WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal diseases host-pathogen

  1. Use of isotopes for research and control of vectors of animal diseases, host-pathogen relationships and the environmental impact of control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: To cope with the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be utilized. As an example, nagana alone (animal trypanosomiasis) profoundly affects socioeconomic development in Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of the more than 7 million square kilometres where it is present. The need to control this disease has been emphasized by a mandate from the 1974 World Food Conference of the United Nations. If this disease alone could be eliminated, the cattle population could be increased by at least 120 million head with a resultant yearly increase in meat production of 1.5 million tons having a value totalling 750 million US dollars. The symposium was convened to discuss the various research and control aspects of nagana and related diseases and was the first of its kind to be convened by the sponsoring organizations The symposium amply demonstrated the value and usefulness of isotopes in the research and control of vectors of animal diseases, the elucidation of host-pathogen relationships and the degradation of pesticides. The symposium received an enthusiastic response, reflected in the large number of papers presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique (SIT) as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its different aspects such as mass-rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behaviour and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations on insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides. The technical sessions began with 3 review papers, one on the FAO Animal Health Division's field research on tsetse flies, the second on the

  2. MODELING HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS: COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY AND BIOINFORMATICS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE RESEARCH (Session introduction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Jason E.; Braun, Pascal; Bonneau, Richard A.; Hyduke, Daniel R.

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic infections are a major cause of both human disease and loss of crop yields and animal stocks and thus cause immense damage to the worldwide economy. The significance of infectious diseases is expected to increase in an ever more connected warming world, in which new viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens can find novel hosts and ecologic niches. At the same time, the complex and sophisticated mechanisms by which diverse pathogenic agents evade defense mechanisms and subvert their hosts networks to suit their lifestyle needs is still very incompletely understood especially from a systems perspective [1]. Thus, understanding host-pathogen interactions is both an important and a scientifically fascinating topic. Recently, technology has offered the opportunity to investigate host-pathogen interactions on a level of detail and scope that offers immense computational and analytical possibilities. Genome sequencing was pioneered on some of these pathogens, and the number of strains and variants of pathogens sequenced to date vastly outnumbers the number of host genomes available. At the same time, for both plant and human hosts more and more data on population level genomic variation becomes available and offers a rich field for analysis into the genetic interactions between host and pathogen.

  3. Studying Host-Pathogen Interactions In 3-D: Organotypic Models For Infectious Disease And Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Richter, Emily G.; Ott, C. Mark

    2006-01-01

    Representative, reproducible and high-throughput models of human cells and tissues are critical for a meaningful evaluation of host-pathogen interactions and are an essential component of the research developmental pipeline. The most informative infection models - animals, organ explants and human trials - are not suited for extensive evaluation of pathogenesis mechanisms and screening of candidate drugs. At the other extreme, more cost effective and accessible infection models such as conventional cell culture and static co-culture may not capture physiological and three-dimensional aspects of tissue biology that are important in assessing pathogenesis, and effectiveness and cytotoxicity of therapeutics. Our lab has used innovative bioengineering technology to establish biologically meaningful 3-D models of human tissues that recapitulate many aspects of the differentiated structure and function of the parental tissue in vivo, and we have applied these models to study infectious disease. We have established a variety of different 3-D models that are currently being used in infection studies - including small intestine, colon, lung, placenta, bladder, periodontal ligament, and neuronal models. Published work from our lab has shown that our 3-D models respond to infection with bacterial and viral pathogens in ways that reflect the infection process in vivo. By virtue of their physiological relevance, 3-D cell cultures may also hold significant potential as models to provide insight into the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection. Furthermore, the experimental flexibility, reproducibility, cost-efficiency, and high throughput platform afforded by these 3-D models may have important implications for the design and development of drugs with which to effectively treat neurological complications of HIV infection.

  4. The pig as a large animal model for characterization of host-pathogen interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    Large animal models are essential in understanding the mechanisms involved in human infectious disease. To study the expression of host and bacterial genes involved in defense and survival mechanisms, we analyzed lung tissue from pigs experimentally infected with the Gram-negative bacterium A...... experimental H1N2 virus infection of pigs, and found the regulation of several swine encoded miRNAs and cytokines to mimic key findings from influenza studies in human patients. By employing the pig as a model we were able to perform highly controlled experimental infections and to study changes of symptoms...

  5. The Use of High Pressure Freezing and Freeze Substitution to Study Host-Pathogen Interactions in Fungal Diseases of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, C. W.; Celio, Gail J.; Richardson, Elizabeth A.

    2003-12-01

    This article reports on the use of high pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution (HPF/FS) to study ultrastructural details of host pathogen interactions in fungal diseases of plants. The specific host pathogen systems discussed here include a powdery mildew infection of poinsettia and rust infections of daylily and Indian strawberry. The three pathogens considered here all attack the leaves of their hosts and produce specialized hyphal branches known as haustoria that invade individual host cells without killing them. We found that HPF/FS provided excellent preservation of both haustoria and host cells for all three host pathogen systems. Preservation of fungal and host cell membranes was particularly good and greatly facilitated the detailed study of host pathogen interfaces. In some instances, HPF/FS provided information that was not available in samples prepared for study using conventional chemical fixation. On the other hand, we did encounter various problems associated with the use of HPF/FS. Examples included freeze damage of samples, inconsistency of fixation in different samples, separation of plant cell cytoplasm from cell walls, breakage of cell walls and membranes, and splitting of thin sections. However, we believe that the outstanding preservation of ultrastructural details afforded by HPF/FS significantly outweighs these problems and we highly recommend the use of this fixation protocol for future studies of fungal host-plant interactions.

  6. Climate change accelerates local disease extinction rates in a long-term wild host-pathogen association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiasui; Ericson, Lars; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2018-02-27

    Pathogens are a significant component of all plant communities. In recent years the potential for existing and emerging pathogens of agricultural crops to cause increased yield losses as a consequence of changing climatic patterns has raised considerable concern. In contrast, the response of naturally occurring, endemic pathogens to a warming climate has received little attention. Here we report on the impact of a signature variable of global climate change - increasing temperature - on the long-term epidemiology of a natural host-pathogen association involving the rust pathogen Triphragmium ulmariae and its host plant Filipendula ulmaria. In a host-pathogen metapopulation involving approximately 230 host populations growing on an archipelago of islands in the Gulf of Bothnia we assessed changes in host population size and pathogen epidemiological measures over a 25-year period. We show how the incidence of disease and its severity declines over that period and most importantly demonstrate a positive association between a long-term trend of increasing extinction rates in individual pathogen populations of the metapopulation and increasing temperature. Our results are highly suggestive that changing climatic patterns, particularly mean monthly growing season (April-November) temperature, are markedly influencing the epidemiology of plant disease in this host-pathogen association. Given the important role plant pathogens have in shaping the structure of communities, changes in the epidemiology of pathogens have potentially far-reaching impacts on ecological and evolutionary processes. For these reasons, it is essential to increase understanding of pathogen epidemiology, its response to warming, and to invoke these responses in forecasts for the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. The potential benefits of repeated measure experiments for fish disease-challenge host-pathogen investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L Malcolm; Collins, Catherine; Collet, Bertrand

    2018-02-02

    The utility of molecular response data arising from in-vivo single and repeated measure fish disease-challenge experiments is compared. An in-silico 'experiment' involving the generation of two imaginary immune-molecule quantity response profiles over time for individual animals was carried out. Daily 'observed' molecule quantities were drawn from the 'known' individual response profiles to mimic the results of single and repeated measurement. The results indicate that repeated measure experiments are required to infer individual level response profiles, and that these experiments also provide more accurate summary statistics and data more suited to inferring the dependent ordering of the molecular response. Additionally repeated measure experiments utilise fewer animals than single measure experiments. These results are described alongside a discussion of experimental methodological issues pertinent to the adoption of aquatic animal repeated measure experimental designs. We conclude that investigators need to take particular care when making inferences from single measure experiments and that serious consideration should be given to using repeated measure experiments for in-vivo fish disease-challenge investigations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxoplasmosis and Polygenic Disease Susceptibility Genes: Extensive Toxoplasma gondii Host/Pathogen Interactome Enrichment in Nine Psychiatric or Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Carter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is not only implicated in schizophrenia and related disorders, but also in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, cancer, cardiac myopathies, and autoimmune disorders. During its life cycle, the pathogen interacts with ~3000 host genes or proteins. Susceptibility genes for multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, childhood obesity, Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (multiple sclerosis, and autism (, but not anorexia or chronic fatigue are highly enriched in the human arm of this interactome and 18 (ADHD to 33% (MS of the susceptibility genes relate to it. The signalling pathways involved in the susceptibility gene/interactome overlaps are relatively specific and relevant to each disease suggesting a means whereby susceptibility genes could orient the attentions of a single pathogen towards disruption of the specific pathways that together contribute (positively or negatively to the endophenotypes of different diseases. Conditional protein knockdown, orchestrated by T. gondii proteins or antibodies binding to those of the host (pathogen derived autoimmunity and metabolite exchange, may contribute to this disruption. Susceptibility genes may thus be related to the causes and influencers of disease, rather than (and as well as to the disease itself.

  9. Scaling up complexity in host-pathogens interaction models. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Maíra

    2015-12-01

    Caused by micro-organisms that are pathogenic to the host, infectious diseases have caused debilitation and premature death to large portions of the human population, leading to serious social-economic concerns. The persistence and increase in the occurrence of infectious diseases as well the emergence or resurgence of vector-borne diseases are closely related with demographic factors such as the uncontrolled urbanization and remarkable population growth, political, social and economical changes, deforestation, development of resistance to insecticides and drugs and increased human travel. In recent years, mathematical modeling became an important tool for the understanding of infectious disease epidemiology and dynamics, addressing ideas about the components of host-pathogen interactions. Acting as a possible tool to understand, predict the spread of infectious diseases these models are also used to evaluate the introduction of intervention strategies like vector control and vaccination. Many scientific papers have been published recently on these topics, and most of the models developed try to incorporate factors focusing on several different aspects of the disease (and eventually biological aspects of the vector), which can imply rich dynamic behavior even in the most basic dynamical models. As one example to be cited, there is a minimalistic dengue model that has shown rich dynamic structures, with bifurcations (Hopf, pitchfork, torus and tangent bifurcations) up to chaotic attractors in unexpected parameter regions [1,2], which was able to describe the large fluctuations observed in empirical outbreak data [3,4].

  10. Tick-host-pathogen interactions in Lyme borreliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, J.W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since its discovery approximately 30 years ago, Lyme borreliosis has become the most important vector-borne disease in the Western world. This thesis describes in molecular detail novel tick-host-pathogen interactions in Lyme borreliosis, contributing to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this

  11. Host-pathogen interactions in typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on host-pathogen interactions in Salmonella Typhi and Burkholderia pseudomallei infections and explores the interplay between these bacteria and the innate immune system. Typhoid fever is one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in low-income countries. With adequate

  12. Host-pathogen interactions during apoptosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Host pathogen interaction results in a variety of responses, which include phagocytosis of the pathogen, release of cytokines, secretion of toxins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have shown that many pathogens exert control on the processes that regulate apoptosis in the host.

  13. Modelling the dynamics of an experimental host-pathogen microcosm within a hierarchical Bayesian framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lunn

    Full Text Available The advantages of Bayesian statistical approaches, such as flexibility and the ability to acknowledge uncertainty in all parameters, have made them the prevailing method for analysing the spread of infectious diseases in human or animal populations. We introduce a Bayesian approach to experimental host-pathogen systems that shares these attractive features. Since uncertainty in all parameters is acknowledged, existing information can be accounted for through prior distributions, rather than through fixing some parameter values. The non-linear dynamics, multi-factorial design, multiple measurements of responses over time and sampling error that are typical features of experimental host-pathogen systems can also be naturally incorporated. We analyse the dynamics of the free-living protozoan Paramecium caudatum and its specialist bacterial parasite Holospora undulata. Our analysis provides strong evidence for a saturable infection function, and we were able to reproduce the two waves of infection apparent in the data by separating the initial inoculum from the parasites released after the first cycle of infection. In addition, the parameter estimates from the hierarchical model can be combined to infer variations in the parasite's basic reproductive ratio across experimental groups, enabling us to make predictions about the effect of resources and host genotype on the ability of the parasite to spread. Even though the high level of variability between replicates limited the resolution of the results, this Bayesian framework has strong potential to be used more widely in experimental ecology.

  14. Host-pathogen interactions during apoptosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    rity and tissue homeostasis in multicellular organisms. (Vaux and Strasser 1996). Apoptosis characteristically occurs in isolated single cells. Inappropriate apoptosis is linked to a number of parasitic infections as well as the cause and progression of diseases such as neurodegenera- tive disorders, aging and cancer.

  15. Gnotobiotic mouse model's contribution to understanding host-pathogen interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubelková, K.; Benuchová, M.; Kozáková, Hana; Šinkora, Marek; Kročová, Z.; Pejchal, J.; Macela, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 20 (2016), s. 3961-3969 ISSN 1420-682X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Germ-free model * Gnotobiology * Host-pathogen interaction Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.788, year: 2016

  16. Host-pathogen interactions: A cholera surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Aaron T.

    2016-02-22

    Bacterial pathogen-secreted proteases may play a key role in inhibiting a potentially widespread host-pathogen interaction. Activity-based protein profiling enabled the identification of a major Vibrio cholerae serine protease that limits the ability of a host-derived intestinal lectin to bind to the bacterial pathogen in vivo.

  17. Genes, communities & invasive species: understanding the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, J J; Thrall, P H; Ericson, L

    2013-08-01

    Reciprocal interactions between hosts and pathogens drive ecological, epidemiological and co-evolutionary trajectories, resulting in complex patterns of diversity at population, species and community levels. Recent results confirm the importance of negative frequency-dependent rather than 'arms-race' processes in the evolution of individual host-pathogen associations. At the community level, complex relationships between species abundance and diversity dampen or alter pathogen impacts. Invasive pathogens challenge these controls reflecting the earliest stages of evolutionary associations (akin to arms-race) where disease effects may be so great that they overwhelm the host's and community's ability to respond. Viewing these different stabilization/destabilization phases as a continuum provides a valuable perspective to assessment of the role of genetics and ecology in the dynamics of both natural and invasive host-pathogen associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Animals: Disease Risks for People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Disease Risks for People at Dog Social Events People attending dog social events can be at risk ... which are diseases that spread from animals to people. Some of these diseases can be spread directly ...

  19. Specialization for resistance in wild host-pathogen interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke eBarrett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties encompassed by host-pathogen interaction networks have potential to give valuable insight into the evolution of specialization and coevolutionary dynamics in host-pathogen interactions. However, network approaches have been rarely utilized in previous studies of host and pathogen phenotypic variation. Here we applied quantitative analyses to eight networks derived from spatially and temporally segregated host (Linum marginale and pathogen (Melampsora lini populations. First, we found that resistance strategies are highly variable within and among networks, corresponding to a spectrum of specialist and generalist resistance types being maintained within all networks. At the individual level, specialization was strongly linked to partial resistance, such that partial resistance was effective against a greater number of pathogens compared to full resistance. Second, we found that all networks were significantly nested. There was little support for the hypothesis that temporal evolutionary dynamics may lead to the development of nestedness in host-pathogen infection networks. Rather, the common patterns observed in terms of nestedness suggests a universal driver (or multiple drivers that may be independent of spatial and temporal structure. Third, we found that resistance networks were significantly modular in two spatial networks, clearly reflecting spatial and ecological structure within one of the networks. We conclude that (1 overall patterns of specialization in the networks we studied mirror evolutionary trade-offs with the strength of resistance; (2 that specific network architecture can emerge under different evolutionary scenarios; and (3 network approaches offer great utility as a tool for probing the evolutionary and ecological genetics of host-pathogen interactions.

  20. Partial resistance in the Linum-Melampsora host-pathogen system: does partial resistance make the red queen run slower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonovics, Janis; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2011-02-01

    Five levels of disease expression were scored in a cross-inoculation study of 120 host and 60 pathogen lines of wild flax Linum marginale and its rust fungus Melampsora lini sampled from six natural populations. Patterns of partial resistance showed clear evidence of gene-for-gene interactions, with particular levels of partial resistance occurring in specific host-pathogen combinations. Sympatric and putatively more highly coevolved host-pathogen combinations had a lower frequency of partial resistance types relative to allopatric combinations. Sympatric host-pathogen combinations also showed a lower diversity of resistance responses, but there was a trend toward a greater fraction of this variance being determined by pathogen-genotype × host-genotype interactions. In this system, there was no evidence that partial resistances slow host-pathogen coevolution. The analyses show that if variation is generated by among population host or pathogen dispersal, then coevolution occurs largely by pathogens overcoming the partial resistances that are generated. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Animal models for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, J H

    1982-01-01

    The use of animal models for the study of human disease is, for the most part, a recent development. This discussion of the use of animal models for human diseases directs attention to the sterile period, early advances, some personal experiences, the human as the model, biological oddities among common laboratory animals, malignancies in laboratory animals, problems created by federal regulations, cancer tests with animals, and what the future holds in terms of the use of animal models as an aid to understanding human disease. In terms of early use of animal models, there was a school of rabbis, some of whom were also physicians, in Babylon who studied and wrote extensively on ritual slaughter and the suitability of birds and beasts for food. Considerable detailed information on animal pathology, physiology, anatomy, and medicine in general can be found in the Soncino Babylonian Talmudic Translations. The 1906 edition of the "Jewish Encyclopedia," has been a rich resource. Although it has not been possible to establish what diseases of animals were studied and their relationship to the diseases of humans, there are fascinating clues to pursue, despite the fact that these were sterile years for research in medicine. The quotation from the Talmud is of interest: "The medical knowledge of the Talmudist was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of disease and experiments upon animals." A bright light in the lackluster years of medical research was provided by Galen, considered the originator of research in physiology and anatomy. His dissection of animals and work on apes and other lower animals were models for human anatomy and physiology and the bases for many treatises. Yet, Galen never seemed to suggest that animals could serve as models for human diseases. Most early physicians who can be considered to have been students of disease developed their medical knowledge by observing the sick under their care. 1 early medical investigator

  2. Prediction of host - pathogen protein interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Homo sapiens using sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Tong; Liu, Wei; Guo, Yu; Yang, Cheng; Lin, Jianping; Rao, Zihe

    2015-03-26

    Emergence of multiple drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB) threatens to derail global efforts aimed at reigning in the pathogen. Co-infections of M. tuberculosis with HIV are difficult to treat. To counter these new challenges, it is essential to study the interactions between M. tuberculosis and the host to learn how these bacteria cause disease. We report a systematic flow to predict the host pathogen interactions (HPIs) between M. tuberculosis and Homo sapiens based on sequence motifs. First, protein sequences were used as initial input for identifying the HPIs by 'interolog' method. HPIs were further filtered by prediction of domain-domain interactions (DDIs). Functional annotations of protein and publicly available experimental results were applied to filter the remaining HPIs. Using such a strategy, 118 pairs of HPIs were identified, which involve 43 proteins from M. tuberculosis and 48 proteins from Homo sapiens. A biological interaction network between M. tuberculosis and Homo sapiens was then constructed using the predicted inter- and intra-species interactions based on the 118 pairs of HPIs. Finally, a web accessible database named PATH (Protein interactions of M. tuberculosis and Human) was constructed to store these predicted interactions and proteins. This interaction network will facilitate the research on host-pathogen protein-protein interactions, and may throw light on how M. tuberculosis interacts with its host.

  3. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  4. Manganese acquisition and homeostasis at the host-pathogen interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisher, John P; Giedroc, David P

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria acquire transition metals for cell viability and persistence of infection in competition with host nutritional defenses. The human host employs a variety of mechanisms to stress the invading pathogen with both cytotoxic metal ions and oxidative and nitrosative insults while withholding essential transition metals from the bacterium. For example, the S100 family protein calprotectin (CP) found in neutrophils is a calcium-activated chelator of extracellular Mn and Zn and is found in tissue abscesses at sites of infection by Staphylococcus aureus. In an adaptive response, bacteria have evolved systems to acquire the metals in the face of this competition while effluxing excess or toxic metals to maintain a bioavailability of transition metals that is consistent with a particular inorganic "fingerprint" under the prevailing conditions. This review highlights recent biological, chemical and structural studies focused on manganese (Mn) acquisition and homeostasis and connects this process to oxidative stress resistance and iron (Fe) availability that operates at the human host-pathogen interface.

  5. Manganese acquisition and homeostasis at the host-pathogen interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Lisher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria acquire transition metals for cell viability and persistence of infection in competition with host nutritional defenses. The human host employs a variety of mechanisms to stress the invading pathogen with both cytotoxic metal ions and oxidative and nitrosative insults while withholding essential transition metals from the bacterium. For example, the S100 family protein calprotectin (CP found in neutrophils is a calcium-activated chelator of extracellular Mn and Zn and is found in tissue abscesses at sites of infection by Staphylococcus aureus. In an adaptive response, bacteria have evolved systems to acquire the metals in the face of this competition while effluxing excess or toxic metals to maintain a bioavailability of transition metals that is consistent with a particular inorganic fingerprint under the prevailing conditions. This review highlights recent biological, chemical and structural studies focused on manganese (Mn acquisition and homeostasis and connects this process to oxidative stress resistance and iron (Fe availability that operates at the human host-pathogen interface.

  6. Protein Disulfide Isomerase and Host-Pathogen Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz S. Stolf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS production by immunological cells is known to cause damage to pathogens. Increasing evidence accumulated in the last decade has shown, however, that ROS (and redox signals functionally regulate different cellular pathways in the host-pathogen interaction. These especially affect (i pathogen entry through protein redox switches and redox modification (i.e., intra- and interdisulfide and cysteine oxidation and (ii phagocytic ROS production via Nox family NADPH oxidase enzyme and the control of phagolysosome function with key implications for antigen processing. The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI family of redox chaperones is closely involved in both processes and is also implicated in protein unfolding and trafficking across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and towards the cytosol, a thiol-based redox locus for antigen processing. Here, we summarise examples of the cellular association of host PDI with different pathogens and explore the possible roles of pathogen PDIs in infection. A better understanding of these complex regulatory steps will provide insightful information on the redox role and coevolutional biological process, and assist the development of more specific therapeutic strategies in pathogen-mediated infections.

  7. Entomopathogenic Fungi: New Insights into Host-Pathogen Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, T M; Coates, C J; Dubovskiy, I M; Ratcliffe, N A

    2016-01-01

    Although many insects successfully live in dangerous environments exposed to diverse communities of microbes, they are often exploited and killed by specialist pathogens. Studies of host-pathogen interactions (HPI) provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the highly aggressive coevolutionary arms race between entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and their arthropod hosts. The host defenses are designed to exclude the pathogen or mitigate the damage inflicted while the pathogen responds with immune evasion and utilization of host resources. EPF neutralize their immediate surroundings on the insect integument and benefit from the physiochemical properties of the cuticle and its compounds that exclude competing microbes. EPF also exhibit adaptations aimed at minimizing trauma that can be deleterious to both host and pathogen (eg, melanization of hemolymph), form narrow penetration pegs that alleviate host dehydration and produce blastospores that lack immunogenic sugars/enzymes but facilitate rapid assimilation of hemolymph nutrients. In response, insects deploy an extensive armory of hemocytes and macromolecules, such as lectins and phenoloxidase, that repel, immobilize, and kill EPF. New evidence suggests that immune bioactives work synergistically (eg, lysozyme with antimicrobial peptides) to combat infections. Some proteins, including transferrin and apolipophorin III, also demonstrate multifunctional properties, participating in metabolism, homeostasis, and pathogen recognition. This review discusses the molecular intricacies of these HPI, highlighting the interplay between immunity, stress management, and metabolism. Increased knowledge in this area could enhance the efficacy of EPF, ensuring their future in integrated pest management programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Host identity matters in the amphibian-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis system: fine-scale patterns of variation in responses to a multi-host pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie Gervasi; Carmen Gondhalekar; Deanna H. Olson; Andrew R. Blaustein

    2013-01-01

    Species composition within ecological assemblages can drive disease dynamics including pathogen invasion, spread, and persistence. In multi-host pathogen systems, interspecific variation in responses to infection creates important context dependency when predicting the outcome of disease. Here, we examine the responses of three sympatric host species to a single fungal...

  9. Dynamics and profiles of a diffusive host-pathogen system with distinct dispersal rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yixiang; Zou, Xingfu

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate a diffusive host-pathogen model with heterogeneous parameters and distinct dispersal rates for the susceptible and infected hosts. We first prove that the solution of the model exists globally and the model system possesses a global attractor. We then identify the basic reproduction number R0 for the model and prove its threshold role: if R0 ≤ 1, the disease free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; if R0 > 1, the solution of the model is uniformly persistent and there exists a positive (pathogen persistent) steady state. Finally, we study the asymptotic profiles of the positive steady state as the dispersal rate of the susceptible or infected hosts approaches zero. Our result suggests that the infected hosts concentrate at certain points which can be characterized as the pathogen's most favoured sites when the mobility of the infected host is limited.

  10. Parathyroid diseases and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Yasuo; Nagata, Yuki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    CIRCULATING CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE ARE TIGHTLY REGULATED BY THREE HORMONES: the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH acts to stimulate a rapid increment in serum calcium and has a crucial role in calcium homeostasis. Major target organs of PTH are kidney and bone. The oversecretion of the hormone results in hypercalcemia, caused by increased intestinal calcium absorption, reduced renal calcium clearance, and mobilization of calcium from bone in primary hyperparathyroidism. In chronic kidney disease, secondary hyperparathyroidism of uremia is observed in its early stages, and this finally develops into the autonomous secretion of PTH during maintenance hemodialysis. Receptors in parathyroid cells, such as the calcium-sensing receptor, vitamin D receptor, and FGF receptor (FGFR)-Klotho complex have crucial roles in the regulation of PTH secretion. Genes such as Cyclin D1, RET, MEN1, HRPT2, and CDKN1B have been identified in parathyroid diseases. Genetically engineered animals with these receptors and the associated genes have provided us with valuable information on the patho-physiology of parathyroid diseases. The application of these animal models is significant for the development of new therapies.

  11. Parathyroid diseases and animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo eImanishi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Circulating calcium and phosphate are tightly regulated by 3 hormones: the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor (FGF-23, and parathyroid hormone (PTH. PTH acts to stimulate a rapid increment in serum calcium and has a crucial role in calcium homeostasis. Major target organs of PTH are kidney and bone. The oversecretion of the hormone results in hypercalcemia, caused by increased intestinal calcium absorption, reduced renal calcium clearance, and mobilization of calcium from bone in primary hyperparathyroidism. In chronic kidney disease, secondary hyperparathyroidism of uremia is observed in its early stages, and early stages, and this finally develops into the autonomous secretion of PTH during maintenance hemodialysis. Receptors in parathyroid cells, such as the calcium-sensing receptor, vitamin D receptor, and FGF receptor (FGFR-Klotho complex have crucial roles in the regulation of PTH secretion. Genes such as Cyclin D1, RET, MEN1, HRPT2, and CDKN1B have been identified in parathyroid diseases. Genetically engineered animals with these receptors and the associated genes have provided us with valuable information on the patho-physiology of parathyroid diseases. The application of these animal models is significant for the development of new therapies.

  12. Host-Pathogen Interactions in Campylobacter Infections: the Host Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Riny; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Cawthraw, Shaun A.; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Owen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. This study was aimed at summarizing the current understanding of host mechanisms involved in the defense against Campylobacter by evaluating data available from three sources: (i) epidemiological observations, (ii) observations of patients, and (iii) experimental observations including observations of animal models and human volunteer studies. Analysis of available data clearly indicates that an effective immune system is crucial for the host defense against Campylobacter infection. Innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immune responses are induced during Campylobacter infection, but the relative importance of these mechanisms in conferring protective immunity against reinfection is unclear. Frequent exposure to Campylobacter does lead to the induction of short-term protection against disease but most probably not against colonization. Recent progress in the development of more suitable animal models for studying Campylobacter infection has opened up possibilities to study the importance of innate and adaptive immunity during infection and in protection against reinfection. In addition, advances in genomics and proteomics technologies will enable more detailed molecular studies. Such studies combined with better integration of host and pathogen research driven by epidemiological findings may truly advance our understanding of Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:18625685

  13. Breeding against infectious diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and

  14. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Workshop Characterization of Pathogenicity, Virulence and Host-Pathogen Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, A

    2006-08-30

    The threats of bio-terrorism and newly emerging infectious diseases pose serious challenges to the national security infrastructure. Rapid detection and diagnosis of infectious disease in human populations, as well as characterizing pathogen biology, are critical for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with such threats. One of the key challenges in managing an infectious disease outbreak, whether through natural causes or acts of overt terrorism, is detection early enough to initiate effective countermeasures. Much recent attention has been directed towards the utility of biomarkers or molecular signatures that result from the interaction of the pathogen with the host for improving our ability to diagnose and mitigate the impact of a developing infection during the time window when effective countermeasures can be instituted. Host responses may provide early signals in blood even from localized infections. Multiple innate and adaptive immune molecules, in combination with other biochemical markers, may provide disease-specific information and new targets for countermeasures. The presence of pathogen specific markers and an understanding of the molecular capabilities and adaptations of the pathogen when it interacts with its host may likewise assist in early detection and provide opportunities for targeting countermeasures. An important question that needs to be addressed is whether these molecular-based approaches will prove useful for early diagnosis, complement current methods of direct agent detection, and aid development and use of countermeasures. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will host a workshop to explore the utility of host- and pathogen-based molecular diagnostics, prioritize key research issues, and determine the critical steps needed to transition host-pathogen research to tools that can be applied towards a more effective national bio-defense strategy. The workshop will bring together leading researchers/scientists in the

  15. Visualization of coral host-pathogen interactions using a stable GFP-labeled Vibrio coralliilyticus strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, F. Joseph; Krediet, Cory J.; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Winn, Karina; Wilson, Bryan; Huete-Stauffer, Carla; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2015-06-01

    The bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus has been implicated as the causative agent of coral tissue loss diseases (collectively known as white syndromes) at sites across the Indo-Pacific and represents an emerging model pathogen for understanding the mechanisms linking bacterial infection and coral disease. In this study, we used a mini-Tn7 transposon delivery system to chromosomally label a strain of V. coralliilyticus isolated from a white syndrome disease lesion with a green fluorescent protein gene (GFP). We then tested the utility of this modified strain as a research tool for studies of coral host-pathogen interactions. A suite of biochemical assays and experimental infection trials in a range of model organisms confirmed that insertion of the GFP gene did not interfere with the labeled strain's virulence. Using epifluorescence video microscopy, the GFP-labeled strain could be reliably distinguished from non-labeled bacteria present in the coral holobiont, and the pathogen's interactions with the coral host could be visualized in real time. This study demonstrates that chromosomal GFP labeling is a useful technique for visualization and tracking of coral pathogens and provides a novel tool to investigate the role of V. coralliilyticus in coral disease pathogenesis.

  16. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Julie G; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human 'mini-guts' has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5 + intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt-villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host-pathogen interactions.

  17. Limitations of a metabolic network-based reverse ecology method for inferring host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Aie, Kazuki

    2017-05-25

    Host-pathogen interactions are important in a wide range of research fields. Given the importance of metabolic crosstalk between hosts and pathogens, a metabolic network-based reverse ecology method was proposed to infer these interactions. However, the validity of this method remains unclear because of the various explanations presented and the influence of potentially confounding factors that have thus far been neglected. We re-evaluated the importance of the reverse ecology method for evaluating host-pathogen interactions while statistically controlling for confounding effects using oxygen requirement, genome, metabolic network, and phylogeny data. Our data analyses showed that host-pathogen interactions were more strongly influenced by genome size, primary network parameters (e.g., number of edges), oxygen requirement, and phylogeny than the reserve ecology-based measures. These results indicate the limitations of the reverse ecology method; however, they do not discount the importance of adopting reverse ecology approaches altogether. Rather, we highlight the need for developing more suitable methods for inferring host-pathogen interactions and conducting more careful examinations of the relationships between metabolic networks and host-pathogen interactions.

  18. Using a Bayesian network to clarify areas requiring research in a host-pathogen system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, D S; Mengersen, K; Alford, R A; Schwarzkopf, L

    2017-12-01

    Bayesian network analyses can be used to interactively change the strength of effect of variables in a model to explore complex relationships in new ways. In doing so, they allow one to identify influential nodes that are not well studied empirically so that future research can be prioritized. We identified relationships in host and pathogen biology to examine disease-driven declines of amphibians associated with amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). We constructed a Bayesian network consisting of behavioral, genetic, physiological, and environmental variables that influence disease and used them to predict host population trends. We varied the impacts of specific variables in the model to reveal factors with the most influence on host population trend. The behavior of the nodes (the way in which the variables probabilistically responded to changes in states of the parents, which are the nodes or variables that directly influenced them in the graphical model) was consistent with published results. The frog population had a 49% probability of decline when all states were set at their original values, and this probability increased when body temperatures were cold, the immune system was not suppressing infection, and the ambient environment was conducive to growth of B. dendrobatidis. These findings suggest the construction of our model reflected the complex relationships characteristic of host-pathogen interactions. Changes to climatic variables alone did not strongly influence the probability of population decline, which suggests that climate interacts with other factors such as the capacity of the frog immune system to suppress disease. Changes to the adaptive immune system and disease reservoirs had a large effect on the population trend, but there was little empirical information available for model construction. Our model inputs can be used as a base to examine other systems, and our results show that such analyses are useful tools for

  19. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  20. Reverse protein arrays applied to host-pathogen interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Víctor J; Kauffmann, Ekkehard; Molina, María

    2011-01-01

    Infection of cells and tissues by pathogenic microorganisms often involves severe reprogramming of host cell signaling. Typically, invasive microorganisms manipulate host cellular pathways seeking advantage for replication and survival within the host, or to evade the immune response. Understanding such subversion of the host cell by intracellular pathogens at a molecular level is the key to possible preventive and therapeutic interventions on infectious diseases. Reverse Protein Arrays (RPAs) have been exploited in other fields, especially in molecular oncology. However, this technology has not been applied yet to the study of infectious diseases. Coupling classic in vitro infection techniques used by cellular microbiologists to proteomic approaches such as RPA analysis should provide a wealth of information about how host cell pathways are manipulated by pathogens. The increasing availability of antibodies specific for phosphorylated epitopes in signaling proteins allows monitoring global changes in phosphorylation through the infection process by utilizing RPA analyses. In our lab, we have shown the potential of RPA technology in this field by devising a microarray consisting of lysates from cell cultures infected by Salmonella typhimurium. The protocols used are described here.

  1. Protozoa lectins and their role in host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Walia, Amandeep Kaur; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that agglutinate red blood cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, etc., and bind reversibly to carbohydrates present on the apposing cells. They have at least two carbohydrate binding sites and their binding can be inhibited by one or more carbohydrates. Owing to carbohydrate binding specificity of lectins, they mediate cell-cell interactions and play role in protozoan adhesion and host cell cytotoxicity, thus are central to the pathogenic property of the parasite. Several parasitic protozoa possess lectins which mediate parasite adherence to host cells based on their carbohydrate specificities. These interactions could be exploited for development of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence and thus helpful in eradicating wide spread of protozoan diseases. The current review highlights the present state knowledge with regard to protozoal lectins with an emphasis on their haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity, characteristics and also their role in pathogenesis notably as adhesion molecules, thereby aiding the pathogen in disease establishment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Jenner-predict server: prediction of protein vaccine candidates (PVCs) in bacteria based on host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Gupta, Ankit; Chauhan, Rajinder S; Rout, Chittaranjan

    2013-07-01

    Subunit vaccines based on recombinant proteins have been effective in preventing infectious diseases and are expected to meet the demands of future vaccine development. Computational approach, especially reverse vaccinology (RV) method has enormous potential for identification of protein vaccine candidates (PVCs) from a proteome. The existing protective antigen prediction software and web servers have low prediction accuracy leading to limited applications for vaccine development. Besides machine learning techniques, those software and web servers have considered only protein's adhesin-likeliness as criterion for identification of PVCs. Several non-adhesin functional classes of proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis are known to provide protection against bacterial infections. Therefore, knowledge of bacterial pathogenesis has potential to identify PVCs. A web server, Jenner-Predict, has been developed for prediction of PVCs from proteomes of bacterial pathogens. The web server targets host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis by considering known functional domains from protein classes such as adhesin, virulence, invasin, porin, flagellin, colonization, toxin, choline-binding, penicillin-binding, transferring-binding, fibronectin-binding and solute-binding. It predicts non-cytosolic proteins containing above domains as PVCs. It also provides vaccine potential of PVCs in terms of their possible immunogenicity by comparing with experimentally known IEDB epitopes, absence of autoimmunity and conservation in different strains. Predicted PVCs are prioritized so that only few prospective PVCs could be validated experimentally. The performance of web server was evaluated against known protective antigens from diverse classes of bacteria reported in Protegen database and datasets used for VaxiJen server development. The web server efficiently predicted known vaccine candidates reported from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

  3. Laboratory simulation reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification on microbial community composition and host-pathogen interactions between the blood clam and Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shanjie; Liu, Saixi; Su, Wenhao; Shi, Wei; Xiao, Guoqiang; Yan, Maocang; Liu, Guangxu

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may promote the outbreaks of diseases in the sea through altering the host susceptibility, the pathogen virulence, and the host-pathogen interaction. However, the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the pathogen components of bacterial community and the host-pathogen interaction of marine bivalves are still poorly understood. Therefore, 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and host-pathogen interaction analysis between blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) and Vibrio harveyi were conducted in the present study to gain a better understanding of the ecological impacts of ocean acidification. The results obtained revealed a significant impact of ocean acidification on the composition of microbial community at laboratory scale. Notably, the abundance of Vibrio, a major group of pathogens to many marine organisms, was significantly increased under ocean acidification condition. In addition, the survival rate and haemolytic activity of V. harveyi were significantly higher in the presence of haemolymph of OA treated T. granosa, indicating a compromised immunity of the clam and enhanced virulence of V. harveyi under future ocean acidification scenarios. Conclusively, the results obtained in this study suggest that future ocean acidification may increase the risk of Vibrio pathogen infection for marine bivalve species, such as blood clams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Farfel-Becker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD, is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  5. Animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Girón-Martínez, Álvaro; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2015-03-01

    Animal models of disease have always been welcomed by the scientific community because they provide an approach to the investigation of certain aspects of the disease in question. Animal models of COPD cannot reproduce the heterogeneity of the disease and usually only manage to represent the disease in its milder stages. Moreover, airflow obstruction, the variable that determines patient diagnosis, not always taken into account in the models. For this reason, models have focused on the development of emphysema, easily detectable by lung morphometry, and have disregarded other components of the disease, such as airway injury or associated vascular changes. Continuous, long-term exposure to cigarette smoke is considered the main risk factor for this disease, justifying the fact that the cigarette smoke exposure model is the most widely used. Some variations on this basic model, related to exposure time, the association of other inducers or inhibitors, exacerbations or the use of transgenic animals to facilitate the identification of pathogenic pathways have been developed. Some variations or heterogeneity of this disease, then, can be reproduced and models can be designed for resolving researchers' questions on disease identification or treatment responses. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Patterns of animal diseases and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, C; Jemmi, T; Stärk, K; Griot, C

    2006-01-01

    Despite enormous progress in scientific knowledge and improvements in sanitary standards in livestock production, the world has recently been confronted with several animal disease epidemics which have caused significant economic losses. General awareness regarding unusual clinical signs and prompt reporting of disease is an important requirement in disease detection and control and needs to be promoted among farmers and veterinarians. Unexpected clinical syndromes are of increasing importance for public health. Syndromic surveillance has been shown to be a key element in detecting emerging diseases. Once detected and diagnosed, surveillance programmes constitute the first step towards determining the disease pattern with regard to time and space. This pattern of disease occurrence becomes the basis for selecting approaches for further disease investigation and for disease control.

  7. Mining Host-Pathogen Protein Interactions to Characterize Burkholderia mallei Infectivity Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    pestis; the majority of these proteins are associated with a Type 3 Secretion System ( T3SS ). These datasets contained 62 host-pathogen interactions for...pestis and S. enterica partners. We identified similarities between T3SS proteins involved in bacterial in- ternalization for all three pathogens...adhesion protein. Furthermore, although the S. enterica and Y. pestis interaction datasets in- cluded mainly T3SS proteins, the two B. mallei Vgr

  8. Periodontal pathogen CaZymes: host-pathogen biology, biochemistry and biotechnological exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Graham P.; Frey, Andrew M.; Satur, Marianne J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT One often neglected aspect of the host-pathogen interface is the presence of myriad glycoproteins and the carbohydrate glycans that they present. These are often the first point of contact for bacteria, with the oral cavity being rich in glycoprotein mucins within secretions such as saliva and crevicular fluid. Therefore, unsurprisingly, bacteria have evolved a myriad of enzymes (that one can consider virulence attributes) to access these glycans to allow attachment to host surfaces,...

  9. 9 CFR 95.3 - Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited. 95.3 Section 95.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  10. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations

  11. Phaeohyphomycoses, emerging opportunistic diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.; Hoog, G.S. de

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations

  12. Campylobacter-Associated Diseases in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Yaeger, Michael; Wu, Zuowei; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-02-08

    Campylobacter includes a group of genetically diverse species causing a range of diseases in animals and humans. The bacterium is frequently associated with two economically important and epidemiologically distinct reproductive diseases in ruminants: enzootic infectious infertility in cattle owing to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and abortions in sheep, goats, and cattle. Septic abortion, usually epizootic in sheep, has been historically associated with C. fetus subsp. fetus and to a lesser extent with Campylobacter jejuni. However, there has been a dramatic species shift in the etiology of Campylobacter abortions in recent years: C. jejuni has now replaced C. fetus subsp. fetus as the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States, which appears to be driven primarily by clonal expansion of a hypervirulent tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone. Here we provide a review on the recent advances in understanding the pathobiology of Campylobacter infections in animals, with an emphasis on the diseases in ruminants, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, genomics, and control measures.

  13. Evaluation of common diseases in laboratory animals | Oguwike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , diet or faulty functioning of a process. Laboratory animals are prone to some of these diseases. This study was undertaken to evaluate common diseases found in laboratory animals in our environment. 200 animals consisting of rats, mice, ...

  14. Large Mammalian Animal Models of Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Camacho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biological complexity of the cardiovascular system, the animal model is an urgent pre-clinical need to advance our knowledge of cardiovascular disease and to explore new drugs to repair the damaged heart. Ideally, a model system should be inexpensive, easily manipulated, reproducible, a biological representative of human disease, and ethically sound. Although a larger animal model is more expensive and difficult to manipulate, its genetic, structural, functional, and even disease similarities to humans make it an ideal model to first consider. This review presents the commonly-used large animals—dog, sheep, pig, and non-human primates—while the less-used other large animals—cows, horses—are excluded. The review attempts to introduce unique points for each species regarding its biological property, degrees of susceptibility to develop certain types of heart diseases, and methodology of induced conditions. For example, dogs barely develop myocardial infarction, while dilated cardiomyopathy is developed quite often. Based on the similarities of each species to the human, the model selection may first consider non-human primates—pig, sheep, then dog—but it also depends on other factors, for example, purposes, funding, ethics, and policy. We hope this review can serve as a basic outline of large animal models for cardiovascular researchers and clinicians.

  15. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

  16. Host and non-host pathogens elicit different jasmonate/ethylene responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Laurent; Stein, Mónica; Lipka, Volker; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Somerville, Shauna

    2004-12-01

    Arabidopsis does not support the growth and asexual reproduction of the barley pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei Bgh). A majority of germlings fail to penetrate the epidermal cell wall and papillae. To gain additional insight into this interaction, we determined whether the salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET) defence pathways played a role in blocking barley powdery mildew infections. Only the eds1 mutant and NahG transgenics supported a modest increase in penetration success by the barley powdery mildew. We also compared the global gene expression patterns of Arabidopsis inoculated with the non-host barley powdery mildew to those inoculated with a virulent, host powdery mildew, Erysiphe cichoracearum. Genes repressed by inoculations with non-host and host powdery mildews relative to non-inoculated control plants accounted for two-thirds of the differentially expressed genes. A majority of these genes encoded components of photosynthesis and general metabolism. Consistent with this observation, Arabidopsis growth was inhibited following inoculation with Bgh, suggesting a shift in resource allocation from growth to defence. A number of defence-associated genes were induced during both interactions. These genes likely are components of basal defence responses, which do not effectively block host powdery mildew infections. In addition, genes encoding defensins, anti-microbial peptides whose expression is under the control of the JA/ET signalling pathway, were induced exclusively by non-host pathogens. Ectopic activation of JA/ET signalling protected Arabidopsis against two biotrophic host pathogens. Taken together, these data suggest that biotrophic host pathogens must either suppress or fail to elicit the JA/ET signal transduction pathway.

  17. Host-pathogen evolutionary signatures reveal dynamics and future invasions of vampire bat rabies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Streicker, D. G.; Winternitz, Jamie Caroline; Satterfield, D. A.; Condori-Condori, R. E.; Broos, A.; Tello, C.; Recuenco, S.; Velasco-Villa, A.; Altizer, S.; Valderrama, W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 39 (2016), s. 10926-10931 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Desmodus * zoonotic disease * forecasting * sex bias * spatial dynamics Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  18. Nearest-neighbor interactions, habitat fragmentation, and the persistence of host-pathogen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Sun, Zhiying; Lau, John W; Komarova, Natalia L

    2013-09-01

    Spatial interactions are known to promote stability and persistence in enemy-victim interactions if instability and extinction occur in well-mixed settings. We investigate the effect of spatial interactions in the opposite case, where populations can persist in well-mixed systems. A stochastic agent-based model of host-pathogen dynamics is considered that describes nearest-neighbor interactions in an undivided habitat. Contrary to previous notions, we find that in this setting, spatial interactions in fact promote extinction. The reason is that, in contrast to the mass-action system, the outcome of the nearest-neighbor model is governed by dynamics in small "local neighborhoods." This is an abstraction that describes interactions in a minimal grid consisting of an individual plus its nearest neighbors. The small size of this characteristic scale accounts for the higher extinction probabilities. Hence, nearest-neighbor interactions in a continuous habitat lead to outcomes reminiscent of a fragmented habitat, which is underlined further with a metapopulation model that explicitly assumes habitat fragmentation. Beyond host-pathogen dynamics, axiomatic modeling shows that our results hold for generic enemy-victim interactions under specified assumptions. These results are used to interpret a set of published experiments that provide a first step toward model testing and are discussed in the context of the literature.

