine benthic fauna and biological mixing were studied in relation to sediment organic enrichment and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bottom sediments of Svalbard. We investigated how organic enrichment may affect the fate and chemical composition of deposited contaminants by impacting biological reworking by faunal communities. Samples were collected near active coal mines at Barentsburg and at the mouth of Groenfjord. PAH sources in both areas were coal particles and pyrolytic compounds from coal-driven power stations. The results from a bioturbation experiment were consistent with the hypothesis that fauna enhance the vertical transport of PAHs within the sediment. Faunal community composition was similar at the two sites, with polychaete worms comprising 85% of the fauna. Abundances and taxon richness were eight and ten times higher in the organically enriched sediments near Barentsburg, and total PAH concentrations were up to three times higher in Barentsburg. Unlike expectations derived from models developed for temperate regions, organic enrichment in oligotrophic areas, such as this Arctic site, enhanced the biomass and bioturbation potential of benthic communities. Hence, new insights into the relationships among enrichment, benthic communities and the fate of contaminants must be considered in management and regulatory efforts in these areas.

  19. Soil Penetration by Earthworms and Plant Roots--Mechanical Energetics of Bioturbation of Compacted Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Siul; Or, Dani; Schymanski, Stanislaus J

    2015-01-01

    We quantify mechanical processes common to soil penetration by earthworms and growing plant roots, including the energetic requirements for soil plastic displacement. The basic mechanical model considers cavity expansion into a plastic wet soil involving wedging by root tips or earthworms via cone-like penetration followed by cavity expansion due to pressurized earthworm hydroskeleton or root radial growth. The mechanical stresses and resulting soil strains determine the mechanical energy required for bioturbation under different soil hydro-mechanical conditions for a realistic range of root/earthworm geometries. Modeling results suggest that higher soil water content and reduced clay content reduce the strain energy required for soil penetration. The critical earthworm or root pressure increases with increased diameter of root or earthworm, however, results are insensitive to the cone apex (shape of the tip). The invested mechanical energy per unit length increase with increasing earthworm and plant root diameters, whereas mechanical energy per unit of displaced soil volume decreases with larger diameters. The study provides a quantitative framework for estimating energy requirements for soil penetration work done by earthworms and plant roots, and delineates intrinsic and external mechanical limits for bioturbation processes. Estimated energy requirements for earthworm biopore networks are linked to consumption of soil organic matter and suggest that earthworm populations are likely to consume a significant fraction of ecosystem net primary production to sustain their subterranean activities.

  20. Effects of bioturbation on the fate of oil in coastal sandy sediments - An in situ experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Karen; Banta, Gary T.; Klinge, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Effects of bioturbation by the common lugworm Arenicola marina on the fate of oil hydrocarbons (alkanes and PAHs) were studied in situ during a simulated oil spill in a shallow coastal area of Roskilde fjord, Denmark. The fate of selected oil compounds was monitored during 120 d using GC–MS and b......Effects of bioturbation by the common lugworm Arenicola marina on the fate of oil hydrocarbons (alkanes and PAHs) were studied in situ during a simulated oil spill in a shallow coastal area of Roskilde fjord, Denmark. The fate of selected oil compounds was monitored during 120 d using GC...

  1. The evolution and functional diversification of animal microRNA genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Liu; Katsutomo Okamura; David M Tyler; Michael D Phillips; Wei-Jen Chung; Eric C Lai

    2008-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of ~22 nucleotide (nt) regulatory RNAs that are pervasive in higher eukaryotic genomes.In order to fully understand their prominence in genomes,it is necessary to elucidate the molecu lar mechanisms that can diversify miRNA activities.In this review,we describe some of the many strategies that allow novel miRNA functions to emerge,with particular emphasis on how miRNA genes evolve in animals.These mechanisms include changes in their sequence,processing,or expression pattern;acquisition of miRNA* functionality or antisense processing;and de novo gene birth.The facility and versatility of miRNAs to evolve and change likely underlies how they have become dominant constituents of higher genomes.

  2. Conservation of miRNA-mediated silencing mechanisms across 600 million years of animal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Marta; Kirchner, Marieluise; Aharoni, Reuven; Ciolli Mattioli, Camilla; van den Bruck, David; Gutkovitch, Nadya; Modepalli, Vengamanaidu; Selbach, Matthias; Moran, Yehu; Chekulaeva, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Our current knowledge about the mechanisms of miRNA silencing is restricted to few lineages such as vertebrates, arthropods, nematodes and land plants. miRNA-mediated silencing in bilaterian animals is dependent on the proteins of the GW182 family. Here, we dissect the function of GW182 protein in the cnidarian Nematostella, separated by 600 million years from other Metazoa. Using cultured human cells, we show that Nematostella GW182 recruits the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complexes via its tryptophan-containing motifs, thereby inhibiting translation and promoting mRNA decay. Further, similarly to bilaterians, GW182 in Nematostella is recruited to the miRNA repression complex via interaction with Argonaute proteins, and functions downstream to repress mRNA. Thus, our work suggests that this mechanism of miRNA-mediated silencing was already active in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria. PMID:27604873

  3. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-04-09

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the 120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella.

  4. The Effect of Abiotic Factors on Marine Animal Body Size Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Wong, W.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    While there is evidence of a general increase in body size over time, there has been no comprehensive attempt to determine the influence of abiotic factors on body size. Although an increase in maximum body size has been observed during and after the Precambrian oxidation events in the Late Archean and at the onset of the Cambrian, these observations took into account the appearance of eukaryotic life and multicellular life respectively. Using a database of marine animal body sizes spanning the Phanerozoic, we conducted a series of Pearson product-moment correlation tests with igneous rock weathering (Strontium-87: Strontium-86), rate of carbon cycle (δ13C), temperature (δ18O), CO2 concentration, sulfate mineral weathering (δ34S), atmospheric oxygen concentration, and sea level as independent variables, and mean body size as the dependent variable. Our test yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.81 between δ18O and body size, and -0.78 between rCO2 and body size; since δ18O is inversely correlated with temperature, these results indicate that both temperature and CO2 have strong inverse relationships with body size. Atmospheric oxygen yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.09, demonstrating that it ceased to play an influential role in shaping body sizes following the start of the Phanerozoic.

  5. Bioturbation determines the response of benthic ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverock, B; Kitidis, V; Tait, K; Gilbert, J A; Osborn, A M; Widdicombe, S

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA), caused by the dissolution of increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in seawater, is projected to cause significant changes to marine ecology and biogeochemistry. Potential impacts on the microbially driven cycling of nitrogen are of particular concern. Specifically, under seawater pH levels approximating future OA scenarios, rates of ammonia oxidation (the rate-limiting first step of the nitrification pathway) have been shown to dramatically decrease in seawater, but not in underlying sediments. However, no prior study has considered the interactive effects of microbial ammonia oxidation and macrofaunal bioturbation activity, which can enhance nitrogen transformation rates. Using experimental mesocosms, we investigated the responses to OA of ammonia oxidizing microorganisms inhabiting surface sediments and sediments within burrow walls of the mud shrimp Upogebia deltaura. Seawater was acidified to one of four target pH values (pHT 7.90, 7.70, 7.35 and 6.80) in comparison with a control (pHT 8.10). At pHT 8.10, ammonia oxidation rates in burrow wall sediments were, on average, fivefold greater than in surface sediments. However, at all acidified pH values (pH ≤ 7.90), ammonia oxidation rates in burrow sediments were significantly inhibited (by 79-97%; p < 0.01), whereas rates in surface sediments were unaffected. Both bacterial and archaeal abundances increased significantly as pHT declined; by contrast, relative abundances of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidation (amoA) genes did not vary. This research suggests that OA could cause substantial reductions in total benthic ammonia oxidation rates in coastal bioturbated sediments, leading to corresponding changes in coupled nitrogen cycling between the benthic and pelagic realms.

  6. Animal lectins as self/non-self recognition molecules. Biochemical and genetic approaches to understanding their biological roles and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, G R; Ahmed, H; Fink, N E; Elola, M T; Marsh, A G; Snowden, A; Odom, E W

    1994-04-15

    In recent years, the significant contributions from molecular research studies on animal lectins have elucidated structural aspects and provided clues not only to their evolution but also to their multiple biological functions. The experimental evidence has suggested that distinct, and probably unrelated, groups of molecules are included under the term "lectin." Within the invertebrate taxa, major groups of lectins can be identified: One group would include lectins that show significant homology to membrane-integrated or soluble vertebrate C-type lectins. The second would include those beta-galactosyl-specific lectins homologous to the S-type vertebrate lectins. The third group would be constituted by lectins that show homology to vertebrate pentraxins that exhibit lectin-like properties, such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P. Finally, there are examples that do not exhibit similarities to any of the aforementioned categories. Moreover, the vast majority of invertebrate lectins described so far cannot yet be placed in one or another group because of the lack of information regarding their primary structure. (See Table 1.) Animal lectins do not express a recombinatorial diversity like that of antibodies, but a limited diversity in recognition capabilities would be accomplished by the occurrence of multiple lectins with distinct specificities, the presence of more than one binding site, specific for different carbohydrates in a single molecule, and by certain "flexibility" of the binding sites that would allow the recognition of a range of structurally related carbohydrates. In order to identify the lectins' "natural" ligands, we have investigated the interactions between those proteins and the putative endogenous or exogenous glycosylated substances or cells that may be relevant to their biological function. Results from these studies, together with information on the biochemical properties of invertebrate and vertebrate lectins, including their structural

  7. Upper Secondary and First-Year University Students' Explanations of Animal Behaviour: To What Extent Are Tinbergen's Four Questions about Causation, Ontogeny, Function and Evolution, Represented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Rianne; Desclée, Mathieu; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In 1963, the Nobel Prize-winning ethologist Niko Tinbergen proposed a framework for the scientific study of animal behaviour by outlining four questions that should be answered to have a complete understanding: causation, ontogeny, function and evolution. At present, Tinbergen's framework is still considered the best way to guide animal…

  8. Evolution of bright colours in animals: worlds of prohibition and oblivion [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir J. Alonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the ability to hide in plain sight provides a major selective advantage to both prey and predator species, the emergence of the striking colouration of some animal species (such as many coral reef fish represents an evolutionary conundrum that remains unsolved to date. Here I propose a framework by which conspicuous colours can emerge when the selective pressures for camouflage are relaxed (1 because camouflage is not essential under specific prey/predator conditions or (2 due to the impossibility of reducing the signal-to-background noise in the environment. The first case is found among non-predator-species that possess effective defences against predators (hence a “Carefree World”, such as the strong macaws’ beaks and the flight abilities of hummingbirds. The second case is found in diurnal mobile fish of coral reef communities, which swim in clear waters against highly contrasting and unpredictable background (hence an "Hyper-Visible World”. In those contexts the selective pressures that usually come secondary to camouflage (such as sexual, warning, species recognition or territorial display are free to drive the evolution of brilliant and diverse colouration. This theoretical framework can also be useful for studying the conditions that allow for conspicuousness in other sensory contexts (acoustic, chemical, electrical, etc..

  9. Biomantling and bioturbation by colonies of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Walter R

    2015-01-01

    In much of the world, soil-nesting ants are among the leading agents of biomantling and bioturbation, depositing excavated soil on the surface or in underground chambers. Colonies of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius excavate a new nest once a year on average, depositing 0.1 to 12 L (3 L average) of soil on the surface. Repeated surveys of a population of about 400 colonies yielded the frequency of moves (approximately once per year), the distance moved (mean 4 m), and the direction moved (random). The area of the soil disc correlated well with the volume and maximum depth of the nest, as determined by excavation and mapping of chambers. The population-wide frequency distribution of disc areas thus yielded the frequency distribution of nest volumes and maximum depths. For each surveyed colony, the volume of soil excavated from six specified depth ranges and deposited on the surface was estimated. These parameters were used in a simulation to estimate the amount of soil mantled over time by the observed population of P. badius colonies. Spread evenly, P. badius mantling would create a soil layer averaging 0.43 cm thick in a millennium, with 10-15% of the soil deriving from depths greater than 1 m. Biomantling by P. badius is discussed in the context of the ant community of which it is a part, and in relation to literature reports of ant biomantling.

  10. Biomantling and bioturbation by colonies of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R Tschinkel

    Full Text Available In much of the world, soil-nesting ants are among the leading agents of biomantling and bioturbation, depositing excavated soil on the surface or in underground chambers. Colonies of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius excavate a new nest once a year on average, depositing 0.1 to 12 L (3 L average of soil on the surface. Repeated surveys of a population of about 400 colonies yielded the frequency of moves (approximately once per year, the distance moved (mean 4 m, and the direction moved (random. The area of the soil disc correlated well with the volume and maximum depth of the nest, as determined by excavation and mapping of chambers. The population-wide frequency distribution of disc areas thus yielded the frequency distribution of nest volumes and maximum depths. For each surveyed colony, the volume of soil excavated from six specified depth ranges and deposited on the surface was estimated. These parameters were used in a simulation to estimate the amount of soil mantled over time by the observed population of P. badius colonies. Spread evenly, P. badius mantling would create a soil layer averaging 0.43 cm thick in a millennium, with 10-15% of the soil deriving from depths greater than 1 m. Biomantling by P. badius is discussed in the context of the ant community of which it is a part, and in relation to literature reports of ant biomantling.

  11. A new method for measuring bioturbation rates in sandy tidal flat sediments based on luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni T.; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    The rates of post-depositional mixing by bioturbation have been investigated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating in two sediment cores (BAL2 and BAL5), retrieved from a sandy tidal flat in the Danish part of the Wadden Sea. A high-resolution chronology, consisting of thirty-six OSL...... ages with ages ranging between 2 ± 4 and 410 ± 20 years, is presented. Slices of sediment (1–2 cm thick) have been dated at least every 5 cm, and from these data mixing depths of 20 cm and 22 cm (BAL5 and BAL2, respectively) are readily identified. Below the mixing zone there is a significant decrease....... The significant change in sedimentation rates at BAL5 may indicate an offset in OSL age of up to 620 years. This paper uses a simple conceptual model for vertical mixing in which all the sediment excreted at the surface by lugworms is assumed to be completely reset before being re-incorporated in the sediment...

  12. A new method for measuring bioturbation rates in sandy tidal flat sediments based on luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, Andrew S.; jain, A

    2011-01-01

    The rates of post-depositional mixing by bioturbation have been investigated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating in two sediment cores (BAL2 and BAL5), retrieved from a sandy tidal flat in the Danish part of the Wadden Sea. A high-resolution chronology, consisting of thirty-six OSL...... ages with ages ranging between 2 4 and 410 20 years, is presented. Slices of sediment (1e2 cm thick) have been dated at least every 5 cm, and from these data mixing depths of 20 cm and 22 cm (BAL5 and BAL2, respectively) are readily identified. Below the mixing zone there is a significant decrease....... The significant change in sedimentation rates at BAL5 may indicate an offset in OSL age of up to 620 years. This paper uses a simple conceptual model for vertical mixing in which all the sediment excreted at the surface by lugworms is assumed to be completely reset before being re-incorporated in the sediment...

  13. Animal evolution and atmospheric pO2: is there a link between gradual animal adaptation to terrain elevation due to Ural orogeny and survival of subsequent hypoxic periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-10-22

    Considering evolution of terrestrial animals as something happening only on flat continental plains seems wrong. Many mountains have arisen and disappeared over the geologic time scale, so in all periods some areas of high altitude existed, with reduced oxygen pressure (pO2) and increased aridity. During orogeny, animal species of the raising terrain can slowly adapt to reduced oxygen levels.This review proposes that animal evolution was often driven by atmospheric oxygen availability. Transitions of insect ancestors and amphibians out of water are here interpreted as events forced by the lack of oxygen in shallow and warm water during Devonian. Hyperoxia during early Carboniferous allowed giant insects to be predators of lowlands, forcing small amphibians to move to higher terrains, unsuitable to large insects due to reduced pO2. In arid mountainous habitats, ascended animals evolved in early reptiles with more efficient lungs and improved circulation. Animals with alveolar lungs became the mammalian ancestors, while those with respiratory duct lungs developed in archosaurs. In this interpretation, limb precursors of wings and pneumatised bones might have been adaptations for moving on steep slopes.Ural mountains have risen to an estimated height of 3000 m between 318 and 251 Mya. The earliest archosaurs have been found on the European Ural side, estimated 275 Myr old. It is proposed that Ural orogeny slowly elevated several highland habitats within the modern Ural region to heights above 2500 m. Since this process took near 60 Myr, animals in these habitats fully to adapted to hypoxia.The protracted P-Tr hypoxic extinction event killed many aquatic and terrestrial animals. Devastated lowland areas were repopulated by mammaliaformes that came down from mountainous areas. Archosaurs were better adapted to very low pO2, so they were forced to descend to the sea level later when the lack of oxygen became severe. During the Triassic period, when the relative content

  14. Biodiversity of benthic microbial communities in bioturbated coastal sediments is controlled by geochemical microniches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertics, Victoria J; Ziebis, Wiebke

    2009-11-01

    We used a combination of field and laboratory approaches to address how the bioturbation activity of two crustaceans, the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the fiddler crab Uca crenulata, affects the microbial diversity in the seabed of a coastal lagoon (Catalina Harbor, Santa Catalina Island, CA, USA). Detailed geochemical analyses, including oxygen microsensor measurements, were performed to characterize environmental parameters. We used a whole-assemblage fingerprinting approach (ARISA: amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to compare bacterial diversity along geochemical gradients and in relation to subsurface microniches. The two crustaceans have different burrowing behaviors. The ghost shrimp maintains complex, deep-reaching burrows and permanently lives subterranean, supplying its burrow with oxygen-rich water. In contrast, the fiddler crab constructs simpler, J-shaped burrows, which it does not inhabit permanently and does not actively ventilate. Our goal was to address how varying environmental parameters affect benthic microbial communities. An important question in benthic microbial ecology has been whether burrows support similar or unique communities compared with the sediment surface. Our results showed that sediment surface microbial communities are distinct from subsurface assemblages and that different burrow types support diverse bacterial taxa. Statistical comparisons by canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the availability of oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, ferric iron) play a key role in determining the presence and abundance of different taxa. When geochemical parameters were alike, microbial communities associated with burrows showed significant similarity to sediment surface communities. Our study provides implications on the community structure of microbial communities in marine sediments and the factors controlling their distribution.

  15. Animal Mitochondrial DNA as We Do Not Know It: mt-Genome Organization and Evolution in Nonbilaterian Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Dennis V; Pett, Walker

    2016-09-26

    Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is commonly described as a small, circular molecule that is conserved in size, gene content, and organization. Data collected in the last decade have challenged this view by revealing considerable diversity in animal mitochondrial genome organization. Much of this diversity has been found in nonbilaterian animals (phyla Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Porifera), which, from a phylogenetic perspective, form the main branches of the animal tree along with Bilateria. Within these groups, mt-genomes are characterized by varying numbers of both linear and circular chromosomes, extra genes (e.g. atp9, polB, tatC), large variation in the number of encoded mitochondrial transfer RNAs (tRNAs) (0-25), at least seven different genetic codes, presence/absence of introns, tRNA and mRNA editing, fragmented ribosomal RNA genes, translational frameshifting, highly variable substitution rates, and a large range of genome sizes. This newly discovered diversity allows a better understanding of the evolutionary plasticity and conservation of animal mtDNA and provides insights into the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms shaping mitochondrial genomes.

  16. The functions of grainy head-like proteins in animals and fungi and the evolution of apical extracellular barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Adam; Kim, Myungjin; Juarez, Michelle T; Brody, Stuart; McGinnis, William

    2012-01-01

    The Grainy head (GRH) family of transcription factors are crucial for the development and repair of epidermal barriers in all animals in which they have been studied. This is a high-level functional conservation, as the known structural and enzymatic genes regulated by GRH proteins differ between species depending on the type of epidermal barrier being formed. Interestingly, members of the CP2 superfamily of transcription factors, which encompasses the GRH and LSF families in animals, are also found in fungi--organisms that lack epidermal tissues. To shed light on CP2 protein function in fungi, we characterized a Neurospora crassa mutant lacking the CP2 member we refer to as grainy head-like (grhl). We show that Neurospora GRHL has a DNA-binding specificity similar to that of animal GRH proteins and dissimilar to that of animal LSF proteins. Neurospora grhl mutants are defective in conidial-spore dispersal due to an inability to remodel the cell wall, and we show that grhl mutants and the long-known conidial separation-2 (csp-2) mutants are allelic. We then characterized the transcriptomes of both Neurospora grhl mutants and Drosophila grh mutant embryos to look for similarities in the affected genes. Neurospora grhl appears to play a role in the development and remodeling of the cell wall, as well as in the activation of genes involved in defense and virulence. Drosophila GRH is required to activate the expression of many genes involved in cuticular/epidermal-barrier formation. We also present evidence that GRH plays a role in adult antimicrobial defense. These results, along with previous studies of animal GRH proteins, suggest the fascinating possibility that the apical extracellular barriers of some animals and fungi might share an evolutionary connection, and that the formation of physical barriers in the last common ancestor was under the control of a transcriptional code that included GRH-like proteins.

  17. The functions of grainy head-like proteins in animals and fungi and the evolution of apical extracellular barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paré

    Full Text Available The Grainy head (GRH family of transcription factors are crucial for the development and repair of epidermal barriers in all animals in which they have been studied. This is a high-level functional conservation, as the known structural and enzymatic genes regulated by GRH proteins differ between species depending on the type of epidermal barrier being formed. Interestingly, members of the CP2 superfamily of transcription factors, which encompasses the GRH and LSF families in animals, are also found in fungi--organisms that lack epidermal tissues. To shed light on CP2 protein function in fungi, we characterized a Neurospora crassa mutant lacking the CP2 member we refer to as grainy head-like (grhl. We show that Neurospora GRHL has a DNA-binding specificity similar to that of animal GRH proteins and dissimilar to that of animal LSF proteins. Neurospora grhl mutants are defective in conidial-spore dispersal due to an inability to remodel the cell wall, and we show that grhl mutants and the long-known conidial separation-2 (csp-2 mutants are allelic. We then characterized the transcriptomes of both Neurospora grhl mutants and Drosophila grh mutant embryos to look for similarities in the affected genes. Neurospora grhl appears to play a role in the development and remodeling of the cell wall, as well as in the activation of genes involved in defense and virulence. Drosophila GRH is required to activate the expression of many genes involved in cuticular/epidermal-barrier formation. We also present evidence that GRH plays a role in adult antimicrobial defense. These results, along with previous studies of animal GRH proteins, suggest the fascinating possibility that the apical extracellular barriers of some animals and fungi might share an evolutionary connection, and that the formation of physical barriers in the last common ancestor was under the control of a transcriptional code that included GRH-like proteins.

