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Sample records for animal diseases brucellosis

  1. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

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    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  2. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed because of brucellosis. 51.5 Section 51.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis. (a) The claimant shall be responsible...

  3. Brucellosis: a political disease

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    Smith, B.; Roffe, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    With the challenges confronting North America's elk herds today, a bacteria that causes a nonfatal disease in a few elk herds seems an unlikely addition to the list. Fragmentation of habitat, dwindling bull-cow ratios, grazing competition from livestock on public rangelands, or the crowding of favorite hunting spots all seem like far more urgent matters to elk junkies. But a twist of fate an a national campaign to eradicate this seemingly innocuous bacterium have put brucellosis on the front burner.

  4. Brucellosis: An Unrecognized Zoonotic Disease in Indonesia

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    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis, is a disease caused by members of the genus Brucella . In Indonesia, brucellosis has known as a contagious reproductive disease in animals, however, only certain people know that brucellosis can be transmitted to human . Bovine brucellosis is characterised by one or more of the following signs : abortion, retained placenta . orchitis, epididymitis and, rarely, arthritis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and in milk . The Brucella organism is transmitted to human most commonly by ingestion of untreated milk or milk products or through the mucous membranes and wound of the skin . The severity of human disease varies, depending largely upon the infecting strain . Brucella abortus, B . melitensis. B . suis and B. canis are highly pathogenic for humans . Clinical symptoms of human brucellosis may include an intermittent fever, headaches, weakness, arthalgia, myalgia and weight loss . Occasional complications include arthritis, endocarditis, hepatitis granuloma, meningitis, orchitis dan osteomyelitis have also been reported . Brucellosis can also produce spontaneous abortion in pregnant woman . Diagnosis is based on the isolation of the organism and serology . Antibiotics are usually the mainstay of treatment and long-term treatment may be required . Brucellosis can be controlled by comprehensive campaigns to eradicate the disease by vaccination programme followed by test and slaughter of domestic animals which exhibit positive serologic reactions to brucellae.

  5. Brucellosis

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000597.htm Brucellosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brucellosis is an infectious disease that occurs from contact ...

  6. Application of the indirect enzyme-labeled antibody microtest to the detection and surveillance of animal diseases. [Brucellosis, cholera, and trichinosis in cattle and swine

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    Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.

  7. Human Brucellosis: Still an Unfamiliar and Misdiagnosed Disease in India

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    Smita Mangalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a disease with protean clinical manifestations. Despite many awareness programmes, it is still missed or wrongly diagnosed. This leads to chronic morbidity leading to misery and loss of working days. Aim and Objectives: To assess the microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of human brucellosis. Materials and Methods: Patients with positive brucella screening test constituted the study material. A detailed laboratory, clinical, epidemiological study along with response to the treatment was analyzed. Results: Seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be 1.75%. Brucellosis was clinically diagnosed in only 12.73% of cases. Fever, joint pain and low backache were the commonest symptoms. Close contact with animals and raw milk ingestion were the major sources of infection. Knowledge regarding brucellosis and its prevention was lacking in patients. Brucellosis was not considered as one of the differential diagnosis by the treating physicians. Conclusion: Brucellosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis in cases presenting with fever, low backache, arthritis and arthralgia. Laboratories should screen all the serum samples for brucella agglutinins by Rose Bengal Plate Test. Awareness regarding the prevention of brucellosis in the general population and regarding the existence of the disease among the doctors practicing in rural areas is needed

  8. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Brucellosis Among Animal Farmers of Yazd Province"

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    MH Salari

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis has remained a great problem of health in most of countries, which have failed in control of zoonosis infections. This disease is caused by species of Brucella and usually is transferred from animals to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among animal farmers of Yazd province. In this descriptive study, 933 animal farmers were investigated by serological tests and blood culture method. Then the data were analyzed by SPPS statistical program. The results showed that the frequency distribution of seropositive cases by MAT and STAT were 35 (3.2%; 25 (2.7% males and 10 (1.1% females. The highest and lowest incidences of seropositive cases were among age group of 21-30 (1% and more than 60 (0.3% years old, respectively. Of the 35 seropositive cases, 2MET positive were 5 (0.5%, while all blood cultures were negative.

  9. Ecological study of brucellosis in humans and animals in Khoy, a mountainous District of the IR. of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani, M.; H Mousakhani; Abbaszadeh, S; S Heydari Latibari; Saied Bokaie; L Sharifi

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: Brucellosis is primarily a contagious disease of domestic animals causing abortion, so it is considered one of the most serious of the current public health problems, especially in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was finding the incidence of human and animal brucellosis and detection of any correlation between human and animal brucellosis in Khoy, one of the endemic regions in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: We carried out an ecological study in Kh...

  10. Epidemiology of brucellosis in domestic animals caused by Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis and Brucella abortus.

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    Díaz Aparicio, E

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis is a disease that causes severe economic losses for livestock farms worldwide. Brucella melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis, which are transmitted between animals both vertically and horizontally, cause abortion and infertility in their primary natural hosts - goats and sheep (B. melitensis), cows (B. abortus) and sows (B. suis). Brucella spp. infect not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, which in turn can act as reservoirs of the disease for other animal species and humans. Brucellosis is therefore considered to be a major zoonosis transmitted by direct contact with animals and/or their secretions, or by consuming milk and dairy products.

  11. Ecological study of brucellosis in humans and animals in Khoy, a mountainous District of the IR. of Iran

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    M Rabbani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Brucellosis is primarily a contagious disease of domestic animals causing abortion, so it is considered one of the most serious of the current public health problems, especially in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was finding the incidence of human and animal brucellosis and detection of any correlation between human and animal brucellosis in Khoy, one of the endemic regions in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: We carried out an ecological study in Khoy district in North West of Iran. We ascertained all new cases of human and animal brucellosis in the 2001-2004 period. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient (r and square of correlation coefficient (r2. Seasonal incidence was calculated for each species."nResults: The cumulative incidence rate of human brucellosis was detected to be 175/100,000, cattle brucellosis was 391/100,000, and sheep and goat brucellosis was 105/100,000. We detected direct and incomplete correlation between human and cattle (r=0.096, r2=0.009, p value 0.742, human and sheep (r=0.267, r2=0.071, p value=0.355, and cattle and sheep (r=0.797, r2=0.635, p value=0.001."nConclusion: The most effective routes to control the disease include pasteurization or boiling of milk for human consumption, cooking all food stuff derived from animal sources, vaccination of cattle against brucellosis, isolation and slaughtering of seropositive reactors for brucellosis and providing protective clothing for humans dealing with infected cattle.

  12. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

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    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-12-22

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production.

  13. Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the Mexicali Valley, Mexico: literature review of disease-associated factors.

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    Salman, M D; Meyer, M E

    1984-08-01

    The world literature was searched to document the variables known to affect the initiation, spread, maintenance, and/or control of bovine brucellosis. Each variable was classified into 1 of 3 categories, depending upon whether it was related to the animal population, to management, or to the biology of the disease. These variables were documented and categorized as the initial step for a quantitative path analysis on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in a defined geographic area in northern Mexico.

  14. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

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    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  15. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E; Cross, P C; Beneria, M; Ficapal, A; Curia, J; Marco, X; Lavín, S; Marco, I

    2011-10-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  16. 9 CFR 311.15 - Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis. 311.15 Section 311.15... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.15 Brucellosis. Carcasses affected with localized lesions of brucellosis may be passed for human food after the affected parts...

  17. Global burden of human brucellosis: a systematic review of disease frequency.

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    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This report presents a systematic review of scientific literature published between 1990-2010 relating to the frequency of human brucellosis, commissioned by WHO. The objectives were to identify high quality disease incidence data to complement existing knowledge of the global disease burden and, ultimately, to contribute towards the calculation of a Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY estimate for brucellosis. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty three databases were searched, identifying 2,385 articles relating to human brucellosis. Based on strict screening criteria, 60 studies were selected for quality assessment, of which only 29 were of sufficient quality for data analysis. Data were only available from 15 countries in the regions of Northern Africa and Middle East, Western Europe, Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Central Asia. Half of the studies presented incidence data, six of which were longitudinal prospective studies, and half presented seroprevalence data which were converted to incidence rates. Brucellosis incidence varied widely between, and within, countries. Although study biases cannot be ruled out, demographic, occupational, and socioeconomic factors likely play a role. Aggregated data at national or regional levels do not capture these complexities of disease dynamics and, consequently, at-risk populations or areas may be overlooked. In many brucellosis-endemic countries, health systems are weak and passively-acquired official data underestimate the true disease burden. CONCLUSIONS: High quality research is essential for an accurate assessment of disease burden, particularly in Eastern Europe, the Asia-Pacific, Central and South America and Africa where data are lacking. Providing formal epidemiological and statistical training to researchers is essential for improving study quality. An integrated approach to disease surveillance involving both human health and veterinary services would allow a

  18. The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis

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    Pandey, Aseem; Cabello, Ana; Akoolo, Lavoisier; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A.; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of humans and animals with live attenuated organisms has proven to be an effective means of combatting some important infectious diseases. In fact, the 20th century witnessed tremendous improvements in human and animal health worldwide as a consequence of large-scale vaccination programs with live attenuated vaccines (LAVs). Here, we use the neglected zoonotic diseases brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTb) caused by Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), respectively, as comparative models to outline the merits of LAV platforms with emphasis on molecular strategies that have been pursued to generate LAVs with enhanced vaccine safety and efficacy profiles. Finally, we discuss the prospects of LAV platforms in the fight against brucellosis and BTb and outline new avenues for future research towards developing effective vaccines using LAV platforms. PMID:27537413

  19. Meningoencephalitis in brucellosis.

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    Kochar D

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis, more specifically neurobrucellosis, is a less commonly reported disease in India; although, animal brucellosis and seroprevalence in specific areas is well reported. We are reporting 4 cases of neurobrucellosis presenting as meningoencephalitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by serological test and agglutination titre was > 1:320 in all the patients. All these patients had close contact with animals and history of raw milk ingestion was present in 3 cases. The aim of presenting these cases is to create awareness among physicians while treating meningitis in persons, engaged in occupations related to brucellosis or having a history of ingestion of raw milk or milk product.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in man and domestic animals: A review

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    P. H. Bamaiyi

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most common worldwide zoonosis with 500,000 new cases every year in humans and infections in millions of animals. This infection is mainly acquired by humans through consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products from infected animals. Exposure can also occur occupationally in those who work closely with animals through contact with aborted fetuses and reproductive secretions. Animals acquire the infection from other infected animals through direct contact and vertical...