  19. Effects of nutrient supplementation on host-pathogen dynamics of the amphibian chytrid fungus: a community approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Julia C; Rohr, Jason R; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic stressors may influence hosts and their pathogens directly or may alter host-pathogen dynamics indirectly through interactions with other species. For example, in aquatic ecosystems, eutrophication may be associated with increased or decreased disease risk. Conversely, pathogens can influence community structure and function and are increasingly recognised as important members of the ecological communities in which they exist.In outdoor mesocosms, we experimentally manipulated nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and the presence of a fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and examined the effects on Bd abundance on larval amphibian hosts ( Pseudacris regilla : Hylidae), amphibian traits and community dynamics. We predicted that resource supplementation would mitigate negative effects of Bd on tadpole growth and development and that indirect effects of treatments would propagate through the community.Nutrient additions caused changes in algal growth, which benefitted tadpoles through increased mass, development and survival. Bd-exposed tadpoles metamorphosed sooner than unexposed individuals, but their mass at metamorphosis was not affected by Bd exposure. We detected additive rather than interactive effects of nutrient supplementation and Bd in this experiment.Nutrient supplementation was not a significant predictor of infection load of larval amphibians. However, a structural equation model revealed that resource supplementation and exposure of amphibians to Bd altered the structure of the aquatic community. This is the first demonstration that sublethal effects of Bd on amphibians can alter aquatic community dynamics.

  20. Identifying the Achilles' heel of multi-host pathogens: The concept of keystone "host" species illustrated by Mycobacterium ulcerans transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Benjamin; Benbow, M Eric; Merritt, Richard; Kimbirauskas, Ryan; McIntosh, Mollie; Small, Pamela L C; Williamson, Heather; Guégan, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens that use multiple host species are an increasing public health issue due to their complex transmission, which makes them difficult to mitigate. Here, we explore the possibility of using networks of ecological interactions among potential host species to identify the particular disease-source species to target to break down transmission of such pathogens. We fit a mathematical model on prevalence data of Mycobacterium ulcerans in western Africa and we show that removing the most abundant taxa for this category of pathogen is not an optimal strategy to decrease the transmission of the mycobacterium within aquatic ecosystems. On the contrary, we reveal that the removal of some taxa, especially Oligochaeta worms, can clearly reduce rates of pathogen transmission and should be considered as a keystone organism for its transmission because it leads to a substantial reduction in pathogen prevalence regardless of the network topology. Besides its potential application for the understanding of M. ulcerans ecology, we discuss about how networks of species interactions can modulate transmission of multi-host pathogens.

  1. Establishment and validation of whole-cell based fluorescence assays to identify anti-mycobacterial compounds using the Acanthamoeba castellanii-Mycobacterium marinum host-pathogen system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Kicka

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is considered to be one of the world's deadliest disease with 2 million deaths each year. The need for new antitubercular drugs is further exacerbated by the emergence of drug-resistance strains. Despite multiple recent efforts, the majority of the hits discovered by traditional target-based screening showed low efficiency in vivo. Therefore, there is heightened demand for whole-cell based approaches directly using host-pathogen systems. The phenotypic host-pathogen assay described here is based on the monitoring of GFP-expressing Mycobacterium marinum during infection of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. The assay showed straight-forward medium-throughput scalability, robustness and ease of manipulation, demonstrating its qualities as an efficient compound screening system. Validation with a series of known antitubercular compounds highlighted the advantages of the assay in comparison to previously published macrophage-Mycobacterium tuberculosis-based screening systems. Combination with secondary growth assays based on either GFP-expressing D. discoideum or M. marinum allowed us to further fine-tune compound characterization by distinguishing and quantifying growth inhibition, cytotoxic properties and antibiotic activities of the compounds. The simple and relatively low cost system described here is most suitable to detect anti-infective compounds, whether they present antibiotic activities or not, in which case they might exert anti-virulence or host defense boosting activities, both of which are largely overlooked by classical screening approaches.

  2. Frequently Encountered Animal Diseases at Animal Hospital Birnin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other moderately occurring, disorders included dystocia & post partum complications 14(2.2%) each, mal-directed horn/hooves 12(1.9%), tick infestation 10(1.6%), coccidiosis 9(1.4%), fracture 8(1.3%), hernia, PPR, pregnancy ... tract infection, Gumboro disease, black leg, abortion, paraphimosis & dog bite 4(0.6%) each.

  3. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Rouffaer, Lieze; Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van Den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for...

  4. In vivo Host-Pathogen Interaction as Revealed by Global Proteomic Profiling of Zebrafish Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Díaz-Pascual

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of a host-pathogen interaction is determined by the conditions of the host, the pathogen, and the environment. Although numerous proteomic studies of in vitro-grown microbial pathogens have been performed, in vivo proteomic approaches are still rare. In addition, increasing evidence supports that in vitro studies inadequately reflect in vivo conditions. Choosing the proper host is essential to detect the expression of proteins from the pathogen in vivo. Numerous studies have demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos as a model to in vivo studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. In most zebrafish-pathogen studies, infection is achieved by microinjection of bacteria into the larvae. However, few reports using static immersion of bacterial pathogens have been published. In this study we infected 3 days post-fertilization (DPF zebrafish larvae with P. aeruginosa PAO1 by immersion and injection and tracked the in vivo immune response by the zebrafish. Additionally, by using non-isotopic (Q-exactive metaproteomics we simultaneously evaluated the proteomic response of the pathogen (P. aeruginosa PAO1 and the host (zebrafish. We found some zebrafish metabolic pathways, such as hypoxia response via HIF activation pathway, were exclusively enriched in the larvae exposed by static immersion. In contrast, we found that inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways was exclusively enriched in the larvae exposed by injection, while the integrin signaling pathway and angiogenesis were solely enriched in the larvae exposed by immersion. We also found important virulence factors from P. aeruginosa that were enriched only after exposure by injection, such as the Type-III secretion system and flagella-associated proteins. On the other hand, P. aeruginosa proteins involved in processes like biofilm formation, and cellular responses to antibiotic and starvation were enriched exclusively after exposure by

  5. Alteration of host-pathogen interactions in the wake of climate change - Increasing risk for shellfish associated infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, Bodil E; Baden, Susanne P

    2018-02-01

    The potential for climate-related spread of infectious diseases through marine systems has been highlighted in several reports. With this review we want to draw attention to less recognized mechanisms behind vector-borne transmission pathways to humans. We have focused on how the immune systems of edible marine shellfish, the blue mussels and Norway lobsters, are affected by climate related environmental stressors. Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming due to climate change constitute a gradually increasing persistent stress with negative trade-off for many organisms. In addition, the stress of recurrent hypoxia, inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn) is likely to increase in line with climate change. We summarized that OA, hypoxia and elevated levels of Mn did have an overall negative effect on immunity, in some cases also with synergistic effects. On the other hand, moderate increase in temperature seems to have a stimulating effect on antimicrobial activity and may in a future warming scenario counteract the negative effects. However, rising sea surface temperature and climate events causing high land run-off promote the abundance of naturally occurring pathogenic Vibrio and will in addition, bring enteric pathogens which are circulating in society into coastal waters. Moreover, the observed impairments of the immune defense enhance the persistence and occurrence of pathogens in shellfish. This may increase the risk for direct transmission of pathogens to consumers. It is thus essential that in the wake of climate change, sanitary control of coastal waters and seafood must recognize and adapt to the expected alteration of host-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Host-Pathogen Checkpoints and Population Bottlenecks in Persistent and Intracellular Uropathogenic E. coli Bladder Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Thomas J.; Totsika, Makrina; Mansfield, Kylie J.; Moore, Kate H.; Schembri, Mark A.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder infections affect millions of people yearly, and recurrent symptomatic infections (cystitis) are very common. The rapid increase in infections caused by multi-drug resistant uropathogens threatens to make recurrent cystitis an increasingly troubling public health concern. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of bladder infections. Upon entry into the lower urinary tract, UPEC face obstacles to colonization that constitute population bottlenecks, reducing diversity and selecting for fit clones. A critical mucosal barrier to bladder infection is the epithelium (urothelium). UPEC bypass this barrier when they invade urothelial cells and form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs), a process which requires type 1 pili. IBCs are transient in nature, occurring primarily during acute infection. Chronic bladder infection is common and can be either latent, in the form of the Quiescent Intracellular Reservoir (QIR), or active, in the form of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB/ABU) or chronic cystitis. In mice, the fate of bladder infection: QIR, ASB, or chronic cystitis, is determined within the first 24 hours of infection and constitutes a putative host-pathogen mucosal checkpoint that contributes to susceptibility to recurrent cystitis. Knowledge of these checkpoints and bottlenecks is critical for our understanding of bladder infection and efforts to devise novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:22404313

  7. Systems approach to characterizing cell signaling in host-pathogen response to staphylococcus toxin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosiano, J. J. (John J.); Gupta, G. (Goutam); Gray, P. C. (Perry C.); Hush, D. R. (Donald R.); Fugate, M. L. (Michael L.); Cleland, T. J. (Timothy J.); Roberts, R. M. (Randy M.); Hlavacek, W. S. (William S.); Smith, J. L. (Jessica L.)

    2002-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is capable of highly sensitive and specific responses when challenged by pathogens. It is believed that the human immune repertoire - the total number of distinct antigens that can be recognized - is between 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 11}. The most specific responses are cell mediated and involve complex and subtle communications among the immune cells via small proteins known as cytokines. The details of host-pathogen response are exceedingly complex, involving both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms. These include the presentation of antigen by B cells to helper T cells and subsequent stimulation of signal transduction pathways and gene expression within both B and T-cell populations. These in turn lead to the secretion of cytokines and receptor expression. Intercellular cytokine signaling can trigger a host of immune responses including the proliferation and specialization of naive immune cells and the marshaling of effector cells to combat infection. In the ever-evolving game of threat and countermeasure played out by pathogens and their intended hosts, there are direct assaults aimed at subverting the immune system's ability to recognize antigens and respond effectively to challenge by pathogens. Staphylococcus is one of these. Staph bacteria secrete a variety of toxins known generically as superantigens. Superantigen molecules bind simultaneously to the MHC receptors of antigen presenting cells and the TCR receptors of helper T cells, locking them in place and leading to overstimulation. This strategy can effectively burn out the immune system in a matter of days.

  8. Use of high-throughput mass spectrometry to elucidate host-pathogen interactions in Salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodland, Karin D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Manes, Nathan P.; Shi, Liang; Yoon, Hyunjin; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred

    2008-12-01

    New improvements to mass spectrometry include increased sensitivity, improvements in analyzing the collected data, and most important, from the standpoint of this review, a much higher throughput allowing analysis of many samples in a single day. This short review describes how host-pathogen interactions can be dissected by mass spectrometry using Salmonella as a model system. The approach allowed direct identification of the majority of annotate Salmonella proteins, how expression changed under various in vitro growth conditions, and how this relates to virulence and expression within host cell cells. One of the most significant findings is that a very high percentage of the all annotated genes (>20%) are regulated post-transcriptionally. In addition, new and unexpected interactions have been identified for several Salmonella virulence regulators that involve protein-protein interactions suggesting additional functions of the regulator in coordinating virulence expression. Overall high throughput mass spectrometer provides a new view of pathogen-host interaction emphasizing the protein products and defining how protein interactions determine the outcome of infection.

  9. Use of high-throughput mass spectrometry to elucidate host pathogen interactions in Salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodland, Karin D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Manes, Nathan P.; Shi, Liang; Yoon, Hyunjin; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred

    2008-12-01

    Capabilities in mass spectrometry are evolving rapidly, with recent improvements in sensitivity, data analysis, and most important, from the standpoint of this review, much higher throughput allowing analysis of many samples in a single day. This short review describes how these improvements in mass spectrometry can be used to dissect host-pathogen interactions using Salmonella as a model system. This approach enabled direct identification of the majority of annotated Salmonella proteins, quantitation of expression changes under various in vitro growth conditions, and new insights into virulence and expression of Salmonella proteins within host cell cells. One of the most significant findings is that a very high percentage of the all annotated genes (>20%) in Salmonella are regulated post-transcriptionally. In addition, new and unexpected interactions have been identified for several Salmonella virulence regulators that involve protein-protein interactions, suggesting additional functions of these regulators in coordinating virulence expression. Overall high throughput mass spectrometry provides a new view of pathogen-host interactions emphasizing the protein products and defining how protein interactions determine the outcome of infection.

  10. DAF as a therapeutic target for steroid hormones: implications for host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Bogdan; Nowicki, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a concise historic prospective and a summary of accumulated knowledge on steroid hormones, DAF expression, and therapeutic implication of steroid hormone treatment on multiple pathologies, including infection and the host-pathogen interactions. DAF/CD55 plays multiple physiologic functions including tissue protection from the cytotoxic complement injury, an anti-inflammatory function due to its anti-adherence properties which enhance transmigration of monocytes and macrophages and reduce tissue injury. DAF physiologic functions are essential in many organ systems including pregnancy for protection of the semiallogeneic fetus or for preventing uncontrolled infiltration by white cells in their pro- and/or anti-inflammatory functions. DAF expression appears to have multiple regulatory tissue-specific and/or menstrual cycle-specific mechanisms, which involve complex signaling mechanisms. Regulation of DAF expression may involve a direct or an indirect effect of at least the estrogen, progesterone, and corticosteroid regulatory pathways. DAF is exploited in multiple pathologic conditions by pathogens and viruses in chronic tissue infection processes. The binding of Escherichia coli bearing Dr adhesins to the DAF/CD55 receptor is DAF density dependent and triggers internalization of E. coli via an endocytic pathway involving CD55, lipid rafts, and microtubules. Dr+ E. coli or Dr antigen may persist in vivo in the interstitium for several months. Further understanding of such processes should be instrumental in designing therapeutic strategies for multiple conditions involving DAF's protective or pathologic functions and tailoring host expression of DAF.

  11. Analogs of human genetic skin disease in domesticated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Finch, MD

    2017-09-01

    The genetic skin diseases we will review are pigmentary mosaicism, piebaldism, albinism, Griscelli syndrome, ectodermal dysplasias, Waardenburg syndrome, and mucinosis in both humans and domesticated animals.

  12. International livestock markets and the impact of animal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, N; Prakash, A

    2006-08-01

    Escalating and pervasive outbreaks of animal diseases are posing considerable challenges to livestock producers, industries, and policy-makers around the globe in a context of steadily rising demand for locally produced and imported livestock products. This paper reviews the factors and trends underpinning the growth in meat trade over the past decade and assesses the impact of animal diseases on international markets. The factors shaping the transmission of the impact of animal disease to global markets and back into domestic markets are identified and the potential global market impact of further animal disease outbreaks evaluated.

  13. Host-pathogen interactions in Lyme disease and their application in diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgel, Nathalie Daniëlle van

    2013-01-01

    B. burgdorferi has a wide variety of strategies to hide from the host immune system. Complement regulatory binding proteins have been described for almost all complement resistant B. burgdorferi sl, except for the complement resistant B. bavariensis, one of the species that is known to frequently

  14. Review paper: Host-pathogen interactions in the kidney during chronic leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, A M; Callanan, J J; Nally, J E

    2009-09-01

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a global zoonotic disease. Leptospira colonize renal tubules of chronically infected maintenance hosts, from where they are shed in urine to the environment and survive in suitable moist conditions. Transmission of disease to new hosts is facilitated by contact with contaminated urine or water sources, because Leptospira can penetrate broken skin or mucosal surfaces of new hosts. Infection of new hosts may be asymptomatic, as with chronically infected maintenance hosts, or may result in an acute disease process in which clinical signs can include fever, jaundice, renal failure, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Those factors that determine if an animal will suffer an acute or a chronic infection are not fully understood but include host animal species, infecting serovar, and infecting dose. During chronic infection, renal colonization and leptospiruria persist despite cellular and humoral responses by the host. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is the most common lesion associated with chronic infection, and this may progress to fibrosis and subsequent renal failure. This review aims to address how Leptospira cause tubulointerstitial nephritis during chronic leptospirosis and to summarize the mechanisms by which Leptospira might evade host immune responses during chronic colonization of the renal tubule.

  15. The emerging disease occurrence of pet animals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Habiba

    2016-12-01

    Results: Among the most general pet animals in Bangladesh (dog, cat, rabbit, the mostly occured diseases were scabies (23.07%, feline ascariasis (37.14% and rabbit mange (34.61%, while the less frequent diseases were canine parvovirus enteritis (2.19%, cat scratch disease (5.71% and overgrown teeth (7.69%. Conclusion: The study provides basic information about the current status and the percentage (% of disease occurrence considering the emerging diseases of pet animals in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 413-419

  16. Foreign Body Infection Models to Study Host-Pathogen Response and Antimicrobial Tolerance of Bacterial Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Nowakowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of implanted medical devices is steadily increasing and has become an effective intervention improving life quality, but still carries the risk of infection. These infections are mainly caused by biofilm-forming staphylococci that are difficult to treat due to the decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. To understand the particular pathogenesis and treatment tolerance of implant-associated infection (IAI animal models that closely resemble human disease are needed. Applications of the tissue cage and catheter abscess foreign body infection models in the mouse will be discussed herein. Both models allow the investigation of biofilm and virulence of various bacterial species and a comprehensive insight into the host response at the same time. They have also been proven to serve as very suitable tools to study the anti-adhesive and anti-infective efficacy of different biomaterial coatings. The tissue cage model can additionally be used to determine pharmacokinetics, efficacy and cytotoxicity of antimicrobial compounds as the tissue cage fluid can be aspirated repeatedly without the need to sacrifice the animal. Moreover, with the advance in innovative imaging systems in rodents, these models may offer new diagnostic measures of infection. In summary, animal foreign body infection models are important tools in the development of new antimicrobials against IAI and can help to elucidate the complex interactions between bacteria, the host immune system, and prosthetic materials.

  17. Target identification in Fusobacterium nucleatum by subtractive genomics approach and enrichment analysis of host-pathogen protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Thotakura, Pragna Lakshmi; Tiwary, Basant Kumar; Krishna, Ramadas

    2016-05-12

    Fusobacterium nucleatum, a well studied bacterium in periodontal diseases, appendicitis, gingivitis, osteomyelitis and pregnancy complications has recently gained attention due to its association with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Treatment with berberine was shown to reverse F. nucleatum-induced CRC progression in mice by balancing the growth of opportunistic pathogens in tumor microenvironment. Intestinal microbiota imbalance and the infections caused by F. nucleatum might be regulated by therapeutic intervention. Hence, we aimed to predict drug target proteins in F. nucleatum, through subtractive genomics approach and host-pathogen protein-protein interactions (HP-PPIs). We also carried out enrichment analysis of host interacting partners to hypothesize the possible mechanisms involved in CRC progression due to F. nucleatum. In subtractive genomics approach, the essential, virulence and resistance related proteins were retrieved from RefSeq proteome of F. nucleatum by searching against Database of Essential Genes (DEG), Virulence Factor Database (VFDB) and Antibiotic Resistance Gene-ANNOTation (ARG-ANNOT) tool respectively. A subsequent hierarchical screening to identify non-human homologous, metabolic pathway-independent/pathway-specific and druggable proteins resulted in eight pathway-independent and 27 pathway-specific druggable targets. Co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with host induces proinflammatory gene expression thereby potentiates tumorigenesis. Hence, proteins from IBDsite, a database for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) research and those involved in colorectal adenocarcinoma as interpreted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were retrieved to predict drug targets based on HP-PPIs with F. nucleatum proteome. Prediction of HP-PPIs exhibited 186 interactions contributed by 103 host and 76 bacterial proteins. Bacterial interacting partners were accounted as putative targets. And enrichment analysis of host interacting partners showed statistically

  18. Genomic RNAi screening in Drosophila S2 cells: What have we learned about host-pathogen interactions?

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The détente between pathogen and host has been of keen interest to researchers in spite of being exceedingly difficult to probe. Recently, new RNA interference (RNAi) technologies, in particular in Drosophila tissue culture cells, have made it possible to interrogate the genetics of host organisms rapidly, with nearly complete genomic coverage and high fidelity. Therefore, it is not surprising that the applications of RNAi to the study of host-pathogen interactions were amongst the first to b...

  19. Concurrent host-pathogen gene expression in the lungs of pigs challenged with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Louise; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in pigs, a disease which is associated with high morbidity and mortality, as well as impaired animal welfare. To obtain in-depth understanding of this infection, the interplay between virulence factors of the pathogen and defense...... in pigs experimentally infected with A. pleuropneumoniae were analyzed by high-throughput RT-qPCR. This approach allowed concurrent analysis of selected genes encoding proteins known or hypothesized to be important in the acute phase of this infection. The expression of 17 bacterial and 31 porcine genes......4, CD14, MD2, LBP, MYD88) in response to A. pleuropneumoniae. Significant up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL1B, IL6, and IL8 was observed, correlating with protein levels, infection status and histopathological findings. Host genes encoding proteins involved in iron metabolism...

  20. Animal diseases caused by orbiviruses, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Hafsa; Casal, Jordi; Alba, Anna; Allepuz, Alberto; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Hafsi, Leila; Kount-Chareb, Houria; Bouayed-Chaouach, Nadera; Saadaoui, Hassiba; Napp, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Antibodies against bluetongue virus were detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels in Algeria in 2008. Antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were detected in cattle, but antibodies against African horse sickness virus were not detected in horses and mules. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in northern Africa poses a major risk for the European Union.

  1. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2007-12-01

    The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.

  2. Animal models for human genetic diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharif Sons

    to be the prime model of inherited human disease and share 99% of their ... disturbances (including anxiety and depression) ..... Leibovici M, Safieddine S, Petit C (2008). Mouse models for human hereditary deafness. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 84:385-429. Levi YF, Meiner Z, Canello T, Frid K, Kovacs GG, Budka H, Avrahami.

  3. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare.

  4. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen DONG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  5. [Import risk analysis in animal disease control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Ruth; Breidenbach, Eric; Thür, Barbara; Griot, Christian; Engels, Monika; Stärk, Katharina

    2004-01-01

    At the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office risk analyses are conducted according to international standards. A risk analysis contains the elements risk management, risk assessment and risk communication. A risk assessment is based on risk profile, hazard identification and a pathway model. All available information is gathered, documented and assessed and the risk estimated. The question. "What is the probability that unprocessed wild boar meat imported to Switzerland from the federal state Mecklenburg Western Pommerania is contaminated with classical swine fever virus?" was answered by a release assessment. The hazard identification recognized classical swine fever virus and attenuated live virus vaccine used for oral immunization as hazards. The probability of contamination was estimated to be small. The question: "What is the likelihood to introduce Aujeszky's disease to Switzerland and infect the indigenous pig population with the disease, by means of importing pork and meat products?" was answered by assessing the release, exposure and resulting consequences. The risk of an infection of the indigenous pig population was estimated to be very small, as 80% of the imported products derive from countries or zones free from Aujeszky's disease. Furthermore the majority of the imported products are processed. The strict implementation of the regulations governing feeding of food wastes to pigs reduces the probability of exposure. In all assessments the risk management decides on a strategy to deal with the risk, taking into consideration the results and recommendations derived from the risk assessment as well as other relevant factors.

  6. Host-pathogen dynamics of squirrelpox virus infection in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegna, C; Dagleish, M P; Coulter, L; Milne, E; Meredith, A; Finlayson, J; Di Nardo, A; McInnes, C J

    2016-01-01

    To improve our understanding of squirrelpox virus (SQPV) infection in the susceptible host, three red squirrels were challenged with wild-type SQPV via scarification of the hind-limb skin. All squirrels seroconverted to the infection by the end of the experiment (17 days post-challenge). Challenged animals suffered disease characterised by the development of multiple skin and oral lesions with rapid progression of skin lesions at the infection site by day 10 post-challenge. No internal pathological changes were found at post-mortem examination. A novel SQPV Taqman(®) Real-time PCR detected viral DNA from multiple organs, with the largest amounts consistently associated with the primary and secondary skin and oral lesions where viral replication was most likely occurring. Immunohistochemistry clearly detected viral antigen in the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis, tongue and the oropharyngeal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and was consistently associated with histological changes resulting from viral replication. The lack of internal pathological changes and the detection of relatively low levels of viral DNA when compared with primary and secondary skin lesions argue against systemic disease, although systemic spread of the virus cannot be ruled out. This study allowed a comprehensive investigation of the clinical manifestation and progression of SQPV infection with a quantitative and qualitative analysis of virus dissemination and shedding. These findings suggest two separate routes of SQPV transmission under natural conditions, with both skin and saliva playing key roles in infected red squirrels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Engineering Large Animal Species to Model Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-07-01

    Animal models are an important resource for studying human diseases. Genetically engineered mice are the most commonly used species and have made significant contributions to our understanding of basic biology, disease mechanisms, and drug development. However, they often fail to recreate important aspects of human diseases and thus can have limited utility as translational research tools. Developing disease models in species more similar to humans may provide a better setting in which to study disease pathogenesis and test new treatments. This unit provides an overview of the history of genetically engineered large animals and the techniques that have made their development possible. Factors to consider when planning a large animal model, including choice of species, type of modification and methodology, characterization, production methods, and regulatory compliance, are also covered. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Proteomics in farm animals models of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Restelli, Laura; Lecchi, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. It is becoming increasingly evident that the few species utilised to date cannot be regarded as universal. There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. Farm animals, including pigs, cows, sheep and horses, represent a valid alternative to commonly utilised rodent models. There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. Focus will be on specific topics of biomedical research in which farm animal models have been characterised through the application of proteomic techniques. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Phenotypic Variation Is Almost Entirely Independent of the Host-Pathogen Relationship in Clinical Isolates of S. aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D Land

    Full Text Available A key feature of Staphylococcus aureus biology is its ability to switch from an apparently benign colonizer of ~30% of the population to a cutaneous pathogen, to a deadly invasive pathogen. Little is known about the mechanisms driving this transition or the propensity of different S. aureus strains to engender different types of host-pathogen interactions. At the same time, significant weight has been given to the role of specific in vitro phenotypes in S. aureus virulence. Biofilm formation, hemolysis and pigment formation have all been associated with virulence in mice.To determine if there is a correlation between in vitro phenotype and the three types of host-pathogen relationships commonly exhibited by S. aureus in the context of its natural human host, we assayed 300 clinical isolates for phenotypes implicated in virulence including hemolysis, sensitivity to autolysis, and biofilm formation. For comparative purposes, we also assayed phenotype in 9 domesticated S. aureus strains routinely used for analysis of virulence determinants in laboratory settings.Strikingly, the clinical strains exhibited significant phenotypic uniformity in each of the assays evaluated in this study. One exception was a small, but significant, correlation between an increased propensity for biofilm formation and isolation from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. In contrast, we observed a high degree of phenotypic variation between common laboratory strains that exhibit virulence in mouse models. These data suggest the existence of significant evolutionary pressure on the S. aureus genome and highlight a role for host factors as a strong determinant of the host-pathogen relationship. In addition, the high degree of variation between laboratory strains emphasizes the need for caution when applying data obtained in one lab strain to the analysis of another.

  10. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction

    Within the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds,

  11. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  12. The social and political impact of animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B

    2006-01-01

    The twenty-first century is characterised by 'epidemiological globalisation' on an unprecedented scale with resulting impacts at the interface of economic, scientific, social and political forces arising from the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases. Throughout history, animals have served as a source to humankind of food, transportation, medicines, entertainment, clothing, fuel, military advantage and financial security. It is therefore not at all surprising that animal diseases have resulted in significant social and political impacts that have shaped and continue to shape the course of national and international events. The social impacts can be expressed as indirect health consequences or behavioural changes, changes in societal values and changes in social standing and can be felt at the individual, family or community level. The political impact of major disease outbreaks can include loss of public and consumer confidence, resistance to investments in disease surveillance, reluctance to report disease detections in a timely or transparent manner, failure to implement science-based international standards for safe trade (which protect animal, human and ecosystem health) and the removal of government officials. The magnitude of these impacts would support that social and political impacts warrant their inclusion in the consequence assessment of a robust animal disease risk analysis framework.

  13. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for passerines) as a case study. Sparrows are granivorous urban exploiters, whose western European populations have declined over the past decades, especially in highly urbanized areas. We sampled 329 house sparrows originating from 36 populations along an urbanization gradient across Flanders (Belgium), and used isolation combined with 'matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry' (MALDI-TOF MS) and PCR methods for detecting the presence of different Yersinia species. Yersinia spp. were recovered from 57.43% of the sampled house sparrows, of which 4.06%, 53.30% and 69.54% were identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia species, respectively. Presence of Yersinia was related to the degree of urbanization, average daily temperatures and the community of granivorous birds present at sparrow capture locations. Body condition of suburban house sparrows was found to be higher compared to urban and rural house sparrows, but no relationships between sparrows' body condition and presence of Yersinia spp. were found. We conclude that two determinants of pathogen infection dynamics, body condition and pathogen occurrence, vary along an urbanization gradient, potentially mediating the impact of urbanization on avian health.

  14. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for passerines) as a case study. Sparrows are granivorous urban exploiters, whose western European populations have declined over the past decades, especially in highly urbanized areas. We sampled 329 house sparrows originating from 36 populations along an urbanization gradient across Flanders (Belgium), and used isolation combined with ‘matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry’ (MALDI-TOF MS) and PCR methods for detecting the presence of different Yersinia species. Yersinia spp. were recovered from 57.43% of the sampled house sparrows, of which 4.06%, 53.30% and 69.54% were identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia species, respectively. Presence of Yersinia was related to the degree of urbanization, average daily temperatures and the community of granivorous birds present at sparrow capture locations. Body condition of suburban house sparrows was found to be higher compared to urban and rural house sparrows, but no relationships between sparrows’ body condition and presence of Yersinia spp. were found. We conclude that two determinants of pathogen infection dynamics, body condition and pathogen occurrence, vary along an urbanization gradient, potentially mediating the impact of urbanization on avian health. PMID:29281672

  15. Probing host pathogen cross-talk by transcriptional profiling of both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and infected human dendritic cells and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Tailleux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional profiling using microarrays provides a unique opportunity to decipher host pathogen cross-talk on the global level. Here, for the first time, we have been able to investigate gene expression changes in both Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a major human pathogen, and its human host cells, macrophages and dendritic cells.In addition to common responses, we could identify eukaryotic and microbial transcriptional signatures that are specific to the cell type involved in the infection process. In particular M. tuberculosis shows a marked stress response when inside dendritic cells, which is in accordance with the low permissivity of these specialized phagocytes to the tubercle bacillus and to other pathogens. In contrast, the mycobacterial transcriptome inside macrophages reflects that of replicating bacteria. On the host cell side, differential responses to infection in macrophages and dendritic cells were identified in genes involved in oxidative stress, intracellular vesicle trafficking and phagosome acidification.This study provides the proof of principle that probing the host and the microbe transcriptomes simultaneously is a valuable means to accessing unique information on host pathogen interactions. Our results also underline the extraordinary plasticity of host cell and pathogen responses to infection, and provide a solid framework to further understand the complex mechanisms involved in immunity to M. tuberculosis and in mycobacterial adaptation to different intracellular environments.

  16. A Multi-Omic View of Host-Pathogen-Commensal Interplay in Salmonella-Mediated Intestinal Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Li, Jie; Sanford, James A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Jones, Marcus B.; Peterson, Christine; Peterson, Scott N.; Frank, Bryan C.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Brown, Joseph N.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-06-26

    The potential for commensal microorganisms indigenous to a host (the ‘microbiome’ or ‘microbiota’) to alter infection outcome by influencing host-pathogen interplay is largely unknown. We used a multi-omics “systems” approach, incorporating proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, and metagenomics, to explore the molecular interplay between the murine host, the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), and commensal gut microorganisms during intestinal infection with S. Typhimurium. We find proteomic evidence that S. Typhimurium thrives within the infected 129/SvJ mouse gut without antibiotic pre-treatment, inducing inflammation and disrupting the intestinal microbiome (e.g., suppressing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes while promoting growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus). Alteration of the host microbiome population structure was highly correlated with gut environmental changes, including the accumulation of metabolites normally consumed by commensal microbiota. Finally, the less characterized phase of S. Typhimurium’s lifecycle was investigated, and both proteomic and glycomic evidence suggests S. Typhimurium may take advantage of increased fucose moieties to metabolize fucose while growing in the gut. The application of multiple omics measurements to Salmonella-induced intestinal inflammation provides insights into complex molecular strategies employed during pathogenesis between host, pathogen, and the microbiome.

  17. Congenital and inherited renal disease of small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, D S

    2001-03-01

    Congenital renal diseases are present at birth and may be determined genetically; familial renal disorders occur in related animals with a higher frequency than would be expected by chance, and frequently are inherited. The most common familial disorders in cats and dogs include renal amyloidosis, renal dysplasia, polycystic kidneys, basement membrane disorders, and tubular dysfunction (Fanconi's syndrome). This article alerts the veterinarian to commonly observed congenital and hereditary conditions of the kidneys in small animals.

  18. Animal disease outbreak control: the use of crisis management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroschewski, K; Kramer, M; Micklich, A; Staubach, C; Carmanns, R; Conraths, F J

    2006-04-01

    In this era of globalisation the effective control of animal disease outbreaks requires powerful crisis management tools. In the 1990s software packages for different sectors of the government and agricultural industry began to be developed. In 2004, as a special application for tracking the movement of animals and animal products, the European Union developed the Trade Control and Expert System (TRACES) on the basis of its predecessor, the ANImal MOvement (ANIMO) project. The nationwide use of the ANIMO system by the veterinary authorities in Germany marked the beginning of the development in 1993 of a computerised national animal disease reporting system--the TierSeuchenNachrichten (TSN)--using the ANIMO hardware and software components. In addition to TRACES and TSN the third pillar for the management of animal disease outbreaks and crises in Germany is the national cattle and swine database--called Herkunftssicherungs- und Informationssystem für Tiere. A high degree of standardisation is necessary when integrating the different solutions at all levels of government and with the private sector. In this paper, the authors describe the use of these tools on the basis of their experience and in relation to what we can do now and what we should opt for in the future.

  19. Research advances in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Haiyan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has increased gradually along with the rising prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, and NAFLD has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in the world and the second major liver disease after chronic viral hepatitis in China. However, its pathogenesis has not yet been clarified. Animal models are playing an important role in researches on NAFLD due to the facts that the development and progression of NAFLD require a long period of time, and ethical limitations exist in conducting drug trials in patients or collecting liver tissues from patients. The animal models with histopathology similar to that of NAFLD patients are reviewed, and their modeling principle, as well as the advantages and disadvantages, are compared. Animal models provide a powerful tool for further studies of NAFLD pathogenesis and drug screening for prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

  20. Concise Review: Stem Cell Trials Using Companion Animal Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Andrew M; Dow, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports. Disease models included osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's fistulas, meningoencephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis-like), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Sjogren's syndrome-like), atopic dermatitis, and chronic (end-stage) kidney disease. Stem cells evaluated in these studies included mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (MSC, 17/19 trials), olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC, 1 trial), or neural lineage cells derived from bone marrow MSC (1 trial), and 16/19 studies were performed in dogs. The MSC studies (13/17) used adipose tissue-derived MSC from either allogeneic (8/13) or autologous (5/13) sources. The majority of studies were open label, uncontrolled studies. Endpoints and protocols were feasible, and the stem cell therapies were reportedly safe and elicited beneficial patient responses in all but two of the trials. In conclusion, companion animals with naturally occurring diseases analogous to human conditions can be recruited into clinical trials and provide realistic insight into feasibility, safety, and biologic activity of novel stem cell therapies. However, improvements in the rigor of manufacturing, study design, and regulatory compliance will be needed to better utilize these models. Stem Cells 2016;34:1709-1729. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Are Village Animal Health Workers Able to Assist in Strengthening Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Cambodia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, J; Toribio, J-A L M L; Suon, S; Young, J R; Cowled, B; Windsor, P A

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 445 Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) from 19 provinces in Cambodia was undertaken. The aim was to establish their levels of training, farm visit frequency, reasons for visits and disease reporting practices, enabling the strengths and weaknesses of the VAHW system in Cambodia to be determined, in providing both a fee-based smallholder livestock clinical service and a government partnership in transboundary animal disease (TAD) surveillance and control. The study used 'guided group interviews' and identified that VAHWs had good contact with farmers with 61.5% making more than one farm visit daily. However, incomes from services remained low, with 45% VAHWs obtaining between 20 and 40% of their household income from VAHW activities. VAHWs recorded relatively high rates of disease reporting, with 72% claiming they report diseases immediately and 74% undertaking monthly reporting to veterinary authorities. Logistic regression analysis revealed VAHW contact frequency with district and/or provincial officers was associated with more VAHW farm visits, and frequency of VAHW visits to smallholder farms was positively associated with average monthly expenditure on animal medication and equipment. This suggests that increased veterinary extension to VAHWs and access to veterinary equipment, vaccines and drugs may further increase VAHW-farmer engagement. VAHWs provide an accessible, market-based, animal health 'treatment and reporting' service linked to livestock smallholders across Cambodia. However, for improved TAD prevention and more efficient control of outbreaks, research that assesses provision of an animal health 'preventive-based' business model is urgently needed to reduce both the costs to farmers and the risks to the economy due to foot-and-mouth disease and other TADs in Cambodia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Identifying the Achilles heel of multi-host pathogens: the concept of keystone ‘host’ species illustrated by Mycobacterium ulcerans transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Benjamin; Eric Benbow, M; Merritt, Richard; Kimbirauskas, Ryan; McIntosh, Mollie; Small, Pamela L C; Williamson, Heather; Guégan, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens that use multiple host species are an increasing public health issue due to their complex transmission, which makes them difficult to mitigate. Here, we explore the possibility of using networks of ecological interactions among potential host species to identify the particular disease-source species to target to break down transmission of such pathogens. We fit a mathematical model on prevalence data of Mycobacterium ulcerans in western Africa and we show that removing the most abundant taxa for this category of pathogen is not an optimal strategy to decrease the transmission of the mycobacterium within aquatic ecosystems. On the contrary, we reveal that the removal of some taxa, especially Oligochaeta worms, can clearly reduce rates of pathogen transmission, and these should be considered as keystone organisms for its transmission because they lead to a substantial reduction in pathogen prevalence regardless of the network topology. Besides their potential application for the understanding of M. ulcerans ecology, we discuss how networks of species interactions can modulate transmission of multi-host pathogens. (letter)

  3. Identifying the Achilles heel of multi-host pathogens: the concept of keystone ‘host’ species illustrated by Mycobacterium ulcerans transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Benjamin; Benbow, M. Eric; Merritt, Richard; Kimbirauskas, Ryan; McIntosh, Mollie; Small, Pamela L. C.; Williamson, Heather; Guégan, Jean-François

    2013-12-01

    Pathogens that use multiple host species are an increasing public health issue due to their complex transmission, which makes them difficult to mitigate. Here, we explore the possibility of using networks of ecological interactions among potential host species to identify the particular disease-source species to target to break down transmission of such pathogens. We fit a mathematical model on prevalence data of Mycobacterium ulcerans in western Africa and we show that removing the most abundant taxa for this category of pathogen is not an optimal strategy to decrease the transmission of the mycobacterium within aquatic ecosystems. On the contrary, we reveal that the removal of some taxa, especially Oligochaeta worms, can clearly reduce rates of pathogen transmission, and these should be considered as keystone organisms for its transmission because they lead to a substantial reduction in pathogen prevalence regardless of the network topology. Besides their potential application for the understanding of M. ulcerans ecology, we discuss how networks of species interactions can modulate transmission of multi-host pathogens.

  4. Quarantine, exports and animal disease in Australia 1901-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Aj

    2011-09-01

    The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems...... and models for interpreting surveillance data as part of ongoing control or eradication programmes. Two Danish examples are outlined. The first illustrates how models were used in documenting country freedom from disease (trichinellosis) and the second demonstrates how models were of assistance in predicting...

  6. The Caribbean animal health network: new tools for harmonization and reinforcement of animal disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Victor; Trotman, Mark; Thomas, Reginald; Max, Millien; Zamora, Pastor Alfonso; Lepoureau, Maria Teresa Frias; Phanord, Siméon; Quirico, Jocelyn; Douglas, Kirk; Pegram, Rupert; Martinez, Dominique; Petitclerc, Martial; Chouin, Emilie; Marchal, Céline; Chavernac, David; Doyen, David; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Molia, Sophie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) is a collaboration of veterinary services, diagnostic laboratories, research institutes, universities, and regional/international organizations to improve animal health in the Caribbean. New tools were used by the network to develop regional animal health activities: (1) A steering committee, a coordination unit, and working groups on specific diseases or activities were established. The working group on avian influenza used a collaborative Web site to develop a regionally harmonized avian influenza surveillance protocol and performance indicators. (2) A specific network was implemented on West Nile virus (WNV) to describe the WNV status of the Caribbean countries, to perform a technology transfer of WNV diagnostics, and to establish a surveillance system. (3) The CaribVET Web site (http://www.caribvet.net) encompasses information on surveillance systems, diagnostic laboratories, conferences, bibliography, and diseases of major concern in the region. It is a participatory Web site allowing registered users to add or edit information, pages, or data. An online notification system of sanitary information was set up for Guadeloupe to improve knowledge on animal diseases and facilitate early alert.

  7. Herbal remedies in animal parasitic diseases in Nigeria: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review of literature elucidates previous and current status of herbal remedies in animal parasitic diseases in Nigeria. It provides background information on the rationale behind ethnoveterinary research in general especially as it relates to the developing nations where cost of drugs majorly limit the full use of modern ...

  8. Unraveling the genetics of chronic kidney disease using animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Ron; DiPetrillo, K.

    2004-01-01

    Identifying genes underlying common forms of kidney disease in humans has proven difficult, expensive, and time consuming. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for several complex traits are concordant among mice, rats, and humans, suggesting that genetic findings from these animal models are relevant to

  9. Regulatory T Cells and Their Role in Animal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, T

    2016-07-01

    In humans and mouse models, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are known to control all aspects of immune responses. However, only limited information exists on these cells' role in diseases of other animals. In this review, we cover the most important features and different types of regulatory T cells, which include those that are thymus-derived and peripherally induced, the mechanisms by which they control immune responses by targeting effector T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and most important, their role in animal health and diseases including cancer, infections, and other conditions such as hypersensitivities and autoimmunity. Although the literature regarding regulatory T cells in domestic animal species is still limited, multiple articles have recently emerged and are discussed. Moreover, we also discuss the evidence suggesting that regulatory T cells might limit the magnitude of effector responses, which can have either a positive or negative result, depending on the context of animal and human disease. In addition, the issue of plasticity is discussed because plasticity in regulatory T cells can result in the loss of their protective function in some microenvironments during disease. Lastly, the manipulation of regulatory T cells is discussed in assessing the possibility of their use as a treatment in the future. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Animal models for human genetic diseases | Sharif | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity to humans in terms of genetics. In addition to understand diverse aspects of basic biology, model organisms are extensively used in applied research in agriculture, industry, and also in medicine, where they are used to ...

  11. Back to the metal age: battle for metals at the host-pathogen interface during urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Mobley, Harry L T

    2015-06-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents one of the most common bacterial infections in humans and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is the major causative agent of UTI in people. Research on UPEC and other bacterial pathogens causing UTI has now identified the critical role of metal transport systems in the pathogenesis of UTI. Here we review the major effectors of metal transport in bacteria and host proteins that impair metal acquisition by bacterial pathogens. In particular, we describe the studies that identified iron, zinc and nickel import and copper export as key virulence and fitness determinants during UTI. Various metal transport systems and mechanisms that govern the expression of metal transport systems are also presented here. Specific examples from UPEC and other uropathogens, when available, are presented to depict the battle for metals at the host-pathogen interface during UTI.

  12. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; van Gennip, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Moser C, van Gennip M, Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PO, Lee B, Hougen HP, Calum H, Ciofu O, Givskov M, Molin S, Hoiby N. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis. APMIS 2009; 117: 95-107. The dominant cause of premature...... death in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chronic lung infection often lasts for decades with just one clone. However, as a result of inflammation, antibiotic treatment and different niches in the lungs, the clone undergoes...... and 2003) of the chronic lung infection of one CF patient using the seaweed alginate embedment model. The results showed that the non-mucoid clones reduced their virulence over time, resulting in faster clearing of the bacteria from the lungs, improved pathology and reduced pulmonary production...

  13. Host-pathogen interactions during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 infection of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero, Francisco J; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Rebel, Johanna M J; Stadejek, Tomasz; Morgan, Sophie B; Graham, Simon P; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-04-16

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a major disease affecting pigs worldwide and resulting in considerable economic losses. While PRRS is a global phenomenon, the causative viruses PRRSV-1 (first detected in Europe) and PRRSV-2 (isolated in North America) are genetically and biologically distinct. In addition, the disease outcome is directly linked to co-infections associated with the porcine respiratory disease complex and the host response is variable between different breeds of pigs. It is therefore warranted when studying the pathogenesis of PRRS to consider each viral genotype separately and apply careful consideration to the disease model studied. We here review the respiratory pig model for PRRSV-1, with a focus on a recent set of studies conducted with carefully selected virus strains and pigs, which may serve as both a baseline and benchmark for future investigation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. World Trade, disease and Florida's animal populations. The changing dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, L M

    2000-01-01

    One of Florida's three leading economic industries is agriculture. Agriculture feeds and enhances the lives of millions of people in Florida, the United States, and the entire world. Agriculture in Florida results in more than $6 billion in farm cash receipts, employment for more than 60,000 people a month, more than $18 billion in farm-related economic activity and stretches from the farm gate to the state's supermarkets with an impact of nearly $45 billion. The domestic and wild animal populations of Florida, our unique relationship to the Caribbean, Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Central and South America, as well as tourism, diverse human population growth and immigration, all add to the complexity of an environment capable of establishing many animals, animal pests and diseases not native to the United States. Never before have the dynamics of disease control involved as much challenge and diversity. Is the balance at risk, or is the risk over-balanced? Can science, economics and politics blend to maintain this balance? How will the balance affect world trade, disease control and the animal populations of Florida?

  15. [Diagnosis of contagious diseases in animals using PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M A; Tratschin, J D; Brechtbühl, K; Griot, C

    1995-01-01

    The PCR is used for diagnostic purposes as it allows to detect infections agents within a much shorter time than by cultural isolation. In addition, it can detect non-infectious viruses and bacteria in clinical samples. These advantages are important factors in the diagnosis of highly contagious animal diseases (mainly caused by viruses) since a rapid laboratory diagnosis will allow to take immediate disease control actions. PCR is routinely used at the Institute of African and classical swine fever virus, foot and mouth disease virus, Aujeszky's disease virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, as well as Newcastle disease virus. The isolate can be further characterized by direct nucleotide sequencing of the amplified DNA. Since reliability of the results as well as as prevention of contaminations are vital to PCR, this method should be carried out by appropriately trained personnel. In addition, it requires a high level of technical infrastructure.

  16. Genetic mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions for charcoal rot in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is a leading agronomic crop and it is contributing to food and agricultural security with expanding production in diverse regions around the world. Although soybean is attacked by several diseases and pests, and progress has been made in understanding and managing some of these pathogens and...

  17. Host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics suggest high elevation refugia for boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Muths, Erin L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an increasingly common threat to wildlife. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emerging infectious disease that has been linked to amphibian declines around the world. Few studies exist that explore amphibian-Bd dynamics at the landscape scale, limiting our ability to identify which factors are associated with variation in population susceptibility and to develop effective in situdisease management. Declines of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) in the Southern Rocky Mountains are largely attributed to chytridiomycosis but variation exists in local extinction of boreal toads across this metapopulation. Using a large-scale historic dataset, we explored several potential factors influencing disease dynamics in the boreal toad-Bd system: geographic isolation of populations, amphibian community richness, elevational differences, and habitat permanence. We found evidence that boreal toad extinction risk was lowest at high elevations where temperatures may be sub-optimal for Bd growth and where small boreal toad populations may be below the threshold needed for efficient pathogen transmission. In addition, boreal toads were more likely to recolonize high elevation sites after local extinction, again suggesting that high elevations may provide refuge from disease for boreal toads. We illustrate a modeling framework that will be useful to natural resource managers striving to make decisions in amphibian-Bdsystems. Our data suggest that in the southern Rocky Mountains high elevation sites should be prioritized for conservation initiatives like reintroductions.