  18. Effects of Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida, Oligochaete) bioturbation on zinc sediment chemistry and toxicity to the epi-benthic invertebrate Chironomus tepperi (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment

  19. Edaphics, active tectonics and animal movements in the Kenyan Rift - implications for early human evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Rucina, Stephen; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2014-05-01

    The quality of soils (edaphics) and the associated vegetation strongly controls the health of grazing animals. Until now, this has hardly been appreciated by paleo-anthropologists who only take into account the availability of water and vegetation in landscape reconstruction attempts. A lack of understanding the importance of the edaphics of a region greatly limits interpretations of the relation between our ancestors and animals over the last few million years. If a region lacks vital trace elements then wild grazing and browsing animals will avoid it and go to considerable length and take major risks to seek out better pasture. As a consequence animals must move around the landscape at different times of the year. In complex landscapes, such as tectonically active rifts, hominins can use advanced group behaviour to gain strategic advantage for hunting. Our study in the southern Kenya rift in the Lake Magadi region shows that the edaphics and active rift structures play a key role in present day animal movements as well as the for the location of an early hominin site at Mt. Olorgesailie. We carried out field analysis based on studying the relationship between the geology and soil development as well as the tectonic geomorphology to identify 'good' and 'bad' regions both in terms of edaphics and accessibility for grazing animals. We further sampled different soils that developed on the volcanic bedrock and sediment sources of the region and interviewed the local Maasai shepherds to learn about present-day good and bad grazing sites. At the Olorgesailie site the rift valley floor is covered with flood trachytes; basalts only occur at Mt. Olorgesailie and farther east up the rift flank. The hominin site is located in lacustrine sediments at the southern edge of a playa that extends north and northwest of Mt. Olorgesailie. The lakebeds are now tilted and eroded by motion on two north-south striking faults. The lake was trapped by basalt flows from Mt. Olorgesailie

  20. Evolution of the cooperation between the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlingieri, F; Bruno, A; Njeumi, F; Cavirani, S

    2007-12-01

    The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization recognises the international standards adopted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in matters of animal health and zoonoses and those adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (the Commission) in matters of food safety. The importance of the production phase in ensuring food safety has been acknowledged and the OIE and the Commission have been working to strengthen their cooperation since 2001, with the intent of promoting a holistic approach to the food chain. Procedures for exchanging information are in place, communication has improved and there is cross-referencing between the respective international standards of the two organisations. Good examples of collaboration in the development of standards include the texts produced by the two organisations regarding meat inspection and animal/product identification and traceability. At the same time, there is still room for improving cooperation and the legal services of the OIE, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization are expected to work together to find options for closer collaboration between the OIE and the Commission.

  1. Sediment nickel bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine crustaceans of contrasting bioturbative behaviors--an evaluation of the SEM-AVS paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, G Thomas; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R; He, Lijian; Washburn, Katherine M; Stewart, Emily R; Ferry, John L

    2014-11-01

    Robust sediment quality criteria require chemistry and toxicity data predictive of concentrations where population/community response should occur under known geochemical conditions. Understanding kinetic and geochemical effects on toxicant bioavailability is key, and these are influenced by infaunal sediment bioturbation. This study used fine-scale sediment and porewater measurement of contrasting infaunal effects on carbon-normalized SEM-AVS to evaluate safe or potentially toxic nickel concentrations in a high-binding Spartina saltmarsh sediment (4%TOC; 35-45 μmol-S2-·g(-1)). Two crustaceans producing sharply contrasting bioturbation--the copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis and amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus--were cultured in oxic to anoxic sediments with SEM[Ni]-AVS, TOC, porewater [Ni], and porewater DOC measured weekly. From 180 to 750 μg-Ni·g(-1) sediment, amphipod bioturbation reduced [AVS] and enhanced porewater [Ni]. Significant amphipod uptake, mortality, and growth-depression occurred at the higher sediment [Ni] even when [SEM-AVS]/foc suggested acceptable risk. Less bioturbative copepods produced higher AVS and porewater DOC but exhibited net population growth despite porewater [Ni] 1.3-1.7× their aqueous [Ni] LOEC. Copepod aqueous tests with/without dissolved organic matter showed significant aqueous DOC protection, which suggests porewater DOC attenuates sediment Ni toxicity. The SEM[Ni]-AVS relationship was predictive of acceptable risk for copepods at the important population-growth level.

  2. On the quantification of soil bioturbation and soil relocation in a mountainous area in S Spain – testing the potential of single-grain OSL techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Román Sánchez, A.; Reimann, T.; Vanwalleghem, T.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Giráldez, J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Soil formation depends on bedrock, climate, relief, vegetation and time. Bioturbation and colluvial soil re-location are important and significant processes that affect the mechanisms and rate of bedrock weathering. The estimation of the relative fraction of bedrock grains which has been mixed in th

  3. Modular evolution of glutathione peroxidase genes in association with different biochemical properties of their encoded proteins in invertebrate animals

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    Zo Young-Gun

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPx, the most abundant isoforms of GPx families, interfere directly with hydroperoxidation of lipids. Biochemical properties of these proteins vary along with their donor organisms, which has complicated the phylogenetic classification of diverse PHGPx-like proteins. Despite efforts for comprehensive analyses, the evolutionary aspects of GPx genes in invertebrates remain largely unknown. Results We isolated GPx homologs via in silico screening of genomic and/or expressed sequence tag databases of eukaryotic organisms including protostomian species. Genes showing strong similarity to the mammalian PHGPx genes were commonly found in all genomes examined. GPx3- and GPx7-like genes were additionally detected from nematodes and platyhelminths, respectively. The overall distribution of the PHGPx-like proteins with different biochemical properties was biased across taxa; selenium- and glutathione (GSH-dependent proteins were exclusively detected in platyhelminth and deuterostomian species, whereas selenium-independent and thioredoxin (Trx-dependent enzymes were isolated in the other taxa. In comparison of genomic organization, the GSH-dependent PHGPx genes showed a conserved architectural pattern, while their Trx-dependent counterparts displayed complex exon-intron structures. A codon for the resolving Cys engaged in reductant binding was found to be substituted in a series of genes. Selection pressure to maintain the selenocysteine codon in GSH-dependent genes also appeared to be relaxed during their evolution. With the dichotomized fashion in genomic organizations, a highly polytomic topology of their phylogenetic trees implied that the GPx genes have multiple evolutionary intermediate forms. Conclusion Comparative analysis of invertebrate GPx genes provides informative evidence to support the modular pathways of GPx evolution, which have been accompanied with sporadic

  4. The effect of bioturbation in pelagic sediments: Lessons from radioactive tracers and planktonic foraminifera in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Zvi; Lazar, Boaz; Levi, Shani; Tsroya, Shimon; Pelled, Omer; Bookman, Revital; Erez, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Studies of recent environmental perturbations often rely on data derived from marine sedimentary records. These records are known to imperfectly inscribe the true sequence of events, yet there is large uncertainty regarding the corrections that should be employed to accurately describe the sedimentary history. Here we show in recent records from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, how events of the abrupt disappearance of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides sacculifer, and episodic deposition of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs, are significantly altered in the sedimentary record compared to their known past timing. Instead of the abrupt disappearance of the foraminifera, we observe a prolonged decline beginning at core depth equivalent to ∼30 y prior to its actual disappearance and continuing for decades past the event. We further observe asymmetric smoothing of the radionuclide peak. Utilization of advection-diffusion-reaction models to reconstruct the original fluxes based on the known absolute timing of the events reveal that it is imperative to use a continuous function to describe bioturbation. Discretization of bioturbation into mixed and unmixed layers significantly shifts the location of the modeled event. When bioturbation is described as a continuously decreasing function of depth, the peak of a very short term event smears asymmetrically but remains in the right depth. When sudden events repeat while the first spike is still mixed with the upper sediment layer, bioturbation unifies adjacent peaks. The united peak appears at an intermediate depth that does not necessarily correlate with the timing of the individual events. In a third case, a long lasting sedimentary event affected by bioturbation, the resulting peak is rather weak compared to the actual event and appears deeper in the sediment column than expected based on the termination of the event. The model clearly shows that abrupt changes can only endure in the record if a thick sediment layer

  5. The oldest known priapulid-like scalidophoran animal and its implications for the early evolution of cycloneuralians and ecdysozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhuan; Xiao, Shuhai; Shao, Tiequan; Broce, Jesse; Zhang, Huaqiao

    2014-05-01

    Morphological phylogenetic analyses suggest that scalidophorans (priapulids, loriciferans, and kinorhynchs) and nematoids (nematodes and nematomorphs) form the ecdysozoan clade Cycloneuralia, which is a sister group to panarthropods. It has been proposed that extant priapulids and Cambrian priapulid-like scalidophorans, because of their conserved evolution, have the potential to illuminate the ancestral morphology, ecology, and developmental biology of highly derived ecdysozoans such as nematods and arthropods. As such, Cambrian fossils, particularly Markuelia and possibly olivooids, can inform the early evolution of scalidophorans, cycloneuralians, and ecdysozoans. However, the scalidophoran Markuelia is known exclusively as embryo fossils, and the olivooids have been alternatively interpreted as cnidarians or cycloneuralians. Here, we describe a post-embryonic scalidophoran fossil Eopriapulites sphinx new genus and species, which represents the oldest known scalidophoran, from the early Cambrian Period (∼535 Ma) in South China. E. sphinx is similar to modern scalidophorans in having an introvert armed with hollow scalids, a collar with coronal scalids, and a pharynx with pharyngeal teeth, but its scalids and pharyngeal teeth are arranged in a hexaradial pattern. Phylogenetically resolved as a stem-group scalidophoran, E. sphinx shares a hexaradial pattern with the hexaradial arrangement of certain anatomical structures in kinorhynchs, loriciferans, nematoids, and Cambrian fossils such as Eolympia pediculata, which could also be a scalidophoran. Thus, the bodyplan of ancestral cycloneuralians may have had a component of hexaradial symmetry (i.e., some but not necessarily all anatomical parts are hexaradially arranged). If panarthropods are nested within paraphyletic cycloneuralians, as several molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest, the ancestral ecdysozoans may have been a legless worm possibly with a component of hexaradial symmetry.

  6. Light entrained rhythmic gene expression in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: the evolution of the animal circadian clock.

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    Adam M Reitzel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology are the observable phenotypes from cycles in expression of, interactions between, and degradation of the underlying molecular components. In bilaterian animals, the core molecular components include Timeless-Timeout, photoreceptive cryptochromes, and several members of the basic-loop-helix-Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS family. While many of core circadian genes are conserved throughout the Bilateria, their specific roles vary among species. Here, we identify and experimentally study the rhythmic gene expression of conserved circadian clock members in a sea anemone in order to characterize this gene network in a member of the phylum Cnidaria and to infer critical components of the clockwork used in the last common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified homologs of circadian regulatory genes in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, including a gene most similar to Timeout, three cryptochromes, and several key bHLH-PAS transcription factors. We then maintained N. vectensis either in complete darkness or in a 12 hour light: 12 hour dark cycle in three different light treatments (blue only, full spectrum, blue-depleted. Gene expression varied in response to light cycle and light treatment, with a particularly strong pattern observed for NvClock. The cryptochromes more closely related to the light-sensitive clade of cryptochromes were upregulated in light treatments that included blue wavelengths. With co-immunoprecipitation, we determined that heterodimerization between CLOCK and CYCLE is conserved within N. vectensis. Additionally, we identified E-box motifs, DNA sequences recognized by the CLOCK:CYCLE heterodimer, upstream of genes showing rhythmic expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals conserved molecular and functional components of the circadian clock that were in place at the divergence of the Cnidaria and Bilateria, suggesting

  7. Multiple sulfur isotope records at the end-Guadalupian (Permian) at Chaotian, China: Implications for a role of bioturbation in the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Masafumi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Matsu'ura, Fumihiro; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Isozaki, Yukio; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhansheng; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-03-01

    A recent study on quadruple sulfur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S) of sedimentary pyrite suggested that the end-Guadalupian extinction was caused by shoaling of the sulfidic deep-water. This scenario is based on the assumption that sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrite from hosting sediments were controlled by benthos activities, thus by the redox conditions of the sedimentary environments. Nonetheless, the relationship between the sulfur isotope records and redox conditions, reconstructed from litho- and bio-facies, are poorly known. In order to examine the effect of bioturbation in sediments, quadruple sulfur isotopic compositions of sedimentary pyrite from the end-Guadalupian succession in Chaotian, South China, were analyzed. Black mudstones of deep-water facies immediately below the extinction horizon have consistently high Δ33S values of ca. +0.079‰, clearly suggesting a sulfate reduction in the anoxic water column. Our new data are consistent with the emergence of a sulfidic deep-water mass prior to the end-Guadalupian extinction; the upwelling of the toxic deep-water may have contributed to the extinction. In contrast, shallow-marine bioclastic limestones with burrows deposited under oxic conditions have negative Δ33S values. This anomalous isotopic signal indicates the mixing of two distinct types of pyrite; one generated during the sulfate reduction in an open system and the other in a closed system. We interpret that bioturbation supplied sulfate in the sediments and promoted sulfate reduction and in-situ sulfide precipitation within the sediments. The negative Δ33S values of oxic sediments in Chaotian are inconsistent with the previous model and demonstrate that the sedimentary sulfur cycle associated with bioturbation was more complicated than previously thought. Our study also implies that, more generally, the role of bioturbation in increasing seawater sulfate concentration in the Phanerozoic may have been overestimated in the previous

  8. Quality of mixing in a stired bioreactor used for animal cells culture: heterogeneities in a lab scale bioreactor and evolution of mixing time with scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collignon, ML.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal cells are industrially cultivated inside stirred bioreactors to produce proteinic compounds. Due to the use of mild agitation conditions in order to limit mechanical constraints, the homogeneity of the culture medium can be far from perfect. This study has therefore two objectives: the global characterization of the mixing via the mixing time and the local description of concentration fields. The mixing time is measured by conductimetry inside 20 l, 80 l, 600 l tanks. The Grenville correlation is adjusted on these experimental measurements to improve the prediction of the mixing time during the scale-up of the process. The concentration fields are visualized by the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (P.L.I.F. technique in the 20 l tank. This part of the study is focused on the time evolution of the maximum value of the tracer concentration inside measurement planes and of the numerical distribution of theses concentration fields.

  9. Genetic characterization of flea-derived Bartonella species from native animals in Australia suggests host-parasite co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; McInnes, Linda M; Burmej, Halina; Bennett, Mark D; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-12-01

    Fleas are important arthropod vectors for a variety of diseases in veterinary and human medicine, and bacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella are among the organisms most commonly transmitted by these ectoparasites. Recently, a number of novel Bartonella species and novel species candidates have been reported in marsupial fleas in Australia. In the present study the genetic diversity of marsupial fleas was investigated; 10 species of fleas were collected from seven different marsupial and placental mammal hosts in Western Australia including woylies (Bettongia penicillata), western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville), mardos (Antechinus flavipes), bush rats (Rattus fuscipes), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), feral cats (Felis catus) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PCR and sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the 18S rRNA genes from these fleas was performed. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis of the COI and 18S rRNA genes revealed a close genetic relationship between marsupial fleas, with Pygiopsylla hilli from woylies, Pygiopsylla tunneyi from western barred bandicoots and Acanthopsylla jordani from mardos, forming a separate cluster from fleas collected from the placental mammals in the same geographical area. The clustering of Bartonella species with their marsupial flea hosts suggests co-evolution of marsupial hosts, marsupial fleas and Bartonella species in Australia.

  10. Anthropometric evolution and classification of pre-scholar and scholar students from public education: Relation to food of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Pissaia Savitsky

    2012-12-01

    decrease on the stature deficit on children from 0 to 6 years old (p<0.01 and a decrease on low weight (p<0.01, of weight and height of children from 6 to 12 years old (p=0.97. Results show an increase on children´s weight, especially on children under 6 years old, where there is a need for preventive attitudes, in order to reduce the DCNT. In this context the increase on quality and/or quantity of animal origin products in the children´s diet at school must be evaluated and reformulated substituting carbohydrates for animal food from several sources (poultry, fish, bovine meat, eggs, milk, etc. Sustainability of public education has to deal with nutritional factors and the end of the animal food chain to aim better education and better citizens.

  11. Evolution of protein N-glycosylation process in Golgi apparatus which shapes diversity of protein N-glycan structures in plants, animals and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Hong; Gai, Jiangtao; Tian, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Lv, Yongzhi; Jian, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Protein N-glycosylation (PNG) is crucial for protein folding and enzymatic activities, and has remarkable diversity among eukaryotic species. Little is known of how unique PNG mechanisms arose and evolved in eukaryotes. Here we demonstrate a picture of onset and evolution of PNG components in Golgi apparatus that shaped diversity of eukaryotic protein N-glycan structures, with an emphasis on roles that domain emergence and combination played on PNG evolution. 23 domains were identified from 24 known PNG genes, most of which could be classified into a single clan, indicating a single evolutionary source for the majority of the genes. From 153 species, 4491 sequences containing the domains were retrieved, based on which we analyzed distribution of domains among eukaryotic species. Two domains in GnTV are restricted to specific eukaryotic domains, while 10 domains distribute not only in species where certain unique PNG reactions occur and thus genes harboring these domains are supoosed to be present, but in other ehkaryotic lineages. Notably, two domains harbored by β-1,3 galactosyltransferase, an essential enzyme in forming plant-specific Lea structure, were present in separated genes in fungi and animals, suggesting its emergence as a result of domain shuffling. PMID:28074929

  12. Comparative Genomics Including the Early-Diverging Smut Fungus Ceraceosorus bombacis Reveals Signatures of Parallel Evolution within Plant and Animal Pathogens of Fungi and Oomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Xia, Xiaojuan; Riess, Kai; Bauer, Robert; Thines, Marco

    2015-08-27

    Ceraceosorus bombacis is an early-diverging lineage of smut fungi and a pathogen of cotton trees (Bombax ceiba). To study the evolutionary genomics of smut fungi in comparison with other fungal and oomycete pathogens, the genome of C. bombacis was sequenced and comparative genomic analyses were performed. The genome of 26.09 Mb encodes for 8,024 proteins, of which 576 are putative-secreted effector proteins (PSEPs). Orthology analysis revealed 30 ortholog PSEPs among six Ustilaginomycotina genomes, the largest groups of which are lytic enzymes, such as aspartic peptidase and glycoside hydrolase. Positive selection analyses revealed the highest percentage of positively selected PSEPs in C. bombacis compared with other Ustilaginomycotina genomes. Metabolic pathway analyses revealed the absence of genes encoding for nitrite and nitrate reductase in the genome of the human skin pathogen Malassezia globosa, but these enzymes are present in the sequenced plant pathogens in smut fungi. Interestingly, these genes are also absent in cultivable oomycete animal pathogens, while nitrate reductase has been lost in cultivable oomycete plant pathogens. Similar patterns were also observed for obligate biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic fungal and oomycete pathogens. Furthermore, it was found that both fungal and oomycete animal pathogen genomes are lacking cutinases and pectinesterases. Overall, these findings highlight the parallel evolution of certain genomic traits, revealing potential common evolutionary trajectories among fungal and oomycete pathogens, shaping the pathogen genomes according to their lifestyle.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem worldwide and the routine use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has sparked debate on whether this practice might constitute an environmental and public health concern. At a broiler farm, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (TcR) levels among heterotrophic culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence/prevalence of a number of tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a regional state forest that has not been in agricultural use for decades. Shortly after our sampling, the farm closed down and all the waste was removed. This unique change in situation offered us an unusual opportunity to examine the reversibility of any impact of the chicken waste on the soil microbial community. Two years after the event, several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were still detected in the waste-impacted soil, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data showed that their relative abundance remained at substantial levels. A mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pSU1, was identified in several chicken-waste-exposed soil bacteria of three different genera. Quantification of the plasmid's mobilization gene suggested that pSU1 had contributed to the prevalence and persistence of tet(L) in the waste-impacted soil. A second mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pBSDMV9, isolated from the same soil, contained a region with 98.8% nucleotide identity to pSU1. The mosaic structure of the plasmids and the highly conserved nature of the tet(L) genes suggested that plasmid rearrangement favoring the acquisition of tet(L) may have occurred in the soil relatively recently. Additionally, in one chicken

  14. 动物中microRNA的保守性和进化历程%Conservation and Evolution of microRNAs in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 张群; 梁宇君; 张士璀

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs,~22 nucleotides in length, which have been found in diverse animals and function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MiRNAs play versatile and important roles in the ontogeny of developmental timing, cell differentiation and nervous system development. Recent evidence has suggested that miRNAs have huge impacts on animal phylogeny. Many of miRNAs are phylogenetically conserved among different animals. In addition, the miRNAs innovation appears to be associated with the advent of major lineages of metazoans. This review summarizes conservations of miRNAs in their biogenesis, regulatory mechanisms, the phylogenetic distribution and functions in the ontogeny. We also discuss evolutionary histories of miRNAs and how they impact on the animal evolution.%microRNA是一类长度约为22个核苷酸的内源性非编码单链RNA,在后生动物中普遍存在,在转录后过程调控基因表达.miRNA在个体发育过程中发挥着各种功能,如发育时序调控和细胞分化、神经发育等.miRNA在各种后生动物中具有保守性,而且多个关键类群的出现皆伴随着大量新miRNA的产生,这些现象都表明miRNA与动物的系统发生密切相关.本文从miRNA的产生和作用机制、在后生动物中的分布格局及其在个体发育中的调控功能3个方面论述了miRNA的保守性,并结合miRNA的发生和发展历程,探讨了miRNA在动物进化中起到的重要作用.

  15. Contribution of bioturbation by the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii to the recruitment of bloom-forming cyanobacteria from sediment

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    Yoshimasa YAMAMOTO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of cyanobacterial blooms in a small eutrophic pond was monitored along with the potential effect of bioturbation by the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii discussed as well with respect to the recruitment of cyanobacteria from sediment. Cyanobacterial blooms were observed during the early spring and summer. The spring bloom was dominated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Its population density reached the maximum level in late March, thereafter decreasing rapidly and becoming lower than the detection limit from May. When the water temperature exceeded 20 °C in late May, the population density of Microcystis spp. began to increase, and a bloom was formed from July to early August. Anabaena spp. also contributed to the formation of the summer bloom. The population densities of both Microcystis spp. and Anabaena spp. began to decline in mid August. Crayfish were sampled using baited traps from April to November. No sample was obtained in April, whereas crayfish were captured constantly from May to November. They were distributed widely throughout the pond from June, although a large number of crayfish were captured most effectively at a particular point in the pond. The first captures in late May were dominated by males. The sex ratio of the captures was almost 1:1 from June to September, and fell in favor of females from October. The sex ratio reached a minimum (0.2:1 in mid November, when an extremely large number of crayfish were captured at a distinctly warm point. Next, the potential ability of crayfish to promote the recruitment of cyanobacteria from the sediment was examined by performing an incubation experiment. The presence of crayfish in containers of the pond sediment increased the densities of cyanobacteria such as Microcystis spp. and Anabaena spp. However, population densities of cyanobacteria began to decline after the crayfish was removed. Overall, bioturbation by crayfish seemed to be somewhat important in the

  16. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Nakanishi

    Full Text Available In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B. In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B, during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  17. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  18. Image analysis techniques and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) for calculating bioturbation indices and characterizing biogenic sedimentary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Chris Ebey; Plotnick, Roy

    2008-11-01

    Aspects of texture and structure in a bed resulting from bioturbation can provide valuable information about the ecology and environment at the time of deposition. However, not only the degree of bioturbation, but the structure of the burrows is important for interpreting biogenic fabrics. Here, image analysis is applied to real and artificial images of biogenic sedimentary structures. Image segmentation was applied to images of Middle Ordovician biogenic sedimentary structures from Dixon, Illinois (Pecatonica Formation), isolating the biogenic sedimentary structures. A gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated from the segmented image and eight artificial images representing different levels of image noise. Texture measures were calculated from the GLCMs and compared with identify scale and directional structural differences between the images. Principal component analysis was used to statistically group the images. Artificial images were found to be distinguishable from the real images by GLCM texture measures, and the real images differed most significantly at the largest scales.

