WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal drug availability

  1. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  2. 36 CFR 10.1 - Animals available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Animals available. 10.1 Section 10.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DISPOSAL OF CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.1 Animals available. From time to time there are surplus live...

  3. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  4. 75 FR 79295 - New Animal Drugs; Mupirocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 524 New Animal Drugs; Mupirocin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an abbreviated new animal...

  5. 75 FR 81455 - New Animal Drugs; Deslorelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 522 New Animal Drugs; Deslorelin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal...

  6. 21 CFR 25.33 - Animal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... similar animal management practices are used; and (5) Drugs intended for use under prescription or... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal drugs. 25.33 Section 25.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL...

  7. Animal models of alcohol and drug dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra S. Planeta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction has serious health and social consequences. In the last 50 years, a wide range of techniques have been developed to model specific aspects of drug-taking behaviors and have greatly contributed to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of drug abuse and addiction. In the last two decades, new models have been proposed in an attempt to capture the more genuine aspects of addiction-like behaviors in laboratory animals. The goal of the present review is to provide an overview of the preclinical procedures used to study drug abuse and dependence and describe recent progress that has been made in studying more specific aspects of addictive behavior in animals.

  8. 78 FR 52429 - New Animal Drugs; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Diethylcarbamazine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 520, and 558 New Animal Drugs; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Diethylcarbamazine; Nicarbazin; Penicillin AGENCY: Food... amending the animal drug regulations to reflect the withdrawal of approval of three new animal...

  9. 75 FR 9334 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal... CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  10. Approved Animal Drug Products (Green Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On November 16, 1988, the President of the United States signed into law the Generic Animal Drug and Patent Restoration Act (GADPTRA). Among its major provisions,...

  11. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section 318.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products...

  12. 75 FR 1275 - New Animal Drugs; Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs; Ractopamine AGENCY: Food... administering ractopamine hydrochloride Type C medicated feeds as a top dress to cattle fed in confinement for... supplement to NADA 141-221 that provides for use of OPTAFLEXX 45 (ractopamine hydrochloride) Type A...

  13. 76 FR 17025 - New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520 and 529 New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline... oxytetracycline hydrochloride soluble powder for control of American and European foulbrood in honey bees and for... that provides for use of PENNOX 343 (oxytetracycline HCl) Soluble Powder for control of American...

  14. Drug delivery systems in domestic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Oudot, Emilie J M; Baird, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of biologically active agents to animals is often perceived to be the poor relation of human drug delivery. Yet this field has a long and successful history of species-specific device and formulation development, ranging from simple approaches and devices used in production animals to more sophisticated formulations and approaches for a wide range of species. While several technologies using biodegradable polymers have been successfully marketed in a range of veterinary and human products, the transfer of delivery technologies has not been similarly applied across species. This may be due to a combination of specific technical requirements for use of devices in different species, inter-species pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and physiological differences, and distinct market drivers for drug classes used in companion and food-producing animals. This chapter reviews selected commercialised and research-based parenteral and non-parenteral veterinary drug delivery technologies in selected domestic species. Emphasis is also placed on the impact of endogenous drug transporters on drug distribution characteristics in different species. In vitro models used to investigate carrier-dependent transport are reviewed. Species-specific expression of transporters in several tissues can account for inter-animal or inter-species pharmacokinetic variability, lack of predictability of drug efficacy, and potential drug-drug interactions. PMID:20204584

  15. 75 FR 5887 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co....

  16. 76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health,...

  17. 75 FR 34361 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal... requirements in 5 U.S.C. 801-808. List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0...

  18. Advancing drug availability-experiences from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard A; Kaye, Richard Mugula; Ddungu, Henry; Mwangi-Powell, Faith

    2010-07-01

    International health and drug regulatory authorities acknowledge that analgesics (especially opioids) are insufficiently available for pain management in many countries. In Africa, reported morphine consumption is far below the global mean, with multiple factors hampering opioid supply. Since 2006, the African Palliative Care Association has hosted three regional drug availability workshops across the continent to address this issue. Using an interactive format, the workshops have identified country-specific barriers to opioid and other essential medication accessibility before supporting participants to develop action plans to address recognized impediments. Despite multiple challenges, a number of successes have arisen from the implementation of the plans. However, key issues remain, including the introduction of supportive policy environments, effective educational initiatives, and measures to address supply-chain obstacles impeding drug availability. PMID:20619205

  19. 77 FR 72254 - New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Federal Regulations (21 CFR part 556) (40 FR 13802 at 13942, March 27, 1975). The part 556 regulations... must be non-detectable or below the limit of detection of the approved regulatory method (67 FR 78172...-AG17 New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food AGENCY: Food...

  20. 76 FR 76894 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tilmicosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, a division of Eli Lilly & Co. The...

  1. 77 FR 24138 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Novartis Animal Health US, Inc. The supplemental NADA provides...

  2. 77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The...

  3. 75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Div....

  4. 76 FR 65109 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy...

  5. 77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520 and 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to remove a... that the animal drug regulations for certain monensin free-choice Type C medicated feeds for...

  6. Animal models of alcohol and drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Planeta, Cleopatra S.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction has serious health and social consequences. In the last 50 years, a wide range of techniques have been developed to model specific aspects of drug-taking behaviors and have greatly contributed to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of drug abuse and addiction. In the last two decades, new models have been proposed in an attempt to capture the more genuine aspects of addiction-like behaviors in laboratory animals. The goal of the present review is to provide an overvi...

  7. [Animal drugs quality status and reason analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing; Qiu, Ya-jing; Fang, Ke-hui; Hu, Hao-bin; Wu, Yue

    2015-11-01

    In order to reaction the quality present situation, problems on the current quality of animal sources of drugs are summed up by using test data analysis, literature search and marketing research. This paper can also help the improvement of the quality management, the revision of the relevant department policy system and the improvement of standards. PMID:27071276

  8. 77 FR 3927 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Deracoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Deracoxib AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal...

  9. 77 FR 15960 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal...

  10. 76 FR 18648 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Robenacoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Robenacoxib AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal...

  11. 76 FR 78149 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Estriol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Estriol AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal...

  12. 75 FR 65565 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520, 556, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations by removing...

  13. 77 FR 22667 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect the withdrawal of approval of those parts of a new animal drug application (NADA) for a tiamulin Type A medicated article that pertain to...

  14. 78 FR 76059 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to remove dairy replacement...-8108, email: amey.adams@fda.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA has noticed that the animal...

  15. 75 FR 79383 - Unapproved Animal Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Contamination With Thallium or Radioactive Cesium; Availability'' (68 FR 5645, February 4, 2003)) and Pancreatic Enzymes (see ``Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency Drug Products'' (69 FR 23410, April 28, 2004), ``Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use'' (56 FR 32282, July 15, 1991),...

  16. Animal models and brain circuits in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Peter W; Peters, Jamie; Knackstedt, Lori

    2006-12-01

    Animal models in the field of addiction are considered to be among the best available models of neuropsychiatric disease. These models have undergone a number of refinements that allow deeper understanding of the circuitry involved in initiating drug seeking and relapse. Notably, the demonstrable involvement of classic corticostriatal habit circuitry and the engagement of prefrontal cortical circuits in extinction training may have relevance to the therapeutic modulation of habit circuitry and drug addiction in humans. PMID:17200461

  17. Animal Migraine Models for Drug Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is number seven in WHO's list of all diseases causing disability and the third most costly neurological disorder in Europe. Acute attacks are treatable by highly selective drugs such as the triptans but there is still a huge unmet therapeutic need. Unfortunately, drug development for...... headache has almost come to a standstill partly because of a lack of valid animal models. Here we review previous models with emphasis on optimal characteristics of a future model. In addition to selection of animal species, the method of induction of migraine-like changes and the method of recording...... responses elicited by such measures are crucial. The most naturalistic way of inducing attacks is by infusion of endogenous signaling molecules that are known to cause migraine in patients. The most valid response is recording of neural activity in the trigeminal system. The most useful headache related...

  18. [New drugs for small animals in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Ilka Ute

    2016-06-16

    In 2015, four active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for small animals. These were the calcium-channel blocker Amlodipine (Amodip®), the benzodiazepine Diazepam (Ziapam®), the allylamine antifungal agent Terbinafine (Osurnia®) and the loop diuretic Torasemide (UpCard®). One substance has been authorized for an additional species. The triazole antifungal drug Itraconazole (Fungitraxx®) is now authorized for use in ornamental birds. PMID:27223466

  19. Availability of online educational content concerning topics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petervary, Nicolette; Allen, Tim; Stokes, William S; Banks, Ron E

    2016-04-20

    Animal welfare is an important area of study for professionals in fields of animal care and use, and many turn to self-learning resources to gain a better understanding of topics in this area. We assessed the state of these self-learning resources by evaluating open access, freely available resources on the internet with respect to their content and the reliability of their information. We categorized content using a modified list of the topics described in the American College of Animal Welfare's Role Delineation Document, and we identified subject areas that are underrepresented among freely available resources. We identified that the field needs more content describing practical information on subtopics of animal transportation, humane education and economic issues in animal welfare. We also suggest a targeted approach to improve and increase particular aspects of content that concerns the impacts of human, animal and environment interactions on animal welfare. We recommend that veterinary societies place more emphasis on welfare policies in their websites. Additionally, the field of animal welfare would benefit from more available and authoritative information on certain species and uses of animals that are presently underrepresented. PMID:27096187

  20. Utility and importance of animal data in drug product labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Information on the use and safety of medicines to assist prescription by healthcare professionals occurs in drug labels (Summary of Product Characteristics in Europe and Package Insert in the USA). Animal data (notably genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity and carcinogenicity and/or repeat dose toxicity testing) comprise an important component of the information (having a vital role in giving assurance that an extensive safety assessment for the medicinal product has occurred) and regulatory guidance is available to help inform on its input into drug labels. However, an evaluation of animal data for the 27 new drugs approved in the USA in 2013 (and the same drugs if available in Europe) shows great variability in detail and level of information presented within and across regions and/or the possibility of confusion on interpretation of some of the presented animal study findings. It is concluded that it may be time to revisit what animal data are presented in drug product labels (although bearing in mind current regional regulatory guidance requirements), not only to allow within and across region consistency on information given but to present it in a way that fully assists healthcare professions when prescribing a medicine. PMID:24928564

  1. 76 FR 59023 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new...

  2. 76 FR 40808 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new...

  3. 21 CFR 500.46 - Hexachlorophene in animal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hexachlorophene in animal drugs. 500.46 Section 500.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions §...

  4. 75 FR 67031 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Domperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Domperidone AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect the original approval of a new...

  5. 76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... requirements. (For selenium see 21 CFR 573.920; for EDDI see 51 FR 11483 (April 3, 1986).) * * * * * Dated... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new...

  6. 76 FR 16534 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a document in the Federal Register of June 17, 2010 (75 FR... and Drug Administration (FDA) published a document in the Federal Register of June 17, 2010 (75 FR... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal...

  7. Conflicts of Interest in the Development of Animal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Guarnieri S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past 25 years have witnessed remarkable changes in how new drugs are brought to the market. Pharmaceutical companies once took pride in vertical integration. Animal tests, laboratory analyses, and clinical trials were conducted in-house. Even when companies found that many of these services could be done more effectively by contract research organizations, they maintained tight control of their research programs. Academic scientists frequently reported stories about efforts to contact a pharmaceutical company with an idea about a new drug only to be told politely that if the idea were not developed in house, big pharma was not interested.

  8. 76 FR 9584 - Unapproved Animal Drugs; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... requested comments on strategies to address the prevalence of animal drug products marketed in the United... legal marketing status. The notice expressed FDA's interest in receiving comments on strategies that... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Unapproved Animal Drugs; Extension of Comment Period...

  9. 21 CFR 510.7 - Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacture of animal feed. 510.7 Section 510.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS General Provisions § 510.7 Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed. (a) A new...

  10. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Food-Producing Animals § 530.20 Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food... prescribing or dispensing an approved new animal or human drug for an extralabel use in food animals,...

  11. 21 CFR 201.115 - New drugs or new animal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New drugs or new animal drugs. 201.115 Section 201.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.115 New drugs or new...

  12. Antibiotics in Animal Feed Contribute to Drug-Resistant Germs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158316.html Antibiotics in Animal Feed Contribute to Drug-Resistant Germs: Study Individual farm ... HealthDay News) -- Use of antibiotics in farm animal feed is helping drive the worldwide increase in antibiotic- ...

  13. 77 FR 44177 - Antimicrobial Animal Drug Sales and Distribution Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 514 Antimicrobial Animal Drug Sales and Distribution Reporting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is soliciting comments regarding...

  14. Probiotics and minerals availability in organic animal farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞARA A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The human and animal health represents one of the most important challenges in EU countries andacceding countries. The alternative solutions adopted in order to improve animal health within organic farming(the use of organic mineral and probiotic supplements are the main issue of this paper. A review of the role ofthe selenium and yeast based probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in organic livestock feeding ispresented. The benefits of using organic selenium compared to inorganic forms of selenium in livestock feedingwithin organic farming conditions are emphasized. The synergy between organic selenium and vitamin E inlivestock is also reviewed. A short history of the probiotics and a brief definition of these products is presentedin the second section of this paper. Some of the results of the research performed by authors in this field arepresented.

  15. 21 CFR 530.30 - Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Extralabel Use of Human and Animal Drugs in Animals Not Intended for Human Consumption § 530.30 Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals. (a) Because extralabel use of animal and human drugs in nonfood-producing animals does...

  16. Animal models of cerebral ischemia for evaluation of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y K; Briyal, Seema

    2004-10-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The resulting burden on the society continues to grow, with increase in the incidence of stroke. Brain attack is a term introduced to describe the acute presentation of stroke, which emphasizes the need for urgent action to remedy the situation. Though a large number of therapeutic agents like thrombolytics, NMDA receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers and antioxidants, have been used or being evaluated, there remains a large gap between the benefits by these agents and properties an ideal drug for stroke should offer. In recent years much attention is being paid towards the exploration of herbal preparation, antioxidant agents and combination therapies including COX-2 inhibitors in experimental model of stroke. For better evaluation of the drugs and enhancement of their predictability from animal experimentation to clinical settings, it has been realized that the selection of animal models, the parameters to be evaluated should be critically assessed. Focal and global cerebral ischemia represents diseases that are common in the human population. Understanding the mechanisms of injury and neuroprotection in these diseases is important to learn new target sites to treat ischemia. There are many animal models available to investigate injury mechanisms and neuroprotective strategies. In this article we attempted to summarize commonly explored animal models of focal and global cerebral ischemia and evaluate their advantages and limitations. PMID:15907047

  17. 75 FR 68972 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steven D. Vaughn, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and... Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 510 is amended as follows: PART 510--NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1. The authority.... Steven D. Vaughn, Director, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, Center for Veterinary Medicine....

  18. 75 FR 79955 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steven D. Vaughn, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug... of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 510 is amended... Animal Drug Evaluation, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  19. 76 FR 2807 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Steven D. Vaughn, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug Administration... INFORMATION: Biopure Corp., 11 Hurley St., Cambridge, MA 02141 has informed FDA that it has transferred... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 510 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor...

  20. 75 FR 54019 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed; Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed... NADAs provide for administering a Type C medicated feed containing ractopamine hydrochloride as a top dress on Type C medicated feeds containing monensin, USP, or monensin, USP, and tylosin phosphate...

  1. 77 FR 14272 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2011,...

  2. 75 FR 15610 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2009,...

  3. 76 FR 6326 - New Animal Drugs; Masitinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... use of KINAVET-CA1 (masitinib mesylate) Tablets for the treatment of recurrent (post-surgery) or... and/or chemotherapy except corticosteroids. In accordance with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  4. Juvenile animal testing in drug development--is it useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In pharmaceutical drug development, there has been increased interest in the need to perform juvenile animal studies to support the safety of use of new medicines in the pediatric population. Although such studies are not new, the increased interest has been "formalized" in recent regulatory guidelines. As a result, companies are now performing many more studies in juvenile animals, even when there is a lack of robust knowledge of cross-species functional and kinetic differences among juveniles that means extrapolation of any toxicology study finding to an immature human may not be easy or even relevant, especially if performed in the wrong species at the wrong time. It will be shown by presentation of some basic considerations needed in order to perform such testing, that juvenile animal studies are indeed feasible. However, it will also be highlighted that (based on available knowledge) there are currently not enough clear-cut examples to answer the question of whether juvenile animal toxicology studies to support pediatric development (by affecting the performance or design of a pediatric clinical trial or identifying a potential different-from-adult safety risk in clinical use) are truly useful or necessary. PMID:20350578

  5. Animal models of drug addiction: advantages and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Quertemont, Etienne

    2006-01-01

    Various animal models have been developed to investigate the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms of drug addiction. The most popular of these animal models include the locomotor sensitization paradigm, the place conditioning procedure and the self-administration technique. With these techniques, it is possible to mimic in rodents the major aspects of human drug addiction. The self-administration procedure is the most widely used and show an excellent natural and predictive validity. In ...

  6. 76 FR 57906 - New Animal Drugs; Gamithromycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... gamithromycin injectable solution for the management of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). FDA is also amending... application may be seen in the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630...: Authority: 21 U.S.C. 360b. 0 2. Section 522.1014 is added to read as follows: ] Sec. 522.1014...

  7. 21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the feed of animals. 558.15 Section 558.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE... similar products except the nitrofuran drugs not the subject of an approved new animal drug...

  8. 75 FR 24394 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... medicated article was voluntarily withdrawn (60 FR 37651, July 21, 1995) and approved conditions of use for... NADA 45-738, were removed (60 FR 39847, July 21, 1995). At this time, the tolerances for residues of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 556 and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and...

  9. Acetylsalicylic-acid-containing drugs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs available in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Brigden, M; Smith, R E

    1997-01-01

    A large number of drugs containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are available by prescription and over the counter in Canada. The possibility of serious side effects and drug interactions is therefore high. The authors have compiled a comprehensive list of products containing these drugs from information supplied by pharmaceutical databases, independent marketing researchers and Health Canada's Drug Directorate. Physicians should ensure that add...

  10. Animal nutrition and optimized utilization of locally available resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice straw is the most abundant among crop residues. Actually, rice straw is the most important roughage in Myanmar for ruminant feeding. Like other fibrous residues, it is a poor quality feed. The major cause of low productivity of livestock in tropical regions is the inadequate and poor quality of feed. The nutritional limitations of rice straw may be overcome by supplementation with concentrates, urea or green forage. Supplementation of rice straw with concentrate would improve the utilization of rice straw. Supplementation of by-product, which may increase intake and/or digestion, and/or utilization of the basal diet are the condition directly related to microbial activity, which is required to optimize rumen digestion. The microbes within the rumen grow efficiently when ammonia nitrogen in the rumen is adequate. In Myanmar, sesame meal is one of the common feed supplements for the draft cattle and crossbred dairy cows fed rice straw. Sesame meal is highly degradable (88.7%) in the rumen. Therefore, degradation of protein is a considerable factor when the protein sources are supplemented. Several processing treatments (heat, tannin, formaldehyde, etc.) have been used to increase the proportion of dietary protein, which is not degraded in the rumen. Protections of highly degradable feed protein by the heat treatment and formaldehyde have already been reported. However, little information is available about the effect of tannin included in tree foliages for the protein protection. Conventionally, tree foliages have been fed together with agricultural by-products, mainly crop-residues, containing low levels of nitrogen to enhance rumen microbial fermentation and hence the animal productivity. Tanniferous trees and shrubs are important in animal production because they can provide significant protein supplements. Forages containing leucocephala, Ziziphus mauritiana, Albizia chinensis, Manihot esculenta, Terminalia oblongata, etc. Tree legume forages offer a cheap

  11. Overview on available animal models for application in leukemia research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term ''leukemia'' encompasses a group of diseases with a variable clinical and pathological presentation. Its cellular origin, its biology and the underlying molecular genetic alterations determine the very variable and individual disease phenotype. The focus of this review is to discuss the most important guidelines to be taken into account when we aim at developing an ''ideal'' animal model to study leukemia. The animal model should mimic all the clinical, histological and molecular genetic characteristics of the human phenotype and should be applicable as a clinically predictive model. It should achieve all the requirements to be used as a standardized model adaptive to basic research as well as to pharmaceutical practice. Furthermore it should fulfill all the criteria to investigate environmental risk factors, the role of genomic mutations and be applicable for therapeutic testing. These constraints limit the usefulness of some existing animal models, which are however very valuable for basic research. Hence in this review we will primarily focus on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to study the most frequent types of childhood leukemia. GEMMs are robust models with relatively low site specific variability and which can, with the help of the latest gene modulating tools be adapted to individual clinical and research questions. Moreover they offer the possibility to restrict oncogene expression to a defined target population and regulate its expression level as well as its timely activity. Until recently it was only possible in individual cases to develop a murin model, which fulfills the above mentioned requirements. Hence the development of new regulatory elements to control targeted oncogene expression should be priority. Tightly controlled and cell specific oncogene expression can then be combined with a knock-in approach and will depict a robust murine model, which enables almost physiologic oncogene

  12. Drug eluting stents: are human and animal studies comparable?

    OpenAIRE

    Virmani, R; Kolodgie, F D; Farb, A.; Lafont, A

    2003-01-01

    Animal models of stenting probably predict human responses as the stages of healing are remarkably similar. What is characteristically different is the temporal response to healing, which is substantially prolonged in humans. The prevention of restenosis in recent clinical trials of drug eluting stents may represent a near absent or incomplete phase of intimal healing. Continued long term follow up of patients with drug eluting stents for major adverse cardiac events and angiographic restenos...

  13. 77 FR 32897 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...: Steven D. Vaughn, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug Administration, 7520 Standish... to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 510 is amended as follows: PART 510--NEW ANIMAL.... Bernadette Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  14. 78 FR 17595 - New Animal Drugs; Changes of Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... March 22, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steven D. Vaughn, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV...: steven.vaughn@fda.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Teva Animal Health, Inc., 3915 South 48th Street... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 520, 522, 524, 529, and 558 New...

  15. Requirements for Foreign and Domestic Establishment Registration and Listing for Human Drugs, Including Drugs That Are Regulated Under a Biologics License Application, and Animal Drugs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing drug establishment registration and drug listing. These amendments reorganize, modify, and clarify current regulations concerning who must register establishments and list human drugs, human drugs that are also biological products, and animal drugs. The final rule requires electronic submission, unless waived in certain circumstances, of registration and listing information. This rulemaking pertains to finished drug products and to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) alone or together with one or more other ingredients. The final rule describes how and when owners or operators of establishments at which drugs are manufactured or processed must register their establishments with FDA and list the drugs they manufacture or process. In addition, the rule makes certain changes to the National Drug Code (NDC) system. We are taking this action to improve management of drug establishment registration and drug listing requirements and make these processes more efficient and effective for industry and for us. This action also supports implementation of the electronic prescribing provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) and the availability of current drug labeling information through DailyMed, a computerized repository of drug information maintained by the National Library of Medicine. PMID:27580511

  16. 77 FR 22327 - Draft Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... concerns regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance in human and animal bacterial pathogens when... those products consistent with FDA's GFI 209, ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial... of a final guidance entitled ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in...

  17. Abstinence-Conflict Model: Toward an Optimal Animal Model for Screening Medications Promoting Drug Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, J A

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a significant health and societal problem for which there is no highly effective long-term behavioral or pharmacological treatment. A rising concern are the use of illegal opiate drugs such as heroin and the misuse of legally available pain relievers that have led to serious deleterious health effects or even death. Therefore, treatment strategies that prolong opiate abstinence should be the primary focus of opiate treatment. Further, because the factors that support abstinence in humans and laboratory animals are similar, several animal models of abstinence and relapse have been developed. Here, we review a few animal models of abstinence and relapse and evaluate their validity and utility in addressing human behavior that leads to long-term drug abstinence. Then, a novel abstinence "conflict" model that more closely mimics human drug-seeking episodes by incorporating negative consequences for drug seeking (as are typical in humans, eg, incarceration and job loss) and while the drug remains readily available is discussed. Additionally, recent research investigating both cocaine and heroin seeking in rats using the animal conflict model is presented and the implications for heroin treatments are examined. Finally, it is argued that the use of animal abstinence/relapse models that more closely approximate human drug addiction, such as the abstinence-conflict model, could lead to a better understanding of the neurobiological and environmental factors that support long-term drug abstinence. In turn, this will lead to the development of more effective environmental and pharmacotherapeutic interventions to treat opiate addiction and addiction to other drugs of abuse. PMID:27055619

  18. 78 FR 79299 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... December 16, 2013 (78 FR 76059). The document amended the animal drug regulations to remove dairy..., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-9148. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the FR Doc. 2013-29810, appearing on page 76059 in the Federal Register of Monday, December 16, 2013 (78 FR 76059), the...

  19. Animal versus human oral drug bioavailability: Do they correlate?

    OpenAIRE

    Musther, Helen; Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Hatley, Oliver J. D.; Liu, Bo; Rostami Hodjegan, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assemb...

  20. Impulsivity in Animal Models for Drug Abuse Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jentsch, J. David

    2008-01-01

    Different conceptual frameworks have been generated to explain substance abuse; of relevance to this article, dysfunction of impulse control systems that are required for avoiding or stopping drug-seeking and –taking may play a key role in addiction. This review summarizes work in animal models that explains the pervasive association between impulse control and substance abuse. It further underscores the concept that impulse control may be a critical target for pharmacological intervention in...

  1. Functional GI disorders: from animal models to drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, E A; Bradesi, S; Chang, L; Spiegel, B. M. R.; Bueller, J A; Naliboff, B. D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts by academic researchers and by the pharmaceutical industry, the development of novel pharmacological treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders has been slow and disappointing. The traditional approach to identifying and evaluating novel drugs for these symptom-based syndromes has relied on a fairly standard algorithm using animal models, experimental medicine models and clinical trials. In the current articl...

  2. DIFFERENT ANIMAL MODELS FOR DRUGS WITH POTENTIAL ANTIDIABETIC PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Tanmay A; Shah Nidhi T; Prajapati Parimal M; Bhatt Pratik B; Solanki Anil S

    2011-01-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes mellitus in adults constitutes a global public health burden. It is predicted that by 2030, largest number of people with diabetes. Although medicinal plants have been historically used for diabetes treatment throughout the world, few of them have been validated by scientific criteria. In recent times, an outsized multiplicity of animal models has been developed to enhanced understand the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and new drugs have been ...

  3. 21 CFR 530.25 - Orders prohibiting extralabel uses for drugs in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food-producing animals. 530.25 Section 530.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... may issue an order prohibiting extralabel use of an approved new animal or human drug in food... an extralabel use of a drug in food-producing animals. Such order shall state that an...

  4. 21 CFR 556.1 - General considerations; tolerances for residues of new animal drugs in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General considerations; tolerances for residues of new animal drugs in food. 556.1 Section 556.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD General Provisions § 556.1 General considerations; tolerances...

  5. Unexploited Antineoplastic Effects of Commercially Available Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Papanagnou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficacious antitumor compounds with minimal toxicity is a hot research topic. Numerous cancer cell targeted agents are evaluated daily in laboratories for their antitumorigenicity at the pre-clinical level, but the process of their introduction into the market is costly and time-consuming. More importantly, even if these new antitumor agents manage to gain approval, clinicians have no former experience with them. Accruing evidence supports the idea that several medications already used to treat pathologies other than cancer display pleiotropic effects, exhibiting multi-level anti-cancer activity and chemosensitizing properties. This review aims to present the anticancer properties of marketed drugs (i.e., metformin and pioglitazone used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM type II. Mode of action, pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo or clinical data as well as clinical applicability are discussed here. Given the precious multi-year clinical experience with these non-antineoplastic drugs their repurposing in oncology is a challenging alternative that would aid towards the development of therapeutic schemes with less toxicity than those of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. More importantly, harnessing the antitumor function of these agents would save precious time from bench to bedside to aid the fight in the arena of cancer.