  18. Host-pathogen interactions during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 infections of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salguero, F.J.; Frossard, J.P.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Stadejek, T.; Morgan, S.B.; Graham, S.; Steinbach, F.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a major disease affecting pigs worldwide and resulting in considerable economic losses. While PRRS is a global phenomenon, the causative viruses PRRSV-1 (first detected in Europe) and PRRSV-2 (isolated in North America) are genetically and

  19. Bright fluorescent Streptococcus pneumoniae for live cell imaging of host-pathogen interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, Morten; Aprianto, Rieza; Fernandes, Vitor E; Andrew, Peter W; van Strijp, Jos A G; Nijland, Reindert; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal resident in healthy people, but at the same time one of the major causes of infectious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. The shift from commensal to pathogen and its interaction with host cells is poorly understood. One of the

  20. Bright Fluorescent Streptococcus pneumoniae for Live-Cell Imaging of Host-Pathogen Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, Morten; Aprianto, Rieza; Fernandes, Vitor E.; Andrew, Peter W.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Nijland, Reindert; Veening, Jan-Willem

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal resident in healthy people but, at the same time, one of the major causes of infectious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. The shift from commensal to pathogen and its interaction with host cells are poorly understood. One of the

  1. Multiple-host pathogens in domestic hunting dogs in Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Straub, Mary H; Schwartz, Laura M; Liu, James; Campbell, Amanda; Kownacki, Alexa K; Foley, Janet E

    2017-03-01

    Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp. exceeded 50% of dogs. At least one dog was actively shedding leptospires in urine, and many dogs were anemic and/or dehydrated. These dogs interact with wildlife in the forest and humans and domestic livestock in the communities, and may therefore serve as sources of zoonotic and wildlife diseases. Bosawás represents one of the largest intact tracts of habitat for jaguars (Panthera onca) in Central America, and given that these communities are located within the forest, jaguars may be at risk from disease spillover from hunting dogs. Dog owners reported that four of 49 dogs had been attacked and killed by jaguars in the past year, and that retaliatory killing of jaguars was sometimes practiced. Disease spillover from dogs to wildlife could occur both in the course of dogs' hunting activities as well as during jaguar attacks. A better understanding of dog depredation by jaguars, pathogen exposure in jaguars, and a management strategy for the hunting dog population, are urgently needed to mitigate these dual threats to jaguars, improve the lives of hunting dogs, and safeguard the health of their owners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. On the surveillance for animal diseases in small herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Small herds may present a problem in surveillance for infectious animal diseases because typical levels of a within-herd design prevalence are not directly applicable. We suggest a definition of small herds as those smaller than 2/(within-herd design prevalence) on the basis that such herds would...... be expected to have less than two (i.e. only one) infected animals. Consequently, the probability of detecting small herds cannot be improved by choosing a larger sample size within the herd. We derive necessary sample sizes of herds and the probability ("confidence") of detecting disease within a stratum...... of small herds, given the among-herd design prevalence and test diagnostic sensitivity. Both a binomial model and a Poisson model can be used to establish the confidence for a given sample size of herds (and vice versa). The results of a simulation study suggest that the Poisson model provides more...

  3. The enduring importance of animal models in understanding periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George; Lamont, Richard J; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Whereas no single animal model can reproduce the complexity of periodontitis, different aspects of the disease can be addressed by distinct models. Despite their limitations, animal models are essential for testing the biological significance of in vitro findings and for establishing cause-and-effect relationships relevant to clinical observations, which are typically correlative. We provide evidence that animal-based studies have generated a durable framework for dissecting the mechanistic basis of periodontitis. These studies have solidified the etiologic role of bacteria in initiating the inflammatory response that leads to periodontal bone loss and have identified key mediators (IL-1, TNF, prostaglandins, complement, RANKL) that induce inflammatory breakdown. Moreover, animal studies suggest that dysbiosis, rather than individual bacterial species, are important in initiating periodontal bone loss and have introduced the concept that organisms previously considered commensals can play important roles as accessory pathogens or pathobionts. These studies have also provided insight as to how systemic conditions, such as diabetes or leukocyte adhesion deficiency, contribute to tissue destruction. In addition, animal studies have identified and been useful in testing therapeutic targets.

  4. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-03-17

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia's gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus.

  5. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia’s gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596

  6. Malarial birds: modeling infectious human disease in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leo B

    2005-01-01

    Through the examination of avian malarias as models of infectious human disease, this paper reveals the kinds of claims that scientists and physicians made on the basis of animal models-biological systems in the laboratory and the field-and what characteristics made for congruence between these models and human malaria. The focus is on the period between 1895 and 1945, and on the genesis and trajectory of certain animal models of malaria within specific locations, such as the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore and Bayer (I. G. Farben) in Elberfeld. These exemplars illustrate a diversity of approaches to malaria-as-disease, and the difficulties of framing aspects of this disease complex within an animal or laboratory system. The diversity and nearness to wild types of the birds, protozoan parasites, and mosquitoes that made up these malaria models contributed a great deal to the complexity of the models. Avian malarias, adopted with enthusiasm, were essential to the success of the U.S. antimalarial program during World War II.

  7. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

    2014-04-23

    A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of

  8. Cell penetrating peptides to dissect host-pathogen protein-protein interactions in Theileria -transformed leukocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak

    2017-09-08

    One powerful application of cell penetrating peptides is the delivery into cells of molecules that function as specific competitors or inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Ablating defined protein-protein interactions is a refined way to explore their contribution to a particular cellular phenotype in a given disease context. Cell-penetrating peptides can be synthetically constrained through various chemical modifications that stabilize a given structural fold with the potential to improve competitive binding to specific targets. Theileria-transformed leukocytes display high PKA activity, but PKAis an enzyme that plays key roles in multiple cellular processes; consequently genetic ablation of kinase activity gives rise to a myriad of confounding phenotypes. By contrast, ablation of a specific kinase-substrate interaction has the potential to give more refined information and we illustrate this here by describing how surgically ablating PKA interactions with BAD gives precise information on the type of glycolysis performed by Theileria-transformed leukocytes. In addition, we provide two other examples of how ablating specific protein-protein interactions in Theileria-infected leukocytes leads to precise phenotypes and argue that constrained penetrating peptides have great therapeutic potential to combat infectious diseases in general.

  9. Infectious animal diseases: the wildlife/livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengis, R G; Kock, R A; Fischer, J

    2002-04-01

    The long-standing conflict between livestock owners and animal health authorities on the one hand, and wildlife conservationists on the other, is largely based on differing attitudes to controlling diseases of livestock which are associated with wildlife. The authors have attempted to highlight the fact that these disease problems are frequently bi-directional at the wildlife/livestock interface. The different categories of diseases involved are presented. A new dimension being faced by veterinary regulatory authorities is the spectre of emerging sylvatic foci of diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis, bovine brucellosis and possibly rinderpest; these diseases threaten to undermine national and international eradication schemes, which have been implemented and executed with significant success, and at great cost. Conversely, wildlife-based ecotourism world-wide has expanded rapidly over the past decade and is the source of lacking foreign revenue for many developing countries. Traditional subsistence farming is still the largest source of much-needed protein on some continents and this, together with the growth and hunger of historically disadvantaged communities for land, is forcing enterprises and communities with markedly different objectives and land-use practices to operate effectively in close proximity. Some land-users rely exclusively on wildlife, others on livestock and/or agronomy, while yet others need to combine these activities. The net result may be an expansion or intensification of the interface between wildlife and domestic livestock, which will require innovative control strategies that permit differing types of wildlife/livestock interaction, and that do not threaten the land-use options of neighbours, or the ability of a country to market animals and animal products profitably.

  10. Host-pathogen interactions of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: from commensal to pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Benjamin Luke; Su, Yu-Ching; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-11-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a commensal microbe often isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tract. This bacterial species can cause sinusitis, acute otitis media in preschool children, exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as conjunctivitis and bacteremia. Since the introduction of a vaccine against H. influenzae serotype b in the 1990s, the burden of H. influenzae-related infections has been increasingly dominated by NTHi. Understanding the ability of NTHi to cause infection is currently an expanding area of study. NTHi is able to exert differential binding to the host tissue through the use of a broad range of adhesins. NTHi survival in the host is multifaceted, that is, using virulence factors involved in complement resistance, biofilm, modified immunoglobulin responses, and, finally, formation and utilization of host proteins as a secondary strategy of increasing the adhesive ability. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. A Systems Biology Approach to the Coordination of Defensive and Offensive Molecular Mechanisms in the Innate and Adaptive Host-Pathogen Interaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Infected zebrafish coordinates defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms in response to Candida albicans infections, and invasive C. albicans coordinates corresponding molecular mechanisms to interact with the host. However, knowledge of the ensuing infection-activated signaling networks in both host and pathogen and their interspecific crosstalk during the innate and adaptive phases of the infection processes remains incomplete. In the present study, dynamic network modeling, protein interaction databases, and dual transcriptome data from zebrafish and C. albicans during infection were used to infer infection-activated host-pathogen dynamic interaction networks. The consideration of host-pathogen dynamic interaction systems as innate and adaptive loops and subsequent comparisons of inferred innate and adaptive networks indicated previously unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways and suggested roles of immunological memory in the coordination of host defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms to achieve specific and powerful defense against pathogens. Moreover, pathogens enhance intraspecific crosstalk and abrogate host apoptosis to accommodate enhanced host defense mechanisms during the adaptive phase. Accordingly, links between physiological phenomena and changes in the coordination of defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms highlight the importance of host-pathogen molecular interaction networks, and consequent inferences of the host-pathogen relationship could be translated into biomedical applications.

  12. MeCP2-Related Diseases and Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinelo D. Ezeonwuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of epigenetics in human disease has become an area of increased research interest. Collaborative efforts from scientists and clinicians have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Several neurological and non-neurological disorders are associated with mutations in genes that encode for epigenetic factors. One of the most studied proteins that impacts human disease and is associated with deregulation of epigenetic processes is Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2. MeCP2 is an epigenetic regulator that modulates gene expression by translating epigenetic DNA methylation marks into appropriate cellular responses. In order to highlight the importance of epigenetics to development and disease, we will discuss how MeCP2 emerges as a key epigenetic player in human neurodevelopmental, neurological, and non-neurological disorders. We will review our current knowledge on MeCP2-related diseases, including Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Hirschsprung disease, and Cancer. Additionally, we will briefly discuss about the existing MeCP2 animal models that have been generated for a better understanding of how MeCP2 impacts certain human diseases.

  13. REVIEW ON IMPORTANT HELMINTHIC DISEASES IN ANIMAL IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. P. Suweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.

  14. [Unconventional disease agents--a danger for humans and animals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaden, O R

    1994-02-01

    The occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Great Britain in 1985/86, has focused again the public concern as well as scientific interest to the Scrapie disease of sheep and goat known more than 150 years. The agents of scrapie and BSE are characterized by unusual biological and physical-chemical properties, especially their high tenacity. Therefore, they are also designated "unconventional agents of viruses". Different theories have been proposed about their infectious characteristics--especially because of the apparent or real missing of an agent-specific nucleic acid--which are named Virinos, Prions or Nemavirus. The broad host range of Scrapie respective BSE, which includes domestic and wild ruminants, Suidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, small rodents, birds and non-primates, has created some concern since there might be an aetiological correlation between the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of man (Creutzfeld-Jakob- and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker-Disease) and that of animals. Although at present neither epidemiological nor molecular biological evidence whatsoever was proved, the hypothesis cannot be completely disproved. The probability of infection through digestive tract seems to be rather unlikely but special precautions should be taken as far as production, investigation and application of human medicine drugs of animal origin. Furthermore, research about the aetiology of "unconventional agents" and pathogenesis of resulting diseases is necessary and should be intensified in Germany. Finally, only an early intra vitam-Diagnose and in vitro detection can avoid an further spread of this new category of diseases.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus aggregation and coagulation mechanisms, and their function in host-pathogen interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Heidi A.; Kwiecinski, Jakub; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2017-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus can cause a wide range of infections ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to invasive diseases like septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Muticellular organization almost certainly contributes to S. aureus pathogenesis mechanisms. While there has been considerable focus on biofilm formation and its role in colonizing prosthetic joints and indwelling devices, less attention has been paid to non-surface attached group behavior like aggregation and clumping. S. aureus is unique in its ability to coagulate blood, and it also produces multiple fibrinogen-binding proteins that facilitate clumping. Formation of clumps, which are large, tightly-packed groups of cells held together by fibrin(ogen), has been demonstrated to be important for S. aureus virulence and immune evasion. Clumps of cells are able to avoid detection by the host’s immune system due to a fibrin(ogen) coat that acts as a shield, and the size of the clumps facilitates evasion of phagocytosis. In addition, clumping could be an important early step in establishing infections that involve tight clusters of cells embedded in host matrix proteins, such as soft tissue abscesses and endocarditis. In this review we discuss clumping mechanisms and regulation, as well as what is known about how clumping contributes to immune evasion. PMID:27565579

  16. Development of bioassay for pathogenecity testing of Ureaplasma urealyticum as part of host-pathogen communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo Soeharso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay of Ureaplasma urealyticum is necessary for detection as well as determination of pathogenic factors in order to understand the pathogenesis of diseases associate with ureaplasma infection. Cultivation and verification of ureaplasma is the first step of this study in the purpose of discovering sensitive method for ureaplasma detection. Cultivation of ureaplasma either in liquid or in solid media are able to detect the existence of ureaplasma in samples analyzed. However, application of PCR using specific primers to be compatible with urease gene (ure would confirm the presence of ureaplasma. The pathogenicity of ureaplasma is potentially monitored using reporter gene as a marker for gene expression. IceC was chosen as reporter gene for ureaplasma pathogenic determination as the gene has great sensitivity, easily detectable and quantitated in simple method of ice nucleation assay. Transposon 916 (Tn916 was selected as a vector for iceC gene to transform ureaplasma. The application of recombinant Tn916-iceC which is considered as pUI, allow detection of ureaplasma activities when transform ureaplasma is tested by ice nucleation assay. It was expected that ureaplasma transformation is the manifestation of mutagenesis which interfere genes responsible for bacterial pathogenicity, in order pathogenesis of bacterial infection to be analyzed accurately. IgA1 protease is considered to be an important factor for ureaplasma pathogenicity as the enzyme is required for successful colonization. Identification of iga gene and  determination of IgA1 protease activity are important for understanding the pathogenesis of ureaplasma infection. Putative iga gene of Mycoplasma genitalium was used as a reference to identify the presence of iga nucleotide sequence in U. urealyticum. Convincing evidence were obtained after PCR amplification of ureaplasma DNA using primers designed to be compatible with putative iga gene of M. genitalium followed by the

  17. Modelling the host-pathogen interactions of macrophages andCandida albicansusing Game Theory and dynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dühring, Sybille; Ewald, Jan; Germerodt, Sebastian; Kaleta, Christoph; Dandekar, Thomas; Schuster, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    The release of fungal cells following macrophage phagocytosis, called non-lytic expulsion, is reported for several fungal pathogens. On one hand, non-lytic expulsion may benefit the fungus in escaping the microbicidal environment of the phagosome. On the other hand, the macrophage could profit in terms of avoiding its own lysis and being able to undergo proliferation. To analyse the causes of non-lytic expulsion and the relevance of macrophage proliferation in the macrophage- Candida albicans interaction, we employ Evolutionary Game Theory and dynamic optimization in a sequential manner. We establish a game-theoretical model describing the different strategies of the two players after phagocytosis. Depending on the parameter values, we find four different Nash equilibria and determine the influence of the systems state of the host upon the game. As our Nash equilibria are a direct consequence of the model parameterization, we can depict several biological scenarios. A parameter region, where the host response is robust against the fungal infection, is determined. We further apply dynamic optimization to analyse whether macrophage mitosis is relevant in the host-pathogen interaction of macrophages and C. albicans For this, we study the population dynamics of the macrophage- C. albicans interactions and the corresponding optimal controls for the macrophages, indicating the best macrophage strategy of switching from proliferation to attacking fungal cells. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  19. System-wide coordinates of higher order functions in host-pathogen environment upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvati Sai Arun, P V; Miryala, Sravan Kumar; Rana, Aarti; Kurukuti, Sreenivasulu; Akhter, Yusuf; Yellaboina, Sailu

    2018-03-22

    Molecular signatures and their interactions behind the successful establishment of infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) inside macrophage are largely unknown. In this work, we present an inter-system scale atlas of the gene expression signatures, their interactions and higher order gene functions of macrophage-Mtb environment at the time of infection. We have carried out large-scale meta-analysis of previously published gene expression microarray studies andhave identified a ranked list of differentially expressed genes and their higher order functions in intracellular Mtb as well as the infected macrophage. Comparative analysis of gene expression signatures of intracellular Mtb with the in vitro dormant Mtb at different hypoxic and oxidative stress conditions led to the identification of the large number of Mtb functional groups, namely operons, regulons and pathways that were common and unique to the intracellular environment and dormancy state. Some of the functions that are specific to intracellular Mtb are cholesterol degradation and biosynthesis of immunomodulatory phenolic compounds. The molecular signatures we have identified to be involved in adaptation to different stress conditions in macrophage environment may be critical for designing therapeutic interventions against tuberculosis. And, our approach may be broadly applicable for investigating other host-pathogen interactions.

  20. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.

  1. Defective membrane remodeling in neuromuscular diseases: insights from animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda S Cowling

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in membrane remodeling play an essential role in a plethora of cell functions including endocytosis and intracellular transport. Defects in several of them lead to human diseases. Myotubularins, amphiphysins, and dynamins are all proteins implicated in membrane trafficking and/or remodeling. Mutations in myotubularin, amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, and dynamin 2 lead to different forms of centronuclear myopathy, while mutations in myotubularin-related proteins cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. In addition to centronuclear myopathy, dynamin 2 is also mutated in a dominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. While several proteins from these different families are implicated in similar diseases, mutations in close homologues or in the same protein in the case of dynamin 2 lead to diseases affecting different tissues. This suggests (1 a common molecular pathway underlying these different neuromuscular diseases, and (2 tissue-specific regulation of these proteins. This review discusses the pathophysiology of the related neuromuscular diseases on the basis of animal models developed for proteins of the myotubularin, amphiphysin, and dynamin families. A better understanding of the common mechanisms between these neuromuscular disorders will lead to more specific health care and therapeutic approaches.

  2. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoki Mwabukusi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara, Burundi (Muyinga and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke. Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server–client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6, and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing

  3. Toxin-Induced and Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hisahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The major pathological hallmarks of PD are the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intraneuronal aggregates termed Lewy bodies (LBs, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Epidemiologically, environmental neurotoxins such as pesticides are promising candidates for causative factors of PD. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by these toxins could contribute to the progression of PD. While most cases of PD are sporadic, specific mutations in genes that cause familial forms of PD have led to provide new insights into its pathogenesis. This paper focuses on animal models of both toxin-induced and genetically determined PD that have provided significant insight for understanding this disease. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and limitations of representative models.

  4. Diet and Diabetic Kidney Disease: Plant Versus Animal Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, Ranjani N; Vorland, Colby J; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this review is to present an overview of the evidence on the effectiveness of plant-based diets in delaying progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The ideal quantity of dietary protein has been a controversial topic for patients with DKD. Smaller studies have focused on protein source, plant versus animal, for preventing progression. Limited evidence suggests that dietary patterns that focus on plant-based foods, those that are lower in processed foods, or those that are lower in advanced glycation end products (AGE) may be useful in prevention of DKD progression. Increasing plant-based foods, incorporating diet patterns that limit processed foods, or potentially lowering AGE contents in diets may be beneficial for dietary management of DKD. However, dietary studies specifically targeted at DKD treatment are sparse. Further, large trials powered to assess outcomes including changes in kidney function, end-stage kidney disease, and mortality are needed to provide more substantial evidence for these diets.

  5. Diagnosis and epidemiology of animal diseases in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooling, A.

    1998-01-01

    Support for scientists and their endeavours in developing countries by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is provided through FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects (TCPs). Using these mechanisms the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agricultural aims to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in developing countries to identify and resolve problems connected with improving livestock productivity and health. In 1986, the Section introduced and animal health component into its Project. The initial support was for five years but in 1991 this was extended for a further three years and linked with the support available from the IAEA's Technical Co-operation Project through national and regional TCPs and ARCAL activities in Latin America dealing with diagnosis of animal diseases. Central to this overall project ws the use of ELISA for the diagnosis and control of livestock diseases. FAO/IAEA CRPs are developed around a well defined research topic on which between 15 and 20 national institutes collaborate - the topic itself being defined through consultation with national authorities in developing and developed countries and international agricultural research centers and organizations. The primary role of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in such programmes is to ensure that the inputs and efforts under these programmes are co-ordinated and that the results are published. The studies being reported in this IAEA TECDOC were initiated in 1991 and whilst the focus was on three major disease affecting livestock in the region (foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), brucellosis and babesiosis) the approach taken by individual Research Control holders was different and thus in some cases research concentrated on assay validation whilst in other cases the focus was on the

  6. Humans, Other Animals and Disease: a comparative approach towards the development of a standardised recording protocol for animal palaeopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Vann

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the impact of animal disease on human societies has had an extremely high profile, with the spread of diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE and foot and mouth among animal populations, as well as the transmission of diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Ebola and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS from animal to human populations. The social and economic impact of such illnesses has been profound. However, studies on the effect of animal disease in past human populations have been widely neglected. This is partly due to the inconsistent manner in which instances of animal disease (palaeopathology are recorded, diagnosed and interpreted which, together with the typically low incidence of specimens per site, has precluded detailed studies of regional or temporal trends. This article outlines the archaeological rationale behind developing a generic methodology to enable the consistent recognition, recording and description of animal palaeopathological data. Furthermore, the experience of palaeopathologists concerned with human populations has been drawn upon to develop a downloadable, stand-alone recording system to facilitate the recording of animal palaeopathological data and enable questions concerning past animal health and disease to be better explored in future.

  7. Vestibular animal models: contributions to understanding physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Hans; Zwergal, Andreas; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge of the vestibular sensory system, its functional significance for gaze and posture stabilization, and its capability to ensure accurate spatial orientation perception and spatial navigation has greatly benefitted from experimental approaches using a variety of vertebrate species. This review summarizes the attempts to establish the roles of semicircular canal and otolith endorgans in these functions followed by an overview of the most relevant fields of vestibular research including major findings that have advanced our understanding of how this system exerts its influence on reflexive and cognitive challenges encountered during daily life. In particular, we highlight the contributions of different animal models and the advantage of using a comparative research approach. Cross-species comparisons have established that the morpho-physiological properties underlying vestibular signal processing are evolutionarily inherent, thereby disclosing general principles. Based on the documented success of this approach, we suggest that future research employing a balanced spectrum of standard animal models such as fish/frog, mouse and primate will optimize our progress in understanding vestibular processing in health and disease. Moreover, we propose that this should be further supplemented by research employing more "exotic" species that offer unique experimental access and/or have specific vestibular adaptations due to unusual locomotor capabilities or lifestyles. Taken together this strategy will expedite our understanding of the basic principles underlying vestibular computations to reveal relevant translational aspects. Accordingly, studies employing animal models are indispensible and even mandatory for the development of new treatments, medication and technical aids (implants) for patients with vestibular pathologies.

  8. Animal Toxins as Therapeutic Tools to Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. de Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death. Venoms are fruitful natural sources of new molecules, which have been relentlessly enhanced by evolution through natural selection. Several studies indicate that venom components can exhibit selectivity and affinity for a wide variety of targets in mammalian systems. For instance, an expressive number of natural peptides identified in venoms from animals, such as snakes, scorpions, bees, and spiders, were shown to lessen inflammation, regulate glutamate release, modify neurotransmitter levels, block ion channel activation, decrease the number of protein aggregates, and increase the levels of neuroprotective factors. Thus, these venom components hold potential as therapeutic tools to slow or even halt neurodegeneration. However, there are many technological issues to overcome, as venom peptides are hard to obtain and characterize and the amount obtained from natural sources is insufficient to perform all the necessary experiments and tests. Fortunately, technological improvements regarding heterologous protein expression, as well as peptide chemical synthesis will help to provide enough quantities and allow chemical and pharmacological enhancements of these natural occurring compounds. Thus, the main focus of this review is to highlight the most promising studies evaluating animal toxins as therapeutic tools to treat a wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson

  9. Animal Toxins as Therapeutic Tools to Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jessica M.; Goncalves, Bruno D. C.; Gomez, Marcus V.; Vieira, Luciene B.; Ribeiro, Fabiola M.

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death. Venoms are fruitful natural sources of new molecules, which have been relentlessly enhanced by evolution through natural selection. Several studies indicate that venom components can exhibit selectivity and affinity for a wide variety of targets in mammalian systems. For instance, an expressive number of natural peptides identified in venoms from animals, such as snakes, scorpions, bees, and spiders, were shown to lessen inflammation, regulate glutamate release, modify neurotransmitter levels, block ion channel activation, decrease the number of protein aggregates, and increase the levels of neuroprotective factors. Thus, these venom components hold potential as therapeutic tools to slow or even halt neurodegeneration. However, there are many technological issues to overcome, as venom peptides are hard to obtain and characterize and the amount obtained from natural sources is insufficient to perform all the necessary experiments and tests. Fortunately, technological improvements regarding heterologous protein expression, as well as peptide chemical synthesis will help to provide enough quantities and allow chemical and pharmacological enhancements of these natural occurring compounds. Thus, the main focus of this review is to highlight the most promising studies evaluating animal toxins as therapeutic tools to treat a wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, brain

  10. Rapid Detection and Characterization of Emerging Foreign Animal Disease Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    To best safeguard human and animal health requires early detection and characterization of disease events. This must include effective surveillance for emerging infectious diseases. Both deliberate and natural outbreaks have enormous economic and public health impacts, and can present serious threats to national security. In this project, we developed novel next generation detection technologies to protect the agricultural economy and biosecurity. The first technology is a multiplexed assay to simultaneously detection 10 swine viral and bacterial pathogens. The second one is the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) which can detect more than 10,000 microbial species including 4219 viruses, 5367 bacteria, 265 fungi, 117 protozoa and 293 archaea. We analyzed a series of swine clinical samples from past disease events to demonstrate the utility of the assays for faster and cheaper detection of emerging and foreign animal disease pathogens, and their utility as s routine diagnosis and surveillance tool. A second goal of the study is to better understand mechanisms of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection in pigs to aid the development of countermeasures and diagnostics. There is no vaccine available for ASF. ASF outbreak is on the rise on several European countries. Though ASF is not currently in the U.S., a potential outbreak in the U.S. would be detrimental to the swine industry and the US agricultural economy. We pursued a genome-wide approach to characterize the pig immune responses after ASFV infection. We used RNA sequencing and bioinformatics methods to identify genes and pathways that are affected during ASF infection. We have identified a list of most differentially expressed genes that are in the immune response pathways.

  11. 9 CFR 71.3 - Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test, are not affected with any other disease referred to in this... regard to scrapie, as exposed animals, high-risk animals, suspect animals, or scrapie-positive animals... adding the words “viral hemorrhagic septicemia,” after “chlamydiosis,”; and by adding a new paragraph (c...

  12. Disease Risk Assessments Involving Companion Animals : an Overview for 15 Selected Pathogens Taking a European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijks, J M; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A

    Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as

  13. Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimer’s Disease in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parnell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia, and the pathological changes of senile plaques (SPs and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs in AD brains are well described. Clinically, a diagnosis remains a postmortem one, hampering both accurate and early diagnosis as well as research into potential new treatments. Visual deficits have long been noted in AD patients, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that histopathological changes already noted in the brain also occur in an extension of the brain; the retina. Due to the optically transparent nature of the eye, it is possible to image the retina at a cellular level noninvasively and thus potentially allow an earlier diagnosis as well as a way of monitoring progression and treatment effects. Transgenic animal models expressing amyloid precursor protein (APP presenilin (PS and tau mutations have been used successfully to recapitulate the pathological findings of AD in the brain. This paper will cover the ocular abnormalities that have been detected in these transgenic AD animal models.

  14. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

  15. Large animal models and new therapies for glycogen storage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth D; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2015-05-01

    Glycogen storage diseases (GSD), a unique category of inherited metabolic disorders, were first described early in the twentieth century. Since then, the biochemical and genetic bases of these disorders have been determined, and an increasing number of animal models for GSD have become available. At least seven large mammalian models have been developed for laboratory research on GSDs. These models have facilitated the development of new therapies, including gene therapy, which are undergoing clinical translation. For example, gene therapy prolonged survival and prevented hypoglycemia during fasting for greater than one year in dogs with GSD type Ia, and the need for periodic re-administration to maintain efficacy was demonstrated in that dog model. The further development of gene therapy could provide curative therapy for patients with GSD and other inherited metabolic disorders.

  16. The spread of zoonoses and other infectious diseases through the international trade of animals and animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos M. Seimenis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For trade purposes, ever increasing quantities of food animals and animal products that are transported more rapidly than ever before are contributing to the spread of zoonoses and are creating threats on a permanent basis. Most countries in south-eastern Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East are increasing imports of food animals and meat and products of animal origin. They can become potential sources of zoonotic and other infectious diseases if controls are not performed under the most effective conditions. Developing countries with their organisational weakness are particularly vulnerable to fraudulent international trade practices of animals and animal products. To prevent such risks, the World Trade Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health and their member countries support the measures stipulated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement which targets the liberalisation of trade in animals and animal products under specific conditions while protecting public health and national economies. Vigilance must be exercised and appropriate inspection made at points of entry by veterinary and other authorities to ensure the strict implementation of international and national regulations. National legislation, appropriate infra-structures and the respect of international regulations can become barriers to avoid animal trade, contributing to the spread of zoonotic and other infectious diseases.

  17. Peste des Petits Ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albina, Emmanuel; Kwiatek, Olivier; Minet, Cécile; Lancelot, Renaud; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Libeau, Geneviève

    2013-07-26

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a widespread viral disease caused by a Morbillivirus (Paramyxoviridae). There is a single serotype of PPR virus, but four distinct genetic lineages. Morbidity and mortality are high when occurring in naive sheep and goats populations. Cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are asymptomatically infected. Other wild ruminants and camels may express clinical signs and mortality. PPR has recently spread in southern and northern Africa, and in central and far-east Asia. More than one billion sheep and goats worldwide are at risk. PPR is also present in Europe through western Turkey. Because of its clinical incidence and the restrictions on animal movements, PPR is a disease of major economic importance. A live attenuated vaccine was developed in the 1980s, and has been widely used in sheep and goats. Current researches aim (i) to make it more thermotolerant for use in countries with limited cold chain, and (ii) to add a DIVA mark to shorten and reduce the cost of final eradication. Rinderpest virus-another Morbillivirus-was the first animal virus to be eradicated from Earth. PPRV has been proposed as the next candidate. Considering its wide distribution and its multiple target host species which have an intense mobility, it will be a long process that cannot exclusively rely on mass vaccination. PPR specific epidemiological features and socio-economic considerations will also have to be taken into account, and sustained international, coordinated, and funded strategy based on a regional approach of PPR control will be the guarantee toward success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xianbao; Wang, Fan; Bi, Yan; Ji, Baoan

    2016-09-01

    Animal models of pancreatitis are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and developing and testing novel interventions. In this review, we aim to summarize the most commonly used animal models, overview their pathophysiology, and discuss their strengths and limitations. We will also briefly describe common animal study procedures and refer readers to more detailed protocols in the literature. Although animal models include pigs, dogs, opossums, and other animals, we will mainly focus on rodent models because of their popularity. Autoimmune pancreatitis and genetically engineered animal models will be reviewed elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xianbao; Wang, Fan; Bi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of pancreatitis are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and developing and testing novel interventions. In this review, we aim to summarize the most commonly used animal models, overview their pathophysiology, and discuss their strengths and limitations. We will also briefly describe common animal study procedures and refer readers to more detailed protocols in the literature. Although animal models include pigs, dogs, opossums, and other animals, we will mainly focus on rodent models because of their popularity. Autoimmune pancreatitis and genetically engineered animal models will be reviewed elsewhere. PMID:27418683

  20. Ethics of animal research in human disease remediation, its institutional teaching; and alternatives to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheluvappa, Rajkumar; Scowen, Paul; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-08-01

    Animals have been used in research and teaching for a long time. However, clear ethical guidelines and pertinent legislation were instated only in the past few decades, even in developed countries with Judeo-Christian ethical roots. We compactly cover the basics of animal research ethics, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation across the developed world, "our" fundamentals of institutional animal research ethics teaching, and emerging alternatives to animal research. This treatise was meticulously constructed for scientists interested/involved in animal research. Herein, we discuss key animal ethics principles - Replacement/Reduction/Refinement. Despite similar undergirding principles across developed countries, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation vary. The chronology and evolution of mandatory institutional ethical reviewing of animal experimentation (in its pioneering nations) are summarised. This is followed by a concise rendition of the fundamentals of teaching animal research ethics in institutions. With the advent of newer methodologies in human cell-culturing, novel/emerging methods aim to minimise, if not avoid the usage of animals in experimentation. Relevant to this, we discuss key extant/emerging alternatives to animal use in research; including organs on chips, human-derived three-dimensional tissue models, human blood derivates, microdosing, and computer modelling of various hues. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: Part I — Nonparasitic zoonotic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Weese, J. S.; Peregrine, A. S.; Armstrong, J.

    2002-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are an ever-present concern in small animal veterinary practice and are often overlooked. A variety of nonparasitic zoonotic diseases may be encountered in small animal practice, including cat scratch disease (bartonellosis), cat bite abscesses, rabies, leptospirosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, salmonellosis, avian chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, dermatophytosis, and blastomycosis. These may cause human disease r...

  2. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals for slaughter. Domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test may be moved interstate...

  3. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are positive... from the animals positive to an official Johne's disease test to the healthy animals in the vehicle. ...

  4. A Genomic Approach to Unravel Host-Pathogen Interaction in Chelonians: The Example of Testudinid Herpesvirus 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco C Origgi

    novel information is not only fundamental for the genetic characterization of this virus but is also critical to lay the groundwork for an improved understanding of host-pathogen interactions in chelonians and contribute to tortoise conservation.

  5. Computational Analysis of Host-Pathogen Protein Interactions between Humans and Different Strains of EnterohemorrhagicEscherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Tungadri; Venkatesh, K V; Mande, Sharmila S

    2017-01-01

    Serotype O157:H7, an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), is known to cause gastrointestinal and systemic illnesses ranging from diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis to potentially fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome. Specific genetic factors like ompA, nsrR , and LEE genes are known to play roles in EHEC pathogenesis. However, these factors are not specific to EHEC and their presence in several non-pathogenic strains indicates that additional factors are involved in pathogenicity. We propose a comprehensive effort to screen for such potential genetic elements, through investigation of biomolecular interactions between E. coli and their host. In this work, an in silico investigation of the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between human cells and four EHEC strains (viz., EDL933, Sakai, EC4115, and TW14359) was performed in order to understand the virulence and host-colonization strategies of these strains. Potential host-pathogen interactions (HPIs) between human cells and the "non-pathogenic" E. coli strain MG1655 were also probed to evaluate whether and how the variations in the genomes could translate into altered virulence and host-colonization capabilities of the studied bacterial strains. Results indicate that a small subset of HPIs are unique to the studied pathogens and can be implicated in virulence. This subset of interactions involved E. coli proteins like YhdW, ChuT, EivG, and HlyA. These proteins have previously been reported to be involved in bacterial virulence. In addition, clear differences in lineage and clade-specific HPI profiles could be identified. Furthermore, available gene expression profiles of the HPI-proteins were utilized to estimate the proportion of proteins which may be involved in interactions. We hypothesized that a cumulative score of the ratios of bound:unbound proteins (involved in HPIs) would indicate the extent of colonization. Thus, we designed the Host Colonization Index (HCI) measure to determine the host colonization

  6. Systems Biology Analysis of Temporal In vivo Brucella melitensis and Bovine Transcriptomes Predicts host:Pathogen Protein–Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rossetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, fewer than 200 gene-products have been identified as Brucella virulence factors, and most were characterized individually without considering how they are temporally and coordinately expressed or secreted during the infection process. Here, we describe and analyze the in vivo temporal transcriptional profile of Brucella melitensis during the initial 4 h interaction with cattle. Pathway analysis revealed an activation of the “Two component system” providing evidence that the in vivo Brucella sense and actively regulate their metabolism through the transition to an intracellular lifestyle. Contrarily, other Brucella pathways involved in virulence such as “ABC transporters” and “T4SS system” were repressed suggesting a silencing strategy to avoid stimulation of the host innate immune response very early in the infection process. Also, three flagellum-encoded loci (BMEII0150-0168, BMEII1080-1089, and BMEII1105-1114, the “flagellar assembly” pathway and the cell components “bacterial-type flagellum hook” and “bacterial-type flagellum” were repressed in the tissue-associated B. melitensis, while RopE1 sigma factor, a flagellar repressor, was activated throughout the experiment. These results support the idea that Brucella employ a stealthy strategy at the onset of the infection of susceptible hosts. Further, through systems-level in silico host:pathogen protein–protein interactions simulation and correlation of pathogen gene expression with the host gene perturbations, we identified unanticipated interactions such as VirB11::MAPK8IP1; BtaE::NFKBIA, and 22 kDa OMP precursor::BAD and MAP2K3. These findings are suggestive of new virulence factors and mechanisms responsible for Brucella evasion of the host's protective immune response and the capability to maintain a dormant state. The predicted protein–protein interactions and the points of disruption provide novel insights that will stimulate advanced hypothesis

  7. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  8. Animal welfare at depopulation strategies during disease control actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Gibson, Troy

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of production animals at slaughter is a major veterinary concern with debate on questions such as the degree of stunning required, how sentient animals are of their surroundings, slaughterhouse conditions and how quickly animals lose consciousness after having their throats cut in

  9. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  10. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): Borna disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Borna disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also...... prevention and control rules referred to in Article 9(1) is not applicable, as well as which animal species can be considered to be listed for Borna disease according to Article 8(3) of the AHL.......Borna disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Borna disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Borna disease according to disease prevention...

  11. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cito, F.; Rijks, J.; Rantsios, A. T.; Cunningham, A. A.; Baneth, G.; Guardabassi, L.; Kuiken, T.; Giovannini, A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals. In this study, available epidemiological data for diseases transmissible from companion animals to man were analysed with the aim of developing a procedure suitable for their prioritization within a European f...

  12. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  13. Action and reaction of host and pathogen during Fusarium head blight disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Nicholson, Paul; Doohan, Fiona M

    2010-01-01

    The Fusarium species Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, Which are responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, reduced world-wide cereal crop yield and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in cereal grain, impact on both human and animal health. Their study is greatly...... involved in Fusarium infection, penetration and colonization of host tissues, and host avoidance thereof. This reviewer Illuminate and Integrates emerging knowledge regarding the molecular crosstalk between Fusarium and its small-grain cereal hosts. An understanding of the complexity of the host......-pathogen interactions will be instrumental in designing new efficient strategies for the control of FHB disease....

  14. Pathology of the Aging Brain in Domestic and Laboratory Animals, and Animal Models of Human Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, S A; Capucchio, M T; Rofina, J E; Chambers, J K; Uchida, K; Nakayama, H; Head, E

    2016-03-01

    According to the WHO, the proportion of people over 60 years is increasing and expected to reach 22% of total world's population in 2050. In parallel, recent animal demographic studies have shown that the life expectancy of pet dogs and cats is increasing. Brain aging is associated not only with molecular and morphological changes but also leads to different degrees of behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. Common age-related brain lesions in humans include brain atrophy, neuronal loss, amyloid plaques, cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy, vascular mineralization, neurofibrillary tangles, meningeal osseous metaplasia, and accumulation of lipofuscin. In aging humans, the most common neurodegenerative disorder is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which progressively impairs cognition, behavior, and quality of life. Pathologic changes comparable to the lesions of AD are described in several other animal species, although their clinical significance and effect on cognitive function are poorly documented. This review describes the commonly reported age-associated neurologic lesions in domestic and laboratory animals and the relationship of these lesions to cognitive dysfunction. Also described are the comparative interspecies similarities and differences to AD and other human neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, and the spontaneous and transgenic animal models of these diseases. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. The Importance of Copper Mineral in Animal Body Relating to Animal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper is one of the micro elements that has very important roles in the process of body metabolism. Some enzymes are bound with copper and iron in the formation of blood haemoglobin. Copper deficiency in animal body will cause inappropriate function of the enzyme system, so that metabolism and physiological systems of the body will not work normally and if copper is in excess, it will cause toxicity which then destroys body tissues causes troubles in blood formation, Therefore, it is clear that copper has an important role in the process of living, hence monitoring its concentration in the blood is important to maintain animal health.

  16. [Evaluation of the animal-assisted therapy in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibel, Clémence; Bonin, Marie; Bonnet, Magalie; Gaimard, Maryse; Mourey, France; Moesch, Isabelle; Ancet, Pierre

    Animal-assisted therapy sessions have been set up in a protected unit for patients with a dementia-related syndrome. The aim is to measure the effects of animal-assisted therapy on behavioural disorders in daily life and care. The results obtained provided some interesting areas to explore and recommendations with a view to optimising the implementation of such a system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Symposium on Housing and Diseases of Rabbits, furbearing animals and pet animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Jong, de I.C.; Greef, de K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Within the Welfare Quality® project protocols have been developed to assess animal welfare on-farm in an objective, science based and practically applicable way. For various species like broilers and laying hens, sows and growing pigs, dairy cattle and veal calves, welfare assessment protocols have

  18. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cito, F; Rijks, J; Rantsios, A T; Cunningham, A A; Baneth, G; Guardabassi, L; Kuiken, T; Giovannini, A

    2016-01-01

    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals. In this

  19. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cito, F.; Rijks, J.; Rantsios, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    zoonotic diseases transmitted via companion animals in Europe: the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO). Adaptations were made based on information collected from expert groups on viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases using...

  20. Beyond the Prevention of Harm: Animal Disease Policy as a Moral Question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijboom, F.L.B.; Cohen, N.E.; Stassen, E.N.; Brom, F.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    European animal disease policy seems to find its justification in a “harm to other” principle. Limiting the freedom of animal keepers—e.g., by culling their animals—is justified by the aim to prevent harm, i.e., the spreading of the disease. The picture, however, is more complicated. Both during the

  1. Analogs of human genetic skin disease in domesticated animals ?

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, Justin; Abrams, Stephanie; Finch, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Genetic skin diseases encompass a vast, complex, and ever expanding field. Recognition of the features of these diseases is important to ascertain a correct diagnosis, initiate treatment, consider genetic counseling, and refer patients to specialists when the disease may impact other areas. Because genodermatoses may present with a vast array of features, it can be bewildering to memorize them. This manuscript will explain and depict some genetic skin diseases that occur in both humans and do...

  2. Studies on the effects of ionizing radiation on the normal and diseased liver in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments carried out in the present study primarily concerned with the effects of ionizing radiations on the normal and diseased liver in experimental animals (mice). Different radiation intensities and different exposure schemes were used to irradiate both healthy and schistosoma mansoni infected animals. A group of uninfected and unirradiated animals were used as controls. Follow up studies were performed every 6 weeks for 30 weeks. These included histopathological studies of the liver damage at every observation periods for all animal groups

  3. Target priority transboundary animal diseases and zoonoses in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, Rift Valley fever had the highest rank, followed by Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Newcastle Disease, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Lumpy Skin Disease, Peste des Petits des Ruminants, Rabies, Brucellosis, Bovine Tuberculosis, Foot-and Mouth Disease and Sheep and Goat Pox. In conclusion, the ...

  4. Regional network for Latin America on animal disease diagnosis using immunoassay and labelled DNA probe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    After an introduction describing the co-ordinated research program the proceedings contain the contributions presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting. The papers are in four sections: general aspects of immunoassays in animal disease diagnosis; viral and chlamydial diseases; bacterial diseases; and parasitic diseases. The individual contributions have been indexed separately for inclusion in INIS. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Integrated Human and Animal Disease Control for Tanzanian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research focuses on two agro-ecological zones of the cattle corridor in Tanzania - Ngorongoro and Kibaha/Kilosa districts - and will be led by a regional scientific network, the ... They will look at interactions between human and animal health, environmental change, gender, and other socio-economic conditions.

  6. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions.

  7. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions.

  8. Mechanisms underlying disease transmission between spatially separated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnik, van B.A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of infections between spatially separated hosts is a common problem, not only during major outbreaks of livestock diseases, but also in many other settings such as the transmission of infectious diseases between plants and crops or in healthcare settings. During the last

  9. Coffee and Alzheimer’s disease - animal & cellular evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increases in lifespan in modern times have put significant social and academic emphasis on age-related pathologies. Of the many chronic, non-acquired diseases, dementias are among the most fiscally and psychologically burdensome to society. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent and well kno...

  10. Tackling animal diseases to protect human health: As veterinary science celebrates cattle plague eradication, the inextricable link between human, animal and ecosystem health is increasingly appreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary research is gaining in importance not only because of the economic impact of animal diseases, but also because animals are a fertile reservoir of zoonoses; pathogens that could jump the species barrier and infect humans.

  11. Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Marié, Jean-Lou

    2009-08-26

    Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, thrombocytic anaplasmosis, and leishmaniosis. Except for the last, these diseases are transmitted by ticks. Both the distribution and abundance of the three main tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus are changing. The conditions for such changes involve primarily human factors, such as travel with pets, changes in human habitats, social and leisure activities, but climate changes also have a direct impact on arthropod vectors (abundance, geographical distribution, and vectorial capacity). Besides the most known diseases, attention should be kept on tick-borne encephalitis, which seems to be increasing in western Europe, as well as flea-borne diseases like the flea-transmitted rickettsiosis. Here, after consideration of the main reasons for changes in tick vector ecology, an overview of each "emerging" vector-borne diseases of pets is presented.

  12. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.

  13. The importance of genetics in the diagnosis of animal diseases - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diseases have always been present in the animal population but their significance has increased in recent decades. The wealth of knowledge on genomic information, systems biology and mechanisms of diseases provide great opportunities to elucidate the genetic bases of diseases. The use of recombinant DNA ...