  19. Polychaete response to fresh food supply at organically enriched coastal sites: Repercussion on bioturbation potential and trophic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, N.; Pires-Vanin, A. M. S.; Salhi, M.; Bessonart, M.; Muniz, P.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the vertical distribution, abundance, specific and functional structure of polychaete assemblages at four organically enriched sites. The effects of fresh organic matter input from the water column driving by upwelling were evaluated. Temperature and salinity values indicate the intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in spring, a nutrient-rich water mass. The dominance of the conveyor belt transport (CONV) in the station influenced by SACW, in the spring survey, is associated with fresh organic matter input as indicated by higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, the predominance of the diffusive mixing (DIFF) bioturbation category, in the sites without SACW influence is related to the preferential accumulation of more refractive food resources as indicated by higher concentrations of short chain saturated fatty acids. At the site influenced by SACW, the changes in polychaete assemblages were not all evident during proceeding upwelling conditions, but may persist at the end of the upwelling. Polychaetes in the study area seemed to be limited by the quality but not the quantity of food. The delay in polychaete response to fresh food supply may be related to the organic enrichment and the prevalence of refractory material in the sediments.

  20. Biodiversity differentials between the numerically-dominant macrobenthos of seagrass and adjacent unvegetated sediment in the absence of sandflat bioturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R S K; Barnes, M K S

    2014-08-01

    Species composition, abundance and biodiversity of the South African estuarine invertebrate fauna are known to show marked differentials between seagrass beds and adjacent unvegetated sands in enclosed estuarine/marine bays. Such differentials were investigated at four disparate localities in a bay lacking the callianassid bioturbation of other local sites. Here there were no such marked or consistent differences: seagrass showing the lower, not higher, level in half of those. Overall, faunal abundance was lower in seagrass in the ratio of 0.64 : 1, whilst species density was higher but only by 1.13 to 1. Seagrass assemblages at a given locality were more similar to those of the adjacent bare sand than they were to seagrass assemblages at other localities, and likewise in respect of those in the bare sand. This suggests that marked differentials, where they occur, may result not from any supposed favourability of seagrass as a habitat but from the operation of processes within the unvegetated-sediment compartment of the system.

  1. Cambrian substrate revolution :from matgrounds to bioturbated mixgrounds%寒武纪底质革命:从微生物席底到生物扰动混合底

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐永安; 王敏; 李妲; 代明月

    2012-01-01

    前寒武纪生态系以微生物的繁盛为特征,以叠层石和微生物成因沉积构造的大量发育为标志.后生动物及其遗迹化石出现在新元古代“雪球事件”之后,并与微生物席组成“埃迪卡拉花园”.新元古代的海底以发育完好的微生物席底和微弱的垂向生物扰动为特征,沉积物含水量低、沉积物.水界面平滑稳定;到寒武纪,由于垂向生物扰动的大量增加,微生物席底逐渐衰弱,“显生宙式”的海底沉积物含水量高、上下层沉积物易于混合和悬浮、沉积物一水界面模糊.自寒武纪开始,随着后生动物活动在浅海环境中不断地增多,遗迹化石习性类型趋于多样化和复杂化,微生物席底开始向较深的陆架乃至深海迁移并逐渐消亡.%Precambrian ecosystems are characterized by the flourish of microbiota and wide occurrence of stro- matolites and microbially induced sedimentary structures. Metazoans and their trace fossils, occurong after the Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" event, made up of "The Garden of Ediacara" with microbial mats. Late Neoproterozoic seafloor were characterized by well-developed microbial mats and poor development of vertical- ly-oriented bioturbation, thus it provied a fairly stable, relatively low water content sediment surface With a sharp water-sediment interface. Microbially-bound seafloor became increasingly scarce in shallow-marine set- tings of Cambrian, largely due to evolution of burrowing organisms with an increasing vertically-oriented com- ponent to their bioturbation. This " Phanerozoic-style" seafloor had a blurry water-sediment interface, greater water content, and lacked well-developed microbial mats. With the reworking increase of metazoans in Cam- brian shallow marine settings, the trace fossils tended to be more diverse and complex, and microbial mat- grounds retreated to deep sea and gradually disappeared.

  2. Influence of benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation on the biogeochemical behaviour of uranium within freshwater sediments; Influence de la bioturbation des macro-invertebres benthiques sur le comportement biogeochimique de l'uranium au sein des sediments d'eau douce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagauzere, S.

    2008-06-15

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. Secondary, there can also represent endogenous sources of contamination by resuspension (e.g. flood, bioturbation) or changes of metal speciation that acts upon their bioavailability. Indeed, metallic compounds can be transformed in more or less toxic or inert compounds through physico-chemical (e.g. pH, redox conditions, ionic force) and microbiological variations. These conditions are themselves under the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate activities via bioturbation processes. The main objective of this PhD was to determinate the influence of two benthic macro-invertebrate species (Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex) on the distribution and the transfers of uranium within freshwater sediments. To reach this goal, laboratory experiments were performed in order to (i) assess the effects of uranium on benthic macro-invertebrates, more particularly on their bioturbation activity, (ii) determine the influence of these organisms on uranium behaviour through high resolution physico-chemical measurements (e.g. oxygen optodes, DET gel probes), and (iii) estimate the consequences of these interactions on pelagic organisms via genotoxicity measurements (micronuclei assay and molecular bio-markers analysis on Xenopus laevis). The results demonstrate that bioturbation intensity of macro-invertebrates can be affected in uranium-contaminated sediments, but the two species studied in this work show a relative tolerance. For high uranium concentrations (>100 times the geochemical background level), corresponding however to realistic concentrations in highly contaminated sites, T. tubifex worms are able to maintain a sufficient bioturbation activity that induces a high remobilization of uranium initially associated with sediments to the overlying water (factor 2 to 10). That represents therefore a potential risk for the remaining aquatic biocenose. However, by

  3. The UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily expressed in humans, insects and plants: Animal-plant arms-race and co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Karl Walter

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes of a detoxification system evolved in all kingdoms of life. Lipophilic endobiotics such as hormones and xenobiotics including phytoalexins and drugs are conjugated by vertebrates mainly with glucuronic acid, by invertebrates and plants mainly with glucose. Plant-herbivore arms-race has been the major driving force for evolution of large UGT and other enzyme superfamilies. The UGT superfamily is defined by a common protein structure and signature sequence of 44 amino acids responsible for binding the UDP moiety of the sugar donor. Plants developed toxic phytoalexins stored as glucosides. Upon herbivore attack these conjugates are converted to highly reactive compounds. In turn, animals developed large families of UGTs in their intestine and liver to detoxify these phytoalexins. Interestingly, phytoalexins, exemplified by quercetin glucuronides and glucosinolate-derived isocyanates, are known insect attractant pigments in plants, and antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive compounds of humans. It is to be anticipated that phytochemicals may provide a rich source in beneficial drugs.

  4. Influence of bioturbation on the biogeochemistry of littoral sediments of an acidic post-mining pit lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagauzère, S.; Moreira, S.; Koschorreck, M.

    2011-02-01

    In the last decades, the mining exploitation of large areas in Lusatia (Eastern Germany) but also in other mining areas worldwide has led to the formation of hundreds of pit lakes. Pyrite oxidation in the surrounding dumps makes many such lakes extremely acidic (pH bioremediation strategies. Despite some studies reporting the presence of living organisms (mostly bacteria, algae, and macro-invertebrates) under such acidic conditions, and their trophic interactions, their potential impact on the ecosystem functioning was poorly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the influence of chironomid larvae on oxygen dynamics and iron cycle in the sediment of acidic pit lakes. In the Mining Lake 111, used as a study case since 1996, Chironomus crassimanus (Insecta, Diptera) is the dominant benthic macro-invertebrate species and occurs at relatively high abundances in shallow water. A 16-day laboratory experiment using microcosms combined with high resolution measurements (DET gel probes and O2 microsensors) was carried out. The burrowing activity of C. crassimanus larvae induced a 3-fold increase of the diffusive oxygen uptake by sediment, indicating a stimulation of the mineralization of organic matter in the upper layers of the sediment. The iron cycle was also impacted (e.g. lower rates of reduction and oxidation, increase of iron-oxidizing bacteria abundance, stimulation of mineral formation) but with no significant effect on the iron flux at the sediment-water interface, and thus on the water acidity budget. This work provides the first assessment of bioturbation in an acidic mining lake and shows that its influence on biogeochemistry cannot be neglected.

  5. Influence of bioturbation on the biogeochemistry of the sediment in the littoral zone of an acidic mine pit lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagauzère, S.; Moreira, S.; Koschorreck, M.

    2010-10-01

    In the last decades, the mining exploitation of large areas in Lusatia (South-eastern Germany) but also in other mining areas worldwide has led to the formation of hundreds of pit lakes. Pyrite oxidation in the surrounding dumps makes many such lakes extremely acidic (pH bioremediation strategies. Despite some studies reporting the presence of living organisms (mostly bacteria, algae, and macro-invertebrates) under such acidic conditions, and their trophic interactions, their potential impact on the ecosystem functioning was poorly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the influence of chironomid larvae on oxygen dynamics and iron cycle in the sediment of acidic pit lakes. In the Mining Lake 111, used as a study case since 1996, Chironomus crassimanus (Insecta, Diptera) is the dominant benthic macro-invertebrate species and occurs at relatively high abundances in shallow water. A 16-day laboratory experiment using microcosms combined with high resolution measurements (DET gel probes and O2 microsensors) was carried out. The burrowing activity of C. crassimanus larvae induced a 3-fold increase of the oxygen consumption by sediment, and stimulated the mineralization of organic matter in the upper layers of the sediment. The iron cycle was also impacted (e.g. lower rates of reduction and oxidation, increase of iron-oxidizing bacteria abundance, stimulation of mineral formation) but with no significant effect on the iron flux at the sediment-water interface, and thus on the water acidity budget. This work provides the first assessment of bioturbation in an acidic mining lake and shows that its influence on biogeochemistry cannot be neglected.

  6. Influence of bioturbation on the biogeochemistry of littoral sediments of an acidic post-mining pit lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lagauzère

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the mining exploitation of large areas in Lusatia (Eastern Germany but also in other mining areas worldwide has led to the formation of hundreds of pit lakes. Pyrite oxidation in the surrounding dumps makes many such lakes extremely acidic (pH < 3. The biogeochemical functioning of these lakes is mainly governed by cycling of iron. This represents a relevant ecological problem and intensive research has been conducted to understand the involved biogeochemical processes and develop bioremediation strategies. Despite some studies reporting the presence of living organisms (mostly bacteria, algae, and macro-invertebrates under such acidic conditions, and their trophic interactions, their potential impact on the ecosystem functioning was poorly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the influence of chironomid larvae on oxygen dynamics and iron cycle in the sediment of acidic pit lakes. In the Mining Lake 111, used as a study case since 1996, Chironomus crassimanus (Insecta, Diptera is the dominant benthic macro-invertebrate species and occurs at relatively high abundances in shallow water. A 16-day laboratory experiment using microcosms combined with high resolution measurements (DET gel probes and O2 microsensors was carried out. The burrowing activity of C. crassimanus larvae induced a 3-fold increase of the diffusive oxygen uptake by sediment, indicating a stimulation of the mineralization of organic matter in the upper layers of the sediment. The iron cycle was also impacted (e.g. lower rates of reduction and oxidation, increase of iron-oxidizing bacteria abundance, stimulation of mineral formation but with no significant effect on the iron flux at the sediment-water interface, and thus on the water acidity budget. This work provides the first assessment of bioturbation in an acidic mining lake and shows that its influence on biogeochemistry cannot be neglected.

  7. Influence of bioturbation on the biogeochemistry of the sediment in the littoral zone of an acidic mine pit lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lagauzère

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the mining exploitation of large areas in Lusatia (South-eastern Germany but also in other mining areas worldwide has led to the formation of hundreds of pit lakes. Pyrite oxidation in the surrounding dumps makes many such lakes extremely acidic (pH < 3. The biogeochemical functioning of these lakes is mainly governed by cycling of iron. This represents a relevant ecological problem and intensive research has been conducted to understand the involved biogeochemical processes and develop bioremediation strategies. Despite some studies reporting the presence of living organisms (mostly bacteria, algae, and macro-invertebrates under such acidic conditions, and their trophic interactions, their potential impact on the ecosystem functioning was poorly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the influence of chironomid larvae on oxygen dynamics and iron cycle in the sediment of acidic pit lakes. In the Mining Lake 111, used as a study case since 1996, Chironomus crassimanus (Insecta, Diptera is the dominant benthic macro-invertebrate species and occurs at relatively high abundances in shallow water. A 16-day laboratory experiment using microcosms combined with high resolution measurements (DET gel probes and O2 microsensors was carried out. The burrowing activity of C. crassimanus larvae induced a 3-fold increase of the oxygen consumption by sediment, and stimulated the mineralization of organic matter in the upper layers of the sediment. The iron cycle was also impacted (e.g. lower rates of reduction and oxidation, increase of iron-oxidizing bacteria abundance, stimulation of mineral formation but with no significant effect on the iron flux at the sediment-water interface, and thus on the water acidity budget. This work provides the first assessment of bioturbation in an acidic mining lake and shows that its influence on biogeochemistry cannot be neglected.

  8. 文化是人类独有的吗?——动物的文化行为及其起源与演化%Is Culture Unique to Humanity? Animal Cultural Behavior and Its Origin and Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春兴; 林震

    2012-01-01

    文化曾长期被认为是区分人类与动物的主要标准,但近年来越来越多的科学证据表明其他动物也有文化行为。依起源的先后顺序,动物文化可分为简单社会学习、群体持久传统、累积文化行为和符号文化行为4个类别,其演化序列与动物社会智力的演化有密切关系。厘清人类文化的独特性及其与动物文化的连续性,认识基因演化与文化演化在人类演化史中的相互作用,对于更深入地理解人类社会现象具有重要意义。%Culture has long been regarded as a key criterion to separate humanity from animal. Recent years, however, more and more scientific evidence suggests that there are cultural behaviors in the rest of animal kingdom. Arranged in order of origin, animal culture comprises simple social learning, sustained group tradition, cumulative culture and symbol culture, whose evolutionary sequence is closely related to the evolution of animal social intelligence. It is of great significance for a deep understanding of human society to distinguish the peculiarity and continuity between human and animal culture and to recognize the reciprocal function of genetic evolution and cultural evolution in the human evolution.

  9. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  10. Molecular evidence of fungal signatures in the marine protist Corallochytrium limacisporum and its implications in the evolution of animals and fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, S.; Kasbekar, D.P.; Raghukumar, C.

    Corallochytrium limacisporum is an enigmatic marine protist of considerable interest in opisthokontan evolution. Several isolates of the organism were obtained from a coral reef lagoon in the Lakshadweep group of islands of the Arabian Sea. The capability...

  11. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Co-evolution of Eukaryotes and Ocean and Atmosphere Oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic Eras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, T. M.; Daines, S. J.; Mills, B.; Boyle, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The nature, timing and cause(s) of the Earth's second oxygenation event are widely debated. It has been argued that there was a single pronounced rise in atmospheric oxygen toward present levels in the Late Neoproterozoic, which in turn triggered the evolution of animals. Here we suggest a more complex co-evolutionary scenario, with fluctuations in ocean and atmosphere oxygenation in the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic caused partly by the evolution of animals, followed by a pronounced rise of atmospheric oxygen to present levels later in the Paleozoic caused by the rise of land plants. Current geochemical evidence suggests some parts of the deep oceans became oxygenated during the Ediacaran, but there was subsequent de-oxygenation of the ocean during the Cambrian that may have persisted into the Ordovician. Only later in the Paleozoic is there evidence for widespread oxygenation of the deep ocean, together with charcoal indicating atmospheric oxygen had approached present levels. The limited Neoproterozoic oxygenation of the ocean could be explained by the evolution of filter-feeding sponges removing oxygen demand from the water column and encouraging a shift from cyanobacteria to faster-sinking eukaryotic algae, which transferred oxygen demand to greater depths and into sediments. The resulting oxygenation of shelf bottom waters would have increased phosphorus removal from the ocean thus lowering global productivity and oxygen demand in a positive feedback loop encouraging ocean oxygenation [1]. The subsequent Cambrian de-oxygenation of the ocean could be explained by the evolution of bioturbating animals oxygenating the sediments and thus lowering the C/P burial ratio of organic matter, reducing organic carbon burial and lowering atmospheric oxygen [2]. The later rise of land plants, selectively weathering phosphorus from continental rocks and producing recalcitrant high C/P biomass, increased organic carbon burial and atmospheric oxygen, finally

  13. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  14. Study regarding the quantitative evolution of the game animals populations from 29 Surduc, Forest Domain- Faget, in 2010-2014 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Romania in the E.U. requires a special attention for to the game populations. The aim of the present paper was to study the quantitative evolution of the game for the 6 species during 2010-2015, on the hunting terrain 29 Surduc, from Forest Domain – Faget, with a total area of 15,500 ha. The study shows that from the 6 species monitored, one was not identified on this hunting terrain, Fallow Deer (Dama dama L. For the other species identified numerical evolution of the population demonstrated that there is a good correlation between the number of individuals and their biogenic capacity. We recommend carefully monitoring of the natural selection and the efficient use of artificial breeding especially for the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L. specie.

  15. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  16. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  17. Study regarding the quantitative evolution of the game animals populations from 66 Tolvadia, Forest Domain- Lunca Timisului, in 2008-2012 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Romania in the E.U., is imposing a special attention to game populations. The aim of the present paper was to study the quantitative evolution of the hunting population for the 13 species during 2008-2012, on the hunting terrain 66 Tolvadia, from Forest Domain – Lunca Timişului, with a total surface of 12,557 ha. The study shows that form the 13 species monitored, 3 were not identified on this hunting terrain Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L., Fallow Deer (Dama dama L, European Pine Marten (Martes martes L.. For the other species identified the population evolution in number demonstrated that there is a god correlation between the number of individuals and its biogenic capacity. Also the study shows that a special attention to natural selection and the efficient use of artificial selection is needed, especially for the following 3 species: Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus L., Wild hog (Sus scrofa L. and Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L..

  18. Animal agriculture: symbiosis, culture or ethical conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Vonne; Olsson, I Anna S

    2006-01-01

    Several writers on animal ethics defend the abolition of most or all animal agriculture, which they consider an unethical exploitation of sentient non-human animals. However, animal agriculture can also be seen as a co-evolution over thousands of years, that has affected biology and behaviour on the one hand, and quality of life of humans and domestic animals on the other. Furthermore, animals are important in sustainable agriculture. They can increase efficiency by their ability to transform...

  19. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...... pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine....

  20. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  1. Two possible driving forces supporting the evolution of animal communication. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin-Frier, Clément; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2016-03-01

    In the target paper [1], M.A. Arbib proposes a quite exhaustive review of the (often computational) models developed during the last decades that support his detailed scenario on language evolution (the Mirror System Hypothesis, MSH). The approach considers that language evolved from a mirror system for grasping already present in LCA-m (the last common ancestor of macaques and humans), to a simple imitation system for grasping present in LCA-c (the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans), to a complex imitation system for grasping that developed in the hominid line since that ancestor. MSH considers that this complex imitation system is a key evolutionary step for a language-ready brain, providing all the required elements for an open-ended gestural communication system. The transition from the gestural (bracchio-manual and visual) to the vocal (articulatory and auditory) domain is supposed to be a less important evolutionary step.

  2. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  3. A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference Genetics Selection Evolution 2010, 42:29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødegård, Jørgen; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Heringstad, Bjørg

    2010-01-01

    " or "non-informative" with respect to genetic (co)variance components. The "non-informative" individuals are characterized by their Mendelian sampling deviations (deviance from the mid-parent mean) being completely confounded with a single residual on the underlying liability scale. For threshold models...... individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (co)variance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative...... relationship matrix, but genetic (co)variance components are inferred from the sampled breeding values and relationships between "informative" individuals (usually parents) only. The latter is analogous to a sire-dam model (in cases with no individual records on the parents). Results When applied to simulated...

  4. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  5. LA EVOLUCIÓN DE SISTEMAS COMPLEJOS: EL CASO DEL SISTEMA INMUNE EN ANIMALES The Evolution of Complex Systems: The Case of the Immune System in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS F CADAVID

    Full Text Available El sistema inmune en animales comprende una serie de mecanismos celulares y moleculares que de manera conjunta mantienen la integridad fisiológica y genética de los organismos. Convencionalmente se ha considerado la existencia de dos clases de inmunidad, la innata y la adaptativa. La primera es ancestral, con variabilidad limitada y baja discriminación, mientras que la segunda es altamente variable, específica y restringida a vertebrados mandibulados. La inmunidad adaptativa se basa en receptores de antígeno que se rearreglan somáticamente para generar una diversidad casi ilimitada de moléculas. Este mecanismo de recombinación somática muy probablemente emergió como consecuencia de un evento de transferencia horizontal de transposones y transposas bacterianas en el ancestro de los vertebrados mandibulados. El reciente descubrimiento en vertebrados no mandibulados e invertebrados de mecanismos de inmunidad adaptativa alternos, plantea la necesidad de considerar nuevos elementos en la construcción de un modelo evolutivo de la inmunidad en animales. Algunos de esos elementos se esbozan en este ensayo.The immune system in animals is composed by a series of cell and molecular mechanisms that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms

  6. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  7. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  8. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  9. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  10. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  11. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  12. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  13. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  14. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  15. 5种水产动物血红细胞形态显微观察比较及进化分析%Comparison of erythrocytes of five aquatic animals and their evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪青; 包永波; 林志华; 刘浩明

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the morphological characteristics and microstructure of erythrocytes of five aquatic animals, in order to study the morphological diversity and evolution of erythrocytes. The blood smears of five aquatic animals, bloody clam (Tegillarca granosa, Scapharca subcrenata), Carassius auratus, Rana catesbeiana and Pelodiscus sinensis, were stained by Hemacolor stain. The surface structure and morphological characteristics of erythrocytes were examined by light microscope (LM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The erythrocytes of bloody clams (Tegillarca granosa & Scapharca subcrenata) had basophil granular or/and eosinophilic granular, but none was found in vertebrates erythrocytes. The size of erythrocytes increased from the two bloody clams to Bull frog (Rana catesbeiana); while the size decreased afterwards; the variation of aspect ratio and nucleocytoplasmic ratio of erythrocytes follow this trend in a similar way. The undulate fold and depression on the erythrocytes of the two bloody clams were observed apparently, and the depression was deep and wide. The surface depression was also obvious in the erythrocytes of vertebrates, although the depression faded away gradually, and no distinct surface fold was examined. These results indicated that the changes of animal erythrocytes resulted from the evolution of animals, activities and habitats, in order to obtain the biggest gas exchange efficiency and the stability of the cells.%采用Hemacolor染料对泥蚶(Tegillarca granosa)、毛蚶(Scapharca subcrenata)、鲫鱼(Carassiusauranus)、牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)、中华鳖(Pelodiscus sinensis)等5种水产动物血细胞涂片进行染色,利用光镜和扫描电镜两种方法对5种动物的血红细胞的表面结构和形态特征进行观察。结果发现:泥蚶、毛蚶两种蚶科贝类血红细胞具有嗜酸性或嗜碱性颗粒,而鲫鱼、牛蛙、中华鳖3种水产脊椎动物

  16. Geomorphological implications of engineering bed sediments by lotic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statzner, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    Recent developments in zoogeomorphology in combination with the increasing interest of ecologists in ecosystem engineering by organisms initiated considerable research on the impact of running water (i.e., lotic) animals (and other organisms) on fluvial bed sediments and the transport of solids. This research provided multiple evidence from field and laboratory observations and experiments that many species among mammals, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms engineer bed sediments of running waters with diverse mechanistic "tools", thereby perturbing or consolidating the sediments in many types of running waters across continents, seasons, habitat types, particle sizes, and discharge levels (baseflow vs. flood). Furthermore, many animals modify the bed-sediment engineering by plants (algae, larger macrophytes, riparian vegetation). Modeling effects of bioturbating lotic animals across species and relatively simple environmental conditions (in mesocosms) provided highly significant results (P-range: abundance in combination with physical variables, such as baseflow shear stress or gravel size, explained between ~ 70 and ~ 90% of the variability in sediment responses such as the overall baseflow sediment transport and, as a result of the baseflow sediment-surface engineering by the animals, the flood-induced gravel or sand transport. Confronting these seemingly encouraging experimental results with real world conditions, however, illustrates considerable problems to unravel the complexity of biotic and physical factors that vary temporally and interfere/interact non-linearly in a patchy pattern in small parts of real river beds, where baseflow bed-sediment engineering by lotic animals prevents or fosters mass erosion during subsequent floods. Despite these complications, these problems must be solved, as bioturbators such as crayfish and bioconsolidators such as silk-spinning caddisflies may locally modify (i) rates of transport of fluvial

  17. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  18. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  19. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  20. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  1. Pain in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Lynne U

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  2. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  3. Micro RNAs in animal development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasterk, R.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22 nucleotide single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules that bind to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and silence their expression. This Essay explores the importance of miRNAs in animal development and their possible roles in disease and evolution.