  1. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and human populations in the western mountains region in Libya, December 2006-January 2008.

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    Ahmed, M O; Elmeshri, S E; Abuzweda, A R; Blauo, M; Abouzeed, Y M; Ibrahim, A; Salem, H; Alzwam, F; Abid, S; Elfahem, A; Elrais, A

    2010-07-29

    Brucellosis is a global zoonotic disease, endemic in North African countries and around the Mediterranean.A prospective study of Brucella seroprevalence was conducted in north-western Libya (western mountains region). Blood samples collected over 13 months in the period December 2006 to January 2008 from 561 animals (goats, sheep, cattle and camels) and 546 human volunteers were tested for Brucella using the Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination test and ELISA assays. Amongst livestock, 31% of goats and 42% of cattle were seropositive. Human samples showed a high seropositivity of 40%, with 95 (43%) of the 221 positive samples positive for IgM, indicating active or recent infection. Control measures are needed to reduce this high prevalence of brucellosis in Libya.

  2. Using public health surveillance data to monitor the effectiveness of brucellosis control measures in animals.

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    KUJTIM MERSINAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current brucellosis control program in small ruminants consists in two major components the first is an intervention strategy through modification of host resistance by vaccinating the entire small ruminant’s population using live attenuated Rev-1 strain of B. melitensis. The second is a post vaccination monitoring and surveillance system (MOSS to monitor the efficacy of the mass vaccination. The MOSS is based on sampling vaccinated animals between 20 to 40 days post-vaccination and testing through Rose Bengal Plate Test in order to detect antibody presence and evaluate the vaccination sero-conversion and coverage. Rose Bengal test is recommended for screening of samples to determine flock prevalence and like other serological tests it cannot discriminate between natural infection and vaccination antibodies. The methodology used in the post vaccination MOSS during the mass vaccination campaigns of 2012 and 2013 demonstrated much strength upon which future MOSS should be built. However, the current system has also shown gaps in terms of missed opportunities to analyse information generated from other sources. Trends of disease in accidental hosts like humans have not been integrated within post vaccination MOSS. Given that the infection level cannot be estimated in small ruminants, data generated by public health surveillance system can be able to give an independent overview of the impact of the vaccination campaign. This paper will address in depth this issue by showcasing the value of integrated surveillance data in monitoring the success of brucellosis control measures in small ruminants as a one health approach in practise.

  3. Brucellosis Seropositivity in Animals and Humans in Ethiopia: A Meta-analysis

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    Tadesse, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneities of estimates and to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and humans in Ethiopia. Methods/Principal findings Data from 70 studies covering 75879 animals and 2223 humans were extracted. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) in series were the most frequently used serological tests. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates. The overall True Prevalence of brucellosis seropositivity in goats and sheep were estimated at 5.3% (95%CI = 3.5, 7.5) and 2.7% (95%CI = 1.8, 3.4), respectively, and 2.9% for each of camels and cattle. The prevalence was higher in post-pubertal than in pre-pubertal animals (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.6, 3.7) and in the pastoral than in the mixed crop-livestock production system (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 2.5, 3.2). The incidence rates of brucellosis in humans of pastoral and sedentary system origins were estimated at 160 and 28 per 100 000 person years, respectively. Conclusions The seroprevalence of brucellosis is higher in goats than in other species. Its occurrence is evocative of its importance in the country in general and in the pastoral system in particular. Public awareness creation could reduce the transmission of Brucella spp. from animals to humans and the potential of livestock vaccination as a means of control of brucellosis needs to be assessed. PMID:27792776

  4. EFFECTIVE METHODS FOR APPROPRIATE DIAGNOSIS OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS (REVIEW ARTICLE

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    MA. MOLAVI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common diseases among human that identification and control of disease transmission methods can promote public health. Clinical signs alone are not sufficient for brucellosis diagnosis. Hence, a sensitive, specific, rapid and inexpensive method is required. Early and appropriate diagnosis of this disease is effective in improving public health as well as disease control and eradication. Several serological tests for probable diagnosis of Brucella infection were used in evaluation of antibodies against Brucella. Using new methods such as Elisa has higher sensitivity and specificity than standard SAT test and complement fixation which can show both G and M immunoglobulins. It is also suitable for examining certain class of immunoglobulin. Research and studies have shown that ELISA is a complete method for in vitro detection of chronic disease, especially when other tests results are negative. In addition to this method, all unique and specific immunoglobulin in tested serum appear with high speed and accuracy. Another diagnostic method is PCR, which has higher sensitivity and specificity in comparison with serologic methods for diagnosis of human brucellosis. PCR shows similar sensitivity as 16srRNA using L7/L12 gene. It can be used in diagnosis of human brucellosis. Another diagnostic method is identification of different forms of IL-10 gene, which is a cytokine. It inactivates macrophages and infects the susceptible subject with brucellosis. Therefore, identification of different forms of IL-10 gene is considered as effective method for diagnosis of the disease. It’s recommended to use this new and effective method because many of these methods can overcome limitations of traditional methods.

  5. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

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    Catherine Kansiime

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda.This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method.All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process.The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities

  6. Vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of Brucella abortus S19 vaccine to control brucellosis on dairy farms in endemic areas of India.

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    Chand, Puran; Chhabra, Rajesh; Nagra, Juhi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is an economically important disease which seriously affects dairy farming by causing colossal losses. It can be controlled by practicing vaccination of animals with Brucella abortus S19 vaccine (S19 vaccine). In the present study, adult bovines were vaccinated on seven dairy farms with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine to control brucellosis. Serological screening of adult animals (N = 1,082) by Rose Bengal test (RBT) and ELISA prior to vaccination revealed the presence and absence of brucellosis on five and two farms, respectively. The positive animals (N = 171) were segregated and those which tested negative (N = 911) were vaccinated by conjunctival route with a booster after 4 months. The conjunctival vaccination induced weak antibody response in animals, which vanished within a period of 9 to 12 weeks. Abortion in 12 animals at various stages of pregnancy and post-vaccination was recorded, but none was attributed to S19 vaccine. However, virulent B. abortus was incriminated in six heifers, and the cause of abortion could not be established in six animals. The six aborted heifers perhaps acquired infection through in utero transmission or from the environment which remained undetected until abortion. These findings suggested that vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine by conjunctival route did not produce adverse effects like abortion in pregnant animals and persistent vaccinal antibody titers, which are the major disadvantages of subcutaneous vaccination of adult animals.

  7. Brucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century.

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    Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J

    2011-11-01

    Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful.

  8. Clinical and laboratory findings of 97 pediatric brucellosis patients in central Turkey.

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    Yoldas, Tamer; Tezer, Hasan; Ozkaya-Parlakay, Aslinur; Sayli, Tulin Revide

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is a disease transmitted to humans by consumption of unpasteurized animal milk, or through direct contact with infected animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, laboratory findings of pediatric patients with brucellosis. Data of 97 patients diagnosed with brucellosis between January 2000 and December 2010 were evaluated retrospectively.

  9. Brucellosis Ontology (IDOBRU as an extension of the Infectious Disease Ontology

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    Lin Yu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caused by intracellular Gram-negative bacteria Brucella spp., brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonotic disease. Extensive studies in brucellosis have yielded a large number of publications and data covering various topics ranging from basic Brucella genetic study to vaccine clinical trials. To support data interoperability and reasoning, a community-based brucellosis-specific biomedical ontology is needed. Results The Brucellosis Ontology (IDOBRU: http://sourceforge.net/projects/idobru, a biomedical ontology in the brucellosis domain, is an extension ontology of the core Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO-core and follows OBO Foundry principles. Currently IDOBRU contains 1503 ontology terms, which includes 739 Brucella-specific terms, 414 IDO-core terms, and 350 terms imported from 10 existing ontologies. IDOBRU has been used to model different aspects of brucellosis, including host infection, zoonotic disease transmission, symptoms, virulence factors and pathogenesis, diagnosis, intentional release, vaccine prevention, and treatment. Case studies are typically used in our IDOBRU modeling. For example, diurnal temperature variation in Brucella patients, a Brucella-specific PCR method, and a WHO-recommended brucellosis treatment were selected as use cases to model brucellosis symptom, diagnosis, and treatment, respectively. Developed using OWL, IDOBRU supports OWL-based ontological reasoning. For example, by performing a Description Logic (DL query in the OWL editor Protégé 4 or a SPARQL query in an IDOBRU SPARQL server, a check of Brucella virulence factors showed that eight of them are known protective antigens based on the biological knowledge captured within the ontology. Conclusions IDOBRU is the first reported bacterial infectious disease ontology developed to represent different disease aspects in a formal logical format. It serves as a brucellosis knowledgebase and supports brucellosis data integration and

  10. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis: First report of minimal change disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Sabanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is considered a great example of the complexity of clinical manifestations possibly affecting multiple organs or systems. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis have been documented in few case reports and one case series. Herein, we present a case of Nephrotic syndrome (NS due to minimal change disease in the course of acute brucellosis. A 53-year-old male farmer was admitted to our department with acute brucellosis and NS. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. Combined treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg, rifampicin (600 mg/day, and doxycycline (200 mg/day was initiated. Complete remission of NS was achieved at the end of the fourth week. One year later, the patient remained in complete remission of NS without any sign of relapse of brucellosis.

  11. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis: First report of minimal change disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanis, Nikolaos; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Paschou, Eleni; Tsotsiou, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Kavlakoudis, Christos; Vasileiou, Sotirios

    2016-05-01

    Human brucellosis is considered a great example of the complexity of clinical manifestations possibly affecting multiple organs or systems. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis have been documented in few case reports and one case series. Herein, we present a case of Nephrotic syndrome (NS) due to minimal change disease in the course of acute brucellosis. A 53-year-old male farmer was admitted to our department with acute brucellosis and NS. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. Combined treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg), rifampicin (600 mg/day), and doxycycline (200 mg/day) was initiated. Complete remission of NS was achieved at the end of the fourth week. One year later, the patient remained in complete remission of NS without any sign of relapse of brucellosis.