  6. [Animal models of drug dependence using the drug self-administration method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Yabuuchi, K; Yamaguchi, T; Nakamichi, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper will review 1) experimental models of drug-seeking behavior and 2) mechanisms underlying the behavior, focusing on cocaine self-administration. After the acquisition of self-administration, vigorous lever-pressing is generally observable after the drug was replaced by saline. This lever-pressing behavior under saline infusion can be considered "drug-seeking behavior". Drug-seeking behavior is reinstated by non-contingent injection of the drug, stress exposure and presentation of drug-associated stimuli even after extinction. This is called a relapse/reinstatement model. Electrophysiological studies showed that the majority of accumbal neurons is tonically inhibited during cocaine self-administration and exhibited phasic increases in firing time-locked to cocaine self-infusion, which might represent the craving state or drive animals to drug-seeking behavior. Voltammetry and microdialysis studies indicated that the timing of drug-seeking responses can be predicted from fluctuations in accumbal extracellular dopamine concentration. Whereas dopamine D2-like agonists reinstated extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior, D1-like agonists prevented the relapse in cocaine-seeking behavior induced by cocaine itself. Given that an AMPA receptor antagonist, but not dopamine antagonist, prevented cocaine-seeking behavior induced by cocaine, glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens is thought to be important for expression of craving or drug-seeking behavior. PMID:11233296

  7. 75 FR 45636 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures... experience with a similar user fee program. Based on the previous assumptions, FDA is estimating that it will... generic new animal drug user fees. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by...

  8. 76 FR 3488 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... veterinary prescription use of a combination drug injectable solution containing oxytetracycline and flunixin... that provides for veterinary prescription use of HEXASOL (oxytetracycline and flunixin...

  9. Essential drugs in AIDS care: issues of availability and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, S R

    1996-01-01

    Several antiretroviral drugs against HIV/AIDS have been developed in recent years. These drugs, reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, inhibit the reproduction of HIV, but do not eliminate the presence of HIV in the body. The cost of drugs to treat one person with HIV/AIDS easily runs into the thousands of US dollars per year. These new drugs are therefore routinely used in developed countries, but not among the masses in developing countries. Many of the drugs needed to treat the opportunistic infections present during advanced HIV infection and AIDS are also prohibitively expensive for both developing countries and most individuals in those countries. The imposition of World Bank and International Monetary Fund structural adjustment programs together with decreased household purchasing power during the 1990s has led to increased demand for public sector services amid reduced public expenditure. The private sector is increasingly taking over the drug supply in developing countries, driving the cost of drugs out of the range of affordability for the vast majority of the poor. One strategy to contain the cost of drugs is for governments to develop and implement an integrated national drug policy based upon the concept of essential drugs and their rational use. PMID:12292110

  10. Substitute of animals in drug research: An approach towards fulfillment of 4R′s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preclinical studies for drug screening involve the use of animals which is very time consuming and expensive and at times leads to suffering of the used organism. Animal right activists around the world are increasingly opposing the use of animals. This has forced the researchers to find ways to not only decrease the time involved in drug screening procedures but also decrease the number of animals used and also increase the humane care of animals. To fulfill this goal a number of new in vitro techniques have been devised which are called ′Alternatives′ or ′Substitutes′ for use of animals in research involving drugs. These ′Alternatives′ are defined as the adjuncts which help to decrease the use as well as the number of animals in biomedical research. Russell and Burch have defined these alternatives by three R′s - Reduction, Refinement and Replacement. These alternative strategies include physico-chemical methods and techniques utilizing tissue culture, microbiological system, stem cells, DNA chips, micro fluidics, computer analysis models, epidemiological surveys and plant-tissue based materials. The advantages of these alternatives include the decrease in the number of animals used, ability to obtain the results quickly, reduction in the costs and flexibility to control the variables of the experiment. However these techniques are not glittering gold and have their own shortcomings. The disadvantages include the lack of an appropriate alternative to study the whole animal′s metabolic response, inability to study transplant models and idiosyncratic responses and inability to study the body′s handling of drugs and its subsequent metabolites. None-the-less these aalternative methods to certain extent help to reduce the number of animals required for research. But such alternatives cannot eliminate the need for animals in research completely. Even though no animal model is a complete set of replica for a process within a

  11. Why animal studies are still being used in drug development. An innovation system perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijman, M.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe alone, 3.6 million animals per year are used for drug development. Animal studies are worldwide the gold standard to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of drugs before these drugs are tested in humans. Nevertheless the value of animal studies to predict risks for humans has never been extensively established. Nowadays, several studies indicate that the value of animal studies is often limited. Pharmaceutical companies and regulatory authorities as well as the public and gover...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  13. Animal models for predicting the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H. Gobira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotic drugs represents an important approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, their efficacy is limited to certain symptoms of this disorder, and they induce serious side effects. As a result, there is a strong demand for the development of new drugs, which depends on reliable animal models for pharmacological characterization. The present review discusses the face, construct, and predictive validity of classical animal models for studying the efficacy and side effects of compounds for the treatment of schizophrenia. These models are based on the properties of antipsychotics to impair the conditioned avoidance response and reverse certain behavioral changes induced by psychotomimetic drugs, such as stereotypies, hyperlocomotion, and deficit in prepulse inhibition of the startle response. Other tests, which are not specific to schizophrenia, may predict drug effects on negative and cognitive symptoms, such as deficits in social interaction and memory impairment. Regarding motor side effects, the catalepsy test predicts the liability of a drug to induce Parkinson-like syndrome, whereas vacuous chewing movements predict the liability to induce dyskinesia after chronic treatment. Despite certain limitations, these models may contribute to the development of more safe and efficacious antipsychotic drugs.

  14. 76 FR 40612 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name and Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    .... Vaughn, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug Administration, 7520 Standish Pl... Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 510 is amended as follows: PART 510--NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1. The authority..., Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  15. 76 FR 79195 - Animal Drug User Fee Act; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... September 20, 2011 (76 FR 58279). In that notice, FDA requested comments on the Animal Drug User Fee Act... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Drug User Fee Act; Reopening of the Comment...

  16. Flow cytometric determination of osmotic behaviour of animal erythrocytes toward their engineering for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ivana T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the methods based on the osmotic properties of the cells are the most widely used for loading of drugs in human and animal erythrocytes, data related to the osmotic properties of erythrocytes derived from animal blood are scarce. This work was performed with an aim to investigate the possibility of use the flow cytometry as a tool for determination the osmotic behaviour of porcine and bovine erythrocytes, and thus facilitate the engineering of erythrocytes from animal blood to be drug carriers. The method of flow cytometry successfully provided the information about bovine and porcine erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and made the initial steps in assessment of erythrocyte shape in a large number of erythrocytes. Although this method is not able to confirm the swelling of pig erythrocytes, it indicated to the differences in pig erythrocytes that had basic hematological parameters inside and outside the reference values. In order to apply/use the porcine and bovine erythrocytes as drug carriers, the method of flow cytometry, confirming the presence of osmotically different fractions of red blood cells, indicated that various amounts of the encapsulated drug in porcine and bovine erythrocytes can be expected.

  17. Recent developments in animal models of drug relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Nathan J.; Li, Xuan; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Drug craving and relapse to drug use during abstinence are defining features of addiction. Evidence indicates that drug craving and relapse in humans are often provoked by acute exposure to the self-administered drug, drug-associated cues, or stress. During the last two decades, this clinical scenario has been primarily studied at the preclinical level using the classical reinstatement model. However, a single preclinical model cannot capture the complicated nature of human drug relapse. Ther...

  18. Habitat availability does not explain the species richness patterns of European lentic and lotic freshwater animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehling, D.M.; Hof, C.; Brandle, M.;

    2010-01-01

    species richness. We tested whether habitat availability can account for the differences in species richness patterns between European lentic and lotic freshwater animals. Location Europe. Methods We compiled occurrence data of 1959 lentic and 2445 lotic species as well as data on the amount of lentic and......Aim In Europe, the relationships between species richness and latitude differ for lentic (standing water) and lotic (running water) species. Freshwater animals are highly dependent on suitable habitat, and thus the distribution of available habitat should strongly influence large-scale patterns of...... latitude. Main conclusions Habitat availability and diversity are poor predictors of species richness of the European freshwater fauna across large scales. Our results indicate that the distributions of European freshwater animals are probably not in equilibrium and may still be influenced by history...

  19. 76 FR 27888 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug... NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid... releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) Sterile Solution for Injection for temporary...

  20. Toward a complete dataset of drug-drug interaction information from publicly available sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaz, Serkan; Horn, John; Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Zhu, Qian; Stan, Johann; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Vilar, Santiago; Brochhausen, Mathias; Samwald, Matthias; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Dumontier, Michel; Boyce, Richard D

    2015-06-01

    Although potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) are a significant source of preventable drug-related harm, there is currently no single complete source of PDDI information. In the current study, all publically available sources of PDDI information that could be identified using a comprehensive and broad search were combined into a single dataset. The combined dataset merged fourteen different sources including 5 clinically-oriented information sources, 4 Natural Language Processing (NLP) Corpora, and 5 Bioinformatics/Pharmacovigilance information sources. As a comprehensive PDDI source, the merged dataset might benefit the pharmacovigilance text mining community by making it possible to compare the representativeness of NLP corpora for PDDI text extraction tasks, and specifying elements that can be useful for future PDDI extraction purposes. An analysis of the overlap between and across the data sources showed that there was little overlap. Even comprehensive PDDI lists such as DrugBank, KEGG, and the NDF-RT had less than 50% overlap with each other. Moreover, all of the comprehensive lists had incomplete coverage of two data sources that focus on PDDIs of interest in most clinical settings. Based on this information, we think that systems that provide access to the comprehensive lists, such as APIs into RxNorm, should be careful to inform users that the lists may be incomplete with respect to PDDIs that drug experts suggest clinicians be aware of. In spite of the low degree of overlap, several dozen cases were identified where PDDI information provided in drug product labeling might be augmented by the merged dataset. Moreover, the combined dataset was also shown to improve the performance of an existing PDDI NLP pipeline and a recently published PDDI pharmacovigilance protocol. Future work will focus on improvement of the methods for mapping between PDDI information sources, identifying methods to improve the use of the merged dataset in PDDI NLP algorithms

  1. The availability and use of drugs in Slovenian primary schools and in vicinities close to schools

    OpenAIRE

    Hočevar, Andreja; Kovač Šebart, Mojca; Mažgon, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    According to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drugs Addiction, preventive programmes and interventions should aim to address drug use in specific settings, such as schools. There are no available data about drug use in schools, especially in an international context; therefore, this study attempted to collect data on the availability and use of drugs in schools and in vicinities close to schools, from students attending Slovenian primary schools. The research study consists of a r...

  2. Unexploited Antineoplastic Effects of Commercially Available Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagnou, Panagiota; Stivarou, Theodora; Tsironi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficacious antitumor compounds with minimal toxicity is a hot research topic. Numerous cancer cell targeted agents are evaluated daily in laboratories for their antitumorigenicity at the pre-clinical level, but the process of their introduction into the market is costly and time-consuming. More importantly, even if these new antitumor agents manage to gain approval, clinicians have no former experience with them. Accruing evidence supports the idea that several medications already used to treat pathologies other than cancer display pleiotropic effects, exhibiting multi-level anti-cancer activity and chemosensitizing properties. This review aims to present the anticancer properties of marketed drugs (i.e., metformin and pioglitazone) used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) type II. Mode of action, pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo or clinical data as well as clinical applicability are discussed here. Given the precious multi-year clinical experience with these non-antineoplastic drugs their repurposing in oncology is a challenging alternative that would aid towards the development of therapeutic schemes with less toxicity than those of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. More importantly, harnessing the antitumor function of these agents would save precious time from bench to bedside to aid the fight in the arena of cancer. PMID:27164115

  3. Trends in comprehensive service availability in outpatient drug abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, Peter D; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Durkin, Elizabeth M.; D’Aunno, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive medical and psychosocial services are essential to quality addiction treatment, but their availability declined in the 1980s. To determine whether this downward trend in the availability of comprehensive services continued in the 1990s, we analyzed data from a national panel study of outpatient substance abuse treatment units in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Response rates were greater than 85%. Regarding the availability of comprehensive services, including physical examinations, routi...

  4. A qualitative exploration of prescription opioid injection among street-based drug users in Toronto: behaviours, preferences and drug availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firestone Michelle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO and crack use among street drug users in Toronto. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug use behaviours and preferences as well as the social and environmental context surrounding the use of these drugs among young and old street-based drug injection drug users (IDUs. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 PO injectors. Topics covered included drug use history, types of drugs used, how drugs were purchased and transitions to PO use. Interviews were taped and transcribed. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Results Five prominent themes emerged from the interviews: 1 Combination of crack and prescription opioids, 2 First injection experience and transition to prescription opioids, 3 Drug preferences and availability, 4 Housing and income and 5 Obtaining drugs. There was consensus that OxyContin and crack were the most commonly available drugs on the streets of Toronto. Drug use preferences and behaviours were influenced by the availability of drugs, the desired effect, ease of administration and expectations around the purity of the drugs. Distinct experiences were observed among younger users as compared to older users. In particular, the initiation of injection drug use and experimentation with POs among younger users was influenced by their experiences on the street, their peers and general curiosity. Conclusion Given the current profile of street-based drug market in Toronto and the emergence of crack and POs as two predominant illicit drug groups, understanding drug use patterns and socio-economic factors among younger and older users in this population has important implications for preventive and therapeutic interventions.

  5. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and Drug Administration operates two public reading rooms. The Freedom of Information Staff's Public Reading Room...

  6. Animal Models in Studies of Cardiotoxicity Side Effects from Antiblastic Drugs in Patients and Occupational Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Lamberti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxicity is an important side effect of cytotoxic drugs and may be a risk factor of long-term morbidity for both patients during therapy and also for staff exposed during the phases of manipulation of antiblastic drugs. The mechanism of cardiotoxicity studied in vitro and in vivo essentially concerns the formation of free radicals leading to oxidative stress, with apoptosis of cardiac cells or immunologic reactions, but other mechanisms may play a role in antiblastic-induced cardiotoxicity. Actually, some new cytotoxic drugs like trastuzumab and cyclopentenyl cytosine show cardiotoxic effects. In this report we discuss the different mechanisms of cardiotoxicity induced by antiblastic drugs assessed using animal models.

  7. Recent developments in animal models of drug relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Nathan J; Li, Xuan; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-08-01

    Drug craving and relapse to drug use during abstinence are defining features of addiction. Evidence indicates that drug craving and relapse in humans are often provoked by acute exposure to the self-administered drug, drug-associated cues, or stress. During the last two decades, this clinical scenario has been primarily studied at the preclinical level using the classical reinstatement model. However, a single preclinical model cannot capture the complicated nature of human drug relapse. Therefore, more recently, we and others have developed several other models to study different facets of human drug relapse. In this review, we introduce and discuss recent findings from these other relapse models, including incubation of drug craving, reacquisition and resurgence models, and punishment-based and conflict-based relapse models. PMID:23374536

  8. 77 FR 72356 - Animal Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... regulated industry agree that dosage characterization is part of the effectiveness technical section of an... applications within 180 days after submission date. Non-manufacturing supplemental new animal drug applications.... Manufacturing supplemental new animal drug applications and reactivations of such supplemental...

  9. 78 FR 70496 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Arsanilic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855, 240-276... Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 558 is amended as follows: PART 558--NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL... Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  10. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products. PMID:25183445

  11. Approval of raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalation anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration Animal rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei eTsai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 14, 2012, the FDA approved raxibacumab, the first product developed under Project BioShield to achieve this milestone, and the first biologic product to be approved through the FDA animal efficacy rule (or Animal Rule. Raxibacumab is approved for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibiotic drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or are not appropriate. The approval of Raxibacumab illustrates many of the challenges that product developers may encounter when pursuing approval under the Animal Rule and highlights a number of important regulatory and policy issues.

  12. Evaluating drug prices, availability, affordability, and price components: implications for access to drugs in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ud Din Babar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO and Health Action International (HAI was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%-76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high-25%-38% and 100%-140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector. CONCLUSIONS: The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and

  13. Animal models of drug relapse and craving: From drug priming-induced reinstatement to incubation of craving after voluntary abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    High rates of relapse to drug use during abstinence is a defining feature of drug addiction. In abstinent drug users, drug relapse is often precipitated by acute exposure to the self-administered drug, drug-associated cues, stress, as well as by short-term and protracted withdrawal symptoms. In this review, we discuss different animal models that have been used to study behavioral and neuropharmacological mechanisms of these relapse-related phenomena. In the first part, we discuss relapse models in which abstinence is achieved through extinction training, including the established reinstatement model, as well as the reacquisition and resurgence models. In the second part, we discuss recent animal models in which drug relapse is assessed after either forced abstinence (e.g., the incubation of drug craving model) or voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence achieved either by introducing adverse consequences to ongoing drug self-administration (e.g., punishment) or by an alternative nondrug reward using a discrete choice (drug vs. palatable food) procedure. We conclude by briefly discussing the potential implications of the recent developments of animal models of drug relapse after voluntary abstinence to the development of medications for relapse prevention. PMID:26822352

  14. Strategies that delay or prevent the timely availability of affordable generic drugs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory H; Carrier, Michael A; Silver, Richard T; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2016-03-17

    High cancer drug prices are influenced by the availability of generic cancer drugs in a timely manner. Several strategies have been used to delay the availability of affordable generic drugs into the United States and world markets. These include reverse payment or pay-for-delay patent settlements, authorized generics, product hopping, lobbying against cross-border drug importation, buying out the competition, and others. In this forum, we detail these strategies and how they can be prevented. PMID:26817958

  15. Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Potential Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance and Emerging Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Roess, Amira A.; Winch, Peter J.; Ali, Nabeel A.; Akhter, Afsana; Afroz, Dilara; El Arifeen, Shams; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug administration to household livestock may put humans and animals at risk for acquisition of antimicrobial drug–resistant pathogens. To describe animal husbandry practices, including animal healthcare-seeking and antimicrobial drug use in rural Bangladesh, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with key informants, including female household members (n = 79), village doctors (n = 10), and pharmaceutical representatives, veterinarians, and government officials (n = ...

  16. Substitute of animals in drug research: An approach towards fulfillment of 4R′s

    OpenAIRE

    T Arora; Mehta, A. K.; Joshi, V; Mehta, K D; N Rathor; Mediratta, P. K.; Sharma, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    The preclinical studies for drug screening involve the use of animals which is very time consuming and expensive and at times leads to suffering of the used organism. Animal right activists around the world are increasingly opposing the use of animals. This has forced the researchers to find ways to not only decrease the time involved in drug screening procedures but also decrease the number of animals used and also increase the humane care of animals. To fulfill this goal a number of new in ...

  17. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A...

  18. Assessment of anti-arrhythmic activity of antipsychotic drugs in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mow, Tomas; Frederiksen, Kristen; Thomsen, Morten B.

    2015-01-01

    Torsades de Pointes (TdP) is a potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia and a known adverse effect of many drugs secondary to block of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). In animal models antipsychotic drugs have shown reduced pro-arrhythmic potential compared to drugs...

  19. 75 FR 54492 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gentamicin and Betamethasone Ophthalmic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gentamicin and Betamethasone Ophthalmic Solution AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...) for gentamicin sulfate and betamethasone acetate ophthalmic solution. This action is being taken...

  20. 77 FR 15961 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Phenylpropanolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... CONTACT: Lisa M. Troutman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-116), Food and Drug Administration, 7500... of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 520 is amended...: March 14, 2012. Bernadette Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  2. 78 FR 21611 - Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products.'' This guidance is intended to provide recommendations to industry involved in developing and conducting self-selection studies to support an application for nonprescription drug products. A self-selection study assesses the......

  3. Analysis of price variation amongst different formulations of anxiolytic drugs available in Indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihang S. Chawan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: There is a wide variation in the price of different brands of anxiolytic drugs available in Indian market. Government of India should reduce the pricing of drugs by bringing them under drug pricing control order (DPCO. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2398-2401

  4. Study of variation in prices of oral antiplatelet drugs available in Indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Rashmi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: There is a wide difference in the cost of different brands of oral antiplatelet drugs available in India. The clinicians prescribing these drugs should be aware of these variations in cost to reduce the cost of drug therapy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 810-813

  5. The Use of Animal Models for Cancer Chemoprevention Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Vernon E.; Lubet, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Animal models currently are used to assess the efficacy of potential chemopreventive agents, including synthetic chemicals, chemical agents obtained from natural products and natural product mixtures. The observations made in these models as well as other data are then used to prioritize agents to determine which are qualified to progress to clinical chemoprevention trials. Organ specific animal models are employed to determine which agents or classes of agents are likely to be the most effec...

  6. COST ANALYSIS OF LONG ESTABLISHED AND NEWER ORAL ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS AVAILABLE IN THE INDIAN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Phatak Abhishek M, Hotwani Jitendra H, Deshmukhkiran R, Panchal Sagar S, Naik Madhura S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large number of pharmaceutical companies manufactures antiepileptic drugs in India. The price variations among the marketed drugs are wide. Aims: The present study was aimed to find the cost of different oral antiepileptic drugs available in Indian market as monotherapy, combination therapy and number of manufacturing companies for each, to evaluate difference in cost of different brands of same dosage of same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Methods and Ma...

  7. Study of variation in prices of oral antiplatelet drugs available in Indian market

    OpenAIRE

    Abhilasha Rashmi; Sharmada Nerlekar; Kumar Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease is one of the most prevalent causes of death and disability in developed and developing countries. There is a wide variation in the prices of oral antiplatelet drugs marketed in India. Thus, a study was planned to find out the variation in cost in the oral antiplatelet drugs available in India either as a single drug or in combination and to evaluate the difference in cost of various brands of the same antiplatelet drug by calculating percentage variation i...

  8. Availability of second-line drugs and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing in China: a situational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.X. He; S. van den Hof; M.W. Borgdorff; M.J. van der Werf; S.M. Cheng; Y.L. Hu; L.X. Zhang; L.X. Wang

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability of second-line drugs (SLDs) and the use of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey in 4675 health care facilities, 1960 of which have a dedicated TB clinic, in 12 provinces in Chin

  9. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Pasteurization on the Nutritive Composition of Commercially Available Animal Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, Catherine D; Cassidy, Joseph P.; Kelly, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used to sterilize diets for specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals. Because a gamma-irradiated diet was linked to leukoencephalomyelopathy in SPF cats, we investigated the effects of ‘typical’ (28.9–34.3 kGy) and ‘high-end’ (38.4–48.7 kGy) doses of gamma irradiation and of pasteurization (at 107 °C for 15 min) on the amounts of fat; protein; carbohydrate (and taurine in cat diet); vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, and B12; and peroxide in commercially available dry cat, dog, and rod...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  12. 75 FR 69585 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Sulfadiazine and Pyrimethamine Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...; Sulfadiazine and Pyrimethamine Suspension AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... change of sponsor for sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine oral suspension from Animal Health Pharmaceuticals... REBALANCE (sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine) Antiprotozoal Oral Suspension to Pegasus Laboratories, Inc.,...

  13. Animal models for predicting the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro H. Gobira; Jivago Ropke; Aguiar, Daniele C; Jose A.S. Crippa; Moreira, Fabricio A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of antipsychotic drugs represents an important approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, their efficacy is limited to certain symptoms of this disorder, and they induce serious side effects. As a result, there is a strong demand for the development of new drugs, which depends on reliable animal models for pharmacological characterization. The present review discusses the face, construct, and predictive validity of classical animal models for studying the efficacy and side ...

  14. 77 FR 26697 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Change of Sponsor Address; Change of Sponsor Name and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 522 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal... that it has transferred ownership of, and all rights and interest in, abbreviated new animal...

  15. 76 FR 17026 - New Animal Drugs; Arsanilate Sodium; Sulfaethoxypyridazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... in swine feed was voluntarily withdrawn by a letter dated November 12, 1973. The Agency acknowledged... that anyone claiming to hold an approved NADA for arsanilate sodium in swine feed submit evidence to... of December 18, 1986 (51 FR 45346), FDA proposed to remove Sec. 558.20 Drugs used in medicated...

  16. 77 FR 32010 - New Animal Drugs; Altrenogest; Dexamethasone; Florfenicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ...; Altrenogest; Dexamethasone; Florfenicol AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ] ACTION: Final rule... approval renders Sec. 516.1215 obsolete. 200-456 Med-Pharmex, Inc., Dexamethasone Original approval of 522... paragraphs (a)(2)(ii) and (a)(3)(iii) to read as follows: Sec. 522.540 Dexamethasone. (a) * * * (2) * * *...

  17. Impact of Marine Drugs on Animal Reproductive Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Tosti; Francesco Silvestre

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and description of bioactive substances from natural sources has been a research topic for the last 50 years. In this respect, marine animals have been used to extract many new compounds exerting different actions. Reproduction is a complex process whose main steps are the production and maturation of gametes, their activation, the fertilisation and the beginning of development. In the literature it has been shown that many substances extracted from marine organisms may have pro...

  18. Availability of information about airborne hazardous releases from animal feeding operations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler J S Smith

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air from animal feeding operations (AFOs has been shown to transport numerous contaminants of public health concern. While federal statutes like the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA generally require that facilities report hazardous releases, AFOs have been exempted from most of these requirements by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. We assessed the availability of information about AFO airborne hazardous releases following these exemptions. METHODS: We submitted public records requests to 7 states overlapping with or adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay watershed for reports of hazardous releases made by AFOs under EPCRA. From the records received, we calculated the proportion of AFOs in each state for which ≥1 reports were available. We also determined the availability of specific types of information required under EPCRA. The numbers of AFOs permitted under the Clean Water Act (CWA or analogous state laws, as determined from permitting databases obtained from states, were used as denominators. RESULTS: We received both EPCRA reports and permitting databases from 4 of 7 states. Across these 4 states, the mean proportion of AFOs for which ≥1 EPCRA reports were available was 15% (range: 2-33%. The mean proportions of AFOs for which the name or identity of the substance released, ≥1 estimates of quantity released, and information about nearby population density and sensitive populations were available were 15% (range: 2-33%, 8% (range: 0-22%, and 14% (range: 2-8%, respectively. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that information about the airborne hazardous releases of a large majority of AFOs is not available under federal law in the states that we investigated. While the results cannot be attributed to specific factors by this method, attention to multiple factors, including revision of the EPA's exemptions, may increase the availability of information relevant to the health of populations

  19. Sex differences and ovarian hormones in animal models of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Anker, Justin J

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of sex differences in many aspects of drug abuse. Most studies reveal that females exceed males during the initiation, escalation, extinction, and reinstatement (relapse) of drug-seeking behavior, but males are more sensitive than females to the aversive effects of drugs such as drug withdrawal. Findings from human and animal research indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones account for these sex differences. Estrogen (E) facilitates drug-seeking behavior, while progesterone (P) and its metabolite, allopregnanalone (ALLO), counteract the effects of E and reduce drug seeking. Estrogen and P influence other behaviors that are affiliated with drug abuse such as drug-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. The enhanced vulnerability to drug seeking in females vs. males is also additive with the other risk factors for drug abuse (e.g., adolescence, sweet preference, novelty reactivity, and impulsivity). Finally, treatment studies using behavioral or pharmacological interventions, including P and ALLO, also indicate that females show greater treatment effectiveness during several phases of the addiction process. The neurobiological basis of sex differences in drug abuse appears to be genetic and involves the influence of ovarian hormones and their metabolites, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, dopamine (DA), and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GABA). Overall, sex and hormonal status along with other biological risk factors account for a continuum of addiction-prone and -resistant animal models that are valuable for studying drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:19818789

  20. Drug Discovery of Antimicrobial Photosensitizers Using Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sulbha K.; Dai, Tianhong; Gitika B Kharkwal; Huang, Ying-Ying; Huang, Liyi; Bil De Arce, Vida J.; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an emerging alternative to antibiotics motivated by growing problems with multi-drug resistant pathogens. aPDT uses non-toxic dyes or photosensitizers (PS) in combination with harmless visible of the correct wavelength to be absorbed by the PS. The excited state PS can form a long-lived triplet state that can interact with molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical that kill the microbial cells. ...

  1. 77 FR 3598 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gentamicin and Betamethasone Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Animal Drugs; Gentamicin and Betamethasone Spray AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... betamethasone valerate topical spray in dogs. DATES: This rule is effective January 25, 2012. FOR FURTHER... 200-416 that provides for veterinary prescription use of Gentamicin Topical Spray (gentamicin...

  2. 78 FR 46958 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... related application fees and any other fees owed under the Animal Generic Drug User Fee program. II... that this is a reasonable approach after 5 years of experience with this program. The average number of..., Account Name: Food and Drug Administration, Account No.: 75060099, Routing No.: 021030004, Swift...

  3. 76 FR 22610 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cindy L. Burnsteel, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-130), Food... and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 522 is amended as follows... Animal Drug Evaluation, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  4. 75 FR 54018 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Florfenicol and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... part 522 is amended as follows: PART 522--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0...