  4. Animal Rights Activism Threatens Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the movement against the use of dissections in science laboratories. Examples of protests across the United States are included. Compared is the plight of using animals in a biology classroom and the demise of the teaching of evolution in some areas. (KR)

  5. Sharing the World with Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the era of industry and technology, human beings continue to brutally hunt and kill animals to obtain furs or simply to satisfy gourmet appetites; everyday, more species disappear forever—species whose existence was the result of millions of years of evolution.

  6. Response of Paddy Soil Nutrients to Bioturbation of Misgurnus anguillicaudus%水田土壤养分对泥鳅扰动的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立国; 孙刚; 潘希波; 房岩; 陈彬; 胡鹏宇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究水田土壤养分时泥鳅扰动的响应.[方法]通过野外定期取样,采用常规理化方法测定在养鱼水田和对照水田中土壤有机质、氮素、磷素、钾素的含量.[结果]养鱼水田土壤有机质含量、土壤速效氮含量、土壤速效磷含量在0.05水平显著高于对照水田.养鱼水田土壤全氮含量、土壤全磷含量、土壤全钾含量和土壤速效钾含量与对照水田间不存在差异.[结论]底栖鱼类泥鳅改善了水田土壤养分状况,尤其提高了土壤有机质、土壤速效氮和土壤速效磷的含量.%[ Objective ] The research aimed to explore the response of paddy soil nutrients to bioturbation of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.[ Method]The sampling was conducted monthly in fields, and regular physical and chemical methods were used to determine the contents of soil organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in rice-fish paddy field and control paddy field. [ Result ] The contents of soil organic matter, soil available nitrogen, and soil available phosphorus in rice-fish paddy field were significantly higher than those in control paddy field, while the contents of soil total nitrogen, soil total phosphorus, soil total potassium, and soil available potassium had no significant difference with those in control paddy field. [ Conclusion] The benthic fish Misgurnus anguillicaudatus improved the conditions of soil nutrients in paddy field, especially increased the contents of soil organic matter, soil available nitrogen, and soll available phosphorus.

  7. Animating the biodynamics of soil thickness using process vector analysis: A dynamic denudation approach to soil formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.L.; Domier, J.E.J.; Johnson, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper expands the dynamic denudation framework of landscape evolution by providing new process insights and details on how soil and its signature morphological feature, the biomantle, form and function in the environment. We examine soils and their biomantles from disparate parts of the world, from the tropics through midlatitudes and hyperarid through perhumid, a range that exhibits varying environments for, and of, life. We then explicate the process pathways that cause soils to thicken and thin, and to even disappear, then reform. We do this by examining thickness relationships, where soil thickness stand biomantle thickness bt are functions of upbuilding u and deepening d minus removal r processes, hence st/bt=f(u+d-r). Upbuilding has two subsets, u1, which includes all exogenous (allochthonous-outside) mineral and/or organic inputs to the soil system, and u2, which includes all endogenous (autochthonous-in situ) processes and productions, including weathering. Exogenous u1 inputs include eolian and slopewash inputs (sedimentations) of mineral and organic materials, mass wasting accumulations and the like. Endogenous u2 processes and productions include the sum of in situ bioturbations, biosynthetic productions, organic accumulations, biovoid productions, weathering and volume increases caused by their sum. Endogenous upbuildings, which dominantly occur in the biomantle, are basically biodynamic bd processes and productions, hence u2=bd. Therefore, if exogenous upbuildings u1 are minimal or zero, then biomantle thickness bt is expressed by bt=f(u2-r) or bt=f(bd-r). Drawing on these relationships, we employ a graphic-conceptual device called process vector analysis in a digital animation (see supplementary materials or cf. https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/jdomier/www/temp/ biomantle.html) that illustrates the main pathways that form both Earth's soil and its unique epidermis, the biomantle. We then discuss the main elements of the animation using still frames that

  8. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  9. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    We love movies because we like to jump from our “reality” to live a dream, a parallel universe that inspires us. We long for adventure, excitement and answers to quests… That’s the magic of cinema; it makes you believe what you see and over all, FEEL it. As Antonio Damasio said-“ we´re feeling...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...

  10. Use of total organic carbon, spectral gamma ray and bioturbation as tools in the identification of source rock; Carbono organico total, gamaespectrometria e bioturbacao como ferramentas na busca de possiveis horizontes geradores de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Anderson S.; Pereira, Egberto [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia. Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the result obtained for the gamaespectrometric study of a borehole situated in north of Parana Basin, concerning sediments of the Ponta Grossa Formation. The Total Radioactivity data and the concentrations of Potassium (K), Uranium (U), Thorium (Th) have been compared to the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and to the degree of bioturbation intensity. The mentioned formation is composed of basal sandstones deposited in shoreface conditions, which pass to siltstones and black shales deposited in offshore conditions. Nine sedimentary facies were identified based on sedimentological characteristics and sedimentary structures. The bioturbation intensity indicates the modification degree of the initial arrangement of sedimentary beds by the action of organisms. High TOC values in the intervals in addition to the increase of the radioactivity values indicate anoxic conditions. These conditions are ideal for the organic matter concentration and preservation, reflecting favorable intervals to the hydrocarbons (HC) generation. Thus, with the integrated use of diverse tools it was possible to confirm that the Givetian-Frasnian interval of the Ponta Grossa Formation presents the best potential of HC generation of the section analyzed. (author)

  11. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  12. Thought Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov V.D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The thought evolution is studied by historical reconstruction method that is based on the propositions of the theory of culturalhistorical determination of the psyche development, and the data of the morphological analysis and child development, and the conception of the psyche neuroontogenesis. The grounds for advisability of protothinking are presented. The protothinking is understood as the use of objective thought in cases of awareness absence. It is shown that protothinking is a form of transition from animal thinking to human speech. The particular attention is paid to the process of the word producing and thought generation in that process. The conditions of word producing as cooccurring acoustic pattern served for though expression are discussed. It is emphasized that a word is produced by a particular person. The historical development of the language and the specificity of this development are pointed out

  13. Domestication genomics: evidence from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Xie, Hai-Bing; Peng, Min-Sheng; Irwin, David; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Animal domestication has far-reaching significance for human society. The sequenced genomes of domesticated animals provide critical resources for understanding the genetic basis of domestication. Various genomic analyses have shed a new light on the mechanism of artificial selection and have allowed the mapping of genes involved in important domestication traits. Here, we summarize the published genomes of domesticated animals that have been generated over the past decade, as well as their origins, from a phylogenomic point of view. This review provides a general description of the genomic features encountered under a two-stage domestication process. We also introduce recent findings for domestication traits based on results from genome-wide association studies and selective-sweep scans for artificially selected genomic regions. Particular attention is paid to issues relating to the costs of domestication and the convergent evolution of genes between domesticated animals and humans.

  14. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  15. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  16. From the ossuary: animation and the danse macabre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carels, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    abstractThe skeleton has been a key figure throughout the evolution of the animated image. Thisessay investigates how the danse macabre lies at the roots of animation, and has hence kepton reappearing as a motif throughout the evolution of the genre. The theoretical frameworkcombines film history wi

  17. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  18. [Dermatophytes from animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A

    2000-01-01

    Dermatophytes from animal dermatophytoses were investigated, especially for their teleomorphs and molecular characteristics. Microsporum canis, M. equinum, M. gypseum, M. nanum, Trichophyton equinum, T. mentagrophytes complex, T. rubrum and T. verrucosum were isolated as the etiological agents of animal ringworm in Japan. They were morphologically and biochemically identified and their perfect states were examined. The teleomorph of M. canis was first obtained and reported as Nanizzia otae in 1975. The isolates of M. canis of which the teleomorph was confirmed were all "-" excepted two Japanese isolates. Mating experiments indicated that the isolates of M. gypseum were "+" or "-" of A. gypseum and A. incurvatum, respectively. Most of the isolates of T. mentagrophytes complex of which a perfect state was detected were A. vanbreuseghemii. One isolate from a monkey was A. simii and one from a rabbit was A. benhamiae. However, the teleomorph remained unknown in many isolates. Molecular characteristics in random amplification of polymorphic DNA and Southern hybridization analyses were found to be effective to differentiate the species of Microsporum. Nucleotide sequences of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of dermatophytes were also analyzed for their phylogenetic relatedness. The phylogenetic analysis revealed four clusters: the first cluster consisted of A. benhamiae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum and T. violaceum; the second of A. fulvum, A. gypseum and A. incurvatum; the third of A. grubyi and A. otae; and the fourth of Epidermaphyton floccosum, providing useful information for the classification and understanding of their evolution.

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  20. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  1. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  2. Between and Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Animals are man’s best friends. Animals remind man of his own infancy. People and animals get on well with each other, so the world is bright and colorful. Animals are children’s close pals, too. Being on intimate terms with animals makes children more kind-hearted and sympathetic.

  3. Effects of Bioturbation on Vertical Distribution of Sediment Particles by Two Macrobenthos Species%两种大型底栖动物生物扰动对沉积物颗粒垂直分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕洪斌; 王恕桥; 刘国山; 张秀梅

    2016-01-01

    Macrobenthos affect the physical, chemical and biological properties of the sediment-water interface. This bioturbation plays an important role in the biogeochemical processes of marine and lacustrine environments. Research has shown that bioturbation intensity depends on natural macrobenthos behavior, but is influenced by ex-ternal factors such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, macrobenthos density and food supply.In this stud-y,we investigated the effect of population density of a Polychaeta,Cirratulus chrysoderma, and size of a Bivalvia, Ruditapes philippinarum, on the vertical distribution of sediment particles.The two macrobenthos species were in-vestigated using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes(L28 cm, D10.5 cm) with 15 cm of sediment.Glass beads(0.4-0.5 mm) were placed on the surface of the sediment as the tracer before the organisms were placed in the appa-ratus.The experiment was conducted at a salinity of 30 g/kg, temperature of 20℃and each treatment was run in triplicate.Treatment groups included three densities of C.chrysoderma (255, 510, 1 020 ind/m2),three sizes of R.philippinarum[large: (32.64 ±0.08) mm, (7.34 ±0.45) g;medium: (25.30 ±0.11) mm, (3.54 ± 0.19) g;small:(20.34 ±0.06) mm, (1.63 ±0.13) g)] and a control.The vertical distribution of tracers and macrobenthos for each treatment was determined on day 7 and day 20 of the experiment.The two macrobenthos spe-cies displayed significantly different bioturbation intensities, primarily because they belong to different bioturbation functional groups.The quantity and depth of tracer beads distributed in the sediments changed with C chrysoderma density, R philippinarum size and bioturbation time.The transport rate of tracer beads increased with density of C chrysoderma on day 7, but was negatively correlated on day 20.The transport rate of tracer beads decreased with size of R philippinarum at both sampling time.The maximum depth and number of tracer particles transported in the sediment

  4. Cultural evolution: universality in animal culture and uniqueness in human culture%文化的起源——动物文化的普遍性与人类文化的独特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万美婷; 苏彦捷

    2009-01-01

    In most time, culture was attributed to human exclusively. However, after some investigations of animals' cultural behaviors coming out, many researchers believe that culture can exist in animal populations. In the current review, we provided observation evidences about cultural phenomena of animals in wild, as well as experimental results about cognitive foundation of cultural behaviors in laboratory. Besides, we pointed out different ways between human and animal cultures , and explained the cause of the uniqueness of human culture.%在很长一段时间里文化被认为是人类文明的产物.该文提供了许多关于动物文化现象的证据,并且提供了动物创新和社会学习能力的观察与实证研究的结果,用以说明文化在动物中存在的可能性.然而,人类文化与动物文化存在着明显差异,造成这种结果的原因可能主要是两者认知能力的差异:人类特殊的认知模式--文化认知造就了人类复杂的文化体系.

  5. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  7. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  8. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals

    OpenAIRE

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu,Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law n.º 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. PURPOSE: To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to ana...

  9. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  11. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes; Cornou, Cécile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  12. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  13. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  14. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  15. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  16. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  17. Computer animations of quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E. (Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique)

    1992-07-01

    A visualization mehtod for quantum field theories based on the transfer matrix formalism is presented. It generates computer animations simulating the time evolution of complex physical systems subject to local Hamiltonians. The method may be used as a means of gaining insight to theories such as QCD, and as an educational tool in explaining high-energy physics. (orig.).

  18. COMADRE: a global database of animal demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salguero-Gómez, R.; Jones, O.R.; Archer, C.R.; Bein, C.; de Buhr, H.; Farack, C.; Gottschalk, F.; Hartmann, A.; Henning, A.; Hoppe, G.; Römer, G.; Ruoff, T.; Sommer, V.; Wille, J.; Voigt, J; Zeh, S.; Vieregg, D.; Buckley, Y.M.; Che-Castaldo, J.; Hodgson, D.; Scheuerlein, A.; Caswell, H.; Vaupel, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    1. The open-data scientific philosophy is being widely adopted and proving to promote considerable progress in ecology and evolution. Open-data global data bases now exist on animal migration, species distribution, conservation status, etc. However, a gap exists for data on population dynamics spann

  19. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  20. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  1. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  2. Oil spill effects on macrofaunal communities and bioturbation of pristine marine sediments (Caleta Valdés, Patagonia, Argentina): experimental evidence of low resistance capacities of benthic systems without history of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Agustina; Gonzalez, Emilia; Franco, Marcos; Commendatore, Marta; Nievas, Marina; Militon, Cécile; Stora, Georges; Gilbert, Franck; Esteves, José Luis; Cuny, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The Patagonian coast is characterized by the existence of pristine ecosystems which may be particularly sensitive to oil contamination. In this study, a simulated oil spill at acute and chronic input levels was carried out to assess the effects of contamination on the macrobenthic community structure and the bioturbation activity of sediments sampled in Caleta Valdés creek. Superficial sediments were either noncontaminated or contaminated by Escalante crude oil and incubated in the laboratory for 30 days. Oil contamination induced adverse effects on macrobenthic community at both concentrations with, for the highest concentration, a marked decrease of approximately 40 and 55 % of density and specific richness, respectively. Besides the disappearance of sensitive species, some other species like Oligochaeta sp. 1, Paranebalia sp., and Ostracoda sp. 2 species have a higher resistance to oil contamination. Sediment reworking activity was also affected by oil addition. At the highest level of contamination, nearly no activity was observed due to the high mortality of macroorganisms. The results strongly suggest that an oil spill in this protected marine area with no previous history of contamination would have a deep impact on the non-adapted macrobenthic community.

  3. Aerotaxis in the Closest Relatives of Animals

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkegaard, Julius B; Marron, Alan O; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2016-01-01

    As the closest unicellular relatives of animals, choanoflagellates serve as useful model organisms for understanding the evolution of animal multicellularity. An important factor in animal evolution was the increasing ocean oxygen levels in the Precambrian, which are thought to have influenced the emergence of complex multicellular life. As a first step in addressing these conditions, we study here the response of the colony-forming choanoflagellate $Salpingoeca~rosetta$ to oxygen gradients. Using a microfluidic device that allows spatio-temporal variations in oxygen concentrations, we report the discovery that $S.~rosetta$ display positive aerotaxis. Analysis of the spatial population distributions provides evidence for logarithmic sensing of oxygen, which enhances sensing in low oxygen neighborhoods. Analysis of search strategy models on the experimental colony trajectories finds that choanoflagellate aerotaxis is consistent with stochastic navigation, the statistics of which are captured using an effective...

  4. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  5. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  8. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium.

  9. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  10. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  12. Genomes and evolutionary genomics of animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luting SONG; Wen WANG

    2013-01-01

    Alongside recent advances and booming applications of DNA sequencing technologies,a great number of complete genome sequences for animal species are available to researchers.Hundreds of animals have been involved in whole genome sequencing,and at least 87 non-human animal species' complete or draft genome sequences have been published since 1998.Based on these technological advances and the subsequent accumulation of large quantity of genomic data,evolutionary genomics has become one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines in biology.Scientists now can perform a number of comparative and evolutionary genomic studies for animals,to identify conserved genes or other functional elements among species,genomic elements that confer animals their own specific characteristics and new phenotypes for adaptation.This review deals with the current genomic and evolutionary research on non-human animals,and displays a comprehensive landscape of genomes and the evolutionary genomics of non-human animals.It is very helpful to a better understanding of the biology and evolution of the myriad forms within the animal kingdom [Current Zoology 59 (1):87-98,2013].

  13. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...

  14. Evolutionally Dissemination of CTX-M-14 Producing Escherichia coli among Food-producing Animals%食品动物源产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌传播分子机制的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄盼盼; 汤电; 任艳娜; 郭玉芳; 王丽华; 裘宗平; 蒋红霞

    2012-01-01

    从保存的2002-2009年分离的食品动物源大肠杆菌中,挑选16株blacTx-M14阳性菌,用PCR方法检测超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)编码基因、PMQR耐药基因及其他重要抗生素耐药基因(rmtB和floR);通过脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)及种族进化关系分析16株细菌的亲缘关系;通过接合转移试验、复制子分型和blaCTX-M-14上下游插入元件的检测,分析产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌的传播分子机制.PCR检测结果表明,16株食品动物源产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌大多属于系统发育组A组,其次为B1和D组,没有B2组;PFGE分型结果表明,同一时间内不同动物间存在产CTX-M-14共生型大肠杆菌克隆的扩散传播,但养殖场内CTX-M-14主要是随质粒或其他元件进行水平传播;质粒复制子分型结果表明,携带blaCTX-M-14的质粒属于IncK(3/14)、IncF(5/14)、IncHI2(1/14)、IncFIB和IncF(1/14)、IncHI1和IncN(2/14)、IncIl(2/14)等,且随着时间推移,复制子的种类呈增多趋势.2002-2007年的菌株blaCTx-M基因的上下游均检测到ISEcpl和IS903;但2009年菌株除了部分在上下游都可以检测到ISEcpl和IS903外,还有的只检测到上游的ISEcpl或下游的IS903;2002-2009年的菌均未检测到ISCR1.16株产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌除了携带其他ESBLs编码基因,如blaCTx-M79和blaTEM-135外,还携带其他重要抗生素耐药基因,如oqxA、floR、aac(6') - lb-cr及rmtB,而且2002-2009年大肠杆菌携带耐药基因的种类和数量逐年增多;接合转移试验发现,2002-2005年的菌株,blaCTx-M-14往往发生单独转移,而2009年分离菌blaCTx-M-14往往和floR或rmtB位于同一质粒上发生共同转移.这说明养殖场使用氨基糖苷类或氟苯尼考等任何一种抗生素,都可以筛选出产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌并促进其扩散,所以动物养殖过程中要慎用这些抗生素.%Sixteen CTX-M-14 producing Escherichia coli isolates from food animal recovered from 2002 to 2009 were subjected to detection of

  15. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  16. Animal Structures and Functions, Science (Experimental): 5314.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Barbara A.

    This unit of instruction was designed to introduce the student to the relationship between structure and function in the animal kingdom, with emphasis given to: (1) the evolution of physiological systems in the major animal phyla, (2) the complementarity of structure and function, and (3) the concept of homeostasis. The booklet lists the relevant…

  17. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  18. Animals in a bacterial world: opportunities for chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Alexandra M; Clardy, Jon

    2015-07-01

    This Viewpoint article provides a brief and selective summary of research on the chemical ecology underlying symbioses between bacteria and animals. Animals engage in multiple highly specialized interactions with bacteria that reflect their long coevolutionary history. The article focuses on a few illustrative but hardly exhaustive examples in which bacterially produced small molecules initiate a developmental step with important implications for the evolution of animals, provide signals for the maturation of mammalian immune systems, and furnish chemical defenses against microbial pathogens.

  19. Stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    2013-01-01

    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  20. The evolution of helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Wen, C. Y.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we show that during their half-century history, helicopters have been evolving into geometrically similar architectures with surprisingly sharp correlations between dimensions, performance, and body size. For example, proportionalities emerge between body size, engine size, and the fuel load. Furthermore, the engine efficiency increases with the engine size, and the propeller radius is roughly the same as the length scale of the whole body. These trends are in accord with the constructal law, which accounts for the engine efficiency trend and the proportionality between "motor" size and body size in animals and vehicles. These body-size effects are qualitatively the same as those uncovered earlier for the evolution of aircraft. The present study adds to this theoretical body of research the evolutionary design of all technologies [A. Bejan, The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything (St. Martin's Press, New York, 2016)].

  1. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  2. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  3. Algorithm Animation with Galant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, Matthias F

    2017-01-01

    Although surveys suggest positive student attitudes toward the use of algorithm animations, it is not clear that they improve learning outcomes. The Graph Algorithm Animation Tool, or Galant, challenges and motivates students to engage more deeply with algorithm concepts, without distracting them with programming language details or GUIs. Even though Galant is specifically designed for graph algorithms, it has also been used to animate other algorithms, most notably sorting algorithms.

  4. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  5. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  6. The evolution of 'bricolage'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboule, D; Wilkins, A S

    1998-02-01

    The past ten years of developmental genetics have revealed that most of our genes are shared by other species throughout the animal kingdom. Consequently, animal diversity might largely rely on the differential use of the same components, either at the individual level through divergent functional recruitment, or at a more integrated level, through their participation in various genetic networks. Here, we argue that this inevitably leads to an increase in the interdependency between functions that, in turn, influences the degree to which novel variations can be tolerated. In this 'transitionist' scheme, evolution is neither inherently gradualist nor punctuated but, instead, progresses from one extreme to the other, together with the increased complexity of organisms.

  7. Where is the skepticism in animal metacognition?

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of metacognition may answer fundamental questions about the evolution of cognition. Although a substantial amount of research has been directed toward this goal in the last two decades, the recent development of quantitative non-metacognition models has raised questions about the existence of metacognition in nonhumans. Kornell (2013) proposes that advances in animal metacognition may be made by following emerging trends in human metacognition research, namely that an...