  12. A brucellosis disease control strategy for the Kakheti region of the country of Georgia: an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, K A; Boone, R B; Hill, A E; Salman, M D

    2014-06-01

    Brucellosis has been reported in livestock and humans in the country of Georgia with Brucella melitensis as the most common species causing disease. Georgia lacked sufficient data to assess effectiveness of the various potential control measures utilizing a reliable population-based simulation model of animal-to-human transmission of this infection. Therefore, an agent-based model was built using data from previous studies to evaluate the effect of an animal-level infection control programme on human incidence and sheep flock and cattle herd prevalence of brucellosis in the Kakheti region of Georgia. This model simulated the patterns of interaction of human-animal workers, sheep flocks and cattle herds with various infection control measures and returned population-based data. The model simulates the use of control measures needed for herd and flock prevalence to fall below 2%. As per the model output, shepherds had the greatest disease reduction as a result of the infection control programme. Cattle had the greatest influence on the incidence of human disease. Control strategies should include all susceptible animal species, sheep and cattle, identify the species of brucellosis present in the cattle population and should be conducted at the municipality level. This approach can be considered as a model to other countries and regions when assessment of control strategies is needed but data are scattered.

  13. A few points discussion of brucellosis purification work among animals%关于布鲁氏菌病净化工作的几点探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段亚良; 李璐; 付洋

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of aserious public healthy hazard of zoonotic diseas-es. Prevention and control of the disease should begin from the purification of ani-mal populations; and now detection technologies could be improved and systematic;then groups of regional purifier model could be created. purification purposes of brucellosis among animals should be achieved.%布鲁氏菌病是一种严重危害公共卫生的人畜共患病,防控本病宜从净化动物群体着手。现在的检测技术加以改进和系统化,可以建立群体区域净化模型,从而达到牲畜布鲁氏菌病净化的目的。

  14. Brucellosis - diagnostic dilemma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of a 20-year old student from Belgrade, who was admitted to the Institute of Infectious Diseases with fever, muscle and spine pains, strong headacke and malice. During the clinical examination bilateral sacroileitis was found. Serological analyses confirmed brucellosis. Epidemiological data showed that she lived in Kosovo and Metohia in 1997, where she consumed diary products from domestic animals this might be the reason of the acquired infection. With appropriate antibiotic therapy (aminoglycoside, doxicyclin, rifampicin, symptomatic therapy and rehabilitation the disease had favorable outcome; there was no recidive. The authors point out the importance of specific microbiological examinations of patients with fever of unknown origin, especially if the patient has the symptoms that are compatible with brucellosis. In our case it was sacroileitis, as a characteristic complication. As brucellosis is endemic in some parts of our country, there is always a possibility of brucellosis in general medical practice.

  15. Update on childhood brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Mohammad R H; Amiri, Mohammad J S

    2013-04-01

    In endemic regions of brucellosis, childhood brucellosis includes up to one-third of all cases of human brucellosis. The main source of infection in children is consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and traditional local foods containing dairy products. The older boys are more involved in animal care. Boys are more commonly infected than girls. Common symptoms and signs include fever, arthralgia, sweating, peripheral arthritis and splenomegaly. Peripheral arthritis especially monoarthritis is more common and the most commonly affected joints are hip and knee. All organs may involve during the course of the disease. Isolation of Brucella spp. from the blood, bone marrow or other tissue fluids is the hallmark of diagnosis. Serologic tests are the main tools of diagnosis of brucellosis in endemic regions. Standard agglutination test (SAT) with titers > 1:160 and the 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) test ≥ 1:80 are suggestive of active infection. Children older than 8 years should be treated with doxycycline for 45 days or 8 weeks plus gentamicin for 7 or 5 days respectively or doxycycline for 45 days and streptomycin for 14 days. Also doxycycline plus rifampin or cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for 45 days may be alternative regimens. Cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for six weeks is the regimen of choice for the treatment of patients younger than 8 years old. Gentamicin for 5 days plus cotrimoxazole for six weeks may be a suitable alternative regimen. The article presented few of the patents associated with Brucellosis.

  16. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  17. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  18. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Analysis For Disease Detection: Proof Of Principle For Field Studies Detecting Paratuberculosis And Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Henri; Köhler, Heike; Nicola, Commander; Reinhold, Petra; Turner, Claire; Chambers, Mark

    2009-05-01

    A proof of concept investigation was performed to demonstrate that two independent infectious diseases of cattle result in different patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of serum samples detectable using an electronic nose (e-nose). A total of 117 sera from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (paraTB, n = 43) or Brucella sp. (n = 26) and sera from corresponding control animals (n = 48) were randomly and analysed blind to infection status using a ST214 e-nose (Scensive Ltd, Leeds, UK). Samples were collected under non-standardised conditions on different farms from the UK (brucellosis) and Germany (paraTB). The e-nose could differentiate the sera from brucellosis infected, paraTB infected and healthy animals at the population level, but the technology used was not suitable for determination of the disease status of individual animals. Nevertheless, the data indicate that there are differences in the sensor responses depending on the disease status, and therefore, it shows the potential of VOC analysis from serum headspace samples for disease detection.

  19. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  20. Ovine and Caprine Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis) in Aborted Animals in Jordanian Sheep and Goat Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Assadullah; Ababneh, M Mk; Giadinis, N D; Lafi, S Q

    2010-10-28

    Two hundred and fifty five biological samples were collected from 188 animals (81 sheep and 107 goats) during the lambing season from September 2009 to April 2010 from the Mafraq region of Jordan. Sampled animals belonged to 93 sheep and goat flocks that had abortion cases in the region. One hundred and seven (41.9%) biological samples were positive for the omp2 primers that were able to identify all Brucella species in the collected samples which were obtained from 86 aborted animals (86/188 = 45.7%). Using the B. melitensis insertion sequence 711 (IS711) primers on the 107 omp2 positive samples, only 61 confirmed to be positive for B. melitensis. These positive samples were obtained from 28 sheep and 33 goats. The prevalence rate of B. melitensis was 27.1% (51/188) among aborted animals. For differentiation between vaccine strain and field strain infection, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method using PstI endonuclease enzyme was used. Vaccination with Rev-1 in the last year (OR = 2.92, CI: 1.1-7.7) and grazing at common pasture (OR = 2.78, CI: 1.05-7.36) were statistically significant (P ≤ .05) risk factors positively associated with the occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and goat flocks.

  1. Ovine and Caprine Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis in Aborted Animals in Jordanian Sheep and Goat Flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadullah Samadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty five biological samples were collected from 188 animals (81 sheep and 107 goats during the lambing season from September 2009 to April 2010 from the Mafraq region of Jordan. Sampled animals belonged to 93 sheep and goat flocks that had abortion cases in the region. One hundred and seven (41.9% biological samples were positive for the omp2 primers that were able to identify all Brucella species in the collected samples which were obtained from 86 aborted animals (86/188=45.7%. Using the B. melitensis insertion sequence 711 (IS711 primers on the 107 omp2 positive samples, only 61 confirmed to be positive for B. melitensis. These positive samples were obtained from 28 sheep and 33 goats. The prevalence rate of B. melitensis was 27.1% (51/188 among aborted animals. For differentiation between vaccine strain and field strain infection, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method using PstI endonuclease enzyme was used. Vaccination with Rev-1 in the last year (OR=2.92, CI: 1.1–7.7 and grazing at common pasture (OR=2.78, CI: 1.05–7.36 were statistically significant (P≤.05 risk factors positively associated with the occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and goat flocks.

  2. Brucellosis Vaccines: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani-Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is considered as an important zoonotic and worldwide infection with more than half of million human cases, which it occurs more and more in animals like as wild and live stocks. Sheep, cattle, and goats are animal samples that listed. Symptoms of this disease in human are consisted of: undulant fever, back pains, faint, spondylitis, arthritis and orchitis. This infection causes abortion in livestock, and this point is one of the important economic losses. Reduction in milk production is another problem in this disease too. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted by reviewing of the literatures, which are related to this concern, and also visiting PubMed, ISI and other websites. Results: We must pay heed that most zoonoses are maintained in the animal reservoir. These diseases, such as leptospirosis, Q-fever, brucellosis etc. which among them brucellosis can transfer to human via close contact with infected animals or consumption of unpasteurized dairy. Therefore, eradication of this infection in human population is depended on omission of that in possible methods among animals reservoir. Such methods are like test-slaughter and vaccination of livestock. Hence, vaccination is not alone method for controlling, but it is probably economic one. Conclusion: Nowadays a vaccine which is effective for this disease control in human is not available. Of course presented some different vaccines for this infection in livestock that cleave live attenuated, killed bacteria and sub unit. Therefore, for eradication of this disease some vaccines with more effectiveness protection mid fewer side effects are necessary.

  3. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  4. Implications of laboratory diagnosis on brucellosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, Sascha; Nöckler, Karsten

    2011-07-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with a huge economic impact on animal husbandry and public health. The diagnosis of human brucellosis can be protracted because the disease primarily presents as fever of unknown origin with unspecific clinical signs and symptoms. The isolation rate of the fastidious etiologic agent from blood cultures is low, and therefore laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serologic and molecular testing. However, seronegative brucellosis patients have been described, and antibody titers of diagnostic significance are difficult to define. Whether the molecular detection of Brucella DNA in clinical samples should be followed by long-term antibiotic treatment or not is also a matter of debate. The aim of this article is to review and discuss the implications of laboratory test results in the diagnosis of human brucellosis on disease therapy.

  5. Serological Investigation Test of Brucellosis in Domestic Animal%家畜布鲁氏菌病的血清学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    多里坤·努尔沙发; 闫晶华; 米吉提; 地力夏提

    2012-01-01

    In this article, to obtain current condition in management effectiveness and prognosis of brucellosis in domestic animal in our region and heighten the ability of different level administrations in earlywarning and management effectiveness of brucellosis ,carry on serological investigation test of brucellosis in domestic animal in several counties and providing some advise in brucellosis epidemic protection situation.%本文通过对新疆部分县家畜布鲁氏茵病的血清学调查,实际掌握新疆家畜布鲁氏菌病防控工作的真实效果,预测家畜布病疫情的流行态势,提高各级有关部门对动物布病的预警能力和防控效果,并且提出了一些对布病防控工作的建议。

  6. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunda John

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania. METHODS: This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick. RESULTS: Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from

  7. The Rose Bengal Test in human brucellosis: a neglected test for the diagnosis of a neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ramón; Casanova, Aurora; Ariza, Javier; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2011-04-19

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis affecting livestock and human beings. The human disease lacks pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory tests are essential for its diagnosis. However, most tests are difficult to implement in the areas and countries were brucellosis is endemic. Here, we compared the simple and cheap Rose Bengal Test (RBT) with serum agglutination, Coombs, competitive ELISA, Brucellacapt, lateral flow immunochromatography for IgM and IgG detection and immunoprecipitation with Brucella proteins. We tested 208 sera from patients with brucellosis proved by bacteriological isolation, 20 contacts with no brucellosis, and 1559 sera of persons with no recent contact or brucellosis symptoms. RBT was highly sensitive in acute and long evolution brucellosis cases and this related to its ability to detect IgM, IgG and IgA, to the absence of prozones, and to the agglutinating activity of blocking IgA at the pH of the test. RBT was also highly specific in the sera of persons with no contact with Brucella. No test in this study outperformed RBT, and none was fully satisfactory in distinguishing contacts from infected patients. When modified to test serum dilutions, a diagnostic titer >4 in RBT resulted in 87.4% sensitivity (infected patients) and 100% specificity (contacts). We discuss the limitations of serological tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis, particularly in the more chronic forms, and conclude that simplicity and affordability of RBT make it close to the ideal test for small and understaffed hospitals and laboratories.