  14. Harmonizing methods for wildlife abundance estimation and pathogen detection in Europe-a questionnaire survey on three selected host-pathogen combinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sonnenburg (Jana); M.-P. Ryser-Degiorgis; T. Kuiken (Thijs); E. Ferroglio (Ezio); R.G. Ulrich (Rainer); F.J. Conraths (Franz J.); C. Gortazar (Christian); C. Staubach (Christoph); Acevedo, P. (Pelayo); Gasca, J.M. (Javier Millán); Marco, I. (Ignasi); Prado, M.M. (Marcos Miñarro); F. Ruiz-Fons (Francisco); Agreiter, A. (Andreas); Cadamuro, A. (Andrea); Calabrese, M.S. (Maria S.); Capelli, G. (Gioia); Casulli, A. (Adriano); Cetto, E. (Ermanno); Chiari, M. (Mario); Lavazza, A. (Antonio); Orusa, R. (Riccardo); Sommavilla, G. (Gianmaria); Zamboni, U. (Umberto); A.A. Bajer (Anna A.); Lipowski, A. (Andrzej); Barlow, A. (Alex); Learmount, J. (Jane); Duff, J.P. (J. Paul); Billinis, C. (Charalambos); Boue, F. (Franck); Hars, J. (Jean); S. Rossi; de Carvalho, I.L. (Isabel Lopes); Núncio, S. (Sofia); Dekkers, L.J.M. (Leo J. M.); M. Maas; Deplazes, P. (Peter); Meier, R. (Roman); Glawischnig, W. (Walter); Steinrigl, A. (Adolf); I. Golovljova; Grunow, R. (Roland); Jacob, J. (Jens); Romig, T. (Thomas); Tomaso, H. (Herbert); Isomursu, M. (Marja); Korro, M.K. (Marja Kastriot); Linden, A. (Annick); Morozov, V. (Viacheslav); Stanko, M. (Michal); Turcinaviciene, J. (Jurga)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ The need for wildlife health surveillance as part of disease control in wildlife, domestic animals and humans on the global level is widely recognized. However, the objectives, methods and intensity of existing wildlife health surveillance programs vary greatly among

  15. A novel approach to probe host-pathogen interactions of bovine digital dermatitis, a model of a complex polymicrobial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcatili, Paolo; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    the assumption that treponemes were the major DD pathogens but also indicated the active involvement of other phyla (primarily Bacteroidetes). Bacterial genes involved in chemotaxis, flagellar synthesis and protection against oxidative and acidic stress were among the major factors defining the disease......'s capacity to mount an efficient immune response and maintain immunological memory towards DD. The common antigenic markers identified here using a high-density peptide microarray address this issue and may be useful for future preventive measures against DD....

  16. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccines against human and animal infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Houqiang; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in recombinant genetic engineering techniques have brought forward a leap in designing new vaccines in modern medicine. One attractive strategy is the application of reverse genetics technology to make recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) deliver protective antigens of pathogens. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that rNDV-vectored vaccines can induce quicker and better humoral and mucosal immune responses than conventional vaccines and are protective against pathogen challenges. With deeper understanding of NDV molecular biology, it is feasible to develop gene-modified rNDV vaccines accompanied by good safety, high efficacy, low toxicity and better immunogenicity. This review summarizes the development of reverse genetics technology in using NDV as a promising vaccine vector to design new vaccines for human and animal use.

  17. Taking the Lab into the Field. Nuclear Applications Rapidly Diagnose Animal Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Livestock supports the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people worldwide. As populations increase, countries not only need to increase livestock production, but also need more efficient tools for the prevention, diagnosis and control of animal diseases. Nuclear and nuclear-related technologies have an essential role to play in maintaining animal health and protecting vulnerable communities.

  18. ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

  19. A novel approach to probe host-pathogen interactions of bovine digital dermatitis, a model of a complex polymicrobial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcatili, Paolo; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Polymicrobial infections represent a great challenge for the clarification of disease etiology and the development of comprehensive diagnostic or therapeutic tools, particularly for fastidious and difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. Using bovine digital dermatitis (DD) as a disease model, we introduce...... a novel strategy to study the pathogenesis of complex infections. The strategy combines meta-transcriptomics with high-density peptide-microarray technology to screen for in vivo-expressed microbial genes and the host antibody response at the site of infection. Bacterial expression patterns supported...

  20. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R

    2015-09-02

    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiological differences, such as body size and longevity. In contrast, large animal models, including sheep, provide an alternative to mice for biomedical research due to their greater physiological parallels with humans. Completion of the full genome sequences of many species, and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, means it is now feasible to screen large populations of domesticated animals for genetic variants that resemble human genetic diseases, and generate models that more accurately model rare human pathologies. In this review, we discuss the notion of using sheep as large animal models, and their advantages in modelling human genetic disease. We exemplify several existing naturally occurring ovine variants in genes that are orthologous to human disease genes, such as the Cln6 sheep model for Batten disease. These, and other sheep models, have contributed significantly to our understanding of the relevant human disease process, in addition to providing opportunities to trial new therapies in animals with similar body and organ size to humans. Therefore sheep are a significant species with respect to the modelling of rare genetic human disease, which we summarize in this review.

  1. Animal models of Alzheimer disease: historical pitfalls and a path forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Sarah E; Pippin, John J; Barnard, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a medically and financially overwhelming condition, and incidence rates are expected to triple by 2050.Despite decades of research in animal models of AD, the disease remains incompletely understood, with few treatment options. This review summarizes historical and current AD research efforts, with emphasis on the disparity between preclinical animal studies and the reality of human disease and how this has impacted clinical trials. Ultimately, we provide a mechanism for shifting the focus of AD research away from animal models to focus primarily on human biology as a means to improve the applicability of research findings to human disease. Implementation of these alternatives may hasten development of improved strategies to prevent, detect, ameliorate, and possibly cure this devastating disease.

  2. Correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-scanning electron microscopy as a straightforward tool to study host-pathogen interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Martin; Elsterová, Jana; Schrenková, Jana; Vancová, Marie; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, DEC 10 2015 (2015), s. 18029 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976; European Commission(XE) 602272 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * cryoelectron tomography * lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  3. Identifying the Achilles heel of multi-host pathogens : the concept of keystone 'host' species illustrated by Mycobacterium ulcerans transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Benjamin; Benbow, M. E.; Merritt, R.; Kimbirauskas, R.; McIntosh, M.; Small, P. L. C.; Williamson, H.; Guégan, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens that use multiple host species are an increasing public health issue due to their complex transmission, which makes them difficult to mitigate. Here, we explore the possibility of using networks of ecological interactions among potential host species to identify the particular disease-source species to target to break down transmission of such pathogens. We fit a mathematical model on prevalence data of Mycobacterium ulcerans in western Africa and we show that removing the most abun...

  4. How Can Elispot Add Information to Improve Knowledge on Tropical Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué da Costa Lima-Junior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elispot has been used as an important tool for detecting immune cells’ products and functions and has facilitated the understanding of host-pathogen interaction. Despite the incredible diversity of possibilities, two main approaches have been developed: the immunopathogenesis and diagnosis/prognosis of infectious diseases as well as cancer research. Much has been described on the topics of allergy, autoimmune diseases, and HIV-Aids, however, Elispot can also be applied to other infectious diseases, mainly leishmaniasis, malaria, some viruses, helminths and mycosis usually classified as tropical diseases. The comprehension of the function, concentration and diversity of the immune response in the infectious disease is pointed out as crucial to the development of infection or disease in humans and animals. In this review we will describe the knowledge already obtained using Elispot as a method for accessing the profile of immune response as well as the recent advances in information about host-pathogen interaction in order to better understand the clinical outcome of a group of tropical and neglected diseases.

  5. [Vaccination as a supporting measure to control animal disease outbreaks in Europe: Findings for Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Labio, E; Perler, L

    2010-09-01

    Switzerland and the European Union have a non-vaccination policy for many animal diseases relevant for trade. Because of the relatively low animal density, disease control measures in Switzerland focus on the immediate culling of infected animals. However, the use of vaccines as a supporting measure can represent an effective option to promptly contain an epidemic and to reduce the number of animals to be killed. A prerequisite for the success of vaccination is its early, rapid and purposeful implementation. Vaccinations can be cost-intensive and can entail restrictions in international trade. For the choice of the appropriate control measure it is therefore important to thoroughly assess the epidemiology, the economic consequences of the control measures and the acceptance of these measures by the environment. Because of their special epidemiology, vaccination has clear advantages as a preventive measure for vector-borne diseases.

  6. An Application of Expert System For Diagnozing Endoparsitism Gastrointestinal Disease In Livestock Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Efendi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this research is to make an expert system as a tool for diagnozing endoparsitism gastrointestinal disease for cows and sheep. The knowledge base of the system has been acquired from some interviews with some doctors from the internal diseases animal's unit at Animal's Hospital, Gadjah Mada University Jogjakarta, some text books, journals, and research papers. The inference machine of the system uses Forward Chaining and uncertainty data methods using Dempster-Shafer Theory. The system has a consultation session with an interactive dialog that can be used by the users. A user gives information such as user's data, and answers the questions about the endoparsitism gastrointestinal symptoms that might be had by his animal. From the answers, the system computes the possibility of the animal to suffer from endoparsitism gastrointestinal, informs the life cycle parasites, and suggests a therapy for it. Keywords : Expert System, diagnoze, endoparsitism gastrointestinal disease, Forward chaining method, Dempster-Shafer Teary

  7. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dry eye disease and uveitis: A closer look at immune mechanisms in animal models of two ocular autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Tanima; Diedrichs-Möhring, Maria; Wildner, Gerhild

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases is a prerequisite for specific and effective therapeutical intervention. This review focuses on animal models of two common ocular inflammatory diseases, dry eye disease (DED), affecting the ocular surface, and uveitis with inflammation of the inner eye. In both diseases autoimmunity plays an important role, in idiopathic uveitis immune reactivity to intraocular autoantigens is pivotal, while in dry eye disease autoimmunity seems to play a role in one subtype of disease, Sjögren' syndrome (SjS). Comparing the immune mechanisms underlying both eye diseases reveals similarities, and significant differences. Studies have shown genetic predispositions, T and B cell involvement, cytokine and chemokine signatures and signaling pathways as well as environmental influences in both DED and uveitis. Uveitis and DED are heterogeneous diseases and there is no single animal model, which adequately represents both diseases. However, there is evidence to suggest that certain T cell-targeting therapies can be used to treat both, dry eye disease and uveitis. Animal models are essential to autoimmunity research, from the basic understanding of immune mechanisms to the pre-clinical testing of potential new therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex differences in acupuncture effectiveness in animal models of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many animal experimental studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sex differences are a major issue in all diseases including PD. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews investigating sex differences on the

  10. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. National training course on ELISA for seradiagnosis of animal diseases (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the content of a three-week national training course for 16 participants from regional Disease Investigation Centres and other agencies in Indonesia. The subject of the course was the use of ELISA for the diagnosis of animal diseases in Indonesia, with particular emphasis placed on bovine brucellosis

  11. A 6-Nucleotide Regulatory Motif within the AbcR Small RNAs of Brucella abortus Mediates Host-Pathogen Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lauren M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brucella abortus, two small RNAs (sRNAs), AbcR1 and AbcR2, are responsible for regulating transcripts encoding ABC-type transport systems. AbcR1 and AbcR2 are required for Brucella virulence, as a double chromosomal deletion of both sRNAs results in attenuation in mice. Although these sRNAs are responsible for targeting transcripts for degradation, the mechanism utilized by the AbcR sRNAs to regulate mRNA in Brucella has not been described. Here, two motifs (M1 and M2) were identified in AbcR1 and AbcR2, and complementary motif sequences were defined in AbcR-regulated transcripts. Site-directed mutagenesis of M1 or M2 or of both M1 and M2 in the sRNAs revealed transcripts to be targeted by one or both motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed direct, concentration-dependent binding of both AbcR sRNAs to a target mRNA sequence. These experiments genetically and biochemically characterized two indispensable motifs within the AbcR sRNAs that bind to and regulate transcripts. Additionally, cellular and animal models of infection demonstrated that only M2 in the AbcR sRNAs is required for Brucella virulence. Furthermore, one of the M2-regulated targets, BAB2_0612, was found to be critical for the virulence of B. abortus in a mouse model of infection. Although these sRNAs are highly conserved among Alphaproteobacteria, the present report displays how gene regulation mediated by the AbcR sRNAs has diverged to meet the intricate regulatory requirements of each particular organism and its unique biological niche. PMID:28588127

  12. Integrative molecular phylogeography in the context of infectious diseases on the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco

    2012-12-01

    The rate of new emerging infectious diseases entering the human population has increased over the past century, with pathogens originating from animals or from products of animal origin accounting for the vast majority. Primary risk factors for the emergence and spread of emerging zoonoses include expansion and intensification of animal agriculture and long-distance live animal transport, live animal markets, bushmeat consumption and habitat destruction. Developing effective control strategies is contingent upon the ability to test causative hypotheses of disease transmission within a statistical framework. Broadly speaking, molecular phylogeography offers a framework in which specific hypotheses regarding pathogen gene flow and dispersal within an ecological context can be compared. A number of different methods has been developed for this application. Here, our intent is firstly to discuss the application of a wide variety of statistically based methods (including Bayesian reconstruction, network parsimony analysis and regression) to specific viruses (influenza, salmon anaemia virus, foot and mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever) that have been associated with animal farming/movements; and secondly to place them in the larger framework of the threat of potential zoonotic events as well as the economic and biosecurity implications of pathogen outbreaks among our animal food sources.

  13. Infection of Brachypodium distachyon by formae speciales of Puccinia graminis: early infection events and host-pathogen incompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Figueroa

    Full Text Available Puccinia graminis causes stem rust, a serious disease of cereals and forage grasses. Important formae speciales of P. graminis and their typical hosts are P. graminis f. sp. tritici (Pg-tr in wheat and barley, P. graminis f. sp. lolii (Pg-lo in perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, and P. graminis f. sp. phlei-pratensis (Pg-pp in timothy grass. Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging genetic model to study fungal disease resistance in cereals and temperate grasses. We characterized the P. graminis-Brachypodium pathosystem to evaluate its potential for investigating incompatibility and non-host resistance to P. graminis. Inoculation of eight Brachypodium inbred lines with Pg-tr, Pg-lo or Pg-pp resulted in sporulating lesions later accompanied by necrosis. Histological analysis of early infection events in one Brachypodium inbred line (Bd1-1 indicated that Pg-lo and Pg-pp were markedly more efficient than Pg-tr at establishing a biotrophic interaction. Formation of appressoria was completed (60-70% of germinated spores by 12 h post-inoculation (hpi under dark and wet conditions, and after 4 h of subsequent light exposure fungal penetration structures (penetration peg, substomatal vesicle and primary infection hyphae had developed. Brachypodium Bd1-1 exhibited pre-haustorial resistance to Pg-tr, i.e. infection usually stopped at appressorial formation. By 68 hpi, only 0.3% and 0.7% of the Pg-tr urediniospores developed haustoria and colonies, respectively. In contrast, development of advanced infection structures by Pg-lo and Pg-pp was significantly more common; however, Brachypodium displayed post-haustorial resistance to these isolates. By 68 hpi the percentage of urediniospores that only develop a haustorium mother cell or haustorium in Pg-lo and Pg-pp reached 8% and 5%, respectively. The formation of colonies reached 14% and 13%, respectively. We conclude that Brachypodium is an apt grass model to study the molecular and genetic components of

  14. Infection of Brachypodium distachyon by formae speciales of Puccinia graminis: early infection events and host-pathogen incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Melania; Alderman, Stephen; Garvin, David F; Pfender, William F

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia graminis causes stem rust, a serious disease of cereals and forage grasses. Important formae speciales of P. graminis and their typical hosts are P. graminis f. sp. tritici (Pg-tr) in wheat and barley, P. graminis f. sp. lolii (Pg-lo) in perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, and P. graminis f. sp. phlei-pratensis (Pg-pp) in timothy grass. Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging genetic model to study fungal disease resistance in cereals and temperate grasses. We characterized the P. graminis-Brachypodium pathosystem to evaluate its potential for investigating incompatibility and non-host resistance to P. graminis. Inoculation of eight Brachypodium inbred lines with Pg-tr, Pg-lo or Pg-pp resulted in sporulating lesions later accompanied by necrosis. Histological analysis of early infection events in one Brachypodium inbred line (Bd1-1) indicated that Pg-lo and Pg-pp were markedly more efficient than Pg-tr at establishing a biotrophic interaction. Formation of appressoria was completed (60-70% of germinated spores) by 12 h post-inoculation (hpi) under dark and wet conditions, and after 4 h of subsequent light exposure fungal penetration structures (penetration peg, substomatal vesicle and primary infection hyphae) had developed. Brachypodium Bd1-1 exhibited pre-haustorial resistance to Pg-tr, i.e. infection usually stopped at appressorial formation. By 68 hpi, only 0.3% and 0.7% of the Pg-tr urediniospores developed haustoria and colonies, respectively. In contrast, development of advanced infection structures by Pg-lo and Pg-pp was significantly more common; however, Brachypodium displayed post-haustorial resistance to these isolates. By 68 hpi the percentage of urediniospores that only develop a haustorium mother cell or haustorium in Pg-lo and Pg-pp reached 8% and 5%, respectively. The formation of colonies reached 14% and 13%, respectively. We conclude that Brachypodium is an apt grass model to study the molecular and genetic components of incompatiblity

  15. Wheat Ammonium Transporter (AMT) Gene Family: Diversity and Possible Role in Host-Pathogen Interaction with Stem Rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianya; Liao, Kai; Xu, Xiaofeng; Gao, Yue; Wang, Ziyuan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Jia, Baolei; Xuan, Yuanhu

    2017-01-01

    Ammonium transporter (AMT) proteins have been reported in many plants, but no comprehensive analysis was performed in wheat. In this study, we identified 23 AMT members (hereafter TaAMTs) using a protein homology search in wheat genome. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b , and TaAMT1;3a were relatively more highly expressed in comparison with other TaAMTs . TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b, and TaAMT1;3a-GFP were localized in the plasma membrane in tobacco leaves, and TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b , and TaAMT1;3a successfully complemented a yeast 31019b strain in which ammonium uptake was deficient. In addition, the expression of TaAMT1;1b in an Arabidopsis AMT quadruple mutant ( qko ) successfully restored [Formula: see text] uptake ability. Resupply of [Formula: see text] rapidly increased cellular [Formula: see text] contents and suppressed expression of TaAMT1;3a , but not of TaAMT;1;1a and TaAMT1;1b expressions. Expression of TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b , and TaAMT1;3a was not changed in leaves after [Formula: see text] resupply. In contrast, nitrogen (N) deprivation induced TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b , and TaAMT1;3a gene expressions in the roots and leaves. Expression analysis in the leaves of the stem rust-susceptible wheat line "Little Club" and the rust-tolerant strain "Mini 2761" revealed that TaAMT1;1a, TaAMT1;1b , and TaAMT1;3a were specifically induced in the former but not in the latter. Rust-susceptible wheat plants grown under N-free conditions exhibited a lower disease index than plants grown with [Formula: see text] as the sole N source in the medium after infection with Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici , suggesting that [Formula: see text] and its transport may facilitate the infection of wheat stem rust disease. Our findings may be important for understanding the potential function TaAMTs in wheat plants.

  16. Evolutionary profiling reveals the heterogeneous origins of classes of human disease genes: implications for modeling disease genetics in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Evan K; Schnitzler, Christine E; Havlak, Paul; Putnam, Nicholas H; Nguyen, Anh-Dao; Moreland, R Travis; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2014-10-04

    The recent expansion of whole-genome sequence data available from diverse animal lineages provides an opportunity to investigate the evolutionary origins of specific classes of human disease genes. Previous studies have observed that human disease genes are of particularly ancient origin. While this suggests that many animal species have the potential to serve as feasible models for research on genes responsible for human disease, it is unclear whether this pattern has meaningful implications and whether it prevails for every class of human disease. We used a comparative genomics approach encompassing a broad phylogenetic range of animals with sequenced genomes to determine the evolutionary patterns exhibited by human genes associated with different classes of disease. Our results support previous claims that most human disease genes are of ancient origin but, more importantly, we also demonstrate that several specific disease classes have a significantly large proportion of genes that emerged relatively recently within the metazoans and/or vertebrates. An independent assessment of the synonymous to non-synonymous substitution rates of human disease genes found in mammals reveals that disease classes that arose more recently also display unexpected rates of purifying selection between their mammalian and human counterparts. Our results reveal the heterogeneity underlying the evolutionary origins of (and selective pressures on) different classes of human disease genes. For example, some disease gene classes appear to be of uncommonly recent (i.e., vertebrate-specific) origin and, as a whole, have been evolving at a faster rate within mammals than the majority of disease classes having more ancient origins. The novel patterns that we have identified may provide new insight into cases where studies using traditional animal models were unable to produce results that translated to humans. Conversely, we note that the larger set of disease classes do have ancient origins

  17. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to KHV disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus...... as in Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in Article 9(1) is also inconclusive, as well as which animal species can be considered to be listed for KHV disease according to Article 8(3) of the AHL.......Koi herpes virus (KHV) disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of KHV disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of KHV disease according...

  18. Comparative and functional genomics of Legionella identified eukaryotic like proteins as key players in host-pathogen interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGomez-Valero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although best known for its ability to cause severe pneumonia in people whose immune defenses are weakened, Legionella pneumophila and Legionella longbeachae are two species of a large genus of bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature, where they parasitize protozoa. Adaptation to the host environment and exploitation of host cell functions are critical for the success of these intracellular pathogens. The establishment and publication of the complete genome sequences of L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae isolates paved the way for major breakthroughs in understanding the biology of these organisms. In this review we present the knowledge gained from the analyses and comparison of the complete genome sequences of different L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae strains. Emphasis is given on putative virulence and Legionella life cycle related functions, such as the identification of an extended array of eukaryotic-like proteins, many of which have been shown to modulate host cell functions to the pathogen's advantage. Surprisingly, many of the eukaryotic domain proteins identified in L. pneumophila as well as many substrates of the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system essential for intracellular replication are different between these two species, although they cause the same disease. Finally, evolutionary aspects regarding the eukaryotic like proteins in Legionella are discussed.

  19. [The role of natural environment in spreading of hantavirus--model of the correlation between host, pathogen and human infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Anna; Dudek, Dorota; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    The environmental changes caused by humans influence ecosystem and thus have significant impact on occurrence of emerging and re-emerging diseases. The hantavirus infection belong to the one of them. The aim of this paper was to present current knowledge about relationship between hantavirus, their natural host and the spread of the infection to people. Rodents constitute both the natural host of the hantaviruses and the reservoir of hantavirus for environment. Circulation of the virus in the rodent population is crucial to maintain the virus in the environment. The individual characteristics of rodents influence on risk of infection with hantavirus. However, this relationship is still unexplained. Risk of pathogen exposure often increases with age and behavioral differences associated with the sex of the susceptible individual. Mating behaviors seem to play an important role in the spread of the virus among rodents. Human incidence of hantavirus infection has in general been found to correlate to the population size of rodent host especially in the model of nephropathia epidemica (NE; a mild form of HFRS), Puumala virus (PUU) and bank voles. The occurrence of hantavirus infections in humans is assumed to rise as a secondary effect from altered population sizes of rodents in a changing environment due to e.g. mast years, forest fragmentation, global warming.

  20. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cito, F; Rijks, J; Rantsios, A T; Cunningham, A A; Baneth, G; Guardabassi, L; Kuiken, T; Giovannini, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals. In this study, available epidemiological data for diseases transmissible from companion animals to man were analysed with the aim of developing a procedure suitable for their prioritization within a European framework. A new method and its associated questionnaire and scoring system were designed based on methods described by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Modifications were applied to allow for the paucity of specific information on companion animal transmissible diseases. The OIE method was also adapted to the subject and to the regional scope of the interprofessional network addressing zoonotic diseases transmitted via companion animals in Europe: the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO). Adaptations were made based on information collected from expert groups on viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases using a structured questionnaire, in which all questions were closed-ended. The expert groups were asked to select the most appropriate answer for each question taking into account the relevance and reliability of the data available in the scientific literature. Subsequently, the scoring of the answers obtained for each disease covered by the questionnaire was analysed to obtain two final overall scores, one for human health impact and one for agricultural economic impact. The adapted method was then applied to select the 15 most important pathogens (five for each pathogen group: viral, bacterial and parasitic) on the basis of their overall impact on public health and agriculture. The result of the prioritization exercise was a joint priority list (available at www.callistoproject.eu) of

  1. A 6-Nucleotide Regulatory Motif within the AbcR Small RNAs of Brucella abortus Mediates Host-Pathogen Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lauren M; Caswell, Clayton C

    2017-06-06

    In Brucella abortus , two small RNAs (sRNAs), AbcR1 and AbcR2, are responsible for regulating transcripts encoding ABC-type transport systems. AbcR1 and AbcR2 are required for Brucella virulence, as a double chromosomal deletion of both sRNAs results in attenuation in mice. Although these sRNAs are responsible for targeting transcripts for degradation, the mechanism utilized by the AbcR sRNAs to regulate mRNA in Brucella has not been described. Here, two motifs (M1 and M2) were identified in AbcR1 and AbcR2, and complementary motif sequences were defined in AbcR-regulated transcripts. Site-directed mutagenesis of M1 or M2 or of both M1 and M2 in the sRNAs revealed transcripts to be targeted by one or both motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed direct, concentration-dependent binding of both AbcR sRNAs to a target mRNA sequence. These experiments genetically and biochemically characterized two indispensable motifs within the AbcR sRNAs that bind to and regulate transcripts. Additionally, cellular and animal models of infection demonstrated that only M2 in the AbcR sRNAs is required for Brucella virulence. Furthermore, one of the M2-regulated targets, BAB2_0612, was found to be critical for the virulence of B. abortus in a mouse model of infection. Although these sRNAs are highly conserved among Alphaproteobacteria , the present report displays how gene regulation mediated by the AbcR sRNAs has diverged to meet the intricate regulatory requirements of each particular organism and its unique biological niche. IMPORTANCE Small RNAs (sRNAs) are important components of bacterial regulation, allowing organisms to quickly adapt to changes in their environments. The AbcR sRNAs are highly conserved throughout the Alphaproteobacteria and negatively regulate myriad transcripts, many encoding ABC-type transport systems. In Brucella abortus , AbcR1 and AbcR2 are functionally redundant, as only a double abcR1 abcR2 ( abcR1 / 2 ) deletion results in attenuation in

  2. A Genealogy of Animal Diseases and Social Anthropology (1870-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Frédéric

    2018-03-23

    Culling, vaccinating, and monitoring animals are the three main techniques used in contemporary veterinary public health to manage animal diseases that can be transmitted to humans. Each technique is underpinned by different ontological understandings of how microbes figure in relations between humans and animals. Therefore, animal diseases are not only a question for an applied anthropology but also involve the theoretical core of the discipline i.e., understanding how social causality emerges out of physical causality. To defend this argument, the article describes what Herbert Spencer wrote about foot-and-mouth disease; what William Robertson Smith thought about sacrifice in the context of bovine tuberculosis; how Emile Durkheim took vaccination for smallpox as a metaphor for the pathologies of the social; and what Claude Lévi-Strauss wrote about mad cow disease. The conceptions of the social in the writing of these four authors are analyzed through their understanding of the risk of transmission of animal diseases to humans, moving from prevention to precaution to preparedness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Proteomics Reveals Differences in Host-Pathogen Interaction between Infectious and Commensal Relationship with Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Garrido

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading food-borne poisoning in industrialized countries. While the bacteria causes disease in humans, it merely colonizes the gut in poultry or pigs, where seems to establish a commensal relationship. Until now, few studies have been conducted to elucidate the relationship between C. jejuni and its different hosts. In this work, a comparative proteomics approach was used to identify the underlying mechanisms involved in the divergent outcome following C. jejuni infection in human and porcine host. Human (INT-407 and porcine (IPEC-1 intestinal cell lines were infected by C. jejuni for 3 h (T3h and 24 h (T24h. C. jejuni infection prompted an intense inflammatory response at T3h in human intestinal cells, mainly characterized by expression of proteins involved in cell spreading, cell migration and promotion of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Proteomic analysis evidenced significantly regulated biofunctions in human cells related with engulfment and endocytosis, and supported by canonical pathways associated to infection such as caveolar- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling. In porcine IPEC-1 cells, inflammatory response as well as signaling pathways that control cellular functions such as cell migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression resulted downregulated. These differences in the host response to infection were supported by the different pattern of adhesion and invasion proteins expressed by C. jejuni in human and porcine cells. No marked differences in expression of virulence factors involved in adaptive response and iron acquisition functions were observed. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that both host and pathogen factors are responsible for commensal or infectious character of C. jejuni in different hosts.

  4. Rapid transcriptome characterization and parsing of sequences in a non-model host-pathogen interaction; pea-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Xiaofeng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most important diseases of pea (Pisum sativum L., however, little is known about the genetics and biochemistry of this interaction. Identification of genes underlying resistance in the host or pathogenicity and virulence factors in the pathogen will increase our knowledge of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction and facilitate the introgression of new resistance genes into commercial pea varieties. Although the S. sclerotiorum genome sequence is available, no pea genome is available, due in part to its large genome size (~3500 Mb and extensive repeated motifs. Here we present an EST data set specific to the interaction between S. sclerotiorum and pea, and a method to distinguish pathogen and host sequences without a species-specific reference genome. Results 10,158 contigs were obtained by de novo assembly of 128,720 high-quality reads generated by 454 pyrosequencing of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interactome. A method based on the tBLASTx program was modified to distinguish pea and S. sclerotiorum ESTs. To test this strategy, a mixture of known ESTs (18,490 pea and 17,198 S. sclerotiorum ESTs from public databases were pooled and parsed; the tBLASTx method successfully separated 90.1% of the artificial EST mix with 99.9% accuracy. The tBLASTx method successfully parsed 89.4% of the 454-derived EST contigs, as validated by PCR, into pea (6,299 contigs and S. sclerotiorum (2,780 contigs categories. Two thousand eight hundred and forty pea ESTs and 996 S. sclerotiorum ESTs were predicted to be expressed specifically during the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction as determined by homology search against 81,449 pea ESTs (from flowers, leaves, cotyledons, epi- and hypocotyl, and etiolated and light treated etiolated seedlings and 57,751 S. sclerotiorum ESTs (from mycelia at neutral pH, developing apothecia and developing sclerotia. Among those ESTs specifically expressed

  5. Rapid transcriptome characterization and parsing of sequences in a non-model host-pathogen interaction; pea-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaofeng; McPhee, Kevin E; Coram, Tristan E; Peever, Tobin L; Chilvers, Martin I

    2012-11-26

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most important diseases of pea (Pisum sativum L.), however, little is known about the genetics and biochemistry of this interaction. Identification of genes underlying resistance in the host or pathogenicity and virulence factors in the pathogen will increase our knowledge of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction and facilitate the introgression of new resistance genes into commercial pea varieties. Although the S. sclerotiorum genome sequence is available, no pea genome is available, due in part to its large genome size (~3500 Mb) and extensive repeated motifs. Here we present an EST data set specific to the interaction between S. sclerotiorum and pea, and a method to distinguish pathogen and host sequences without a species-specific reference genome. 10,158 contigs were obtained by de novo assembly of 128,720 high-quality reads generated by 454 pyrosequencing of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interactome. A method based on the tBLASTx program was modified to distinguish pea and S. sclerotiorum ESTs. To test this strategy, a mixture of known ESTs (18,490 pea and 17,198 S. sclerotiorum ESTs) from public databases were pooled and parsed; the tBLASTx method successfully separated 90.1% of the artificial EST mix with 99.9% accuracy. The tBLASTx method successfully parsed 89.4% of the 454-derived EST contigs, as validated by PCR, into pea (6,299 contigs) and S. sclerotiorum (2,780 contigs) categories. Two thousand eight hundred and forty pea ESTs and 996 S. sclerotiorum ESTs were predicted to be expressed specifically during the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction as determined by homology search against 81,449 pea ESTs (from flowers, leaves, cotyledons, epi- and hypocotyl, and etiolated and light treated etiolated seedlings) and 57,751 S. sclerotiorum ESTs (from mycelia at neutral pH, developing apothecia and developing sclerotia). Among those ESTs specifically expressed, 277 (9.8%) pea ESTs were predicted to be

  6. Domesticated animals and human infectious diseases of zoonotic origins: domestication time matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The rate of emergence for emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically over the last century, and research findings have implicated wildlife as an importance source of novel pathogens. However, the role played by domestic animals as amplifiers of pathogens emerging from the wild could also be significant, influencing the human infectious disease transmission cycle. The impact of domestic hosts on human disease emergence should therefore be ascertained. Here, using three independent datasets we showed positive relationships between the time since domestication of the major domesticated mammals and the total number of parasites or infectious diseases they shared with humans. We used network analysis, to better visualize the overall interactions between humans and domestic animals (and amongst animals) and estimate which hosts are potential sources of parasites/pathogens for humans (and for all other hosts) by investigating the network architecture. We used centrality, a measure of the connection amongst each host species (humans and domestic animals) in the network, through the sharing of parasites/pathogens, where a central host (i.e. high value of centrality) is the one that is infected by many parasites/pathogens that infect many other hosts in the network. We showed that domesticated hosts that were associated a long time ago with humans are also the central ones in the network and those that favor parasites/pathogens transmission not only to humans but also to all other domesticated animals. These results urge further investigation of the diversity and origin of the infectious diseases of domesticated animals in their domestication centres and the dispersal routes associated with human activities. Such work may help us to better understand how domesticated animals have bridged the epidemiological gap between humans and wildlife. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S.; Medland, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. PMID:26451004

  8. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Borna disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also...... prevention and control rules referred to in Article 9(1) is not applicable, as well as which animal species can be considered to be listed for Borna disease according to Article 8(3) of the AHL.......Borna disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Borna disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Borna disease according to disease prevention...

  9. Identification of infection- and defense-related genes via a dynamic host-pathogen interaction network using a Candida albicans-zebrafish infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Zong-Yu; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chao, Chun-Cheih; Liu, Fu-Chen; Lan, Chung-Yu; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans infections and candidiasis are difficult to treat and create very serious therapeutic challenges. In this study, based on interactive time profile microarray data of C. albicans and zebrafish during infection, the infection-related protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the two species and the intercellular PPI network between host and pathogen were simultaneously constructed by a dynamic interaction model, modeled as an integrated network consisting of intercellular invasion and cellular defense processes during infection. The signal transduction pathways in regulating morphogenesis and hyphal growth of C. albicans were further investigated based on significant interactions found in the intercellular PPI network. Two cellular networks were also developed corresponding to the different infection stages (adhesion and invasion), and then compared with each other to identify proteins from which we can gain more insight into the pathogenic role of hyphal development in the C. albicans infection process. Important defense-related proteins in zebrafish were predicted using the same approach. The hyphal growth PPI network, zebrafish PPI network and host-pathogen intercellular PPI network were combined to form an integrated infectious PPI network that helps us understand the systematic mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. albicans and the immune response of the host, and may help improve medical therapies and facilitate the development of new antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Unraveling the disease consequences and mechanisms of modular structure in animal social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Leu, Stephan T; Cross, Paul C; Hudson, Peter J; Bansal, Shweta

    2017-04-18

    Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in animal societies. From these empirical studies, we identified the features of interaction patterns associated with network modularity and developed a theoretical network model to investigate when and how subdivisions in social networks influence disease dynamics. Contrary to prior work, we found that disease risk is largely unaffected by modular structure, although social networks beyond a modular threshold experience smaller disease burden and longer disease duration. Our results illustrate that the lowering of disease burden in highly modular social networks is driven by two mechanisms of modular organization: network fragmentation and subgroup cohesion. Highly fragmented social networks with cohesive subgroups are able to structurally trap infections within a few subgroups and also cause a structural delay to the spread of disease outbreaks. Finally, we show that network models incorporating modular structure are necessary only when prior knowledge suggests that interactions within the population are highly subdivided. Otherwise, null networks based on basic knowledge about group size and local contact heterogeneity may be sufficient when data-limited estimates of epidemic consequences are necessary. Overall, our work does not support the hypothesis that modular structure universally mitigates the disease impact of group living.

  11. Unraveling the disease consequences and mechanisms of modular structure in animal social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Leu, Stephan T.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.; Bansal, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in animal societies. From these empirical studies, we identified the features of interaction patterns associated with network modularity and developed a theoretical network model to investigate when and how subdivisions in social networks influence disease dynamics. Contrary to prior work, we found that disease risk is largely unaffected by modular structure, although social networks beyond a modular threshold experience smaller disease burden and longer disease duration. Our results illustrate that the lowering of disease burden in highly modular social networks is driven by two mechanisms of modular organization: network fragmentation and subgroup cohesion. Highly fragmented social networks with cohesive subgroups are able to structurally trap infections within a few subgroups and also cause a structural delay to the spread of disease outbreaks. Finally, we show that network models incorporating modular structure are necessary only when prior knowledge suggests that interactions within the population are highly subdivided. Otherwise, null networks based on basic knowledge about group size and local contact heterogeneity may be sufficient when data-limited estimates of epidemic consequences are necessary. Overall, our work does not support the hypothesis that modular structure universally mitigates the disease impact of group living.

  12. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Nathoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  13. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  14. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... farm weeds. (2) The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other Federal or State agencies and...

  15. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Wexler, Anthony; Ristenpart, William

    2014-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in modulating the pathogen transmission, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulence intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of a standard axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We demonstrate that the fan speed counterintuitively has no effect on the downstream plume width, a result replicated with a variety of different fan types and configurations. The results point toward a useful simplification in modeling of airborne disease transmission via fan-generated flows.

  16. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Ebola virus disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Ebola virus disease according...... to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Ebola virus disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and...... to the assessment performed, Ebola virus disease can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred...

  17. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Aujeszky's disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus...... to the assessment performed, Aujeszky's disease can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred......Aujeszky's disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Aujeszky's disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Aujeszky's disease according...

  18. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species concerned by Border disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached...... performed, Border disease can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 3, 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points......Border disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Border disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Border disease according to disease...

  19. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  20. Monkeypox disease transmission in an experimental setting: prairie dog animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is considered the most significant human public health threat in the genus Orthopoxvirus since the eradication of variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox. MPXV is a zoonotic agent endemic to forested areas of Central and Western Africa. In 2003, MPXV caused an outbreak in the United States due to the importation of infected African rodents, and subsequent sequential infection of North American prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and humans. In previous studies, the prairie dog MPXV model has successfully shown to be very useful for understanding MPXV since the model emulates key characteristics of human monkeypox disease. In humans, percutaneous exposure to animals has been documented but the primary method of human-to-human MPXV transmission is postulated to be by respiratory route. Only a few animal model studies of MPXV transmission have been reported. Herein, we show that MPXV infected prairie dogs are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple transmission routes. All secondarily exposed animals were infected with MPXV during the course of the study. Notably, animals secondarily exposed appeared to manifest more severe disease; however, the disease course was very similar to those of experimentally challenged animals including inappetence leading to weight loss, development of lesions, production of orthopoxvirus antibodies and shedding of similar levels or in some instances higher levels of MPXV from the oral cavity. Disease was transmitted via exposure to contaminated bedding, co-housing, or respiratory secretions/nasal mucous (we could not definitively say that transmission occurred via respiratory route exclusively. Future use of the model will allow us to evaluate infection control measures, vaccines and antiviral strategies to decrease disease transmission.

  1. The history of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) 1920-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert P; Ellis, L Susanne Squires; Kohler, Erwin M

    2015-12-01

    The following history has been compiled and written by the authors. The historical facts are available from the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) archives, dating back to letters and summaries written by the founders, and by a few of the Secretary-Treasurers from the early decades through 2014. THE ORGANIZATION AND PURPOSE: The CRWAD is a non-profit organization and has been since its origin. The sole purpose of CRWAD is to discuss and disseminate the most current research advances in animal diseases. Graduate students and industry and academic professionals present and discuss the most recent advances on subjects of interest to the CRWAD and of importance to the global livestock and companion animal industries. The oral and poster abstracts of new and unpublished data presented at the meeting sessions are published each year in the CRWAD Proceedings (formerly the CRWAD Abstracts). CRWAD publishes, copyrights, and distributes the Proceedings. The presentations are arranged into the following 10 sections, according to the primary topic of the presentation: Bacterial Pathogenesis, Biosafety and Biosecurity, Companion Animal Epidemiology, Ecology and Management of Foodborne Agents, Epidemiology and Animal Health Economics, Immunology, Pathobiology of Enteric and Foodborne Pathogens, Respiratory Diseases, Vector-Borne and Parasitic Diseases, and Viral Pathogenesis. Prospective members should be actively engaged in animal disease research or research administration. Meeting information and membership applications may be obtained by contacting the Executive Director or by visiting the CRWAD website. Annual abstracts are currently available on-line at the On-line Meeting Planner and Itinerary Builder, with access through the CRWAD website.

  2. Exercise training on cardiovascular diseases: Role of animal models in the elucidation of the mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rodrigues

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases, which include hypertension, coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction and heart failure, are one of the major causes of disability and death worldwide. On the other hand, physical exercise acts in the preventionand treatment of these conditions. In fact, several experiments performed in human beings have demonstrated the efficiency of physical exercise to alter clinical signals observed in these diseases, such as high blood pressure and exercise intolerance. However, even if human studies demonstrated the clinical efficiency of physical exercise, most extensive mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon still have to be elucidated. In this sense, studies using animal models seem to be a good option to demonstrate such mechanisms. Therefore, the aims of the present study are describing the main pathophysiological characteristics of the animal models used in the study of cardiovascular diseases, as well as the main mechanismsassociated with the benefits of physical exercise.

  3. Host-Pathogen Coupled Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-04

    describe bacterial proliferation in the host (and the host’s immune response), and molecular-level models describing the subversion of the molecular...the pathogen is endocytosed by host immune cells, and in the course of infection can escape back into the tissue or bloodstream of the host. During...host’s overall ( immune ) response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mathematical model, signaling pathways, bacterial infection, macrophage, immune system 16. SECURITY

  4. Transgenic animal models for study of the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Renbao; Liu, Xudong; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a genetic mutation that results in polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal regions of huntingtin. As a result, this polyQ expansion leads to the misfolding and aggregation of mutant huntingtin as well as age-dependent neurodegeneration. The genetic mutation in HD allows for generating a variety of animal models that express different forms of mutant huntingtin and show differential pathology. Studies of these animal models have provided an important insight into the pathogenesis of HD. Mouse models of HD include transgenic mice, which express N-terminal or full-length mutant huntingtin ubiquitously or selectively in different cell types, and knock-in mice that express full-length mutant Htt at the endogenous level. Large animals, such as pig, sheep, and monkeys, have also been used to generate animal HD models. This review focuses on the different features of commonly used transgenic HD mouse models as well as transgenic large animal models of HD, and also discusses how to use them to identify potential therapeutics. Since HD shares many pathological features with other neurodegenerative diseases, identification of therapies for HD would also help to develop effective treatment for different neurodegenerative diseases that are also caused by protein misfolding and occur in an age-dependent manner.

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons from Animal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrascu, Rio; Heitmann, Joerg; Seeger, Werner; Weissmann, Norbert; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) diseases such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, and stroke. Based on human research, sympathetic activation, inflammation, and oxidative stress are thought to play major roles in the pathophysiology of OSA-related CV diseases. Animal models of OSA have shown that endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, and systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as heart failure can develop in respon...

  6. Grunting in genetically modified minipig animal model for Huntington ´s disease - a pilot experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykalová, T.; Hlavnička, J.; Mačáková, Monika; Baxa, Monika; Cmejla, R.; Motlík, Jan; Klempíř, J.; Rusz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 12-13 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * mitochondria * DNA damage Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases....

  8. Strategies for new and improved vaccines against ticks and tick-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Kopáček, P; Lew-Tabor, A; Maritz-Olivier, C

    2016-12-01

    Ticks infest a variety of animal species and transmit pathogens causing disease in both humans and animals worldwide. Tick-host-pathogen interactions have evolved through dynamic processes that accommodated the genetic traits of the hosts, pathogens transmitted and the vector tick species that mediate their development and survival. New approaches for tick control are dependent on defining molecular interactions between hosts, ticks and pathogens to allow for discovery of key molecules that could be tested in vaccines or new generation therapeutics for intervention of tick-pathogen cycles. Currently, tick vaccines constitute an effective and environmentally sound approach for the control of ticks and the transmission of the associated tick-borne diseases. New candidate protective antigens will most likely be identified by focusing on proteins with relevant biological function in the feeding, reproduction, development, immune response, subversion of host immunity of the tick vector and/or molecules vital for pathogen infection and transmission. This review addresses different approaches and strategies used for the discovery of protective antigens, including focusing on relevant tick biological functions and proteins, reverse genetics, vaccinomics and tick protein evolution and interactomics. New and improved tick vaccines will most likely contain multiple antigens to control tick infestations and pathogen infection and transmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ad hoc method for the assessment on listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    addresses the ad hoc method developed for assessing any animal disease for the listing and categorisation of diseases within the Animal Health Law (AHL) framework. The assessment of individual diseases is addressed in distinct scientific opinions that are published separately. The assessment of Articles 5...... compiled by disease scientists. A mapping was developed to identify which parameters from Article 7 were needed to inform each Article 5, 8 and 9 criterion. Specifically, for Articles 5 and 9 criteria, a categorical assessment was performed, by applying an expert judgement procedure, based on the mapped...

  10. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  11. Correlated Inflammatory Responses and Neurodegeneration in Peptide-Injected Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. McLarnon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD which emphasize activation of microglia may have particular utility in correlating proinflammatory activity with neurodegeneration. This paper reviews injection of amyloid-β (Aβ into rat brain as an alternative AD animal model to the use of transgenic animals. In particular, intrahippocampal injection of Aβ1-42 peptide demonstrates prominent microglial mobilization and activation accompanied by a significant loss of granule cell neurons. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory reactivity is demonstrated by a broad spectrum of drugs with a common endpoint in conferring neuroprotection in peptide-injected animals. Peptide-injection models provide a focus on glial cell responses to direct peptide injection in rat brain and offer advantages in the study of the mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation in AD brain.

  12. Cat scratch disease presenting with a retroperitoneal abscess in a patient without animal contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Takeharu; Taguchi, Jun; Suzuki, Minoru; Higa, Yoshiteru; Kamimura, Tomoko; Nishimura, Munetsugu; Arakawa, Masahiro

    2009-12-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is usually diagnosed in patients presenting with regional lymphadenopathy and pyrexia that follow contacts with animals. We describe here a young adult male patient who presented with marked pyrexia and a retroperitoneal abscess without relevant medical histories, illustrating that CSD can be a diagnostic challenge on selected occasions.

  13. Using Earth Observation to Forecast Human and Animal Vector-Borne Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earth observing technologies, including data from with earth-orbiting satellites, coupled with new investigations and a better understanding of the impact of environmental factors on transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases permitted us to forecast Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in animal...

  14. The importance of genetics in the diagnosis of animal diseases - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of recombinant DNA techniques in conjunction with conventional genetic methods have led to a rapid increase in knowledge of the genetic map. Many animal genes have been mapped to chromosomes. A detailed genetic map has become of great value in the diagnosis of genetic diseases and in the development ...