  8. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  9. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types of...

  10. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  11. Designing for animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, T.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Providing living space for animals in cities is an underexposed subject in the practice of urban designers. We encounter the results of conflicting situations between humans and animals almost every day, and

  12. Hazardous marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, P S

    1984-08-01

    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  13. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  14. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  15. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  16. Animal Care Use Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Margaret D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the structure, activities, responsibilities, and practices of animal care and use committees established to review classroom activities and student research using animals. Provides six hypothetical situations with suggested solutions to test a committee's decision-making ability. Includes a proposed activity form for teachers. (MDH)

  17. Small Animal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  18. Domestic animals as models for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Domestic animals are unique models for biomedical research due to their long history (thousands of years) of strong phenotypic selection. This process has enriched for novel mutations that have contributed to phenotype evolution in domestic animals. The characterization of such mutations provides insights in gene function and biological mechanisms. This review summarizes genetic dissection of about 50 genetic variants affecting pigmentation, behaviour, metabolic regulation, and the pattern of locomotion. The variants are controlled by mutations in about 30 different genes, and for 10 of these our group was the first to report an association between the gene and a phenotype. Almost half of the reported mutations occur in non-coding sequences, suggesting that this is the most common type of polymorphism underlying phenotypic variation since this is a biased list where the proportion of coding mutations are inflated as they are easier to find. The review documents that structural changes (duplications, deletions, and inversions) have contributed significantly to the evolution of phenotypic diversity in domestic animals. Finally, we describe five examples of evolution of alleles, which means that alleles have evolved by the accumulation of several consecutive mutations affecting the function of the same gene.

  19. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  20. Workshop on molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  1. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    , the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching.......This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead...

  2. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  3. Cupper in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Huerta Bravo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  4. Towards an animated JPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theytaz, Joël.; Yuan, Lin; McNally, David; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-09-01

    Recently, short animated image sequences have become very popular in social networks. Most animated images are represented in GIF format. In this paper we propose an animated JPEG format, called aJPEG, which allows the standard JPEG format to be extended in a backward compatible way in order to cope with animated images. After presenting the proposed format, we illustrate it using two prototype applications: the first in form of a GIF-to-aJPEG converter on a personal computer and the second in form of an aJPEG viewer on a smart phone. The paper also reports the performance evaluation of aJPEG when compared to GIF. Experimental results show that aJPEG outperforms animated GIF in both file size overhead and image quality.

  5. Mainstreaming Caenorhabditis elegans in experimental evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy C; Cutter, Asher D

    2014-03-01

    Experimental evolution provides a powerful manipulative tool for probing evolutionary process and mechanism. As this approach to hypothesis testing has taken purchase in biology, so too has the number of experimental systems that use it, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses. The depth of biological knowledge about Caenorhabditis nematodes, combined with their laboratory tractability, positions them well for exploiting experimental evolution in animal systems to understand deep questions in evolution and ecology, as well as in molecular genetics and systems biology. To date, Caenorhabditis elegans and related species have proved themselves in experimental evolution studies of the process of mutation, host-pathogen coevolution, mating system evolution and life-history theory. Yet these organisms are not broadly recognized for their utility for evolution experiments and remain underexploited. Here, we outline this experimental evolution work undertaken so far in Caenorhabditis, detail simple methodological tricks that can be exploited and identify research areas that are ripe for future discovery.

  6. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  7. Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, F.

    We review both the observational and theoretical constraints on the evolution of the abundances of heavy elements in gas and stars in galaxies of different morphological type. The main aim of this work is to document the progress made in our understanding of the physical processes regulating the chemical evolution of galaxies during the last sixteen years since the appearance, in this same journal (volume 5, page 287), of the well know review of Beatrice Tinsley, to whom I dedicate this paper. Finally, this article is addressed particularly to readers who do not actively work on galactic chemical evolution and who might use it as a cook book where the main ingredients are discussed and useful recipes can be found.

  8. Where is the skepticism in animal metacognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2014-05-01

    The comparative analysis of metacognition may answer fundamental questions about the evolution of cognition. Although a substantial amount of research has been directed toward this goal in the last two decades, the recent development of quantitative nonmetacognition models has raised questions about the existence of metacognition in nonhumans. Kornell (2014, pp. 143-149) proposes that advances in animal metacognition may be made by following emerging trends in human metacognition research, namely that animal metacognition may take the form of drawing inferences from metacognitive cues without directly assessing the strength of memories. A problem with this approach is noted. Because the metacognitive status of certainty judgments in animals is at the center of the dispute in the field, demonstrations of the inferential view would not provide evidence that putative metacognitive cues are indeed based on metacognition. I argue that any preparation that claims to tap into metacognition needs to be tested against leading nonmetacognition hypotheses such as Le Pelley's (2012) reinforcement-learning model. Progress in animal metacognition will come from the development of new assessment techniques that offer predictions contrary to nonmetacognition hypotheses. Animal metacognition will advance by applying skepticism about methods and interpretation while letting the animals (and their data) settle the debate.

  9. A population genetics view of animal domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Burger, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The fundamental shift associated with the domestication of plants and animals allowed for a dramatic increase in human population sizes and the emergence of modern society. Despite its importance and the decades of research devoted to studying it, questions regarding the origins and processes of domestication remain. Here, we review recent theoretical advances and present a perspective that underscores the crucial role that population admixture has played in influencing the genomes of domestic animals over the past 10000 years. We then discuss novel approaches to generating and analysing genetic data, emphasising the importance of an explicit hypothesis-testing approach for the inference of the origins and subsequent evolution and demography of domestic animals. By applying next-generation sequencing technology alongside appropriate biostatistical methodologies, a substantially deeper understanding of domestication is on the horizon.

  10. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  11. Animals eponyms in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF, and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD.

  12. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  13. Women Protecting Endangered Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ON the Yongding River, 40 kilometers south of Beijing lies the Beijing Center for Breeding Endangered Animals.Built more than 10 years ago it is the only rare and endangered animal base in China, incorporating such functions as Scientific research, raising, breeding and medical treatment. There are more than 30 national and international rare species, with a total of more than 1,000 animals. Among them, the snub-nosed golden monkey, Chinese monal pheasant and eared pheasant account for the largest number of man-bred species in the world.

  14. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  15. Animal transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  16. A northern animal kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RainerThomm

    2005-01-01

    I began photographing wild animals at Baiquan in 2002,what is really propelling me to go back time and time again,though,is the unforgettable experience of tracking down and getting shots of red foxes and shika.

  17. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  18. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.

  19. Animal models of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  20. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  1. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  2. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  3. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  4. On Animal Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡凡

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays it is common to talk about metaphor. In fact, metaphor is a kind of comparison. Because of comparison and association,familiar objects become strange and glamorous. Animal metaphors can involve either nominal form or verb forms. A person's crying may be called barking. A woman may be called a cat, or a goose, etc. Animal metaphor is connected tightly with our life and helps language development. We can utilize them to make our life and languages more colorful.

  5. Cytogenetics in animal production

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy), lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities) or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities). Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biolo...

  6. Representing Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    . This article discusses Willumsen's etching in the context of evolutionary theory, arguing that Willumsen is a rare example of an artist who not only let the theory of evolution fuel his artistic imagination, but also concerned himself with a core issue of the theory, namely to what extent it could be applied...

  7. Animal models and conserved processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is

  8. The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article…

  9. Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jared

    2002-08-01

    Domestication interests us as the most momentous change in Holocene human history. Why did it operate on so few wild species, in so few geographic areas? Why did people adopt it at all, why did they adopt it when they did, and how did it spread? The answers to these questions determined the remaking of the modern world, as farmers spread at the expense of hunter-gatherers and of other farmers.

  10. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Proposal for Performance Research, in response to the call Turning Animal: As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a we...... support the written account – together with graphic figurations of the many human and non-human actors playing a part of the mattering of “Becoming Sheep”, with an equal intention of performing multiple positions within and through the text......., for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site......-specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement...

  11. Animal models for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  12. Understanding how animal groups achieve coordinated movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert-Read, J E

    2016-10-01

    Moving animal groups display remarkable feats of coordination. This coordination is largely achieved when individuals adjust their movement in response to their neighbours' movements and positions. Recent advancements in automated tracking technologies, including computer vision and GPS, now allow researchers to gather large amounts of data on the movements and positions of individuals in groups. Furthermore, analytical techniques from fields such as statistical physics now allow us to identify the precise interaction rules used by animals on the move. These interaction rules differ not only between species, but also between individuals in the same group. These differences have wide-ranging implications, affecting how groups make collective decisions and driving the evolution of collective motion. Here, I describe how trajectory data can be used to infer how animals interact in moving groups. I give examples of the similarities and differences in the spatial and directional organisations of animal groups between species, and discuss the rules that animals use to achieve this organisation. I then explore how groups of the same species can exhibit different structures, and ask whether this results from individuals adapting their interaction rules. I then examine how the interaction rules between individuals in the same groups can also differ, and discuss how this can affect ecological and evolutionary processes. Finally, I suggest areas of future research.

  13. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  15. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  16. Animal Poetry and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Brüggemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.

  17. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  18. Animal use in pharmacology education and research: the changing scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Desai, Chetna

    2014-01-01

    The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Most of present day's drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The dilemma to continue animal experiments in education and research continues with varied and confusing guidelines. However, the animal use and their handling vary in each laboratory and educational institution. It has been reported that the animals are being subjected to painful procedures in education and training unnecessarily. The extensive use of animals in toxicity studies and testing dermatological preparations has raised concerns about the ways animals are sacrificed for these "irrelevant experiments". On the other side of the coin are scientists who advocate the relevant and judicious use of animals in research so that new discoveries can continue. In this review, we discuss the evolution of the use of animals in education and research and how these have been affected in recent times owing to concerns from animal lovers and government regulations. A number of computer simulation and other models have been recommended for use as alternatives to use of animals for pharmacology education. In this review we also discuss some of these alternatives.

  19. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animals include cats, rodents, rabbits, ferrets, farm animals, monkeys and reptiles. The major concern of all animal ... the tabs at the top (Video, Articles/WEB, Images, JHS, Products/Vendors), or the filters on the ...

  1. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  2. Animal Care in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses housing facilities for living animals in the classroom or laboratory. The construction of animal cages from materials obtained locally is described. Space recommendations for laboratory animals and cages are also included. (HM)

  3. Ediacaran Marine Redox Heterogeneity and Early Animal Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Li; Planavsky, Noah J.; Wei Shi; Zihu Zhang; Chuanming Zhou; Meng Cheng; Tarhan, Lidya G.; Genming Luo; Shucheng Xie

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenation has widely been viewed as a major factor driving the emergence and diversification of animals. However, links between early animal evolution and shifts in surface oxygen levels have largely been limited to extrapolation of paleoredox conditions reconstructed from unfossiliferous strata to settings in which contemporaneous fossils were preserved. Herein, we present a multi-proxy paleoredox study of late Ediacaran (ca. 560-551 Ma) shales hosting the Miaohe Konservat-Lagerstätte of S...

  4. Human and the animal in Victorian gothic scientific literature

    OpenAIRE

    McKechnie, Claire Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the role of animals in nineteenth-century science and Victorian Gothic fiction of the latter half of the century. It is interdisciplinary in its exploration of the interrelationship between science writings and literary prose and it seeks to place the Gothic animal body in its cultural and historical setting. This study is interested in the ways in which Gothic literature tests the limits of the human by using scientific ideas about disease, evolution, species co...

  5. At the origin of animals: the revolutionary cambrian fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Graham E

    2013-09-01

    The certain fossil record of animals begins around 540 million years ago, close to the base of the Cambrian Period. A series of extraordinary discoveries starting over 100 years ago with Walcott's discovery of the Burgess Shale has accelerated in the last thirty years or so with the description of exceptionally-preserved Cambrian fossils from around the world. Such deposits of "Burgess Shale Type" have been recently complemented by other types of exceptional preservation. Together with a remarkable growth in knowledge about the environments that these early animals lived in, these discoveries have long exerted a fascination and strong influence on views on the origins of animals, and indeed, the nature of evolution itself. Attention is now shifting to the period of time just before animals become common, at the base of the Cambrian and in the preceding Ediacaran Period. Remarkable though the Burgess Shale deposits have been, a substantial gap still exists in our knowledge of the earliest animals. Nevertheless, the fossils from this most remarkable period of evolutionary history continue to exert a strong influence on many aspects of animal evolution, not least recent theories about developmental evolution.

  6. Simple Animations with Excels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickensderfer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the use of animated drawings for teaching physics. The benefits to the students are obvious. Rather than looking at still pictures in a textbook, they can observe a physical event and see how it plays out over time.

  7. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled scientists to isolate single genes, analyze and modify their nucleotide structure(s), make copies of these isolated genes, and insert copies of these genes into the genome of plants and animals. The transgenic technology of adding genes to li...

  8. Animals that Live Longest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶扬志

    2000-01-01

    Reptiles(爬行类) are animals that live longest. The turtle's(海龟)long life is legendary(传奇的), no one has ever been able to calculate the exact age of the turtle, and for good reason, tortoises live a lot longer than humans do.

  9. In and Out (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation links two images taken by the front hazard avoidance camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The rover is stowing and unstowing its robotic arm, or instrument deployment device. The device is designed to hold and maneuver the various instruments on board that will help scientists get up-close and personal with martian rocks and soil.

  10. Do Animals Have Memes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imitation has been put forward as a defining feature of memetic transmission. Since there is currently poor evidence for imitation in non-human animals, such definitions have been interpreted as restricting meme theory to the study of human behaviour patterns and birdsong. We believe this is a mista

  11. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  12. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  13. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  14. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products ...

  16. Laboratory animal allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  17. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a co

  18. Can Animals Think?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    For centuries, philosophers argued that thinking and language sepa-rate humans from other species. The lesser creatures, Rene Descartes con-tended in I637, are little more than automatons, sleepwalking through lifewithout a mote of self-awareness. Later, scientists had reason to be skep-tical of claims concerning animal intelligence. At the turn of the century,

  19. Reatividade animal Confinement reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsiara Estanislau Maffei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A reatividade é definida como a reação do animal quando contido num ambiente de contenção móvel. Ela é quantificada por meio do teste de reatividade animal em ambiente de contenção móvel - REATEST®. Este teste consiste num dispositivo eletrônico acoplado à balança e num software específico. O dispositivo capta a movimentação que o animal provoca na balança, durante 20 segundos e a envia para o software que a processa determinando a reatividade do animal numa escala contínua de pontos. Pontuações maiores são de animais mais reativos (mais agressivo. A reatividade foi criada com os objetivos de solucionar os problemas até então existentes na seleção para temperamento e de permitir estimação de parâmetros genéticos mais confiáveis. Ela é uma característica objetiva que tem grande variabilidade fenotípica e é de quantificação rápida, fácil e segura, além de poder ser quantificada em qualquer tipo de balança, o que permite maior aplicabilidade. Ela não interfere nas práticas de manejo das fazendas porque é quantificada no momento da pesagem dos animais. Sua herdabilidade na raça Nelore é de 0,39 ao ano e 0,23 ao sobreano e suas correlações genéticas com ganho de peso diário são de -0,28 do nascimento até desmama e de -0,49 do desmame até ano. Já suas correlações genéticas com desenvolvimento do perímetro escrotal do ano ao sobreano variam de -0,25 e -0,41.The confinement reactivity (CR has been used as a measure of temperament in Brazil and it is defined as the animal reaction when contained in the scale. It is quantified through the animal reactivity test - REATEST®. This test consists of an electronic device coupled to the scale and of specific software. The device captures the movement that the animal provokes in the scale, during 20 seconds and sends it for the software that processes this movement and determines the animal CR in a continuous scale of points. Higher punctuations belong to

  20. Animal innovation defined and operationalized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Grant; Bastian, Meredith L; van Schaik, Carel

    2007-08-01

    Innovation is a key component of most definitions of culture and intelligence. Additionally, innovations may affect a species' ecology and evolution. Nonetheless, conceptual and empirical work on innovation has only recently begun. In particular, largely because the existing operational definition (first occurrence in a population) requires long-term studies of populations, there has been no systematic study of innovation in wild animals. To facilitate such study, we have produced a new definition of innovation: Innovation is the process that generates in an individual a novel learned behavior that is not simply a consequence of social learning or environmental induction. Using this definition, we propose a new operational approach for distinguishing innovations in the field. The operational criteria employ information from the following sources: (1) the behavior's geographic and local prevalence and individual frequency; (2) properties of the behavior, such as the social role of the behavior, the context in which the behavior is exhibited, and its similarity to other behaviors; (3) changes in the occurrence of the behavior over time; and (4) knowledge of spontaneous or experimentally induced behavior in captivity. These criteria do not require long-term studies at a single site, but information from multiple populations of a species will generally be needed. These criteria are systematized into a dichotomous key that can be used to assess whether a behavior observed in the field is likely to be an innovation.

  1. The Evolution of Syntax: An Exaptationist Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    W Tecumseh eFitch

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The "continuist" perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The "exaptationist" perspective posits evolutionary ch...

  2. The Evolution of Syntax: An Exaptationist Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics, and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The “continuist” perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The “exaptationist” perspective posits evolutionary change of function, so t...

  3. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  4. Animal models in epigenetic research: institutional animal care and use committee considerations across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid expansion and evolution of epigenetics as a core scientific discipline have raised new questions about how endogenous and environmental factors can inform the mechanisms through which biological form and function are regulated. Existing and proposed animal models used for epigenetic research have targeted a myriad of health and disease endpoints that may be acute, chronic, and transgenerational in nature. Initiating events and outcomes may extend across the entire lifespan to elicit unanticipated phenotypes that are of particular concern to institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs). The dynamics and plasticity of epigenetic mechanisms produce effects and consequences that are manifest differentially within discreet spatial and temporal contexts, including prenatal development, stem cells, assisted reproductive technologies, production of sexual dimorphisms, senescence, and others. Many dietary and nutritional interventions have also been shown to have a significant impact on biological functions and disease susceptibilities through altered epigenetic programming. The environmental, chemical, toxic, therapeutic, and psychosocial stressors used in animal studies to elicit epigenetic changes can become extreme and should raise IACUC concerns for the well-being and proper care of all research animals involved. Epigenetics research is rapidly becoming an integral part of the search for mechanisms in every major area of biomedical and behavioral research and will foster the continued development of new animal models. From the IACUC perspective, care must be taken to acknowledge the particular needs and concerns created by superimposition of epigenetic mechanisms over diverse fields of investigation to ensure the proper care and use of animals without impeding scientific progress.

  5. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  6. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  7. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  8. Medical treatments of the future: Between animality and artifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapouthier, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Medical treatments are behavioural phenomena developed through acculturation, but dating back to our animal ancestors. Medical treatments, and indeed other cultural phenomena, have been extensively developed in certain human societies, triggering risks that could affect the future of mankind. Excessive modification of the physical animal function of the human body, which has matured harmoniously over millions of years of biological evolution, may change the very nature of the human being. Respect for the animal nature of the human being stands as a key safeguard when considering medical treatments for the future.

  9. Animal bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  10. Professional perspectives on animal hoarding.

    OpenAIRE

    Burniston, Francesca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although theoretical conceptualisations of animal hoarding have been published, few empirical studies have been conducted. The current study investigated animal hoarding from the perspectives of professionals who come into contact with people who hoard animals through their employment in various capacities, primarily in animal welfare. Design A qualitative research design was employed using inductive thematic analysis. Methods Twelve professionals who had experienc...

  11. Analysis of Animal Metaphorical Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晴川

    2016-01-01

    Animal metaphor, as a kind of metaphor, refers to a cognitive process in which some aspects of human beings are understood or experienced through the aspects of animals. The meanings of animal metaphor are based on people's experience, cultural background, custom and the ways of thinking. Animal metaphorical expression is an important part of human's language expressions and communication.

  12. Animals:Country symbols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明

    2005-01-01

    A nim als have always been used to represent cer-tain hum an characteristics.Countries also use anim alsas sym bols.From eagles to lions,m any countries usean anim al to show its national spirit and character.1.U S:T he bald eagleThe im age of an eagle is on the U SPresident’s flag,and on the one-dollarbill.The bald eagle is a large,pow erful,brow n bird with a white head and tail.The term“bald”does not m ean that thisbird lacks feathers.Instead,it com es fromthe old word piebald,that m eans,“m arked w ith ...

  13. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  14. Spectral Animation Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Yang Liu; Xiaohu Guo; Zichun Zhong; Binh Le; Zhigang Deng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral approach to compress dynamic animation consisting of a sequence of homeomor-phic manifold meshes. Our new approach directly compresses the field of deformation gradient defined on the surface mesh, by decomposing it into rigid-body motion (rotation) and non-rigid-body deformation (stretching) through polar decompo-sition. It is known that the rotation group has the algebraic topology of 3D ring, which is different from other operations like stretching. Thus we compress these two groups separately, by using Manifold Harmonics Transform to drop out their high-frequency details. Our experimental result shows that the proposed method achieves a good balance between the reconstruction quality and the compression ratio. We compare our results quantitatively with other existing approaches on animation compression, using standard measurement criteria.

  15. Advances in Animal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-11-30

    This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores. Diversity in both topic and species of study will allow researchers to better understand the complex evolutionary forces giving rise to widely shared and unique cognitive processes. Furthermore, this increased understanding will translate into more effective strategies for managing wild and captive populations of nonhuman species.

  16. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Animal Capture Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  19. Instant Silverlight 5 animation

    CERN Document Server

    Polyak, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in simple, easy to understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations. If you are a developer looking forward to create great user experience for your Silverlight applications with cool animations or create Silverlight banner ads, then this is the guide for you. It is assumed that the readers have some previous exposure to Silverlight or WPF.

  20. Animating the Carbon Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical processes reg- ulating carbon cycling is central to mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. The role of living organisms has been accounted for, but the focus has traditionally been on contributions of plants and microbes. We develop the case that fully ‘‘animating’’ the carbon cycle requires broader consideration of the functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical processes and quanti- fication of their effects on carbon storage and exchange among ter...

  1. Animal Models of Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic sy...

  2. The Animal Welfare Act, USDA, & research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, V Wensley

    2003-03-01

    In the above discussion, the concept and evolution of IACUC oversight of research facility animal care and use programs and common USDA citations concerning these programs was reviewed. The majority of USDA citations are program-related and involve both IACUC and veterinary care functions. Common IACUC-related citations concern inadequacies involving required information in protocols (such as rationales for the species and numbers used and descriptions of the procedures proposed), searches for alternatives to painful or distressful procedures, and minimization of pain and distress. Common veterinary care citations concern inadequacies involving veterinary care facilities, daily observation of the animals, and veterinary care itself (e.g., maintaining inadequate records or using expired medications). IACUC's are advised to ensure that their program records are comprehensive enough to demonstrate that their facility's animal care and use program complies with the AWA and USDA regulations. The overall ongoing success of self-regulation in the research industry is acknowledged, and APHIS's current concentration on the recognition and alleviation of distress, as well as pain, is noted. In the future, APHIS will continue in its oversight role as IACUC programs continue to evolve in their awareness and application of the advances in pain and distress recognition and management. Together, we will continue to work for the benefit of the animals used in research, whose welfare is so important to the quality of that very research.