  5. 75 FR 4692 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New...--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part...

  6. 75 FR 9333 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tilmicosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... part 522 is amended as follows: PART 522--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0...

  7. 75 FR 26647 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... part 522 is amended as follows: PART 522--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0...

  8. 75 FR 59610 - Implantation and Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Firocoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation and Injectable Dosage Form New...: PART 522--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1. The authority citation for...

  9. 77 FR 4226 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Danofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... as follows: PART 522--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1. The...

  10. 75 FR 22524 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Butorphanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New...--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part...

  11. 76 FR 57905 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... as follows: PART 522--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1. The...

  12. 77 FR 59156 - Antimicrobial Animal Drug Sales and Distribution Reporting; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... notice of proposed rulemaking that published July 27, 2012 (77 FR 44177) is extended. Submit written or... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of July 27, 2012 (77 FR 44177), FDA published... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 514 Antimicrobial Animal Drug Sales...

  13. 77 FR 3653 - Import Tolerances for Residues of Unapproved New Animal Drugs in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... the Federal Register of August 10, 2001 (66 FR 42167), the Agency published an advance notice of... Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions,'' of January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979); and 21 CFR 25... Tolerances for Residues of Unapproved New Animal Drugs in Food AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  14. 76 FR 57907 - Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food; Progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... values in the current guidance document, ``Guideline for Establishing a Safe Concentration'' (59 FR 37499... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 556 Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs... the allowable incremental increase for residues of progesterone in edible tissues of cattle and...

  15. 76 FR 72619 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Eprinomectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New...--OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 524...

  16. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... parasites that were approved for the pioneer product with 3 years of marketing exclusivity (69 FR 501... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New... part 524 is amended as follows: PART 524--OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1....

  17. The Scientific Value of Non-Clinical Animal Studies in Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meer, P.J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies are considered needed as predictive models to evaluate safety and efficacy of new pharmaceuticals and are required by law. However, the scientific basis of the current paradigm on the predictability of animal studies for the effects of drugs in man is under discussion. Therefore, in this thesis we evaluated the scientific basis of the current practices and guidelines for the use of animal studies in pharmaceutical development and assessed the consequences and implications for t...

  18. Effects of chronic administration of drugs of abuse on impulsive choice (delay discounting) in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Setlow, Barry; Mendez, Ian A.; Mitchell, Marci R; Simon, Nicholas W.

    2009-01-01

    Drug addicted individuals demonstrate high levels of impulsive choice, characterized by preference for small immediate over larger but delayed rewards. Although the causal relationship between chronic drug use and elevated impulsive choice in humans has been unclear, a small but growing body of literature over the past decade has shown that chronic drug administration in animal models can cause increases in impulsive choice, suggesting that a similar causal relationship may exist in human dru...

  19. 21 CFR 510.105 - Labeling of drugs for use in milk-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... directions for use to avoid adulteration of milk under section 402(a)(2)(c)(ii) of the act. (c) It is the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of drugs for use in milk-producing... Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.105 Labeling of drugs for use in milk-producing animals. (a) Part...

  20. Study of variation in price of various antidiabetic drugs available in Indian market

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Padmakar Date; Harshal M. Mahajan; Amruta V. Dashputra; Rahul R. Bhosale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus in early age is on the alarming rise in India, requiring lifelong treatment. There is a wide range of variation in the prices of antidiabetic drugs marketed in India. Hence, we decided to study price variations in the oral antidiabetic drugs available, either singly or in combination, and number of manufacturing companies for each, and to evaluate the difference in cost of different brands of same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Method...

  1. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  2. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... for the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN) for public review and comment. The NAHLN is a nationally coordinated network and partnership of Federal, State, and university-...

  3. 76 FR 50220 - Availability of Draft ICCVAM Recommendations on Using Fewer Animals to Identify Chemical Eye...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...-animal tests that would provide eye hazard classification equivalent to testing conducted in accordance... Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. In light of this policy and regulations, most in vivo ocular safety testing is expected to adhere to the 3-animal procedure described in OECD Test Guideline 405 (OECD,...

  4. CHANGING METABOLIC FUNCTIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AFTER INTRODUCTION OF THE XENOBIOTIC, IMMUNOTROPIC DRUG AND PROBIOTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvyagintseva O.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate in vivo changes in metabolic and barrier function of the resistance factors (activity of enzymes of neutrophils, the efficiency of phagocytosis, some biochemical parameters (concentration of ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin and proliferate activity in vitro cells after introduction of copper sulfate, probiotics and immunostimulant "Fungidol" the experimental animals. Material and methods. The in vivo experiments were performed on 6-month-old male rats of Wistar line. Identified the following groups: group 1 - control animals, which were intraperitoneally injected with saline (n = 5; group 2 - animals that were administered saline per os and 48 hours a solution of copper sulphate intraperitoneally (n = 5; group 3 - animals, which were injected with immunotropic drug "Fungidol" per os and 48 hours a solution of copper sulphate intraperitoneally (n = 5; group 4 animals, which were injected with a solution of probiotics per os and 48 hours a solution of copper sulphate intraperitoneally (n = 5. As a probiotic used capsules firm Yogurt that contains active Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The concentration of haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin were determined spectrophotometrically. Oxygen-dependent metabolism of neutrophils was investigated by microscopy according to their ability to absorb nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT-test and restore it to deformazione in the form of granules blue color under the influence of superoxide anion, which is formed in the NADP-oxidase reaction, initiating the process of stimulation of phagocytosis (NBT-test. To determine the barrier function of phagocytic cells by light microscopy to evaluate the activity of phagocytosis of neutrophilic granulocytes with subsequent determination of phagocytic index, phagocytic number and the index of completeness of phagocytosis. As a microbial agent used is a suspension culture of

  5. Systematic review of available evidence on 11 high-priced inpatient orphan drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Kanters (Tim A.); C. de Sonneville (Caroline); W.K. Redekop (Ken); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ __Background__: Attention for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is growing, but evidence for orphan drugs is argued to be limited and inferior. This study systematically reviews the available evidence on clinical effectiveness, costeffectiveness and budget impact for orph

  6. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes approaches to developing and understanding the manufacturing process of a drug substance and provides guidance on what information should be provided in certain sections of the Common Technical Document (CTD). The guidance is intended to harmonize the scientific and technical principles relating to the description and justification of the development and manufacturing process of drug substances (both chemical entities and biotechnological/biological entities) to enable a consistent approach for providing and evaluating this information across the three regions. The discussion of principles in the guidance is intended to apply only to the manufacture of drug substance, not the manufacture of finished drug products. PMID:23227566

  7. Cost analysis study of oral antidiabetic drugs available in Indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisharani B Jadhav, Manisha S Bhosale, Charles V Adhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a wide range of variation in the prices of drugs marketed in India and other countries of the world. Very few studies have been conducted to reveal such price variations in the open market. Aim & Objectives: To evaluate the cost of oral anti-diabetics of different generic classes and different brand names of one compound, To evaluate the difference in cost of different brands for the same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Methods: Cost of a particular drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength, number and dosage form was compared. The difference in the maximum and minimum price of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies and the percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: In Single drug therapy, among sulfonylurea group of drugs, Glimepiride (1 mg shows maximum price variation of 655.38%, while Glipizide (10mg shows variation of 38.88%. In Biguanides & Thizolidinediones groups of drugs, Metformin (500 mg & Pioglitazone (15 mg show maximum price variation of 308.33% & 542% respectively. In α-glucosidases inhibitor group of drugs, Miglitol shows maximum price variation of 135.50 %. In combination therapies, Glipizide & Metformin combination shows the maximum variation up to 399.04 %. Conclusion: The average percentage price variation of different brands of the same drug manufactured in India is very wide and the appraisal and management of marketing drugs should be directed toward maximizing the benefits of therapy and minimizing negative personal and economic consequences

  8. 78 FR 42084 - Electronic Study Data Submission; Data Standard Support; Availability of the Center for Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the CDER Data Standards Strategy (version 1.0) and the CDER Data Standards Strategy--Action Plan (version 1.0). This action is being taken to ensure that all interested stakeholders are aware that the data standards program documents are available and is intended to......

  9. COST ANALYSIS OF LONG ESTABLISHED AND NEWER ORAL ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS AVAILABLE IN THE INDIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatak Abhishek M, Hotwani Jitendra H, Deshmukhkiran R, Panchal Sagar S, Naik Madhura S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large number of pharmaceutical companies manufactures antiepileptic drugs in India. The price variations among the marketed drugs are wide. Aims: The present study was aimed to find the cost of different oral antiepileptic drugs available in Indian market as monotherapy, combination therapy and number of manufacturing companies for each, to evaluate difference in cost of different brands of same dosage of same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Methods and Materials: Cost of a drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from “Indian Drug Review” Vol. XXI, Issue No.4, 2014 and “Current Index of Medical Specialties” July-October 2014. The difference in the maximum and minimum price of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies and percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: The percentage price variation noted of long-established drugs was – Phenytoin (50mg: 140%, Carbamazepine (100mg: 1033%, Phenobarbital (30mg : 730%, Valproic acid (300mg : 420%. Newer drugs –Levetiracetam (250mg: 75%, Lamotrigine (25mg: 66%, Topiramate (50mg: 108%, Zonisamide (100mg: 19%. Combination drugs – Phenobarbital + Phenytoin (30+100 mg: 354.55%. Conclusion: The percentage price variation of different brands of the same commonly used long-established oral antiepileptic drug manufactured in India is very wide. The formulation or brand of Antiepileptic drugs (AED’s should preferably not be changed since variations in bioavailability or different pharmacokinetic profiles may increase the potential for reduced effect or excessive side effects. Hence, manufacturing companies should aim to decrease the price variation while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy.

  10. Availability of P and K in ash from thermal gasification of animal manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubaek, G.H.; Soerensen, Peter [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agroecology, Tjele (Denmark); Stoholm, P. [Danish Fluid Bed Technology (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    In areas like Denmark where the livestock density is regulated on the basis of manure N content, surplus phosphorus is becoming a key environmental problem, which has to be solved in order to avoid increasing P losses to surface waters in the future. Combustion of animal manure or its solid fraction and the subsequent export of the ash to nutrient-poor areas could be a solution. However, combustion is difficult due to fouling and corrosion problems, and the ash will only be marketable if the fertiliser value of the remaining P and K is acceptable and if the content of contaminants (heavy metals) is sufficiently low. A combined fast pyrolysis and char gasification technique for treatment of biomass has been developed where organic material such as manure is processed in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures and around 700 deg. C. After simple separation of a fine textured ash, the cleaned gas is suitable for combustion in a separate unit for energy production. One advantage of this technique is that the temperature can be finely controlled, and temperatures exceeding the melting point of e.g. potassium chloride can be avoided. The low and well-controlled temperature probably also prevents severe reductions in the availability of nutrients in the ash. However, the availability of P and K in the ash remains to be thoroughly tested. (au)

  11. Cognitive enhancers for facilitating drug cue extinction: insights from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Áine; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2011-08-01

    Given the success of cue exposure (extinction) therapy combined with a cognitive enhancer for reducing anxiety, it is anticipated that this approach will prove more efficacious than exposure therapy alone in preventing relapse in individuals with substance use disorders. Several factors may undermine the efficacy of exposure therapy for substance use disorders, but we suspect that neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic drug use are an important contributing factor. Numerous insights on these issues are gained from research using animal models of addiction. In this review, the relationship between brain sites whose learning, memory and executive functions are impaired by chronic drug use and brain sites that are important for effective drug cue extinction learning is explored first. This is followed by an overview of animal research showing improved treatment outcome for drug addiction (e.g. alcohol, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin) when explicit extinction training is conducted in combination with acute dosing of a cognitive-enhancing drug. The mechanism by which cognitive enhancers are thought to exert their benefits is by facilitating consolidation of drug cue extinction memory after activation of glutamatergic receptors. Based on the encouraging work in animals, factors that may be important for the treatment of drug addiction are considered. PMID:21295059

  12. Experimental Psychiatric Illness and Drug Abuse Models: From Human to Animal, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical animal models have supported much of the recent rapid expansion of neuroscience research and have facilitated critical discoveries that undoubtedly benefit patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. This overview serves as an introduction for the following chapters describing both in vivo and in vitro preclinical models of psychiatric disease components and briefly describes models related to drug dependence and affective disorders. Although there are no perfect animal models ...

  13. Automated high-content live animal drug screening using C. elegans expressing the aggregation prone serpin α1-antitrypsin Z.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager J Gosai

    Full Text Available The development of preclinical models amenable to live animal bioactive compound screening is an attractive approach to discovering effective pharmacological therapies for disorders caused by misfolded and aggregation-prone proteins. In general, however, live animal drug screening is labor and resource intensive, and has been hampered by the lack of robust assay designs and high throughput work-flows. Based on their small size, tissue transparency and ease of cultivation, the use of C. elegans should obviate many of the technical impediments associated with live animal drug screening. Moreover, their genetic tractability and accomplished record for providing insights into the molecular and cellular basis of human disease, should make C. elegans an ideal model system for in vivo drug discovery campaigns. The goal of this study was to determine whether C. elegans could be adapted to high-throughput and high-content drug screening strategies analogous to those developed for cell-based systems. Using transgenic animals expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins, we first developed a high-quality, high-throughput work-flow utilizing an automated fluorescence microscopy platform with integrated image acquisition and data analysis modules to qualitatively assess different biological processes including, growth, tissue development, cell viability and autophagy. We next adapted this technology to conduct a small molecule screen and identified compounds that altered the intracellular accumulation of the human aggregation prone mutant that causes liver disease in α1-antitrypsin deficiency. This study provides powerful validation for advancement in preclinical drug discovery campaigns by screening live C. elegans modeling α1-antitrypsin deficiency and other complex disease phenotypes on high-content imaging platforms.

  14. 75 FR 8968 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft...

  15. 77 FR 72359 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... animal drug user fee program. AGDUFA I provides FDA with additional funds to enhance the performance of... review performance goals for certain submissions over 5 years from fiscal year (FY) 2009 through FY 2013. The purpose of establishing these review performance goals was to expedite the review of ANADAs...

  16. 21 CFR 514.80 - Records and reports concerning experience with approved new animal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Purpose 21 CFR Paragraph and Title What information must be reported concerning approved NADAs or ANADAs... experience report. What are the requirements for submission of advertisement and promotional labeling to FDA... pertinent to safety or effectiveness of a new animal drug that has not been previously submitted as part...

  17. 77 FR 29216 - New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Sodium; Lincomycin Powder; Naracin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Forest, IL 000409 60045 * * * * * (2) * * * Drug labeler code Firm name and address * * * * * 000409 Hospira Inc., 275 North Field Dr., Lake Forest, IL 60045. * * * * * PART 520--ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL... generic copy of Forest, IL sodium) Sterile NADA 140-338. 60045. Powder. 200-455....... Cross...

  18. COASTAL AND TIFTON 44' BERMUDAGRASS AVAILABILITY ON ANIMAL AND PASTURE PRODUCTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid cultivars of bermudagrass are a major feed source for ruminants across the Southeastern USA. This 4-yr experiment compared animal and pasture performance of ‘Coastal’ and ‘Tifton 44’ Bermudagrasses [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] over three canopy heights designated as short (5.8 cm), medium (...

  19. Ocular pharmacoscintigraphic and aqueous humoral drug availability of ganciclovir-loaded mucoadhesive nanoparticles in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhter, Sohail; Ramazani, Farshad; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Ahmad, Farjam Jalees; Rahman, Ziyaur; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Storm, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes the improved ocular retention and aqueous humoral drug availability of ganciclovir (GCV) when administered via topical instillation of different kind of nanoparticles onto the rabbit eye. GCV was loaded into PLGA nanoparticles, chitosan-coated nanoparticles and chitosan-

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  1. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction. PMID:26221831

  2. 21 CFR 514.11 - Confidentiality of data and information in a new animal drug application file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG.... (4) Adverse reaction reports, product experience reports, consumer complaints, and other similar data..., distribution, and similar data and information, except that any compilation of such data and...

  3. A qualitative exploration of prescription opioid injection among street-based drug users in Toronto: behaviours, preferences and drug availability

    OpenAIRE

    Firestone Michelle; Fischer Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) and crack use among street drug users in Toronto. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug use behaviours and preferences as well as the social and environmental context surrounding the use of these drugs among young and old street-based drug injection drug users (IDUs). Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 PO injectors. Topics covered included drug use history, types of drug...

  4. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea. PMID:27433102

  5. VETSTAT - the Danish system for surveillance of the veterinary use of drugs for production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Bager, Flemming; Jacobsen, Erik;

    2003-01-01

    of drugs for use in animal production is reported on a monthly basis. Pharmacies provided 95% of the total weight antimicrobial compounds used in Denmark in 2001. More than 80% of the antimicrobial compounds reported by pharmacies were sold on prescription to end-users (owners) and included information...... on animal species, age-group and diagnostic grouping; >90% of the total amount of antimicrobials sold on prescription was used for pigs. In 2001, sales of 96,500 kg of antimicrobials were reported....

  6. Development of PPAR-agonist GW0742 as antidiabetic drug: study in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu HS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ho-Shan Niu,1 Po-Ming Ku,2,3 Chiang-Shan Niu,1 Juei-Tang Cheng,3,4 Kung-Shing Lee5–71Department of Nursing, Tzu Chi College of Technology, Hualien City, 2Department of Cardiology, 3Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Yong Kang, Tainan City, 4Institute of Medical Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Guiren, Tainan City, 5Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Pingtung Hospital, 6Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University, 7School of Medicine, Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, TaiwanBackground: The development of new drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM is critically important. Insulin resistance (IR is one of the main problems associated with type-2 DM (T2DM seen in clinics. GW0742, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-δ agonist, has been shown to ameliorate metabolic abnormalities including IR in skeletal muscle in mice fed high-fructose corn syrup. However, the influence of GW0742 on systemic insulin sensitivity has still not been elucidated. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effect of GW0742 on systemic IR in diabetic rats for the development of new drugs.Methods: The present study used a T2DM animal model to compare the effect of GW0742 on IR using homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping. Additionally, the insulinotropic action of GW0742 was investigated in type-1 DM (T1DM rats. Changes in the protein expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK in skeletal muscle and in liver, respectively, were also identified by Western blots.Results: GW0742 attenuated the increased HOMA-IR in diabetic rats fed a fructose-rich diet. This action was blocked by GSK0660 at the dose sufficient to inhibit PPAR-δ. Improvement of IR by GW0742 was also characterized in diabetic rats using hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping. Additionally, an

  7. Determination of drug residues by CLAR-MS/MS in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Produced food of animal origin, present the possibility of occurrence of any contact with substances that have negative effects on the health of people who consume them. The use of drugs in veterinary medicine is one of the possible sources of such waste; so, the conditions for the analysis of some classes of antibiotics in animal tissues are based on the study. Costa Rica and the countries that are export destination, have regulation and programs for control before to be distributed in local markets, or post if it is received any complaint of pollution. The high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometers (CLAR-MS/MS) allows the analysis of analytes monitored, according to the specifications required by the legislation. The cases of two laboratories in Costa Rica are presented as the only ones who have the ability to perform the analysis of drug residues CLAR-MS/MS. (author)

  8. Removing obstacles in neuroscience drug discovery: The future path for animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Markou, Athina; Chiamulera, Christian; GEYER, Mark A; Tricklebank, Mark; Steckler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Despite great advances in basic neuroscience knowledge, the improved understanding of brain functioning has not yet led to the introduction of truly novel pharmacological approaches to the treatment of central nervous system disorders. This situation has been partly attributed to the difficulty of predicting efficacy in patients based on results from preclinical studies. To address these issues, this review critically discusses the traditional role of animal models in drug discovery, the diff...

  9. New Animal Model Could Boost Research on AIDS Drugs and Vaccines | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS in monkeys. The advance should help create more authentic animal models of the disease and provide a potentially invaluable approach for faster and better preclinical evaluation of new drugs and vaccines.

  10. Availability and Rational Use of Drugs in Primary Healthcare Facilities Following the National Drug Policy of 1982: Is Bangladesh on Right Track?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Islam, Qazi Shafayetul

    2012-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the National Drug Policy (NDP) 1982 was instrumental in improving the supply of essential drugs of quality at an affordable price, especially in the early years. However, over time, evidence showed that the situation deteriorated in terms of both availability of essential drugs and their rational use. The study examined the current status of the outcome of the NDP objectives in terms of the availability and rational use of drugs in the primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Ban...

  11. Increasing the number of drugs available over the counter: arguments for and against.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, C. P.; Bond, C.

    1995-01-01

    Many drugs previously restricted to prescription only status are being reclassified as pharmacy only status and hence are becoming available over the counter to patients. A general practitioner should make enquiries about a patient's self-medication practices before deciding on treatment for the patient. Over-the-counter medicines are considered safe and their increased use indicates that patients are taking greater responsibility for their own health and possibly taking some of the financial...

  12. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  13. Hierarchical Bayesian spatial models for alcohol availability, drug "hot spots" and violent crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Scott

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecologic studies have shown a relationship between alcohol outlet densities, illicit drug use and violence. The present study examined this relationship in the City of Houston, Texas, using a sample of 439 census tracts. Neighborhood sociostructural covariates, alcohol outlet density, drug crime density and violent crime data were collected for the year 2000, and analyzed using hierarchical Bayesian models. Model selection was accomplished by applying the Deviance Information Criterion. Results The counts of violent crime in each census tract were modelled as having a conditional Poisson distribution. Four neighbourhood explanatory variables were identified using principal component analysis. The best fitted model was selected as the one considering both unstructured and spatial dependence random effects. The results showed that drug-law violation explained a greater amount of variance in violent crime rates than alcohol outlet densities. The relative risk for drug-law violation was 2.49 and that for alcohol outlet density was 1.16. Of the neighbourhood sociostructural covariates, males of age 15 to 24 showed an effect on violence, with a 16% decrease in relative risk for each increase the size of its standard deviation. Both unstructured heterogeneity random effect and spatial dependence need to be included in the model. Conclusion The analysis presented suggests that activity around illicit drug markets is more strongly associated with violent crime than is alcohol outlet density. Unique among the ecological studies in this field, the present study not only shows the direction and magnitude of impact of neighbourhood sociostructural covariates as well as alcohol and illicit drug activities in a neighbourhood, it also reveals the importance of applying hierarchical Bayesian models in this research field as both spatial dependence and heterogeneity random effects need to be considered simultaneously.

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  15. 75 FR 34452 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Plan; Availability for Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Plan... development of a comprehensive data standards program in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER... Drug Information, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903...

  16. Changes in nutrient content and availability during the slow pyrolysis of animal wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although a large number of reports are available on the total and soluble PKN (and other nutrient elements) content of manure biochars, information is lacking to understand the changes in chemical speciation of different elements during pyrolysis. Manure is intrinsically heterogeneous, and is compo...

  17. Using mitochondrial sirtuins as drug targets: disease implications and available compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertz, Melanie; Steegborn, Clemens

    2016-08-01

    Sirtuins are an evolutionary conserved family of NAD(+)-dependent protein lysine deacylases. Mammals have seven Sirtuin isoforms, Sirt1-7. They contribute to regulation of metabolism, stress responses, and aging processes, and are considered therapeutic targets for metabolic and aging-related diseases. While initial studies were focused on Sirt1 and 2, recent progress on the mitochondrial Sirtuins Sirt3, 4, and 5 has stimulated research and drug development for these isoforms. Here we review the roles of Sirtuins in regulating mitochondrial functions, with a focus on the mitochondrially located isoforms, and on their contributions to disease pathologies. We further summarize the compounds available for modulating the activity of these Sirtuins, again with a focus on mitochondrial isoforms, and we describe recent results important for the further improvement of compounds. This overview illustrates the potential of mitochondrial Sirtuins as drug targets and summarizes the status, progress, and challenges in developing small molecule compounds modulating their activity. PMID:27007507

  18. Treatment of bifurcation lesions with drug-coated balloons: A review of currently available scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Bernardo; Piraino, Davide; Buccheri, Dario; Alfonso, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Bifurcation lesion management still represents a challenge for interventional cardiologists and currently there is a number of different approaches/techniques involving coronary stents. The use of a drug-coated balloon for native coronary vessel management is emerging as an alternative treatment, although in selected patient populations only. In particular, this technology has been tested for the treatment of bifurcations, both for the main vessel and the side branches. Several studies have evaluated this treatment as an alternative or as a therapeutic option complementary to stents, with conflicting and debatable results. However, the perspective of leaving lower metallic burden in this type of lesions is highly appealing and should be deeply investigated. We review here the currently available scientific data and future perspectives on drug-coated balloon use for bifurcation lesions. PMID:27390995

  19. Regulation of reverse cholesterol transport - a comprehensive appraisal of available animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annema Wijtske

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol are strongly inversely correlated to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A major recognized functional property of HDL particles is to elicit cholesterol efflux and consequently mediate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. The recent introduction of a surrogate method aiming at determining specifically RCT from the macrophage compartment has facilitated research on the different components and pathways relevant for RCT. The current review provides a comprehensive overview of studies carried out on macrophage-specific RCT including a quick reference guide of available data. Knowledge and insights gained on the regulation of the RCT pathway are summarized. A discussion of methodological issues as well as of the respective relevance of specific pathways for RCT is also included.

  20. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment. PMID:24125786

  1. 76 FR 20689 - Guidance for Industry on Influenza: Developing Drugs for Treatment and/or Prophylaxis; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Influenza: Developing Drugs for Treatment and/or Prophylaxis.'' This guidance is intended to assist sponsors in the clinical development of drugs and therapeutic biological products for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of illness caused by influenza viruses A and B, including both......

  2. Assessment of intestinal availability (FG) of substrate drugs of cytochrome p450s by analyzing changes in pharmacokinetic properties caused by drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaka, Akihiro; Nakamura, Mikiko; Tsukihashi, Ayako; Koh, Saori; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we developed the drug-drug interaction (DDI) method as a new assessment technique of intestinal availability (F(G), the fraction of drug transferred from the intestinal enterocytes into the liver, escaping from intestinal metabolism) based on the clearance theory. This method evaluates F(G) from changes caused by DDIs in the area under the blood concentration-time curve and in the elimination half-life of victim drugs. Application of the DDI method to data from the literature revealed that the mean and S.D. of F(G) values for 20 substrate drugs of CYP3A was 0.56 ± 0.29, whereas that for 8 substrate drugs of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 was 0.86 ± 0.11. These results were consistent with the fact that intestinal metabolism is mediated predominantly by CYP3A. The DDI method showed reasonable correlations with the conventional i.v./p.o. method and the grape fruit juice (GFJ) method (coefficients of determination of 0.41 and 0.81, respectively). The i.v./p.o. method was more susceptible to fluctuations in the hepatic blood flow rate compared with the DDI and GFJ methods. The DDI method evaluates F(G) separating from the absorption ratio (F(A)) although it requires approximation of F(A). Since preciseness of approximation of F(A) does not greatly affect the evaluation of F(G) by the DDI method, we proposed a reasonable approximation method of F(A) for the evaluation of F(G) in the DDI method. The DDI method would be applicable to a broad range of situations in which various DDI data are utilizable. PMID:25061161

  3. 78 FR 78367 - Draft Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Information Technology Plan; Availability for Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... for human pharmaceuticals. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments by February 24, 2014... affecting drug and biologics approvals, drug supply chain, and other topics related to human...

  4. Motor reactivity of animals exposed to ionizing radiation and treated with psychotropic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ionizing radiation on motor reactivity of animals and the influence of selected psychotropic drugs (fenactil, haloperidol, relanium) on the changes invoked by ionizing radiation were studied experimentally in rats whose motor reactivity was assessed on the basis of conditional reflexes. In unirradiated rats, fenactil and haloperidol, but not relanium, disordered positive conditional reactions. Roentgen irradiation of the rats with a single dose on the whole body caused a drop in positive conditional reactions. Relanium and fenactil enhanced psychomotor activity of rats after exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  5. In vitro and in vivo drug disposition of cilengitide in animals and human

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgos, Hugues; Freisleben, Achim; Wimmer, Elmar; Scheible, Holger; Krätzer, Friedrich; Yamagata, Tetsuo; Gallemann, Dieter; Fluck, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cilengitide is very low permeable (1.0 nm/sec) stable cyclic pentapeptide containing an Arg‐Gly‐Asp motif responsible for selective binding to αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins administered intravenously (i.v.). In vivo studies in the mouse and Cynomolgus monkeys showed the major component in plasma was unchanged drug (>85%). These results, together with the absence of metabolism in vitro and in animals, indicate minimal metabolism in both species. The excretion of [14C]‐cilengitide showed pro...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of plant biomass and animal manure: effect on C retention in soil and plant available N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Kahn, Arab R.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    We compared the release of C and N from untreated and anaerobically digested plant biomasses and animal manures. Based on losses of C during the plant biomass (feed) passage in cattle, during anaerobic digestion (AD), and during incubation with soil, the retention of C in soil was estimated. When...... relationship between N release and C retention. The increase in N availability due to AD was equivalent to 10-35% of total N in slurry, but after AD of plant biomass and faeces the N availability increased significantly more....