  15. The effects of radiation on the diseases of aging in experimental animals: gerontological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollander, C.F.; Zwieten, M.J. van; Broerse, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the effect of different types and doses of ionizing radiation on the induction of mammary tumours in rats and the role of ovarian hormones in tumour indication is reported. The occurrence of other diseases in the irradiated animals is also studied and compared to those occurring in non-irradiated controls. (Auth.)

  16. Towards an information ecosystem for animal disease surveillance using voice services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sharma Grover, A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a solution for disease surveillance and monitoring in the primary animal health care (PAHC) domain that uses inbound voice-based services and voice- and text-based outbound services for connecting rural veterinarians...

  17. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy

  18. Transgenic animal models for study of the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang RB

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renbao Chang,1 Xudong Liu,1 Shihua Li,2 Xiao-Jiang Li1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD is caused by a genetic mutation that results in polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal regions of huntingtin. As a result, this polyQ expansion leads to the misfolding and aggregation of mutant huntingtin as well as age-dependent neurodegeneration. The genetic mutation in HD allows for generating a variety of animal models that express different forms of mutant huntingtin and show differential pathology. Studies of these animal models have provided an important insight into the pathogenesis of HD. Mouse models of HD include transgenic mice, which express N-terminal or full-length mutant huntingtin ubiquitously or selectively in different cell types, and knock-in mice that express full-length mutant Htt at the endogenous level. Large animals, such as pig, sheep, and monkeys, have also been used to generate animal HD models. This review focuses on the different features of commonly used transgenic HD mouse models as well as transgenic large animal models of HD, and also discusses how to use them to identify potential therapeutics. Since HD shares many pathological features with other neurodegenerative diseases, identification of therapies for HD would also help to develop effective treatment for different neurodegenerative diseases that are also caused by protein misfolding and occur in an age-dependent manner. Keywords: transgenic animal models, Huntington’s disease, pathogenesis, therapy

  19. Biosecurity and animal disease management in organic and conventional Swedish dairy herds: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelson, Ulf; Sjöström, Karin; Fall, Nils

    2018-04-12

    Good animal health is a notion that is germane to organic dairy production, and it is expected that such herds would pay significant attention on the health of their animals. However, it is not known if the applied animal disease management is actually more adequate in organic dairy cattle herds than in conventional dairy herds. A questionnaire study on biosecurity and animal disease management activities was therefore conducted among Swedish farmers with organic and conventional dairy cattle herds. A total of 192 useable questionnaires were returned; response rates of 30.3 and 20.2% for organic and conventional farmers, respectively. Herd characteristics of the two herd types were very similar, except that pipeline/tie-stall systems were less common in organic farms and that organic farmers had a higher education level than their conventional counterparts. Also, very few systematic differences in general or specific disease management activities were observed between the two types of farms. The main exceptions being how milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was used, views on policy actions in relation to antibiotic use, and attitudes towards calling for veterinary support. Using milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was more common in conventional herds, although it was mainly given to bull calves. Farmers of organic herds were more positive to policy actions to reduce the use and need for antibiotics, and they reported waiting longer before contacting a veterinarian for calves with diarrhoea and cows with subclinical mastitis. The stated biosecurity and animal disease management was relatively equal in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds. Our results thus indicate that animal health is as important in conventionally managed dairy herds in Sweden as in organically managed herds.

  20. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R

    2009-03-01

    The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone) is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1) implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2) amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for southern African

  1. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Thomson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs, extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1 implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2 amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE] so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for

  2. From animal models to human disease: a genetic approach for personalized medicine in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picher-Martel, Vincent; Valdmanis, Paul N; Gould, Peter V; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Dupré, Nicolas

    2016-07-11

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disease in adults. Classical ALS is characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons leading to progressive paralysis. Approximately 10 % of ALS patients have familial form of the disease. Numerous different gene mutations have been found in familial cases of ALS, such as mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma (FUS), C9ORF72, ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2), optineurin (OPTN) and others. Multiple animal models were generated to mimic the disease and to test future treatments. However, no animal model fully replicates the spectrum of phenotypes in the human disease and it is difficult to assess how a therapeutic effect in disease models can predict efficacy in humans. Importantly, the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of ALS leads to a variety of responses to similar treatment regimens. From this has emerged the concept of personalized medicine (PM), which is a medical scheme that combines study of genetic, environmental and clinical diagnostic testing, including biomarkers, to individualized patient care. In this perspective, we used subgroups of specific ALS-linked gene mutations to go through existing animal models and to provide a comprehensive profile of the differences and similarities between animal models of disease and human disease. Finally, we reviewed application of biomarkers and gene therapies relevant in personalized medicine approach. For instance, this includes viral delivering of antisense oligonucleotide and small interfering RNA in SOD1, TDP-43 and C9orf72 mice models. Promising gene therapies raised possibilities for treating differently the major mutations in familial ALS cases.

  3. Animal viral diseases and global change: Bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel eJimenez-Clavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue and West Nile fever/encephalitis, have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. Bluetongue, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. West Nile fever/encephalitis affects wildlife (birds, domestic animals (equines and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife and livestock. In Europe, West Nile virus is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the XXth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world?

  4. Animal viral diseases and global change: bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Á

    2012-01-01

    Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution, and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral) diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue (BT) and West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF), have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. BT, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. WNF affects wildlife (birds), domestic animals (equines), and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus (WNV) has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife, and livestock. In Europe, WNV is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the twentieth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world?

  5. Mechanisms of Acupuncture Effect on Alzheimer's Disease in Animal- Based Researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhang, Li-Wen; Wang, Jian; Du, Si-Qi; Xiao, Ling-Yong; Tu, Jian-Feng; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in the aging population worldwide. The etiology and treatment of Alzheimer's disease are still not very clear. Finding a new treatment is urgent due to the increasing population aging. Acupuncture has been practicing in China for more than 3000 years and reported to be beneficial in treating cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's disease. This paper reviews the recent development on the effect of acupuncture on Alzheimer's disease in animal-based researches. It is suggested that acupuncture improves cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease by regulating glucose metabolism, enhancing neurotransmission as well as reducing oxidative stress, Aβ protein deposition, and neuronal apoptosis. However, it is still difficult to clarify which specific signaling pathway contributes to the acupuncture effect. Better designed studies are recommended to investigate the effects of acupuncture on Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Inverse pH regulation of plant and fungal sucrose transporters: a mechanism to regulate competition for sucrose at the host/pathogen interface?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Wippel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant sucrose transporter activities were shown to respond to changes in the extracellular pH and redox status, and oxidizing compounds like glutathione (GSSG or H(2O(2 were reported to effect the subcellular targeting of these proteins. We hypothesized that changes in both parameters might be used to modulate the activities of competing sucrose transporters at a plant/pathogen interface. We, therefore, compared the effects of redox-active compounds and of extracellular pH on the sucrose transporters UmSRT1 and ZmSUT1 known to compete for extracellular sucrose in the Ustilago maydis (corn smut/Zea mays (maize pathosystem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present functional analyses of the U. maydis sucrose transporter UmSRT1 and of the plant sucrose transporters ZmSUT1 and StSUT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in Xenopus laevis oocytes in the presence of different extracellular pH-values and redox systems, and study the possible effects of these treatments on the subcellular targeting. We observed an inverse regulation of host and pathogen sucrose transporters by changes in the apoplastic pH. Under none of the conditions analyzed, we could confirm the reported effects of redox-active compounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that changes in the extracellular pH but not of the extracellular redox status might be used to oppositely adjust the transport activities of plant and fungal sucrose transporters at the host/pathogen interface.

  7. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  8. Risk-based methods for fish and terrestrial animal disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, Birgit; Peeler, Edmund; Lyngstad, Trude; Brun, Edgar; Bang Jensen, Britt; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2013-10-01

    Over recent years there have been considerable methodological developments in the field of animal disease surveillance. The principles of risk analysis were conceptually applied to surveillance in order to further develop approaches and tools (scenario tree modelling) to design risk-based surveillance (RBS) programmes. In the terrestrial animal context, examples of risk-based surveillance have demonstrated the substantial potential for cost saving, and a similar benefit is expected also for aquatic animals. RBS approaches are currently largely absent for aquatic animal diseases. A major constraint in developing RBS designs in the aquatic context is the lack of published data to assist in the design of RBS: this applies to data on (i) the relative risk of farm sites becoming infected due to the presence or absence of a given risk factor; (ii) the sensitivity of diagnostic tests (specificity is often addressed by follow-up investigation and re-testing and therefore less of a concern); (iii) data on the variability of prevalence of infection for fish within a holding unit, between holding units and at farm level. Another constraint is that some of the most basic data for planning surveillance are missing, e.g. data on farm location and animal movements. In Europe, registration or authorisation of fish farms has only recently become a requirement under EU Directive 2006/88. Additionally, the definition of the epidemiological unit (at site or area level) in the context of aquaculture is a challenge due to the often high level of connectedness (mainly via water) of aquaculture facilities with the aquatic environment. This paper provides a review of the principles, methods and examples of RBS in terrestrial, farmed and wild animals. It discusses the special challenges associated with surveillance for aquatic animal diseases (e.g. accessibility of animals for inspection and sampling, complexity of rearing systems) and provides an overview of current developments relevant

  9. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  10. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-01-01

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  11. Multidisciplinary and Evidence-based Method for Prioritizing Diseases of Food-producing Animals and Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblet, Marie-France; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Albert, Adelin; Gosset, Christiane; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Haubruge, Eric; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne; Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed intracategory and intercategory weighting of 57 prioritization criteria. Two methods (deterministic with mean of each weight and probabilistic with distribution functions of weights by using Monte Carlo simulation) were used to calculate a score for each disease. Consecutive ranking was established. Few differences were observed between each method. Compared with previous prioritization methods, our procedure is evidence based, includes a range of fields and criteria while considering uncertainty, and will be useful for analyzing diseases that affect public health. PMID:22469519

  12. [Zebrafish-a new animal models of anterior segment embryonic development and diseases basic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yong-na; Wei, Rui-hua; Zhao, Shao-zhen

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, zebrafish has become ideal animal models of human disease with its unique characteristics, such as small body, fecundity, fast development and growth, embryo transparency, and so on. Furthermore, the structure and gene of zebrafish eye are highly conservative with human eye, which make ophthalmologists to pay close attention to zebrafish. This review focus on the studies and applications on zebrafish embryonic development of anterior segment, including the morphogenesis of cornea, lens and anterior chamber, and diseases of anterior segment (corneal diseases, cataract, glaucoma).

  13. Gene therapy in large animal models of human cardiovascular genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeper, Meg M; Bish, Lawrence T; Sweeney, H Lee

    2009-01-01

    Several naturally occurring animal models for human genetic heart diseases offer an excellent opportunity to evaluate potential novel therapies, including gene therapy. Some of these diseases--especially those that result in a structural defect during development (e.g., patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonic stenosis)--would likely be difficult to treat with a therapeutic gene transfer approach. However, the ability to transduce a significant proportion of the myocardial cells should make the various forms of inherited cardiomyopathy amenable to a therapeutic gene transfer approach. Adeno-associated virus may be the ideal vector for cardiac gene therapy since its low immunogenicity allows for stable transgene expression, a crucial factor when considering treatment of a chronic disease. Cardiomyopathies are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults, and large animal models are available for the major forms of inherited cardiomyopathy (dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy). One of these animal models, juvenile dilated cardiomyopathy of Portuguese water dogs, offers an effective means to assess the efficacy of therapeutic gene transfer to alter the course of cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Correction of the abnormal metabolic processes that occur with heart failure (e.g., calcium metabolism, apoptosis) could normalize diseased myocardial function. Gene therapy may offer a promising new approach for the treatment of cardiac disease in both veterinary and human clinical settings.

  14. Direct and indirect effects of wastewater use and herd environment on the occurrence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Zhang, Liqin; Abid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Xinru, Han

    2017-03-01

    The use of wastewater for rearing domestic animals is a common phenomenon in most of the developing countries like Pakistan that face a serious shortage of freshwater resources. However, most of the literature has only focused on the indirect effects of wastewater use on animal health or productivity, and literature on the direct effects of wastewater use is rare. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of wastewater usage on the prevalence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan. The study is based on a household-level survey of 360 domestic water buffalo herds collected from 12 districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. We tested the prevalence of the animal's diseases, animal's health, and wastewater-use preference with various econometric tools, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and logistic regressions. The findings of the study show that the majority of the farmers use wastewater for buffalo bathing due to the shortage of freshwater resources. Results explore the prevalence of diseases such as clinical mastitis, tick infestation, and foot and mouth disease at the farm level significantly associated with buffalo bathing in the wastewater. Moreover, bathing in wastewater pre- and post-milking also plays a role in the occurrence of diseases. Particularly, if the buffalo's access to wastewater for bathing is within 60 min after milking, the probability of the animals being exposed to mastitis is higher. Furthermore, on investigation, a number of factors are found, such as the distance to the water source, power shortage, groundwater availability, and the education of farmers that influence farmers' behavior of letting their animals take a bath in wastewater. Moreover, the use of different preventive measures improves the animal's health.

  15. Challenges in animal modelling of mesenchymal stromal cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Raghavan; Ng, Spencer; Velu, Vijayakumar; Galipeau, Jacques

    2015-04-28

    Utilization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is of translational interest. Safety of MSC therapy has been well demonstrated in early phase clinical trials but efficacy in randomized clinical trials needs to be demonstrated. Understanding MSC mechanisms of action to reduce gut injury and inflammation is necessary to improve current ongoing and future clinical trials. However, two major hurdles impede the direct translation of data derived from animal experiments to the clinical situation: (1) limitations of the currently available animal models of colitis that reflect human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The etiology and progression of human IBD are multifactorial and hence a challenge to mimic in animal models; and (2) Species specific differences in the functionality of MSCs derived from mice versus humans. MSCs derived from mice and humans are not identical in their mechanisms of action in suppressing inflammation. Thus, preclinical animal studies with murine derived MSCs cannot be considered as an exact replica of human MSC based clinical trials. In the present review, we discuss the therapeutic properties of MSCs in preclinical and clinical studies of IBD. We also discuss the challenges and approaches of using appropriate animal models of colitis, not only to study putative MSC therapeutic efficacy and their mechanisms of action, but also the suitability of translating findings derived from such studies to the clinic.

  16. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour–parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour–parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751

  17. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-04-13

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Effects of peptidyl-prolyl isomerase 1 depletion in animal models of prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legname, Giuseppe; Virgilio, Tommaso; Bistaffa, Edoardo; De Luca, Chiara Maria Giulia; Catania, Marcella; Zago, Paola; Isopi, Elisa; Campagnani, Ilaria; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Giaccone, Giorgio; Moda, Fabio

    2018-04-20

    Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that induces the cis-trans conversion of specific Ser/Thr-Pro peptide bonds in phosphorylated proteins, leading to conformational changes through which Pin1 regulates protein stability and activity. Since down-regulation of Pin1 has been described in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Huntington's Disease (HD), we investigated its potential role in prion diseases. Animals generated on wild-type (Pin1 +/+ ), hemizygous (Pin1 +/- ) or knock-out (Pin1 -/- ) background for Pin1 were experimentally infected with RML prions. The study indicates that, neither the total depletion nor reduced levels of Pin1 significantly altered the clinical and neuropathological features of the disease.

  19. Perceived risk and strategy efficacy as motivators of risk management strategy adoption to prevent animal diseases in pig farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2011-01-01

    For Dutch fattening pig farms, this study explored (1) farmers’ perceptions towards animal disease risks and animal health risk management; (2) factors underlying farmers’ adoption of the two risk management strategies, namely, biosecurity measures and animal health programs. The risks included

  20. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, Rob; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Bosgra, Sieto; Caiment, Florian; Ezendam, Janine; Greupink, Rick; Hendriksen, Peter; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; Jennen, Danyel; Kleinjans, Jos; Kroese, Dinant; Kuper, Frieke; van Loveren, Henk; Monshouwer, Mario; Russel, Frans; van Someren, Eugene; Tsamou, Maria; Groothuis, Geny

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617-623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if

  1. Australian contingency plans for emergency animal disease control: the role of antigen/vaccine banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweddle, N E

    2004-01-01

    Vaccination is an important element of contingency plans for many animal diseases. The decision whether or not to use vaccine is complex, and must consider epidemiological, economic and social issues. Vaccines are rarely available in a country for emergency animal diseases unless a low pathogenicity strain of the agent is present or it is localised in carrier hosts. High quality commercial vaccine from overseas is often the preferred source of vaccine in an emergency, although less reliable sources may be used with additional safeguards. Alternatively, master seeds may be imported or developed for production within the country For contingency planning, diseases may be ranked according to the expected role of vaccine in the disease eradication strategy, with diseases for which vaccine is part of the initial response strategy receiving highest priority for action. A range of preparedness options is available, ranging from identifying producers of vaccine, obtaining permits for import and use from regulatory authorities, to establishing vaccine or antigen banks. Countries need to consider their individual situations and develop strategies to address the diseases of significance to them.

  2. Optogenetic approaches to evaluate striatal function in animal models of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Krystal L; Kim, Youngcho; Alberico, Stephanie L; Emmons, Eric B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S

    2016-03-01

    Optogenetics refers to the ability to control cells that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels. The introduction of optogenetic approaches has facilitated the dissection of neural circuits. Optogenetics allows for the precise stimulation and inhibition of specific sets of neurons and their projections with fine temporal specificity. These techniques are ideally suited to investigating neural circuitry underlying motor and cognitive dysfunction in animal models of human disease. Here, we focus on how optogenetics has been used over the last decade to probe striatal circuits that are involved in Parkinson disease, a neurodegenerative condition involving motor and cognitive abnormalities resulting from degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The precise mechanisms underlying the striatal contribution to both cognitive and motor dysfunction in Parkinson disease are unknown. Although optogenetic approaches are somewhat removed from clinical use, insight from these studies can help identify novel therapeutic targets and may inspire new treatments for Parkinson disease. Elucidating how neuronal and behavioral functions are influenced and potentially rescued by optogenetic manipulation in animal models could prove to be translatable to humans. These insights can be used to guide future brain-stimulation approaches for motor and cognitive abnormalities in Parkinson disease and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  3. An overview of animal models of pain: disease models and outcome measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, N; Harris, AL; Robinson, CR; Dougherty, PM; Fuchs, PN; Sluka, KA

    2013-01-01

    Pain is ultimately a perceptual phenomenon. It is built from information gathered by specialized pain receptors in tissue, modified by spinal and supraspinal mechanisms, and integrated into a discrete sensory experience with an emotional valence in the brain. Because of this, studying intact animals allows the multidimensional nature of pain to be examined. A number of animal models have been developed, reflecting observations that pain phenotypes are mediated by distinct mechanisms. Animal models of pain are designed to mimic distinct clinical diseases to better evaluate underlying mechanisms and potential treatments. Outcome measures are designed to measure multiple parts of the pain experience including reflexive hyperalgesia measures, sensory and affective dimensions of pain and impact of pain on function and quality of life. In this review we discuss the common methods used for inducing each of the pain phenotypes related to clinical pain syndromes, as well as the main behavioral tests for assessing pain in each model. PMID:24035349

  4. Advances in vaccine research against economically important viral diseases of food animals: Infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissecting Candida albicans Infection from the Perspective of C. albicans Virulence and Omics Approaches on Host-Pathogen Interaction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Voon Kin; Lee, Tze Yan; Rusliza, Basir; Chong, Pei Pei

    2016-10-18

    Candida bloodstream infections remain the most frequent life-threatening fungal disease, with Candida albicans accounting for 70% to 80% of the Candida isolates recovered from infected patients. In nature, Candida species are part of the normal commensal flora in mammalian hosts. However, they can transform into pathogens once the host immune system is weakened or breached. More recently, mortality attributed to Candida infections has continued to increase due to both inherent and acquired drug resistance in Candida , the inefficacy of the available antifungal drugs, tedious diagnostic procedures, and a rising number of immunocompromised patients. Adoption of animal models, viz. minihosts, mice, and zebrafish, has brought us closer to unraveling the pathogenesis and complexity of Candida infection in human hosts, leading towards the discovery of biomarkers and identification of potential therapeutic agents. In addition, the advancement of omics technologies offers a holistic view of the Candida -host interaction in a non-targeted and non-biased manner. Hence, in this review, we seek to summarize past and present milestone findings on C. albicans virulence, adoption of animal models in the study of C. albicans infection, and the application of omics technologies in the study of Candida -host interaction. A profound understanding of the interaction between host defense and pathogenesis is imperative for better design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies in future.

  6. Harmonizing methods for wildlife abundance estimation and pathogen detection in Europe-a questionnaire survey on three selected host-pathogen combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Jana; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Kuiken, Thijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: The need for wildlife health surveillance as part of disease control in wildlife, domestic animals and humans on the global level is widely recognized. However, the objectives, methods and intensity of existing wildlife health surveillance programs vary greatly among European countries......, resulting in a patchwork of data that are difficult to merge and compare. This survey aimed at evaluating the need and potential for data harmonization in wildlife health in Europe. The specific objective was to collect information on methods currently used to estimate host abundance and pathogen prevalence...... estimation, there is an urgent need to develop tools for the routine collection of host abundance data in a harmonized way. Wildlife health experts are encouraged to apply the harmonized APHAEA protocols in epidemiological studies in wildlife and to increase cooperation....

  7. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome: translational relevance and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Denise M.; Sigalet, David L.; Vegge, Andreas; Burrin, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF), due to short bowel syndrome (SBS), results from surgical resection of a major portion of the intestine, leading to reduced nutrient absorption and need for parenteral nutrition (PN). The incidence is highest in infants and relates to preterm birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus, and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, and nutritional and pharmacological interventions. Animal studies are needed to carefully evaluate the cellular mechanisms, safety, and translational relevance of new procedures. Distal intestinal resection, without a functioning colon, results in the most severe complications and adaptation may depend on the age at resection (preterm, term, young, adult). Clinically relevant therapies have recently been suggested from studies in preterm and term PN-dependent SBS piglets, with or without a functional colon. Studies in rats and mice have specifically addressed the fundamental physiological processes underlying adaptation at the cellular level, such as regulation of mucosal proliferation, apoptosis, transport, and digestive enzyme expression, and easily allow exogenous or genetic manipulation of growth factors and their receptors (e.g., glucagon-like peptide 2, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor). The greater size of rats, and especially young pigs, is an advantage for testing surgical procedures and nutritional interventions (e.g., PN, milk diets, long-/short-chain lipids, pre- and probiotics). Conversely, newborn pigs (preterm or term) and weanling rats provide better insights into the developmental aspects of treatment for SBS in infants owing to their immature intestines. The review shows that a balance among practical, economical, experimental, and ethical constraints will determine the

  8. Spontaneous appearance of Tay-Sachs disease in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, B J; Torres, P A; Viner, T C; Wang, Z H; Raghavan, S S; Alroy, J; Pastores, G M; Kolodny, E H

    2008-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder due to an autosomal recessively inherited deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase A (Hex A). Deficiency of Hex A in TSD is caused by a defect of the alpha-subunit resulting from mutations of the HEXA gene. To date, there is no effective treatment for TSD. Animal models of genetic diseases, similar to those known to exist in humans, are valuable and essential research tools for the study of potentially effective therapies. However, there is no ideal animal model of TSD available for use in therapeutic trials. In the present study, we report an animal model (American flamingo; Phoenicopterus ruber) of TSD with Hex A deficiency occurring spontaneously in nature, with accumulation of G(M2)-ganglioside, deficiency of Hex A enzymatic activity, and a homozygous P469L mutation in exon 12 of the hexa gene. In addition, we have isolated the full-length cDNA sequence of the flamingo, which consists of 1581 nucleotides encoding a protein of 527 amino acids. Its coding sequence indicates approximately 71% identity at the nucleotide level and about 72.5% identity at the amino acid level with the encoding region of the human HEXA gene. This animal model, with many of the same features as TSD in humans, could represent a valuable resource for investigating therapy of TSD.

  9. Isotope and radiation research on animal diseases and their vectors. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.

  10. The Impact of Farmers’ Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitt, James K.; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions. PMID:27300368

  11. The Impact of Farmers' Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Tago

    Full Text Available One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions.

  12. The Impact of Farmers' Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Hammitt, James K; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions.

  13. Diabetes Mellitus Induces Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology: Histopathological Evidence from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kimura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the major causative disease of dementia and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs in the brain. Although genetic studies show that β-amyloid protein (Aβ, the major component of SPs, is the key factor underlying AD pathogenesis, it remains unclear why advanced age often leads to AD. Interestingly, several epidemiological and clinical studies show that type II diabetes mellitus (DM patients are more likely to exhibit increased susceptibility to AD. Moreover, growing evidence suggests that there are several connections between the neuropathology that underlies AD and DM, and there is evidence that the experimental induction of DM can cause cognitive dysfunction, even in rodent animal models. This mini-review summarizes histopathological evidence that DM induces AD pathology in animal models and discusses the possibility that aberrant insulin signaling is a key factor in the induction of AD pathology.

  14. Diagnosis and therapy of oral cavity diseases in small domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nikola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In parallel with the stepped up urbanisation of modern man, there is an increasing number of house pets of different breeds and species who suffer certain biological and physiological changes because of the specific manner of breeding and upkeep. The altered conditions of their natural environment can lead to disorders in the animal genetic fund, which is why numerous diseases include cases of constitutional flaws (caries, periodontosis and related complications, cysts, abscesses, malformations of hereditary origin - hypodontia, andontia, impacted teeth, and others. The paper presents cases of the most frequent diseases of teeth and supporting tissues, as well as the optimal manner of therapy. It also points out certain limitations in practicing veterinary orthodontia aimed at avoiding situations when certain congenital or acquired anomalies are corrected but result in the animal no longer meeting the required standards for its species.

  15. Relationship of trade patterns of the Danish swine industry animal movements network to potential disease spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Barfod, Kristen; Mortensen, Sten

    2007-01-01

    , by providing network knowledge to the local veterinarian in charge of controlling disease spread, should also be evaluated as a potential tool to manage epidemics during the crisis. Geographic information systems could also be linked in the approach to produce knowledge about local transmission of disease....... homogeneity in farm-to-farm relationship should only be used for large-scale interpretation and for epidemic preparedness. The network approach, based on graph theory, can be used efficiently to express more precisely, on a local scale (premise), the heterogeneity of animal movements. This approach...

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons from Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Dumitrascu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV diseases such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, and stroke. Based on human research, sympathetic activation, inflammation, and oxidative stress are thought to play major roles in the pathophysiology of OSA-related CV diseases. Animal models of OSA have shown that endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, and systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as heart failure can develop in response to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH. The available animal data are clearly in favour of oxidative stress playing a key role in the development of all of these CV manifestations of OSA. Presumably, the oxidative stress is due to an activation of NADPH oxidase and other free oxygen radicals producing enzymes within the CV system as evidenced by data from knockout mice and pharmacological interventions. It is hoped that animal models of OSA-related CV disease will continue to contribute to a deeper understanding of their underlying pathophysiology and will foster the way for the development of cardioprotective treatment options other than conventional CPAP therapy.

  17. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to varroosis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus...... IV to the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in Article 9(1), and which animal species can be considered to be listed for varroosis according to Article 8(3) are also inconclusive.......Infestation with Varroa spp. (varroosis) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of varroosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of varroosis according...

  18. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert...... of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9(1). The assessment here performed on compliance with the criteria as in Section 1 of Annex IV referred to in point (a) of Article 9(1) is inconclusive. The animal species to be listed......Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation...

  19. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to VEE. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also...... 5(3) of the AHL, the assessment on compliance of VEE with the criteria as in Sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV to the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9(1), and which animal species can be considered to be listed for VEE......Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of VEE to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of VEE according to disease...

  20. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert...... of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9(1). The animal species to be listed for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia according to Article 8(3) criteria are species of the family Bovidae as susceptible.......Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation...

  1. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    of bovine genital campylobacteriosis according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to bovine genital campylobacteriosis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert...... of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9(1). The assessment here performed on compliance with the criteria as in section 3 of Annex IV referred to in point (c) of Article 9(1) is inconclusive. The animal species to be listed......Bovine genital campylobacteriosis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of bovine genital campylobacteriosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation...

  2. Studying human respiratory disease in animals--role of induced and naturally occurring models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kurt; Roman, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory disorders like asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis affect millions of Americans and many more worldwide. Despite advancements in medical research that have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions and sometimes to new therapeutic interventions, these disorders are for the most part chronic and progressive; current interventions are not curative and do not halt disease progression. A major obstacle to further advancements relates to the absence of animal models that exactly resemble the human condition, which delays the elucidation of relevant mechanisms of action, the unveiling of biomarkers of disease progression, and identification of new targets for intervention in patients. There are currently many induced animal models of human respiratory disease available for study, and even though they mimic features of human disease, discoveries in these models have not always translated into safe and effective treatments in humans. A major obstacle relates to the genetic, anatomical, and functional variations amongst species, which represents the major challenge to overcome when searching for appropriate models of respiratory disease. Nevertheless, rodents, in particular mice, have become the most common species used for experimentation, due to their relatively low cost, size, and adequate understanding of murine genetics, among other advantages. Less well known is the fact that domestic animals also suffer from respiratory illnesses similar to those found in humans. Asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis are among the many disorders occurring naturally in dogs, cats, and horses, among other species. These models might better resemble the human condition and are emphasized here, but further investigations are needed to determine their relevance. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Use of radiation and radioisotopes for investigating metabolic diseases of animals in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    In the last one decade, radioisotopes are being used to investigate certain metabolic diseases of animals and radiations are being utilized to produce parasitic vaccines to vaccinate animals. Some studies in which radioisotopes have been used to investigate certain metabolic disorders are reviewed. In experiments, where radioimmunoassay technique for the estimation of hormones, has been utilized, the results reveal that the animals on low plane of nutrition show greater oestrous cycle lengths or even long anoestrous periods. On the other hand, irradiation has been used as a tool to produce vaccines as well as degradation of certain dietary molecules for increased utilization. A number of studies wherein 35 S and 15 N isotopes have been used, reveal that sulphur supplementation is essential for optimum utilization of nitrogen in the ratio of 1:10. There are certain antimetabolites in feed ingredients which affect endocrine function. Evidence indicates that high nitrate forages disturb thyroid function when sup(131)I is used to elucidate its secretion rate. Similarly certain toxic substances such as tannins have been shown to affect protein metabolism and phosphorus utilization when sup(32)P isotope is used in such studies. The use of radioisotopes have also been helpful to investigate the cause of ''Degnala'' disease prevalent in village cattle in certain states of India. With the help of sup(75)Se it has been possible to trace out the metabolic disturbances which lead to the onset of this disease. Another deficiency disease, hyperkeratosis, has been shown to be caused not only because of Vitamin A deficiency, but also because of zinc deficiency. The latter helps in the mobilization of normal quantity of vitamin A from the liver into the blood vitamin A pool. There is wide scope to use radioisotopes to investigate other metabolic diseases prevalent in livestock in this country. (auth.)

  4. Translational research of novel hormones: lessons from animal models and rare human diseases for common human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Kazuwa; Yasoda, Akihiro; Ebihara, Ken; Hosoda, Kiminori; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2009-10-01

    Since the 1980s, a number of bioactive molecules, now known as cardiovascular hormones, have been isolated from the heart and blood vessels, particularly from the subset of vascular endothelial cells. The natriuretic peptide family is the prototype of the cardiovascular hormones. Over the following decade, a variety of hormones and cytokines, now known as adipokines or adipocytokines, have also been isolated from adipose tissue. Leptin is the only adipokine demonstrated to cause an obese phenotype in both animals and humans upon deletion. Thus, the past two decades have seen the identification of two important classes of bioactive molecules secreted by newly recognized endocrine cells, both of which differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells. To assess the physiological and clinical implications of these novel hormones, we have investigated their functions using animal models. We have also developed and analyzed mice overexpressing transgenic forms of these proteins and knockout mice deficient in these and related genes. Here, we demonstrate the current state of the translational research of these novel hormones, the natriuretic peptide family and leptin, and discuss how lessons learned from excellent animal models and rare human diseases can provide a better understanding of common human diseases.

  5. Diseases of trees in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry W. Riffle; Glenn W. Peterson

    1986-01-01

    Hosts, distribution, symptoms and signs, disease cycle, and control measures are described for 46 hardwood and 15 conifer diseases. Diseases in which abiotic agents are contributory factors also are described. Color and black-and-white illustrations that stress diagnosis and control are provided. A glossary of technical terms and indexes to hosts, pathogens, and insect...

  6. Variability in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: differences in disease progression in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi Wang,1 Debra C DuBois,1,2 Siddharth Sukumaran,2 Vivaswath Ayyar,1 William J Jusko,2,3 Richard R Almon1–3 1Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: Both obesity and chronic inflammation are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rat (fa/fa is an obese animal model frequently used in type 2 diabetes research. The current study determines whether chronic administration (from 5 weeks of age through 24 weeks of age of salsalate, a salicylate with anti-inflammatory properties, would be effective in mitigating diabetes disease progression in ZDF rats. Although a trend existed for lower blood glucose in the salsalate-treated group, significant differences were obscured by high animal-level variability. However, even in the non-drug-treated group, not all ZDF rats became diabetic as expected. Therefore, animals were parsed into two groups, regardless of drug treatment: normoglycemic ZDF rats, which maintained blood glucose profiles identical to nondiabetic Zucker lean rats (ZLRs, and hyperglycemic ZDF rats, which exhibited progressive elevation in blood glucose. To ascertain the differences between ZDF rats that became hyperglycemic and those that did not, relevant physiological indices and expression levels of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper messenger RNAs in adipose tissue were measured at sacrifice. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations and expression levels of cytokine and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper messenger RNAs suggested more prevalent chronic inflammation in hyperglycemic animals. Early elevation of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, was present in both ZDF groups, with the rate of its age-related decline

  7. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Plant Protein and Animal Proteins: Do They Differentially Affect Cardiovascular Disease Risk?12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. PMID:26567196

  9. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): low pathogenic avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of LPAI to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of LPAI according to disease...... be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 3 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (c) and (e) of Article 9...

  10. Where to next with animal health in Latin America? The transition from endemic to disease-free status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, H; Romero, J R

    2017-04-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causing negative economic impacts and threatening food security. Obtaining certification of disease-free status is only the first step towards gaining benefits from improvements in animal health. Increasing international trade means that countries must manage the sustainability of their disease-free status in conjunction with trade partners and must comply with additional food safety and animal welfare standards. This paper comments on the challenges created by this new scenario in relation to the epidemiology and economics of animal health, when seeking to improve decisionmaking for animal health management. The authors characterise the current LAC livestock landscape and animal health situation, describing transitions in disease control and the use of economics in improving animal health. They conclude with remarks on the challenges presented by decision-making, economic rationality, sources of benefits, distribution and incentives.

  11. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. National training course on ELISA for seradiagnosis of animal diseases (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, T.

    1992-01-01

    This report details and UNDP/FAO/IAEA consultancy undertaken from Monday 13 February to Saturday 25 February 1989. The purpose of the consultancy was to provide practical and theoretical training to Indonesian scientists in ELISA technology. This occurred under the program title of ''National Training Course on the Use of ELISA for Serodiagnosis of Animal Diseases, with Emphasis on Brucellosis''. The course was held in the Bacteriology Department, Research Institute for Veterinary Sciences (Balitvet), Bogor, Indonesia. The majority of the 19 participants came from the Regional Disease Investigation Centre Laboratories within Indonesia. The principal course instructor was Dr. Richard Jacobson who was assisted by Dr. Larry McClure, Dr. Susan Sutherland, Dr. Mark Eisler, Dr. Barry Patten and myself. The course concluded with a one day seminar organized by BATAN, DITKESWAN and BALITVET entitled ''Bovine Brucellosis: A Challenging Disease for Indonesia'' which was attended by approximately fifty people. Refs and tabs

  12. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to paratuberculosis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached...... performed, paratuberculosis can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria in Sections 3, 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points......Paratuberculosis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of paratuberculosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of paratuberculosis according to disease...

  13. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to PRRS. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached...... performed, PRRS can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e......Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of PRRS to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of PRRS according...

  14. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to bovine tuberculosis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and...... to the assessment performed, bovine tuberculosis can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 2, 3, 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules......Bovine tuberculosis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of bovine tuberculosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of bovine tuberculosis according...

  15. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to paratuberculosis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached...... performed, paratuberculosis can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria in Sections 3, 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points......Paratuberculosis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of paratuberculosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of paratuberculosis according to disease...

  16. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to IBR. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also...... be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria in Sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9......Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of IBR to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of IBR according to disease...

  17. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    prevention and control rules as in Annex IV, and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Bsal. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before......, Bsal can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e......Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Bsal to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Bsal according to disease...

  18. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to ovine epididymitis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and...... to the assessment performed, ovine epididymitis can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 3, 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules......Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of ovine epididymitis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of ovine epididymitis...

  19. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to WNF. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also at collective...... be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 2 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (b) and (e) of Article 9......West Nile fever (WNF) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of WNF to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of WNF according to disease prevention and control...

  20. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to trichomonosis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also...... can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in sections 3, 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (c), (d) and (e......Trichomonosis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of trichomonosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of trichomonosis according to disease prevention...

  1. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to BVD. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also...... be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9......Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of BVD to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of BVD according to disease prevention...

  2. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to PRRS. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached...... performed, PRRS can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e......Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of PRRS to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of PRRS according...

  3. Reducing animal experimentation in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Richard; Cox, Sarah; Smitsaart, Eliana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Haas, Bernd; Maradei, Eduardo; Haydon, Daniel T; Barnett, Paul

    2011-07-26

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) still prescribe live challenge experiments for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) immunogenicity and vaccine potency tests. However, the EP allows for other validated tests for the latter, and specifically in vitro tests if a "satisfactory pass level" has been determined; serological replacements are also currently in use in South America. Much research has therefore focused on validating both ex vivo and in vitro tests to replace live challenge. However, insufficient attention has been given to the sensitivity and specificity of the "gold standard"in vivo test being replaced, despite this information being critical to determining what should be required of its replacement. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by examining the current live challenge tests and their associated statistics and determining the confidence that we can have in them, thereby setting a standard for candidate replacements. It determines that the statistics associated with the current EP PD(50) test are inappropriate given our domain knowledge, but that the OIE test statistics are satisfactory. However, it has also identified a new set of live animal challenge test regimes that provide similar sensitivity and specificity to all of the currently used OIE tests using fewer animals (16 including controls), and can also provide further savings in live animal experiments in exchange for small reductions in sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combinations of chromosome transfer and genome editing for the development of cell/animal models of human disease and humanized animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Narumi; Abe, Satoshi; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Kazuki, Yasuhiro

    2018-02-01

    Chromosome transfer technology, including chromosome modification, enables the introduction of Mb-sized or multiple genes to desired cells or animals. This technology has allowed innovative developments to be made for models of human disease and humanized animals, including Down syndrome model mice and humanized transchromosomic (Tc) immunoglobulin mice. Genome editing techniques are developing rapidly, and permit modifications such as gene knockout and knockin to be performed in various cell lines and animals. This review summarizes chromosome transfer-related technologies and the combined technologies of chromosome transfer and genome editing mainly for the production of cell/animal models of human disease and humanized animal models. Specifically, these include: (1) chromosome modification with genome editing in Chinese hamster ovary cells and mouse A9 cells for efficient transfer to desired cell types; (2) single-nucleotide polymorphism modification in humanized Tc mice with genome editing; and (3) generation of a disease model of Down syndrome-associated hematopoiesis abnormalities by the transfer of human chromosome 21 to normal human embryonic stem cells and the induction of mutation(s) in the endogenous gene(s) with genome editing. These combinations of chromosome transfer and genome editing open up new avenues for drug development and therapy as well as for basic research.

  5. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Anthrax has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of anthrax to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of anthrax according to disease prevention and control rul...... species to be listed for anthrax according to Article 8(3) are several species of mammals, birds and reptiles, and susceptible herbivores and pigs as reservoir....

  6. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): anthrax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Anthrax has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of anthrax to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of anthrax according to disease prevention and control rul...... species to be listed for anthrax according to Article 8(3) are several species of mammals, birds and reptiles, and susceptible herbivores and pigs as reservoir....

  7. Use of expert opinion for animal disease decisions: an example of foot-and-mouth disease status designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabed, R B; Perez, A M; Johnson, W O; Thurmond, M C

    2009-11-01

    When data representing a preferred measurement of risk cannot be obtained, as is often the case for global animal diseases, decisions that affect millions of people and their animals are typically made based on expert opinion. Expert opinion can be and has been used to address the critical lack of data existing for prevalence and incidence of many global diseases, including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). However, when a conclusion based on expert opinion applies to a topic as sensitive as FMD, which has tremendous economic, political, and social implications, care should be taken to understand the accuracy of and differences in the opinion data. The differences in experts' opinions and the relative accuracy of an expert opinion elicitation for "diagnosing" country-level FMD presence were examined for the years 1997-2003 using Bayesian methods. A formal survey of eight international FMD experts revealed that individual experts had different opinions as to the probability of finding FMD in a country. However, a weighted average of the experts' responses was relatively accurate (91% sensitivity and 85% specificity) at identifying the FMD status of a country, compared to using a method that employed information available from World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The most apparent disagreements between individual experts and available information were found for Indonesia, South Korea, and South America, and, in general, the experts seemed to believe that countries in South Asia were more likely to be positive than other countries that reported FMD cases to OIE. This study highlights new methodology that offers a standardized, quantitative, and systematic means by which expert opinion can be used and assessed.

  8. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries.

  9. An Integrated Framework for Process-Driven Model Construction in Disease Ecology and Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancy, Rebecca; Brock, Patrick M; Kao, Rowland R

    2017-01-01

    Process models that focus on explicitly representing biological mechanisms are increasingly important in disease ecology and animal health research. However, the large number of process modelling approaches makes it difficult to decide which is most appropriate for a given disease system and research question. Here, we discuss different motivations for using process models and present an integrated conceptual analysis that can be used to guide the construction of infectious disease process models and comparisons between them. Our presentation complements existing work by clarifying the major differences between modelling approaches and their relationship with the biological characteristics of the epidemiological system. We first discuss distinct motivations for using process models in epidemiological research, identifying the key steps in model design and use associated with each. We then present a conceptual framework for guiding model construction and comparison, organised according to key aspects of epidemiological systems. Specifically, we discuss the number and type of disease states, whether to focus on individual hosts (e.g., cows) or groups of hosts (e.g., herds or farms), how space or host connectivity affect disease transmission, whether demographic and epidemiological processes are periodic or can occur at any time, and the extent to which stochasticity is important. We use foot-and-mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis in cattle to illustrate our discussion and support explanations of cases in which different models are used to address similar problems. The framework should help those constructing models to structure their approach to modelling decisions and facilitate comparisons between models in the literature.

  10. The owner-animal-environment triad in the treatment of canine periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Fraser A

    2003-06-01

    In a perfect world, all veterinarians and veterinary dental technicians would understand periodontal disease as well as the dental specialist. They would all be able to recognize the early signs of periodontal disease and recommend treatment to prevent its progression. The owners would have the financial resources, time, and desire to maintain their pet's oral health. The dogs would all be calm and compliant with home care and have no particular anesthetic risks. Unfortunately, this is not a perfect world. Some veterinarians do not understand periodontal disease any better that I understand cosmic string theory. Some owners have limited financial resources and are not particularly committed to their pet's oral health. Some animals will not tolerate any type or manner of home care. Given that animals, their mouths, and their owners come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes (figuratively and literally), how can we talk about the treatment of periodontal disease as if it is a single condition with a single treatment, or even only a few treatment options? Each owner, animal, and its environment must be assessed on an individual basis to develop a treatment plan that is reasonable and attainable based on the unique circumstances of each case. So, what should be the goal when treating periodontal disease? Is it the preservation of all teeth at all costs? Is it the preservation of important teeth if the costs can be kept reasonable? I would suggest that the overriding goal of periodontal treatment should be the elimination and prevention of oral infection and oral pain. In the domestic environment, dogs have no real need to defend territory. They have no need to prehend and kill live prey animals. In short, the domesticated pet dog does not need teeth at all. This may seem like an odd statement for a veterinary dentist to make, but I feel quite strongly that a dog is far better off having no teeth than having bad teeth. My preference is that a dog should have a full

  11. [Application of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing for constructing animal models of human diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhanhui; Sun, Xiaofang

    2016-08-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a new targeted nuclease for genome editing, which can directly introduce modifications at the targeted genomic locus. The system utilizes a short single guide RNA (sgRNA) to direct the endonuclease Cas9 in the genome. Upon targeting, Cas9 can generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As such DSBs are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology directed repair (HDR), therefore facilitates introduction of random or specific mutations, repair of endogenous mutations, or insertion of DNA elements. The system has been successfully used to generate gene targeted cell lines including those of human, animals and plants. This article reviews recent advances made in this rapidly evolving technique for the generation of animal models for human diseases.

  12. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  13. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Japanese encephalitis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Japanese encephalitis...... according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Japanese encephalitis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and......) of Article 9(1). The main animal species to be listed for JE according to Article 8(3) criteria are waterfowl, pigs and equines as susceptible species and waterfowl as reservoir, as reported in the present document....

  14. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): Japanese encephalitis (JE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Japanese encephalitis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Japanese encephalitis...... according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Japanese encephalitis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and......) of Article 9(1). The main animal species to be listed for JE according to Article 8(3) criteria are waterfowl, pigs and equines as susceptible species and waterfowl as reservoir, as reported in the present document....

  15. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    for the categorisation of avian mycoplasmosis according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to avian mycoplasmosis. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each...... prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9(1). The assessment here performed on compliance with the criteria as in Section 3 of Annex IV referred to in point (c) of Article 9(1) is inconclusive. The animal species to be listed for avian mycoplasmosis according to Article 8......Avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of avian mycoplasmosis to be listed, Article 9...

  16. Modeling HCV Disease in Animals: Virology, Immunology and Pathogenesis of HCV and GBV-B Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia eManickam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has become a global public health burden costing billions of dollars in health care annually. Even with rapidly advancing scientific technologies, this disease still looms large due to a lack of vaccines and affordable treatment options. The immune correlates of protection and predisposing factors towards chronicity remain major obstacles to development of HCV vaccines and immunotherapeutics due, at least in part, to lack of a tangible infection animal model. This review discusses the currently available animal models for HCV disease, with a primary focus on GB virus B (GBV-B infection of New World primates that recapitulates the dual hepacivirus phenotypes of acute viral clearance and chronic pathologic disease. HCV and GBV-B are also closely phylogenetically related, and advances in characterization of the immune systems of New World primates have already led to the use of this model for drug testing and vaccine trials. Herein, we discuss the benefits and caveats of the GBV-B infection model and discuss potential avenues for future development of novel vaccines and immunotherapies.