  3. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  4. Iterated learning and the evolution of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Simon; Griffiths, Tom; Smith, Kenny

    2014-10-01

    Iterated learning describes the process whereby an individual learns their behaviour by exposure to another individual's behaviour, who themselves learnt it in the same way. It can be seen as a key mechanism of cultural evolution. We review various methods for understanding how behaviour is shaped by the iterated learning process: computational agent-based simulations; mathematical modelling; and laboratory experiments in humans and non-human animals. We show how this framework has been used to explain the origins of structure in language, and argue that cultural evolution must be considered alongside biological evolution in explanations of language origins.

  5. Morphology and behaviour : functional links in development and evolution Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are kno

  6. Of early animals, anaerobic mitochondria, and a modern sponge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentel, Marek; Röttger, Mayo; Leys, Sally; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2014-01-01

    The origin and early evolution of animals marks an important event in life's history. This event is historically associated with an important variable in Earth history - oxygen. One view has it that an increase in oceanic oxygen levels at the end of the Neoproterozoic Era (roughly 600 million years

  7. The anxious mouse: implications for preclinical research and animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is an essential emotion that is highly conserved during evolution and is present in animals and humans. Although anxiety is a biological adaptive response, anxiety disorders in humans are common and affect about 10-17% of the world population. To gain more insight in the underlying neurobiol

  8. Feeding and welfare of domestic animals: A Darwinistic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores the natural feeding behaviour, domestic feeding, behavioural problems related to feeding in captivity and welfare of domestic animals, particularly cattle, horse and chicken. The solutions for feeding problems and poor welfare are discussed. The concept of environment of evolut

  9. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  10. Community Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Having communities extracted, appropriate knowledge and methods for dynamic analysis may be applied in order to identify changes as well as to predict the future of all or some selected groups. Furthermore, knowing the most probably change of a given group some additional steps may be performed in order to change this predicted future according to specific needs. Such ability would be a powerful tool in the hands of human resource managers, personnel recruitment, marketing, telecommunication companies, etc.

  11. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  12. A new paradigma on the plant evolution: from a natural evolution to an artificial evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennici, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    After evidencing the great importance of plants for animals and humans in consequence of the photosynthesis, several considerations on plant evolution are made. One of the peculiar characteristics of the plant is the sessile property, due especially to the cell wall. This factor, principally, strengthened by the photosynthetic process, determined the particular developmental pattern of the plant, which is characterized by the continuous formation of new organs. The plant immobility, although negative for its survival, has been, in great part, overcome by the acquisition of the capacity of adaptation (plasticity) to the environmental stresses and changes, and the establishment of more adapted genotypes. This capacity to react to the external signals induced Trewavas to speak of "plant intelligence". The plant movement incapacity and the evolution of the sexual reproduction system were strongly correlated. In this context, the evolution of the flower in the Angiosperms has been particularly important to allow the male gamete to fertilize the immobile female gamete. Moreover, the formation of fruit and seed greatly improved the dispersal and conservation of the progeny in the environment. With the flower, mechanisms to favour the outcrossing among different individuals appeared, which are essential to increase the genetic variability and, then, the plant evolution itself. Although the Angiosperms seem highly evolved, the plant evolution is not surely finished, because many reported morpho-physiological processes may be still considered susceptible of further improvement. In the last years the relationships among humans, plants and environment are becoming closer and closer. This is due to the use of the DNA recombinant techniques with the aim to modify artificially plant characters. Therefore, the risk of a plant evolution strongly directed towards practical or commercial objectives, or "an artificial evolution", may be hypothesized.

  13. On the Chinese-English Translation of Animal Idioms-Analysis of the Figurative Images of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周扬眉

    2013-01-01

    Idiom, the cream of the language, is a fixed group of words or a single word, or even a sentence with a special mean⁃ing that cannot be guessed from the literal meaning of its components. In the long history, animals and human beings coexist on the earth, interact on each other and depend on each other. While animals are closely linked to the life of human beings in the whole history, gradually, people are inclined to associate some animals with certain qualities or characteristics with human beings also with the same features, then, a number of animal idioms get into human’s language. In this thesis, the author will accomplish the purpose by finding out the duality of human evolution, more animal idioms and analyze the reasons for the different figura⁃tive images such as living environment, religions and customs.

  14. Using Animated Textures to Visualize Electromagnetic Fields and Energy Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Belcher, John

    2008-01-01

    Animated textures can be used to visualize the spatial structure and temporal evolution of vector fields at high spatial resolution. The animation requires two time-dependent vector fields. The first of these vector fields determines the spatial structure to be displayed. The second is a velocity field that determines the time evolution of the field lines of the first vector field. We illustrate this method with an example in magneto-quasi-statics, where the second velocity field is taken to be the ExB drift velocity of electric monopoles. This technique for displaying time-dependent electromagnetic fields has three pedagogical advantages: (1) the continuous nature of the representation underscores the action-by-contact nature of forces transmitted by fields; (2) the animated texture motion shows the direction of electromagnetic energy flow; and (3) the time-evolving field configuration enables insights into Maxwell stresses.

  15. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  16. Animation-based Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This thesis is based on the results of a three-year long PhD-study at the Department of Communication and Psychology at Aalborg University. The thesis consist of five original papers, a book manuscript, as well as a linking text with the thesis’ research questions, research design, and summary...... experiments has been carried out, applying animation-based sketching in various contexts and at varying points in the design process. In the studies, I evaluate the viability of the approach, the practical integration into the design process, and map how consensus between stakeholders in design can...

  17. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies...... the concept of transduction with a focus on film storyboards: how students transform ideas when working with different modes (audio, visual) of representation. Data includes discourse analysis of semiotic processes and texts, referring to Social Semiotics and the methodology of Mediated Discourse Analysis...

  18. Telltale Animation (Sol 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 1:10 PM local Mars time on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Telltale Animation (Sol 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 4:37 PM local Mars time on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  1. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals.

  2. Deciphering MERS-CoV Evolution in Dromedary Camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2016-02-01

    The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) poses a potential threat to global public health. Many aspects of the evolution and transmission of MERS-CoV in its animal reservoir remain unclear. A recent study provides new insights into the evolution and transmission of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels.

  3. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  4. Group augmentation and the evolution of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Sjouke A.; Santema, Peter; Taborsky, Michael; Komdeur, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The group augmentation (GA) hypothesis states that if helpers in cooperatively breeding animals raise the reproductive success of the group, the benefits of living in a resulting larger group - improved survival or future reproductive success favour the evolution of seemingly altruistic helping beha

  5. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  6. The evolution of general intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith M; Schubiger, Michèle N; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-07-28

    The presence of general intelligence poses a major evolutionary puzzle, which has led to increased interest in its presence in nonhuman animals. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate this puzzle, and to explore the implications for current theories about the evolution of cognition. We first review domain-general and domain-specific accounts of human cognition in order to situate attempts to identify general intelligence in nonhuman animals. Recent studies are consistent with the presence of general intelligence in mammals (rodents and primates). However, the interpretation of a psychometric g-factor as general intelligence needs to be validated, in particular in primates, and we propose a range of such tests. We then evaluate the implications of general intelligence in nonhuman animals for current theories about its evolution and find support for the cultural intelligence approach, which stresses the critical importance of social inputs during the ontogenetic construction of survival-relevant skills. The presence of general intelligence in nonhumans implies that modular abilities can arise in two ways, primarily through automatic development with fixed content and secondarily through learning and automatization with more variable content. The currently best-supported model, for humans and nonhuman vertebrates alike, thus construes the mind as a mix of skills based on primary and secondary modules. The relative importance of these two components is expected to vary widely among species, and we formulate tests to quantify their strength.

  7. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, Dulce Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Requirements evolution is a generally known problem in software development. Requirements are known to change all throughout a system's lifecycle. Nevertheless, requirements evolution is a poorly understood phenomenon. Most studies on requirements evolution focus on changes to written specifications

  8. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    OpenAIRE

    TEMPLETON, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important ...

  9. Genetic polymorphism as a background of animal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2009-04-01

    Various studies have shown the associations between differences in human behavioral traits and genetic polymorphism of neurotransmitter-related proteins such as receptors, transporters and monoamine oxidase. To clarify the genetic background of animal behavior, corresponding regions in animals have been analyzed. The study has been especially focused on primates, as the evolutionally closest animal to humans, and on dogs, as the socially closest animal to humans. In primates, polymorphisms were discovered between or within species, and the functional effects on neural transmission were found to be different by alleles. Even in apes, the closest species to humans, function was different from that in humans. In dogs, allele distributions of several genes were different among breeds showing different behavioral traits, and genes associated with individual differences in aggressiveness and aptitude of working dogs were surveyed. The survey of behavior-related genes has also been carried out in other mammals such as horses and cetaceans. Genes controlling various behaviors in birds have also been reported. The marker genes for behavior will provide useful information for human evolution, welfare of zoo animals and effective selection of working dogs and industry animals.

  10. Animal Surgery and Resources Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...

  11. Animal Control on Wapanocca NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Animal Control Management Plan for Wapanocca NWR and newspaper articles, and other correspondence regarding managing nuisance animals at the Refuge.

  12. The influence of gravity on structure and function of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Gravity is the only environmental parameter that has remained constant during the period of evolution of living matter on earth. Thus, it must have been a major force in shaping living things. The influence of gravitational loading on evolution of the vertebrate skeleton is well recognized, and scale effects have been studied. This paper, however, considers in addition four pivotal events in early evolution that would seem to have been significant for the later success and diversifcation of animal life. These are evolution of the cytoskeleton, cell motility (flagellae and cilia), gravity detecting devices (accelerometers), and biomineralization. All are functionally calcium dependent in eukaryotes and all occurred or were foreshadowed in prokaryotes. A major question is why calcium was selected as an ion of great importance to the structure and function of living matter; another is whether gravity played a role in its selection.

  13. Animating facial images with drawings

    OpenAIRE

    Tunali, Gamze Dilek

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-56. The work presented here describes the power of 2D animation with texture mai^ping controlled by line drawings. Animation is specifically intended for facial animation and not restricted by the human face. We initially have a sequence of facial images which are taken from a video sequence of the same face and an image of another face to be animated...

  14. Directed animals in the gas

    OpenAIRE

    Borgne, Yvan Le; Marckert, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the enumeration of directed animals using gas models. We show that there exists a natural construction of random directed animals on any directed graph together with a particle system that explains at the level of objects the formal link known between the density of the gas model and the generating function of directed animals counted according to the area. This provides some new methods to compute the generating function of directed animals counted according to area...

  15. Professor: The Animal Planet Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Gajawada

    2014-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to everyone who is interested in making this planet a better place to live. In the past, researchers have explored behavior of several animals separately. But there is scope to explore in the direction where various artificial animals together solve the optimization problem. In this paper, Satish Gajawada proposed The AnimalPlanet Optimization. The concept of this paper is to imitate all the animals on this planet. The idea is to solve the optimization problem where al...

  16. AGATE animation - business theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  17. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...... both apathetic and sympathetic views, the ethical reflections are more nuanced as a result of actually seeing the user experience simulated through different user dispositions. Exploring the three ethical stances by visualising real use cases with the technologies simulated as already being implemented...

  18. Animal models of narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E; McKenna, James T; McCarley, Robert W

    2009-08-01

    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems in canine narcolepsy. In 1999, two independent studies revealed that orexin neurotransmission deficiency was pivotal to the development of narcolepsy with cataplexy. This scientific leap fueled the generation of several genetically engineered mouse and rat models of narcolepsy. To facilitate further research, it is imperative that researchers reach a consensus concerning the evaluation of narcoleptic behavioral and EEG phenomenology in these models.

  19. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China.

  20. Nudging Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N. Farrell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature, "Nudging Evolution? Critical Exploration of the Potential and Limitations of the Concept of Institutional Fit for the Study and Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems," aims to contribute toward the development of social theory and social research methods for the study of social-ecological system dynamics. Our objective is to help strengthen the academic discourse concerning if, and if so, how, to what extent, and in what concrete ways the concept of institutional "fit" might play a role in helping to develop better understanding of the social components of interlinkages between the socioeconomic-cultural and ecological dynamics of social-ecological systems. Two clearly discernible patterns provide a map of this Special Feature: (1 One pattern is the authors' positions regarding the place and role of normativity within their studies and assessment of institutional fit. Some place this at the center of their studies, exploring phenomena endogenous to the process of defining what constitutes institutional fit, whereas others take the formation of norms as a phenomenon exogenous to their study. (2 Another pattern is the type of studies presented: critiques and elaborations of the theory, methods for judging qualities of fit, and/or applied case studies using the concept. As a body of work, these contributions highlight that self-understanding of social-ecological place, whether explicit or implicit, constitutes an important part of the study object, i.e., the role of institutions in social-ecological systems, and that this is, at the same time, a crucial point of reference for the scholar wishing to evaluate what constitutes institutional fit and how it might be brought into being.

  1. The Animal Without A Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万钧

    2002-01-01

    Have you ever seen an animal with out a head?there is such an animal! it has no tail or legs ,its body is full of holes it eats and breathes but never moves,it lives under water,the water brings the animal air.

  2. The Tree of Animal Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  3. Animals in life and works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振娟

    2014-01-01

    Many learners have made researches on animal words. Because animals have been keeping a good relationship with human beings since the human were born. So animals are important in daily life, they are also used in many works to express the Author’s thoughts.

  4. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  5. Animals in Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannring, Reingard

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the increase in public and scholarly attention to human-animal relations has inspired an animal turn in a number of academic disciplines including environmental education research. This paper reviews the literature on animals in environmental education with respect to its theoretical foundations in critical pedagogy,…

  6. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. (a) Designation. A designated scrapie...

  7. A Post-Synaptic Scaffold at the Origin of the Animal Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Sakarya; Armstrong, Kathryn A.; Maja Adamska; Marcin Adamski; I-Fan Wang; Bruce Tidor; Degnan, Bernard M; Todd H Oakley; Kenneth S Kosik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evolution of complex sub-cellular structures such as the synapse requires the assembly of multiple proteins, each conferring added functionality to the integrated structure. Tracking the early evolution of synapses has not been possible without genomic information from the earliest branching animals. As the closest extant relatives to the Eumetazoa, Porifera (sponges) represent a pivotal group for understanding the evolution of nervous systems, because sponges lack neurons wit...

  8. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  9. Animal models of trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Daniel; Cohen, Mitchell J; Brohi, Karim

    2012-05-01

    Resurgent study of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) has delivered considerable improvements in survival after injury. Robust, valid and clinically relevant experimental models of TIC are essential to support the evolution of our knowledge and management of this condition. The aims of this study were to identify and analyze contemporary animal models of TIC with regard to their ability to accurately characterize known mechanisms of coagulopathy and/or to test the efficacy of therapeutic agents. A literature review was performed. Structured search of the indexed online database MEDLINE/PubMed in July 2010 identified 43 relevant articles containing 23 distinct animal models of TIC. The main aim of 26 studies was to test a therapeutic and the other 17 were conducted to investigate pathophysiology. A preponderance of porcine models was identified. Three new models demonstrating an endogenous acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) have offered new insights into the pathophysiology of TIC. Independent or combined effects of induced hypothermia and metabolic acidosis have been extensively evaluated. Recently, a pig model of TIC has been developed that features all major etiologies of TIC, although not in correct chronological order. This review identifies a general lack of experimental research to keep pace with clinical developments. Tissue injury and hemorrhagic shock are fundamental initiating events that prime the hemostatic system for subsequent iatrogenic insults. New animal models utilizing a variety of species that accurately simulate the natural clinical trajectory of trauma are urgently needed.

  10. Animal experimentation in forensic sciences: How far have we come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, C; Maderna, E; Rendinelli, A; Gibelli, D

    2015-09-01

    In the third millennium where ethical, ethological and cultural evolution seem to be leading more and more towards an inter-species society, the issue of animal experimentation is a moral dilemma. Speaking from a self-interested human perspective, avoiding all animal testing where human disease and therapy are concerned may be very difficult or even impossible; such testing may not be so easily justifiable when suffering-or killing-of non human animals is inflicted for forensic research. In order to verify how forensic scientists are evolving in this ethical issue, we undertook a systematic review of the current literature. We investigated the frequency of animal experimentation in forensic studies in the past 15 years and trends in publication in the main forensic science journals. Types of species, lesions inflicted, manner of sedation or anesthesia and euthanasia were examined in a total of 404 articles reviewed, among which 279 (69.1%) concerned studies involving animals sacrificed exclusively for the sake of the experiment. Killing still frequently includes painful methods such as blunt trauma, electrocution, mechanical asphyxia, hypothermia, and even exsanguination; of all these animals, apparently only 60.8% were anesthetized. The most recent call for a severe reduction if not a total halt to the use of animals in forensic sciences was made by Bernard Knight in 1992. In fact the principle of reduction and replacement, frequently respected in clinical research, must be considered the basis for forensic science research needing animals.

  11. Why not look at animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Pick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revisiting John Berger’s seminal essay ‘Why Look at Animals?’ (1980, this essay inverts Berger’s title in order to explore instances where the visibility of animals is at stake and where seeing is linked to forms of surveillance and control. In the context of advanced optical and tracking technologies that render animals permanently visible, the possibility of not-seeing emerges as a progressive modality of relation to animals that takes seriously the notion of animal privacy and the exposed animal’s resistance to the human gaze.

  12. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  13. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  14. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  15. COMADRE - A global data base of animal demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R.; Archer, C. Ruth

    2016-01-01

    models (MPMs) are among the most widely used demographic tools by animal ecologists. MPMs project population dynamics based on the reproduction, survival and development of individuals in a population over their life cycle. The outputs from MPMs have direct biological interpretations, facilitating......The open-data scientific philosophy is being widely adopted and proving to promote considerable progress in ecology and evolution. Open-data global data bases now exist on animal migration, species distribution, conservation status, etc. However, a gap exists for data on population dynamics...... spanning the rich diversity of the animal kingdom world-wide. This information is fundamental to our understanding of the conditions that have shaped variation in animal life histories and their relationships with the environment, as well as the determinants of invasion and extinction. Matrix population...

  16. [Animals (Animalia) in the system of organisms. 1. Typological systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatalkin, A I

    2005-01-01

    Since times of Aristotle animals were considered as a group, opposing to plants. The last were distinguished by two characters. Plants as distinct from animals live the attached way of a life and all nutrients receive from a substratum on which live and from the surrounding air. Animals live an active way of life and exist due to digestion. Fungi at such definition belong to plants. Only in second half of XX centuries due to works of Whittaker and of Tachtadjan fungi have received the separate status equally with plants and animals. In this new system of a plant embraced either oxygenic phototrophs, or photosynthetic eukaryotes. The traditional characters distinguishing animals from plants and fungi are in detail analysed. Many of them appeared formal, not reflecting the structure of relationship. Comparing heterotrophs some authors saw in absorptive nutrition the main difference of fungi from animals. However on mechanisms of receipt of substances in a cell fungi, animals and plants do not differ. Phagocytosis and pinocytosis (clathrin-mediated endocytosis), considered as the most characteristic feature of animals, are revealed both in fungi, and in plants. On photosynthetic activity plants form heterogeneous group, differing on primary and secondary plastids. The last besides have the various origin connected to symbiogenesis of the host cell with red or green algae. Heterotrophy cannot be considered as a uniting attribute of fungi and animals. It is essentially different and focused on diverse food sources. Evolution of animals is connected to perfection of structure of a plasmatic membrane and saturation by its molecules allowing a cell, and through it all organism to be guided in an environment and adequally to be up to external irritants. At a cellular level animals use the various mechanisms of cellular activity connected to moving of cells, their combination in aggregates and complexes or, on the contrary, separation in new cellular configurations. The

  17. Evolution prediction from tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Shabani, Alireza; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2017-03-01

    Quantum process tomography provides a means of measuring the evolution operator for a system at a fixed measurement time t. The problem of using that tomographic snapshot to predict the evolution operator at other times is generally ill-posed since there are, in general, infinitely many distinct and compatible solutions. We describe the prediction, in some "maximal ignorance" sense, of the evolution of a quantum system based on knowledge only of the evolution operator for finitely many times 0evolution at times away from the measurement times. Even if the original evolution is unitary, the predicted evolution is described by a non-unitary, completely positive map.

  18. Animal models of candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J; Cheng, Shaoji; Nguyen, Minh Hong

    2009-01-01

    Animal models are powerful tools to study the pathogenesis of diverse types of candidiasis. Murine models are particularly attractive because of cost, ease of handling, technical feasibility, and experience with their use. In this chapter, we describe methods for two of the most popular murine models of disease caused by Candida albicans. In an intravenously disseminated candidiasis (DC) model, immunocompetent mice are infected by lateral tail vein injections of a C. albicans suspension. Endpoints include mortality, tissue burdens of infection (most importantly in the kidneys, although spleens and livers are sometimes also assessed), and histopathology of infected organs. In a model of oral/esophageal candidiasis, mice are immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate and inoculated in the oral cavities using swabs saturated with a C. albicans suspension. Since mice do not die from oral candidiasis in this model, endpoints are tissue burden of infection and histopathology. The DC and oral/esophageal models are most commonly used for studies of C. albicans virulence, in which the disease-causing ability of a mutant strain is compared with an isogenic parent strain. Nevertheless, the basic techniques we describe are also applicable to models adapted to investigate other aspects of pathogenesis, such as spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, specific aspects of host immune response and assessment of antifungal agents, immunomodulatory strategies, and vaccines.

  19. [Dangerous marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antensteiner, G

    1999-01-01

    Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. The most frequent accidents with sea animals during water sports are not by unprovoked shark attacks, which cause six deaths world-wide per year on the average, but turn out with usually well camouflaged sea inhabitants, that do not attack humans, rather by their inadvertence coincidentally get in contact with it. The various defense instruments of the often small, inconspicuous organisms reach from teeth over poison stings, pricks, spines, scalpelles, nettle injections and chemical weapons up to poison arrows. Due to that variety of the maritime life, the most important representatives of its type are explained including severity level of the caused injury or contamination. Both, diagnostic position and therapy possibility are described as follows: 1. Porifera (sponge), 2. Hydrozoa (white weed, yellow flower head), Actinaria (sea anemones), 3. Conidae (cone shells), Tridocna (giant clam), octopoda (octopus), 4. Acanthaster planci (crown of thorns), Echinodea (sea urchins), Holothurioidea (sea cucumber), 5. Selachoidei (shark), Batoidei (Ray), Muraenidae (moray), Plotosidae (barbel eels), Synanciidae (stonefish), Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish), Pterois (lion fish), Sphyraena Spec. (barracuda), Balistidae (triggerfish), Ostracionidae (puffer).

  20. Sedna Orbit Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  1. Epileptogenesis and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Edward Ned E

    2013-05-01

    Epileptogenesis is the process by which a normal brain develops into an epileptic brain. There are 3 distinct phases of epileptogenesis-the latent period before seizures occur, the occurrence of recurrent seizures, and in about 30% of patients, the development of refractory epilepsy. Understanding the basic epileptic circuit abnormalities associated with recurrent seizures via aberrations in glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and ligand- and voltage-gated ion channel activity can help the small-animal practitioner understand the mechanism of action of the antiepileptic drugs currently used for dogs and cats for new-onset and refractory epilepsy. Understanding the latest research results and theories about the pathophysiology of the latent period of epileptogenesis, where recurrent seizures have not yet developed, would help the practitioner understand possible target areas for future treatments to treat epilepsy by preventing it rather than just symptomatically preventing recurrent seizures. The current areas of focus of research on the latent period include neurodegeneration, neurogenesis, axonal sprouting, glial cell activation, invasion of inflammatory cells, angiogenesis, and subclinical alteration of ligand- and receptor-gated ion channels.