  8. 9 CFR 78.43 - Validated brucellosis-free States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validated brucellosis-free States. 78.43 Section 78.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... BRUCELLOSIS Designation of Brucellosis Areas § 78.43 Validated brucellosis-free States. Alabama,...

  9. Disease: H00325 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mainly affects persons working with domestic animals. Although many countries have eradicated Brucella abor...H00325 Brucellosis Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution that

  10. The Questionable Prevailing Meat Inspection Regulations for Prevention of Tuberculosis and Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    OF.TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS ■ - East Germany - ’ ; \\ ’ ■ ’-] [Following is the translation of an article by G. Seidel in Das Deutsche...of our contribution to preventive medicine lies in the field of meat hygiene. Since today tuberculosis and brucellosis are prominent diseases in...the case we shall propose changes. The prevailing ,;■•’ measures for the control of brucellosis and tuberculosis in animals, and the changes

  11. Skeletal brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, M Y; Antin, S M; Gupta, Abhishek

    2011-03-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial infection causing severe public and socioeconomic problem, most prevalent in human beings in those areas in which infection of cattle, dogs, pigs, and goats is common. Out of a total number of 100 patients, there were 65 males (65%) and 35 females (35%). Forty patients lost to follow-up. Detection of specific antibodies was done by brucella agglutination test. In majority of the patients the titre was 1:320; the highest titre was 1:2560 and least titre was 1:40. All the patients were treated by combination therapy of doxycycline 100 to 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 to 900 mg/day and streptomycin one g/day (for high titres above 600 IU) for six weeks. To check the efficacy of treatment the titres were repeated after four weeks, in 42 (70%) the titres were negative, 1:40 in 8 (13%), 1:80 in 4 (7%), 1:160 in 4 (7%) and 1:640 in 2 (3%). Brucella is a zoonotic disease and found most commonly in person who handles the animal most frequently but can occur in other persons also by other modes of infection. The most common joint involved was sacro-iliac joint in 31 (52%) and least common joints involved were ankle and elbow 2 (3%) each. The patients responded well to three-drug regimen and their antibody titre came down drastically following four weeks of treatment.

  12. Brucellosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, L; Grant, W W; Alva, J D

    1975-03-01

    Brucellosis has always been an unusual disease in children and, concomitant with the control of the disease in domestic animals, reports have become sparse. The pediatrician, therefore, may not be aware of the protean clinical manifestations of childhood brucellosis. In 1973, nine cases occurred during a three-month period in El Paso, Texas. All cases were marked by spiking fevers and lethargy of four days to four weeks in duration. Tender hepatomegaly or splenomegaly was striking in seven patients. Other characteristics included epistaxis, arthralgia, myalgia, and weight loss. Leukopenia and leukemoid reaction were found in five patients. All of the patients tested had elevated liver enzymes. Febrile agglutinins were invaluable in screening for an early clue to diagnosis. When Brucella abortus antigen agglutinated serum from patients with a positive screen in dilutions greater than 1:320, a presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis was made. Brucella was isolated from the blood or bone marrow in seven patients and the time of incubation proved crucial for successful recovery. Bacterial blood cultures are usually discarded at ten days of age, as were cultures from the only two patients from whom the organism was not recovered. All of the cultures incubated for 12 to 15 days grew B. melitensis, an unusual causative species in the United States. However, several patients admitted eating cheese from the State of Chihuahua, Mexico, made from unpasteurized goat's milk, the presumed source of the infection. Within one to three days, all patients responded dramatically to antibiotics; tetracycline was given orally for 21 days and streptomycin intramuscularly for 14 days. Pediatricians caring for patients in areas where consumption of unpasteurized milk products is likely would do well to consider brucellosis in a child with obscure fever or toxic hepatosplenomegaly.

  13. Brucellosis: Epizootiologic and diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been known as a separate etiological entity for almost 150 years, brucellosis is, on a global scale, one of the most frequent diseases that is transferred from animals to humans. It is present as an endemic disease in almost all countries of the Mediterranean Sea, which indicates that a large number of aspects in connection with the control and epizootiology of this disease still remain unexplained. Three of the six types of brucella have been officially confirmed in our country as well. They are Brucella melitensis biotip 3, Brucella suis biotip 2 and Brucella canis. Brucellosis is endemically present in Kosovo and Metohija province and in southern Serbia proper; over the past few years, the spread of brucellosis in sheep and goats as primary hosts for B. melitensis to new territories, mostly in Vojvodina province, has shown that risk analysis is one of the main factors in selecting and implementing control programmes. A correctly selected set of diagnostic tests yields reliable data in most cases, but interpretations of results are prone to result in subjective assessments as well. A special problem in the serological diagnosis of brucellosis is the cross reactivity of brucellas and some other bacteria, often a weak immunological response of the animal, or that the type of brucella that causes the infection determines the sensitivity and specificity of the applied tests, most often screenings tests. Due to the big economic losses resulting from disease control and eradication, and the serious risk to human health, brucellosis still poses an epizootiological, and, in particular, a diagnostic challenge.

  14. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  15. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed...

  16. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  17. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  18. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine....

  19. 9 CFR 78.22 - Brucellosis reactor bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor bison. 78.22... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.22 Brucellosis reactor bison....

  20. A case of brucellosis mimicking Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Ozge; Teke, Turkan A; Gayretli Aydin, Zeynep G; Kaman, Ayse; Oz, Fatma N; Bayhan, Gulsum I; Tanir, Gonul

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. that is transmitted to humans by the ingestion of unpasteurized milk and other dairy products from infected animals or through close contact with secretions. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by a virus that is transmitted to humans by ixoid tick bites, contact with blood and tissue of infected animals or contact with infected humans. The symptoms of brucellosis are non-specific; it can mimic other diseases. In this paper, we present a case of brucellosis that was initially evaluated as CCHF. We emphasize that brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CCHF, especially in endemic countries.

  1. Brucellosis - diagnostic dilemma: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bojić Biljana; Vujošević Milica; Nikolić Svetlana; Dulović Olga; Grebenarević Jelica; Milinković Zoran; Gvozdenović Jasna J.

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a case of a 20-year old student from Belgrade, who was admitted to the Institute of Infectious Diseases with fever, muscle and spine pains, strong headacke and malice. During the clinical examination bilateral sacroileitis was found. Serological analyses confirmed brucellosis. Epidemiological data showed that she lived in Kosovo and Metohia in 1997, where she consumed diary products from domestic animals this might be the reason of the acquired infection. With appropriate ...

  2. Brucellosis in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, I W; Ho, M W; Sung, Y J; Tien, N; Chi, C Y; Ho, H C; Huang, C C

    2013-10-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most common systemic zoonotic diseases transmitted by consumption of unpasteurized dairy products or by occupational contact with infected animals. Brucellosis is rare in renal transplant recipients. Only 3 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of brucellosis with hematologic and hepatobiliary complications in a patient 3 years after renal transplantation. The mean time from transplantation to the diagnosis of brucellosis in these 4 reported patients was 5.1 years (range 17 months to 13 years). All patients had fever and constitutional symptoms, and all attained clinical cure after combination antibiotic therapy. Given the small number of patients, further study is needed to identify the characteristics of brucellosis in renal transplant recipients. Drug interactions and acute renal failure developed in our patient during antibiotic treatment. Therefore, we should monitor the levels of immunosuppressive agents frequently. Several studies have shown in vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis to tigecycline. In our patient, fever finally subsided after tigecycline administration. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tigecycline using Etest was 0.094 μg/mL. Tigecycline may be a potential option for treatment of brucellosis in the setting of transplantation.

  3. OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION AND CONTROL OF BRUCELLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka I. Vasileva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosisis an infectious and contagious disease caused by bacterial species of the genus Brucella. It is a major zoonosis with an important social and economic impact. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate and analyze the measures application for control and eradication of brucellosis occurred in the region of Pleven. Methods: We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study. Respective documents were reviewed. We analyzed Case report form and Questionnaire for persons suspected of having brucellosis. Conclusions were made of the possible source of the disease and the risk factors leading to infection of humans. Results: A focus of Brucellosis among the animals to private goat farm in August was detected. The connection to other existing in the country focuses has been proved. Two of the persons, having had contacts with the animals developed clinical symptoms of the disease; referenced persons have consumed fresh goat cheese and milk. A joint epidemiological investigation with representatives of responsible authorities was carried out and measures undertook to restrict and liquidate the focus. Conclusion: Brucellosis in man can only be prevented effectively by elimination of the animal reservoir. This necessitates a close interaction between the medical authorities concerned with public health authorities on the one hand and the veterinary authorities on the other.