  7. Laser-assisted drug delivery in dermatology: from animal models to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faisal R; Al-Niaimi, Firas

    2016-02-01

    Topical medicaments are the mainstay of the dermatologists' therapeutic arsenal. Laser-assisted drug delivery enhances the ability of topically applied medicaments to penetrate the skin. We discuss the mechanisms of laser-assisted drug delivery and animal models that have informed clinical practice. We review clinical studies that have employed laser-assisted drug delivery for a range of indications to date including non-melanoma skin cancer, vitiligo, scarring, vaccination, local anaesthesia, analgesia, viral warts, infantile haemangiomas and cosmetic uses. Studies thus far suggest that laser pre-treatment improves transepidermal absorption of topical agents and allows for a much deeper penetration of drugs than is possible with topical medicaments alone. This may allow more efficacious action of current treatments, such that conventional duration of treatment can be shortened or lower concentrations of active agents be used, potentially obviating side effects of treatment. The prospect of using laser technologies to facilitate transdermal vaccination and as an adjunct for inflammatory dermatoses and cosmetic indications remains in its infancy. As larger trials are published, involving greater numbers of patients and utilising various laser and topical medicament parameters, we will enhance our understanding of this nascent modality of treatment delivery. PMID:26694489

  8. Do animal models provide a valid analogue for human drug lapse and relapse? Comment on Leri and Stewart (2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, G Alan

    2002-11-01

    Prior research on animal models of drug relapse has demonstrated that passive exposure to an addictive substance following acquisition and extinction of drug self-administration has a "priming effect" on subsequent drug use. The validity of this animal analogue of human relapse can be criticized, however, because most human drug relapses are precipitated by the user's voluntary self-administration of a substance. The results of the present study by F. Leri and J. Stewart (2002) clearly show that if the initial heroin lapse is self-administered by rats, subsequent heroin seeking during the relapse test is significantly greater than if the heroin is externally administered. These results help bridge the gap between animal and human models of drug use and highlight the significance of both behavioral and environmental determinants of relapse. PMID:12498331

  9. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling.'' FDA is issuing this....regulations.gov . To receive ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood...

  10. Synergy of image analysis for animal and human neuroimaging supports translational research on drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGerig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in animals models of neuropathology is of increasing interest to the neuroscience community. In this work, we present our approach to create optimal translational studies that include both animal and human neuroimaging data within the frameworks of a study of postnatal neuro-development in intra-uterine cocaine exposure. We propose the use of non-invasive neuroimaging to study developmental brain structural and white matter pathway abnormalities via sMRI and DTI, as advanced MR imaging technology is readily available and automated image analysis methodology have recently been transferred from the human to animal imaging setting. For this purpose, we developed a synergistic, parallel approach to imaging and image analysis for the human and the rodent branch of our study. We propose an equivalent design in both the selection of the developmental assessment stage and the neuroimaging setup. This approach brings significant advantages to study neurobiological features of early brain development that are common to animals and humans but also preserve analysis capabilities only possible in animal research. This paper presents the main framework and individual methods for the proposed cross-species study design, as well as preliminary DTI cross-species comparative results in the intra-uterine cocaine exposure study.

  11. Online Availability and Safety of Drugs in Shortage: A Descriptive Study of Internet Vendor Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Bryan A.; Mackey, Tim K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Unprecedented drug shortages announced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have severely affected therapeutic access, patient safety, and public health. With continued shortages, patients may seek drugs online. Objective To assess the prevalence of online marketing for current FDA shortage drugs and potential patient safety risks. Methods We performed a descriptive study of the prevalence of online marketing for shortage drugs—that is, offers for sale of each drug, includi...

  12. Analysis of price variation amongst different formulations of anxiolytic drugs available in Indian market

    OpenAIRE

    Vihang S. Chawan; Sagar V. Badwane; Kalpesh V. Gawand; Maheshi U. Chhaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cost of drug therapy is a very serious issue for people belonging to lower economic status in India. A single drug is manufactured by various pharmaceutical companies and sold under different brand names. The prices of these drugs vary in the Indian market. Anxiety is a symptom of many psychiatric disorders and surgical conditions for which anxiolytic drugs are commonly prescribed. This study was planned to study the price variation amongst the different brands of anxiolytic drugs...

  13. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  14. Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention i

  15. Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica Isolated from Animals and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) foodborne bacteria are a concern in animal and human health. Identification of resistance genes in foodborne pathogens is necessary to determine similarities of resistance mechanisms in animal, food and human clinical isolates. This information will help us ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  17. Multi-Drug Resistance Mediated by Class 1 Integrons in Aeromonas Isolated from Farmed Freshwater Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuting; Wu, Yali; Jiang, Lan; Tan, Aiping; Zhang, Ruiquan; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is regarded as an important pathogen of freshwater animals but little is known about the genetics of its antimicrobial resistance in Chinese aquaculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of integrons and characterize multidrug resistant Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased farmed freshwater animals. These animal samples included fish, ornamental fish, shrimp, turtles, and amphibians which were collected from 64 farms in Guangdong province of South China. One hundred and twelve Aeromonas spp. isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and the presence of class 1 integron sequences. Twenty-two (19.6%) of these isolates carried a class 1 integron comprising six different gene insertion cassettes including drfA12-orfF-aadA2, drfA12-orfF, aac(6')-II-bla OXA-21 -cat3, catB3, arr-3, and dfrA17. Among these, drfA12-orfF-aadA2 was the dominant gene cassette array (63.6%, 14/22) and this is the first report of aac(6')-II-bla OXA-21 -cat3 in an Aeromonas hydrophila isolate from a Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). All the integron-positive strains were resistant to more than five agents and 22 contained other resistance genes including bla CTX-M-3, bla TEM-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and tetA. All integron-positive isolates also contained mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR). Our investigation demonstrates that freshwater animals can serve as a reservoir for pathogenic Aeromonas strains containing multiple drug-resistance integrons. This data suggests that surveillance for antimicrobial resistance of animal origin and a prudent and responsible use of antimicrobials in aquaculture is necessary in these farms. PMID:27379065

  18. Using ICR and SCID mice as animal models for smallpox to assess antiviral drug efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Ksenya A; Sergeev, Alexander A; Zamedyanskaya, Alena S; Galahova, Darya O; Kabanov, Alexey S; Morozova, Anastasia A; Bulychev, Leonid E; Sergeev, Artemiy A; Glotova, Tanyana I; Shishkina, Larisa N; Taranov, Oleg S; Omigov, Vladimir V; Zavjalov, Evgenii L; Agafonov, Alexander P; Sergeev, Alexander N

    2015-09-01

    The possibility of using immunocompetent ICR mice and immunodeficient SCID mice as model animals for smallpox to assess antiviral drug efficacy was investigated. Clinical signs of the disease did not appear following intranasal (i.n.) challenge of mice with strain Ind-3a of variola virus (VARV), even when using the highest possible dose of the virus (5.2 log10 p.f.u.). The 50 % infective doses (ID50) of VARV, estimated by the virus presence or absence in the lungs 3 and 4 days post-infection, were 2.7 ± 0.4 log10 p.f.u. for ICR mice and 3.5 ± 0.7 log10 p.f.u. for SCID mice. After i.n. challenge of ICR and SCID mice with VARV 30 and 50 ID50, respectively, steady reproduction of the virus occurred only in the respiratory tract (lungs and nose). Pathological inflammatory destructive changes were revealed in the respiratory tract and the primary target cells for VARV (macrophages and epithelial cells) in mice, similar to those in humans and cynomolgus macaques. The use of mice to assess antiviral efficacies of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 demonstrated the compliance of results with those described in scientific literature, which opens up the prospect of their use as an animal model for smallpox to develop anti-smallpox drugs intended for humans. PMID:26067292

  19. Extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues in animal models: Relevance to the treatment of addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Karyn M.; Carlezon, William A

    2010-01-01

    Conditioned drug craving and withdrawal elicited by cues paired with drug use or acute withdrawal are among the many factors contributing to compulsive drug taking. Understanding how to stop these cues from having these effects is a major goal of addiction research. Extinction is a form of learning in which associations between cues and the events they predict are weakened by exposure to the cues in the absence of those events. Evidence from animal models suggests that conditioned responses t...

  20. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  1. Estimation of internal radiation dose in human based on animal data. Application of methodology in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before conducting human study on radiolabeled drug, internal radiation dose is evaluated based on the animal data. Generally, however, species difference in the elimination process of radioactivity, mostly in the hepatic metabolism, is ignored. The methodology of correction was described for drugs that are eliminated mostly by hepatic metabolism. We showed the validity of using the method where the hepatic clearance in animal and human are constructed by the hepatic blood flow, protein unbound fraction and metabolic rate in vitro, and the internal radiation exposure calculated is corrected by the animal/human ratio of the hepatic clearance. (author)

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  3. Unanticipated Effects of New Drug Availability on Antiretroviral Durability: Implications for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Ellen F.; Tamhane, Ashutosh R.; Burkholder, Greer A.; Willig, James H.; Saag, Michael S.; Mugavero, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Durability of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy is associated with improved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outcomes. Data on ARV regimen durability in recent years and clinical settings are lacking. Methods. This retrospective follow-up study included treatment-naive HIV-infected patients initiating ARV therapy between January 2007 and December 2012 in a university-affiliated HIV clinic in the Southeastern United States. Outcome of interest was durability (time to discontinuation) of the initial regimen. Durability was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Cox proportional hazard analyses was used to evaluate the association among durability and sociodemographic, clinical, and regimen-level factors. Results. Overall, 546 patients were analyzed. Median durability of all regimens was 39.5 months (95% confidence interval, 34.1–44.4). Commonly prescribed regimens were emtricitabine and tenofovir with efavirenz (51%; median duration = 40.1 months) and with raltegravir (14%; 47.8 months). Overall, 67% of patients had an undetectable viral load at the time of regimen cessation. Discontinuation was less likely with an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR] = 0.35, P = .001) or protease inhibitor-based regimen (aHR = 0.45, P = .006) and more likely with a higher pill burden (aHR = 2.25, P = .003) and a later treatment era (aHR = 1.64, P drugs and combinations. Reduced durability mostly results from a preference for newly approved regimens rather than indicating failing therapy, as indicated by viral suppression observed in a majority of patients (67%) prior to regimen cessation. Durability is influenced by extrinsic factors including new drug availability and provider preference. Medication durability must be interpreted carefully in the context of a dynamic treatment landscape.

  4. New insights into the use of currently available non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Kay; Patrignani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which act via inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes, were discovered more than 100 years ago. They remain a key component of the pharmacological management of acute and chronic pain. The COX-1 and COX-2 isozymes have different biological functions; analgesic activity is primarily (although not exclusively) associated with inhibition of COX-2, while different side effects result from the inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. All available NSAIDs, including acetaminophen and aspirin, are associated with potential side effects, particularly gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects, related to their relative selectivity for COX-1 and COX-2. Since all NSAIDs exert their therapeutic activity through inhibition of the COX isozymes, strategies are needed to reduce the risks associated with NSAIDs while achieving sufficient pain relief. A better understanding of the inhibitory activity and COX-1/COX-2 selectivity of an NSAID at therapeutic doses, based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties (eg, inhibitory dose, absorption, plasma versus tissue distribution, and elimination), and the impact on drug tolerability and safety can guide the selection of appropriate NSAIDs for pain management. For example, many NSAIDs with moderate to high selectivity for COX-2 versus COX-1 can be administered at doses that maximize efficacy (~80% inhibition of COX-2) while minimizing COX-1 inhibition and associated side effects, such as gastrointestinal toxicity. Acidic NSAIDs with favorable tissue distribution and short plasma half-lives can additionally be dosed to provide near-constant analgesia while minimizing plasma concentrations to permit recovery of COX-mediated prostaglandin production in the vascular wall and other organs. Each patient's clinical background, including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risk factors, should be taken into account when selecting appropriate NSAIDs. New methods are emerging to assist

  5. Neurodevelopmental Animal Models of Schizophrenia: Role in Novel Drug Discovery and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Christina; Alvin V Terry

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness that is associated with a lifetime of disability. For patients to successfully function in society, the amelioration of disease symptoms is imperative. The recently published results of two large antipsychotic clinical trials (e.g., CATIE, CUtLASS) clearly exemplified the limitations of currently available treatment options for schizophrenia, and further highlighted the critical need for novel drug discovery and development in this field. One of t...

  6. New insights into the use of currently available non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brune K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kay Brune,1 Paola Patrignani2 1Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany; 2Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, Center of Excellence on Aging, G d’Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, which act via inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX isozymes, were discovered more than 100 years ago. They remain a key component of the pharmacological management of acute and chronic pain. The COX-1 and COX-2 isozymes have different biological functions; analgesic activity is primarily (although not exclusively associated with inhibition of COX-2, while different side effects result from the inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. All available NSAIDs, including acetaminophen and aspirin, are associated with potential side effects, particularly gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects, related to their relative selectivity for COX-1 and COX-2. Since all NSAIDs exert their therapeutic activity through inhibition of the COX isozymes, strategies are needed to reduce the risks associated with NSAIDs while achieving sufficient pain relief. A better understanding of the inhibitory activity and COX-1/COX-2 selectivity of an NSAID at therapeutic doses, based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties (eg, inhibitory dose, absorption, plasma versus tissue distribution, and elimination, and the impact on drug tolerability and safety can guide the selection of appropriate NSAIDs for pain management. For example, many NSAIDs with moderate to high selectivity for COX-2 versus COX-1 can be administered at doses that maximize efficacy (~80% inhibition of COX-2 while minimizing COX-1 inhibition and associated side effects, such as gastrointestinal toxicity. Acidic NSAIDs with favorable tissue distribution and short plasma half-lives can additionally be dosed to provide near-constant analgesia while

  7. 78 FR 78366 - Draft Generic Drug User Fee Act Information Technology Plan; Availability for Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-based environment that enhances the regulatory review process for human pharmaceuticals. DATES: Submit... approvals, drug supply chain, and other topics related to human pharmaceuticals. The draft GDUFA IT...

  8. Influenza vaccines and influenza antiviral drugs in Africa: are they available and do guidelines for their use exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, Jazmin; McMorrow, Meredith L.; Adam L Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in Africa, particularly among high-risk groups, but influenza vaccines and antiviral drugs may not be commonly available and used. The main aim of this study was to determine the availability and use of influenza vaccines and antiviral drugs as well as to describe existing related guidelines and policies in Africa. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed among key influenza experts in 40 African countries. Resul...

  9. Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekaterina I Galanzha; Vladimir P Zharov; Philips Classic

    2007-01-01

    Using animal mesentery with intravital optical microscopy is a well-established experimental model for studying blood and lymph microcirculation in vivo.Recent advances in cell biology and optical techniques provide the basis for extending this model for new applications, which should generate significantly improved experimental data. This review summarizes the achievements in this specific area, including in vivo label-free blood and lymph photothermal flow cytometry,super-sensitive fluorescence image cytometry, light scattering and speckle flow cytometry, microvessel dynamic microscopy, infrared (IR) angiography, and high-speed imaging of individual cells in fast flow. The capabilities of these techniques, using the rat mesentery model, were demonstrated in various studies; e.g., realtime quantitative detection of circulating and migrating individual blood and cancer cells, studies on vascular dynamics with a focus on lymphatics under normal conditions and under different interventions (e.g. lasers,drugs, nicotine), assessment of lymphatic disturbances from experimental lymphedema, monitoring cell traffic between blood and lymph systems, and highspeed imaging of cell transient deformability in flow.In particular, the obtained results demonstrated that individual cell transportation in living organisms depends on cell type (e.g., normal blood or leukemic cells), the cell's functional state (e.g., live, apoptotic, or necrotic),and the functional status of the organism. Possible future applications, including in vivo early diagnosis and prevention of disease, monitoring immune response and apoptosis, chemo- and radio-sensitivity tests, and drug screening, are also discussed.

  10. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. PMID:22819650

  11. Cost analysis of different brands of antianginal drugs available in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Akila

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: To increase the benefit to the patient and reduce drug in compliance, doctors should be trained to be familiar from internship period itself about the brand names of cost-effective drugs with good safety profile for a long period. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 860-863

  12. 77 FR 14401 - Draft Guidance on Drug Safety Information-FDA's Communication to the Public; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... ``Drug Safety Information-- FDA's Communication to the Public.'' This draft guidance updates and revises the March 2007 guidance entitled ``Drug Safety Information-- FDA's Communication to the Public.'' This... Safety Information--FDA's Communication to the Public.'' This draft guidance updates and revises a...

  13. Finnish expert report on best available techniques in slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to provide information about Finnish slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste. The Finnish slaughterhouses slaughter mainly pigs, cattle, and poultry. Rendering plants and fur animal feed production plants treat animal derived waste generated in Finland. The slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste consume a lot of electricity and heat, whereas they can save energy by recovering residual heat in-situ. Slaughtering consumes a lot of water and produces a high amount of wastewater. Wastewater has a high biological oxygen demand (BOD) because it contains a lot of proteins and fat. To minimize the pollution load it is important to avoid blood and fat entering the drainage. All the slaughterhouses and most of the installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste discharge their wastewater to the municipal sewer after pre-treatment. The use of boilers to produce hot water and industrial steam is the main source of air emissions. The storage, handling and treatment of by-products and wastes as well as wastewater treatment and singeing are potential sources of foul odours. (orig.)

  14. 21 CFR 510.106 - Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing drugs intended for use in milk-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing... ANIMAL DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.106 Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing drugs intended for use in milk-producing animals. Whenever the labeling of...

  15. Interspecies allometric meta-analysis of the comparative pharmacokinetics of 85 drugs across veterinary and laboratory animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q; Gehring, R; Tell, L A; Li, M; Riviere, J E

    2015-06-01

    Allometric scaling is widely used for the determination of first dosage regimen and the interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters across many animal species during drug development. In this article, 85 drugs used in veterinary medicine obtained from the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank database were selected for allometric scaling analysis. Outlier species were identified by statistical methods. The results showed that 77% and 88% of drugs displayed significant correlations between total systemic clearance (CL) and volume of distribution at steady status (Vss) vs. body weight (P pharmacokinetic profiles for predicting drug dosages in veterinary species, and to identify those species for which interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetics properties may be problematic. PMID:25333341

  16. Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Drug Safety and Availability Postmarket Drug ...

  17. Automated High-Content Live Animal Drug Screening Using C. elegans Expressing the Aggregation Prone Serpin α1-antitrypsin Z

    OpenAIRE

    Gosai, Sager J.; Joon Hyeok Kwak; Cliff J Luke; Long, Olivia S.; King, Dale E.; Kovatch, Kevin J.; Johnston, Paul A.; Tong Ying Shun; Lazo, John S.; Perlmutter, David H.; Silverman, Gary A.; Pak, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    The development of preclinical models amenable to live animal bioactive compound screening is an attractive approach to discovering effective pharmacological therapies for disorders caused by misfolded and aggregation-prone proteins. In general, however, live animal drug screening is labor and resource intensive, and has been hampered by the lack of robust assay designs and high throughput work-flows. Based on their small size, tissue transparency and ease of cultivation, the use of C. elegan...

  18. Cost analysis study of oral antidiabetic drugs available in Indian market

    OpenAIRE

    Nisharani B Jadhav, Manisha S Bhosale, Charles V Adhav

    2013-01-01

    There exists a wide range of variation in the prices of drugs marketed in India and other countries of the world. Very few studies have been conducted to reveal such price variations in the open market. Aim & Objectives: To evaluate the cost of oral anti-diabetics of different generic classes and different brand names of one compound, To evaluate the difference in cost of different brands for the same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Methods: Cost of a particular drug ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  20. Cost analysis of different brands of antianginal drugs available in India

    OpenAIRE

    L. Akila; R. Jamuna Rani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ischemic heart disease is the most common cardiovascular disease in developed countries such as United States and Angina pectoris is the most frequent among them. If not managed adequately angina results in significant morbidity and mortality too due to the complications. Antianginal therapy is lifelong. Therefore, analysis of the price of drugs used in ischemic heart disease will help to improve patient compliance. Methods: Prices of various antianginal drugs of different stre...

  1. Study of variation in price of various antidiabetic drugs available in Indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Padmakar Date

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: The average percentage price variation of different brands of the same oral antidiabetic drug manufactured in India is very wide. The appropriate changes in the government policy, sensitizing the prescribers about cost of therapy and proper management of marketing drugs should be directed toward maximizing the benefits of therapy and minimizing negative economic consequences. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 36-40

  2. INVESTIGATION ON EFFECT OF DRUG DOSING REGIMENTS ON DRUG DELIVERY IN SOLID TUMOR VIA LUMPED PARAMETER MODELING AND ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ci-xiu; XU Shi-xiong; JIANG Yu-ping; TU Jiang-long

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the effects of dosing regiments on drug delivery in solid tumors and to validate them with experiments on rats.The lumped parameter models of pharmacokinetics and of drug delivery in tumor were developed to simulate time courses of average drug concentration(Ct)of tumor interstitium in two types of dosing regiments(i.e.,single-shot and triple-shot ones).The two regiments were performed via antitumor drug,hydroxycamptothecin(HCPT),on rats,to measure the drug concentration in the tumor.The simulations of the drug concentration in the tumor of the two dosing regiments were conducted and compared with the experimental data on rats.The coefficients in the models were investigated.It is concluded that the triple-shot method is more effective than that of single-shot injection.The present lumped-parameter model is quantitatively competent for drug delivery in solid tumor.

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trends Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount ...

  4. Influence of the Novelty-Seeking Endophenotype on the Rewarding Effects of Psychostimulant Drugs in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, M Carmen; Aguilar, María A; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Mateos-García, Ana; Navarro-Francés, Concepción I; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS), defined as a tendency to pursue novel and intense emotional sensations and experiences, is one of the most relevant individual factors predicting drug use among humans. High novelty seeking (HNS) individuals present an increased risk of drug use compared to low novelty seekers. The NS endophenotype may explain some of the differences observed among individuals exposed to drugs of abuse in adolescence. However, there is little research about the particular response of adolescents to drugs of abuse in function of this endophenotype, and the data that do exist are inconclusive. The present work reviews the literature regarding the influence of NS on psychostimulant reward, with particular focus on adolescent subjects. First, the different animal models of NS and the importance of this endophenotype in adolescence are discussed. Later, studies that have used the most common animal models of reward (self-administration, conditioned place preference paradigms) to evaluate how the NS trait influences the rewarding effects of psychostimulants are reviewed. Finally, possible explanations for the enhanced risk of developing substance dependence among HNS individuals are discussed. In conclusion, the studies referred to in this review show that the HNS trait is associated with: (1) increased initial sensitivity to the rewarding effects of psychostimulants, (2) a higher level of drug craving when the subject is exposed to the environmental cues associated with the drug, and (3) enhanced long-term vulnerability to relapse to drug consumption after prolonged abstinence. PMID:26391743

  5. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  6. Effect of Antimicrobial Use in Agricultural Animals on Drug-resistant Foodborne Campylobacteriosis in Humans: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M A; Helke, Kristi L; Galloway, Ashley M; Poole, Ann Z; Salgado, Cassandra D; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2016-10-01

    Controversy continues concerning antimicrobial use in food animals and its relationship to drug-resistant infections in humans. We systematically reviewed published literature for evidence of a relationship between antimicrobial use in agricultural animals and drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans. Based on publications from the United States (U.S.), Canada and Denmark from 2010 to July 2014, 195 articles were retained for abstract review, 50 met study criteria for full article review with 36 retained for which data are presented. Two publications reported increase in macrolide resistance of Campylobacter coli isolated from feces of swine receiving macrolides in feed, and one of these described similar findings for tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. A study in growing turkeys demonstrated increased macrolide resistance associated with therapeutic dosing with Tylan® in drinking water. One publication linked tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone SA in raw cow's milk to a foodborne outbreak in humans. No studies that identified farm antimicrobial use also traced antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter from farm to fork. Recent literature confirms that on farm antibiotic selection pressure can increase colonization of animals with drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. but is inadequately detailed to establish a causal relationship between use of antimicrobials in agricultural animals and prevalence of drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans. PMID:26580432

  7. Population genetics of multi-drug resistant (MDR) IncA/C plasmid in Salmonella enterica isolated from animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food animals harboring Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica are a potential source for acquisition of zoonotic pathogens. Plasmids (small, self-replicating, extra-chromosomal DNA) are often associated with antimicrobial resistance and plasmids carrying MDR genes have been found to be a maj...

  8. Transplacental genotoxicity of antiepileptic drugs: animal model and pilot study on mother/newborn cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucic, Aleksandra; Stojković, Ranko; Miškov, Snježana; Zeljezic, Davor; Markovic, Darko; Gjergja, Romana; Katic, Jelena; Jazbec, Ana Marija; Bakulic, Tomislav Ivicevic; Demarin, Vida

    2010-12-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AED) as transplacental agents are known to have adverse effects on fetal development. Genotoxicity of AEDs is still not fully understood. The aim of present study was to investigate the transplacental genotoxicity of valproate on animal model and in 21 mothers and their newborns receiving AED. In both studies, in vivo micronucleus (MN) assay was used. Pregnant dams were exposed to Na-valproate (100mg/kg) on gestational days 12-14. Dams and pups receiving Na-valproate showed a significantly increased MN frequency (5.17 ± 1.17/1000; 5.20 ± 1.48/1000) compared to the control (1.0 ± 0.58/1000; 1.67 ± 1.03/1000). In mother/newborn study a significant increase of MN frequency was detected in newborns of mothers taking AEDs (3.09 ± 0.49/10,000) compared to the referent newborns (1.56 ± 0.22/10,000). The results of this study suggest that AEDs may act as transplacental genotoxins. Launching the mother/newborn cohorts for genotoxicological monitoring may give a significant new insight in health effects of AEDs. PMID:20955786

  9. State of the Animal: monitoring animal welfare and health in The Netherlands (0-measurement) : summary, full report is available in Dutch (report 323)

    OpenAIRE

    Leenstra, F.R.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Neijenhuis, F.; Hanekamp, W.J.A.; Vermeij, I.; Ipema, A.H.; Jong, A.R.; Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Document over het effect van het dierenwelzijns- en diergezondheidsbeleid van LNV is. Deze eerste rapportage betreft een nulmeting. Bij herhaalde metingen geeft de rapportage inzicht in de ontwikkeling. In 25 meetpunten zijn de resultaten voor beleidsdoelen op het gebied van dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid in beeld gebracht25 measuring points summarise the results of policy measures for animal welfare and health in The Netherlands

  10. Drug: D06799 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ajor component: Calcium carbonate [CPD:C08129], Calcium biphosphate [CPD:C13556] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...icine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06799 Longgu; Fossilized mammal bones Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals D06799 Longgu PubChem: 47208450 ...