  2. CERN OVERVIEW animation

    CERN Multimedia

    Arzur Catel Torres

    2015-01-01

    This animation shows how the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) works. The film begins with an aerial view of CERN near Geneva, with outlines of the accelerator complex, including the underground Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 27-km in circumference. The positions of the four largest LHC experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are revealed before we see protons travelling around the LHC ring. The proton source is a simple bottle of hydrogen gas. An electric field is used to strip hydrogen atoms of their electrons to yield protons. Linac 2, the first accelerator in the chain, accelerates the protons to the energy of 50 MeV. The beam is then injected into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), which accelerates the protons to 1.4 GeV, followed by the Proton Synchrotron (PS), which pushes the beam to 25 GeV. Protons are then sent to the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) where they are accelerated to 450 GeV. The protons are finally transferred to the two beam pipes of the LHC. The beam in one pipe circulates clockwise while ...

  3. Ancient origin of animal U-box ubiquitin ligases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Ignacio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of emergence and diversification of the families of ubiquitin ligases provide insights about the evolution of the eukaryotic ubiquitination system. U-box ubiquitin ligases (UULs are proteins characterized by containing a peculiar protein domain known as U box. In this study, the origin of the animal UUL genes is described. Results Phylogenetic and structural data indicate that six of the seven main UUL-encoding genes found in humans (UBE4A, UBE4B, UIP5, PRP19, CHIP and CYC4 were already present in the ancestor of all current metazoans and the seventh (WDSUB1 is found in placozoans, cnidarians and bilaterians. The fact that only 4 - 5 genes orthologous to the human ones are present in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis suggests that several animal-specific cooptions of the U box to generate new genes occurred. Significantly, Monosiga contains five additional UUL genes that are not present in animals. One of them is also present in distantly-related protozoans. Along animal evolution, losses of UUL-encoding genes are rare, except in nematodes, which lack three of them. These general patterns are highly congruent with those found for other two families (RBR, HECT of ubiquitin ligases. Conclusions Finding that the patterns of emergence, diversification and loss of three unrelated families of ubiquitin ligases (RBR, HECT and U-box are parallel indicates that there are underlying, linage-specific evolutionary forces shaping the complexity of the animal ubiquitin system.

  4. 'Snow Queen' Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander. Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol. Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened. The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe. Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Jet propulsion in animals: theoretical innovation and biological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Jet propulsion is arguably the oldest and simplest form of animal locomotion, and simple hydrodynamic theory highlights the many possible ways in which animals might maximize speed and minimize metabolic cost while using jet propulsion to travel from one point to another. However, environmental and physiological reality constrains the potential for hydrodynamic innovation. We explore two heuristic examples: Antarctic scallops, in which ecological release from predation apparently constrains the evolution of improved locomotory capacity, and squids, in which the fundamental limitations of muscular contraction constrain the hydrodynamic efficiency of locomotion for all but a small range of sizes. Even simple forms of locomotion can be complex in a biological context.

  6. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  7. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  8. Genomic Tools and Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zanella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the producer. In this scenario, not much attention was given to health traits. As a consequence of that, selection was made for animals with higher production and a shortened productive life. In addition to that, the intense production system used in livestock has forced animals to be exposed to higher pathogen loads, therefore predisposing them to infections. Infectious diseases are known to be caused by micro-organisms that are able to infect and colonize the host, affecting their physiological functions and causing problems in their production and on animal welfare. Even with the best management practices, diseases are still the most important cause of economic losses in the animal industry. In this review article we have addressed the new tools that could be used to select animals to better cope with diseases and pathogens.

  9. Monitoring Animal Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta

    In recent years, animal well-being in industrial slaughterhouses has become a significant concern for consumers, farmers, and meat producers. Different groups have different interpretations of animal well-being. For the majority of consumers, animal well-being is highly influenced by their values...... and experiences. Meat producers are interested in the stress animals endure because it affects meat quality. Pigs that arrive at slaughterhouses are more sensitive than usual for several reasons. In some cases, pigs are transported for long distances. Not all animals are used to transportation. Upon their arrival......, it is common to mix pigs from different farmers in one area. Such mixing can cause fights between pigs, which can lead to additional stress or the animals being harmed. The unfamiliar environment also increases the animals’ stress levels. In some industrial slaughterhouses, up to 62,000 pigs per week...

  10. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  11. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.; Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  12. Design and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W T

    1976-07-24

    Farm animal welfare and the design of farm buildings and equipment are interrelated. The animals' requirements and preferences should first be estimated and ways in which this can be done are discussed, as are methods of assessment of their environment. Some examples of the influence which housing and equipment design can have are given. Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the assessment of farm animal welfare and the postulation made that the veterinarian is well fitted to carry out such assessments.

  13. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  14. New thinking: the evolution of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-08-05

    Humans are animals that specialize in thinking and knowing, and our extraordinary cognitive abilities have transformed every aspect of our lives. In contrast to our chimpanzee cousins and Stone Age ancestors, we are complex political, economic, scientific and artistic creatures, living in a vast range of habitats, many of which are our own creation. Research on the evolution of human cognition asks what types of thinking make us such peculiar animals, and how they have been generated by evolutionary processes. New research in this field looks deeper into the evolutionary history of human cognition, and adopts a more multi-disciplinary approach than earlier 'Evolutionary Psychology'. It is informed by comparisons between humans and a range of primate and non-primate species, and integrates findings from anthropology, archaeology, economics, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, philosophy and psychology. Using these methods, recent research reveals profound commonalities, as well striking differences, between human and non-human minds, and suggests that the evolution of human cognition has been much more gradual and incremental than previously assumed. It accords crucial roles to cultural evolution, techno-social co-evolution and gene-culture co-evolution. These have produced domain-general developmental processes with extraordinary power-power that makes human cognition, and human lives, unique.

  15. Emotional Support Animals, Service Animals, and Pets on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bergen, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, universities have been accommodating physically disabled students who require guide dogs and other types of service animals. Within the past several years, however, mentally disabled students have increasingly petitioned colleges with no-pet policies to permit them to bring their animals on campus because they need a companion or…

  16. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal welfare…

  17. Wild Origins: The Evolving Nature of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ifigenia

    For billions of years, evolution has been the driving force behind the incredible range of biodiversity on our planet. Wild Origins is a concept plan for an exhibition at the National Zoo that uses case studies of animal behavior to explain the theory of evolution. Behaviors evolve, just as physical forms do. Understanding natural selection can help us interpret animal behavior and vice-versa. A living collection, digital media, interactives, fossils, and photographs will relay stories of social behavior, sex, navigation and migration, foraging, domestication, and relationships between different species. The informal learning opportunities visitors are offered at the zoo will create a connection with the exhibition's teaching points. Visitors will leave with an understanding and sense of wonder at the evolutionary view of life.

  18. [Animal experiments: legal, scientific and ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvenaghel, A

    2000-01-01

    Among the legal aspects the following topics are treated: the definitions of an experimental animal, an animal experiment and alternative methods with special reference to the 3 R's (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments); the qualifications, education and training of researchers and animal technicians; the licence for animal experimentation; the control on animal welfare; the origin and identification of experimental animals; statistical data on the number of experimental animals; ethics committees and their structure and functions in The Netherlands and Flanders. Extrapolation, species specificity and variability are the most important scientific limitations of animal experimentation. After a short historical survey on the man-animal relation, the following ethical aspects are discussed: the instrumental versus intrinsic value of an experimental animal; the hybrid status of the animal; the objectives of animal rights movements; the balance between the human benefit of an animal experiment and the discomfort for the animal; the problem of animal rights and animal suffering and pain.

  19. A basin redox transect at the dawn of animal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Erik A.; Halverson, Galen P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Johnston, David T.

    2013-06-01

    Multiple eukaryotic clades make their first appearance in the fossil record between ~810 and 715 Ma. Molecular clock studies suggest that the origin of animal multicellularity may have been part of this broader eukaryotic radiation. Animals require oxygen to fuel their metabolism, and low oxygen levels have been hypothesized to account for the temporal lag between metazoan origins and the Cambrian radiation of large, ecologically diverse animals. Here, paleoredox conditions were investigated in the Fifteenmile Group, Ogilvie Mountains, Yukon, Canada, which hosts an 811 Ma ash horizon and spans the temporal window that captures the inferred origin and early evolution of animals. Iron-based redox proxies, redox-sensitive trace elements, organic carbon percentages and pyrite sulfur isotopes were analyzed in seven stratigraphic sections along two parallel basin transects. These data suggest that for this basin, oxygenated shelf waters overlay generally anoxic deeper waters. The anoxic water column was dominantly ferruginous, but brief periods of euxinia likely occurred. These oscillations coincide with changes in total organic carbon, suggesting euxinia was primarily driven by increased organic carbon loading. Overall, these data are consistent with proposed quantitative constraints on Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen being greater than 1% of modern levels, but less than present levels. Comparing these oxygen levels against the likely oxygen requirements of the earliest animals, both theoretical considerations and the ecology of modern oxygen-deficient settings suggest that the inferred oxygen levels in the mixed layer would not have been prohibitive to the presence of sponges, eumetazoans or bilaterians. Thus the evolution of the earliest animals was probably not limited by the low absolute oxygen levels that may have characterized Neoproterozoic oceans, although these inferred levels would constrain animals to very small sizes and low metabolic rates.

  20. My Favorite Animal-Elephant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童佳欣; 姜彩娟

    2002-01-01

    There are many kinds of animals in the world.and i like the elephants best of all because they are the biggest animals on land they have the biggest ears and the biggest teeth,they also have a longnose,

  1. Picassos of the Animal World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gaye Leigh

    2006-01-01

    This article presents how many animals, like human beings, are also capable of painting, sketching, and displaying remarkable abilities. An example of these kind of animals are the "artists" Koko and Michael, gorillas who have been taught the Gorilla Sign Language or GSL as part of an ongoing project run by the Gorilla Foundation. This article…

  2. What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    1992-01-01

    School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)

  3. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.

    1999-01-01

    Constraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion equations for f

  4. Animals in Atomic Research (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciuti, Edward R. [Bronx Zoo

    1969-01-01

    This booklet explains what use animals are to science and why they are important to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses. It contains examples of the roles animals of many kinds play in the development of nuclear science for the well-being of mankind.

  5. NIH Standard. Animal Care Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Office of Administrative Management.

    The National Institutes of Health standardized animal care equipment is presented in this catalog. Each piece of equipment is illustrated and described in terms of overall dimensions, construction, and general usage. A price list is included to estimate costs in budgeting, planning, and requisitioning animal care equipment. The standards and…

  6. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  7. A laboratory animal science pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-11-01

    Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, DVM, PhD, is Head of Laboratory Animal Facilities and Designated Veterinarian, Center of Clinical, Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece. Dr. Kostomitsopoulos discusses his successes in implementing laboratory animal science legislation and fostering collaboration among scientists in Greece.

  8. Companion animals symposium: humanized animal models of the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gootenberg, D B; Turnbaugh, P J

    2011-05-01

    Humans and other mammals are colonized by trillions of microorganisms, most of which reside in the gastrointestinal tract, that provide key metabolic capabilities, such as the biosynthesis of vitamins and AA, the degradation of dietary plant polysaccharides, and the metabolism of orally administered therapeutics. Although much progress has been made by studying the human microbiome directly, comparing the human microbiome with that of other animals, and constructing in vitro models of the human gut, there remains a need to develop in vivo models where host, microbial, and environmental parameters can be manipulated. Here, we discuss some of the initial results from a promising method that enables the direct manipulation of microbial community structure, environmental exposures, host genotype, and other factors: the colonization of germ-free animals with complex microbial communities, including those from humans or other animal donors. Analyses of these resulting "humanized" gut microbiomes have begun to reveal 1) that key microbial activities can be transferred from the donor to the recipient animal (e.g., microbial reduction of cholesterol and production of equol), 2) that dietary shifts can affect the composition, gene abundance, and gene expression of the gut microbiome, 3) the succession of the microbial community in infants and ex-germ-free adult animals, and 4) the biogeography of these microbes across the length of gastrointestinal tract. Continued studies of humanized and other intentionally colonized animal models stand to provide new insight into not only the human microbiome, but also the microbiomes of our animal companions.

  9. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  10. Animals in biomedical space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  11. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangyuan, Pan; Xiaoyun, He; Xiangyu, Wang; Xiaofei, Guo; Xiaohan, Cao; Wenping, Hu; Ran, Di; Qiuyue, Liu; Mingxing, Chu

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  12. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications.

  13. Mapping the structure of animal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Choi, Daniel; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Most animals possess the ability to actuate a vast diversity of movements, ostensibly constrained only by morphology and physics. In practice, however, a frequent assumption in behavioral science is that most of an animal's activities can be described in terms of a small set of stereotyped motifs. Here we introduce a method for mapping the behavioral space of organisms, relying only upon the underlying structure of postural movement data to organize and classify behaviors. Applying our method to movies of size closely-related species of freely-behaving fruit flies, we find a wide variety of non-stereotyped and stereo-typed behaviors, spanning a wide range of time scales. We observe subtle behavioral differences between these species, identifying the some of the effects of phylogenic history on behavior. Moreover, we find that the transitions between the observed behaviors display a hierarchical syntax, with similar behaviors likely to transition between each other, but with a long time scale of memory. These results suggest potential mechanisms for the evolution of behavior and for the neural control of movements.

  14. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  15. Farm Animal Welfare and Handling in the Tropics: The Ethiopia Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimrew Asmare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of farm animal welfare has become increasingly of essence in many countries these days. Farm animal welfare concerns are expressed about the conditions in which farm animals are kept and management practices, particularly in systems where animals are kept in confinement for most of their lives, feed methods, health care, and expression of normal behaviors. The use of an ethical basis for animal welfare standards requires some generally accepted principles on how animals should be treated and used by humans. Animals have enormous capacity to feel a huge range of emotions, to learn from their experiences, to adapt to challenges, and to suffer when their needs are either ignored or disrespected. It is now time, in the evolution of the relationship between humans and animals, to move forward with this knowledge and take real action to improve the lives of farm animals. The use of behavioral principles should improve efficiency of livestock handling and reduce stress on animals. Changing public opinion about the importance of good animal welfare and applying legislative actions will be important in animal production systems especially in developing countries where the poor animal welfare is immense and production management is below substandards.

  16. Evolution of colour vision in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2009-10-12

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision.

  17. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES... and Budget under control number 0579-0013)...

  18. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction...

  19. Refining animal experiments: the first Brazilian regulation on animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de A e Tréz, Thales

    2010-06-01

    The very first law on animal experimentation has been approved recently in Brazil, and now is part of a set of the legal instruments that profile the Brazilian government's attitude toward the use of animals in experiments. Law 11794/08 establishes a new legal instrument that will guide new methods of conduct for ethics committees, researchers and representatives of animal protection societies. This comment aims to analyse critically the implications that this law brings to Brazilian reality. The link between it and the Russell and Burch's Three Rs concept is defined, and certain problems are identified. The conclusion is that the body of the law emphasises the refinement of animal experiments, but gives little importance to the principles of reduction and replacement.

  20. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  1. Storytelling through animation: Oxford Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, D. M.; Cook, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oxford Sparks is a portal that launched in 2012, with the aim of bringing together resources that have been created across the University of Oxford and elsewhere for the purpose of wider engagement with science. To bring attention to this site, Oxford Sparks developed a set of high-quality short animations, each designed to tell a story relating to a current area of science. These animations have been launched on YouTube, and will shortly be available on iTunesU, and have covered broad areas of science from subduction zones (';Underwater Volcano Disaster'), through the early history of the solar system (';Rogue Planet') to the workings of the Large Hadron Collider (';A quick look around the LHC'). The animations have each been developed in close collaboration with researchers, created by a team with experience of education, engagement and outreach. The two minute scripts are intended to be both widely accessible and viewable as ';stand alone' stories. To this end, the scripts are humorous; while the animations are delightfully quirky, and created by professional animator with a degree-level science background. The animations are also intended to be used as ';lesson starters' in school, and educational activities graded for different age groups are being developed in parallel with the animations. They have been used, successfully, on pre-university summer schools, and in university classes. We are gathering both quantitative (analytics) and qualitative (school teacher and student focus group) feedback to monitor the success of the project, and to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In the first year since launch, Oxford Sparks animations were viewed over 80,000 times on YouTube, in part due to the surge of interest in the Large Hadron Collider animation after the discovery of the Higgs Boson.

  2. THE CELULAR JUNCTIONS AND THE EMERGENCE OF ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquiza-Bardone, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multicellularity and epithelia in relation to the appearance of cellular junctions, in order to illustrate the first steps of animal evolution, is discussed. We analyzed the structure and roles of adherens and occludins, considered to be the oldest. Also treated are some aspects of the main proteins that constitute them, the cadherins and claudins, as well as the related structures observed in sponges and choanoflagellates, the most ancient animals and the ancestors of these, respectively. It was concluded that the animal ancestor probably possessed some kind of adherens and possibly occludins, appearing as the first of major importance. These junctions increased in complexity through until the complexity observed in modern times.

  3. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  4. The question of animal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, B G

    1992-06-01

    In this paper I consider whether traditional behaviors of animals, like traditions of humans, are transmitted by imitation learning. Review of the literature on problem solving by captive primates, and detailed consideration of two widely cited instances of purported learning by imitation and of culture in free-living primates (sweet-potato washing by Japanese macaques and termite fishing by chimpanzees), suggests that nonhuman primates do not learn to solve problems by imitation. It may, therefore, be misleading to treat animal traditions and human culture as homologous (rather than analogous) and to refer to animal traditions as cultural.

  5. Sanidad animal, 2010-11

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Martín, Fernando; Morchón García, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    I. Materiales de clase: 1. Conceptos generales; 2. Epidemiología; 3. Diagnóstico tratamiento y control; 4. Rumiantes; 5. Cerdo; 6. Artrópodos; 7. Practicas de Sanidad Animal. II. Evaluación de la signatura. III. Bibliografía El objetivo general de esta asignatura es adquirir conocimientos generales sobre sanidad animal, principalmente relacionados con el ámbito de la parasitología animal como aspectos relacionados con la morfología de los parásitos, epidemiologí a, diagnóstico, tratamiento...

  6. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  7. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  8. [Atopic dermatitis and domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M

    2000-09-01

    Several arguments are raised attributing to aeroallergens an important role in atopic dermatitis. The aeroallergens that penetrate the epidermis could be fixed by IgE on the Langerhans cells and then induce a cellular mediator reaction comparable to that of allergic contact eczema. Patch tests have been developed to evaluate the role of aeroallergens (dust mites, animal dander, etc.). Preventive anti-dust mites measures in the home of atopic patients are recommended. Eviction of domestic animals (cat, dog, etc.) or avoidance measures for animal dander in the home can produce improvement in atopic dermatitis. Oral specific immunotherapy is being validated as a treatment for this disease.

  9. Computer animation algorithms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Parent, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the demands of research and the entertainment industry, the techniques of animation are pushed to render increasingly complex objects with ever-greater life-like appearance and motion. This rapid progression of knowledge and technique impacts professional developers, as well as students. Developers must maintain their understanding of conceptual foundations, while their animation tools become ever more complex and specialized. The second edition of Rick Parent's Computer Animation is an excellent resource for the designers who must meet this challenge. The first edition establ

  10. Optogenetics in psychiatric animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Christian T; Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Kelsch, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Optogenetics is the optical control of neuronal excitability by genetically delivered light-activated channels and pumps and represents a promising tool to fuel the study of circuit function in psychiatric animal models. This review highlights three developments. First, we examine the application of optogenetics in one of the neuromodulators central to the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders, the dopaminergic system. We then discuss recent work in translating functional magnetic resonance imaging in small animals (in which optogenetics can be employed to reveal physiological mechanisms underlying disease-related alterations in brain circuits) to patients. Finally, we describe emerging technological developments for circuit manipulation in freely behaving animals.

  11. [Poultry husbandry and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U

    2003-08-01

    Close interactions are existing between poultry husbandry and poultry health. The more housing systems and the environment of the animals can be controlled, the less the general risk of disorders in poultry flocks--especially of diseases which are caused by the introduction of microoganisms. Resulting deterimental effects will affect not only the animals themselves, but also pose a risk indirectly for humans via food originating from animals under production. Also, by keeping the risk of infections as low as possible, the use of therapeutics can be avoided. This will reduce the risk of residues in food of animal origin. In summary, with all probability open poultry husbandry systems, especially those including free range systems pose increased risks for poultry health and consequently for the quality of food originating from poultry production. At least, those systems require highest standards of biosecurity, defined as management, location, farm layout, cleaning and desinfection incl. pest control programs, immunization and specific veterinary monitoring concepts to prevent infections.

  12. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  13. Algab animafilmide festival "Animated dreams"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Nukufilmi stuudio ja animafilmide festival "Animated Dreams" (21.-25. XI kinos Sõprus) korraldavad Nukufilmi 50. juubeli tähistamiseks 22.-24. novembrini rahvusvahelise konverentsi "Voodoo hing". Filmiprogrammist tutvustavalt

  14. Animal pharming, two decades on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika

    2008-12-01

    Since its inception 20 years ago, the animal pharming industry has promoted transgenic animals as a cost-effective method of biopharmaceutical production. However, it took until 2006 for the first therapeutic product to gain regulatory approval. This was an important milestone, but scepticism still abounds. Can pharming regain investor confidence, and will society accept transgenic livestock as a production method? There is some cause for optimism, biopharmaceuticals are a large, expanding market and animal pharming has already made considerable strides. A novel production platform has been established, groundbreaking technologies developed, a necessary regulatory framework put in place. Nevertheless, despite cost advantages, pharming has become a niche production method and its long term success may depend on products unique to transgenic animals.

  15. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... the handles for each pose. Using Laplacian editing, the deformable parts are deformed to match the handles. In our animation system the user can constrain one or several handles in order to define a new pose. New poses are interpolated from the examples poses, by solving a small non-linear optimization...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  16. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  17. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine......In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  18. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    (Pcritical than men regarding which species are used for what purposes (PResearchers need to be aware that their more positive attitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical......A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...

  19. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... evaluate the issue. back to top FDA Studies Cloning For more than five years, CVM scientists studied ...

  20. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  1. Animation Showing Backshell and Parachute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation zooms in on the backshell and parachute, about 300 meters to the south of the Phoenix lander. In the distance, about 9 miles or 15 kilometers away, is a range of hills. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  3. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    country of Central and South America, as well as to the Caribbean, and Mexico and published notices in newsletters. Young scientists from Mexico , Peru, and...Transgenic Animals. J. Gordon. 30 4 F 88 The Spontaneously Hypercholesterolemic Pig as an Animal Model for Human Atherosclerosis . A. Attie & M...and Potential Approaches. An NIH Conference. The Contributions of Nonhuman Primates to Understanding Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Humans. T

  4. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  5. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment.