  4. The use of skin delayed-type hypersensitivity as an adjunct test to diagnose brucellosis in cattle: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is a contagious disease that causes economic loss to owners of domestic animals due to loss of progeny and milk yield. Because cattle, sheep, goats, and to a lesser extent pigs are considered to be the source of human brucellosis, serological te

  5. Systematic review of brucellosis in the Middle East: disease frequency in ruminants and humans and risk factors for human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, I I; Abo-Shehada, M N; Hegazy, Y M; Holt, H R; Guitian, F J

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review of studies providing frequency estimates of brucellosis in humans and ruminants and risk factors for Brucella spp. seropositivity in humans in the Middle East was conducted to collate current knowledge of brucellosis in this region. Eight databases were searched for peer-reviewed original Arabic, English, French and Persian journal articles; the search was conducted on June 2014. Two reviewers evaluated articles for inclusion based on pre-defined criteria. Of 451 research articles, only 87 articles passed the screening process and provided bacteriological and serological evidence for brucellosis in all Middle Eastern countries. Brucella melitensis and B. abortus have been identified in most countries in the Middle East, supporting the notion of widespread presence of Brucella spp. especially B. melitensis across the region. Of the 87 articles, 49 were used to provide evidence of the presence of Brucella spp. but only 11 provided new knowledge on the frequency of brucellosis in humans and ruminants or on human risk factors for seropositivity and were deemed of sufficient quality. Small ruminant populations in the region show seroprevalence values that are among the highest worldwide. Human cases are likely to arise from subpopulations occupationally exposed to ruminants or from the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The Middle East is in need of well-designed observational studies that could generate reliable frequency estimates needed to assess the burden of disease and to inform disease control policies.

  6. Diagnostic Method, Prevention and Control Measures of Animal Brucellosis%畜间布鲁菌病的诊断方法与防控措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 王小军; 魏晔雄; 白艳艳

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is a kind of zoonosis that caused by Brucella bacteria, it brings serious damage to animal husbandry and human health. This paper introduces diagnostic method, prevention and control measures of animal Brucellosis etiology and serology, in hopes of providing reference for correlation research.%布鲁菌病(brucellosis)是由布鲁茵(Brucella)引起的一种人畜共患传染病,给畜牧业发展和人类健康带来严重危害。主要对布鲁菌病的病原学和血清学诊断方法以及防控措施作一介绍。以期为布鲁茵病的相关研究提供参考。

  7. Spinal brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tali, E Turgut; Koc, A Murat; Oner, A Yusuf

    2015-05-01

    Spinal involvement in human brucellosis is a common condition and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in endemic areas, because it is often associated with therapeutic failure. Most chronic brucellosis cases are the result of inadequate treatment of the initial episode. Recognition of spinal brucellosis is challenging. Early diagnosis is important to ensure proper treatment and decrease morbidity and mortality. Radiologic evaluation has gained importance in diagnosis and treatment planning, including interventional procedures and monitoring of all spinal infections.

  8. Observations on brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPINK, W W

    1953-01-01

    A special study was made of the problem of brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis in visits to Mexico City in 1948, to the FAO/WHO Brucellosis Centres at Montpellier (France), Florence (Italy), and Rijeka (Yugoslavia) in 1951, and to Spain in 1952. Br. melitensis infection in human beings causes more severe illness than Br. abortus infection. It develops primarily in rural communities living in close contact with goats and sheep; cattle and swine may also harbour the infection.In diagnosis, the agglutination test has proved the most satisfactory procedure; testing would be more uniformly reliable if a single antigen were used. Lack of funds and technical assistance have in many instances limited the bacteriological studies upon which a more definitive diagnosis of brucellosis depends.Antibiotics, Brucella vaccines, and colloidal preparations of gold and silver-used separately and in combination-have proved of varying therapeutic value, although response to antibiotics is less favourable than in cases of Br. abortus infection.While the drastic measures-involving the slaughter of about 10,000 sheep-taken in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, in the late 1940's, against an outbreak of brucellosis, is an inspiring example of how the disease can be eradicated, the removal of all diseased animals is rarely feasible economically. It is hoped that future research will reveal a practicable alternative in the immunization of sheep and goats against the disease.

  9. A rare disease in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis: acute brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Yetkin, Funda; Unlu, Serkan; Yilmaz, Sami; Bentli, Recep; Bazna, Sezai

    2014-01-01

    Some infectious organisms may give rise to acute pancreatitis; brucellosis, however, extremely rarely leads to acute pancreatitis. A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, the etiology of which was determined to be acute brucellosis. The patient was discharged without complications approximately 15 days after the initiation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline treatment. Brucella infections may rarely be complicated by acute pancreatitis. Thus, brucellosis should be remembered in the etiology of acute pancreatitis in regions such as Turkey, where Brucella infections are endemic.

  10. Animal models of neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Mara Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD, increases with age, and the number of affected patients is expected to increase worldwide in the next decades. Accurately understanding the etiopathogenic mechanisms of these diseases is a crucial step for developing disease-modifying drugs able to preclude their emergence or at least slow their progression. Animal models contribute to increase the knowledge on the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. These models reproduce different aspects of a given disease, as well as the histopathological lesions and its main symptoms. The purpose of this review is to present the main animal models for AD, PD, and Huntington's disease.

  11. Skin Rashes on Leg in Brucellosis: a Rare Presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease is endemic in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It is an important re-emerging infectious disease. This disease is closely associated with the evolution of mankind as an agrarian society linked to the practice of shepherding and popularization of animal husbandry. The patients with this disease are typically present with chills, fever, asthenia and sweating. This paper describes a patient with brucellosis and skin rashes on the leg. A 41-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd. The patient reported the loss of appetite, arthralgia and weight loss during previous five months. Finally, he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and high titer for Brucella agglutination test. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is very broad, ranging from asymptomatic infection to serious debilitating disease. Current patient had skin rashes on his leg. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute infections, especially if there is a history of fresh milk product ingestion and living in an endemic region.

  12. Skin Rashes on Leg in Brucellosis: a Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein; Ayatollahi, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease is endemic in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It is an important re-emerging infectious disease. This disease is closely associated with the evolution of mankind as an agrarian society linked to the practice of shepherding and popularization of animal husbandry. The patients with this disease are typically present with chills, fever, asthenia and sweating. This paper describes a patient with brucellosis and skin rashes on the leg. A 41-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd. The patient reported the loss of appetite, arthralgia and weight loss during previous five months. Finally, he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and high titer for Brucella agglutination test. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is very broad, ranging from asymptomatic infection to serious debilitating disease. Current patient had skin rashes on his leg. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute infections, especially if there is a history of fresh milk product ingestion and living in an endemic region.

  13. The quest for a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, J; DeBolle, X; Roop, R M; O'Callaghan, D; Tsolis, R M; Baldwin, C; Santos, R L; McGiven, J; Olsen, S; Nymo, I H; Larsen, A; Al Dahouk, S; Letesson, J J

    2014-08-01

    One Health is an interdisciplinary collaboration that aims at mitigating risks to human health arising from microorganisms present in non-human animal species, which have the potential to be transmitted and cause disease in humans. Different degrees of scientific collaboration and sectoral integration are needed for different types of zoonotic diseases, depending on the health and associated economic gains that can be expected from a One Health approach. Indeed, mitigating zoonotic risks related to emerging diseases with pandemic potential is different from mitigating risks related to endemic zoonotic diseases like brucellosis. Likewise, management of brucellosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in wildlife conservation areas is in essence different from mitigating transmission of a given Brucella species within its preferential host species, which in turn is different from mitigating the spillover of a given Brucella species to non-preferential host species, humans included. Brucellosis economic models often oversimplify and/or wrongly assess transmission between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts. Moreover,they may not properly value non-market outcomes, such as avoidance of human disease, consumer confidence and conservation biology issues. As a result, uncertainty is such that the economic predictions of these models can be questionable. Therefore, understanding the infection biology of Brucella species is a prerequisite. This paper reviews and highlights important features of the infection biology of Brucella species and the changing epidemiology of brucellosis that need to be integrated into a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

  14. Ovine and Caprine Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis) in Aborted Animals in Jordanian Sheep and Goat Flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Assadullah Samadi; M. MK. Ababneh; Giadinis, N. D.; LAFI, S. Q.

    2010-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty five biological samples were collected from 188 animals (81 sheep and 107 goats) during the lambing season from September 2009 to April 2010 from the Mafraq region of Jordan. Sampled animals belonged to 93 sheep and goat flocks that had abortion cases in the region. One hundred and seven (41.9%) biological samples were positive for the omp2 primers that were able to identify all Brucella species in the collected samples which were obtained from 86 aborted animals (86/188...

  15. Model-Based Evaluation of Strategies to Control Brucellosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Tao; Sun, Gui-Quan; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Jin, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis, the most common zoonotic disease worldwide, represents a great threat to animal husbandry with the potential to cause enormous economic losses. Brucellosis has become a major public health problem in China, and the number of human brucellosis cases has increased dramatically in recent years. In order to evaluate different intervention strategies to curb brucellosis transmission in China, a novel mathematical model with a general indirect transmission incidence rate was presented. By comparing the results of three models using national human disease data and 11 provinces with high case numbers, the best fitted model with standard incidence was used to investigate the potential for future outbreaks. Estimated basic reproduction numbers were highly heterogeneous, varying widely among provinces. The local basic reproduction numbers of provinces with an obvious increase in incidence were much larger than the average for the country as a whole, suggesting that environment-to-individual transmission was more common than individual-to-individual transmission. We concluded that brucellosis can be controlled through increasing animal vaccination rates, environment disinfection frequency, or elimination rates of infected animals. Our finding suggests that a combination of animal vaccination, environment disinfection, and elimination of infected animals will be necessary to ensure cost-effective control for brucellosis. PMID:28287496

  16. Human brucellosis in northwest Ecuador: typifying Brucella spp., seroprevalence, and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Abatih, Emmanuel; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Vizcaíno-Ordóñez, Laura; Calva-Pacheco, Jaime; González-Andrade, Pablo; Berkvens, Dirk; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Fretin, David; Saegerman, Claude

    2014-02-01

    Human brucellosis in Ecuador is underreported and based only on passive surveillance. Since 2008, brucellosis was removed from the list of communicable diseases in the country. Until now, the true human brucellosis picture has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the disease, identify risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity in humans, and isolate circulating strains of Brucella spp. in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Between 2006 and 2008, a large transect survey was conducted, based on blood sampling of people from the northwestern part of Ecuador (n=3733) together with an epidemiological inquiry. On the basis of three diagnostic tests used in parallel, the overall seroprevalence was estimated as 1.88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-2.38). Based on a multivariable random effects logistic regression analysis, the main risk factors associated with human brucellosis seropositivity were contact with livestock (odds ratio [OR]=3.0; CI 1.25-7.08), consumption of fetus and placenta (OR=2.5; CI 1.18-5.22), and involvement in activities at risk for brucellosis infection (OR=1.8; CI 1.00-3.35). Noticeable variation in brucellosis seropositivity among humans within cantons was observed. The circulating strain was Brucella abortus biotype 4. This study emphasized that contact with livestock, consumption of fetus and placenta, and occupational hazard group were all significant risk factors for the transmission of brucellosis among individuals in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Alongside encouraging the launching of educational campaigns against brucellosis, especially in rural areas where 36% of the population lives, controlling this zoonotic disease in animals will directly benefit its prevention in humans, especially because there is no safe and efficacious vaccine against brucellosis in humans.