  11. Extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues in animal models: relevance to the treatment of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Karyn M; Carlezon, William A

    2010-11-01

    Conditioned drug craving and withdrawal elicited by cues paired with drug use or acute withdrawal are among the many factors contributing to compulsive drug taking. Understanding how to stop these cues from having these effects is a major goal of addiction research. Extinction is a form of learning in which associations between cues and the events they predict are weakened by exposure to the cues in the absence of those events. Evidence from animal models suggests that conditioned responses to drug cues can be extinguished, although the degree to which this occurs in humans is controversial. Investigations into the neurobiological substrates of extinction of conditioned drug craving and withdrawal may facilitate the successful use of drug cue extinction within clinical contexts. While this work is still in the early stages, there are indications that extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues shares neural mechanisms with extinction of conditioned fear. Using the fear extinction literature as a template, it is possible to organize the observations on drug cue extinction into a cohesive framework. PMID:20109490

  12. Predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption: from nutrient requirement to animal response and environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, J; Kebreab, E; Mills, J A N; Pellikaan, W F; López, S; Bannink, A; France, J

    2007-02-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product composition, excretion of nutrients to the environment, and nutrition related disorders. The change from a requirement to a response system to meet the needs of various stakeholders requires prediction of the profile of absorbed nutrients and its subsequent utilisation for various purposes. This contribution examines the challenges to predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption in dairy cattle and provides guidelines for further improved prediction with regard to animal production responses and environmental pollution.The profile of nutrients available for absorption comprises volatile fatty acids, long-chain fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Thus the importance of processes in the reticulo-rumen is obvious. Much research into rumen fermentation is aimed at determination of substrate degradation rates. Quantitative knowledge on rates of passage of nutrients out of the rumen is rather limited compared with that on degradation rates, and thus should be an important theme in future research. Current systems largely ignore microbial metabolic variation, and extant mechanistic models of rumen fermentation give only limited attention to explicit representation of microbial metabolic activity. Recent molecular techniques indicate that knowledge on the presence and activity of various microbial species is far from complete. Such techniques may give a wealth of information, but to include such findings in systems predicting the nutrient profile requires close collaboration between molecular scientists and mathematical modellers on interpreting and evaluating quantitative data. Protozoal metabolism is of particular interest here given the paucity of quantitative data

  13. 77 FR 55413 - New Animal Drugs; Chorionic Gonadotropin; Naloxone; Oxymorphone; Oxytocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Alterman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug... Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR parts 510 and 522 are amended as... Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  14. 76 FR 37814 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; New Animal Drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... for the proper performance of FDA's functions, including whether the information will have practical... drug industry firms, academic institutions, and the government. Investigators may include individuals... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities;...

  15. Automated high-content live animal drug screening using C. elegans expressing the aggregation prone serpin α1-antitrypsin Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosai, Sager J; Kwak, Joon Hyeok; Luke, Cliff J; Long, Olivia S; King, Dale E; Kovatch, Kevin J; Johnston, Paul A; Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S; Perlmutter, David H; Silverman, Gary A; Pak, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    The development of preclinical models amenable to live animal bioactive compound screening is an attractive approach to discovering effective pharmacological therapies for disorders caused by misfolded and aggregation-prone proteins. In general, however, live animal drug screening is labor and resource intensive, and has been hampered by the lack of robust assay designs and high throughput work-flows. Based on their small size, tissue transparency and ease of cultivation, the use of C. elegans should obviate many of the technical impediments associated with live animal drug screening. Moreover, their genetic tractability and accomplished record for providing insights into the molecular and cellular basis of human disease, should make C. elegans an ideal model system for in vivo drug discovery campaigns. The goal of this study was to determine whether C. elegans could be adapted to high-throughput and high-content drug screening strategies analogous to those developed for cell-based systems. Using transgenic animals expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins, we first developed a high-quality, high-throughput work-flow utilizing an automated fluorescence microscopy platform with integrated image acquisition and data analysis modules to qualitatively assess different biological processes including, growth, tissue development, cell viability and autophagy. We next adapted this technology to conduct a small molecule screen and identified compounds that altered the intracellular accumulation of the human aggregation prone mutant that causes liver disease in α1-antitrypsin deficiency. This study provides powerful validation for advancement in preclinical drug discovery campaigns by screening live C. elegans modeling α1-antitrypsin deficiency and other complex disease phenotypes on high-content imaging platforms. PMID:21103396

  16. Sex differences in exercise and drug addiction: A mini review of animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuehui Zhou; Chenglin Zhou; Rena Li

    2014-01-01

    Growing literature has demonstrated that exercise may be an effective prevention and treatment option for drug addiction. In the past few years, many studies have suggested that there were sex differences in all phases of drug addiction. However, very limited research has investigated sex differences in the effectiveness of exercise intervention in drug addiction and rehabilitation. In this mini review, we summarize the effect of sex on the results of using exercise to prevent and treat drug ...

  17. 75 FR 69586 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... that ``drug'' in the context of Sec. 516.20(b)(2) refers to the ``active pharmaceutical ingredient (API... name (and proprietary name, if any) of the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the drug; and the name and address of the source of the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the drug. * * * * *...

  18. 75 FR 69614 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... clarify that ``drug'' in the context of Sec. 516.20(b)(2) refers to the ``active pharmaceutical ingredient...) of the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the drug; and the name and address of the source of the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the drug. * * * * * Dated: November 3, 2010. Leslie Kux,...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  20. Animal models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rod...

  1. Improving the translation of analgesic drugs to the clinic: animal models of neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Percie du Sert, N; Rice, A. S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain remains an area of considerable unmet clinical need. Research based on preclinical animal models has failed to deliver truly novel treatment options, questioning the predictive value of these models. This review addresses the shortcomings of rodent in vivo models commonly used in the field and highlights approaches which could increase their predictivity, including more clinically relevant assays, outcome measures and animal characteristics. The methodological quality of anim...

  2. Innovative Drugs to Treat Depression: Did Animal Models Fail to Be Predictive or Did Clinical Trials Fail to Detect Effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A care...

  3. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced. It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct

  4. Development of an on-animal separation-based sensor for monitoring drug metabolism in freely roaming sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David E; Willis, Sean D; Gabbert, Seth; Johnson, David; Naylor, Erik; Janle, Elsa M; Krichevsky, Janice E; Lunte, Craig E; Lunte, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    The development of an on-animal separation-based sensor that can be employed for monitoring drug metabolism in a freely roaming sheep is described. The system consists of microdialysis sampling coupled to microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection (MD-ME-EC). Separations were accomplished using an all-glass chip with integrated platinum working and reference electrodes. Discrete samples from the microdialysis flow were introduced into the electrophoresis chip using a flow-gated injection approach. Electrochemical detection was accomplished in-channel using a two-electrode isolated potentiostat. Nitrite was separated by microchip electrophoresis using reverse polarity and a run buffer consisting of 50 mM phosphate at pH 7.4. The entire system was under telemetry control. The system was first tested with rats to monitor the production of nitrite following perfusion of nitroglycerin into the subdermal tissue using a linear probe. The data acquired using the on-line MD-ME-EC system were compared to those obtained by off-line analysis using liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LC-EC), using a second microdialysis probe implanted parallel to the first probe in the same animal. The MD-ME-EC device was then used on-animal to monitor the subdermal metabolism of nitroglycerin in sheep. The ultimate goal is to use this device to simultaneously monitor drug metabolism and behavior in a freely roaming animal. PMID:25697221

  5. 78 FR 44432 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Fentanyl; Iron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... S.A., and a change of sponsor for an NADA from Nexcyon Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to Elanco Animal Health...) Injection to Sogeval S.A., 200 Avenue de Mayenne, 53000 Laval, France. Nexcyon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 644 W... changes of sponsorship, Alstoe, Ltd., Animal Health, and Nexcyon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., are no...

  6. Determination of Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from animal sources and its comparison with commercially available probiotic preparations

    OpenAIRE

    M.A.DHOTRE; V. S. SHEMBEKAR

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics means live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on their host's health. Although probiotic strains can be isolated from many sources; for fish applications the main criteria is animal origin. Atotal of 15 milk samples (05 each from Cow, Buffalo and Goat) were analyzed. Out of these 11 isolates were identified as prominent probiotics, among them 3 isolates each from Cow, Buffalo and Goat were excellent probiotics. The probiotic properties of the isolated and bacteria from com...

  7. 78 FR 78716 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Roxarsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... CONTACT: John Bartkowiak, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519... of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with Sec... applications. Dated: December 20, 2013. Bernadette Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine....

  8. 78 FR 70566 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Arsanilic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD... the Commissioner of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in..., Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  9. 75 FR 24719 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Coumaphos; Novobiocin; Buquinolate and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... CONTACT: John Bartkowiak, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519... Commissioner of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with.... Dated: April 30, 2010. Bernadette Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE...

  10. 75 FR 1274 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Hyaluronate Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    .... Berson, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-110), Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl... Commissioner of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 522 is... for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-S...

  11. 78 FR 42381 - Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... regulations for the administrative detention of drugs (78 FR 21085). The docket was intended to ensure that... use as authorized by amendments made to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) by the... be posted to the docket at http://www.regulations.gov . List of Subjects 21 CFR Part 1...

  12. Repurposing an orally available drug for the treatment of geographic atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Chulbul M.; Biswal, Manas R; Li, Hong; Han, Pingyang; Ildefonso, Cristhian J; Lewin, Alfred S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic oxidative stress and subacute inflammation have been implicated as causes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this study, we tested whether an orally available 5-OH-tryptamine (5HT) 1a receptor agonist, xaliproden, could protect against retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell damage in culture and in a mouse model of geographic atrophy. Methods Paraquat was used to create mitochondrial oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was used to s...

  13. Drug treatment program patients' hepatitis C virus (HCV education needs and their use of available HCV education services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the disproportionate prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection among drug users, many remain uninformed or misinformed about the virus. Drug treatment programs are important sites of opportunity for providing HCV education to their patients, and many programs do, in fact, offer this education in a variety of formats. Little is known, however, about the level of HCV knowledge among drug treatment program patients, and the extent to which they utilize their programs' HCV education services. Methods Using data collected from patients (N = 280 in 14 U.S. drug treatment programs, we compared patients who reported that they never injected drugs (NIDUs with past or current drug injectors (IDUs concerning their knowledge about HCV, whether they used HCV education opportunities at their programs, and the facilitators and barriers to doing so. All of the programs were participating in a research project that was developing, implementing, and evaluating a staff training to provide HCV support to patients. Results Although IDUs scored higher on an HCV knowledge assessment than NIDUs, there were many gaps in HCV knowledge among both groups of patients. To address these knowledge gaps, all of the programs offered at least one form of HCV education: all offered 1:1 sessions with staff, 12 of the programs offered HCV education in a group format, and 11 of the programs offered this education through pamphlets/books. Only 60% of all of the participating patients used any of their programs' HCV education services, but those who did avail themselves of these HCV education opportunities generally assessed them positively. In all, many patients were unaware that HCV education was offered at their programs through individual sessions with staff, group meetings, and books/pamphlets, (42%, 49%, and 46% of the patients, respectively, and 22% were unaware that any HCV education opportunities existed. Conclusion Efforts especially need

  14. No Humans Have Been Injured in the Testing of this Drug: The New Animal Efficacy Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the “Animal Efficacy Rule,†a regulation that provides for the approval of products by the FDA when efficacy testing on humans is ethically impossible. It gives a summary of the history of the enactment of this regulation and outlines its structure and major features. Next, the regulation is analyzed in light of statutory authority, ethics, and practicality. Finally the approval of pyridostigmine bromide under the Animal Efficacy Rule is eval...

  15. The oxytocin system in drug discovery for autism: Animal models and novel therapeutic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Meera E.; Young, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and behavioral paradigms are critical for elucidating the neural mechanism involved in complex behaviors, including social cognition. Both genotype and phenotype based models have implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) in the regulation of social behavior. Based on the findings in animal models, alteration of the OT system has been hypothesized to play a role in the social deficits associated with autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders. While the evidence linking the pep...

  16. Synergy of image analysis for animal and human neuroimaging supports translational research on drug abuse

    OpenAIRE

    MartinAndreasStyner; GuidoGerig; MatthewMcMurray; HongyuAn; JoohwiLee

    2011-01-01

    The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in animals models of neuropathology is of increasing interest to the neuroscience community. In this work, we present our approach to create optimal translational studies that include both animal and human neuroimaging data within the frameworks of a study of postnatal neuro-development in intra-uterine cocaine exposure. We propose the use of non-invasive neuroimaging to study developmental brain struct...

  17. Accelerating drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease: best practices for preclinical animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shineman, Diana W; Basi, Guriqbal S.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Colton, Carol A.; Greenberg, Barry D.; Hollister, Beth A; Lincecum, John; Leblanc, Gabrielle G.; Lee, Linda H; Luo, Feng; Morgan, Dave; Morse, Iva; Refolo, Lorenzo M; Riddell, David R; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a result, over 300 interventions have been investigated and reported to mitigate pathological phenotypes or improve behavior in AD animal models or both. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in target validation in humans or successful translation to disease-modifying therapies. Challenges in translating preclinical studies to clinical...

  18. 77 FR 18685 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ..., and telephone number; the established name (and proprietary name, if any) of the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the drug; and the name and address of the source ] of the active pharmaceutical ingredient...

  19. 75 FR 52768 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Dichlorophene and Toluene Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: John Bartkowiak, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration... Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with Sec. 514.116 Notice of withdrawal of approval of application (21... Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-S...

  20. 77 FR 22789 - Withdrawal of Approval of Part of a New Animal Drug Application; Tiamulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... April 17, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cindy L. Burnsteel, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV... Drugs and redelegated to the Director of the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with Sec..., Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE P...

  1. Streptococcus suis, an Emerging Drug-Resistant Animal and Human Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Palmieri, Claudio; Varaldo, Pietro E.; Facinelli, Bruna

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen, has been receiving growing attention not only for its role in severe and increasingly reported infections in humans, but also for its involvement in drug resistance. Recent studies and the analysis of sequenced genomes have been providing important insights into the S. suis resistome, and have resulted in the identification of resistance determinants for tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, antifolate drugs, streptothricin,...

  2. Novelty Seeking and Drug Addiction in Humans and Animals: From Behavior to Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Taylor; Nesil, Tanseli; Choi, Jung-Seok; Li, Ming D

    2016-09-01

    Global treatment of drug addiction costs society billions of dollars annually, but current psychopharmacological therapies have not been successful at desired rates. The increasing number of individuals suffering from substance abuse has turned attention to what makes some people more vulnerable to drug addiction than others. One personality trait that stands out as a contributing factor is novelty seeking. Novelty seeking, affected by both genetic and environmental factors, is defined as the tendency to desire novel stimuli and environments. It can be measured in humans through questionnaires and in rodents using behavioral tasks. On the behavioral level, both human and rodent studies demonstrate that high novelty seeking can predict the initiation of drug use and a transition to compulsive drug use and create a propensity to relapse. These predictions are valid for several drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, and opiates. On the molecular level, both novelty seeking and addiction are modulated by the central reward system in the brain. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter involved in the overlapping neural substrates of both parameters. In sum, the novelty-seeking trait can be valuable for predicting individual vulnerability to drug addiction and for generating successful treatment for patients with substance abuse disorders. PMID:26481371

  3. Development and evaluation of an ITS1 "Touchdown" PCR for assessment of drug efficacy against animal African trypanosomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thao; Napier, Grant; Rowan, Tim; Cordel, Claudia; Labuschagne, Michel; Delespaux, Vincent; Van Reet, Nick; Erasmus, Heidi; Joubert, Annesca; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-05-28

    Animal African trypanosomoses (AAT) are caused by flagellated protozoa of the Trypanosoma genus and contribute to considerable losses in animal production in Africa, Latin America and South East Asia. Trypanosoma congolense is considered the economically most important species. Drug resistant T. congolense strains present a threat to the control of AAT and have triggered research into discovery of novel trypanocides. In vivo assessment of trypanocidal efficacy relies on monitoring of treated animals with microscopic parasite detection methods. Since these methods have poor sensitivity, follow-up for up to 100 days after treatment is recommended to increase the chance of detecting recurrent parasitaemia waves. Molecular techniques are more amendable to high throughput processing and are generally more sensitive than microscopic detection, thus bearing the potential of shortening the 100-day follow up period. The study presents a "Touchdown" PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 of the ribosomal DNA (ITS1 TD PCR) that enables detection and discrimination of different Trypanosoma taxa in a single run due to variations in PCR product sizes. The assay achieves analytical sensitivity of 10 parasites per ml of blood for detection of T. congolense savannah type and T. brucei, and 100 parasites per ml of blood for detection of T. vivax in infected mouse blood. The ITS1 TD PCR was evaluated on cattle experimentally infected with T. congolense during an investigational new veterinary trypanocide drug efficacy study. ITS1 TD PCR demonstrated comparable performance to microscopy in verifying trypanocide treatment success, in which parasite DNA became undetectable in cured animals within two days post-treatment. ITS1 TD PCR detected parasite recrudescence three days earlier than microscopy and had a higher positivity rate than microscopy (84.85% versus 57.58%) in 66 specimens of relapsing animals collected after treatments. Therefore, ITS1 TD PCR provides a useful tool

  4. The botanical origin of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa; Rubiaceae) available as abused drugs in the Japanese markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Goda, Yukihiro

    2009-07-01

    Kratom is the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae). Recently, kratom has been sold in street shops or on the Internet in Japan for the purpose of abuse due to its opium-like effects. In this study, we investigated the botanical origin of the commercial kratom products using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis of rDNA in preparation for future regulation of this product. In addition, a previously reported method to authenticate the plant, utilizing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied to the same products in order to estimate the method's accuracy and utility. The ITS sequence analysis of the commercial kratoms revealed that most of them were derived from M. speciosa or closely related plants, while the others were made from the same tribe plant as M. speciosa. The reported PCR-RFLP method could clearly distinguish kratoms from the other psychoactive plants available in the Japanese markets and also from related plants. The authentication method is considered to be useful for the practical regulation of the plant due to its wide range of application, high accuracy and simplicity. PMID:19294483

  5. Pharmacokinetic studies on 14C-labelled phenanthridine and aromatic diamidine drugs used to control African trypanosomiasis in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years ethidium (homidium) bromide (3, 8-diamino-6-phenyl-5-ethyl phenanthridinium bromide) has been used curatively and for limited prophylaxis against Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax infections in ruminants in Africa and aromatic diamidine berenil (diminazeneaceturate, 4, 4'-(diazoamino) benzamidine) has been used as a curative drug against these parasites, but there is little published information about the pharmacokinetics of either drug. Reviewed here is the present knowledge and report results of recent experiments using 14C-labelled drugs to measure blood and tissue fluid levels and tissue residues of ethidium in uninfected and T. congolense-infected laboratory animals and bovines and berenil in laboratory animals. In the case of 14C-ethidium levels of radioactivity in blood and tissue fluids reached a maximum within 1 h of intramuscular injection (1 mg/kg) and then fell rapidly; after 96 h 80-90% of the radioactivity injected had been excreted, approximately one-third in urine and two-thirds in faeces. It is estimated that ca 3-4% of the radioactivity injected is present in tissues of animals sacrificed 9-10 d after administration of drug, the highest residues/unit wet weight of tissue being present in liver and kidney. In similar experiments with 14C-berenil (3.5 mg/kg) radioactivity in blood reached a peak within 30 min, fell rapidly over the next 5 h, but remained at a significant level for 4-6 d. Radioactivity in tissue fluids did not rise as rapidly or to such a high peak level as in blood, but after 2 h remained at approximately twice the level detected in blood for up to 7 d. At 7 d, in marked contrast to ethidium, only 65% of the administered radioactivity had been excreted (44% in urine and 21% in faeces), and in animals sacrificed at that time it was found that the majority (95%) of the residual drug was present in the liver. (author)

  6. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Ernesto Nicolás Gulin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%. Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction.

  7. Veterinary drug usage and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    countries, which leaves room for considerable reductions in some countries. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes due to the use of antimicrobial agents are well documented. In Denmark it has been possible to reduce the usage of antimicrobial agents for food animals significantly...

  8. 77 FR 60622 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Address; Monensin; Spinosad; Tilmicosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... group. approved for use in calves intended to be processed for veal. A withdrawal period has not been... the animals in the processed for veal. A group. withdrawal period has not been established in pre... been calves intended to be diagnosed in at processed for veal. A least 10 percent of withdrawal...

  9. Investigations into the effect of immunostimulating drugs on the immune system of irradiated experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments with mice and pigs a sublethal irradiation before vaccination proved to be by far more efficient than an irradiation with the same dose following vaccination. In the irradiated animals a retarded beginning of the immune response compared with the controls was observed. In the experiments with mice positive effects of the adjuvant azimexon and levamisol on the radiation induced immunosuppression was seen. In the experiments with pigs the radiation iduced immunosuppression was completely abolished by addition of incomplete Freund adjuvant to the antigen. Azimexon as adjuvant was efficient both when given before or after exposition. Post-endotoxic serum from BCG-infected animals (BCG/ET) had only a weak effect in animals immunized before exposition. Serum immunoglobulin levels of pigs were stable against irradiation and application of immunomodulating agents. Stimulation effects of the irradiation on the antibody response were observed in mice and pigs if the animals were first immunized and irradiated afterwards. In the irradiated pigs the mitogenic stimulation of T and B cells was depressed. After application of azimexon the stimulation of T cells was significantly increased in irradiated pigs; the impaired B cell stimulation, however, remained unaltered. By using the monoclonal antibody technique functionally distinct subpopulations of peripherals lymphocytes in swine were detected, each showing a different sensibility towards in vivo irradiation. (orig.) With 10 refs., 21 figs

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount ... behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. ...

  11. 75 FR 12981 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tetracycline Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...; Tetracycline Powder AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY... provides for revised labeling for a 25 gram per pound concentration of tetracycline hydrochloride soluble... that provides for revised labeling for DURAMYCIN-10 (tetracycline hydrochloride), a soluble...

  12. 77 FR 9528 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... February 17, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: George K. Haibel, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-6... Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 500 is amended as follows: PART 500--GENERAL 0 1. The authority citation for... from the Communications Staff (HFV-12), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug...

  13. 77 FR 60442 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Butorphanol; Doxapram; Triamcinolone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Alterman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food... Commissioner of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with... applications. Dated: September 27, 2012. Bernadette Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine....

  14. 78 FR 52536 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Diethylcarbamazine; Nicarbazin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Alterman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl... Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with Sec. 514.116 Notice of withdrawal of approval of application (21.... Dated: August 19, 2013. Bernadette Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE...

  15. 77 FR 55481 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chorionic Gonadotropin; Naloxone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Alterman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl... redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with Sec. 514.116 Notice of withdrawal of... Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  16. 76 FR 40229 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steven D. Vaughn, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food... to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 520 is amended as follows: PART 520--ORAL DOSAGE... Drug Evaluation, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  17. 78 FR 70062 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Carbarsone; Roxarsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... CONTACT: John Bartkowiak, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519... redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with Sec. 514.116 Notice of withdrawal of... Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  18. 76 FR 11490 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Phenylbutazone; Pyrantel; Tylosin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855, 240-276... Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with Sec. 514.116 Notice of withdrawal of approval of application (21... 18, 2011. Bernadette Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  19. 75 FR 1274 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Florfenicol and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 522 is amended as follows: PART 522--IMPLANTATION OR...

  20. 75 FR 38699 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... Medicine, 21 CFR part 522 is amended as follows: PART 522--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM...

  1. 75 FR 60307 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Dexmedetomidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 522 is amended as follows: PART 522--IMPLANTATION OR...

  2. 75 FR 20268 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 522 is amended as follows: PART...

  3. 75 FR 13225 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 522 is amended as follows: PART...

  4. 77 FR 4225 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Milbemycin Oxime, Lufenuron, and Praziquantel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ...; Milbemycin Oxime, Lufenuron, and Praziquantel AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... for the veterinary prescription use of milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel for the... oxime/lufenuron/praziquantel) Tablets for the prevention of heartworm disease, for the prevention...

  5. 75 FR 54018 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Praziquantel and Pyrantel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...; Praziquantel and Pyrantel AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and... sizes of praziquantel and pyrantel pamoate tablets used in cats and kittens for the removal of various.... Box 390, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201, filed a supplement to NADA 141-008 for DRONTAL (praziquantel...

  6. Back to the future of psychopharmacology: A perspective on animal models in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Hendrikus; Groenink, Lucianne

    2015-07-15

    Psychopharmacology has had some bad publicity lately. Frankly, there have been some major problems along the way in developing new effective drugs for psychiatric disorders. After a prolonged period of high investments but low success rates, big pharmaceutical companies seem to retract their activities in the psychopharmacology field. Yet, the burden of mental disorders is likely to keep on growing in the next decades. In this position paper, we focus on drug development for depression and anxiety disorders, to narrow the scope of the assay. We describe the current situation of the psychopharmacology field, and analyse some of the methods and paradigms that have brought us here, but which should perhaps change to bring us even further. In addition, some of the factors contributing to the current stagnation in psychopharmacology are discussed. Finally, we suggest a number of changes that could lead to a more rational strategy for central nervous system drug development and which may circumvent some of the pitfalls leading to "me too" approaches. Central to the suggested changes, is the notion that mental disorders do not lead to several symptoms, but a network of causally related symptoms convolutes into a mental disorder. We call upon academia to put these changes in the early phases of drug development into effect. PMID:25814259

  7. 76 FR 78150 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Hydrocortisone Aceponate, Miconazole Nitrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New... to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 524 is amended as follows: PART...

  8. 75 FR 4692 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Miconazole, Polymixin B, and Prednisolone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New... Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 524 is amended as follows: PART 524--OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM...

  9. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... exclusivity (69 FR 501, January 6, 2004). The supplemental ANADA is approved as of September 21, 2011, and 21... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New... for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 524 is amended as follows: PART 524--OPHTHALMIC AND...

  10. 75 FR 16346 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Orbifloxacin, Mometasone Furoate Monohydrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New... Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 524 is amended as follows: PART 524--OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM...

  11. Use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals and Enterococcus faecium resistance to therapeutic antimicrobial drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Bager, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    , clear evidence of a health risk was not available. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the use of the glycopeptide avoparcin as a growth promoter has created in food animals a major reservoir of Enterococcus faecium, which contains the high level glycopeptide resistance determinant vanA, located on...

  12. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Julián Ernesto Nicolás; Rocco, Daniela Marisa; García-Bournissen, Facundo

    2015-11-01

    Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%). Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction. PMID:26587586

  13. Establishing a structured animal model for screening anti-psychological drugs of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Li; Zhemeng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Although some traditional animal models for studying schizophrenia have been wildly used,many problems remain in their credibility and validity.We propose that structured animal models with the integration of multiple symptom-inducing factors are be better in simulating the symptoms of schizophrenia and represent the new direction of the future ani-mal-model development.In this article,we review previous studies in this line of research and emphasize the importance of combining the behavior paradigm of the structured top-down attentional modulation of prepulse inhibition with multiple path-ogenic factors related to schizophrenia to establish a new model generation,which will be of great significance in investigating both the pathogenesis and the treatment of schizophrenia.

  14. A Fully Implanted Drug Delivery System for Peripheral Nerve Blocks in Behaving Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Jordon, Luke R.; Kim, Peter; Miller, Lee E.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibiting peripheral nerve function can be useful for many studies of the nervous system or motor control. Accomplishing this in a temporary fashion in animal models by using peripheral nerve blocks permits studies of the immediate effects of the loss, and/or any resulting short-term changes and adaptations in behavior or motor control, while avoiding the complications commonly associated with permanent lesions, such as sores or self-mutilation. We have developed a method of quickly and repe...

  15. Animal models to guide clinical drug development in ADHD: lost in translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Wickens, Jeffery R.; Hyland, Brian I.; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    We review strategies for developing animal models for examining and selecting compounds with potential therapeutic benefit in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a behavioural disorder of unknown aetiology and pathophysiology. Current understanding suggests that genetic factors play an important role in the aetiology of ADHD. The involvement of dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of ADHD is probable. We review the clinical features of ADHD includ...

  16. The age of anxiety: role of animal models of anxiolytic action in drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Cryan, John F; Sweeney, Fabian F.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common, serious and a growing health problem worldwide. However, the causative factors, aetiology and underlying mechanisms of anxiety disorders, as for most psychiatric disorders, remain relatively poorly understood. Animal models are an important aid in giving insight into the aetiology, neurobiology and, ultimately, the therapy of human anxiety disorders. The approach, however, is challenged with a number of complexities. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of anx...

  17. Cognitive Enhancers for Facilitating Drug Cue Extinction: Insights from Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Áine; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the success of cue exposure (extinction) therapy combined with a cognitive enhancer for reducing anxiety, it is anticipated that this approach will prove more efficacious than exposure therapy alone in preventing relapse in individuals with substance use disorders. Several factors may undermine the efficacy of exposure therapy for substance use disorders, but we suspect that neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic drug use are an important contributing factor. Numerous insigh...