  6. Animal-derived pharmaceutical proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, el-Rashdy M

    2009-01-01

    Livestock animals have made a significant contribution to human health and well-being throughout humankind's history. A significant contribution of farm animals to human health are the longstanding use of bovine and porcine for production of insulin (for treatment of diabetes), gelatin (for pharmaceutical and other purposes), as well as horse and sheep antibody against natural venoms, toxins, drugs and microbial peptides. Gelatin being the biggest animal protein consumed in human health, follows with antibodies fragments. The chronic problem of animal-derived therapeutics, especially those of high molecular weight, is the immunogenicity induction in addition to their biosafety. However, the invertebrates and lower vertebrates donate the human being a several crucial emergency saving life small-peptides or their analogs such as Refludan, Prialt, Exendin. Not only, but the farm animals are enormously using as models for novel surgical strategies, testing of biodegradable implants and sources of tissue replacements, such as skin and heart valves. Recently, they are being harnessing as bioreactor for production of biopharmaceutical related products through gene farming with efficiency far greater than any conventional microbial or cell-culture production systems. Only 16 transgenic cows would be covering the worldwide needs from human growth hormone. The transgenic, especially animal, technology would be solving a several biopharmaceutical products disadvantages, such as cost, biosafety, immunogenicity and the availability dimensions.

  7. An overview of animal science research 1945-2011 through science mapping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, A; Cobo, M J; Lopez-Pujalte, C; Herrera-Viedma, E

    2015-12-01

    The conceptual structure of the field of Animal Science (AS) research is examined by means of a longitudinal science mapping analysis. The whole of the AS research field is analysed, revealing its conceptual evolution. To this end, an automatic approach to detecting and visualizing hidden themes or topics and their evolution across a consecutive span of years was applied to AS publications of the JCR category 'Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science' during the period 1945-2011. This automatic approach was based on a coword analysis and combines performance analysis and science mapping. To observe the conceptual evolution of AS, six consecutive periods were defined: 1945-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2005 and 2006-2011. Research in AS was identified as having focused on ten main thematic areas: ANIMAL-FEEDING, SMALL-RUMINANTS, ANIMAL-REPRODUCTION, DAIRY-PRODUCTION, MEAT-QUALITY, SWINE-PRODUCTION, GENETICS-AND-ANIMAL-BREEDING, POULTRY, ANIMAL-WELFARE and GROWTH-FACTORS-AND-FATTY-ACIDS. The results show how genomic studies gain in weight and integrate with other thematic areas. The whole of AS research has become oriented towards an overall framework in which animal welfare, sustainable management and human health play a major role. All this would affect the future structure and management of livestock farming.

  8. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  9. Has human evolution stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  10. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN LIVE ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MiĠuko VLAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of foreign trade, in Romania there were some major changes over the past 20 years. In this paper we have focused on the Romanian external trade. The products which have been taken into account were live animals and animal products. Thus, we have made an analyse on the Romanian imports and exports at the global level and at the European level. Focused on the animal products, on the global level, there were registered major differences during the first seven years in the analysed period. Breaking by branches, we have pointed out huge distinctions between imports and exports, where the balance of trade was completely negative. Meanwhile, to have a good view on the international trade there were made links, based on some indexes between imports, exports, GDP and investments.

  11. Galapagos: Darwin, evolution, and ENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Charles D

    2009-10-01

    This year is especially important in the history of the theory of evolution; 2009 is the bicentennial anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the sesquicentennial anniversary of his publication, The Origin of Species. Darwin visited the Galapagos Islands as a young man, which greatly influenced his thinking. My son Jim and I had the good fortune to visit these islands in January 2009 and see firsthand what led Darwin to arrive at his monumental insights into the origins of life on this planet. I have described my observations and related some of this experience to the ear, nose, and throat, albeit with whimsy in several instances. Nonetheless, some of the adaptations in the animals on these unique islands may have bearing on my hypotheses related to the incidence and pathogenesis of otitis media in humans. It is hoped the reader will share my enthusiasm for the experience we had on these fantastic islands and tour them in the future.

  12. Animal rights and animal experiments: an interest-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, Alasdair

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether non-human animals have a moral right not to be experimented upon. It adopts a Razian conception of rights, whereby an individual possesses a right if an interest of that individual is sufficient to impose a duty on another. To ascertain whether animals have a right not to be experimented on, three interests are examined which might found such a right: the interest in not suffering, the interest in staying alive, and the interest in being free. It is argued that whi...

  13. The animal welfare act as applied to primate animal laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindaman, D F

    1983-01-01

    The Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544, as amended) was passed by Congress to assure the humane care and treatment of certain warmblooded animals bought, sold, held, or transported for purposes of research, exhibition, or for use as pets. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for administering the minimum care and treatment requirements promulgated under the authorities of this law. This paper presents in some detail the requirements and responsibilities of users of nonhuman primates for research, testing, or experimentation.

  14. Germline modification of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; González, R; Dobrinski, I

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-modified domestic animal models are of increasing significance in biomedical research and agriculture. As authentic ES cells derived from domestic animals are not yet available, the prevailing approaches for engineering genetic modifications in those animals are pronuclear microinjection and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, also known as cloning). Both pronuclear microinjection and SCNT are inefficient, costly, and time-consuming. In animals produced by pronuclear microinjection, the exogenous transgene is usually inserted randomly into the genome, which results in highly variable expression patterns and levels in different founders. Therefore, significant efforts are required to generate and screen multiple founders to obtain animals with optimal transgene expression. For SCNT, specific genetic modifications (both gain-of-function and loss-of-function) can be engineered and carefully selected in the somatic cell nucleus before nuclear transfer. SCNT has been used to generate a variety of genetically modified animals such as goats, pigs, sheep and cattle; however, animals resulting from SCNT frequently suffer from developmental abnormalities associated with incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Other strategies to generate genetically-modified animals rely on the use of the spermatozoon as a natural vector to introduce genetic material into the female gamete. This sperm mediated DNA transfer (SMGT) combined with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has relatively high efficiency and allows the insertion of large DNA fragments, which, in turn, enhance proper gene expression. An approach currently being developed to complement SCNT for producing genetically modified animals is germ cell transplantation using genetically modified male germline stem cells (GSCs). This approach relies on the ability of GSCs that are genetically modified in vitro to colonize the recipient testis and produce donor derived sperm upon transplantation. As the genetic change

  15. Mainstreaming animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Lori S; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Niemi, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    The term animal-assisted therapy (AAT) commonly refers to the presentation of an animal to one or more persons for the purpose of providing a beneficial impact on human health or well-being. AAT is an ideal example of "One Health" because of numerous studies and widespread testimonials indicating that many humans feel better in the presence of pets and other domesticated animals, and, conversely, that some of those creatures appear to respond positively to human company for their emotional and perhaps physical betterment. Many AAT studies have claimed a wide range of human health benefits, but much of the research is characterized by small-scale interventions among disparate fields, resulting in criticisms about weak study design or inconsistent methodology. Such criticisms contrast with the strongly held belief among many that interaction with friendly animals has a strong and innate value for the persons involved. Consequently the appeal of AAT in human medicine today may be generally characterized as a "push" by enthusiastic advocates rather than a "pull" by prescribing physicians. To fully integrate AAT into conventional medical practice as an accepted therapeutic modality, more convincing intervention studies are necessary to confirm its clinical merits, along with an understanding of the underlying mechanism of the human response to the company of friendly animals.

  16. Animal models for auditory streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya; Klump, Georg M

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons' response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  17. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    绿波

    2011-01-01

    The pig is wronged Long, long ago, the pig often helped people with their work. There was a family which had a pig and a dog. The master told the pig and the dog to tilt land (耕地) . The pig dug the land with its snout (猪嘴), but the dog lay on the ground sleeping.

  18. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  19. Amphibians as animal models for laboratory research in physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggren, Warren W; Warburton, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The concept of animal models is well honored, and amphibians have played a prominent part in the success of using key species to discover new information about all animals. As animal models, amphibians offer several advantages that include a well-understood basic physiology, a taxonomic diversity well suited to comparative studies, tolerance to temperature and oxygen variation, and a greater similarity to humans than many other currently popular animal models. Amphibians now account for approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of lower vertebrate and invertebrate research, and this proportion is especially true in physiological research, as evident from the high profile of amphibians as animal models in Nobel Prize research. Currently, amphibians play prominent roles in research in the physiology of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, reproductive, and sensory systems. Amphibians are also used extensively in physiological studies aimed at generating new insights in evolutionary biology, especially in the investigation of the evolution of air breathing and terrestriality. Environmental physiology also utilizes amphibians, ranging from studies of cryoprotectants for tissue preservation to physiological reactions to hypergravity and space exploration. Amphibians are also playing a key role in studies of environmental endocrine disruptors that are having disproportionately large effects on amphibian populations and where specific species can serve as sentinel species for environmental pollution. Finally, amphibian genera such as Xenopus, a genus relatively well understood metabolically and physiologically, will continue to contribute increasingly in this new era of systems biology and "X-omics."

  20. BIOMETRICS SOCIETY AND THE PROGRESS OF ANIMAL SCIENCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Romanian animal, agricultural and biological sciences were seriously damaged in the period 1948-1964 by the introduction of the Stalinsko- lasenko approach in the field of Genetics and by an empiric-pragmatic approach of agricultural theory. In 1965, it started the reintroduction of the real genetic science and in 1969 a small group of scientists (22, 3 animal scientists, 3 agriculturalists registered in International Biometric Society aiming to change the scientific approach in experimental technique, genetic and animal breeding, ecological vision of animal production, education system. An international Congress of International Biometric Society was held in Romania. Some progress was achieved in all biological fields, but generally it was braked by the routine, by inertia. The number of Romanian agricultural members of Biometric Society decreased, the group disappeared after the year 1990, the biometricians were not present in research and education, but a correct approach is visible in Animal Breeding theory. It is noted that the biometric approach in biological sciences is originated from Darwin and Mendel theory, it was concretized by Galton and Pearson but the origin of Biometric Society (1946 is connected with S. Wright. Some basic scientific works of Quantitative Genetics and Evolution theory are noted.

  1. Problem Animals : A Critical Genealogy of Animal Cruelty and Animal Welfare in Swedish Politics 1844–1944

    OpenAIRE

    Svärd, Per-Anders

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing academic interest in the human–animal relationship, little research has been directed toward the political regulation of animal treatment. Even less attention has been accorded to the emergence of the long dominant paradigm in this policy area, namely, the ideology of animal welfare. This book attempts to address this gap by chronicling the early history of animal politics in Sweden with the aim of producing a critical, deconstructive genealogy of animal cruelty and animal wel...

  2. Darwin on the Treatment of Animals: His Thoughts Then and His Influence Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Donna Yarri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has seriously challenged traditional religious views on the origins of life, as well as on our human-animal similarities. Darwin is often referenced in literature on animal ethics with regard to his contention that the difference between humans and other animals is one of degree rather than of kind. This paper posits that Darwin’s writings and theory make more positive contributions to the contemporary debate on animal ethics than for which he has previously been given credit. This paper addresses important aspects of Darwin’s theory for understanding our relationship with other animals and the implications for their subsequent treatment. First, this paper considers themes in Darwin’s original writings regarding relationships among different species; second, enhancements to his theory in support of these themes; and third, recommendations for how these themes can and should inform our moral reasoning and successive treatment of other animals.

  3. The mystery of language evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marc D.; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C.; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J.; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

  4. The mystery of language evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D Hauser

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, 1 studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; 2 the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; 3 our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; 4 all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language’s origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward.

  5. The mystery of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marc D; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward.

  6. Museums teach evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Judy; Evans, E Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Natural history museums play a significant role in educating the general public about evolution. This article describes Explore Evolution, one of the largest evolution education projects funded by the National Science Foundation. A group of regional museums from the Midwestern United States worked with leading evolutionary scientists to create multiple permanent exhibit galleries and a curriculum book for youth. This program invites the public to experience current evolutionary research on organisms that range in size from HIV to whales. Learning research is being conducted on museum visitors to understand how they reason about evolution and to determine what influences the process of conceptual change.

  7. Biocentric ethics and animal prosperity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchustegui, A T

    2005-01-01

    Singer's utilitarian and Regan's deontological views must be rejected because: (1) they rely on criteria for moral standing that can only be known a priori and (2) if these criteria were successful, they'd be too restrictive. I hold that while mental properties may be sufficient for moral standing, they are not necessary. (3) Their criteria of moral standing do not unambiguously abrogate needless harm to animals. I defend a theory of biocentric individualism that upholds the principle of species egalitarianism while at the same time recognizing that in certain cases, human needs must outweigh the needs of non-humans. On this view, moral consideration is not conferred only on beings that have human-life mental properties. Finally, it offers an unambiguous recommendation for the abolition of harmful animal experimentation, factory farming, and killing animals for sport.

  8. Students Involved in Animal Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Emilia Cadar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, Romanian agriculture does not follow entirely the European and programs as concerns land exploitation and animal farming (SAPARD. Restrictive development projects (POS-MEDIU, POS-DRU, POS-CCE were active only in large private farms, which represent only 10.7% of the total registered farms in Romania. Was used a questionnaire for 36 students of our faculty, which have animal farms in 7 counties in Northwest of Transylvania. The study want to put into evidence the current problems of farmers in conditions of some private farms with small and middle number of animals. As small farms, they do not obtain important productions because of financial resource absence, limited professional education and absence of association in bigger exploitation farms. In these situations, the government must react providing a legal frame for rural agricultural development, supporting and supervising these small exploitations.

  9. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  10. Animal Exposure During Burn Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    An animal exposure test system (AETS) was designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consisted of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. Cage temperature is measured by a thermistor located in the upper portion of the rat compartment. Animal activity is monitored by the ECG and the records indicate an increase in EMG (electromyograph) noise super-imposed by the increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases and specific events occurring during the test. The AETS was shown to be a useful tool in screening materials for the relative toxicity of their outgassing products during pyrolysis and combustion.

  11. XX. Animal models of pneumocystosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dei-Cas, E.; Brun-Pascaud, M.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1998-01-01

    As in vitro culture systems allowing to isolate Pneumocystis samples from patients or other mammal hosts are still not available, animal models have critical importance in Pneumocystis research. The parasite was reported in numerous mammals but P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) experimental models were...... a source of parasites taxonomically related to P. carinii sp. f hominis. Moreover, primates might be used as experimental hosts to human Pneumocystis. A marked variability of parasite levels among corticosteroid-treated animals and the fact that the origin of the parasite strain remains unknown......, are important drawbacks of the corticosteroid-treated models. For these reasons, inoculated animal models of PCP were developed. The intratracheal inoculation of lung homogenates containing viable parasites in corticosteroid-treated non-latently infected rats resulted in extensive, reproducible Pneumocystis...

  12. Auditory sensitivity in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Klaus; Popper, Arthur N; Hawkins, Anthony D; Akamatsu, Tomonari; André, Michel; Branstetter, Brian K; Lammers, Marc; Radford, Craig A; Stansbury, Amanda L; Aran Mooney, T

    2016-06-01

    A critical concern with respect to marine animal acoustics is the issue of hearing "sensitivity," as it is widely used as a criterion for the onset of noise-induced effects. Important aspects of research on sensitivity to sound by marine animals include: uncertainties regarding how well these species detect and respond to different sounds; the masking effects of man-made sounds on the detection of biologically important sounds; the question how internal state, motivation, context, and previous experience affect their behavioral responses; and the long-term and cumulative effects of sound exposure. If we are to better understand the sensitivity of marine animals to sound we must concentrate research on these questions. In order to assess population level and ecological community impacts new approaches can possibly be adopted from other disciplines and applied to marine fauna.

  13. Evo-devo of non-bilaterian animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Lanna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The non-bilaterian animals comprise organisms in the phyla Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Placozoa. These early-diverging phyla are pivotal to understanding the evolution of bilaterian animals. After the exponential increase in research in evolutionary development (evo-devo in the last two decades, these organisms are again in the spotlight of evolutionary biology. In this work, I briefly review some aspects of the developmental biology of nonbilaterians that contribute to understanding the evolution of development and of the metazoans. The evolution of the developmental genetic toolkit, embryonic polarization, the origin of gastrulation and mesodermal cells, and the origin of neural cells are discussed. The possibility that germline and stem cell lineages have the same origin is also examined. Although a considerable number of non-bilaterian species are already being investigated, the use of species belonging to different branches of non-bilaterian lineages and functional experimentation with gene manipulation in the majority of the non-bilaterian lineages will be necessary for further progress in this field.

  14. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal…

  15. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  16. 11th Animation Film Festival Animated Dreams : Animatheque

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali alafestivali Animated Dreams lühitutvustus. Festival toimub 18. - 22. nov. 2009 Tallinnas. Alates 2008. aastast teeb festival koostööd Eesti Kunstiakadeemia Animatsiooni osakonnaga ja kord kuus toimuvad KUMU Auditooriumis animafilmide linastused programmis Animatheque

  17. The Phenomenology of Animal Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestel, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bi-constructivist approach to the study of animal life, which is opposed to the realist-Cartesian paradigm in which most ethology operates. The method is elaborated through the examples of a knot-tying orangutan in a Paris zoo and chile-eating cats in a New York apartment. We show that, when grounded in the operational framework of the phenomenological approach, the interpretation of animal life acquires a much more robust character than is usually supposed.

  18. Animal models of portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan G Abraldes; Marcos Pasarín; Juan Carlos; García-Pagán

    2006-01-01

    Animal models have allowed detailed study of hemodynamic alterations typical of portal hypertension and the molecular mechanisms involved in abnormalities in splanchnic and systemic circulation associated with this syndrome. Models of prehepatic portal hypertension can be used to study alterations in the splanchnic circulation and the pathophysiology of the hyperdynamic circulation. Models of cirrhosis allow study of the alterations in intrahepatic microcirculation that lead to increased resistance to portal flow. This review summarizes the currently available literature on animal models of portal hypertension and analyzes their relative utility. The criteria for choosing a particular model,depending on the specific objectives of the study, are also discussed.

  19. Flyover Animation of Phoenix Workspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated 'flyover' of the workspace of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's was created from images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), or the 14th Martian day after landing. The visualization uses both of the camera's 'eyes' to provide depth perception and ranging. The camera is looking north over the workspace. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  1. Android 30 Animations Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Written in Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book takes a step-by-step approach with each chapter made up of three to five tutorials that introduce and explain different animation concepts. All concepts are explained with real-world examples that are fun to read and work with. If you are familiar with developing Android applications and want to bring your apps to life by adding smashing animations, then this book is for you. The book assumes that you are comfortable with Java development and have familiarity with creating Android Views in XML and Java. The tutorials assume that you will wa

  2. How Can You Prevent Rabies in Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir How can you prevent rabies in animals? There are several things you can do to ... properly cared for or vaccinated regularly. Finally, call animal control to remove all stray animals from your ...

  3. Director, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIAMS Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section (LACU) provides support to all NIAMS Intramural Research Program (IRP) Branches and Laboratories using animals. The...

  4. Tempo and Mode of the Evolution of Venom and Poison in Tetrapods

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard J; Kevin Arbuckle

    2016-01-01

    Toxic weaponry in the form of venom and poison has evolved in most groups of animals, including all four major lineages of tetrapods. Moreover, the evolution of such traits has been linked to several key aspects of the biology of toxic animals including life-history and diversification. Despite this, attempts to investigate the macroevolutionary patterns underlying such weaponry are lacking. In this study we analyse patterns of venom and poison evolution across reptiles, amphibians, mammals, ...

  5. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-12-15

    Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the sister group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has recently been challenged by analyses of the genomes of comb jellies (Ctenophora), which, instead, found ctenophores as the sister group to the remaining animals (the "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis). Because ctenophores are morphologically complex predators with true epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, and guts, this scenario implies these traits were either present in the last common ancestor of all animals and were lost secondarily in sponges and placozoans (Trichoplax) or, alternatively, evolved convergently in comb jellies. Here, we analyze representative datasets from recent studies supporting Ctenophora-sister, including genome-scale alignments of concatenated protein sequences, as well as a genomic gene content dataset. We found no support for Ctenophora-sister and conclude it is an artifact resulting from inadequate methodology, especially the use of simplistic evolutionary models and inappropriate choice of species to root the metazoan tree. Our results reinforce a traditional scenario for the evolution of complexity in animals, and indicate that inferences about the evolution of Metazoa based on the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis are not supported by the currently available data.

  6. Oaxacan Folk-Art Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a papier-mache unit inspired by whimsical animal sculptures created by artisans from the Oaxaca (pronounced Wah-Haw-Ka) region in southern Mexico. While the actual Mexican sculptures are carved from wood, the papier-mache medium is easier to work with and requires fewer tools. Most middle schoolers love…

  7. Evolutionary genomics of animal personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oers, K.; Mueller, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research on animal personality can be approached from both a phenotypic and a genetic perspective. While using a phenotypic approach one can measure present selection on personality traits and their combinations. However, this approach cannot reconstruct the historical trajectory that was taken by e

  8. Sarcocystosis of animals and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Sarcocystosis, single-celled protozoan parasites in the Phylum Apicomplexa, are widespread in warm-blooded animals. Completion of the life cycle requires two host species: an intermediate (or prey) host and a definitive (or predator) host. Hosts can harbor more than one species of Sarcocy...

  9. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes an

  10. Rejecting empathy for animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    all six claims to be problematic, though some are more plausible than others, and argue that empathy is indeed not psychologically central to producing moral concern for animals. I also review evidence indicating that other moral emotions, particularly anger, are more strongly engaged with producing...

  11. The Roots of "Animal Farm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Barbara E.

    The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in…

  12. A focus on small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Jeremy

    2016-07-16

    After qualifying 25 years ago, Jeremy Stewart worked at the RSPCA's Harmsworth Hospital during the years it featured in the BBC television programme Animal Hospital. Having moved to a large group practice, his involvement in the charity sector is now as a trustee of the Blue Cross.

  13. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.I. Gibson; R.A. Bray; D. Hunt; B.B. Georgiev; T. Scholz; P.D. Harris; T.A. Bakke; T. Pojmanska; K. Niewiadomska; A. Kostadinova; V. Tkach; O. Bain; M.C. Durette-Desset; L. Gibbons; F. Moravec; A. Petter; Z.M. Dimitrova; K. Buchmann; E.T. Valtonen; Y. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fa

  14. A Vet and His Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 毛有春

    2002-01-01

    I was a vet(兽医) in a small town,but liked to work for a circus. Fortunately one day, I received a phone call from a manager of a certain circus. He wanted me to be in charge of his animals-all 700 of them! Then I could work in a circus!

  15. Animal Models for Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S. Oz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models and cell cultures have contributed new knowledge in biological sciences, including periodontology. Although cultured cells can be used to study physiological processes that occur during the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the complex host response fundamentally responsible for this disease cannot be reproduced in vitro. Among the animal kingdom, rodents, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates have been used to model human periodontitis, each with advantages and disadvantages. Periodontitis commonly has been induced by placing a bacterial plaque retentive ligature in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. In addition, alveolar bone loss has been induced by inoculation or injection of human oral bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis in different animal models. While animal models have provided a wide range of important data, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the findings are applicable to humans. In addition, variability in host responses to bacterial infection among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of periodontal diseases. A practical and highly reproducible model that truly mimics the natural pathogenesis of human periodontal disease has yet to be developed.

  16. The science of animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  17. Natural selection and animal personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, NJ; Reale, D

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress has been made on the study of personality in animals, both from a mechanistic and a functional perspective. While we start knowing more about the proximal mechanisms responsible for the consistent differences in behaviour between individuals in a population, little is known yet about

  18. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  19. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  20. The Moral Status of Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2006-01-01

    Human beings share a world and its scarce resources with other intelligent creatures, yet humans act in ways that deny other animals a dignified existence. A discussion on why notions of basic justice, entitlement, and law can, and must be extended across the species barrier is presented.