  17. Descriptive Study of the Presentation of Human Brucellosis in Colombia (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopez Guarnizo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to conduct a descriptive study of the occurrence of human brucellosis in Colombia between 2000 and 2012, and, based on previous studies, to determine the prevalence and incidence of the disease, and the limitations for its timely diagnosis and recognition by the Colombian labor system. The research consisted of searching for and analyzing articles on human brucellosis published between 2000 and 2012 in Colombia. It included a phase of information gathering and unstructured interviews with representatives of brucellosis control programs and experienced professionals. We analyzed 17 studies of human brucellosis cases in personnel at risk in slaughterhouses, retailers and vaccinators for animal brucellosis programs: 10 of them reported prevalences between 0.14% and 10.4%, and seven evidenced seropositivity. Information revealed the limitations of the diagnosis, and it demonstrated the little knowledge of the medical community about this disease. In Colombia, there is no clear policy regarding this occupational zoonosis. Brucellosis is mentioned only in Decree 2566 of 2009, in which the new table of occupational diseases is established. The paper concludes that human brucellosis in Colombia is an underdiagnosed, and therefore underreported, disease since there is no mandatory reporting system on the subject.

  18. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  19. Brucellosis in India – a review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basappa G Mantur; Satish K Amarnath

    2008-11-01

    Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. It is still an uncontrolled serious public health problem in many developing countries including India. Brucellosis in India is yet a very common but often neglected disease. Currently, Brucella melitensis accounts for most recorded cases globally with cattle emerging as a important reservoir with the few cases of B. suis. Isolated cases of non-terrestrial brucellosis and continuing transmission from wild animals have raised important epidemiological issues. Routine serological surveillance along with high clinical suspicion and screening of family members of index cases would be essential in delineating the real magnitude of human brucellosis in endemic countries. Increased business and leisure travel to endemic countries have led to diagnostic challenge in non-endemic areas. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Advances in newer rapid, sensitive, and specific testing methodologies and alternate treatment strategies are urgently needed. A safe and effective vaccine in human is not yet available. Prevention is dependent upon increasing public awareness through health education programmes and safe livestock practices. Active co-operation between health and veterinary services should be promoted. This review collates world literature and its impact to the discovery, isolation and diagnosis and epidemiology along with the control measures adapted in the Indian scenario.

  20. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are common causes of human and livestock illness in Tanzania. Previous studies have shown that brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever account for a large proportion of human febrile illness in northern Tanzania, yet they are infrequently diagnosed. We conducted this study to assess awareness and knowledge regarding selected zoonoses among healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania; to determine what diagnostic and treatment protocols are utilized; and obtain insights into contextual factors contributing to the apparent under-diagnosis of zoonoses.We conducted a questionnaire about zoonoses knowledge, case reporting, and testing with 52 human health practitioners and 10 livestock health providers. Immediately following questionnaire administration, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 of these respondents, using the findings of a previous fever etiology study to prompt conversation. Sixty respondents (97% had heard of brucellosis, 26 (42% leptospirosis, and 20 (32% Q fever. Animal sector respondents reported seeing cases of animal brucellosis (4, rabies (4, and anthrax (3 in the previous 12 months. Human sector respondents reported cases of human brucellosis (15, 29%, rabies (9, 18% and anthrax (6, 12%. None reported leptospirosis or Q fever cases. Nineteen respondents were aware of a local diagnostic test for human brucellosis. Reports of tests for human leptospirosis or Q fever, or for any of the study pathogens in animals, were rare. Many respondents expressed awareness of malaria over-diagnosis and zoonoses under-diagnosis, and many identified low knowledge and testing capacity as reasons for zoonoses under-diagnosis.This study revealed differences in knowledge of different zoonoses and low case report frequencies of brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever. There was a lack of known diagnostic services for leptospirosis and Q fever. These findings emphasize a need for improved diagnostic capacity alongside healthcare

  1. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment....

  2. Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zaragoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.

  3. 76 FR 6322 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and Certification Requirements AGENCY: Animal and... are extending the comment period for an interim rule modifying brucellosis testing,...

  4. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  5. Research progress on animal Brucellosis%动物布鲁氏菌病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫广森

    2004-01-01

    布鲁氏菌病(Brucellosis)也称作“马尔他热”、“地中海热”或“波状热”.是由布鲁氏菌引起的一种人兽共患的传染病,严重危害人类健康和畜牧业发展。

  6. Bovine Brucellosis: Old and New Concepts with Pakistan Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abubakar*, Mehwish Mansoor and Muhammad Javed Arshed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered to be one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. According to OIE, it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the world after rabies. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats, camels and dogs. It may also infect other ruminants and marine mammals. The disease is manifested by late term abortions, weak calves, still births, infertility and characteristic lesions are primarily placentitis, epididymitis and orchitis. The organism is excreted in uterine discharges and milk. The disease is economically important, is one of the most devastating transboundary animal diseases and also a major trade barrier. Although not yet reported, some species of Brucella (e.g., B. abortus are zoonotic and could be used as bioweapons. Brucellosis has a considerable impact on animal and human health, as well as wide socio-economic impacts, especially in countries in which rural income relies largely on livestock breeding and dairy products. Considering the poor health infrastructure and manpower in rural areas, the focus should be on preventive measures coupled with strengthening the curative health care services for early diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of brucellosis is increasing particularly in large dairy herds in Pakistan. Several studies have been conducted using sero-diagnostic techniques to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in different provinces, districts and livestock farms in government and private sector.

  7. Mapping brucellosis risk in communities in the Republic of Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Jackson, Ronald; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Ward, David; Baghyan, Grigor; Stepanyan, Edik

    2010-11-01

    We describe the geographical patterns and identified factors associated with serological evidence of brucellosis in ruminants in Armenian communities during 2006 and 2007. The data comprised the two first complete years of the current national test-and-slaughter control programme for cattle, sheep and goats. Overall, 29% and 21% of the 858 communities involved in this study reported brucellosis in their respective cattle and small ruminant populations. The national brucellosis control data showed a widespread and uneven distribution of brucellosis throughout the Republic of Armenia for both cattle and small ruminants. The geographical areas of greater risk of communities having seropositive animals were different for cattle and small ruminant populations but most of the associated factors were similar. Several areas where the likelihood of disease occurrence was predicted poorly by the statistical models were also identified. These latter findings are indicative of either less than perfect testing and reporting procedures or unexplained epidemiological factors operating in those particular areas. The analyses provided valuable insights into understanding the brucellosis epidemiology at the community level which operates in small ruminant and cattle populations, and identified priority areas for implementing targeted risk-based surveillance and disease control interventions.

  8. Bovine and Caprine Brucellosis in Bangladesh: Bayesian evaluation of four serological tests, true prevalence, and associated risk factors in household animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasan, Md Shamim; Rahman, Md Siddiqur; Rahman, A K M Anisur; Berkvens, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the true prevalence of Brucella spp. and identify allied risk factors/indicators associated with brucellosis in the Dinajpur and Mymensingh districts of Bangladesh. A total 320 stratified random blood samples were collected and tested in parallel for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal (RBT), slow agglutination (SAT), and indirect and competitive ELISA. In addition, a structured questionnaire was administered to each household herd owner to gather information regarding potential risk factors. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify potential risk factors or indicators at animal level. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of brucellosis along with the test performances (Se and Sp). The estimated animal level true prevalence in cattle was 9.70 % (95 % CPI 5.0-16 %) and in goat 6.3 % (95 % CPI 2.8-11.0 %). The highest sensitivity was achieved by SAT ranges from 69.6 to 78.9 %, and iELISA was found to be more specific (97.4 to 98.8 %) in comparison with other tests. On the other hand, a significant level of (P Brucella seropositivity was found in cattle that breed naturally compared with those that undergo artificial insemination. In goats, exotic breeds were significantly associated (P Brucella seroprevalence compared with indigenous breeds. Goats with a previous records of abortion and/or retained placenta were also found to have significant levels (P < 0.05). Cows with previous abortion records showed higher odds (18 times) of being seropositive. None of the evaluated tests can be recommended to apply alone for the diagnosis of bovine and caprine brucellosis.

  9. Animal Models for Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S. Oz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models and cell cultures have contributed new knowledge in biological sciences, including periodontology. Although cultured cells can be used to study physiological processes that occur during the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the complex host response fundamentally responsible for this disease cannot be reproduced in vitro. Among the animal kingdom, rodents, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates have been used to model human periodontitis, each with advantages and disadvantages. Periodontitis commonly has been induced by placing a bacterial plaque retentive ligature in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. In addition, alveolar bone loss has been induced by inoculation or injection of human oral bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis in different animal models. While animal models have provided a wide range of important data, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the findings are applicable to humans. In addition, variability in host responses to bacterial infection among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of periodontal diseases. A practical and highly reproducible model that truly mimics the natural pathogenesis of human periodontal disease has yet to be developed.

  10. DNA Genotyping Suggests Recent Brucellosis Outbreaks in the Greater Yellowstone Area Originated from Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Brucella species infect a variety of livestock animals and humans world wide. In the United States, the disease with the greatest economic impact is caused by Brucella abortus in cattle. Although the disease has been mostly eradic...