  18. Radiosensitization of hypoxic bacterial cells and animal tumours by membrane active drugs and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report deals with the results on phenothiazine derivatives such as promethazine (PMZ), trimeprazine (TMZ), trifluoperazine (TFP) and prochlorperazine (PCP) and their comparison with that of chlorpromazine (CPZ). Their efficiency in combination with hyperthermia, radiation and other anti-cancer drugs in treating murine tumors has also been presented herein. In addition, results on bacterial cells dealing with their mechanistic aspects are also included. (author). 57 refs., 27 figures, 13 tables

  19. Effects of Ayahuasca and its Alkaloids on Drug Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review of Quantitative Studies in Animals and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Amanda A; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Osório, Flávia L; Sanches, Rafael F; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the anti-addictive potential of ayahuasca, a dimethyltryptamine(DMT)- and β-carboline-rich hallucinogenic beverage traditionally used by indigenous groups of the Northwest Amazon and currently by syncretic churches worldwide, has received increased attention. To better evaluate this topic, we performed a systematic literature review using the PubMed database to find quantitative studies (using statistical analysis) that assessed the effects of ayahuasca or its components in drug-related symptoms or disorders. We found five animal studies (using harmaline, harmine, or ayahuasca) and five observational studies of regular ayahuasca consumers. All animal studies showed improvement of biochemical or behavioral parameters related to drug-induced disorders. Of the five human studies, four reported significant reductions of dependence symptoms or substance use, while one did not report significant results. The mechanisms responsible for the anti-addictive properties of ayahuasca and its alkaloids are not clarified, apparently involving both peripheral MAO-A inhibition by the β-carbolines and central agonism of DMT at 5-HT2A receptors expressed in brain regions related to the regulation of mood and emotions. Although results are promising, controlled studies are needed to replicate these preliminary findings. PMID:27230395

  20. Use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals and Enterococcus faecium resistance to therapeutic antimicrobial drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    1999-01-01

    Supplementing animal feed with antimicrobial agents to enhance growth has been common practice for more than 30 years and is estimated to constitute more than half the total antimicrobial use worldwide. The potential public health consequences of this use have been debated; however, until recently......, clear evidence of a health risk was not available. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the use of the glycopeptide avoparcin as a growth promoter has created in food animals a major reservoir of Enterococcus faecium, which contains the high level glycopeptide resistance determinant vanA, located...... on the Tn1546 transposon. Furthermore, glycopeptide-resistant strains, as well as resistance determinants, can be transmitted from animals to humans. Two antimicrobial classes expected to provide the future therapeutic options for treatment of infections with vancomycin-resistant enterococci have analogues...

  1. Proposed food and drug administration protection action guides for human food and animal feed: Rationale and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)

  2. Innovative drugs to treat depression: did animal models fail to be predictive or did clinical trials fail to detect effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science. PMID:24345817

  3. CIAPIN1 gene silencing enhances chemosensitivity in a drug-resistant animal model in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.M.; Gao, S.J.; Guo, X.F.; Sun, W.J. [Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Yan, Z.Q. [Department of Breast Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Wang, W.X.; Xu, Y.Q.; Lu, D. [Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China)

    2014-03-21

    Overexpression of cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1) contributes to multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of CIAPIN1 gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) as a treatment for drug-resistant breast cancer and to investigate the effect of CIAPIN1 on the drug resistance of breast cancer in vivo. We used lentivirus-vector-based RNAi to knock down CIAPIN1 in nude mice bearing MDR breast cancer tumors and found that lentivirus-vector-mediated silencing of CIAPIN1 could efficiently and significantly inhibit tumor growth when combined with chemotherapy in vivo. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that both CIAPIN1 and P-glycoprotein expression were efficiently downregulated, and P53 was upregulated, after RNAi. Therefore, we concluded that lentivirus-vector-mediated RNAi targeting of CIAPIN1 is a potential approach to reverse MDR of breast cancer. In addition, CIAPIN1 may participate in MDR of breast cancer by regulating P-glycoprotein and P53 expression.

  4. CIAPIN1 gene silencing enhances chemosensitivity in a drug-resistant animal model in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overexpression of cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1) contributes to multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of CIAPIN1 gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) as a treatment for drug-resistant breast cancer and to investigate the effect of CIAPIN1 on the drug resistance of breast cancer in vivo. We used lentivirus-vector-based RNAi to knock down CIAPIN1 in nude mice bearing MDR breast cancer tumors and found that lentivirus-vector-mediated silencing of CIAPIN1 could efficiently and significantly inhibit tumor growth when combined with chemotherapy in vivo. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that both CIAPIN1 and P-glycoprotein expression were efficiently downregulated, and P53 was upregulated, after RNAi. Therefore, we concluded that lentivirus-vector-mediated RNAi targeting of CIAPIN1 is a potential approach to reverse MDR of breast cancer. In addition, CIAPIN1 may participate in MDR of breast cancer by regulating P-glycoprotein and P53 expression

  5. Spatial navigation: implications for animal models, drug development and human studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Kubík, Štěpán; Vlček, Kamil; Valeš, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S237-S249. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1464; GA MZd(CZ) NT13386; GA MZd(CZ) NT13403; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Grant ostatní: Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204; EC(XE) PIR06-GA/2009-256581 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : behavior * rat * animal models Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  6. Drug: D06906 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ri, or other related species larval exuvia; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...n Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property ...D06906 Cicadae periostracum; Cicada slough; Zentai Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects D06906 Cicada larva exuvia PubChem: 51091248 ...

  7. Effects of Cannabinoid Drugs on the Deficit of Prepulse Inhibition of Startle in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia: the SHR Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel eLevin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and neurobiological findings suggest that the cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system may be implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. We described that the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR strain presents a schizophrenia behavioral phenotype that is specifically attenuated by antipsychotic drugs, and potentiated by proschizophrenia manipulations. Based on these findings, we have suggested this strain as an animal model of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cannabinoid drugs on the deficit of prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI, the main paradigm used to study sensorimotor gating impairment related to schizophrenia, presented by the SHR strain. The following drugs were used: 1 WIN55212,2 (cannabinoid agonist, 2 rimonabant (CB1 antagonist, 3 AM404 (anandamide uptake inhibitor, and 4 cannabidiol (indirect CB1/CB2 receptor antagonist, among other effects. Wistar rats (WR and SHRs were treated with vehicle or different doses of WIN55212 (0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg, rimonabant (0.75, 1.5 or 3 mg/kg, AM404 (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg or cannabidiol (15, 30 or 60 mg/kg. Vehicle-treated SHRs showed a decreased PPI when compared to WRs. This PPI deficit was reversed by 1 mg/kg WIN and 30 mg/kg cannabidiol. Conversely, 0.75 mg/kg rimonabant decreased PPI in SHR strain, whereas AM404 did not modify it. Our results reinforce the role of the endocannabinoid system in the sensorimotor gating impairment related to schizophrenia, and point to cannabinoid drugs as potential therapeutic strategies.

  8. Availability of and Access to Orphan Drugs: An International Comparison of Pharmaceutical Treatments for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Fabry Disease, Hereditary Angioedema and Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Rudolf. Blankart; Tom Stargardt; Jonas Schreygg

    2011-01-01

    Background: Market authorization does not guarantee patient access to any given drug. This is particularly true for costly orphan drugs because access depends primarily on co-payments, reimbursement policies and prices. The objective of this article is to identify differences in the availability of orphan drugs and in patient access to them in 11 pharmaceutical markets: Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland and the US. Methods: Fo...

  9. 78 FR 55727 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive Petitions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  10. 77 FR 36282 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... efficacy study in real time Development Stage: Early-stage Pre-clinical In vivo data available (animal... clinical development because animal model testing is important for pre-clinical validation of drug function... A 2 A receptors. Development Stage: Early-stage In vivo data available (animal) Inventors:...

  11. Doxorubicin-Loaded QuadraSphere Microspheres: Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Intratumoral Drug Concentration in an Animal Model of Liver Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  12. Animal experiment and clinical preliminary application of percutaneous 70% ethanol injection therapy in multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of percutaneous injection of 70% ethanol in the treatment of multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Percutaneous and transcatheter absolute ethanol, 70% ethanol, and 60% meglucamine diatrizoate(or distilled water) injection into the lung (25 cases) and the bronchi (25 cases) of healthy rabbits were performed, respectively.All specimens were studied with pathology. On the base of animals experiment, thirty-five patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with percutaneous 70% ethanol injection. Every patient was treated by the same way for 1-3 times. Results: Pathological findings of the specimens of pulmonary tissue showed nonspecific inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. The chief pathological changes with percutaneous or transcatheter 70% ethanol injection were slighter than those with absolute ethanol injection. Pathological findings of the specimens of bronchi showed slight mucosal edema, nonspecific inflammation, and focal cytonecrosis. Recovery of the damaged bronchial mucosa occurred within 14-30 days after the treatment. All patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were followed up for 6 to 33 months. The sputum bacterial conversion to negative rate was 100% within 6 months after the treatment. Cavity closing, shrinking, and no changing rate were 47.1% (16/34), 50.0% (17/34), and 2.9% (1/34), respectively. Radiographic improvement rate was 94.3 % (33/35). No severe complications and adverse reactions occurred. Conclusion: Percutaneous 70% ethanol injection is safe, effective, and easy to perform in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. (authors)

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  14. Distribution of Animal Drugs between Skim Milk and Milk Fat Fractions in Spiked Whole Milk: Understanding the Potential Impact on Commercial Milk Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakk, Heldur; Shappell, Nancy W; Lupton, Sara J; Shelver, Weilin L; Fanaselle, Wendy; Oryang, David; Yeung, Chi Yuen; Hoelzer, Karin; Ma, Yinqing; Gaalswyk, Dennis; Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M

    2016-01-13

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA), and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate the drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. More than 90% of the radioactivity was distributed into the skim milk fraction for ERY, KETO, OTET, PENG, and SDMX, approximately 80% for THIA, and 13% for IVR. The distribution of drug between milk fat and skim milk fractions was significantly correlated to the drug's lipophilicity (partition coefficient, log P, or distribution coefficient, log D, which includes ionization). Data were fit with linear mixed effects models; the best fit was obtained within this data set with log D versus observed drug distribution ratios. These candidate empirical models serve for assisting to predict the distribution and concentration of these drugs in a variety of milk and milk products. PMID:26652058

  15. The availability of inorganic sulphate in blood for sulphate conjugation of drugs in rat liver in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Na235SO4 is injected intravenously in rats, it is immediately available for sulphate conjugation of the phenolic drug harmol (7-hydroxyl-l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) in the liver. This was esteblished by following the time course of the biliary excretion of the sulphate conjugate of harmol, and the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into harmol sulphate. During the 10 min immediately after injection of Na235SO4 re-distribution of [35S]sulphate took place, which resulted in a rapid initial decrease in the plasma concentration of [35S]sulphate; a concomitant decrease in the amount of [35S]sulphate incorporated into harmol sulphate was observed, indicating that the co-substrate of sulphation, adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-sulphatophosphate, equilibrates rapidly with [35S]sulphate in plasma. The results suggest that the pool size of adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-sulphatophosphate is very small; therefore the specific radioactivity of [35S]sulphate in plasma determines the specific radioactivity incorporated into sulphate esters at any time. (author)

  16. Establishment of liver specific glucokinase gene knockout mice:a new animal model for screening anti-diabetic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-li ZHANG; Xiao-hong TAN; Mei-fang XIAO; Hui LI; Yi-qing Mao; Xiao YANG; Huan-ran TAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the liver-specific role of glucokinase in maintaining glucose homeostasis and to create an animal model for diabetes. METHODS: We performed hepatocyte-specific gene knockout of glucokinase in mice using Cre-loxP gene targeting strategy. First, two directly repeated loxP sequences were inserted to flank the exon 9 and exon 10 of glucokinase in genomic DNA. To achieve this, linearized targeting vector was electroporated into ES cells. Then G418- and Gancyclovir-double-resistant clones were picked and screened by PCR analysis and the positives identified by PCR were confirmed by Southern blot. A targeted clone was selected for microinjection into C57BL/6J blastocysts and implanted into pseudopregnant FVB recipient. Chimeric mice and their offspring were analyzed by Southern blot. Then by intercrossing the Alb-Cre transgenic mice with mice containing a conditional gk allele, we obtained mice with liver-specific glucokinase gene knockout. RESULTS: Among 161 double resistant clones 4 were positive to PCR and Southern blot and only one was used for further experiments. Eventually we generated the liver specific glucokinase knockout mice. These mice showed increased glucose level with age and at the age of 6 weeks fasting blood glucose level was significantly higher than control and they also displayed impaired glucose tolerance. CONCLUSION: Our studies indicate that hepatic glucokinase plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and its deficiencies contribute to the development of diabetes. The liver glucokinase knockout mouse is an ideal animal model for MODY2, and it also can be applied for screening anti-diabetic drugs.

  17. International Guidelines for Bioequivalence of Systemically Available Orally Administered Generic Drug Products: A Survey of Similarities and Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Davit, Barbara; Braddy, April C.; Conner, Dale P.; Yu, Lawrence X.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the similarities and differences among bioequivalence approaches used by international regulatory authorities when reviewing applications for marketing new generic drug products which are systemically active and intended for oral administration. We focused on the 13 jurisdictions and organizations participating in the International Generic Drug Regulators Pilot. These are Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Chinese Taipei, the European Medicines Assoc...

  18. Availability of antimalarial drugs and evaluation of the attitude and practices for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in bangui, central african republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manirakiza, Alexandre; Njuimo, Siméon Pierre; Le Faou, Alain; Malvy, Denis; Millet, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    National malaria management policy is based upon the availability of effective and affordable antimalarial drugs. This study was undertaken to evaluate the quality of the treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases in Bangui, an area with multidrug-resistant parasites, at a time preceding implementation of a new therapeutic policy relying on the artemisinin derivative combined treatment artemether-lumefantrine. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Bangui city to assess availability of antimalarial drugs and the performances of health workers in the management of uncomplicated malaria. Availability of drugs was recorded in all drugs wholesalers (n = 3), all pharmacies in health facilities (n = 14), private drugstores (n = 15), and in 60 non-official drug shops randomly chosen in the city. Despite a limited efficacy at the time of the survey, chloroquine remained widely available in the official and nonofficial markets. Artemisinin derivatives used in monotherapy or in combination were commonly sold. In health care facilities, 93% of the uncomplicated malaria cases were treated in the absence of any laboratory confirmation and the officially recommended treatment, amodiaquine-sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, was seldom prescribed. Thus, the national guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria are not followed by health professionals in Bangui. Its use should be implemented while a control of importation of drug has to be reinforced. PMID:20339579

  19. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Evaluation of the Safety of Animal Clones: A Failure to Recognize the Normativity of Risk Assessment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghani, Zahra; de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced recently that food products derived from some animal clones and their offspring are safe for human consumption. In response to criticism that it had failed to engage with ethical, social, and economic concerns raised by livestock cloning, the FDA argued that addressing normative issues prior to…

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Abuse Hurts Kids Drug Abuse Hurts Unborn Children Drug Abuse Hurts Your Health Drug Abuse Hurts ... and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Drug Abuse Hurts Families Drug Abuse Hurts Kids Drug Abuse Hurts Unborn Children Drug Abuse Hurts ... Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What To Say if You Were ...

  2. Association of multicellular behavior and drug resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from animals and humans in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Bayleyegn; Bhatiya, Aditi; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Engidawork, Ephrem; Asrat, Daniel; Gunn, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To determine the association between multicellular behavior, integron status and antibiotic resistance among 87 Ethiopian Salmonella enterica isolates of animal and human origin. Methods and Results Isolates were characterized for their biofilm forming ability, antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence and characteristics of a class 1 integron and Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). The majority of isolates grown at environmental temperatures (20°C) exhibited robust biofilm formation (72.4%) and displayed RDAR colony morphology on Congo red agar plates. The presence of a class 1 integron correlated with the extent of drug resistance and ability to exhibit multicellular behavior. Conclusions Although cellulose production and RDAR morphology correlated with increased multicellular behavior, neither was required for biofilm formation. Contrary to previous reports, colony morphology was generally consistent within a serovar. No integrons were detected in isolates deficient for multicellular behavior, indicating a potential role for bacterial community formation in transfer of genetic elements among environmental isolates. Significance and Impact of Study Infection by Salmonella enterica is a major public health problem worldwide. The dominance of multidrug resistance and multicellular behaviour in Salmonella isolates of Ethiopian origin highlights a need for integrated surveillance and further detailed phenotypic and molecular studies of isolates from this region. PMID:24934091

  3. Availability of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in assessment of drug potential for QT prolongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Yumiko, E-mail: yumiko-nozaki@ds-pharma.co.jp [Preclinical Research Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. Co., Ltd., Suita, Osaka 564-0053 (Japan); Honda, Yayoi, E-mail: yayoi-honda@ds-pharma.co.jp [Preclinical Research Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. Co., Ltd., Suita, Osaka 564-0053 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Shinji, E-mail: shinji-tsujimoto@ds-pharma.co.jp [Regenerative and Cellular Medicine Office, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. Co., Ltd., Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan); Watanabe, Hitoshi, E-mail: hitoshi-1-watanabe@ds-pharma.co.jp [Preclinical Research Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. Co., Ltd., Suita, Osaka 564-0053 (Japan); Kunimatsu, Takeshi, E-mail: takeshi-kunimatsu@ds-pharma.co.jp [Preclinical Research Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. Co., Ltd., Suita, Osaka 564-0053 (Japan); Funabashi, Hitoshi, E-mail: hitoshi-funabashi@ds-pharma.co.jp [Preclinical Research Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. Co., Ltd., Suita, Osaka 564-0053 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Field potential duration (FPD) in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which can express QT interval in an electrocardiogram, is reported to be a useful tool to predict K{sup +} channel and Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker effects on QT interval. However, there is no report showing that this technique can be used to predict multichannel blocker potential for QT prolongation. The aim of this study is to show that FPD from MEA (Multielectrode array) of hiPS-CMs can detect QT prolongation induced by multichannel blockers. hiPS-CMs were seeded onto MEA and FPD was measured for 2 min every 10 min for 30 min after drug exposure for the vehicle and each drug concentration. I{sub Kr} and I{sub Ks} blockers concentration-dependently prolonged corrected FPD (FPDc), whereas Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers concentration-dependently shortened FPDc. Also, the multichannel blockers Amiodarone, Paroxetine, Terfenadine and Citalopram prolonged FPDc in a concentration dependent manner. Finally, the I{sub Kr} blockers, Terfenadine and Citalopram, which are reported to cause Torsade de Pointes (TdP) in clinical practice, produced early afterdepolarization (EAD). hiPS-CMs using MEA system and FPDc can predict the effects of drug candidates on QT interval. This study also shows that this assay can help detect EAD for drugs with TdP potential. - Highlights: • We focused on hiPS-CMs to replace in vitro assays in preclinical screening studies. • hiPS-CMs FPD is useful as an indicator to predict drug potential for QT prolongation. • MEA assay can help detect EAD for drugs with TdP potentials. • MEA assay in hiPS-CMs is useful for accurately predicting drug TdP risk in humans.

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Abuse Hurts Other People Drug Abuse Hurts Families Drug Abuse Hurts Kids Drug Abuse Hurts Unborn Children Drug Abuse Hurts Your Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental ...

  5. In Vitro Efficacies of Clinically Available Drugs against Growth and Viability of an Acanthamoeba castellanii Keratitis Isolate Belonging to the T4 Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, Abdul Mannan; Iqbal, Junaid; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The effects of clinically available drugs targeting muscarinic cholinergic, adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic receptors; intracellular calcium levels and/or the function of calcium-dependent biochemical pathways; ion channels; and cellular pumps were tested against a keratitis isolate of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. In vitro growth inhibition (amoebistatic) assays were performed by incubating A. castellanii with various concentrations of drugs in the growth ...

  6. Glix 13, a New Drug Acting on Glutamatergic Pathways in Children and Animal Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Chiara Santini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently standardized diagnostic instruments have been developed in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for Autism Spectrumv Disorders (ASD. According to the DSM-5 criteria, individuals with ASD must show symptoms from early childhood. These symptoms are communication deficits and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour. It was recently described by Bioinformatic analysis that 99 modified genes were associated with human autism. Gene expression patterns in the low-line animals show significant enrichment in autism-associated genes and the NMDA receptor gene family was identified among these. Using ultrasonic vocalizations, it was demonstrated that genetic variation has a direct impact on the expression of social interactions. It has been proposed that specific alleles interact with a social reward process in the adolescent mouse modifying their social interaction and their approach toward each other. In this review we report that the monoclonal antibody-derived tetrapeptide GLYX-13 was found to act as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulator and possesses the ability to readily cross the blood brain barrier. Treatment with the NMDAR glycine site partial agonist GLYX-13 rescued the deficit in the animal model. Thus, the NMDA receptor has been shown to play a functional role in autism, and GLYX-13 shows promise for the treatment of autism in autistic children.

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  8. International guidelines for bioequivalence of systemically available orally administered generic drug products: a survey of similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davit, Barbara; Braddy, April C; Conner, Dale P; Yu, Lawrence X

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the similarities and differences among bioequivalence approaches used by international regulatory authorities when reviewing applications for marketing new generic drug products which are systemically active and intended for oral administration. We focused on the 13 jurisdictions and organizations participating in the International Generic Drug Regulators Pilot. These are Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Chinese Taipei, the European Medicines Association, Japan, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, the USA, and the World Health Organization. We began with a comparison of how the various jurisdictions and organizations define a generic product and its corresponding reference product. We then compared the following bioequivalence approaches: recommended bioequivalence study designs, method of pharmacokinetic calculations and bioequivalence acceptance limits, recommendations for modifying bioequivalence study designs and limits for highly variable drugs and narrow therapeutic index drugs, provisions for waiving bioequivalence study requirements (granting biowaivers), and implementation of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. We observed that, overall, there are more similarities than differences in bioequivalence approaches among the regulatory authorities surveyed. PMID:23821352

  9. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimova, V S

    1970-01-01

    Scientists from the Eastern countries have a great merit for the enrichment of the range of medicaments, as well as for the scientific development of pharmacology. In this respect, worth of special interest is a manuscript source, dealing with the medicaments of the XIV century and entitled: "Selected Pharmacopeia, dedicated to Badia al Jemal"--Ihtiyarat of Badia, written by Ali Bin Hussein al Ansari, usually known by his nickname Hodja Zayn al Atar. Most of the concepts, found in the cited manuscript, conserve their significance up to the present day, all the more that the drugs listed, their indications, way of preparation and application are thoroughly described. The Ihtiyarat of Badia, containing the description of 1100 drug denominations of vegetable, animal and mineral origin, is not merely a historical document of medieval pharmacology, but might serve as a source for enriching the armamentarium of modern medicine with drugs. PMID:11636551

  10. Drug: D06790 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06790 Crude, Drug Oyster shell (JP16); Powdered oyster shell (JP16); Oyster shell ...cine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06790 Oyster shell (JP16); Powdered oyste...r shell (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06790 Oyster shell; Powder...ed oyster shell; Oyster shell Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mollusks D06790 Oyster shell PubChem: 47208441 ...

  11. Molecular characterisation of blaESBL-harbouring conjugative plasmids identified in multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from food-producing animals and healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eWang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamse (ESBL-encoding genes are frequently mapped to plasmids, yet few of these structures have been characterized at the molecular level, to date.Methods: Eighty-seven ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from fecal samples of food-producing animals and healthy humans in Switzerland from 2009 to 2011. Plasmid DNA of all isolates was purified. Broth mating assays were carried out individually for 32 isolates to determine if the ESBL marker could be transferred by conjugation. The plasmid sizes were determined by S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and the plasmids were typed by PCR-based replicon typing. Susceptibility tests by disk diffusion followed with a re-analysis S1-nuclease PFGE and PCR reactions were performed to confirm plasmid transfer. Microarray was performed to detect additional antibiotic resistance markers and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST was also performed in selected donor strains. The phylotypes were identified by triplex PCR.Results: About half (n=46 of the 87 isolates carried small (< 20-kb plasmids. All selected 32 isolates contained large plasmids (ranging in sizes from 20- to 600-kb. Eleven plasmid replicon types were detected. Of these, IncFIA (n=5, IncFIB (n=9 and IncK/B (n=4 were common. Nine isolates demonstrated the ability to transfer their cefotaxime resistance marker at high transfer rates. Plasmid profile re-analysis of these transconjugants identified 16 plasmids. IncFIB and IncI1 were the most prevalent replicon types. Phylogenetic grouping showed that five of the nine donor strains belonged to phylogroup B1. Nine different STs were identified in nine tested donor strains.Conclusions: Characterization of these ESBL-encoding conjugative plasmids extends our understanding on these resistance markers in multi-drug resistant E. coli cultured from healthy human and animal sources.

  12. Resident cats in small animal veterinary hospitals carry multi-drug resistant enterococci and are likely involved in cross-contamination of the hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LudekZurek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., small animal veterinary hospitals (SAVHs commonly keep resident cats living permanently as pets within their facilities. Previously, multi-drug resistant (MDR enterococci were found as a contaminant of multiple surfaces within such veterinary hospitals, and nosocomial infections are a concern. The objectives of this study were to determine whether resident cats carry MDR enterococci and if they potentially play a role in the contamination of the hospital environment. Enterococcal strains (n=180 were isolated from the feces of six healthy resident cats from different SAVHs. The concentration of enterococci ranged from 1.1 x 105 to 6.0 x 108 CFU g-1 of feces, and the population comprised E. hirae (38.3±18.6%, E. faecium (35.0±14.3%, E. faecalis (23.9±11.0%, and E. avium (2.8±2.2%. Testing of phenotypic resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents revealed multi-drug resistance (≥3 antimicrobials in 48.9% of all enterococcal isolates with most frequent resistance to tetracycline (72.8%, erythromycin (47.8%, and rifampicin (35.6%. Vancomycin resistant E. faecalis (3.9% with vanB not horizontally transferable in in vitro conjugation assays were detected from one cat. Genotyping (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated a host-specific clonal population of MDR E. faecalis and E. faecium. Importantly, several feline isolates were genotypically identical or closely related to isolates from surfaces of cage door, thermometer, and stethoscope of the corresponding SAVHs. These data demonstrate that healthy resident cats at SAVHs carry MDR enterococci and likely contribute to contamination of the SAVH environment. Proper disposal and handling of fecal material and restricted movement of resident cats within the ward is recommended.

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount of HIV in brain cells 1 . Drug abuse treatment. Since the late 1980s, research has shown that treating drug abuse is an ...

  14. Neuroleptic drugs revert the contextual fear conditioning deficit presented by spontaneously hypertensive rats: a potential animal model of emotional context processing in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Medrano, Wladimir Agostini; Levin, Raquel; Kameda, Sonia Regina; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Silva, Regina Helena; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek

    2009-07-01

    Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present abnormalities in emotion processing. A previous study showed that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative animal model of ADHD, present reduced contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The aim of the present study was to characterize the deficit in CFC presented by SHR. Adult male normotensive Wistar rats and SHR were submitted to the CFC task. Sensitivity of the animals to the shock and the CFC performance after repeated exposure to the task were investigated. Pharmacological characterization consisted in the evaluation of the effects of the following drugs administered previously to the acquisition of the CFC: pentylenetetrazole (anxiogenic) and chlordiazepoxide (anxiolytic); methylphenidate and amphetamine (used for ADHD); lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and valproic acid (mood stabilizers); haloperidol, ziprasidone, risperidone, amisulpride, and clozapine (neuroleptic drugs); metoclopramide and SCH 23390 (dopamine antagonists without antipsychotic properties); and ketamine (a psychotomimmetic). The effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (that worsens psychotic symptoms) and the performance in a latent inhibition protocol (an animal model of schizophrenia) were also verified. No differences in the sensitivity to the shock were observed. The repeated exposure to the CFC task did not modify the deficit in CFC presented by SHR. Considering pharmacological treatments, only the neuroleptic drugs reversed this deficit. This deficit was potentiated by proschizophrenia manipulations. Finally, a deficit in latent inhibition was also presented by SHR. These findings suggest that the deficit in CFC presented by SHR could be a useful animal model to study abnormalities in emotional context processing related to schizophrenia. PMID:18281713

  15. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Ernesto Nicolás Gulin; Daniela Marisa Rocco; Facundo García-Bournissen

    2015-01-01

    Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used....

  16. Effects of cannabinoid drugs on the deficit of prepulse inhibition of startle in an animal model of schizophrenia: the SHR strain

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Raquel; Peres, Fernanda F.; Almeida, Valéria; Calzavara, Mariana B.; Antonio W Zuardi; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Crippa, José Alexandre S.; Abílio, Vanessa C.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and neurobiological findings suggest that the cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system may be implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. We described that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) strain presents a schizophrenia behavioral phenotype that is specifically attenuated by antipsychotic drugs, and potentiated by proschizophrenia manipulations. Based on these findings, we have suggested this strain as an animal model of schizophrenia. The aim of th...