  17. Strengthening research on animal reproduction and disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This publication contains the results presented by participants of a final Research Co-ordination Meeting which was held from 1 to 5 February 1993 at the University of Chulalongkorn, Bangkok, Thailand, as part of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Strengthening Research on Animal Reproduction and Disease Diagnosis in Asia through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques. The purpose of this Programme was essentially to encourage national livestock production and veterinary institutes in Asia to conduct on-farm research into existing constraints on animal productivity and ways of reducing or removing these through low cost changes in management. Emphasis was given to defining existing levels of reproductive efficiency in indigeneous livestock and examining responses to nutritional or other interventions, and to exploring possibilities for using new approaches for diagnosing and controlling some diseases considered to impact adversely on Asian livestock production. Within the framework of all studies, immunoassay (radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were employed for measuring levels of reproductive hormones or detecting antibodies to a variety of disease causing agents, the aim being to gain better insight into the underlying nature of the problems being encountered and reasons for the success or otherwise of approaches taken for their resolution. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance.

  19. Transcutaneous glomerular filtration rate measurement in a canine animal model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondritzki, Thomas; Steinbach, Sarah M L; Boehme, Philip; Hoffmann, Jessica; Kullmann, Maximilian; Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Vogel, Julia; Kolkhof, Peter; Sandner, Peter; Bischoff, Erwin; Hüser, Jörg; Dinh, Wilfried; Truebel, Hubert

    Quantitative assessment of renal function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important part of safety and efficacy evaluation in preclinical drug development. Existing methods are often time consuming, imprecise and associated with animal burden. Here we describe the comparison between GFR determinations with sinistrin (PS-GFR) and fluorescence-labelled sinistrin-application and its transcutaneous detection (TD-GFR) in a large animal model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). TD-GFR measurements compared to a standard method using i.v. sinistrin were performed in a canine model. Animals were treated with one-sided renal wrapping (RW) followed by renal artery occlusion (RO). Biomarker and remote hemodynamic measurements were performed. Plasma sinistrin in comparison to transcutaneous derived GFR data were determined during healthy conditions, after RW and RW+RO. RW alone did not led to any significant changes in renal function, neither with PS-GFR nor TD-GFR. Additional RO showed a rise in blood pressure (+68.0mmHg), plasma urea (+28.8mmol/l), creatinine (+224,4μmol/l) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA™; +12.6μg/dl). Plasma sinistrin derived data confirmed the expected drop (-44.7%, p<0.0001) in GFR. The calculated transcutaneous determined Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC)-sinistrin GFR showed no differences to plasma sinistrin GFR at all times. Both methods were equaly sensitive to diagnose renal dysfunction in the affected animals. Renal function assessment using TD-GFR is a valid method to improve preclinical drug discovery and development. Furthermore, TD-GFR method offers advantages in terms of reduced need for blood sampling and thus decreasing animal burden compared to standard procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitomycin-Induced Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease: Evidence From Human Disease and Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, Frédéric; Günther, Sven; Ranchoux, Benoit; Godinas, Laurent; Antigny, Fabrice; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Dorfmüller, Peter; Hautefort, Aurélie; Raymond, Nicolas; Savale, Laurent; Jaïs, Xavier; Girerd, Barbara; Cottin, Vincent; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gerald; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is an uncommon form of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the obstruction of small pulmonary veins and a dismal prognosis. PVOD may be sporadic or heritable because of biallelic mutations of the EIF2AK4 gene coding for GCN2. Isolated case reports suggest that chemotherapy may be a risk factor for PVOD. We reported on the clinical, functional, and hemodynamic characteristics and outcomes of 7 cases of PVOD induced by mitomycin-C (MMC) therapy from the French Pulmonary Hypertension Registry. All patients displayed squamous anal cancer and were treated with MMC alone or MMC plus 5-fluoruracil. The estimated annual incidence of PVOD in the French population that have anal cancer is 3.9 of 1000 patients, which is much higher than the incidence of PVOD in the general population (0.5/million per year). In rats, intraperitoneal administration of MMC induced PVOD, as demonstrated by pulmonary hypertension at right-heart catheterization at days 21 to 35 and major remodeling of small pulmonary veins associated with foci of intense microvascular endothelial-cell proliferation of the capillary bed. In rats, MMC administration was associated with dose-dependent depletion of pulmonary GCN2 content and decreased smad1/5/8 signaling. Amifostine prevented the development of MMC-induced PVOD in rats. MMC therapy is a potent inducer of PVOD in humans and rats. Amifostine prevents MMC-induced PVOD in rats and should be tested as a preventive therapy for MMC-induced PVOD in humans. MMC-induced PVOD in rats represents a unique model to test novel therapies in this devastating orphan disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Fetal programming of CVD and renal disease: animal models and mechanistic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2013-08-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis postulates that exposure to a less than optimal maternal environment during fetal development programmes physiological function, and determines risk of disease in adult life. Much evidence of such programming comes from retrospective epidemiological cohorts, which demonstrate associations between birth anthropometry and non-communicable diseases of adulthood. The assertion that variation in maternal nutrition drives these associations is supported by studies using animal models, which demonstrate that maternal under- or over-nutrition during pregnancy can programme offspring development. Typically, the offspring of animals that are undernourished in pregnancy exhibit a relatively narrow range of physiological phenotypes that includes higher blood pressure, glucose intolerance, renal insufficiency and increased adiposity. The observation that common phenotypes arise from very diverse maternal nutritional insults has led to the proposal that programming is driven by a small number of mechanistic processes. The remodelling of tissues during development as a consequence of maternal nutritional status being signalled by endocrine imbalance or key nutrients limiting processes in the fetus may lead to organs having irreversibly altered structures that may limit their function with ageing. It has been proposed that the maternal diet may impact upon epigenetic marks that determine gene expression in fetal tissues, and this may be an important mechanism connecting maternal nutrient intakes to long-term programming of offspring phenotype. The objective for this review is to provide an overview of the mechanistic basis of fetal programming, demonstrating the critical role of animal models as tools for the investigation of programming phenomena.

  2. Eradication of Transboundary Animal Diseases: Can the Rinderpest Success Story be Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L

    2017-04-01

    A matrix system was developed to aid in the evaluation of the technical amenability to eradication, through mass vaccination, of transboundary animal diseases (TADs). The system involved evaluation of three basic criteria - disease management efficiency, surveillance and epidemiological factors - each in turn comprised of a number of elements (17 in all). On that basis, 25 TADs that have occurred or do occur in southern Africa and for which vaccines are available, in addition to rinderpest (incorporated as a yardstick because it has been eradicated worldwide), were ranked. Cluster analysis was also applied using the same criteria to the 26 diseases, creating division into three groups. One cluster contained only diseases transmitted by arthropods (e.g. African horse sickness and Rift Valley fever) and considered difficult to eradicate because technologies for managing parasitic arthropods on a large scale are unavailable, while a second cluster contained diseases that have been widely considered to be eradicable [rinderpest, canine rabies, the Eurasian serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (O, A, C & Asia 1) and peste des petits ruminants] as well classical swine fever, Newcastle disease and lumpy skin disease. The third cluster contained all the other TADs evaluated with the implication that these constitute TADs that would be more difficult to eradicate. However, it is acknowledged that the scores assigned in the course of this study may be biased. The point is that the system proposed offers an objective method for assessment of the technical eradicability of TADs; the rankings and groupings derived during this study are less important than the provision of a systematic approach for further development and evaluation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Pathology of the Aging Brain in Domestic and Laboratory Animals, and Animal Models of Human Neurodegenerative Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef Hassan, Sameh; Capucchio, M T; Rofina, J E; Chambers, J K; Uchida, K; Nakayama, H; Head, E

    2016-01-01

    According to the WHO, the proportion of people over 60 years is increasing and expected to reach 22% of total world's population in 2050. In parallel, recent animal demographic studies have shown that the life expectancy of pet dogs and cats is increasing. Brain aging is associated not only with

  4. Herd-level interpretation of test results for epidemiologic studies of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette; Gardner, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values......), the factors affecting these estimates, and available software for calculations. We present new aspects and considerations concerning the effect of precision and bias in estimation of individual-test performance on herd-test performance and suggest methods (pooled testing, targeted sampling of subpopulations...... with higher prevalence, and use of combinations of tests) to improve herd-level sensitivity when the expected within-herd prevalence is low....

  5. Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny B. Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a broad disorder encompassing multiple forms of arterial disease outside of the heart. As such, PAD development is a multifactorial process with a variety of manifestations. For example, aneurysms are pathological expansions of an artery that can lead to rupture, while ischemic atherosclerosis reduces blood flow, increasing the risk of claudication, poor wound healing, limb amputation, and stroke. Current PAD treatment is often ineffective or associated with serious risks, largely because these disorders are commonly undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Active areas of research are focused on detecting and characterizing deleterious arterial changes at early stages using non-invasive imaging strategies, such as ultrasound, as well as emerging technologies like photoacoustic imaging. Earlier disease detection and characterization could improve interventional strategies, leading to better prognosis in PAD patients. While rodents are being used to investigate PAD pathophysiology, imaging of these animal models has been underutilized. This review focuses on structural and molecular information and disease progression revealed by recent imaging efforts of aortic, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease models in mice, rats, and rabbits. Effective translation to humans involves better understanding of underlying PAD pathophysiology to develop novel therapeutics and apply non-invasive imaging techniques in the clinic.

  6. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Salmonella according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Salmonella. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert......, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9(1). The assessment here performed on compliance with the criteria as in Section 1 of Annex IV referred to in point (a) of Article 9(1) is inconclusive. The main animal species to be listed for Salmonella...... for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According to the assessment performed, Salmonella can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL...

  7. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    for the categorisation of equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western) according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV, and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western). The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed......Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western) to be listed, Article 9....... Details on the methodology used for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According to the assessment performed, equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western) can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply...

  8. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals : a global health concern with parallels to human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, Jacques; Arné, Pascal; de Hoog, G Sybren; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    The importance of aspergillosis in humans and various animal species has increased over the last decades. Aspergillus species are found worldwide in humans and in almost all domestic animals and birds as well as in many wild species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to

  9. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2010-01-01

    for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry.......The prophylactic use of vaccines against exotic viral infections in production animals is undertaken exclusively in regions where the disease concerned is endemic. In such areas, the infection pressure is very high and so, to assure optimal protection, the most efficient vaccines are used. However......, in areas considered to be free from these diseases and in which there is the possibility of only limited outbreaks, the use of Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or marker vaccines allows for vaccination while still retaining the possibility of serological surveillance...

  10. Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Kiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of animal and human infections, however information about the genetic makeup of this pathogenic bacterium is currently limited. In this study, we sought to understand and characterise the genomic variation, pangenomic diversity, and key virulence traits of 56 C. perfringens strains which included 51 public, and 5 newly sequenced and annotated genomes using Whole Genome Sequencing. Our investigation revealed that C. perfringens has an “open” pangenome comprising 11667 genes and 12.6% of core genes, identified as the most divergent single-species Gram-positive bacterial pangenome currently reported. Our computational analyses also defined C. perfringens phylogeny (16S rRNA gene in relation to some 25 Clostridium species, with C. baratii and C. sardiniense determined to be the closest relatives. Profiling virulence-associated factors confirmed presence of well-characterised C. perfringens-associated exotoxins genes including α-toxin (plc, enterotoxin (cpe, and Perfringolysin O (pfo or pfoA, although interestingly there did not appear to be a close correlation with encoded toxin type and disease phenotype. Furthermore, genomic analysis indicated significant horizontal gene transfer events as defined by presence of prophage genomes, and notably absence of CRISPR defence systems in >70% (40/56 of the strains. In relation to antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, tetracycline resistance genes (tet and anti-defensins genes (mprF were consistently detected in silico (tet: 75%; mprF: 100%. However, pre-antibiotic era strain genomes did not encode for tet, thus implying antimicrobial selective pressures in C. perfringens evolutionary history over the past 80 years. This study provides new genomic understanding of this genetically divergent multi-host bacterium, and further expands our knowledge on this medically and veterinary important pathogen.

  11. Chronic Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s Disease: New Perspectives on Animal Models and Promising Candidate Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Millington

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neuroinflammation is now considered one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, the most widely used transgenic AD models (overexpressing mutated forms of amyloid precursor protein, presenilin, and/or tau do not demonstrate the degree of inflammation, neurodegeneration (particularly of the cholinergic system, and cognitive decline that is comparable with the human disease. Hence a more suitable animal model is needed to more closely mimic the resulting cognitive decline and memory loss in humans in order to investigate the effects of neuroinflammation on neurodegeneration. One of these models is the glial fibrillary acidic protein-interleukin 6 (GFAP-IL6 mouse, in which chronic neuroinflammation triggered constitutive expression of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6 in astrocytes. These transgenic mice show substantial and progressive neurodegeneration as well as a decline in motor skills and cognitive function, starting from 6 months of age. This animal model could serve as an excellent tool for drug discovery and validation in vivo. In this review, we have also selected three potential anti-inflammatory drugs, curcumin, apigenin, and tenilsetam, as candidate drugs, which could be tested in this model.

  12. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourits, M C M; van Asseldonk, M A P M; Huirne, R B M

    2010-09-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy that best meets all of the conflicting interests. The presented application focused on the evaluation of alternative strategies to control Classical Swine Fever (CSF) epidemics within the European Union (EU) according to the preferences of the European Chief Veterinary Officers (CVO). The performed analysis was centred on the three high-level objectives of epidemiology, economics and social ethics. The appraised control alternatives consisted of the EU compulsory control strategy, a pre-emptive slaughter strategy, a protective vaccination strategy and a suppressive vaccination strategy. Using averaged preference weights of the elicited CVOs, the preference ranking of the control alternatives was determined for six EU regions. The obtained results emphasized the need for EU region-specific control. Individual CVOs differed in their views on the relative importance of the various (sub)criteria by which the performance of the alternatives were judged. Nevertheless, the individual rankings of the control alternatives within a region appeared surprisingly similar. Based on the results of the described application it was concluded that the structuring feature of the MCDM technique provides a suitable tool in assisting the complex decision making process of controlling contagious animal diseases. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Summary of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association standardization committee guide to classification of liver disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John M

    2009-05-01

    Liver disease is a frequently encountered problem in small animal practice. The World Small Animal Veterinary Association has formed a group of experienced clinicians and pathologists to develop a standardized format for diagnostic terminology. This is hoped to lead to greater uniformity in diagnoses and better communication between clinicians and pathologists alike. The aim is to find a sound scientific basis of diagnostic and treatment protocols for hepatobiliary diseases. This article provides an overview of that monograph.

  14. PAIN IN A PARKINSON`S DISEASE RODENT ANIMAL MODEL INDUCED WITH 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antioch, I

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain phenomenon, the unpleasant sensory and emotional event, appears to evidently intrude in Parkinson disease (PD, a disease formally considered to be restricted only to motor deficits. Although over a half of persons with PD suffer from pain manifestations, there are very few reports targeting this issue. Considering the cases when motor symptoms of PD are eclipsed by severe pain disclosure, there is an obvious need of clarifying the intricate implications of pain in PD context. Because there are few studies researching the link between pain and PD in clinical context, but as well in animal models we chose to explore the effects of pain stimuli on a rodent model of PD. Materials and methods: We experimentally induced a PD model in Wistar rats (n=12 by injecting in the substantia nigra, a brain area known to be involved in PD occurrence, one dose of a 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA solution (8µm 6-OHDA base and 4µm physiological saline, utilizing neurosurgery, while their control peers received same dose of saline solution. Two weeks after the intervention the animals were subjected to the hot-plate test, a behavioral task for acquiring pain sensitivity. Results: There was noticed a statistical significant (F(1,10 = 5.67, p=0.038 sensibility of the 6-OHDA rats to thermal pain stimuli (8.2 s ± 0.8 s in 6-OHDA group as compared to their peers (13.8 s ± 1.6 s in controls. Conclusions: The involvement of pain in PD animal models is demonstrated raising questions of how it influences PD evolution. Moreover, this result increases awareness of deficient diagnostic methods of pain in PD and as a consequence, poor treatment of pain manifestations.

  15. Cryptic Diversity of Malassezia pachydermatis from Healthy and Diseased Domestic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Laura; Castellá, Gemma; Cabañes, F Javier

    2016-10-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal cutaneous microbiota of wild and domestic carnivores. However, under certain conditions this yeast can overproliferate and cause several diseases in its host, mainly otitis and dermatitis in dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular characterization of M. pachydermatis isolates from healthy and diseased domestic animals, in order to assess the molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationship within this species. The large subunit (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal RNA, chitin synthase 2 (CHS2) and β-tubulin genes from sixteen strains isolated from dogs, cats, a goat, a pig and a horse were sequenced. A different number of types of sequences were identified for each target gene, including some types described for the first time. Five sequence types were characterized for the LSU, eleven for the ITS region, nine for CHS2 and eight for β-tubulin. A multilocus analysis was performed including the four genes, and the resulting phylogenetic tree revealed fifteen genotypes. Genotypes were distributed in two well-supported clades. One clade comprised strains isolated from different domestic animals and a strongly supported cluster constituted by strains isolated from cats. The second clade included strains isolated mainly from dogs and an outlier strain isolated from a horse. No apparent association could be observed between the health status of the animal hosts and concrete strains. The multilocus phylogenetic analysis is a useful tool to assess the intraspecific variation within this species and could help understand the ecology, epidemiology and speciation process of M. pachydermatis.

  16. They see a rat, we seek a cure for diseases: the current status of animal experimentation in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review article was to examine current and prospective developments in the scientific use of laboratory animals, and to find out whether or not there are still valid scientific benefits of and justification for animal experimentation. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the following key words: animal models, basic research, pharmaceutical research, toxicity testing, experimental surgery, surgical simulation, ethics, animal welfare, benign, malignant diseases. Important relevant reviews, original articles and references from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed for data on the use of experimental animals in the study of diseases. The use of laboratory animals in scientific research continues to generate intense public debate. Their use can be justified today in the following areas of research: basic scientific research, use of animals as models for human diseases, pharmaceutical research and development, toxicity testing and teaching of new surgical techniques. This is because there are inherent limitations in the use of alternatives such as in vitro studies, human clinical trials or computer simulation. However, there are problems of transferability of results obtained from animal research to humans. Efforts are on-going to find suitable alternatives to animal experimentation like cell and tissue culture and computer simulation. For the foreseeable future, it would appear that to enable scientists to have a more precise understanding of human disease, including its diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic intervention, there will still be enough grounds to advocate animal experimentation. However, efforts must continue to minimize or eliminate the need for animal testing in scientific research as soon as possible. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Reverse zoonotic disease transmission (zooanthroponosis): a systematic review of seldom-documented human biological threats to animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Ali M; Barnes, Amber N; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Research regarding zoonotic diseases often focuses on infectious diseases animals have given to humans. However, an increasing number of reports indicate that humans are transmitting pathogens to animals. Recent examples include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, influenza A virus, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of published literature regarding reverse zoonoses and highlight the need for future work in this area. An initial broad literature review yielded 4763 titles, of which 4704 were excluded as not meeting inclusion criteria. After careful screening, 56 articles (from 56 countries over three decades) with documented human-to-animal disease transmission were included in this report. In these publications, 21 (38%) pathogens studied were bacterial, 16 (29%) were viral, 12 (21%) were parasitic, and 7 (13%) were fungal, other, or involved multiple pathogens. Effected animals included wildlife (n = 28, 50%), livestock (n = 24, 43%), companion animals (n = 13, 23%), and various other animals or animals not explicitly mentioned (n = 2, 4%). Published reports of reverse zoonoses transmission occurred in every continent except Antarctica therefore indicating a worldwide disease threat. As we see a global increase in industrial animal production, the rapid movement of humans and animals, and the habitats of humans and wild animals intertwining with great complexity, the future promises more opportunities for humans to cause reverse zoonoses. Scientific research must be conducted in this area to provide a richer understanding of emerging and reemerging disease threats. As a result, multidisciplinary approaches such as One Health will be needed to mitigate these problems.

  18. Identifying species conservation strategies to reduce disease-associated declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Brian D.; Converse, Sarah J.; Muths, Erin L.; Crockett, Harry J.; Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a salient threat to many animal taxa, causing local and global extinctions, altering communities and ecosystem function. The EID chytridiomycosis is a prominent driver of amphibian declines, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). To guide conservation policy, we developed a predictive decision-analytic model that combines empirical knowledge of host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics with expert judgment regarding effects of management actions, to select from potential conservation strategies. We apply our approach to a boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) and Bd system, identifying optimal strategies that balance tradeoffs in maximizing toad population persistence and landscape-level distribution, while considering costs. The most robust strategy is expected to reduce the decline of toad breeding sites from 53% to 21% over 50 years. Our findings are incorporated into management policy to guide conservation planning. Our online modeling application provides a template for managers of other systems challenged by EIDs.

  19. Identifying species conservation strategies to reduce disease-associated declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Brian D.; Converse, Sarah J.; Muths, Erin L.; Crockett, Harry J.; Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a salient threat to many animal taxa, causing local and global extinctions, altering communities and ecosystem function. The EID chytridiomycosis is a prominent driver of amphibian declines, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). To guide conservation policy, we developed a predictive decision-analytic model that combines empirical knowledge of host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics with expert judgment regarding effects of management actions, to select from potential conservation strategies. We apply our approach to a boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) and Bd system, identifying optimal strategies that balance tradeoffs in maximizing toad population persistence and landscape-level distribution, while considering costs. The most robust strategy is expected to reduce the decline of toad breeding sites from 53% to 21% over 50 years. Our findings are incorporated into management policy to guide conservation planning. Our online modeling application provides a template for managers of other systems challenged by EIDs.

  20. Update on epidemiology and control of Foot and Mouth Disease - A menace to international trade and global animal enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Depa

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD is one of the most economically and socially devastating disease affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. This review describes economic impact of disease outbreaks, an update of recent findings in epidemiology of FMD both at International and national level and control of this disease. The etiological agent (FMD virus is examined in detail at genetic and molecular characterization level and in terms of antigenic diversity. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 694-704

  1. Calpastatin ablation aggravates the molecular phenotype in cell and animal models of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jonasz Jeremiasz; Kloock, Simon Johannes; Nagel, Maike; Ortiz-Rios, Midea Malena; Hofmann, Julian; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2018-02-02

    Deciphering the molecular pathology of Huntington disease is of particular importance, not only for a better understanding of this neurodegenerative disease, but also to identify potential therapeutic targets. The polyglutamine-expanded disease protein huntingtin was shown to undergo proteolysis, which results in the accumulation of toxic and aggregation-prone fragments. Amongst several classes of proteolytic enzymes responsible for huntingtin processing, the group of calcium-activated calpains has been found to be a significant mediator of the disease protein toxicity. To confirm the impact of calpain-mediated huntingtin cleavage in Huntington disease, we analysed the effect of depleting or overexpressing the endogenous calpain inhibitor calpastatin in HEK293T cells transfected with wild-type or polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin. Moreover, we crossbred huntingtin knock-in mice with calpastatin knockout animals to assess its effect not only on huntingtin cleavage and aggregation but also additional molecular markers. We demonstrated that a reduced or ablated expression of calpastatin triggers calpain overactivation and a consequently increased mutant huntingtin cleavage in cells and in vivo. These alterations were accompanied by an elevated formation of predominantly cytoplasmic huntingtin aggregates. On the other hand, overexpression of calpastatin in cells attenuated huntingtin fragmentation and aggregation. In addition, we observed an enhanced cleavage of DARPP-32, p35 and synapsin-1 in neuronal tissue upon calpain overactivation. Our results corroborate the important role of calpains in the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington disease and endorse targeting these proteolytic enzymes as a therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Linking human diseases to animal models using ontology-based phenotype annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Washington

    2009-11-01

    gene candidates and animal models of human disease, which may shorten the lengthy path to identification and understanding of the genetic basis of human disease.

  3. An Integrated Framework for Process-Driven Model Construction in Disease Ecology and Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mancy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Process models that focus on explicitly representing biological mechanisms are increasingly important in disease ecology and animal health research. However, the large number of process modelling approaches makes it difficult to decide which is most appropriate for a given disease system and research question. Here, we discuss different motivations for using process models and present an integrated conceptual analysis that can be used to guide the construction of infectious disease process models and comparisons between them. Our presentation complements existing work by clarifying the major differences between modelling approaches and their relationship with the biological characteristics of the epidemiological system. We first discuss distinct motivations for using process models in epidemiological research, identifying the key steps in model design and use associated with each. We then present a conceptual framework for guiding model construction and comparison, organised according to key aspects of epidemiological systems. Specifically, we discuss the number and type of disease states, whether to focus on individual hosts (e.g., cows or groups of hosts (e.g., herds or farms, how space or host connectivity affect disease transmission, whether demographic and epidemiological processes are periodic or can occur at any time, and the extent to which stochasticity is important. We use foot-and-mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis in cattle to illustrate our discussion and support explanations of cases in which different models are used to address similar problems. The framework should help those constructing models to structure their approach to modelling decisions and facilitate comparisons between models in the literature.

  4. Cell cultures from animal models of Alzheimer's disease as a tool for faster screening and testing of drug efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Fabrizio; Liu, Shumin; Ninan, Ipe; Puzzo, Daniela; Jacob, Joel P; Arancio, Ottavio

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 2 million people in the United States suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the most common cause of chronic dementia among the aging population. During the last 7 yr, excellent opportunities to screen drugs against AD have been provided by animal models of the disease. Because even in the fastest model, AD pathology does not start before the end of the second month, it has been necessary to wait at least until that age to inject drugs into the animal to assess whether they prevent, reduce, or revert synaptic impairment, plaque formation, and increase of beta-amyloid (Abeta) levels, the main features of the disease. A solution to the problems mentioned above is achieved by the present fast, efficient, and reproducible cultured cell system from animal models of AD or Abeta-associated diseases, for the screening and testing of compounds for the treatment and therapy of AD or Abeta-associated diseases. Copyright 2004 Humana Press Inc.

  5. Bestrophin gene mutations cause canine multifocal retinopathy: a novel animal model for best disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziewicz, Karina E; Zangerl, Barbara; Lindauer, Sarah J; Mullins, Robert F; Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Grahn, Bruce H; Stone, Edwin M; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2007-05-01

    Canine multifocal retinopathy (cmr) is an autosomal recessive disorder of multiple dog breeds. The disease shares a number of clinical and pathologic similarities with Best macular dystrophy (BMD), and cmr is proposed as a new large animal model for Best disease. cmr was characterized by ophthalmoscopy and histopathology and compared with BMD-affected patients. BEST1 (alias VMD2), the bestrophin gene causally associated with BMD, was evaluated in the dog. Canine ortholog cDNA sequence was cloned and verified using RPE/choroid 5'- and 3'-RACE. Expression of the canine gene transcripts and protein was analyzed by Northern and Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. All exons and the flanking splice junctions were screened by direct sequencing. The clinical phenotype and pathology of cmr closely resemble lesions of BMD. Canine VMD2 spans 13.7 kb of genomic DNA on CFA18 and shows a high level of conservation among eukaryotes. The transcript is predominantly expressed in RPE/choroid and encodes bestrophin, a 580-amino acid protein of 66 kDa. Immunocytochemistry of normal canine retina demonstrated specific localization of protein to the RPE basolateral plasma membranes. Two disease-specific sequence alterations were identified in the canine VMD2 gene: a C(73)T stop mutation in cmr1 and a G(482)A missense mutation in cmr2. The authors propose these two spontaneous mutations in the canine VMD2 gene, which cause cmr, as the first naturally occurring animal model of BMD. Further development of the cmr models will permit elucidation of the complex molecular mechanism of these retinopathies and the development of potential therapies.

  6. Neuro-immune interactions of neural stem cell transplants: from animal disease models to human trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, Elena; Donegà, Matteo; Cossetti, Chiara; Pluchino, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    Stem cell technology is a promising branch of regenerative medicine that is aimed at developing new approaches for the treatment of severely debilitating human diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the increasing understanding of the mechanisms governing their biology, the application of stem cell therapeutics remains challenging. The initial idea that stem cell transplants work in vivo via the replacement of endogenous cells lost or damaged owing to disease has been challenged by accumulating evidence of their therapeutic plasticity. This new concept covers the remarkable immune regulatory and tissue trophic effects that transplanted stem cells exert at the level of the neural microenvironment to promote tissue healing via combination of immune modulatory and tissue protective actions, while retaining predominantly undifferentiated features. Among a number of promising candidate stem cell sources, neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are under extensive investigation with regard to their therapeutic plasticity after transplantation. The significant impact in vivo of experimental NPC therapies in animal models of inflammatory CNS diseases has raised great expectations that these stem cells, or the manipulation of the mechanisms behind their therapeutic impact, could soon be translated to human studies. This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuro-immune interactions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathogenic landscapes: Interactions between land, people, disease vectors, and their animal hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanwambeke Sophie O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landscape attributes influence spatial variations in disease risk or incidence. We present a review of the key findings from eight case studies that we conducted in Europe and West Africa on the impact of land changes on emerging or re-emerging vector-borne diseases and/or zoonoses. The case studies concern West Nile virus transmission in Senegal, tick-borne encephalitis incidence in Latvia, sandfly abundance in the French Pyrenees, Rift Valley Fever in the Ferlo (Senegal, West Nile Fever and the risk of malaria re-emergence in the Camargue, and rodent-borne Puumala hantavirus and Lyme borreliosis in Belgium. Results We identified general principles governing landscape epidemiology in these diverse disease systems and geographic regions. We formulated ten propositions that are related to landscape attributes, spatial patterns and habitat connectivity, pathways of pathogen transmission between vectors and hosts, scale issues, land use and ownership, and human behaviour associated with transmission cycles. Conclusions A static view of the "pathogenecity" of landscapes overlays maps of the spatial distribution of vectors and their habitats, animal hosts carrying specific pathogens and their habitat, and susceptible human hosts and their land use. A more dynamic view emphasizing the spatial and temporal interactions between these agents at multiple scales is more appropriate. We also highlight the complementarity of the modelling approaches used in our case studies. Integrated analyses at the landscape scale allows a better understanding of interactions between changes in ecosystems and climate, land use and human behaviour, and the ecology of vectors and animal hosts of infectious agents.

  8. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The infection with Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of the infection with B. abortus, B. melitensis...... and B. suis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of the infection with B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to the infection with B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis...... no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Details on the methodology used for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According to the assessment performed, the infection with B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis can be considered eligible to be listed for Union...

  9. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    for the categorisation of T. evansi infections (including Surra) according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to T. evansi infections (including Surra). The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection......Trypanosoma evansi infections (including Surra) have been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of T. evansi infections (including Surra) to be listed, Article 9...... for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According to the assessment performed, it is inconclusive whether T. evansi infections (including Surra) can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL because there was no full consensus on the criterion...

  10. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to EBL. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also......Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of EBL to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of EBL according to disease prevention......, it is inconclusive whether EBL can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL because there was no full consensus on the criteria 5 B(i) and 5 B(iii). Consequently, since it is inconclusive whether EBL can be considered eligible to be listed for Union...

  11. Problems in Diagnosing Scabies, a Global Disease in Human and Animal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.

    2007-01-01

    Scabies is a worldwide disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries, related primarily to poverty and overcrowding. In remote Aboriginal communities in northern Australia, prevalences of up to 50% among children have been described, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy. Sarcoptic mange is also an important veterinary disease engendering significant morbidity and mortality in wild, domestic, and farmed animals. Scabies is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the host epidermis. Clinical symptoms include intensely itchy lesions that often are a precursor to secondary bacterial pyoderma, septicemia, and, in humans, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Although diagnosed scabies cases can be successfully treated, the rash of the primary infestation takes 4 to 6 weeks to develop, and thus, transmission to others often occurs prior to therapy. In humans, the symptoms of scabies infestations can mimic other dermatological skin diseases, and traditional tests to diagnose scabies are less than 50% accurate. To aid early identification of disease and thus treatment, a simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific test for routine diagnosis of active scabies is essential. Recent developments leading to the expression and purification of S. scabiei recombinant antigens have identified a number of molecules with diagnostic potential, and current studies include the investigation and assessment of the accuracy of these recombinant proteins in identifying antibodies in individuals with active scabies and in differentiating those with past exposure. Early identification of disease will enable selective treatment of those affected, reduce transmission and the requirement for mass treatment, limit the potential for escalating mite resistance, and provide another means of controlling scabies in populations in areas of endemicity. PMID:17428886

  12. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (pdogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Capgras delusion for animals and inanimate objects in Parkinson's Disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Lucrezia; Piacentini, Sylvie; Soliveri, Paola; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola

    2015-04-08

    Capgras delusion is a delusional misidentification syndrome, in which the patient is convinced that someone that is well known to them, usually a close relative, has been replaced by an impostor or double. Although it has been frequently described in psychotic syndromes, including paranoid schizophrenia, over a third of the documented cases of Capgras delusion are observed in patients with organic brain lesions or neurodegenerative disease, including Parkinson's Disease. Variants of Capgras involving animals or inanimate objects have also been described. The etiology of Capgras in Parkinson's remains unclear, but may arise from a combination of factors, such as frontal lobe dysfunction and dopaminergic medication. We present the case of a 53-year old right-handed female with Parkinson's disease who developed Capgras delusion during treatment with dopamine agonists and Levodopa/Carbidopa. She became convinced that her pet dogs and the plants in her garden had been substituted by identically looking ones. Our patient was initially treated with Quetiapine, with no improvement, and subsequently treated with Clozapine, which lead to partial regression of her symptoms. Neuropsychological Evaluation showed Mild Cognitive Impairment in Executive Functions. Given the clinical history, onset and evolution of symptoms we believe our patient's delusion resulted from the overlap of dopaminergic medication and Mild Cognitive Impairment in executive functions. Zoocentric Capgras, the variant we describe, has been rarely described in scientific literature, and we believe it is of interest due to its unusual characteristics.

  14. Ethnoveterinary remedies of diseases among milk yielding animals in Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Renu; Manhas, R K; Magotra, Rani

    2012-05-07

    The triangle of relationship between human beings, animals and plants has existed for ages, and has given rise to intense-relationships and consequently rich traditions of ethnoveterinary knowledge throughout the world. The predominantly rural population and the strong agricultural base have provided unique situation for rich ethnoveterinary practices in the study area. The present study was conducted in the Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir between 2007 and 2009 to provide list of the important plants of the region for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies, and to prepare inventory of the ethnoveterinary practices for the future generations. Direct interview of 78 informants was conducted and the information gathered was analyzed for two quantitative methods viz. informant consensus factor (ICF) and use-value (UV). The characteristics of ethnoveterinary plants and practices were also documented. A total of 72 plants were used to cure 33 common ailments of milk yielding animals of Kathua district. Fabaceae (7 species) was the most represented family, along with Poaceae (6 species). Leaves (27.2%) were the most frequently used plant parts, herbs (48.6%) the most frequently used life-form and wild flora (58.3%) the most used source for the ethnoveterinary practices. The highest ICF was reported for urological disorders (0.95) and lowest for nutritional diseases (0.80). The values of ICF were generally on the higher side which shows that the informants share the knowledge about the ailment among themselves. The important ethnoveterinary plant species on the basis of use-values were: Brassica campestris, Saccharun officinarum, Emblica officinalis, Trachyspermum ammi, Asparagus adscendens, Musa paradisica, Oryza sativa, Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia and Tamarindus indica. High diversity of ethnoveterinary plants were found to cure the common milk yielding animals of Kathua district. Further phytochemical and pharmacological

  15. Irradiated T. cruzi and resistant consomic animals can be useful in Chagas disease studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Salgado, Andreia Ruis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Multidisciplinar para a Investigacao Biologica (CEMIB/UNICAMP)], e-mail: viviliotti@cemib.unicamp.br; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Human Chagas disease is considered the most significant parasitic disease in Latin America. It is estimated that 16-18 million people are infected by T. cruzi. As a consequence, approximately 50,000 deaths occur every year. The acute infection usually goes unrecognized and enters into a chronic stage that persists throughout the host's life span. However, roughly 30% of infected individuals eventually will develop disease with an array of possible manifestations affecting the heart, the digestive tract, and/or the peripheral nervous system. This disease is commonly modeled in inbred mice even though mouse strains used to simulate experimental infection vary considerably. In this way, Wrightsman and Trischmann showed that chromosome 17 was directly involved in a T. cruzi resistance, showing the influence of host's genetic constitution on disease severity. Additionally, in 2003, Passos and Graefe, working separately, quantified parasite burdens in resistant and susceptible strains and applied a backcross strategy to map the genomic loci linked to susceptibility and resistance in inbred mice. The genomes of the animals were scanned with microsatellite markers and the results found by these authors showed that the resistance mechanism is polygenic and is under the control of a complex network. In the particular case of Y strain, in vivo assays indicated that survival was related to the chromosomes 7,11,14,17 and 19. In order to evaluate the influence of each isolated chromosome as well as their interactions, we employed susceptible isogenic mice to construct consomic lineages for each one of those chromosomes. The consomic strains were injected with irradiated and native forms of Y strain T. cruzi, and the infectivity parameters were evaluated by quantitative methods. Radiation caused inability of trypanosomes to infect and kill mice, when these parasites were irradiated with 1 kGy of gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. In this experiment we used 10{sup 1

  16. Irradiated T. cruzi and resistant consomic animals can be useful in Chagas disease studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Salgado, Andreia Ruis; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Human Chagas disease is considered the most significant parasitic disease in Latin America. It is estimated that 16-18 million people are infected by T. cruzi. As a consequence, approximately 50,000 deaths occur every year. The acute infection usually goes unrecognized and enters into a chronic stage that persists throughout the host's life span. However, roughly 30% of infected individuals eventually will develop disease with an array of possible manifestations affecting the heart, the digestive tract, and/or the peripheral nervous system. This disease is commonly modeled in inbred mice even though mouse strains used to simulate experimental infection vary considerably. In this way, Wrightsman and Trischmann showed that chromosome 17 was directly involved in a T. cruzi resistance, showing the influence of host's genetic constitution on disease severity. Additionally, in 2003, Passos and Graefe, working separately, quantified parasite burdens in resistant and susceptible strains and applied a backcross strategy to map the genomic loci linked to susceptibility and resistance in inbred mice. The genomes of the animals were scanned with microsatellite markers and the results found by these authors showed that the resistance mechanism is polygenic and is under the control of a complex network. In the particular case of Y strain, in vivo assays indicated that survival was related to the chromosomes 7,11,14,17 and 19. In order to evaluate the influence of each isolated chromosome as well as their interactions, we employed susceptible isogenic mice to construct consomic lineages for each one of those chromosomes. The consomic strains were injected with irradiated and native forms of Y strain T. cruzi, and the infectivity parameters were evaluated by quantitative methods. Radiation caused inability of trypanosomes to infect and kill mice, when these parasites were irradiated with 1 kGy of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. In this experiment we used 10 1 , 10 2 , 10 3 , 10 4

  17. Effects of Hypericum perforatum on turning behavior in an animal model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Dalla Vecchia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the slow and progressive death of dopaminergic neurons in the (substantia nigra pars compact. Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum is a plant widely used as an antidepressant, that also presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated the effects of H. perforatum on the turning behavior of rats submitted to a unilateral administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle as an animal model of PD. The animals were treated with H. perforatum (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg, v.o. for 35 consecutive days (from the 28th day before surgery to the 7th day after. The turning behavior was evaluated at 7, 14 and 21 days after the surgery, and the turnings were counted as contralateral or ipsilateral to the lesion side. All tested doses significantly reduced the number of contralateral turns in all days of evaluation, suggesting a neuroprotective effect. However, they were not able to prevent the 6-OHDA-induced decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the lesioned striatum. We propose that H. perforatum may counteract the overexpression of dopamine receptors on the lesioned striatum as a possible mechanism for this effect. The present findings provide new evidence that H. perforatum may represent a promising therapeutic tool for PD.

  18. Protective effects of a dimeric derivative of ferulic acid in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jun-Sub; Yan, Ji-Jing; Li, Hong-Mei; Sultan, Md Tipu; Yu, Jaehoon; Lee, Hee-Sul; Shin, Kye-Jung; Song, Dong-Keun

    2016-07-05

    Ferulic acid is a compound with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We previously reported the protective effects of ferulic acid administration against two animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD): intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aß1-42 in mice and APP/PS1 mutant transgenic mice. In this study using the same AD animal models, we examined the effect of KMS4001, one of dimeric derivatives of ferulic acid. Intragastric pretreatment of mice with KMS4001 (30mg/kg/day) for 5 days significantly attenuated the Aß1-42 (i.c.v.)-induced memory impairment both in passive avoidance test and in Y-maze test. APP/PS1 mutant transgenic mice at KMS4001 doses of 3 and 30mg/kg/day via drinking water showed the significantly enhanced novel-object recognition memory at both 1.5 and 3 months after the start of KMS4001 treatment. Treatment of APP/PS1 mutant transgenic mice with KMS4001 for 3 months at the doses of 3 and 30mg/kg/day markedly decreased Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels in the frontal cortex. The KMS4001 dose-response relationships for Aβ decrease and for improvement in novel-object recognition test corresponded to each other. Taken together, these results suggest that KMS4001 could be an effective drug candidate against AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Shexiang Baoxin Pills for Coronary Heart Disease in Animal Models: Preclinical Evidence and Promoting Angiogenesis Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jian Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP originated from a classical TCM Fufang Suhexiang Pill for chest pain with dyspnea in the Southern Song Dynasty (1107–110 AD. Here, we aimed to evaluate preclinical evidence and possible mechanism of SBP for experimental coronary heart disease (CHD. Studies of SBP in animal models with CHD were identified from 6 databases until April 2016. Study quality for each included article was evaluated according to the CAMARADES 10-item checklist. Outcome measures were myocardial infarction area, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and microvessel count (MVC. All the data were analyzed by using RevMan 5.1 software. As a consequence, 25 studies with 439 animals were identified. The quality score of studies ranged from 2 to 5, with the median of 3.6. Meta-analysis of seven studies showed more significant effects of SBP on the reduction of the myocardial infarction area than the control (P < 0.01. Meta-analysis of eight studies showed significant effects of SBP for increasing VEGF expression compared with the control (P < 0.01. Meta-analysis of 10 studies indicated that SBP significantly improved MVC compared with the control (P < 0.01. In conclusion, these findings preliminarily demonstrated that SBP can reduce myocardial infarction area, exerting cardioprotective function largely through promoting angiogenesis.

  20. Animal models of pediatric chronic kidney disease. Is adenine intake an appropriate model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Claramunt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD has peculiar features. In particular, growth impairment is a major clinical manifestation of CKD that debuts in pediatric age because it presents in a large proportion of infants and children with CKD and has a profound impact on the self-esteem and social integration of the stunted patients. Several factors associated with CKD may lead to growth retardation by interfering with the normal physiology of growth plate, the organ where longitudinal growth rate takes place. The study of growth plate is hardly possible in humans and justifies the use of animal models. Young rats made uremic by 5/6 nephrectomy have been widely used as a model to investigate growth retardation in CKD. This article examines the characteristics of this model and analyzes the utilization of CKD induced by high adenine diet as an alternative research protocol.

  1. Usefulness of radioisotopes in animal nutrition research on health and disease aspects of livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes in India commenced in seventies under international programmes to investigate certain aspects of metabolic disorders at 4 to 5 centres in the country. In due course of time, many universities and institutes also started using nuclear techniques in animal science research because such techniques are more sensitive, accurate, fast and there is every possibility of estimating micro quantities otherwise not possible by gravimetric methods. Their use is also helpful to understand and trace the biochemical mechanisms of certain nutrients in tissues both from deficiency or toxicity point of view. Literature has thus accumulated in a number of developing countries to establish the causes of some important metabolic diseases which are discussed along with utilization of nutrients for production traits under normal conditions

  2. Imaging of Cerebrovascular Pathology in Animal Models of Alzheimer`s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eKlohs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer’s disease (AD, vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ deposition as well as Aβ transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of Aβ on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature.

  3. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-03-14

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  4. Fear of feces? Trade-offs between disease risk and foraging drive animal activity around raccoon latrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Moura, Chad W.; Mendez, Jon Francis; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    Fear of predation alters prey behavior, which can indirectly alter entire landscapes. A parasite-induced ecology of fear might also exist if animals avoid parasite-contaminated resources when infection costs outweigh foraging benefits. To investigate whether animals avoid parasite contaminated sites, and if such avoidance balances disease costs and foraging gains, we monitored animal behavior at raccoon latrines – sites that concentrate both seeds and pathogenic parasite eggs. Using wildlife cameras, we documented over 40 potentially susceptible vertebrate species in latrines and adjacent habitat. Latrine contact rates reflected background activity, diet preferences and disease risk. Disease-tolerant raccoons and rats displayed significant site attraction, while susceptible birds and small mammals avoided these high-risk sites. This suggests that parasites, like predators, might create a landscape of fear for vulnerable hosts. Such non-consumptive parasite effects could alter disease transmission, population dynamics, and even ecosystem structure.

  5. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S; Häsler, B; Stärk, K D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mitigation resources expended. Crucially, elementary economic principles show that mitigation, defined as loss reduction achieved by surveillance and intervention, must be explicitly conceptualized as a three-variable process, and the relative contributions of surveillance and intervention resources investigated with regard to the substitution possibilities between them. Modelling the resultant mitigation surfaces for different diseases should become a standard approach to animal health policy analysis for economic efficiency, a contribution to the evolving agenda for animal health economics research.

  6. Respiratory muscle dysfunction in animal models of hypoxic disease: antioxidant therapy goes from strength to strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Halloran KD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ken D O’Halloran,1 Philip Lewis2 1Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Institute and Policlinic for Occupational Medicine, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Research, University Hospital of Cologne, Germany Abstract: The striated muscles of breathing play a critical role in respiratory homeostasis governing blood oxygenation and pH regulation. Upper airway dilator and thoracic pump muscles retain a remarkable capacity for plasticity throughout life, both in health and disease states. Hypoxia, whatever the cause, is a potent driver of respiratory muscle remodeling with evidence of adaptive and maladaptive outcomes for system performance. The pattern, duration, and intensity of hypoxia are key determinants of respiratory muscle structural-, metabolic-, and functional responses and adaptation. Age and sex also influence respiratory muscle tolerance of hypoxia. Redox stress emerges as the principal protagonist driving respiratory muscle malady in rodent models of hypoxic disease. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that antioxidant intervention alleviates hypoxia-induced respiratory muscle dysfunction, and that N-acetyl cysteine, approved for use in humans, is highly effective in preventing hypoxia-induced respiratory muscle weakness and fatigue. We posit that oxygen homeostasis is a key driver of respiratory muscle form and function. Hypoxic stress is likely a major contributor to respiratory muscle malaise in diseases of the lungs and respiratory control network. Animal studies provide an evidence base in strong support of the need to explore adjunctive antioxidant therapies for muscle dysfunction in human respiratory disease. Keywords: respiratory muscle, diaphragm, upper airway, hypoxia, antioxidants, N-acetyl-cysteine, OSA, COPD

  7. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

  8. Assessment of owner willingness to treat or manage diseases of dogs and cats as a guide to shelter animal adoptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Molly D; Larson, Janice; Tyler, Allison; Kvam, Vanessa; Frank, Kristen; Eia, Cheryl; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Flaming, Kevan; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    To determine community approaches to medical and behavioral diseases in dogs and cats. Cross-sectional descriptive study. 97 companion animal veterinarians and 424 animal owners. Companion animal veterinarians in central Iowa ranked medical or behavioral diseases or conditions by what they thought most clients would consider healthy, treatable, manageable, or unhealthy (unmanageable or untreatable). In a parallel survey, cat- or dog-owning households in central Iowa responded to a telephone survey regarding the relationship of their animal in the household, owner willingness to provide medical or behavioral interventions, and extent of financial commitment to resolving diseases. One hundred twenty common health or behavioral disorders in cats and dogs were ranked by veterinarians as healthy, treatable, manageable, or unhealthy (unmanageable or untreatable) on the basis of their opinion of what most clients would do. Findings were in congruence with animal owners' expressed willingness to provide the type of care required to maintain animals with many acute or chronic medical and behavioral conditions. In general, owners indicated a willingness to use various treatment modalities and spend money on veterinary services when considering current or previously owned animals as well as hypothetical situations with an animal. Past experiences with veterinary care in which an animal did not recover fully did not diminish the willingness of respondents to use veterinary services again in the future. These results provide a baseline indication of community willingness to address medical or behavioral conditions in dogs and cats. These considerations can be used in conjunction with Asilomar Accords recommendations to assess adoptability of cats and dogs in animal shelters.