  11. Antigen-specific acquired immunity in human brucellosis: implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P Cannella

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram negative bacteria with specific tropism for monocytes/macrophages. Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are primarily immune-mediated and not thought to be due to bacterial virulence factors. Acquired immunity to brucellosis has been studied through observations of naturally infected hosts (cattle, goats, laboratory mouse models, and human infection. Cell-mediated immunity drives the clinical manifestations of human disease after exposure to Brucella species but high antibody responses are not associated with protective immunity. The precise mechanisms by which cell-mediated immune responses confer protection or lead to disease manifestations remain poorly understood. Descriptive studies of immune responses in human brucellosis show that TH1 (interferon-gamma are associated with dominant immune responses, findings consistent with animal studies. Whether these T cell responses are protective, or determine the different clinical responses associated with brucellosis is unknown, especially with regard to undulant fever manifestations, relapsing disease, or are associated with responses to distinct sets of Brucella spp. antigens are unknown. Few data regarding T cell responses in terms of specific recognition of Brucella spp. protein antigens and peptidic epitopes, either by CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, have been identified in human brucellosis patients. Additionally because current attenuated Brucella vaccines used in animals cause human disease, there is a true need for a recombinant protein subunit vaccine for human brucellosis, as well as for improved diagnostics in terms of prognosis and identification of unusual forms of brucellosis. This review will focus on current understandings of antigen-specific immune responses induced by Brucella protein antigens that has promise for yielding new insights into vaccine and diagnostics development, and for understanding pathogenetic mechanisms of human

  12. Chest wall involvement as a manifestation of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rahmdel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis continues to be a common infectious disease in some parts of the world. Although the disease has different presentations, but chest wall involvement, as a manifestation of brucellosis is rare. In this study, we report three cases of chest wall involvement as manifesting feature of Brucellosis in Iran. They presented with a history of parasternal masses revealed to a diagnosis of Brucellosis and responded well to the treatment. Brucellosis may present with strange and unpredictable manifestations and can be misdiagnosed with tuberculosis and malignancies, especially in endemic areas for both TB and brucellosis.

  13. Lessons from the history of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, H V

    2013-04-01

    The disease we now know as brucellosis was first discovered in the 1850s in Malta. It came to the attention of British medical officers serving on the island after the Crimean War. It was easy to eliminate the disease in British servicemen, but very difficult to reach Maltese citizens. Over the decades, more and more Maltese were infected asthe control measures introduced were half-hearted and were often not even enforced. The work of Dr Themistocles Zammit showed that infected goats transmitted brucellosis and that banning use of their milk would be effective. Pasteurisation was not introduced onto the island until the 1930s, when the production of cheap, small sterile containers became possible. Transmission was also possible through sexual contact and by inhalation when people were crowded in hot airless conditions. Success in controlling the disease requires sensible, strict control of animals and the elimination of infected ones, but will fail without an educated public willing to help. In Malta, failure to control rogue flocks and small flocks kept for family use led to an epidemic caused by the sale of cheeselets (small cheeses). In 2005, nearly a century after Zammit's discovery, Malta was finally free of brucellosis.

  14. Retrospective and prospective perspectives on zoonotic brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo eMoreno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Brucella are pathogenic bacteria exceedingly well adapted to their hosts. The bacterium is transmitted by direct contact within the same host species or accidentally to secondary hosts, such as humans. Human brucellosis is strongly linked to the management of domesticated animals and ingestion of their products. Since the domestication of ungulates and dogs in the Fertile Crescent and Asia in 12000 B.P. and 33000 B.P., respectively, a steady supply of well adapted emergent Brucella pathogens causing zoonotic disease has been provided. Likewise, anthropogenic modification of wild life may have also impacted host susceptibility and Brucella selection. Domestication and human influence on wild life animals are not neutral phenomena. Consequently, Brucella organisms have followed their hosts' fate and have been selected under conditions that favor high transmission rate. The arm race between Brucella and their preferred hosts has been driven by genetic adaptation of the bacterium confronted with the evolving immune defenses of the host. Management conditions, such as clustering, selection, culling and vaccination of Brucella preferred hosts have profound influences in the outcome of brucellosis and in the selection of Brucella organisms. Countries that have controlled brucellosis systematically used reliable smooth live vaccines, consistent immunization protocols, adequate diagnostic tests, broad vaccination coverage and sustained removal of the infected animals. To ignore and misuse tools and strategies already available for the control of brucellosis may promote the emergence of new Brucella variants. The unrestricted use of low-efficacy vaccines may promote a false sense of security and works towards selection of Brucella with higher virulence and transmission potential.

  15. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  16. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public...

  17. 9 CFR 71.3 - Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle, pseudorabies, acute swine erysipelas, tuberculosis, Johne's disease, brucellosis, scrapie... brucellosis, are not affected with any other disease referred to in this section, and are not tick infested... interstate in accordance with part 85 of this chapter. (5) (6) Sheep or goats designated, with regard...

  18. Epidemiological Analysis of Brucellosis Disease in Taiyuan City from 2010 to 2014%2010~2014年太原市布鲁氏菌病流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳静; 张晓佳; 魏晓勇

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To describe the distribution of brucellosis cases in Taiyuan city from 2010 to 2014 and to put forward the suggestions on prevention and control. Methods:The diagnosed cases of brucellosis patients were con-ducted the epidemiological analysis based on the data that were collected in Taiyuan city according to Chinese Diseases Reporting Information System between 2010 and 2014. Results:The tendency of epidemic situation of brucellosis in Taiyuan city continued to increase,and the outbreak and deaths case didn′t appear. The brucellosis in 10 counties(cit-ies,districts)in Taiyuan city occurred with the characteristic of the developed livestock of agricultural counties,such as Yangqu county,Loufan county,Qingxu county relatively severe. The brucellosis disease attacked all the year round. The peak incidence of brucellosis was from April to August. The young and middle-aged male farmers easily suffered. Conclusion:It is essential for the government to be attracted the attention to the prevention and control of brucellosis in Taiyuan city. The cooperation between all departments should be strengthened. The comprehensive measures,mainly in-cluding quarantine,immunization tend to be adopted among animals and discover the epidemic disease of animal slaugh-ter. The quarantine must be strengthened while transporting. And large-scale breeding will develop. The epidemiological investigation into the human cases should be carried out in order to conduct standard treatment in a large scale. Health education should be strengthened. The stock administrative departments are responsible for administration of epizootic in-vestigation and disposition within their jurisdiction.%目的:描述太原市2010~2014年的布鲁氏菌病分布情况,提出防治建议。方法:对2010~2014年《中国疾病预防控制信息系统》中报告的布鲁氏菌病病例进行流行病学分析。结果:布鲁氏菌病疫情处于上升阶段,尚未出现暴发疫情和死亡

  19. 77 FR 42256 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Collection; Brucellosis Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension...-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... State-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program, contact Dr. Debbi Donch, Brucellosis Program Manager,...

  20. Infectious animal diseases: the wildlife/livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengis, R G; Kock, R A; Fischer, J

    2002-04-01

    The long-standing conflict between livestock owners and animal health authorities on the one hand, and wildlife conservationists on the other, is largely based on differing attitudes to controlling diseases of livestock which are associated with wildlife. The authors have attempted to highlight the fact that these disease problems are frequently bi-directional at the wildlife/livestock interface. The different categories of diseases involved are presented. A new dimension being faced by veterinary regulatory authorities is the spectre of emerging sylvatic foci of diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis, bovine brucellosis and possibly rinderpest; these diseases threaten to undermine national and international eradication schemes, which have been implemented and executed with significant success, and at great cost. Conversely, wildlife-based ecotourism world-wide has expanded rapidly over the past decade and is the source of lacking foreign revenue for many developing countries. Traditional subsistence farming is still the largest source of much-needed protein on some continents and this, together with the growth and hunger of historically disadvantaged communities for land, is forcing enterprises and communities with markedly different objectives and land-use practices to operate effectively in close proximity. Some land-users rely exclusively on wildlife, others on livestock and/or agronomy, while yet others need to combine these activities. The net result may be an expansion or intensification of the interface between wildlife and domestic livestock, which will require innovative control strategies that permit differing types of wildlife/livestock interaction, and that do not threaten the land-use options of neighbours, or the ability of a country to market animals and animal products profitably.

  1. Vaccines against diseases transmitted from animals to humans: a one health paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P

    2013-11-04

    This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherichia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive advances in public health. Opportunities for vaccine-based approaches to preventing zoonotic and emerging diseases that integrate veterinary and human medicine (the One Health paradigm) are emphasized.

  2. Etiological role of brucellosis in autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colakoglu Onder; Taskiran Bengur; Adnan Kirci; Tunakan Mine; Buyrac Zafer; Unsal Belkis; Aksoz Kadir; Yorukoglu Gazi

    2005-01-01

    To show that brucellosis may trigger autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), in addition to nonspecific liver involvement and toxic hepatitis, due to a class effect of tetracycline family used for treatment. We present a female patient admitted to our hospital due to partially improved fatigue and elevated liver enzymes following doxycycline and streptomycin usage for brucellosis. Brucellosis is endemic in our country, Turkey. It may involve any organ in the body. Liver is frequently involved. Doxycycline used for treatment occasionally may lead to hepatotoxicity. AIH is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver. Certain drugs (e.g. Minocycline), toxins, and viruses (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, EBV, etc.) can trigger AIH. Only one case of AIH probably caused by doxycycline and brucellosis was reported. We discuss the relationship between brucellosis, AIH, and hepatotoxicity of doxycycline. Brucellosis may trigger AIH.

  3. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj; Edmond Puca; Sadie Namani; Muharem Bajrami; Valbon Krasniqi; Lindita Ajazaj Berisha; Xhevat Jakupi; Bahrie Halili; Dhimiter Kraja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the diseas...

  4. Brucella ceti and brucellosis in cetaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo eMoreno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the first case of brucellosis detected in a dolphin aborted fetus, an increasing number of Brucella ceti isolates has been reported in members of the two suborders of cetaceans: Mysticeti and Odontoceti. Serological surveys have shown that cetacean brucellosis may be distributed worldwide in the oceans. Although all B. ceti isolates have been included within the same species, three different groups have been recognized according to their preferred host, bacteriological properties and distinct genetic traits: B. ceti dolphin type, B. ceti porpoise type and B. ceti human type. It seems that B. ceti porpoise type is more closely related to B. ceti human isolates and B. pinnipedialis group, while B. ceti dolphin type seems ancestral to them. Based on comparative phylogenetic analysis, it is feasible that the B. ceti ancestor radiated in a terrestrial artiodactyl host close to the Raoellidae family about 58 million years ago. The more likely mode of transmission of B. ceti seems to be through sexual intercourse, maternal feeding, aborted fetuses, placental tissues, vertical transmission from mother to the fetus or through fish or helminth reservoirs. The B. ceti dolphin and porpoise types seem to display variable virulence in land animal models and low infectivity for humans. However, brucellosis in some dolphins and porpoises has been demonstrated to be a severe chronic disease, displaying significant clinical and pathological signs related to abortions, male infertility, neurobrucellosis, cardiopathies, bone and skin lesions, strandings and death.