  17. Effects of Cannabinoid Drugs on the Deficit of Prepulse Inhibition of Startle in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia: the SHR Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel eLevin; Fernanda Fiel Peres; Valéria eAlmeida; Mariana Bendlin Calzavara; Antonio Waldo Zuardi; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak; José Alexandre de Souza Crippa; Vanessa Costhek Abílio

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and neurobiological findings suggest that the cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system may be implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. We described that the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) strain presents a schizophrenia behavioral phenotype that is specifically attenuated by antipsychotic drugs, and potentiated by proschizophrenia manipulations. Based on these findings, we have suggested this strain as an animal model of schizophrenia. The aim of th...

  18. Resident cats in small animal veterinary hospitals carry multi-drug resistant enterococci and are likely involved in cross-contamination of the hospital environment

    OpenAIRE

    LudekZurek; KateKuKanich

    2012-01-01

    In the USA, small animal veterinary hospitals (SAVHs) commonly keep resident cats living permanently as pets within their facilities. Previously, multi-drug resistant (MDR) enterococci were found as a contaminant of multiple surfaces within such veterinary hospitals, and nosocomial infections are a concern. The objectives of this study were to determine whether resident cats carry MDR enterococci and to compare the feline isolates genotypically to those obtained from SAVH surfaces in a previo...

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abuse Hurts Unborn Children Drug Abuse Hurts Your Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction? Addiction Risk Factors Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Abuse Hurts Other People Drug Abuse Hurts Families Drug Abuse Hurts Kids Drug Abuse Hurts Unborn ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has shown that HIV causes greater injury to cells ... do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount of HIV ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... risky choices that ultimately led to an HIV-positive diagnosis. The "After the Party" PSA tells the ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... a means of communication. The "Text Message" PSA features two young girls texting each other about a ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... of this virus. Although we currently have medical therapies that greatly extend the lives of people infected ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  6. Prevalence of decreased susceptibility to triclosan in Salmonella enterica isolates from animals and humans and association with multiple drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Copitch, Justin L.; Whitehead, Rebekah N.; Webber, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Previous laboratory studies have implicated triclosan as a possible selective force driving resistance to multiple antibiotics and have identified a number of triclosan resistance mechanisms in Salmonella enterica. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of decreased susceptibility to triclosan in a panel of human and animal isolates of S. enterica and to identify the mechanisms of triclosan resistance in these strains. Over 400 animal and human isolates of no...

  7. The distribution of radiolabelled drug in animals infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis: comparison of free and liposome-bound sodium stibogluconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium stibogluconate, labelled with antimony 125, was used to study the altered distribution of drugs, entrapped by positively and negatively charged liposomes, used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. (U.K.)

  8. Diagnostic imaging of herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug: autoradiographic assessment in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, we used a radiolabeled antiviral drug, 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinosyluracil labeled with carbon 14 ([14C]FMAU), as a probe for selectively imaging brain infection in a rat model by quantitative autoradiography. A high correlation was found between focal infection, as defined by immunoperoxidase viral antigen staining, and increased regional [14C]FMAU uptake in brain sections. Two potential sources of false-positive imaging were defined: high concentrations of drug in the choroid plexus because of its higher permeability compared with brain, and drug sequestration by proliferating uninfected cell populations. Our results support the soundness of the proposed strategy of using a labeled antiviral drug that is selectively phosphorylated by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase in conjunction with scanning methods for human diagnosis, and also define some of the factors that must be taken into account when planning clinical application

  9. A Human Hepatocyte-Bearing Mouse: An Animal Model to Predict Drug Metabolism and Effectiveness in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Katsutoshi Yoshizato; Chise Tateno

    2009-01-01

    Preclinical studies to predict the efficacy and safety of drugs have conventionally been conducted almost exclusively in mice and rats as rodents, despite the differences in drug metabolism between humans and rodents. Furthermore, human ( ℎ ) viruses such as hepatitis viruses do not infect the rodent liver. A mouse bearing a liver in which the hepatocytes have been largely repopulated with ℎ -hepatocytes would overcome some of these disadvantages. We have established a practical, efficient, a...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  13. The Evaluation of In Vitro Drug Dissolution of Commercially Available Oral Dosage Forms for Itraconazole in Gastrointestinal Simulator With Biorelevant Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kazuki; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a multicompartmental in vitro dissolution apparatus, gastrointestinal simulator (GIS), in assessing the drug dissolution of 2 commercially available oral dosage forms for itraconazole (ICZ). The GIS consists of 3 chambers, mimicking the upper gastrointestinal tract. In vitro dissolution of ICZ capsule or oral solution was evaluated in United States Pharmacopeia apparatus II and GIS. To investigate the suitability of fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) to predict better in vivo, FaSSIF as well as phosphate buffer were used as dissolution media. Area under the dissolved drug amount-time curve (AUDC) was calculated for each dosage form in each apparatus, and the ratios of AUDCoral solution to AUDCcapsule were compared with human pharmacokinetic data. Based on this comparison, GIS with FaSSIF can adequately distinguish the pharmacokinetic profiles of 2 oral dosage forms for ICZ. Additionally, Caco-2 cell transepithelial transport study in combination with GIS revealed that improved drug dissolution by formulations resulted in enhanced permeation of ICZ through cell monolayer, suggesting the observed ICZ concentration in the GIS will directly reflect systemic exposure. These results indicate GIS would be a powerful tool to assess the formulations of ICZ as well as other Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug formulations. PMID:27020985

  14. Benefits and Risks of Antimicrobial Use in Food-Producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-HuiYuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Benefits and risks of antimicrobial drugs, used in food-producing animals, continue to be complex and controversial issues. This review comprehensively presents the benefits of antimicrobials drugs regarding control of animal diseases, protection of public health, enhancement of animal production, improvement of environment, and effects of the drugs on biogas production and public health associated with antimicrobial resistance. The positive and negative impact, due to ban issue of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals, is also included in discussion. As a double-edged sword, use of these drugs in food-animals persists as a great challenge.

  15. Overview on available animal models for application in leukemia research; Uebersicht ueber vorhandene Tiermodelle, die fuer die Leukaemieforschung angewandt werden koennten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkhardt, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, I.; Cobaleda, C.; Hauer, J.

    2015-01-15

    The term ''leukemia'' encompasses a group of diseases with a variable clinical and pathological presentation. Its cellular origin, its biology and the underlying molecular genetic alterations determine the very variable and individual disease phenotype. The focus of this review is to discuss the most important guidelines to be taken into account when we aim at developing an ''ideal'' animal model to study leukemia. The animal model should mimic all the clinical, histological and molecular genetic characteristics of the human phenotype and should be applicable as a clinically predictive model. It should achieve all the requirements to be used as a standardized model adaptive to basic research as well as to pharmaceutical practice. Furthermore it should fulfill all the criteria to investigate environmental risk factors, the role of genomic mutations and be applicable for therapeutic testing. These constraints limit the usefulness of some existing animal models, which are however very valuable for basic research. Hence in this review we will primarily focus on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to study the most frequent types of childhood leukemia. GEMMs are robust models with relatively low site specific variability and which can, with the help of the latest gene modulating tools be adapted to individual clinical and research questions. Moreover they offer the possibility to restrict oncogene expression to a defined target population and regulate its expression level as well as its timely activity. Until recently it was only possible in individual cases to develop a murin model, which fulfills the above mentioned requirements. Hence the development of new regulatory elements to control targeted oncogene expression should be priority. Tightly controlled and cell specific oncogene expression can then be combined with a knock-in approach and will depict a robust murine model, which enables almost physiologic oncogene

  16. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A;

    2012-01-01

    phase extraction and selective pressurized liquid extraction with integrated clean-up, the analytical method allows for the determination of these compounds down to 0.06-0.13 ng L(-1) in water, 0.01-0.03 ng g(-1)dw in soil and 0.22-0.51 ng g(-1) dw in manure. The deuterated analog of toltrazuril was......This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the antiparasitic veterinary drug toltrazuril and its two main metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone, in environmental surface water, soil and animal manure. Using solid...... used as internal standard, and ensured method accuracy in the range 96-123% for water and 77-110% for soil samples. The developed method can also be applied to simultaneously determine steroid hormones in the solid samples. The antiparasitic drug and its metabolites were found in manure and soil up to...

  17. The behavior of chloroquine (a synthesized anti-malaria drug) labeled with 14C in healthy and malarious animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 14C labeled chloroquine is identical in healthy and malarious animals. Fixation (by order of intensity) takes place in the liver, spleen, lungs, lacrimal glands, cerebrospinal fluid, bones, thyroid, and intestinal walls. This was confirmed from quantitative studies and demonstrates the traversing of the blood-brain barrier and the intestinal elimination after biliary excretion. Pharmaco-kinetic studies were undertaken with healthy animals and those afflicted with malaria. After a phase, in which the distribution of chloroquine is identical for both types of animal, a more rapid decrease in the blood level is observed with the malarious animals. The leucocytes contained distinctly more of the tracer than the normal or malarious red corpuscles or the blood plasma. Examination of the urinary elimination revealed a mono-exponential function; nevertheless, the urinary elimination was less regular with the malarious rats. This elimination corresponds to the excretion of unchanged chloroquine accompanied by two metabolites. A third metabolite appeared after a delay period. (author)

  18. 77 FR 50591 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... cancer to the test animals approach (See e.g., 52 FR 49572 at 49575 and 49582). Therefore, FDA has..., 2010, FDA issued a proposed rule (75 FR 79320) to amend its regulations regarding compounds of... Proviso (See 75 FR 79320 at 79321) without requiring the development of a second, alternative, set...

  19. A sensitive and semi-quantitative method for determination of multi-drug residues in animal body fluids using multiplex dipstick immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuaijuan; Zhou, Tianjiao; Yin, Bingjie; He, Pingli

    2016-07-13

    The objective of this research was to develop a multiplex dipstick immunoassay method for the simultaneous determination of multi-veterinary drug residues, such as β-agonists, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in milk, urine, and serum. The multiplex dipstick assay format was based on an indirect competitive approach: Three test lines (different antigens) and one control line (goat anti-mouse IgG) were located on the strip membrane. Labeled antibodies were freeze-dried in microwells. Samples did not require pretreatment and could be directly analyzed within 10 min. Threshold levels in different sample matrices were visually estimated at 0.3-0.45 ng mL(-1) for clenbuterol; 3-4 ng mL(-1) for sulfadiazine; and 4.5-6 ng mL(-1) for tetracycline, respectively. The linear relationship between the concentrations of veterinary drug residues and the Au nanoparticles plasmon absorbance allowed quantitative determination of these veterinary drug residues. The recoveries of clenbuterol, sulfadiazine and tetracycline in spiked samples ranged from 78.4% to 112.6%, and the relative standard deviations were below 11.2%. Analysis of animal samples suggested that the proposed multiplex dipstick assay method was consistent with the LC-MS/MS method. The percentage of false results was less than or equal to 5%. Thus, the proposed multiplex dipstick assay is inexpensive, easy-to-use, and suitable for the purposes of rapid and comprehensive screening of 3 families of β-agonists, sulfonamides and tetracyclines including 26 drugs in animal body fluids. PMID:27237838

  20. 75 FR 35044 - Notice of Approval of a Supplemental New Animal Drug Application; Penicillin G Procaine Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Application; Penicillin G Procaine Suspension AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... for a revised formulation of penicillin G procaine injectable suspension that includes lecithin as a... 6JP, Northern Ireland, filed a supplement to NADA 065-010 for use of NOROCILLIN (penicillin G...

  1. 78 FR 52535 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Quali-Tech Products, Inc.; Bambermycins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... September 3, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Alterman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212... Commissioner of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with.... Bernadette Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? ...

  3. Glix 13, a New Drug Acting on Glutamatergic Pathways in Children and Animal Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Chiara Santini; Giovanna Maria Pierantoni; Raffaele Gerlini; Rosamaria Iorio; Yinka Olabinjo; Alfonso Giovane; Marina Di Domenico; Carla Sogos

    2014-01-01

    Recently standardized diagnostic instruments have been developed in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for Autism Spectrumv Disorders (ASD). According to the DSM-5 criteria, individuals with ASD must show symptoms from early childhood. These symptoms are communication deficits and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour. It was recently described by Bioinformatic analysis that 99 modified genes were associated with human autism. Gene expression patterns in the low-line animals show si...

  4. Pharmacological Actions of NGB 2904, a Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonist, in Animal Models of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Gardner, Eliot L

    2007-01-01

    As a continuation of our work with SB-277011A, we have examined the effects of another highly elective dopamine (DA) D3 receptor antagonist, N-(4-[4-{2,3-dichlorophenyl}-1-piperazinyl]butyl)-2-fluorenylcarboxamide (NGB 2904), in animal models of addiction. Our results indicate that by systemic administration, NGB 2904 inhibits intravenous cocaine self-administration maintained under a progressive-ratio (PR) reinforcement schedule, cocaine-or cocaine cue–induced reinstatement of cocaine-seekin...

  5. A bio-ballistic micro-jet for drug injection into animal skin using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoh, J. J.; Jang, H.; Park, M.; Han, T.; Hah, J.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of the abdominal skin of a guinea pig after injecting a fluorescent probe and biotin via the laser-induced ballistic technique revealed the epidermal and dermal layers which were stained well below 60 \\upmu m underneath the outer layer of the skin. An extensive network of cells was evident in the deeper layer of the stained dermis as the distributed fluorescein isothiocyanate dose was administered by repeated injection using a laser-based micro-jet. We performed optically controlled release of the drug by breaching the guinea pig's skin tissue targeting the region 10-400 \\upmu m beneath the outermost layer. Tissue damage was minimized by reducing the injection volume to approximately 100 nl per pulse. This was done using a micro-jet diameter equal to half of that of a conventional 200 \\upmu m syringe needle. Thus, the optimally controlled delivery of liquid drugs using an irradiated laser pulse was shown to be possible.

  6. Challenges in pre-clinical testing of anti-cancer drugs in cell culture and in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    HogenEsch, Harm; Yu Nikitin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Experiments with cultures of human tumor cell lines, xenografts of human tumors into immunodeficient mice, and mouse models of human cancer are important tools in the development and testing of anti-cancer drugs. Tumors are complex structures composed of genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous cancer cells that interact in a reciprocal manner with the stromal microenvironment and the immune system. Modeling the complexity of human cancers in cell culture and in mouse models for preclinic...

  7. A retractable barb needle for drug darts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. van Rooyen

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism and action of a new retractable barbneedle for drug darts are described. This dart needle is particularly successful in obviating unnecessary flight reactions andtrauma in darted animals, and facilitates the complete injection of the drug dose before the barb is retracted and the dart is dislogded from the animal. The whole process is completed within a few seconds and the expended dart can usually be retrieved in the immediate vicinity where the animal was darted.

  8. Drug: D09176 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bassiana Vuillemin.; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects D09176 Stiff silkworm PubChem: 96025856 ... ...91], Beauveria bassiana [TAX:176275] Same as: E00308 Bombycidae Silkworm infected Cordycepitaceae Beauveria

  9. Drug: D06797 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06797 Crude, Drug Bear ... bile (JP16) Bile acid [CPD:C01558], Ursodeoxycholic acid [CPD:C07880], C ... 8] Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals D06797 Bear ... bile PubChem: 47208448 ...

  10. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  11. Electrochemistry of Canis familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 with gold nanoparticles: An alternative to animal testing in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-10-01

    This work reports for the first time the direct electron transfer of the Canis familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 on glassy carbon electrodes to provide an analytical tool as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process. Cytochrome P450 2D15, that corresponds to the human homologue P450 2D6, was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and entrapped on glassy carbon electrodes (GC) either with the cationic polymer polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) or in the presence of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Reversible electrochemical signals of P450 2D15 were observed with calculated midpoint potentials (E1/2) of −191 ± 5 and −233 ± 4 mV vs. Ag/AgCl for GC/PDDA/2D15 and GC/AuNPs/2D15, respectively. These experiments were then followed by the electro-catalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme in the presence of metoprolol. The latter drug is a beta-blocker used for the treatment of hypertension and is a specific marker of the human P450 2D6 activity. Electrocatalysis data showed that only in the presence of AuNps the expected α-hydroxy-metoprolol product was present as shown by HPLC. The successful immobilization of the electroactive C. familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 on electrode surfaces addresses the ever increasing demand of developing alternative in vitromethods for amore detailed study of animal P450 enzymes' metabolism, reducing the number of animals sacrificed in preclinical tests. PMID:26092534

  12. Human health risk assessment of multiple contaminants due to consumption of animal-based foods available in the markets of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Kaiqiong; An, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin

    2015-03-01

    To assess the health risks due to food consumption, the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and toxic trace elements (mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, and arsenic) were estimated based on the animal-based foods collected from markets in Shanghai, China. The estimated daily intake and uptake considering the contaminant bioaccessibility via single food consumption were 9.4-399 and 4.2-282 ng/kg body weight/day for adults, and 10.8-458 and 4.8-323 ng/kg body weight/day for children, respectively. These values were 0.2-104 and 0.05-58.1, and 0.2-119 and 0.06-66.6 ng/kg body weight/day via multiple food consumption for adults and children, respectively. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment method, the non-cancer and cancer health risks posed by the contaminants were estimated using the hazard quotient and the lifetime cancer risk method, respectively. The results showed that the combined hazard quotient values for multiple contaminants via single or multiple food consumption were below 1, suggesting that the residents in Shanghai would not experience a significant non-cancer health risk. Among the contaminants investigated, the potential non-cancer risk of methylmercury was highest. However, the combined cancer risk posed by multiple contaminants in most foods exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-6), and inorganic arsenic was the main contributor. The risks caused by polybrominated diphenyl ethers for cancer and non-cancer effects were negligible. The cancer risk of inorganic arsenic is a matter of concern in animal-based foods from Shanghai markets. PMID:25315930

  13. Form for reporting serious adverse events and product problems with human drug and biological products and devices; availability--FDA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a new form for reporting adverse events and product problems with human drug products, biologic products, medical devices (including in-vitro diagnostics), special nutritional products (dietary supplements, medical foods, infant formulas), and other products regulated by FDA. There are two versions of the form. One version of the form (FDA Form 3500) is available for use by health professionals for voluntary reporting; the other version of the form (FDA Form 3500A) is to be used by user facilities, distributors, and manufacturers for reporting that is required by statute or FDA regulations. The new form will simplify and consolidate the reporting of adverse events and product problems and will enhance agency-wide consistency in the collection of postmarketing data. This notice also responds to written comments the agency received on proposed versions of this form. Copies of both versions of the new form appear at the end of this document. PMID:10171452

  14. RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTATANEOUS DETERMINATION OF IRBESARTAN, LOSARTAN, HYDRO-CHLOROTHIAZIDE AND CHLORTHALIDONE–APPLICATION TO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DRUG PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mhaske et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-hypertensive drugs Irbesartan, Losartan, diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone. The separation was achieved on Hypersil BDS (Length 250 mm × Diameter 4.6 mm Particle size 5 μm column with gradient flow. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 consisted of 0.05 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (Gradient ratio. The UV detection was carried out at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. Further, the validated method was applied for commercially available pharmaceutical dosage form.

  15. RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTATANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM, OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL, CANDESARTAN, HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND CHLORTHALIDONE – APPLICATION TO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DRUG PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Mhaske et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-hypertensive drugs Atorvastatin Calcium, Olmesartan Medoxomil, Candesartan, diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone. The separation was achieved on Cosmosil PAQ (Length 150 mm × Diameter 4.6 mm Particle size 5 μm column with gradient flow. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 consisted of 0.05 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (Gradient ratio. The UV detection was carried out at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. Further, the validated method was applied for commercially available pharmaceutical dosage form.

  16. RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTATANEOUS DETERMINATION OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE, VALSARTAN, TELMISARTAN, HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND CHLORTHALIDONE: APPLICATION TO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DRUG PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mhaske et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-hypertensive drugs Amlodipine Besylate, Valsartan, Telmisartan and diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone. The separation was achieved on Cosmosil PAQ (150 mm × 4.6 mm 5 μm column with gradient flow. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 consisted of 0.05 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (Gradient ratio. The UV detection was carried out at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. Further, the validated method was applied for commercially available pharmaceutical dosage form.

  17. 21 CFR 211.173 - Laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory animals. 211.173 Section 211.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory animals. Animals used in testing components, in-process materials, or drug products for...

  18. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  19. Investigating the effects of food available and climatic variables on the animal host density of hemorrhagic Fever with renal syndrome in changsha, china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is influenced by population dynamics of its main host, rodents. It is therefore important to better understand rodents' characteristic in epidemic areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the potential impact of food available and climatic variability on HFRS rodent host and developed forecasting models. Monthly rodent density of HFRS host and climate data in Changsha from January 2004 to December 2011 were obtained. Monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI for rice paddies were extracted from MODIS data. Cross-correlation analysis were carried out to explore correlation between climatic variables and food available with monthly rodent data. We used auto-regressive integrated moving average model with explanatory variables to examine the independent contribution of climatic variables and food supply to rodent density. The results indicated that relative rodent density of HFRS host was significantly correlated with monthly mean temperatures, monthly accumulative precipitation, TVDI and NDVI with lags of 1-6 months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Food available plays a significant role in population fluctuations of HFRS host in Changsha. The model developed in this study has implications for HFRS control and prevention.

  20. Comparison of two different fecal collection methods for protein digestibility and amino acid availability coefficients of three animal protein sources for sunshine bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for protein and individual amino acid availabilities in menhaden fish meal (MEN) and two grades of poultry by-product meal (PBM) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass using two different fecal collection methods, passive netting (net) or man...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Abuse Hurts Other People Drug Abuse Hurts Families Drug Abuse Hurts Kids Drug Abuse Hurts Unborn Children ... a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free ...

  2. A Validated HPLC/MS Limit Test Method for a Potential Genotoxic Impurity in Cilostazol and its Quantification in the API and in the Commercially Available Drug Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Luigi; Monzani, Luca; Brunoldi, Enrico; Allegrini, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Cilostazol is a selective inhibitor of type 3 phosphodiesterase. 5-(3-Chloropropyl)-1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazole, used as an intermediate in the synthesis of cilostazol, has a primary alkyl chloride group, a well-known alerting function for genotoxic activity. Upon request from a regulatory agency, a limit test in accordance with ICH Q2(R1) added with the accuracy of a recovery test of 5-(4-chlorobutyl)-1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazole in cilostazol was developed and validated. The application of the method highlighted the need to optimize the purification process to ensure levels of this potential genotoxic impurity in the final active pharmaceutical ingredient below the established limit. Also, the analytical method was suitable to determine the amount of the impurity in samples of the commercially available drug product, which showed the levels to be above the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC). PMID:26839820

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  4. Gastrointestinal allergy in the experimental animal: The use of radioiodinated serum albumin in the assessment of new drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal allergy, wherein the afflicted subject experiences an allergic reaction to certain proteins in the diet, is estimated to be found in about 0.5% of the population of all ages. It is associated with a considerable morbidity and a not negligible mortality. Several drugs are capable of suppressing allergic reactions, and at least one is somewhat effective in gastrointestinal allergy. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a rat model to assist the study of gastrointestinal allergy and means to prevent it. It was found possible to induce allergic sensitivity in rats to certain proteins by injecting proteins and adjuvants in various regimes. For suckling rats sensitivity could also be established by oral administration of the protein. A hypersensitive gastrointestinal reaction to challenge could be demonstrated by electron microscopy, by light microscopy with the aid of conventional staining techniques, and also by a radionuclide procedure wherein 51Cr-labelled albumin injected intravenously shortly before the challenge concentrated in the intestinal walls in rough proportion to the severity of the reaction. In suppressing the hypersensitive intestinal reaction, disodium cromoglycate, dexamethazone, aspirin, indomethecan, and ipobrufen were found ineffective; aminophylline gave a slight amelioration

  5. Towards an animal model of food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could

  6. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the determination of ten macrolide drugs residues in animal muscles by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuqin; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Qingying; Zhang, Meiyu; Meng, Chenying; Li, Jiufeng; He, Limin

    2016-10-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of the residues of ten macrolide drugs in swine, cattle and chicken muscles samples. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized using tylosin as a template and methacrylic acid as a functional monomer. Samples were extracted with sodium borate buffer solution and ethyl acetate, and purified by the MIP cartridge. The results showed that the cartridge exhibited good recognition performance for macrolides, and better purification effect than the traditional solid-phase extraction cartridges. Recoveries of analytes at three spiking levels 1, 5 and 20μgkg(-1) ranged from 60.7% to 100.3% with the relative standard deviations less than 14%. The limits of detection of the method were between 0.1 and 0.4μgkg(-1). The method is useful for the routine monitoring of the residues of macrolide drugs in animal muscles. PMID:27132837

  7. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Serge H Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  8. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton;

    2010-01-01

    ), thermally gasified SS (GAs), thermally gasified poultry manure (GAp), crushed triple super phosphate (TSP) and disodium phosphate (DSP) was used as reference P fertilizer. For application of 20 kg P ha-1 mineral P fertilizer replacement value (RV) in the second year in the sandy soil was 76% and 99% for GA...... kg P ha-1 in both soils had no significant effect on barley DM yield and P uptake. The overall efficiency for liquid fertilizers was much higher than for solid ones and relative effectiveness (RE) of ExL was comparable to RE of DSP. Despite the low P level in soils, the ryegrass crop grew very well...... on both soils in the second year, and there was no detectable residual effect of the treatments on grass yield and P uptake. In conclusion, untreated ash and solid manures used in this study were not suitable as starter P fertilizer, but could be used to maintain the level of available P in soil, as...

  9. A REVIEW ON ANIMAL MODELS OF DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Devi* and Ramica Sharma

    2013-01-01

    As described by the world health organization (WHO), depression is the most common and serious disorder leading to suicide. Numbers of synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of this fatal disease, but are associated with serious complications. A wide diversity of animal models has been used to examine antidepressant activity. These range from relatively simple models sensitive to acute treatment, to highly sophisticated models. The number of validated animal models for affective diso...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen ... of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency of the United States Government. NIH is ...

  11. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Weed, Pot) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What ... About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can call 1-800- ...

  12. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662- ...

  13. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, Christina; Pletz, Mathias W

    2016-02-01

    Infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria are increasing worldwide. Glycopeptides, linezolid, daptomycin and 5th generation cephalosporins ("MRSA-cephalsoporins") are used against severe infections with MRSA, combination partners are rifampin and fosfomycin. Treatment options against VRE-infections are limited to linezolid, daptomycin and tigecyclin. New agents with activity against MRSA and VRE are tedizolid, dalbvancin and oritavancin. For monotherapy of severe infections due to 3MRGN carbapenems are available. Ceftolozane/tazobactam has been licensed by the European Medical Agency and shows good activity against a relevant proportion of ESBL-pathogens. Oral agents such as nitrofurantoin or fosfomycin are used for treatment of uncomplicated cystitis. Colistin shows best in vitro susceptibility against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, followed by fosfomycin and tigecycline. For serious infections with 4MRGN a colistin-based combination treatment with two to three agents is recommended. In such cases a carbapenem as combination partner may be useful. PMID:26949908

  14. Hybrid shell engineering of animal cells for immune protections and regulation of drug delivery: towards the design of "artificial organs".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dandoy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8 to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes. The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the "de novo" biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin, substituting the declining organ functions of the patient.

  15. Animal Models of Depression and Drug Delivery with Food as an Effective Dosing Method: Evidences from Studies with Celecoxib and Dicholine Succinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. Costa-Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple models of human neuropsychiatric pathologies have been generated during the last decades which frequently use chronic dosing. Unfortunately, some drug administration methods may result in undesirable effects creating analysis confounds hampering model validity and preclinical assay outcomes. Here, automated analysis of floating behaviour, a sign of a depressive-like state, revealed that mice, subjected to a three-week intraperitoneal injection regimen, had increased floating. In order to probe an alternative dosing design that would preclude this effect, we studied the efficacy of a low dose of the antidepressant imipramine (7 mg/kg/day delivered via food pellets. Antidepressant action for this treatment was found while no other behavioural effects were observed. We further investigated the potential efficacy of chronic dosing via food pellets by testing the antidepressant activity of new drug candidates, celecoxib (30 mg/kg/day and dicholine succinate (50 mg/kg/day, against standard antidepressants, imipramine (7 mg/kg/day and citalopram (15 mg/kg/day, utilizing the forced swim and tail suspension tests. Antidepressant effects of these compounds were found in both assays. Thus, chronic dosing via food pellets is efficacious in small rodents, even with a low drug dose design, and can prevail against potential confounds in translational research within depression models applicable to adverse chronic invasive pharmacotherapies.