  9. The multifactorial role of the 3Rs in shifting the harm-benefit analysis in animal models of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melanie L; Prescott, Mark J

    2015-07-15

    Ethics on animal use in science in Western society is based on utilitarianism, weighing the harms and benefits to the animals involved against those of the intended human beneficiaries. The 3Rs concept (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) is both a robust framework for minimizing animal use and suffering (addressing the harms to animals) and a means of supporting high quality science and translation (addressing the benefits). The ambiguity of basic research performed early in the research continuum can sometimes make harm-benefit analysis more difficult since anticipated benefit is often an incremental contribution to a field of knowledge. On the other hand, benefit is much more evident in translational research aimed at developing treatments for direct application in humans or animals suffering from disease. Though benefit may be easier to define, it should certainly not be considered automatic. Issues related to model validity seriously compromise experiments and have been implicated as a major impediment in translation, especially in complex disease models where harms to animals can be intensified. Increased investment and activity in the 3Rs is delivering new research models, tools and approaches with reduced reliance on animal use, improved animal welfare, and improved scientific and predictive value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The multifactorial role of the 3Rs in shifting the harm-benefit analysis in animal models of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melanie L.; Prescott, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethics on animal use in science in Western society is based on utilitarianism, weighing the harms and benefits to the animals involved against those of the intended human beneficiaries. The 3Rs concept (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) is both a robust framework for minimizing animal use and suffering (addressing the harms to animals) and a means of supporting high quality science and translation (addressing the benefits). The ambiguity of basic research performed early in the research continuum can sometimes make harm-benefit analysis more difficult since anticipated benefit is often an incremental contribution to a field of knowledge. On the other hand, benefit is much more evident in translational research aimed at developing treatments for direct application in humans or animals suffering from disease. Though benefit may be easier to define, it should certainly not be considered automatic. Issues related to model validity seriously compromise experiments and have been implicated as a major impediment in translation, especially in complex disease models where harms to animals can be intensified. Increased investment and activity in the 3Rs is delivering new research models, tools and approaches with reduced reliance on animal use, improved animal welfare, and improved scientific and predictive value. PMID:25823812

  11. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0–9 years) and adults (25–54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak. PMID:26193480

  12. DNA-repair and mutations in immuncompetent cells from patients with rheumatic diseases and corresponding animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was investigated in lymphocytes of patients with different inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After γ-irradiation H 3 -thymidin incorporation in DNA and DNA rejoining was reduced. After UV-irradiation the first step (90 min) of unscheduled DNA synthesis was above the controls. Some animal models for human diseases showed the same trend. An infectious ethiology was discussed for some of these diseases. (author)

  13. Social behavior and the superorganism: Implications for disease and stability in complex animal societies and Colony Collapse Disorder in Honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolo Caldararo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociability, mass response to threat, food production and food sharing and an adaptable communication system are a suite of traits involved in the evolution of complex society in animals. Cycles of interaction characterize members of such societies and those of species in association that can affect disease structure in time and virulence. Colony Collapse Disorder (in North America, Honey Bee Depopulation Syndrome, or HBDS elsewhere shows similarity to a number of mass behavioural responses in other social animals, especially in ants. A number of questions regarding the cause of CCD continues to make progress in fighting the disease difficult. Here information is provided that may result in an isolation of factors to identify the syndrome of effects that lead to the disease, based on studies of disease avoidance and illness behaviour in other animal species. Most of the work to date to discover a cause has focused on a direct relationship between a pathogen or parasite or environmental condition and the Disorder. Dysfunctional mass behaviour is even seen in humans, as during the Black Plague. Disease avoidance is an important survival tactic for many animals and if the mechanism is modified by a pathogen or toxin unusual outcomes may result. In complex animal societies the opportunity for other forms of disruption of social life are numerous.

  14. Systematic review of brucellosis in Kenya: disease frequency in humans and animals and risk factors for human infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Njeru

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals. A comprehensive, evidence-based assessment of literature and officially available data on animal and human brucellosis for Kenya are missing. The aim of the current review is to provide frequency estimates of brucellosis in humans, animals and risk factors for human infection, and help to understand the current situation in Kenya. Methods A total of accessible 36 national and international publications on brucellosis from 1916 to 2016 were reviewed to estimate the frequency of brucellosis in humans and animals, and strength of associations between potential risk factors and seropositivity in humans in Kenya. Results The conducted studies revealed only few and fragmented evidence of the disease spatial and temporal distribution in an epidemiological context. Bacteriological evidence revealed the presence of Brucella (B. abortus and B. melitensis in cattle and human patients, whilst B. suis was isolated from wild rodents only. Similar evidence for Brucella spp infection in small ruminants and other animal species is unavailable. The early and most recent serological studies revealed that animal brucellosis is widespread in all animal production systems. The animal infection pressure in these systems has remained strong due to mixing of large numbers of animals from different geographical regions, movement of livestock in search of pasture, communal sharing of grazing land, and the concentration of animals around water points. Human cases are more likely seen in groups occupationally or domestically exposed to livestock or practicing risky social-cultural activities such as consumption of raw blood and dairy products, and slaughtering of animals within the homesteads. Many brucellosis patients are misdiagnosed and probably mistreated due to lack of reliable laboratory diagnostic support resulting to adverse health outcomes of the patients and routine

  15. Systematic review of brucellosis in Kenya: disease frequency in humans and animals and risk factors for human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeru, J; Wareth, G; Melzer, F; Henning, K; Pletz, M W; Heller, R; Neubauer, H

    2016-08-22

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals. A comprehensive, evidence-based assessment of literature and officially available data on animal and human brucellosis for Kenya are missing. The aim of the current review is to provide frequency estimates of brucellosis in humans, animals and risk factors for human infection, and help to understand the current situation in Kenya. A total of accessible 36 national and international publications on brucellosis from 1916 to 2016 were reviewed to estimate the frequency of brucellosis in humans and animals, and strength of associations between potential risk factors and seropositivity in humans in Kenya. The conducted studies revealed only few and fragmented evidence of the disease spatial and temporal distribution in an epidemiological context. Bacteriological evidence revealed the presence of Brucella (B.) abortus and B. melitensis in cattle and human patients, whilst B. suis was isolated from wild rodents only. Similar evidence for Brucella spp infection in small ruminants and other animal species is unavailable. The early and most recent serological studies revealed that animal brucellosis is widespread in all animal production systems. The animal infection pressure in these systems has remained strong due to mixing of large numbers of animals from different geographical regions, movement of livestock in search of pasture, communal sharing of grazing land, and the concentration of animals around water points. Human cases are more likely seen in groups occupationally or domestically exposed to livestock or practicing risky social-cultural activities such as consumption of raw blood and dairy products, and slaughtering of animals within the homesteads. Many brucellosis patients are misdiagnosed and probably mistreated due to lack of reliable laboratory diagnostic support resulting to adverse health outcomes of the patients and routine disease underreporting. We found no studies of disease

  16. Research progress in animal models and stem cell therapy for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabin Han,1,2 Wei Wang1, Chao Chen1 1Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, 2Department of Neurology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital/The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD causes degeneration of brain neurons and leads to memory loss and cognitive impairment. Since current therapeutic strategies cannot cure the disease, stem cell therapy represents a powerful tool for the treatment of AD. We first review the advances in molecular pathogenesis and animal models of AD and then discuss recent clinical studies using small molecules and immunoglobulins to target amyloid-beta plaques for AD therapy. Finally, we discuss stem cell therapy for AD using neural stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, embryonic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cell from bone marrow, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood. In particular, patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells are proposed as a future treatment for AD. Keywords: amyloid-beta plaque, neurofibrillary tangle, neural stem cell, olfactory ensheathing cell, mesenchymal stem cell, induced pluripotent stem cell

  17. The Chihuahua dog: A new animal model for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis CLN7 disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kiterie M E; Bras, Jose; Sharpe, Samuel J; Anderson, Glenn W; Darwent, Lee; Kun-Rodrigues, Celia; Alroy, Joseph; Penderis, Jacques; Mole, Sara E; Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Guerreiro, Rita J

    2016-04-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of incurable lysosomal storage disorders characterized by neurodegeneration and accumulation of lipopigments mainly within the neurons. We studied two littermate Chihuahua dogs presenting with progressive signs of blindness, ataxia, pacing, and cognitive impairment from 1 year of age. Because of worsening of clinical signs, both dogs were euthanized at about 2 years of age. Postmortem examination revealed marked accumulation of autofluorescent intracellular inclusions within the brain, characteristic of NCL. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on one of the affected dogs. After sequence alignment and variant calling against the canine reference genome, variants were identified in the coding region or splicing regions of four previously known NCL genes (CLN6, ARSG, CLN2 [=TPP1], and CLN7 [=MFSD8]). Subsequent segregation analysis within the family (two affected dogs, both parents, and three relatives) identified MFSD8:p.Phe282Leufs13*, which had previously been identified in one Chinese crested dog with no available ancestries, as the causal mutation. Because of the similarities of the clinical signs and histopathological changes with the human form of the disease, we propose that the Chihuahua dog could be a good animal model of CLN7 disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Neural and mesenchymal stem cells in animal models of Huntington's disease: past experiences and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkis, Irina; Haddad, Monica Santoro; Valverde, Cristiane Wenceslau; Glosman, Sabina

    2015-12-14

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes progressive nerve cell degeneration. It is triggered by a mutation in the HTT gene that strongly influences functional abilities and usually results in movement, cognitive and psychiatric disorders. HD is incurable, although treatments are available to help manage symptoms and to delay the physical, mental and behavioral declines associated with the condition. Stem cells are the essential building blocks of life, and play a crucial role in the genesis and development of all higher organisms. Ablative surgical procedures and fetal tissue cell transplantation, which are still experimental, demonstrate low rates of recovery in HD patients. Due to neuronal cell death caused by accumulation of the mutated huntingtin (mHTT) protein, it is unlikely that such brain damage can be treated solely by drug-based therapies. Stem cell-based therapies are important in order to reconstruct damaged brain areas in HD patients. These therapies have a dual role: stem cell paracrine action, stimulating local cell survival, and brain tissue regeneration through the production of new neurons from the intrinsic and likely from donor stem cells. This review summarizes current knowledge on neural stem/progenitor cell and mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, which has been carried out in several animal models of HD, discussing cell distribution, survival and differentiation after transplantation, as well as functional recovery and anatomic improvements associated with these approaches. We also discuss the usefulness of this information for future preclinical and clinical studies in HD.

  19. Alterations in protein phosphorylation in the amygdala of the 5XFamilial Alzheimer's disease animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jeong Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common disease underlying dementia in humans. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD are neuritic plaques primarily composed of amyloid beta peptide and neurofibrillary tangles primarily composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In addition to impaired memory function, AD patients often display neuropsychiatric symptoms and abnormal emotional states such as confusion, delusion, manic/depressive episodes and altered fear status. Brains from AD patients show atrophy of the amygdala which is involved in fear expression and emotional processing as well as hippocampal atrophy. However, which molecular changes are responsible for the altered emotional states observed in AD remains to be elucidated. Here, we observed that the fear response as assessed by evaluating fear memory via a cued fear conditioning test was impaired in 5XFamilial AD (5XFAD mice, an animal model of AD. Compared to wild-type mice, 5XFAD mice showed changes in the phosphorylation of twelve proteins in the amygdala. Thus, our study provides twelve potential protein targets in the amygdala that may be responsible for the impairment in fear memory in AD.

  20. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases.......Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel test...... interpretation and a positive dependence in test specificity reduces the specificity of serial interpretation. We calculate conditional covariances as a measure of dependence between binary tests and show their relationship to kappa (a chance-corrected measure of test agreement). We use published data...

  1. Identifying the impacts of climate change on key pests and diseases of plant and animal industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, Jo; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Finlay, Kyla; Azuloas, Joe; Constable, Fiona; Rijswijk, Bonny Rowles-Van

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major threat to natural and agricultural systems. Understanding these threats will enable government and primary industries to better prepare and adapt to climate change. While observations of climate change are well documented, the potential effects on pests, pathogens and their hosts are not clearly understood. To address this, a review of the potential impacts on plant biosecurity was undertaken to determine the effects of climate change on the behaviour and distribution of emergent plant pests and pathogens. The review identified increasing C02 and temperature, decreasing frost events, heavy and unseasonal rains, increased humidity, drought, cyclones and hurricanes, and warmer winter temperatures as influencing the behaviour of plant pests and pathogens. To study the effects of these changes in detail, three key plant biosecurity threats were analysed in case studies; wheat stripe rust, silver leaf whitefly and citrus canker. The predicted distribution of citrus canker was examined with increasing temperature scenarios using the bioclimatic model CLIMEX. The model predicted a southerly shift in the geographic range of the causal organism which would threaten the major southern citrus growing regions in future climates. A similar study on Bluetongue disease of sheep, spread by the Culicoides midge, also predicted a southerly shift in the vector's geographic range. Significant limitations were identified with bioclimatic modelling when examining the effects of climate change on pests and diseases. The model was unable to assess the plant and animal response to increasing temperature in conjunction with the pest. Also the influence of temperature on the life cycle of the organism, pathogenicity of strains, competition with other species, host coverage and the general effect on the biology of the organism could not be assessed. To begin to address this, a dynamic model was constructed using daily

  2. Regulatory acceptance of animal models of disease to support clinical trials of medicines and advanced therapy medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Joy; Silva Lima, Beatriz

    2015-07-15

    The utility of animal models of disease for assessing the safety of novel therapeutic modalities has become an increasingly important topic of discussion as research and development efforts focus on improving the predictive value of animal studies to support accelerated clinical development. Medicines are approved for marketing based upon a determination that their benefits outweigh foreseeable risks in specific indications, specific populations, and at specific dosages and regimens. No medicine is 100% safe. A medicine is less safe if the actual risks are greater than the predicted risks. The purpose of preclinical safety assessment is to understand the potential risks to aid clinical decision-making. Ideally preclinical studies should identify potential adverse effects and design clinical studies that will minimize their occurrence. Most regulatory documents delineate the utilization of conventional "normal" animal species to evaluate the safety risk of new medicines (i.e., new chemical entities and new biological entities). Animal models of human disease are commonly utilized to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate efficacy but less frequently utilized in preclinical safety assessment. An understanding of the limitations of the animal disease models together with a better understanding of the disease and how toxicity may be impacted by the disease condition should allow for a better prediction of risk in the intended patient population. Importantly, regulatory authorities are becoming more willing to accept and even recommend data from experimental animal disease models that combine efficacy and safety to support clinical development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  4. CONSUMPTION OF SATURATED ANIMAL FATS IN THE DIET OF HUMANS MAY DECREASE THE RATE OF HEART DISEASE IN THE FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Soroush Niknamian; Mehrandokht Nekavand

    2017-01-01

    Fats, as part of the human dietary regime are a concentrated source of energy. Animals contain saturated and plants contain unsaturated type of fatty acids. In this prospective research, the role of animal saturated fatty acids is highlighted and is proven to be a rational dietary source for the human diet. Saturated fats consumption is a wise choice in order to reduce the coronary heart disease risk, although it is believed in an opposite way. Researching through the healthiest tribes and kn...

  5. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    E.D. Karimuribo; B. Jones; M.I. Matee; D.M. Kambarage; S. Mounier-Jack; M.M. Rweyemamu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam) while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency pre...

  6. The origin of human pathogens: evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce-Duvet, Jessica M C

    2006-08-01

    Many significant diseases of human civilization are thought to have arisen concurrently with the advent of agriculture in human society. It has been hypothesised that the food produced by farming increased population sizes to allow the maintenance of virulent pathogens, i.e. civilization pathogens, while domestic animals provided sources of disease to humans. To determine the relationship between pathogens in humans and domestic animals, I examined phylogenetic data for several human pathogens that are commonly evolutionarily linked to domestic animals: measles, pertussis, smallpox, tuberculosis, taenid worms, and falciparal malaria. The majority are civilization pathogens, although I have included others whose evolutionary origins have traditionally been ascribed to domestic animals. The strongest evidence for a domestic-animal origin exists for measles and pertussis, although the data do not exclude a non-domestic origin. As for the other pathogens, the evidence currently available makes it difficult to determine if the domestic-origin hypothesis is supported or refuted; in fact, intriguing data for tuberculosis and taenid worms suggests that transmission may occur as easily from humans to domestic animals. These findings do not abrogate the importance of agriculture in disease transmission; rather, if anything, they suggest an alternative, more complex series of effects than previously elucidated. Rather than domestication, the broader force for human pathogen evolution could be ecological change, namely anthropogenic modification of the environment. This is supported by evidence that many current emerging infectious diseases are associated with human modification of the environment. Agriculture may have changed the transmission ecology of pre-existing human pathogens, increased the success of pre-existing pathogen vectors, resulted in novel interactions between humans and wildlife, and, through the domestication of animals, provided a stable conduit for human

  7. The economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases in developing countries: new roles, new demands for economics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karl M; Perry, Brian D

    2011-09-01

    Animal disease outbreaks pose significant threats to livestock sectors throughout the world, both from the standpoint of the economic impacts of the disease itself and the measures taken to mitigate the risk of disease introduction. These impacts are multidimensional and not always well understood, complicating effective policy response. In the developing world, livestock diseases have broader, more nuanced effects on markets, poverty, and livelihoods, given the diversity of uses of livestock and complexity of livestock value chains. In both settings, disease control strategies, particularly those informed by ex ante modeling platforms, often fail to recognize the constraints inherent among farmers, veterinary services, and other value chain actors. In short, context matters. Correspondingly, an important gap in the animal health economics literature is the explicit incorporation of behavior and incentives in impact analyses that highlight the interactions of disease with its socio-economic and institutional setting. In this paper, we examine new approaches and frameworks for the analysis of economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases. We propose greater utilization of "bottom-up" analyses, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of value chain and information economics approaches in impact analyses and stressing the importance of improved integration between the epidemiology of disease and its relationships with economic behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary phytonutrients as alternatives-to-antibiotics in agricultural animals: Mode of action in modulating cross-talks amonh immunity, disease resistance and gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    New antibiotic regulatory policies affecting agricultural animal production now challenge animal scientists to think outside of the box to develop alternative strategies for sustainable animal agriculture. For those animal infectious diseases for which effective vaccines are lacking, there is a cri...

  9. Development of disease preventive method using radiated pathogenic microorganisms, cell lines and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yosuke; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Yamakawa, Mutsumi [National Inst. of Animal Health, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1999-02-01

    A radiated bone marrow chimera mouse has been constructed by grafting. This chimera mouse was thought useful for analyzing gene specific functions in vivo. This study aimed to construct a vector available for a study on the functions of various genes that were cloned from animals through their constitutive expressions. Construction of a retroviral vector was attempted using spleen focus forming virus (SFFV), a mouse leukemia virus. The virus thus obtained was demonstrated to be able to express the gene when infected to NIH3T3, a mouse fibroblast cell line. Furthermore, packaging cells were constructed by transfecting the retroviral vector into the fibroblast cell. Bone marrow cells were incubated with the packaging cells for several days to make gene transfection into the bone marrow cells. After radiation exposure at a lethal dose, the mouse was grafted with the bone marrow cells. Thus, it became possible to investigate in vivo functions of a cloned gene through its expression in the cells. Then, development of a retroviral vector was attempted to use for transfection into bone marrow cells. Aujeszky`s disease virus, a large size DNA virus was exposed to Co radiation at -78degC, but the infectivity of the irradiated virus was not detectable. Since viral RNA was demonstrated to be already broken 24 hours after the exposure to {beta}-ray, the effects of {beta}-radiation were examined with swine vesicular disease virus, a small RNA virus. This virus was exposed to {alpha}-{sup 32}dATP (37MBq) as a {beta}-ray source for 1 hour to 96 hours. However, there were no significant differences in the infectivity titer between the virus exposed for any of the durations and the control, non-radiated virus. This suggested that the virus was not inactivated under the present conditions. Further investigation to determine exposure conditions is under way. (M.N.)

  10. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Two Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, N V; Lyabin, D N; Medvinskaya, N I; Samokhin, A N; Nekrasov, P V; Nesterova, I V; Aleksandrova, I Y; Tatarnikova, O G; Bobylev, A G; Vikhlyantsev, I M; Kukharsky, M S; Ustyugov, A A; Polyakov, D N; Eliseeva, I A; Kretov, D A; Guryanov, S G; Ovchinnikov, L P

    2015-01-01

    The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11-219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice with Alzheimer's type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1-42) inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: what have we learned from animal models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; Marjoram, Danielle; Lazarus, Alan H

    2017-11-01

    This review aims to highlight recent advances in our understanding of how anti-red blood cell (RBC) antibodies prevent erythrocyte immunization with an emphasis on new murine models. New murine models with clinically relevant human erythrocyte antigens have been used to understand the alloimmunization process and its inhibition. The search to elucidate the mechanism of action of IgG-mediated inhibition of erythrocyte alloimmunization has provided new evidence in support of a potential role for epitope masking, immune deviation and/or antigen modulation in this process. In addition, recent evidence suggests that blends of monoclonal antibodies targeting nonoverlapping epitopes on the RBC surface can improve the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies approaching that of polyclonal IgG. Animal models with defined alloantigens have helped to identify important mechanistic components that lead to alloimmunization and its inhibition by IgG. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is required to develop the most effective prevention strategies for future patients.

  12. Role of Vitamin E in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease: Evidence from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Gugliandolo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder representing the major cause of dementia. It is characterized by memory loss, and cognitive and behavioral decline. In particular, the hallmarks of the pathology are amyloid-β (Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, formed by aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Oxidative stress plays a main role in AD, and it is involved in initiation and progression of AD. It is well known that Aβ induced oxidative stress, promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS production and consequently lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, tau hyperphosphorylation, results in toxic effects on synapses and neurons. In turn, oxidative stress can increase Aβ production. For these reasons, the administration of an antioxidant therapy in AD patients was suggested. The term vitamin E includes different fat-soluble compounds, divided into tocopherols and tocotrienols, that possess antioxidant action. α-Tocopherol is the most studied, but some studies suggested that tocotrienols may have different health promoting capacities. In this review, we focused our attention on the effects of vitamin E supplementation in AD animal models and AD patients or older population. Experimental models showed that vitamin E supplementation, by decreasing oxidative stress, may be a good strategy to improve cognitive and memory deficits. Furthermore, the combination of vitamin E with other antioxidant or anti-inflammatory compounds may increase its efficacy. However, even if some trials have evidenced some benefits, the effects of vitamin E in AD patients are still under debate.

  13. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Two Animal Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Bobkova

    Full Text Available The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11-219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX mice with Alzheimer's type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1-42 inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  15. Developmental programming of metabolic diseases – a review of studies on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Piotrowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development in utero is a complex and dynamic process that requires interaction between the mother organism and the fetus. The delivery of macro – and micronutrients, oxygen and endocrine signals has crucial importance for providing a high level of proliferation, growth and differentiation of cells, and a disruption in food intake not only has an influence on the growth of the fetus, but also has negative consequences for the offspring’s health in the future. Diseases that traditionally are linked to inappropriate life style of adults, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and arterial hypertension, can be “programmed” in the early stage of life and the disturbed growth of the fetus leads to the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. The structural changes of some organs, such as the brain, pancreas and kidney, modifications of the signaling and metabolic pathways in skeletal muscles and in fatty tissue, epigenetic mechanisms and mitochondrial dysfunction are the basis of the metabolic disruptions. The programming of the metabolic disturbances is connected with the disruption in the intrauterine environment experienced in the early and late gestation period. It causes the changes in deposition of triglycerides, activation of the hormonal “stress axis” and disturbances in the offspring’s glucose tolerance. The present review summarizes experimental results that led to the identification of the above-mentioned links and it underlines the role of animal models in the studies of this important concept.

  16. The role of infectious disease impact in informing decision-making for animal health management in aquaculture systems in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Maria; Mohan, Chadag Vishnumurthy; Rahman, Meezanur; Wieland, Barbara; Häsler, Barbara

    2018-03-20

    The aquaculture sector in Bangladesh is an important employer and a significant source of foreign exchange. In addition, it contributes significantly to food security due to the role of fish in peoples' diets, the most important source of protein and micronutrients. However, infectious diseases represent an important barrier to sector development due to economic losses and vulnerability of smallholders. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the impact of infectious diseases in the aquaculture sector, and to assess the usefulness and use of impact studies in decision making for animal health management and biosecurity governance in Bangladesh. A review of scientific and grey literature on infectious disease impact in different aquaculture systems was conducted and their methodologies and findings summarised. Subsequently, interviews with 28 stakeholders from the private and public sector were conducted to enquire about decision-making structures in animal health management. The data were analysed using the framework method to allow the development of themes, by using the information, experiences and opinions inductively obtained from interviewees, deductively through the reviewed literature. Results showed a substantial socio-economic impact of infectious diseases. The numerous stakeholders involved in the decision-making process explained that key barriers to effective aquaculture health management were insufficient resources to investigate and tackle infectious aquatic animal diseases, a dearth of legislation and capacity for disease surveillance, a reliance on reactive response, and a lack of impact and evidence-based approaches for prioritising problem-solving, commonly based on anecdotal evidence. Furthermore, communication among the multiple stakeholders involved was reported to be weak. This complex situation requires a multi-level response, which should span from strengthening the knowledge of farmers and professionals in the field to the

  17. A Participatory System for Preventing Pandemics of Animal Origins: Pilot Study of the Participatory One Health Disease Detection (PODD) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Terdsak; Phornwisetsirikun, Somphorn; Susumpow, Patipat; Visrutaratna, Surasing; Chanachai, Karoon; Phetra, Polawat; Chaisowwong, Warangkhana; Trakarnsirinont, Pairat; Hemwan, Phonpat; Kaewpinta, Boontuan; Singhapreecha, Charuk; Kreausukon, Khwanchai; Charoenpanyanet, Arisara; Robert, Chongchit Sripun; Robert, Lamar; Rodtian, Pranee; Mahasing, Suteerat; Laiya, Ekkachai; Pattamakaew, Sakulrat; Tankitiyanon, Taweesart; Sansamur, Chalutwan; Srikitjakarn, Lertrak

    2018-03-21

    Aiming for early disease detection and prompt outbreak control, digital technology with a participatory One Health approach was used to create a novel disease surveillance system called Participatory One Health Disease Detection (PODD). PODD is a community-owned surveillance system that collects data from volunteer reporters; identifies disease outbreak automatically; and notifies the local governments (LGs), surrounding villages, and relevant authorities. This system provides a direct and immediate benefit to the communities by empowering them to protect themselves. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the PODD system for the rapid detection and control of disease outbreaks. The system was piloted in 74 LGs in Chiang Mai, Thailand, with the participation of 296 volunteer reporters. The volunteers and LGs were key participants in the piloting of the PODD system. Volunteers monitored animal and human diseases, as well as environmental problems, in their communities and reported these events via the PODD mobile phone app. LGs were responsible for outbreak control and provided support to the volunteers. Outcome mapping was used to evaluate the performance of the LGs and volunteers. LGs were categorized into one of the 3 groups based on performance: A (good), B (fair), and C (poor), with the majority (46%,34/74) categorized into group B. Volunteers were similarly categorized into 4 performance groups (A-D), again with group A showing the best performance, with the majority categorized into groups B and C. After 16 months of implementation, 1029 abnormal events had been reported and confirmed to be true reports. The majority of abnormal reports were sick or dead animals (404/1029, 39.26%), followed by zoonoses and other human diseases (129/1029, 12.54%). Many potentially devastating animal disease outbreaks were detected and successfully controlled, including 26 chicken high mortality outbreaks, 4 cattle disease outbreaks, 3 pig disease

  18. Phylogenetic groups and cephalosporin resistance genes of Escherichia coli from diseased food-producing animals in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozawa Manao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 318 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from different food-producing animals affected with colibacillosis between 2001 and 2006 were subjected to phylogenetic analysis: 72 bovine isolates, 89 poultry isolates and 157 porcine isolates. Overall, the phylogenetic group A was predominant in isolates from cattle (36/72, 50% and pigs (101/157, 64.3% whereas groups A (44/89, 49.4% and D (40/89, 44.9% were predominant in isolates from poultry. In addition, group B2 was not found among diseased food-producing animals except for a poultry isolate. Thus, the phylogenetic group distribution of E. coli from diseased animals was different by animal species. Among the 318 isolates, cefazolin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentrations: ≥32 μg/ml was found in six bovine isolates, 29 poultry isolates and three porcine isolates. Of them, 11 isolates (nine from poultry and two from cattle produced extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. The two bovine isolates produced blaCTX-M-2, while the nine poultry isolates produced blaCTX-M-25 (4, blaSHV-2 (3, blaCTX-M-15 (1 and blaCTX-M-2 (1. Thus, our results showed that several types of ESBL were identified and three types of β-lactamase (SHV-2, CTX-M-25 and CTX-M-15 were observed for the first time in E. coli from diseased animals in Japan.

  19. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals: a global health concern with parallels to human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, Jacques; Arné, Pascal; de Hoog, G Sybren; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-11-01

    The importance of aspergillosis in humans and various animal species has increased over the last decades. Aspergillus species are found worldwide in humans and in almost all domestic animals and birds as well as in many wild species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, as well as allergic responses to inhaled conidia. Some prevalent forms of animal aspergillosis are invasive fatal infections in sea fan corals, stonebrood mummification in honey bees, pulmonary and air sac infection in birds, mycotic abortion and mammary gland infections in cattle, guttural pouch mycoses in horses, sinonasal infections in dogs and cats, and invasive pulmonary and cerebral infections in marine mammals and nonhuman primates. This article represents a comprehensive overview of the most common infections reported by Aspergillus species and the corresponding diseases in various types of animals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Horses and Other Animals with Neurologic Disease, South Africa, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Marietjie; Pretorius, Marthi; Fuller, James A; Botha, Elizabeth; Rakgotho, Mpho; Stivaktas, Voula; Weyer, Camilla; Romito, Marco; Williams, June

    2017-12-01

    During 2008-2015 in South Africa, we conducted West Nile virus surveillance in 1,407 animals with neurologic disease and identified mostly lineage 2 cases in horses (7.4%, 79/1,069), livestock (1.5%, 2/132), and wildlife (0.5%, 1/206); 35% were fatal. Geographic correlation of horse cases with seropositive veterinarians suggests disease in horses can predict risk in humans.

  1. Grunting in a Genetically Modified Minipig Animal Model for Huntington’s Disease –  
Pilot Experiments


    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykalová, T.; Hlavnička, J.; Mačáková, Monika; Baxa, Monika; Cmejla, R.; Motlík, Jan; Klempíř, J.; Rusz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 61-65 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. Liblice, 08.11.2015-10.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington’s disease * grunting * transgenic pigs Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.209, year: 2015

  2. Potential large animal models for gene therapy of human genetic diseases of immune and blood cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas R; Adler, Rima L; Hickstein, Dennis D

    2009-01-01

    Genetic mutations involving the cellular components of the hematopoietic system--red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets--manifest clinically as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Although gene targeting has recapitulated many of these diseases in mice, these murine homologues are limited as translational models by their small size and brief life span as well as the fact that mutations induced by gene targeting do not always faithfully reflect the clinical manifestations of such mutations in humans. Many of these limitations can be overcome by identifying large animals with genetic diseases of the hematopoietic system corresponding to their human disease counterparts. In this article, we describe human diseases of the cellular components of the hematopoietic system that have counterparts in large animal species, in most cases carrying mutations in the same gene (CD18 in leukocyte adhesion deficiency) or genes in interacting proteins (DNA cross-link repair 1C protein and protein kinase, DNA-activated catalytic polypeptide in radiation-sensitive severe combined immunodeficiency). Furthermore, we describe the potential of these animal models to serve as disease-specific preclinical models for testing the efficacy and safety of clinical interventions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy before their use in humans with the corresponding disease.

  3. Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G

    2013-08-01

    The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance.

  4. Detection and genetic characterization of foot‐and‐mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, G.; Hussain, M.

    2012-01-01

    in Pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in Afghanistan (n = 61) and both the live animal markets in Tajikistan (n = 120) all tested negative. However, 2 of 129 (∼2%) samples from Gondal and 11 of 123 (9%) from Chichawatni markets in Pakistan were positive for FMDV RNA. Similarly, 12 of 81 (15......A total of 1501 oral swab samples from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between July 2008 and August 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets......%) samples from Kabul and 10 of 20 (50%) from Badakhshan in Afghanistan were found to be positive. Serotypes A and O of FMDV were identified within these samples. Oral swab samples were also collected from dairy colonies in Harbanspura, Lahore (n = 232) and Nagori, Karachi (n = 136), but all tested negative...

  5. A new early-warning system for stripe rust affecting wheat and triticale: Host-pathogen interactions under different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring

    Stripe (yellow) rust has been the most damaging disease in Danish organic wheat and triticale production since 2009. There were estimated losses of approximately 50 million DKK (9 million USD) in 2009. Until that time, triticale was considered the most robust cereal crop for organic farming. The ...

  6. Effect of dietary capsicum and turmeric oleoresins on host-pathogen interaction in experimental necrotic enteritis in three commercial broiler chicken breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is among the most economically important enteric diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. In an effort to develop alternatives to antibiotics strategies to reduce the negative impact of NE to gut health, we investigated the efficacy of dietary phytonutrient mixture...

  7. Does Animal Behavior Underlie Covariation Between Hosts' Exposure to Infectious Agents and Susceptibility to Infection? Implications for Disease Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawley, Dana M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal behavior is unique in influencing both components of the process of transmission of disease: exposure to infectious agents, and susceptibility to infection once exposed. To date, the influence of behavior on exposure versus susceptibility has largely been considered separately. Here, we ask

  8. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Ernesto Nicolás Gulin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%. Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction.

  9. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Julián Ernesto Nicolás; Rocco, Daniela Marisa; García-Bournissen, Facundo

    2015-11-01

    Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%). Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction.

  10. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Julián Ernesto Nicolás; Rocco, Daniela Marisa; García-Bournissen, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%). Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction. PMID:26587586

  11. A Flexible Spatial Framework for Modeling Spread of Pathogens in Animals with Biosurveillance and Disease Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montiago X. LaBute

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosurveillance activities focus on acquiring and analyzing epidemiological and biological data to interpret unfolding events and predict outcomes in infectious disease outbreaks. We describe a mathematical modeling framework based on geographically aligned data sources and with appropriate flexibility that partitions the modeling of disease spread into two distinct but coupled levels. A top-level stochastic simulation is defined on a network with nodes representing user-configurable geospatial “patches”. Intra-patch disease spread is treated with differential equations that assume uniform mixing within the patch. We use U.S. county-level aggregated data on animal populations and parameters from the literature to simulate epidemic spread of two strikingly different animal diseases agents: foot-and-mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza. Results demonstrate the capability of this framework to leverage low-fidelity data while producing meaningful output to inform biosurveillance and disease control measures. For example, we show that the possible magnitude of an outbreak is sensitive to the starting location of the outbreak, highlighting the strong geographic dependence of livestock and poultry infectious disease epidemics and the usefulness of effective biosurveillance policy. The ability to compare different diseases and host populations across the geographic landscape is important for decision support applications and for assessing the impact of surveillance, detection, and mitigation protocols.

  12. Altered gastrointestinal motility in an animal model of Lesch-Nyhan disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzo, Maria G; Frinchi, Monica; Nuzzo, Domenico; Jinnah, Hyder A; Mudò, Giuseppa; Condorelli, Daniele F; Caciagli, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Renata; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Mulè, Flavia; Belluardo, Natale; Serio, Rosa

    2018-03-01

    Mutations in the HGPRT1 gene, which encodes hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), housekeeping enzyme responsible for recycling purines, lead to Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). Clinical expression of LND indicates that HGprt deficiency has adverse effects on gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate intestinal motility in HGprt knockout mice (HGprt¯). Spontaneous and neurally evoked mechanical activity was recorded in vitro as changes in isometric tension in circular muscle strips of distal colon. HGprt¯ tissues showed a lower in amplitude spontaneous activity and atropine-sensitivity neural contraction compared to control mice. The responses to carbachol and to high KCl were reduced, demonstrating a widespread impairment of contractility. L-NAME was not able in the HGprt¯ tissues to restore the large amplitude contractile activity typical of control. In HGprt¯ colon, a reduced expression of dopaminergic D1 receptor was observed together with the loss of its tonic inhibitory activity present in control-mice. The analysis of inflammatory and oxidative stress in colonic tissue of HGprt¯ mice revealed a significant increase of lipid peroxidation associated with over production of oxygen free radicals. In conclusion, HGprt deficiency in mice is associated with a decrease in colon contractility, not dependent upon reduction of acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus or hyperactivity of inhibitory signalling. By contrast the increased levels of oxidative stress could partially explain the reduced colon motility in HGprt¯ mice. Colonic dysmotility observed in HGprt¯ mice may mimic the gastrointestinal dysfunctions symptoms of human syndrome, providing a useful animal model to elucidate the pathophysiology of this problem in the LND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Astrocytic Atrophy in the Entorhinal Cortex of a Triple Transgenic Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Yeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The EC (entorhinal cortex is fundamental for cognitive and mnesic functions. Thus damage to this area appears as a key element in the progression of AD (Alzheimer's disease, resulting in memory deficits arising from neuronal and synaptic alterations as well as glial malfunction. In this paper, we have performed an in-depth analysis of astroglial morphology in the EC by measuring the surface and volume of the GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein profiles in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD [3xTg-AD (triple transgenic mice of AD]. We found significant reduction in both the surface and volume of GFAP-labelled profiles in 3xTg-AD animals from very early ages (1 month when compared with non-Tg (non-transgenic controls (48 and 54%, reduction respectively, which was sustained for up to 12 months (33 and 45% reduction respectively. The appearance of Aβ (amyloid β-peptide depositions at 12 months of age did not trigger astroglial hypertrophy; nor did it result in the close association of astrocytes with senile plaques. Our results suggest that the AD progressive cognitive deterioration can be associated with an early reduction of astrocytic arborization and shrinkage of the astroglial domain, which may affect synaptic connectivity within the EC and between the EC and other brain regions. In addition, the EC seems to be particularly vulnerable to AD pathology because of the absence of evident astrogliosis in response to Aβ accumulation. Thus we can consider that targeting astroglial atrophy may represent a therapeutic strategy which might slow down the progression of AD.

  14. Comparison of ultrasonography and histologic examination for identification of ocular diseases of animals: 113 cases (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallhoefer, Nicolin S; Bentley, Ellison; Ruetten, Maja; Grest, Paula; Haessig, Michael; Kircher, Patrick R; Dubielzig, Richard R; Spiess, Bernhard M; Pot, Simon A

    2013-08-01

    To compare ultrasonographic and histologic examination findings for eyes of animals with ocular diseases. Retrospective case series. 116 eyes of 113 animals examined at 2 facilities. Diseased eyes of animals were examined by means of ultrasonography, removed via enucleation or exenteration, then histologically examined. Ultrasonographic images and histopathologic slides were evaluated, and diseases of eyes were identified with each of those methods and allocated to various categories. For each disease category, agreement between results of ultrasonography and those of histologic examination was assessed via determination of κ statistic values. Tests had good agreement for identification of iris or ciliary body neoplasia. Overall, intraocular neoplasia was not detected via ultrasonography for only 2 of 31 eyes with histologically detected neoplasia. Hemorrhagic or inflammatory changes were misinterpreted as neoplasia for 8 of 37 (22%) eyes. Tests had moderate to acceptable agreement for identification of retinal detachment. Retinal detachment was not detected by means of ultrasonography for 14 of 38 (37%) eyes with that diagnosis determined via histologic examination at one of the facilities (primarily in eyes with intraocular hemorrhage); however, retinal detachment was not identified via histologic examination for 6 of 38 (16%) eyes with that diagnosis determined via ultrasonography at the other facility. Agreement between tests evaluated in this study was clinically satisfactory for identification of intraocular neoplasia. Typically, diseases were misdiagnosed via ultrasonography for eyes with poor image contrast. Because determination of ultrasonographic diagnoses of retinal detachment and intraocular neoplasm may be of prognostic importance, performance of additional ultrasonographic techniques may be indicated.

  15. Plant-derived vaccine protects target animals against a viral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Kristian; Uttenthal, Åse; Jones, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    The successful expression of animal or human virus epitopes on the surface of plant viruses has recently been demonstrated. These chimeric virus particles (CVPs) could represent a cost-effective and safe alternative to conventional animal cell-based vaccines. We report the insertion...

  16. Regulation of stomatal tropism and infection by light in Cercospora zeae-maydis: evidence for coordinated host/pathogen responses to photoperiod?

    OpenAIRE

    Hun Kim; John B Ridenour; Larry D Dunkle; Burton H Bluhm

    2011-01-01

    Cercospora zeae-maydis causes gray leaf spot of maize, which has become one of the most widespread and destructive diseases of maize in the world. C. zeae-maydis infects leaves through stomata, which is predicated on the ability of the pathogen to perceive stomata and reorient growth accordingly. In this study, the discovery that light was required for C. zeae-maydis to perceive stomata and infect leaves led to the identification of CRP1, a gene encoding a putative blue-light photoreceptor ho...

  17. The impact of national policies on animal disease reporting within selected Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2018-04-20

    A semi-systematic literature review of national policies was carried out in relation to surveillance and disease reporting in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). It also analysed the animal disease reporting structures in Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of those reporting structures were examined in relation to how they impacted the detection and management of animal diseases in PICTs. Field missions collected information on animal disease reporting structures and these were discussed in detail with country officials and documented. The findings from the literature review indicated that there is very little policy to support work in surveillance and disease reporting within national government structures of the countries studied. This increases the potential for disease transmission and the introduction of exotic diseases as the efficiency of disease reporting is low. The findings from the SWOT analysis of the reporting structures indicated that there were commonalities across the countries studied, i.e. reporting structures were long with multiple legs that were not functioning properly and this was worsened when positions were vacant in the reporting structure. The hierarchical nature of the reporting structure also reduced reporting efficiency as reports took a longer time to reach decision makers at the top of the structure. High officer turnover and the shortage of veterinarians in the countries studied also affected the efficiency of disease reporting as most in-county officials were inexperienced and could not recognise disease signs and there were no veterinarians to supervise them. Existing reporting structures need to be reviewed to remove duplication and shorten the chain. However, this could override existing command structures and would need to be documented and awareness created with the officers involved. There also needs to be more collaboration

  18. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency preparedness were collected from all wards (n = 22, human health facilities (n = 40 and livestock facilities in the two districts using interview checklists and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics for resources were calculated and mapped by district. Kibaha district had a higher human population density, more health workers, better equipped health facilities and better communication and transport systems. On the other hand, Ngorongoro had a higher population of livestock and more animal health facilities but a poorer ratio of animal health workers to livestock. The average ratio of health personnel to population in catchment areas of the health facilities was 1:147 (range of 1:17−1:1200. The ratio of personnel to human population was significantly higher in Kibaha (1:95 than in Ngorongoro (1:203 district (p = 0 < 0.001. Considering the limited resources available to both human and animal health sectors and their different strengths and weaknesses there are opportunities for greater collaboration and resource-sharing between human and animal health for improved surveillance and emergency-preparedness.

  19. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loria-Cervera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106 of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

  20. Disease Control in Animals Using Molecular Technology by Inactivation of ASO, RNAi and ss-siRNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Ali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization causes high mobility of human and livestock, hence increase the transmission of infectious diseases, including avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, and swine influenza. Therefore, prevention of those diseases is required. Vaccines are effective to prevent infectious diseases; however, their development takes a long time and they cannot provide immediate protection in pandemic cases. This paper describes several gene silencing technologies including antisense oligonucleotide (ASO, RNA interference (RNAi and single strand-small interfering RNA (ss-siRNA for controlling diseases. The primary mechanism of these technologies is inhibition of gene expression, typically by causing the destruction of specific RNA molecule of the pathogen. The use of gene silencing technologies is expected to give new alternative that is more effective in eradication of infectious diseases in animals before threaten human being.

  1. A new early-warning system for stripe rust affecting wheat and triticale: Host-pathogen interactions under different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring

    . The sudden change was explained by the appearance of an exotic and aggressive Pst race that attacked most of the triticale varieties grown at that time, resulting in yield losses of 50-100% for organic farmers. At present, Tulus is the most widely grown triticale variety in Denmark. Although originally......Stripe (yellow) rust has been the most damaging disease in Danish organic wheat and triticale production since 2009. There were estimated losses of approximately 50 million DKK (9 million USD) in 2009. Until that time, triticale was considered the most robust cereal crop for organic farming...... resistant it was susceptible under field conditions in March 2012. All Pst isolates from Tulus, obtained from multiple locations, were identified as the ‘Kranich’-race, and were avirulent on Tulus under experimental conditions. In May and June 2012 Tulus recovered on a country-wide scale and was resistant...

  2. Tuberculosis at the human-animal interface: an emerging disease of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikota, Susan K; Maslow, Joel N

    2011-05-01

    Over the past 15 years, cases of infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have been diagnosed among captive elephants in the United States and worldwide. Outbreak investigations have documented that among staff employed at facilities housing infected animals, skin test conversion to purified protein derivative have been documented. Clonal spread among animals in close contact and even inter-species spread between elephant and human has been documented. Detection of actively infected animals relies on samples obtained by trunk wash. Diagnosis has been augmented by the development of a multi-antigen serologic assay with excellent specificity and sensitivity. Treatment regimens are still in development with efficacy largely unknown due to a paucity of both premortem follow-up and necropsy data of treated animals. The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in elephants require additional careful study of clinical data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficient pigs are a novel large animal model of metabolic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond D. Hickey

    2014-07-01

    FAH-deficiency produced a lethal defect in utero that was corrected by administration of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl-1,3 cyclohexanedione (NTBC throughout pregnancy. Animals on NTBC were phenotypically normal at birth; however, the animals were euthanized approximately four weeks after withdrawal of NTBC due to clinical decline and physical examination findings of severe liver injury and encephalopathy consistent with acute liver failure. Biochemical and histological analyses, characterized by diffuse and severe hepatocellular damage, confirmed the diagnosis of severe liver injury. FAH−/− pigs provide the first genetically engineered large animal model of a metabolic liver disorder. Future applications of FAH−/− pigs include discovery research as a large animal model of HT1 and spontaneous acute liver failure, and preclinical testing of the efficacy of liver cell therapies, including transplantation of hepatocytes, liver stem cells, and pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes.