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What To Say if You Were Once Addicted Drug Abuse Prevention Phone ... English ...

  17. [Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, etofenamate, in experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Motoyoshi, S; Imazu, C; Ishii, K; Yokoyama, Y; Seto, Y; Kadokawa, T; Shimizu, M

    1982-08-01

    Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of orally administered etofenamate, the diethylene glycol ester of flufenamic acid, were investigated in experimental animals. Against acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice and ultra-violet light-induced erythema in guinea pigs, etofenamate produced a dose related inhibition at doses of 40--320 mg/kg and 5--20 mg/kg, respectively. In rats, felt-pellet-induced granuloma formation and adjuvant-induced arthritis were significantly inhibited by repeated administration of etofenamate at doses of 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days and 40 mg/kg/day for 21 days, respectively. Etofenamate showed an inhibitory activity on the squeak response caused by flexing and extending the silver nitrate-induced arthritic joint in rats; and it produced a dose related anti-writhing activity at doses of 50--300 mg/kg and 10--80 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Etofenamate showed a significant anti-pyretic activity at doses of 0.2 mg/kg or more. These potencies of etofenamate were 0.5 to 1.6 times those of flufenamic acid. In particular, the anti-erythema, anti-arthritis, and anti-pyretic activities of etofenamate were approximately equivalent to or superior to those of flufenamic acid. From these results, it was suggested that etofenamate given orally, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities in experimental animals. PMID:6983482

  18. 21 CFR 58.90 - Animal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Testing Facilities Operation § 58.90 Animal care. (a) There shall... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal care. 58.90 Section 58.90 Food and Drugs... animal within an animal-housing unit shall appear on the outside of that unit. (e) Animals of...

  19. 78 FR 20326 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration-Human and Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration--Human and Animal Food; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of draft Compliance...

  20. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnemark, Christiane; Lilja, Lina; Kindblom, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Two studies have examined safety regarding drug treatment of pediatric inpatients (including both children in pediatric clinics and in adult clinics) within the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg. 20% of pediatric inpatients are treated outside of pediatric clinics. The highest risks are seen during prescription followed by administration and preparation of drugs (greatest risk: wrong dose). The staff perceives risks related to drug prescription, the IT system for medication management and the work environment. Improved support systems for drug prescription and administration, coordination of procedures and development of IT systems adapted to the specific needs associated with drug treatment of children as well as improved working environment is needed. PMID:27115778

  1. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spacebound 1,508,842 views 2:32 Quitting Drugs, Addiction and How to Deal With It - Duration: 23: ... 1,060,280 views 5:19 Mechanism of Drug Addiction in the Brain, Animation. - Duration: 4:16. Alila ...

  2. The cultivation and responsibilities of experimental animal veterinarians under the drug GLP system%GLP体系下实验动物兽医的培养与职责研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昌华; 冷佳蔚; 祝清芬

    2016-01-01

    随着我国医药工业的迅猛发展,药物非临床研究(GLP)工作也得到了快速发展,同时带动了实验动物科学和动物试验的迅速发展,实验动物的需求量越来越大。熟悉并掌握实验动物的饲养管理,疾病的预防、诊断、治疗及动物伦理福利的实验动物兽医的需求量也越来越大。因此,实验动物兽医在药物安全性评价实验室的重要性逐渐突显出来。下面结合本中心在实验动物兽医培养等方面的心得,探讨一下药物非临床研究体系下实验动物兽医的培养及职责。%With the rapid development of Chinese pharmaceutical industry,pharmaceutical non - clinical research and the work(GLP)also got rapid development,at the same time it led to the rapid development of laboratory animal science and animal experiment,the growing demand of experimental animals. Be familiar with and master experimental animal breeding management,disease prevention,diagnosis,treatment and welfare of laboratory animal veterinarians animal ethics demand is also increasing significantly. Therefore,experimental animal veterinarians in drug safety evaluation gradually high-light the importance of the laboratory. Now combine this center in aspects such as experimental animal and veterinary train-ing experience,explore the drug GLP system functions and the cultivation of experimental animal veterinarian.

  3. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  4. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  5. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  6. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  7. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  8. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K Saraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities.

  9. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... text to you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ... of the drug. "Max" was addicted to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different ...

  11. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  12. Macro-to-micro porous special bioactive glass and ceftriaxone-sulbactam composite drug delivery system for treatment of chronic osteomyelitis: an investigation through in vitro and in vivo animal trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Biswanath; Nandi, Samit Kumar; Dasgupta, Sudip; Datta, Someswar; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Roy, Subhasis; Singh, Aruna Kumari; Mandal, Tapan Kumar; Das, Partha; Bhattacharya, Rupnarayan; Basu, Debabrata

    2011-03-01

    A systematic and extensive approach incorporating in vitro and in vivo experimentation to treat chronic osteomyelitis in animal model were made using antibiotic loaded special bioactive glass porous scaffolds. After thorough characterization for porosity, distribution, surface charge, a novel drug composite were infiltrated by using vacuum infiltration and freeze-drying method which was subsequently analyzed by SEM-EDAX and studied for in vitro drug elution in PBS and SBF. Osteomyelitis in rabbit was induced by inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus and optimum drug-scaffold were checked for its efficacy over control and parenteral treated animals in terms of histopathology, radiology, in vivo drug concentration in bone and serum and implant-bone interface by SEM. It was optimized that 60P samples with 60-65% porosity (bimodal distribution of macro- to micropore) with average pore size ~60 μm and higher interconnectivity, moderately high antibiotic adsorption efficiency (~49%) was ideal. Results after 42 days showed antibiotic released higher than MIC against S. aureus compared to parenteral treatment (2 injections a day for 6 weeks). In vivo drug pharmacokinetics and SEM on bone-defect interface proved superiority of CFS loaded porous bioactive glass implants over parenteral group based on infection eradication and new bone formation. PMID:21221731

  13. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented.

  14. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures%不同动物粪肥的磷素形态特征及有效性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严正娟; 陈硕; 王敏锋; 宋梓玮; 贾伟; 陈清

    2015-01-01

    of liable P in non-ruminant animal manure. Both ruminant and non-ruminant animals have high availability of P in manures. Therefore, the contribution of long-term application non-ruminant animal manure to environmental risk is similar to application of ruminant animal manure with applica-tion of the same amount of P. However, due to the higher P content, the former may contribute to higher environmental risk, compared with latter based on application of the same amount of manure.%我国规模化养殖业的快速发展导致动物粪肥数量急剧增加,合理利用畜禽粪肥中的大量磷素,不仅可节约磷矿资源,而且避免由于粪肥直接排放和农田过量施用所带来的水体面源污染问题。本研究结合调研工作,采集了52个典型养殖场的76个动物粪肥样品,采用Hedley磷分组方法,系统分析了不同粪肥中磷素含量及其组分特征,评价不同形态磷素在土壤中的移动性及其环境风险,为合理磷素管理提供参考。结果表明:不同动物粪肥的全磷含量差异很大,猪粪、鸡粪、鸭粪、牛粪和羊粪的平均含量分别为22.5、13.7、12.9、9.6 g P·kg-1和7.5 g P·kg-1,其中粪肥中的有机磷占总磷的比例分别为33.1%、41.5%、66.4%、28.1%和36.8%。非反刍动物粪肥(猪粪、鸡粪、鸭粪)中全磷含量和有机磷含量分别为反刍动物粪肥(牛粪和羊粪)中全磷和有机磷含量的1.7~3.0倍和2.1~3.0倍,以鸡鸭粪肥中有机磷占全磷的比例最高;非反刍动物粪肥C/P比(19~29)明显低于反刍动物粪肥C/P比(38~45),其中的磷素更易矿化;依次采用H2O、NaHCO3、NaOH和HCl作为提取剂提取动物粪肥的磷素组分,反刍动物粪肥中H2O-P、NaHCO3-P、NaOH-P、HCl-P和残余态磷分别为总磷的27.8%、32.8%、18.1%、15.2%和6.1%;而非反刍动物粪肥中的各磷素组分的比例分别为24.6%、19.4%、12.7%、34.4%和8.9%;两者主要在NaHCO3-P和HCl

  15. The immunosuppressive drug azathioprine inhibits biosynthesis of the bacterial signal molecule cyclic-di-GMP by interfering with intracellular nucleotide pool availability.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniani, Davide; Rossi, Elio; Rinaldo, Serena; BOCCI, PAOLA; Lolicato, Marco; Paiardini, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Nadia; Cutruzzolà, Francesca; Landini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, production of the signal molecule c-di-GMP by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) is a key trigger for biofilm formation, which, in turn, is often required for the development of chronic bacterial infections. Thus, DGCs represent interesting targets for new chemotherapeutic drugs with anti-biofilm activity. We searched for inhibitors of the WspR protein, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa DGC involved in biofilm formation and production of virulence factors, using a set of microbiolo...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to Z ... Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One of the major obstacles ... Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  19. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  20. [Dangerous animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  1. Leading compounds for the validation of animal models of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, Vincenzo; Kucerova, Jana; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2013-10-01

    Modelling of complex psychiatric disorders, e.g., depression and schizophrenia, in animals is a major challenge, since they are characterized by certain disturbances in functions that are absolutely unique to humans. Furthermore, we still have not identified the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms, nor do we know precisely the circuits in the brain that function abnormally in mood and psychotic disorders. Consequently, the pharmacological treatments used are mostly variations on a theme that was started more than 50 years ago. Thus, progress in novel drug development with improved therapeutic efficacy would benefit greatly from improved animal models. Here, we review the available animal models of depression and schizophrenia and focus on the way that they respond to various types of potential candidate molecules, such as novel antidepressant or antipsychotic drugs, as an index of predictive validity. We conclude that the generation of convincing and useful animal models of mental illnesses could be a bridge to success in drug discovery. PMID:23942897

  2. Analgesic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Kerec Kos, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In the management of pain analgesic drugs are chosen regarding the intensity and type of pain. The selection of analgesic drug depends on pharmacokinetic properties of the drug and available pharmaceutical dosage forms. Beside non-opioid analgesics (non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen), opioid analgesic drugs have an important role in the treatment of pain. Pri zdravljenju bolečine izberemo analgetik glede na jakost in vrsto bolečine. Na izbiro ustreznega analgetika vplivaj...

  3. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  4. Availability and Quality of Size Estimations of Female Sex Workers, Men Who Have Sex with Men, People Who Inject Drugs and Transgender Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sabin, Keith; Zhao, Jinkou; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Sheng, Yaou; Arias Garcia, Sonia; Reinisch, Annette; Komatsu, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the availability and quality of population size estimations of female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drug (PWID) and transgender women. Methods Size estimation data since 2010 were retrieved from global reporting databases, Global Fund grant application documents, and the peer-reviewed and grey literature. Overall quality and availability were assessed against a defined set of criteria, including estimation methods, geographic coverag...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) ... addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other ...

  6. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between ... This Website Tools and Resources | Contact Us | Site Map | Accessibility | Privacy | FOIA (NIH) The National Institute on ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? Do You or a Loved ...

  12. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Meth ( ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You ...

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  14. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can ...

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button that ... about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain ...

  16. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa V.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  17. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  18. Drug: D06912 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06912 *Quercus cortex; Bokusoku Drug...s for external use Drugs for external use D06912 *Quercu

  19. Drug: D06776 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available for replenishing Qi D06776 Honey; Honey, purified; Honey Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects D06776 Honey; Honey, purified CAS: 8028-66-8 PubChem: 47208427 ... ...erapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 7 Agents not mainly for therapeutic purpose 71 Dispensing ...D06776 Crude, Drug Honey (JP16); Honey, purified (NF); Honey (TN) Invert sugar [DR:D06532], (Sucrose...medicines 714 Flavorings, deodorants, coloring agents 7149 Others D06776 Honey (JP16); Honey, purified (NF) Traditional Chinese... [CPD:C00089] | Acetylcholine [CPD:C01996]), Organic acid, Nitrogenous, Ash, Protein, Pigment, Esse

  20. Clinically Available Medicines Demonstrating Anti-Toxoplasma Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Andrew J; Zach, Sydney J; Wang, Xiaofang; Larson, Joshua J; Judge, Abigail K; Davis, Lisa A; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L; Davis, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite of humans and other mammals, including livestock and companion animals. While chemotherapeutic regimens, including pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine regimens, ameliorate acute or recrudescent disease such as toxoplasmic encephalitis or ocular toxoplasmosis, these drugs are often toxic to the host. Moreover, no approved options are available to treat infected women who are pregnant. Lastly, no drug regimen has shown the ability to eradicate the chronic stage of infection, which is characterized by chemoresistant intracellular cysts that persist for the life of the host. In an effort to promote additional chemotherapeutic options, we now evaluate clinically available drugs that have shown efficacy in disease models but which lack clinical case reports. Ideally, less-toxic treatments for the acute disease can be identified and developed, with an additional goal of cyst clearance from human and animal hosts. PMID:26392504

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ... Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International ...

  2. Neuroleptic Drugs Revert the Contextual Fear Conditioning Deficit Presented by Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Potential Animal Model of Emotional Context Processing in Schizophrenia?

    OpenAIRE

    Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Medrano, Wladimir Agostini; Levin, Raquel; Kameda, Sonia Regina; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Silva, Regina Helena; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present abnormalities in emotion processing. A previous study showed that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative animal model of ADHD, present reduced contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The aim of the present study was to characterize the deficit in CFC presented by SHR. Adult male normotensive Wistar rats and SHR were submitted to the CFC task. Sensitivity of the animals to the shock and the ...

  3. 78 FR 41401 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Draft Animal Feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards; Availability AGENCY: Food and... associated with the draft Animal Feed Regulatory Program Standards (AFRPS). The draft feed standards are... the draft feed standards to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of Regulatory...

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin ... HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. ... addiction. Counseling is very helpful to her. All I ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near ... different people around me. To stop using marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. ...

  6. Animal models of osteoporosis - necessity and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner A. Simon

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need to further characterise the available animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis, for the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, investigation of new therapies (e.g. selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs and evaluation of prosthetic devices in osteoporotic bone. Animal models that have been used in the past include non-human primates, dogs, cats, rodents, rabbits, guinea pigs and minipigs, all of which have advantages and disadvantages. Sheep are a promising model for various reasons: they are docile, easy to handle and house, relatively inexpensive, available in large numbers, spontaneously ovulate, and the sheep's bones are large enough to evaluate orthopaedic implants. Most animal models have used females and osteoporosis in the male has been largely ignored. Recently, interest in development of appropriate prosthetic devices which would stimulate osseointegration into osteoporotic, appendicular, axial and mandibular bone has intensified. Augmentation of osteopenic lumbar vertebrae with bioactive ceramics (vertebroplasty is another area that will require testing in the appropriate animal model. Using experimental animal models for the study of these different facets of osteoporosis minimizes some of the difficulties associated with studying the disease in humans, namely time and behavioral variability among test subjects. New experimental drug therapies and orthopaedic implants can potentially be tested on large numbers of animals subjected to a level of experimental control impossible in human clinical research.

  7. Disponibilidad de medicamentos esenciales en unidades de primer nivel de la Secretaría de Salud de Tamaulipas, México Availability of essential drugs in Ministry of Health first level healthcare units in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristela Reséndez

    2000-08-01

    medicamentos en el país, en general, y la disponibilidad de medicamentos esenciales en las unidades de primer nivel, en particular. Dos iniciativas de reciente puesta en marcha permiten ser optimistas al respecto: la descentralización de los servicios de salud para población no asegurada y el Programa de Medicamentos Genéricos Intercambiables, implantado en el ámbito nacional en 1998.OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of some essential drugs at the primary health care units of the Ministry of Health of Tamaulipas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between September and October 1998, all first level healthcare units of Tamaulipas' three sanitary jurisdictions were surveyed. Drug availability was assessed. The measurement instrument was a checklist of 56 drugs and 10 different supplies. For each drug and input the absolute number and the proportion of units with this drug or input was calculated. In the units where the drugs were available, the medians were calculated. The median of the total number of drugs available in all units was used as a global indicator. This same exercise was developed for each unit. Comparisons between the availability of these inputs in the units and stockrooms were also done. Stata 5.0 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: None of the inspected units had full availability of all checklist drugs. The highest percentage of drug availability was 84% and the lowest was 32%. There was limited availability of antibiotics, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, and iron deficiency drugs. The availability of oral rehydration salts and contraceptive and vaccine agents was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare organizations must find alternative ways to improve access to drugs nationwide, in general, and availability of essential drugs in first level healthcare units, in particular. Two recent initiatives provide an optimistic outlook: decentralization of health services for the uninsured and the Generic Exchangeable Drugs Program, established nationwide in

  8. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Andreas; Friis-Liby, Ingalill

    2016-01-01

    Ascites is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and is associated with a poor prognosis. The main pathophysiology is an increased portal pressure with compensatory activation of neurohumoral systems. A patient history, proper physical exam and adequate examination of ascitic fluid will reveal the aetiology in most cases. Complications such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and thrombosis of hepatic vessel should be excluded in cases of first episode of ascites or deterioration of ascites. A moderate salt restriction and treatment with diuretics is the mainstay of treatment. Potentially nephrotoxic drugs such as NSAID and ACE inhibitors should be avoided in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26978810

  9. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatori Popovic, Sandra; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; von Mandach, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. The reader should gain security in the election of the proper drugs for antibiotic therapy and rinsing solutions. Antibiotics as penicillins are the first choice in case of dental infections in pregnancy. In allergic patients, macrolides may be an alternative. Wound and mouth rinsing solutions containing chlorhexidine should be preferred in pregnancy. Ledermix(®) in endodontic treatment should be avoided in the pregnant woman. Solcoseryl(®) can be used for wound healing. Elective dental procedures should be postponed after delivery and after lactation period. PMID:27377565

  10. 21 CFR 501.18 - Misbranding of animal food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misbranding of animal food. 501.18 Section 501.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.18 Misbranding...

  11. Molecular Targets Versus Models for New Antiepileptic Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Rogawski, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Animal models have played a key role in the discovery and characterization of all marketed antiepileptic drugs (AED). The conventional wisdom is that the standard animal screening models are becoming obsolete because they fail to identify compounds that act in mechanistically new ways and as a result do not offer therapeutic advantages over presently available agents. In fact, far from only detecting me-too drugs, the models often uncover compounds with distinctive profiles of activity in var...

  12. Avaliação de pastagem diferida de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. 2. Disponibilidade de forragem e desempenho animal durante a seca Evaluation of a signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf postponed pasture. 2. Availability of herbage and animal performance, during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Destéfani Guimarães Santos

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Verificaram-se as disponibilidades de forragem total, forragem verde e morta e dos componentes folha verde, caule verde, folha seca e caule seco em pastagem diferida de Brachiaria decumbens. A pastagem foi vedada à entrada dos animais de dezembro de 1996 a junho de 1997 e avaliada, sob pastejo contínuo, durante a estação seca, nos meses de julho a outubro de 1997. Também foram estudadas correlações entre características do relvado e ganho de peso de tourinhos Limousin-Nelore com 19 meses e 374 kg de peso. O diferimento da pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens proporcionou disponibilidade média de forragem (DMST de 7.568, forragem verde (DMSV de 3.834 e morta (DMSM de 3.734 kg de matéria seca (MS/ha em julho, antes do período de pastejo. A utilização contínua da pastagem diferida durante o período seco, com lotação animal de 0,75 UA/ha, não afetou a DMST, média de 7.902, e DMSM, média de 4.637 kg/ha, mas afetou a DMSV e a disponibilidade de folhas verdes (DMSFV. A DMSV e a DMSFV apresentaram taxas crescentes em julho e outubro e diminuíram a taxas crescentes em agosto e setembro. No final de setembro, as pastagens apresentaram a menor DMSV, 2.540 kg/ha. A DMSFV e a proporção de folhas verdes no relvado foram maiores no início de agosto, respectivamente, 1.517 kg/ha e 18,5%, e menores no final de setembro, 480 kg/ha e 5,7%, respectivamente. O diferimento da pastagem permitiu a manutenção dos animais e apenas pequeno ganho de peso durante a seca, média de 104 g/dia. Em setembro, os animais nas pastagens perderam peso. O ganho de peso vivo médio diário correlacionou-se linear e negativamente com DMSM e linear e positivamente com as relações [DMSV/DMSM] e [DMSFV/(DMSM + DMSCV], em que DMSCV é a disponibilidade de matéria seca de caule verde. Não foram verificadas correlações entre ganho de peso e as variáveis DMSV, DMSFV, pressão de pastejo e oferta diária de forragem.The availability of herbage, green herbage, dead

  13. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiyou, Jian; Li, Meng; Ning, Wang; Guifang, Xu; Jingbo, Yu; Lei, Dai; Yanhong, Shi

    2016-01-01

    The endangered causes of Taxus chinensis var. maireiin the Taihang Mountains are analyzed in three sides in connection with the situation that is resources increasing attenuation.The first is biological factors such as pollination barriers, deeply dormancy seed, cannot vegetative propagation under natural conditions, poor adaptability of seedling to environment and slow growth. The second is environmental factors such as very limited distribution environment and position in community. The third is interference of persons and other animals.According to these factors, we provide three measures to protect Taxus chinensis var. maireiin three sides that protect existing resources, breed subsequent resources and find new pathway of producing taxol. PMID:27513508

  14. 21 CFR 530.21 - Prohibitions for food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibitions for food-producing animals. 530.21... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals § 530.21 Prohibitions...

  15. Drug: D06722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ranthes bidentata root Major component: Ecdysterone [CPD:C02633] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06...ude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06722 Achyranthes root; Achyranthese root Crude drugs

  16. Causes, Harm & Control Measures of Veterinary Drugs Residues in Animal Products%畜产品兽药残留的起因、危害及其控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬; 靳胜福; 黄涛

    2013-01-01

    近年来,兽药残留已成为人们普遍关注的社会问题之一.兽药残留不仅危害人体健康,造成环境污染,还影响我国畜牧业的发展和国际化进程.因此,必须采取有效措施,控制和减少兽药的残留.文章主要阐述了兽药残留的起因、危害及其控制措施.%In recent years,veterinary drugs residues have become one of the important social problems of common concern.Veterinary drugs residues not only endanger human health and cause environmental pollution,but also affect the development and the internationalization process of Chinese animal husbandry.Therefore,effective measures must be taken to control and reduce the residues of veterinary drugs.This paper mainly describes the causes.harm and control measures of veterinary drugs residues.

  17. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  18. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  19. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  20. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  1. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  2. Quadruped Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Skrba, Ljiljana; Reveret, Lionel; Hétroy, Franck; Cani, Marie-Paule; O'Sullivan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In...

  3. Thin Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, D.

    1998-01-01

    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals ...

  4. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 17 – 21.11.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Programmation automate Schneider TSX Premium – niveau 2 : 18 – 21.11.03 (4 jours) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition – Part 1 : WEB Applications : 20 & ...

  5. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  6. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  7. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve. PMID:26845298

  8. 21 CFR 516.31 - Scope of MUMS-drug exclusive marketing rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.31 Scope of MUMS-drug...

  9. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, S; Baite, A; Bakkali, H; Atmani, M; Ababou, K; Ihrai, H

    2009-09-30

    Le syndrome de Lyell ou nécrolyse épidermique toxique (NET) est une pathologie très grave des dermatoses bulleuses d'étiologie médicamenteuse. Il se caractérise par une nécrose aiguë de l'épiderme sur toute la hauteur du corps muqueux. L'aspect clinique de la NET est celui d'une brûlure étendue du deuxième degré profond. A ce tableau s'associent constamment des lésions muqueuses et une atteinte multiviscérale qui aggrave le pronostic. Nous rapportons deux cas de NET qui illustrent l'importance d'une prise en charge précoce et multidisciplinaire de ces patients atteints au sein d'un service de réanimation des brûlés, dont les fondements reposent sur l'asepsie rigoureuse, l'apport hydroélectrolytique et nutritionnel, la prévention de l'infection et son traitement par une antibiothérapie adaptée, et un nursing et des soins locaux. L'efficacité supposée des immunoglobulines intraveineuses ne repose que sur des cas isolés et il n'y a pas encore d'études randomisées. PMID:21991170

  10. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline, Sophie; Bleton, Jean; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Minchin, Sébastien; Muller, Anne-Laure; Poupon, Joël; Charlier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Today, the development of analytic methods brings new scientific insights into the research on the mummification process used by embalmers in ancient Egypt. The application of these techniques of molecular analysis, elementary analysis, botanical analysis and bibliographic analysis of ancient texts allows us to know the composition of mummification balms and material involved in the conservation of the body. Such substances, which are mineral, animal or plant material, played a practical and a symbolic part in the composition of balms used for the preservation of mummified bodies and therefore in the passage to the eternal life after the death. The comparison of analysis results can inform us about changes in embalming techniques depending of the time, the place of mummification, the deceased's social status. However the number of mummies studied is very small compared to the number of bodies that were mummified. Finally the techniques of mummification and making balms were very variable according to practitioners and their modus operandi. Today, using these technic of chemical analysis and medical imaging techniques, we can authenticate and reconstruct the history of museum pieces, as we have done in the unpublished studies conducted in support of literature data previously collected. PMID:27349124

  11. Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Places available The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction ...

  12. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  13. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  14. Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Badyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Most of present day′s drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The dilemma to continue animal experiments in education and research continues with varied and confusing guidelines. However, the animal use and their handling vary in each laboratory and educational institution. It has been reported that the animals are being subjected to painful procedures in education and training unnecessarily. The extensive use of animals in toxicity studies and testing dermatological preparations has raised concerns about the ways animals are sacrificed for these "irrelevant experiments". On the other side of the coin are scientists who advocate the relevant and judicious use of animals in research so that new discoveries can continue. In this review, we discuss the evolution of the use of animals in education and research and how these have been affected in recent times owing to concerns from animal lovers and government regulations. A number of computer simulation and other models have been recommended for use as alternatives to use of animals for pharmacology education. In this review we also discuss some of these alternatives.

  15. Phytochemicals as a Source of Novel Drugs Against Prostate Cancer - Preparation of Animal Experiments and Isolation and Identification of Flavonoid Glycosides from Abies pindrow

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Carlos Oscar Alejandro Soto

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Plants and herbs have been utilized for centuries by traditional medicinal systems (e.g. TCM, Ayurveda) to alleviate minor illnesses and major diseases. In recent decades, interest in traditional medicine has increased significantly among drug development institutions. Currently, several research groups worldwide are conducting isolation, characterization and bioassay evaluation of secondary metabolites from plants and herbs utilized in traditional medicine. Such research aim...

  16. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses : EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 23.10.03 (half day) The EDMS-MTF in practice (free of charge) :  28 -  30.10.03 (6 half-day sessions) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) LabVIEW TestStand ver. 3 : 4 & 5.11.03 (2 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11.03 p.m. (half-day) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programm...

  17. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Project Planning with MS-Project : 15 & 22.1.2004 (2 days) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework Course : 2 sessions : 2 - 6.2.2004 and 16 - 20-2-2004 (5 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 16 - 18.2.2004 (3 days - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004 ( 6 X 4-hour sessions)

  18. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The JAVA Programming Language Level 1 :9 & 10.1.2004 (2 days) The JAVA Programming Language Level 2 : 11 to 13.1.2004 (3 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 16 - 18.2.2004 (3 days - free of charge) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004...

  19. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The JAVA Programming Language Level 1 : 9 & 10.1.2004 (2 days) The JAVA Programming Language Level 2 : 11 to 13.1.2004 (3 days) LabVIEW base 1 : 25 - 27.2.2004 (3 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004 ( 6 X 4-hour sessions) LabVIEW Basics 1 : 22 - 24.3.20...

  20. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: MATLAB Fundamentals and Programming Techniques (ML01) :2 & 3.12.03 (2 days) Oracle 8i : SQL : 3 - 5.12.03 (3 days) The EDMS MTF in practice : 5.12.03 (afternoon, free of charge) Modeling Dynamic Systems with Simulink (SL01) : 8 & 9.12.03 (2 days) Signal Processing with MATLAB (SG01) : 11 & ...