  4. Chemical and biomechanical characterization of hyperhomocysteinemic bone disease in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell David S

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS deficiency and characterized by distinctive alterations of bone growth and skeletal development. Skeletal changes include a reduction in bone density, making it a potentially attractive model for the study of idiopathic osteoporosis. Methods To investigate this aspect of hyperhomocysteinemia, we supplemented developing chicks (n = 8 with 0.6% dl-homocysteine (hCySH for the first 8 weeks of life in comparison to controls (n = 10, and studied biochemical, biomechanical and morphologic effects of this nutritional intervention. Results hCySH-fed animals grew faster and had longer tibiae at the end of the study. Plasma levels of hCySH, methionine, cystathionine, and inorganic sulfate were higher, but calcium, phosphate, and other indices of osteoblast metabolism were not different. Radiographs of the lower limbs showed generalized osteopenia and accelerated epiphyseal ossification with distinct metaphyseal and suprametaphyseal lucencies similar to those found in human homocystinurics. Although biomechanical testing of the tibiae, including maximal load to failure and bone stiffness, indicated stronger bone, strength was proportional to the increased length and cortical thickness in the hCySH-supplemented group. Bone ash weights and IR-spectroscopy of cortical bone showed no difference in mineral content, but there were higher Ca2+/PO43- and lower Ca2+/CO32- molar ratios than in controls. Mineral crystallization was unchanged. Conclusion In this chick model, hyperhomocysteinemia causes greater radial and longitudinal bone growth, despite normal indices of bone formation. Although there is also evidence for an abnormal matrix and altered bone composition, our finding of normal biomechanical bone strength, once corrected for altered morphometry, suggests that any increase in the risk of long bone fracture in human hyperhomocysteinemic

  5. Factors associated with development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Daniel J; Lelewski, Roxana; Weese, J Scott; Mcgill-Worsley, Jamie; Shankel, Catharine; Mendonca, Sonia; Sager, Tara; Smith, Michael; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between presence of respiratory pathogens and development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics. In total, 86 dogs were tested using a commercial PCR respiratory panel; 64 dogs were considered as cases and 22 were control dogs matched by veterinary clinic. No control animals (0/22) were positive for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), whereas 27/64 (42%) CIRDC cases were positive. Furthermore, 81% of case dogs tested positive for Mycoplasma cynos, compared with 73% of control dogs. Canine respiratory corona virus (CRCoV) was detected in no control dogs compared with 9.4% of clinical dogs. No animals were positive for any influenza virus type A present in the diagnostic panel. Presence of CPIV was associated (P < 0.01) with the occurrence of CIRDC after adjustment for demographic factors and presence of CRCoV (P = 0.09).

  6. Caisson disease of bone: a study of the Göttingen mini-pig as an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N; Rannie, I

    1980-02-01

    Investigation of the exact aetiology, early diagnosis and prevention of caisson disease of bone has been hindered by the inability to produce, by the use of realistic compression/decompression exposures, truly comparable lesions in animals. Four Gottingen mini-pigs were subjected to repeated exposures to pressures of 27 p.s.i.g. for 6 h over a period of 9 months and decompressed according to standard tables. Two mini-pigs acted as controls. In one animal radiological changes were recognised in the left lower femoral shaft 19 weeks after the exposures were started and subsequent examination of that bone confirmed the presence, at that site, of a lesion which macroscopically and microscopically resembled, in every way, the appearances of those seen in the shafts of long bones in man. It is concluded therefore that, properly used, the mini-pig may be a suitable animal model for the study of this condition in man.

  7. Regulation of stomatal tropism and infection by light in Cercospora zeae-maydis: evidence for coordinated host/pathogen responses to photoperiod?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora zeae-maydis causes gray leaf spot of maize, which has become one of the most widespread and destructive diseases of maize in the world. C. zeae-maydis infects leaves through stomata, which is predicated on the ability of the pathogen to perceive stomata and reorient growth accordingly. In this study, the discovery that light was required for C. zeae-maydis to perceive stomata and infect leaves led to the identification of CRP1, a gene encoding a putative blue-light photoreceptor homologous to White Collar-1 (WC-1 of Neurospora crassa. Disrupting CRP1 via homologous recombination revealed roles in multiple aspects of pathogenesis, including tropism of hyphae to stomata, the formation of appressoria, conidiation, and the biosynthesis of cercosporin. CRP1 was also required for photoreactivation after lethal doses of UV exposure. Intriguingly, putative orthologs of CRP1 are central regulators of circadian clocks in other filamentous fungi, raising the possibility that C. zeae-maydis uses light as a key environmental input to coordinate pathogenesis with maize photoperiodic responses. This study identified a novel molecular mechanism underlying stomatal tropism in a foliar fungal pathogen, provides specific insight into how light regulates pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis, and establishes a genetic framework for the molecular dissection of infection via stomata and the integration of host and pathogen responses to photoperiod.

  8. Regulation of stomatal tropism and infection by light in Cercospora zeae-maydis: evidence for coordinated host/pathogen responses to photoperiod?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun; Ridenour, John B; Dunkle, Larry D; Bluhm, Burton H

    2011-07-01

    Cercospora zeae-maydis causes gray leaf spot of maize, which has become one of the most widespread and destructive diseases of maize in the world. C. zeae-maydis infects leaves through stomata, which is predicated on the ability of the pathogen to perceive stomata and reorient growth accordingly. In this study, the discovery that light was required for C. zeae-maydis to perceive stomata and infect leaves led to the identification of CRP1, a gene encoding a putative blue-light photoreceptor homologous to White Collar-1 (WC-1) of Neurospora crassa. Disrupting CRP1 via homologous recombination revealed roles in multiple aspects of pathogenesis, including tropism of hyphae to stomata, the formation of appressoria, conidiation, and the biosynthesis of cercosporin. CRP1 was also required for photoreactivation after lethal doses of UV exposure. Intriguingly, putative orthologs of CRP1 are central regulators of circadian clocks in other filamentous fungi, raising the possibility that C. zeae-maydis uses light as a key environmental input to coordinate pathogenesis with maize photoperiodic responses. This study identified a novel molecular mechanism underlying stomatal tropism in a foliar fungal pathogen, provides specific insight into how light regulates pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis, and establishes a genetic framework for the molecular dissection of infection via stomata and the integration of host and pathogen responses to photoperiod.

  9. Regulation of Stomatal Tropism and Infection by Light in Cercospora zeae-maydis: Evidence for Coordinated Host/Pathogen Responses to Photoperiod?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun; Ridenour, John B.; Dunkle, Larry D.; Bluhm, Burton H.

    2011-01-01

    Cercospora zeae-maydis causes gray leaf spot of maize, which has become one of the most widespread and destructive diseases of maize in the world. C. zeae-maydis infects leaves through stomata, which is predicated on the ability of the pathogen to perceive stomata and reorient growth accordingly. In this study, the discovery that light was required for C. zeae-maydis to perceive stomata and infect leaves led to the identification of CRP1, a gene encoding a putative blue-light photoreceptor homologous to White Collar-1 (WC-1) of Neurospora crassa. Disrupting CRP1 via homologous recombination revealed roles in multiple aspects of pathogenesis, including tropism of hyphae to stomata, the formation of appressoria, conidiation, and the biosynthesis of cercosporin. CRP1 was also required for photoreactivation after lethal doses of UV exposure. Intriguingly, putative orthologs of CRP1 are central regulators of circadian clocks in other filamentous fungi, raising the possibility that C. zeae-maydis uses light as a key environmental input to coordinate pathogenesis with maize photoperiodic responses. This study identified a novel molecular mechanism underlying stomatal tropism in a foliar fungal pathogen, provides specific insight into how light regulates pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis, and establishes a genetic framework for the molecular dissection of infection via stomata and the integration of host and pathogen responses to photoperiod. PMID:21829344

  10. Successful stem cell therapy using umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells for Buerger's disease and ischemic limb disease animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Whan; Han, Hoon; Chae, Gue-Tae; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Bo, Sun; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Soon; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Park, Hwon-Kyum; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2006-06-01

    Buerger's disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is a nonatherosclerotic, inflammatory, vasoocclusive disease. It is characterized pathologically as a panangiitis of medium and small blood vessels, including both arteries and adjacent veins, especially the distal extremities (the feet and the hands). There is no curative medication or surgery for this disease. In the present study, we transplanted human leukocyte antigen-matched human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into four men with Buerger's disease who had already received medical treatment and surgical therapies. After the stem cell transplantation, ischemic rest pain suddenly disappeared from their affected extremities. The necrotic skin lesions were healed within 4 weeks. In the follow-up angiography, digital capillaries were increased in number and size. In addition, vascular resistance in the affected extremities, compared with the preoperative examination, was markedly decreased due to improvement of the peripheral circulation. Because an animal model of Buerger's disease is absent and also to understand human results, we transplanted human UCB-derived MSCs to athymic nude mice with hind limb ischemia by femoral artery ligation. Up to 60% of the hind limbs were salvaged in the femoral artery-ligated animals. By in situ hybridization, the human UCB-derived MSCs were detected in the arterial walls of the ischemic hind limb in the treated group. Therefore, it is suggested that human UCB-derived MSC transplantation may be a new and useful therapeutic armament for Buerger's disease and similar ischemic diseases.

  11. Design standards for experimental and field studies to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of tests for infectious diseases in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, E; Thakur, K K; Gardner, I A; Hick, P; Moody, N J G; Crane, M S J; Ernst, I

    2018-03-15

    Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Of the 56 DAS identified, 41 were based on field testing, eight on experimental challenge studies and seven on both. Also, we adapted human and terrestrial-animal standards and guidelines for DAS structure for use in aquatic animal diagnostic research. Through this process, we identified and addressed important metrics for consideration at the design phase: study purpose, targeted disease state, selection of appropriate samples and specimens, laboratory analytical methods, statistical methods and data interpretation. These recommended design standards for DAS are presented as a checklist including risk-of-failure points and actions to mitigate bias at each critical step. Adherence to standards when designing DAS will also facilitate future systematic review and meta-analyses of DAS research literature. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Metallothionein-I and -III expression in animal models of Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Adlard, P; Cotman, C

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have described altered expression of metallothioneins (MTs) in neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), Down syndrome, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to gain insight into the possible role of MTs in neurodegenerative processes and especially in human...

  13. Neuroprotective properties of curcumin in toxin-base animal models of Parkinson's disease: a systematic experiment literatures review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Shi; Zhang, Zeng-Rui; Zhang, Man-Man; Sun, Miao-Xuan; Wang, Wen-Wen; Xie, Cheng-Long

    2017-08-17

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol extracted from the plant Curcuma longa, is widely used in Southeast Asia, China and India in food preparation and for medicinal purposes. Meanwhile, the neuroprotective actions of curcumin have been documented for experimental therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we used a systematic review to comprehensively assess the efficacy of curcumin in experimental PD. Using electronic and manual search for the literatures, we identified studies describing the efficacy of curcumin in animal models of PD. We identified 13 studies with a total of 298 animals describing the efficacy of curcumin in animal models of PD. The methodological quality of all preclinical trials is ranged from 2 to 5. The majority of the experiment studies demonstrated that curcumin was more significantly neuroprotection effective than control groups for treating PD. Among them, five studies indicated that curcumin had an anti-inflammatory effect in the PD animal models (p curcumin, by which it protected substantia nigra neurons and improved striatal dopamine levels. Furthermore, two studies in this review displayed that curcumin treatment was also effective in reducing neuronal apoptosis and improving functional outcome in animal models of PD. Most of the preclinical studies demonstrated the positive findings while one study reported that curcumin had no beneficial effects against Mn-induced disruption of hippocampal metal and neurotransmitter homeostasis. The results demonstrated a marked efficacy of curcumin in experimental model of PD, suggesting curcumin probably a candidate neuroprotective drug for human PD patients.

  14. Animal Models, Learning Lessons to Prevent and Treat Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a unique injury syndrome caused by prolonged injury and repair imposed on an immature and developing lung. The decreased septation and decreased microvascular development phenotype of BPD can be reproduced in newborn rodents with increased chronic oxygen exposure and in premature primates and sheep with oxygen and/or mechanical ventilation. The inflammation caused by oxidants, inflammatory agonists, and/or stretch injury from mechanical ventilation seems to promote the anatomic abnormalities. Multiple interventions targeted to specific inflammatory cells or pathways or targeted to decreasing ventilation-mediated injury can substantially prevent the anatomic changes associated with BPD in term rodents and in preterm sheep or primate models. Most of the anti-inflammatory therapies with benefit in animal models have not been tested clinically. None of the interventions that have been tested clinically are as effective as anticipated from the animal models. These inconsistencies in responses likely are explained by the antenatal differences in lung exposures of the developing animals relative to very preterm humans. The animals generally have normal lungs while the lungs of preterm infants are exposed variably to intrauterine inflammation, growth abnormalities, antenatal corticosteroids, and poorly understood effects from the causes of preterm delivery. The animal models have been essential for the definition of the mediators that can cause a BPD phenotype. These models will be necessary to develop and test future-targeted interventions to prevent and treat BPD. PMID:26301222

  15. One Health and Food-Borne Disease: Salmonella Transmission between Humans, Animals, and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Maloy, Stanley

    2014-02-01

    There are >2,600 recognized serovars of Salmonella enterica. Many of these Salmonella serovars have a broad host range and can infect a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects. In addition, Salmonella can grow in plants and can survive in protozoa, soil, and water. Hence, broad-host-range Salmonella can be transmitted via feces from wild animals, farm animals, and pets or by consumption of a wide variety of common foods: poultry, beef, pork, eggs, milk, fruit, vegetables, spices, and nuts. Broad-host-range Salmonella pathogens typically cause gastroenteritis in humans. Some Salmonella serovars have a more restricted host range that is associated with changes in the virulence plasmid pSV, accumulation of pseudogenes, and chromosome rearrangements. These changes in host-restricted Salmonella alter pathogen-host interactions such that host-restricted Salmonella organisms commonly cause systemic infections and are transmitted between host populations by asymptomatic carriers. The secondary consequences of efforts to eliminate host-restricted Salmonella serovars demonstrate that basic ecological principles govern the environmental niches occupied by these pathogens, making it impossible to thwart Salmonella infections without a clear understanding of the human, animal, and environmental reservoirs of these pathogens. Thus, transmission of S. enterica provides a compelling example of the One Health paradigm because reducing human infections will require the reduction of Salmonella in animals and limitation of transmission from the environment.

  16. Epidemics of squirrelpox virus disease in red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris): temporal and serological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, B; Russell, P; Gurnell, J; Nettleton, P; Sainsbury, A W

    2009-02-01

    Squirrelpox virus (SQPV) causes a fatal disease in free-living red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) which has contributed to their decline in the United Kingdom. Given the difficulty of carrying out and funding experimental investigations on free-living wild mammals, data collected from closely monitored natural outbreaks of disease is crucial to our understanding of disease epidemiology. A conservation programme was initiated in the 1990s to bolster the population of red squirrels in the coniferous woodland of Thetford Chase, East Anglia. In 1996, 24 red squirrels were reintroduced to Thetford from Northumberland and Cumbria, while in 1999 a captive breeding and release programme commenced, but in both years the success of the projects was hampered by an outbreak of SQPV disease in which seven and four red squirrels died respectively. Valuable information on the host-pathogen dynamics of SQPV disease was gathered by telemetric and mark-recapture monitoring of the red squirrels. SQPV disease characteristics were comparable to other virulent poxviral infections: the incubation period was <15 days; the course of the disease an average of 10 days and younger animals were significantly more susceptible to disease. SQPV disease places the conservation of the red squirrel in jeopardy in the United Kingdom unless practical disease control methods can be identified.

  17. Biosecurity and the management of emergency animal disease among commercial beef producers in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Higgins, V; Bryant, M; Rast, L; McShane, C

    2016-11-01

    Australia places great importance on the prevention and management of emergency animal diseases (EAD), with strict quarantine measures offshore and at the border. Livestock producers are crucial for disease control onshore; however, limited information is available on commercial livestock producers' practices in relation to the management of disease risks. The aims of this paper are to investigate how commercial beef producers in Australia's Northern and Southern beef zones manage EADs and to identify drivers for effective biosecurity and EAD prevention. This paper forms part of a broader mixed methods research project involving an analysis of literature and current policies, qualitative semi-structured interviews with government and industry stakeholders and a cross-sectional study among beef producers. The cross-sectional study used a postal survey (n=182) and face-to-face interviews (n=34) to gather data on beef producers' knowledge and practices on biosecurity and EADs and their communication networks. Findings indicate that producers are uncertain about the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders involved in biosecurity and EAD management. This uncertainty may create confusion about EAD management and impact upon producers' willingness to report animal disease, with over 20% reporting the last veterinary contact more than five years ago and an additional 8.5% who had never contacted a veterinarian. Producers had a generally high awareness of the key sources of animal disease risk and they prioritise herd health planning as part of their everyday practices. Over 40% of producers had limited knowledge of the meaning of EAD; and EAD and biosecurity planning was given a low priority, primarily due to the perceived limited likelihood of an EAD event in Australia and the belief that EAD prevention is primarily the role of government. Only a moderate implementation of biosecurity practices, such as isolating incoming animals, having a single property entry point

  18. Nanoparticle-based sorting of circulating tumor cells by epithelial antigen expression during disease progression in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhanna, Nidal; Mepham, Adam; Mohamadi, Reza M; Chan, Harley; Khan, Tahsin; Akens, Margarete; Besant, Justin D; Irish, Jonathan; Kelley, Shana O

    2015-10-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be used as markers for the detection, characterization, and targeted therapeutic management of cancer. We recently developed a nanoparticle-mediated approach for capture and sorting of CTCs based on their specific epithelial phenotype. In the current study, we investigate the phenotypic transition of tumor cells in an animal model and show the correlation of this transition with tumor progression. VX2 tumor cells were injected into rabbits, and CTCs were evaluated during tumor progression and correlated with computerized tomography (CT) measurements of tumor volume. The results showed a dramatic increase of CTCs during the four weeks of tumor growth. Following resection, CTC levels dropped but then rebounded, likely due to lymph node metastases. Additionally, CTCs showed a marked loss of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) relative to precursor cells. In conclusion, the device accurately traces disease progression and CTC phenotypic shift in an animal model. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been used to predict disease prognosis. In this study, the authors developed a nanoparticle-mediated platform based on microfluidics to analyze the differential expressions of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) on CTCs in an animal model. It was found that the loss of EpCAM correlated with disease progression. Hence, the use of this platform may be further applied in other cancer models in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Animal models for the study of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver-related death in more than 300,000 people annually. Treatments for patients with chronic HCV are suboptimal, despite the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents. There is no vaccine that prevents HCV infection. Relevant animal models are important...... for HCV research and development of drugs and vaccines. Chimpanzees are the best model for studies of HCV infection and related innate and adaptive host immune responses. They can be used in immunogenicity and efficacy studies of HCV vaccines. The only small animal models of robust HCV infection are T...

  20. An agent-based model on disease management in potato cultivation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, F.C.A.; Hofstede, G.J.; Groot, J.C.J.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this project the host-pathogen system of potato (Solanum tuberosum) - late blight (Phytophthora infestans) was analysed as a model system to study management of crop-disease interactions. Resistant cultivars play an important role in sustainable management of the disease. We used an agent-based

  1. Tree diseases as a cause and consequence of interacting forest disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Cobb; Margaret Metz

    2017-01-01

    The disease triangle is a basic and highly flexible tool used extensively in forest pathology. By linking host, pathogen, and environmental factors, the model provides etiological insights into disease emergence. Landscape ecology, as a field, focuses on spatially heterogeneous environments and is most often employed to understand the dynamics of relatively large areas...

  2. Surgical Veterinary Oncology, is the companion animal truly a good spontaneous model for human disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirpensteijn, J.

    2009-01-01

    Prof. Jolle Kirpensteijn, DVM, of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine’s Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals has begun using a new method for treating cancer, with the cooperation of the University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMCU). This method involves injecting malignant tumours with

  3. Sensitivity analysis by experimental design and metamodelling : case study on simulation in national animal disease control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A.; Nielen, M.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Simulation is a frequently applied tool in the discipline of animal health economics. Application of sensitivity analysis, however, is often limited to changing only one factor at a time (OAT designs). In this study, the statistical techniques of Design of Experiments (DOE) and regression

  4. Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Weese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract disease is a common reason for use (and likely misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials in dogs and cats. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, guidelines for diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections were created by a Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. While objective data are currently limited, these guidelines provide information to assist in the diagnosis and management of upper and lower urinary tract infections in dogs and cats.

  5. Thinking path and method for establishing the disease/Chinese medicine syndrome conjugated pattern of a mammary hyperplasia animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Min; Zhai, He-ning

    2010-10-01

    Mammary hyperplasia (MHP) is the most commonly encountered mammary disease in women at the child-bearing stage. Especially, atypical hyperplasia which belongs to the precancerous category, is the disease for class I prevention of breast cancer. Therefore, advancing the clinical efficacy of MHP treatment is of critical importance. Chinese medicine (CM) and drugs show a peculiar effect in this field; the clinical or experimental researches concerning MHP treatment by CM compounds or patent drugs have been increasing gradually in recent years, but the thinking paths and methods for establishing the MHP animal model are divergent. Particularly, the disease/CM syndrome conjugated model (D/S model) has rarely been studied. For this reason, the pathogenetic mechanism, the establishment of an animal disease model, as well as the thinking paths and methods for establishing the D/S model of MHP are discussed and summarized preliminarily in this paper by the authors. This could provide a new way of thinking and method for creating the MHP model in modern medicine.

  6. Policy and science of FMD control: the stakeholders' contribution to decision making. A call for integrated animal disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M; Roger, P

    Effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)--prevention, surveillance and response--requires integrated animal disease management as a cooperative effort between stakeholders, scientists and decision makers, at all levels: local, national, regional and international. This paper suggests a process and outlines specific critical issues that need to be addressed in order to best use the science and technology that is available now and to develop new technologies that will lead to significant improvements. The overall objective is not to allow the disease or the disease control measures to damage, violate or destroy public health, the environment, or the economy, or to allow politics to drive disease control policies at the expense of the ethical relationship between man and animals. Critical issues of prevention, surveillance and response policies are examined, and specific recommendations are made to reduce the risk or effect of natural and deliberate introductions. For prevention: a) rapid portable diagnostics and provision of vaccines to control and eradicate the reservoirs of disease. b) alerts, leading to increased controls at borders, animal movement restrictions and biosecurity on farms. For surveillance: a) reporting of unusual symptoms, rapid diagnostics and identification of patterns. b) enhanced role of geographic information systems (GIS) linked to an IT system. c) collection, storage and sharing of disease information. For response policies: a) the role and implementation of stamping out and of vaccination. b) simulation exercises with stakeholder participation. For all aspects of FMD control, consideration should be given to: a) the composition, responsibilities and role of the balanced, permanently operational Expert Group in EU member states as specified in the EU FMD Directive. b) establishment of a balanced, permanently operational European Expert Group. c) establishment of both a European and an International FMD Task Force. Stakeholders need

  7. Expression of metallothionein-I, -II, and -III in Alzheimer disease and animal models of neuroinflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Penkowa, Milena; Espejo, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    . In Alzheimer disease (AD), a major neurodegenerative disease, clear signs of inflammation and oxidative stress were detected associated with amyloid plaques. Furthermore, the number of cells expressing apoptotic markers was also significantly increased in these plaques. As expected, MT-I and MT...

  8. MHC polymorphism under host-pathogen coevolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Beltman, J.B.; Boer, R.J. de

    2004-01-01

    The genes encoding major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules are among the most polymorphic genes known for vertebrates. Since MHC molecules play an important role in the induction of immune responses, the evolution of MHC polymorphism is often explained in terms of increased protection of hosts

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION: EVALUATION OF HOST-PATHOGEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malgré que les Mycovellosiella cajan est un important pathogène limitant la production de pigeonpea à travers la transmission de tâches de Mycovellosiella cajan sur les feuilles, il y a une connaissance limitée sur la formation structurale de l'hôte (pigeonpea) ou du fongi . cette étude était conduite pour évaluer toutes les ...

  10. Sumoylation at the Host-Pathogen Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van G. Wilson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many viral proteins have been shown to be sumoylated with corresponding regulatory effects on their protein function, indicating that this host cell modification process is widely exploited by viral pathogens to control viral activity. In addition to using sumoylation to regulate their own proteins, several viral pathogens have been shown to modulate overall host sumoylation levels. Given the large number of cellular targets for SUMO addition and the breadth of critical cellular processes that are regulated via sumoylation, viral modulation of overall sumoylation presumably alters the cellular environment to ensure that it is favorable for viral reproduction and/or persistence. Like some viruses, certain bacterial plant pathogens also target the sumoylation system, usually decreasing sumoylation to disrupt host anti-pathogen responses. The recent demonstration that Listeria monocytogenes also disrupts host sumoylation, and that this is required for efficient infection, extends the plant pathogen observations to a human pathogen and suggests that pathogen modulation of host sumoylation may be more widespread than previously appreciated. This review will focus on recent aspects of how pathogens modulate the host sumoylation system and how this benefits the pathogen.

  11. Generalized cerebral atrophy seen on MRI in a naturally exposed animal model for creutzfeldt-jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasanu Constantin A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic resonance imaging has been used in the diagnosis of human prion diseases such as sCJD and vCJD, but patients are scanned only when clinical signs appear, often at the late stage of disease. This study attempts to answer the questions "Could MRI detect prion diseases before clinical symptoms appear?, and if so, with what confidence?" Methods Scrapie, the prion disease of sheep, was chosen for the study because sheep can fit into a human sized MRI scanner (and there were no large animal MRI scanners at the time of this study, and because the USDA had, at the time of the study, a sizeable sample of scrapie exposed sheep, which we were able to use for this purpose. 111 genetically susceptible sheep that were naturally exposed to scrapie were used in this study. Results Our MRI findings revealed no clear, consistent hyperintense or hypointense signal changes in the brain on either clinically affected or asymptomatic positive animals on any sequence. However, in all 37 PrPSc positive sheep (28 asymptomatic and 9 symptomatic, there was a greater ventricle to cerebrum area ratio on MRI compared to 74 PrPSc negative sheep from the scrapie exposed flock and 6 control sheep from certified scrapie free flocks as defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Conclusions Our findings indicate that MRI imaging can detect diffuse cerebral atrophy in asymptomatic and symptomatic sheep infected with scrapie. Nine of these 37 positive sheep, including 2 one-year old animals, were PrPSc positive only in lymph tissues but PrPSc negative in the brain. This suggests either 1 that the cerebral atrophy/neuronal loss is not directly related to the accumulation of PrPSc within the brain or 2 that the amount of PrPSc in the brain is below the detectable limits of the utilized immunohistochemistry assay. The significance of these findings remains to be confirmed in human subjects with CJD.

  12. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians.

  13. Bottlenecks in domestic animal populations can facilitate the emergence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z; Tustin, Aaron; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Mabud, Tarub S; Levy, Katelyn; Barbu, Corentin M; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2015-07-07

    Faeces-mediated transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (the aetiological agent of Chagas disease) by triatomine insects is extremely inefficient. Still, the parasite emerges frequently, and has infected millions of people and domestic animals. We synthesize here the results of field and laboratory studies of T. cruzi transmission conducted in and around Arequipa, Peru. We document the repeated occurrence of large colonies of triatomine bugs (more than 1000) with very high infection prevalence (more than 85%). By inoculating guinea pigs, an important reservoir of T. cruzi in Peru, and feeding triatomine bugs on them weekly, we demonstrate that, while most animals quickly control parasitaemia, a subset of animals remains highly infectious to vectors for many months. However, we argue that the presence of these persistently infectious hosts is insufficient to explain the observed prevalence of T. cruzi in vector colonies. We posit that seasonal rains, leading to a fluctuation in the price of guinea pig food (alfalfa), leading to annual guinea pig roasts, leading to a concentration of vectors on a small subpopulation of animals maintained for reproduction, can propel T. cruzi through vector colonies and create a considerable force of infection for a pathogen whose transmission might otherwise fizzle out. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Mami; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5’ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequent...

  15. Calcineurin inhibition at the clinical phase of prion disease reduces neurodegeneration, improves behavioral alterations and increases animal survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Mukherjee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a long pre-symptomatic phase followed by rapid and progressive clinical phase. Although rare in humans, the unconventional infectious nature of the disease raises the potential for an epidemic. Unfortunately, no treatment is currently available. The hallmark event in prion diseases is the accumulation of a misfolded and infectious form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc. Previous reports have shown that PrP(Sc induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes in calcium homeostasis in the brain of affected individuals. In this study we show that the calcium-dependent phosphatase Calcineurin (CaN is hyperactivated both in vitro and in vivo as a result of PrP(Sc formation. CaN activation mediates prion-induced neurodegeneration, suggesting that inhibition of this phosphatase could be a target for therapy. To test this hypothesis, prion infected wild type mice were treated intra-peritoneally with the CaN inhibitor FK506 at the clinical phase of the disease. Treated animals exhibited reduced severity of the clinical abnormalities and increased survival time compared to vehicle treated controls. Treatment also led to a significant increase in the brain levels of the CaN downstream targets pCREB and pBAD, which paralleled the decrease of CaN activity. Importantly, we observed a lower degree of neurodegeneration in animals treated with the drug as revealed by a higher number of neurons and a lower quantity of degenerating nerve cells. These changes were not dependent on PrP(Sc formation, since the protein accumulated in the brain to the same levels as in the untreated mice. Our findings contribute to an understanding of the mechanism of neurodegeneration in prion diseases and more importantly may provide a novel strategy for therapy that is beneficial at the clinical phase of the disease.

  16. Preventive Role of Indian Black Pepper in Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, RN; MK, Jayanthi; HL, Kalabharathi; AM, Satish; VH, Pushpa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dementia is the clinical symptom of alzheimer’s disease. Brain cholinesterase levels and behavioural changes are the markers for Alzheimer’s disease and aluminium chloride is one causative agent for polymerization of tau protein and amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer’s disease. Effect of piper nigrum and its role in prevention of alzhimer’s disease and symptoms are well linked in this study. Aim: To study the effect of piper nigrum for the prevention of alzheimer’s associated histopathological, biochemical and behaviour changes in rat model. Materials and Methods: Twenty four rats were taken in this study. Their baseline behavioural parameters were noted and group was separated randomly in four. Rats were pretreated with piper nigrum and Alzheimer’s disease was induced. Biochemical and histopathological changes were noted at the end of experiment. Results: There was marked decrease in cholinesterase level, amyloidal plaque formation in rats brain who were pretreated with piper nigrum. At the same time there was decrease in escape latency time (ELT) and increase in memory in piper treated rats. Conclusion: Piper nigrum prove to be effective for prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. This finding has to be confirmed with studies including larger population. Further research on cholinesterase inhibitors, role of flavonoids on prevention of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease can be encouraged. PMID:26023568

  17. Going through the motions: incorporating movement analyses into disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Seidel, Dana P; Carlson, Colin J; Spiegel, Orr; Getz, Wayne M

    2018-04-01

    Though epidemiology dates back to the 1700s, most mathematical representations of epidemics still use transmission rates averaged at the population scale, especially for wildlife diseases. In simplifying the contact process, we ignore the heterogeneities in host movements that complicate the real world, and overlook their impact on spatiotemporal patterns of disease burden. Movement ecology offers a set of tools that help unpack the transmission process, letting researchers more accurately model how animals within a population interact and spread pathogens. Analytical techniques from this growing field can also help expose the reverse process: how infection impacts movement behaviours, and therefore other ecological processes like feeding, reproduction, and dispersal. Here, we synthesise the contributions of movement ecology in disease research, with a particular focus on studies that have successfully used movement-based methods to quantify individual heterogeneity in exposure and transmission risk. Throughout, we highlight the rapid growth of both disease and movement ecology and comment on promising but unexplored avenues for research at their overlap. Ultimately, we suggest, including movement empowers ecologists to pose new questions, expanding our understanding of host-pathogen dynamics and improving our predictive capacity for wildlife and even human diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Oysters and Vibrios as a Model for Disease Dynamics in Wild Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Frédérique; Wegner, K Mathias; Polz, Martin F

    2016-07-01

    Disease dynamics in the wild are influenced by a number of ecological and evolutionary factors not addressed by traditional laboratory-based characterization of pathogens. Here we propose the oyster, Crassostrea gigas, as a model for studying the interaction of the environment, bacterial pathogens, and the host in disease dynamics. We show that an important first step is to ask whether the functional unit of pathogenesis is a bacterial clone, a population, or a consortium in order to assess triggers of disease outbreaks and devise appropriate monitoring tools. Moreover, the development of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) oysters has enabled assessment of the infection process under natural conditions. Finally, recent results show the importance of microbial interactions and host genetics in determining oyster health and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Concomitant Astroglial Atrophy and Astrogliosis in a Triple Transgenic Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olabarria, M.; Noristani, H. N.; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 7 (2010), s. 831-838 ISSN 0894-1491 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : astroglia * Alzheimer's disease * hippocampus Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.186, year: 2010

  20. The effect of treadmill running on passive avoidance learning in animal model of Alzheimer disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Hosseini; Hojjatallah Alaei; Parham Reisi; Maryam Radahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Background : Alzheimer′s disease was known as a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and is characterized by dementia and severe neuronal loss in the some regions of brain such as nucleus basalis magnocellularis. It plays an important role in the brain functions such as learning and memory. Loss of cholinergic neurons of nucleus basalis magnocellularis by ibotenic acid can commonly be regarded as a suitable model of Alzheimer′s disease. Previous studies reported that exercise...

  1. Capgras delusion for animals and inanimate objects in Parkinson?s Disease: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Lucrezia; Piacentini, Sylvie; Soliveri, Paola; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola

    2015-01-01

    Background Capgras delusion is a delusional misidentification syndrome, in which the patient is convinced that someone that is well known to them, usually a close relative, has been replaced by an impostor or double. Although it has been frequently described in psychotic syndromes, including paranoid schizophrenia, over a third of the documented cases of Capgras delusion are observed in patients with organic brain lesions or neurodegenerative disease, including Parkinson?s Disease. Variants o...

  2. Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2017-12-15

    The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers. Selected emerging zoonoses including RNA viruses, Rift Valley fever, trypanosomiasis, Hanta virus infection, and other vector-borne diseases are discussed in detail. Also, coprophagous beetles are proposed as important vectors in the transmission and maintenance of infectious pathogens. An overview of the impacts of climate change in emerging disease ecology within the context of Brazil as a case study is provided. Animal Care and Use Committee requirements were investigated, concluding that ecology journals have low rates of explicit statements regarding the welfare and wellbing of wildlife during experimental studies. Most of the solutions to protect biodiversity and predicting and preventing the next epidemic in humans originating from wildlife are oriented towards the developed world and are less useful for biodiverse, low-income economies. We need the development of regional policies to address these issues at the local level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A single cidofovir treatment rescues animals at progressive stages of lethal orthopoxvirus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israely Tomer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an event of a smallpox outbreak in humans, the window for efficacious treatment by vaccination with vaccinia viruses (VACV is believed to be limited to the first few days post-exposure (p.e.. We recently demonstrated in a mouse model for human smallpox, that active immunization 2–3 days p.e. with either VACV-Lister or modified VACV Ankara (MVA vaccines, can rescue animals from lethal challenge of ectromelia virus (ECTV, the causative agent of mousepox. The present study was carried out in order to determine whether a single dose of the anti-viral cidofovir (CDV, administered at different times and doses p.e. either alone or in conjunction with active vaccination, can rescue ECTV infected mice. Methods Animals were infected intranasally with ECTV, treated on different days with various single CDV doses and monitored for morbidity, mortality and humoral response. In addition, in order to determine the influence of CDV on the immune response following vaccination, both the "clinical take”, IFN-gamma and IgG Ab levels in the serum were evaluated as well as the ability of the mice to withstand a lethal challenge of ECTV. Finally the efficacy of a combined treatment regime of CDV and vaccination p.e. was determined. Results A single p.e. CDV treatment is sufficient for protection depending on the initiation time and dose (2.5 – 100 mg/kg of treatment. Solid protection was achieved by a low dose (5 mg/kg CDV treatment even if given at day 6 p.e., approximately 4 days before death of the control infected untreated mice (mean time to death (MTTD 10.2. At the same time point complete protection was achieved by single treatment with higher doses of CDV (25 or 100 mg/kg. Irrespective of treatment dose, all surviving animals developed a protective immune response even when the CDV treatment was initiated one day p.e.. After seven days post treatment with the highest dose (100 mg/kg, virus was still detected in some

  4. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.

    2008-01-01

    and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation...... and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy...

  5. Climate teleconnections and recent patterns of human and animal disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Small, Jennifer L; Collins, Kathrine M; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Britch, Seth C; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E; Russell, Kevin L

    2012-01-01

    Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Although Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been known to follow periods of above-normal rainfall, the timing of the outbreak events has largely been unknown. Similarly, there is inadequate knowledge on climate drivers of chikungunya outbreaks. We analyze a variety of climate and satellite-derived vegetation measurements to explain the coupling between patterns of climate variability and disease outbreaks of Rift Valley fever and chikungunya. We derived a teleconnections map by correlating long-term monthly global precipitation data with the NINO3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly index. This map identifies regional hot-spots where rainfall variability may have an influence on the ecology of vector borne disease. Among the regions are Eastern and Southern Africa where outbreaks of chikungunya and Rift Valley fever occurred 2004-2009. Chikungunya and Rift Valley fever case locations were mapped to corresponding climate data anomalies to understand associations between specific anomaly patterns in ecological and climate variables and disease outbreak patterns through space and time. From these maps we explored associations among Rift Valley fever disease occurrence locations and cumulative rainfall and vegetation index anomalies. We illustrated the time lag between the driving climate conditions and the timing of the first case of Rift Valley fever. Results showed that reported outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred after ∼3-4 months of sustained above-normal rainfall and associated green-up in vegetation, conditions ideal for Rift Valley fever mosquito vectors. For chikungunya we explored associations among surface air temperature, precipitation anomalies, and chikungunya outbreak locations. We found that chikungunya

  6. Alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive deposits in human and animal prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haïk, S; Privat, N; Adjou, K T; Sazdovitch, V; Dormont, D; Duyckaerts, C; Hauw, J J

    2002-05-01

    Prion related disorders are associated with the accumulation of a misfolded isoform (PrPsc) of the host-encoded prion protein, PrP. There is strong evidence for the involvement of unidentified co-factors in the PrP to PrPsc conversion process. In this study, we show alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive deposits in the central nervous system of various prion diseases (sporadic, iatrogenic and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, and experimental scrapie of hamsters). alpha-Synuclein accumulated close to PrPsc deposits but we did not observe strict colocalization of prion protein and alpha-synuclein immunoreactivities particularly in PrPsc plaques. alpha-Synuclein is thought to be a key player in some neurodegenerative disorders, is able to interact with amyloid structures and has known chaperone-like activities. Our results, in various prion diseases, suggest a role for alpha-synuclein in regulating PrPsc formation.

  7. Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer L.; Collins, Kathrine M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Britch, Seth C.; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Although Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been known to follow periods of above-normal rainfall, the timing of the outbreak events has largely been unknown. Similarly, there is inadequate knowledge on climate drivers of chikungunya outbreaks. We analyze a variety of climate and satellite-derived vegetation measurements to explain the coupling between patterns of climate variability and disease outbreaks of Rift Valley fever and chikungunya. Methods and Findings We derived a teleconnections map by correlating long-term monthly global precipitation data with the NINO3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly index. This map identifies regional hot-spots where rainfall variability may have an influence on the ecology of vector borne disease. Among the regions are Eastern and Southern Africa where outbreaks of chikungunya and Rift Valley fever occurred 2004–2009. Chikungunya and Rift Valley fever case locations were mapped to corresponding climate data anomalies to understand associations between specific anomaly patterns in ecological and climate variables and disease outbreak patterns through space and time. From these maps we explored associations among Rift Valley fever disease occurrence locations and cumulative rainfall and vegetation index anomalies. We illustrated the time lag between the driving climate conditions and the timing of the first case of Rift Valley fever. Results showed that reported outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred after ∼3–4 months of sustained above-normal rainfall and associated green-up in vegetation, conditions ideal for Rift Valley fever mosquito vectors. For chikungunya we explored associations among surface air temperature, precipitation anomalies, and chikungunya outbreak

  8. Multifaceted role of sialylation in prion diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia V Baskakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian prion or PrPSc is a proteinaceous infectious agent that consists of a misfolded, self-replicating state of a sialoglycoprotein called the prion protein or PrPC. Sialylation of the prion protein N-linked glycans was discovered more than 30 years ago, yet the role of sialylation in prion pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Recent years have witnessed extraordinary growth in interest in sialylation and established a critical role for sialic acids in host invasion and host-pathogen interactions. This review article summarizes current knowledge on the role of sialylation of the prion protein in prion diseases. First, we discuss the correlation between sialylation of PrPSc glycans and prion infectivity and describe the factors that control sialylation of PrPSc. Second, we explain how glycan sialylation contributes to the prion replication barrier, defines strain-specific glycoform ratios and imposes constraints for PrPSc structure. Third, several topics, including a possible role for sialylation in animal-to-human prion transmission, prion lymphotropism, toxicity, strain interference and normal function of PrPC, are critically reviewed. Finally, a metabolic hypothesis on the role of sialylation in the etiology of sporadic prion diseases is proposed.

  9. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  10. Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer L.; Collins, Katherine M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Britch, Seth C.; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Extremes in rainfall (drought and flood) during the period 2004 - 2009 have privileged different disease vectors. Chikungunya outbreaks occurred during the severe drought from late 2004 to 2006 over coastal East Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands and in the later years India and Southeast Asia. The chikungunya pandemic was caused by a Central/East African genotype that appears to have been precipitated and then enhanced by global-scale and regional climate conditions in these regions. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred following excessive rainfall period from late 2006 to late 2007 in East Africa and Sudan, and then in 2008 - 2009 in Southern Africa. The shift in the outbreak patterns of Rift Valley fever from East Africa to Southern Africa followed a transition of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena from the warm El Nino phase (2006-2007) to the cold La Nina phase (2007-2009) and associated patterns of variability in the greater Indian Ocean basin that result in the displacement of the centres of above normal rainfall from Eastern to Southern Africa. Understanding the background patterns of climate variability both at global and regional scale and their impacts on ecological drivers of vector borne-diseases is critical in long-range planning of appropriate response and mitigation measures.

  11. What Animal Models Have Taught Us About the Safety and Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Matthew R; Aref, Mohammad W

    2017-06-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) have long been the gold-standard anti-remodeling treatment for numerous metabolic bone diseases. Since these drugs are excreted unmetabolized through the kidney, they are not recommended for individuals with compromised kidney function due to concerns of kidney and bone toxicity. The goal of this paper is to summarize the preclinical BP work in models of kidney disease with particular focus on the bone, kidney, and vasculature. Summative data exists showing positive effects on bone and vascular calcifications with minimal evidence for bone or kidney toxicity in animal models. Preclinical data suggest it may be worthwhile to take a step back and reconsider the use of bisphosphonates to lessen skeletal/vascular complications associated with compromised kidney function.

  12. Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.R.; Jeggo, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology allows scientist to amplify, copy, identify, characterize and manipulate genes in a relatively simple way. Exploitation of the technology to devise new products and translate these to the commercial sector has been remarkable. Molecular technologies are not difficult to establish and use, and can appear to offer developing countries many opportunities. However, developing countries should look in a different way at the apparent advantages offered. Whilst molecular biological science appears to offer solutions to many problems, there are a number of drawbacks. This desire to adopt the latest technology often overrides any considerations of the use of more conventional technologies to address needs. The conventional, and often more practical, methods already provide many specific tools in the disease control area. Changing the technology can also deflect critical resources into the molecular field in terms of laboratory funding and training. This may cause redundancy of staff, limit further development in conventional techniques, and polarize scientists into the older (less glossy) and newer (molecular) camps. Animal disease diagnosis still primarily utilizes conventional techniques such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). This will not change drastically in developing countries, but developments will combine such methods with more discriminatory molecular techniques, and a balanced and parallel development is needed. An understanding of the use and possible advantages of the various technologies is required by both scientists and policy-makers in developing nations. Vaccines based on molecular science could have a real impact in developing countries, but 'vaccinology' needs to examine both the animal (immunology of target species) and the disease agent itself. This is a research-based science and, as such, is expensive, with no surety of success. Developing countries should exploit links with developed countries

  13. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis, a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqiang Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. Generally, NAFLD in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR and type 2 diabetes (T2D, for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of NAFLD. On the contrary, quite a number of NAFLD subjects, especially in Asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabetic; however, few animal models are available for the research of non-obese NAFLD. Here, four approaches (here called approach 1 to 4 corresponding to the variable compositions of diets were used to treat tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis, which have a closer evolutionary relationship to primates than rodents. Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic histology, and the expression of hepatic lipid metabolic genes revealed that all four approaches led to hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury and hypercholesterolemia, but had no effect on body weight and adipose tissue generation, or glycemia. Hepatic gene expression in tree shrews treated by approach 4 might suggest a different or non-canonical pathway leading to hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the tree shrew displays hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, but remains non-obese and non-diabetic under high energy diets, which suggests that the tree shrew may be useful as a novel animal model for the research of human non-obese NAFLD.

  14. Defective glycolysis and the use of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in polycystic kidney disease: from animal models to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistroni, Riccardo; Boletta, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited renal disease characterized by bilateral renal cyst formation. ADPKD is one of the most common rare disorders, accounting for ~10% of all patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ADPKD is a chronic disorder in which the gradual expansion of cysts that form in a minority of nephrons eventually causes loss of renal function due to the compression and degeneration of the surrounding normal parenchyma. Numerous deranged pathways have been identified in the cyst-lining epithelia, prompting the design of potential therapies. Several of these potential treatments have proved effective in slowing down disease progression in pre-clinical animal studies, while only one has subsequently been proven to effectively slow down disease progression in patients, and it has recently been approved for therapy in Europe, Canada and Japan. Among the affected cellular functions and pathways, recent investigations have described metabolic derangement in ADPKD as a major trait offering additional opportunities for targeted therapies. In particular, increased aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) has been described as a prominent feature of ADPKD kidneys and its inhibition using the glucose analogue 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) proved effective in slowing down disease progression in preclinical models of the disease. At the same time, previous clinical experiences have been reported with 2DG, showing that this compound is well tolerated in humans with minimal and reversible side effects. In this work, we review the literature and speculate that 2DG could be a good candidate for a clinical trial in humans affected by ADPKD.

  15. Anticipating the Emerging of Some Strategical Infectious Animal Diseases in Indonesia Related to The Effect of Global Warming and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsul Bahri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global warming and climate change is changing the season, included flooding in one area and very dry in other area, changing the temperature and humidity. These changes will trigger changing of the life of biological agent (virus, bacteria, parasites and so on, variety of animal species, variety of vectors as reservoir host of animal with the role of transmitting the disease to other animal species, This condition will trigger the new animal disease (emergi