  5. The first outbreak of brucellosis in the region of Šabac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Denić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In Serbia brucellosis is a primary disease of the animals in the southern parts of the country. The aim of this study was to describe the first outbreak of human and animal brucellosis in the region of Šabac, Serbia. Methods. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify a source of outbreak and the ways of transmission of brucellosis infection in human population. A descriptive and analytical epidemiological methods (cohort study were used. Additional data included monthly reports of the infectious diseases from the Institutes of Public Health and data from the Veterinary Specialistic Institute in Šabac. The serological tests for human brucellosis cases were performed in the Laboratory of the Military Medical Academy; laboratory confirmation of animal brucellosis cases was obtained from the reference laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade. Results. Twelve cases of brucellosis were recorded from February 9 to September 1, 2004. Total attack rate was 8.1% (7.5% of males, 14.2% of females. Relative risk (RR of milk consumption was 8.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.63-13.38, and RR for direct contact with animals was 14 (95% confidence interval: 3.5-55.6. The prevalence of seropositive animals in 33 villages of the Mačva region accounted for 0.8%. Regarding animal species, sheep were predominant - 264 (95.7%. Out of a total number of seropositive animals, ELISA results were positive in 228 (88.7% of them. Conclusion. As contact epidemics generally last longer, it is probable that the implemented measures of outbreak control did reduce the length of their duration.

  6. 75 FR 81090 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... be treated for brucellosis with antibiotics. The brucellosis regulations, contained in 9 CFR part 78... disease control. APHIS has announced its intention to take a new approach to managing the bovine.... (See ``A Concept Paper for a New Direction for the Bovine Brucellosis Program,'' 74 FR...

  7. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-15

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular.

  8. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Bitrus, Asinamai Athliamai; Hamisu, Tasiu Mallam; Ayo, Ajurojo Oluwaseun

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14), sex (males - 19 and females - 181), and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120) were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and microtiter agglutination test (MAT). Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%), 10 (5.0%) and 18 (9.0%) were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (pbrucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds. PMID:27847417

  9. Seroepidemiological survey of human brucellosis in and around Ludhiana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moti Yohannes Gemechu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been done on public health significance of brucellosis using serology with little or no emphasis to risk factors. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate seroprevalence of brucellosis and assess epidemiological variables associated with human brucellosis. After obtaining verbal consent, 241 peripheral blood samples were collected from occupationally exposed groups with and without pyrexia of unknown origin. A structured questionnaire was prepared to gather risk factors, such as occupation, age, sex, history of consuming raw milk and other unpasteurised dairy products, direct contact with domestic animals, general knowledge about the route of transmission and awareness level. Purposive sampling was used to select the key informants. All serum samples were first screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and further analysed by Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT. The results revealed that 24.5% were positive by RBPT and diagnosis was established in 26.6% using STAT with a titre range between 80 and 1,280 IU/ml. Among occupational groups, prevalence was 17.8% in veterinarians and pharmacists but was not statistically significant. The most common clinical symptoms at presentation were fever, headache, back pain, arthralgia and myalgia. No female reactor was found and the mean age and standard deviation of seropositive patients was 34.69±10.97 years. Risk factors such as residence in rural area, participation in vaccination of animals and eating during working hours were significantly associated (P<0.05 with brucellosis by univariate and multivariate analysis. In conclusion, to deal with occupation-related disease like brucellosis, awareness on risk factors must be part of extension education campaign. Besides, regular surveillance of the disease needs to be integrated into control and prevention programme at a local and national level.

  10. Brucellosis in spondyloarthritis mimicking an exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Y; Eser, F; Erten, S; Yilmaz, O; Yildirim, P

    2014-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect the axial skeleton, entheses and peripheral joints and may have extraarticular manifestations such as uveitis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease, endemic in Middle East, Latin America, and Mediterranean countries, which may present manifestations that resemble other diseases posing serious problems of differential diagnosis. Some hallmarks of Brucellosis may mimic a spondyloarthritis flare. In this paper, authors present a clinical case of brucellosis occurring in a patient with spondyloarthritis. Clinical symptoms initially mimicked exacerbation of spondyloarthritis.

  11. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Cross, Paul C; Bengis, Roy G; Jolles, Anna E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood. We report infection patterns and fitness correlates of bovine brucellosis in African buffalo based on (1) 7 years of cross-sectional disease surveys and (2) a 4-year longitudinal study in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We then used a matrix population model to translate these observed patterns into predicted population-level effects. Annual brucellosis seroprevalence ranged from 8·7% (95% CI = 1·8-15·6) to 47·6% (95% CI = 35·1-60·1) increased with age until adulthood (>6) and varied by location within KNP. Animals were on average in worse condition after testing positive for brucellosis (F = -5·074, P brucellosis and pregnancy or being observed with a calf. For the range of body condition scores observed in the population, the model-predicted growth rate was λ = 1·11 (95% CI = 1·02-1·21) in herds without brucellosis and λ = 1·00 (95% CI = 0·85-1·16) when brucellosis seroprevalence was 30%. Our results suggest that brucellosis infection can potentially result in reduced population growth rates, but because these effects varied with demographic and environmental conditions, they may remain unseen without intensive, longitudinal monitoring.

  12. Assessment of performance of selected serological tests for diagnosing brucellosis in pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz, P.M.; Blasco, J.M.; Engel, B.; Miguel, de M.J.; Marín, C.M.; Dieste, L.; Mainar-Jaime, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Swine brucellosis due to Brucella suis is considered an emerging zoonotic disease whose control is based on serological testing and the subsequent culling of seropositive animals or the full depopulation of affected flocks. Here we assessed the performance of several serological tests (Rose Bengal T

  13. Sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in small ruminants in Hamedan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis with global distribution. The disease remains endemic in many countries including Iran, while its seroprevalence in endemic area is not well documented. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Hamedan province, west of Iran. Material and methods: A total of 3,250 blood samples from 2,550 sheep and 700 goats were collected randomly. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal, Wright standard tube agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol agglutination tests. Results: The seroprevalence rate of brucellosis in animals and flock level were found in 4.6% and 13.6% of goats and 3% and 27.9% of sheep, respectively. No evidence of correlation between gender and Brucella infection rate were found in animals (P>0.05. Statistical significant differences was seen between age groups and infection rate in goats (P=0.033, OR=2.1; unlike to sheep (P=0.373. Also, the infection rate in nomads population of sheep was higher than fix location animals (P=0.003; OR=1.9; unlike to goats (P=0.195. In animals with history of abortion and vaccination against brucellosis, seroprevalence rate was significantly lower than other (P<0.05. Conclusion: This is the first report of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Hamedan province. The design of a comprehensive control program including vaccination, screening, and culling of brucellosis-positive animals is recommended. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 399-405

  14. Epidemiology and risk factors of brucellosis in Alexandria governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meky, F A; Hassan, E A; Abd Elhafez, A M; Aboul Fetouhl, A M; El-Ghazali, S M S

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trend and to identify possible risk factors for brucellosis in Alexandria in northern Egypt. We enrolled 72 confirmed cases of brucellosis and 144 age-matched controls in this study. Participants were interviewed at home using a structured questionnaire. Working with animals, breeding goats and eating ice cream bought from street vendors were significantly associated (P brucellosis by univariate and multivariate analysis. Contact with infected animals and their products was the most important method of transmission.

  15. Quantitative analysis of risk factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenga, Justine A; Matemba, Lucas E; Malakalinga, Joseph J; Muller, Shabani K; Kazwala, Rudovick R

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is a neglected contagious bacterial disease of public health and economic importance. Nevertheless, its spread is not well known to many livestock farmers. Unmatched case control study was carried out to identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle and goats at the herd level in Mpanda, Mlele and Nsimbo districts of Katavi region, in Tanzania between September 2012 and July 2013. A total of 138 adult respondents were selected randomly for the interview using a structured questionnaire. The criterion for inclusion was to have at least one Brucella-positive animal in the herd while the control was chosen from among the herds which these animals tested negative. The presence of seropositive herds were statistically linked (P brucellosis between animals and humans and the implementation of disease prevention and control programmes.

  16. Analytical Review of Brucellosis in Jolfa City between 2010 and 2014

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    Safooreh Esmaeilzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : This study aimed to analyze existing data to achieve a comprehensive understanding of human brucellosis trend and its current situation in Jolfa city for implementing appropriate prevention and controlling program. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted on 91 patients with brucellosis who referred to Jolfa city health centers and private clinics from 2010 to 2014 and standard form of the brucellosis disease was completed for them. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16 and descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results : The mean incidence of brucellosis was 34.6 per 100,000. About 60.4% of the patients were male and 86.6% were living in rural. Disease was more common in men but there was no significant difference between the genders (x2 =2.72, p-value=0.85. The mean age was 36.7 years old (SD=1.78 with a range from 4 to 87 years old. The most cases of diseases were aged 40-50 years old. The most contagious seasons were spring (40.65% and summer (26.37%. About 85.7% of the patients had a history of animal contact and 78 % of the patients had a background of consuming unpasteurized dairy products. According to the findings, 94.55% of the patients were new cases and 38.5% had a history of disease in the family. The most cases (34.1% were in Komar-Sofla village. Conclusion : Despite the decrease of brucellosis disease in the East Azerbaijan province, trend of disease is increasing in Jolfa and brucellosis is still one of the common diseases. According to the results and considering the nature of the disease, applying ecological theories based on the multi-sectoral collaboration of the society can be effective in preventing the disease. ​

  17. 76 FR 48118 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis First Point Testing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...; Brucellosis First Point Testing of Cattle and Bison; Brucellosis Standard Card Test AGENCY: Animal and Plant...-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... (202) 690-2817 before coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on brucellosis...

  18. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania

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    MacMillan Alastair

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in

  19. Two cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to brucellosis: a review of hemolytic disorders in patients with brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskazan, Ahmet Emre; Dal, Mehmet Sinan; Kaya, Safak; Dal, Tuba; Ayyildiz, Orhan; Soysal, Teoman

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease associated with hemolytic complications, including thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and hemolytic anemia. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare clinical presentation of this disease. In this report, we describe the cases of two patients with brucellosis who presented with Coombs-positive AIHA. We also include a review of the literature on the hemolytic complications of brucellosis. Both patients were successfully treated with a combination of doxycycline and rifampicin in addition to steroids. In the medical literature, there are several cases of TMA associated with brucellosis, although only a few cases of Coombs test-positive AIHA have been reported. Antibiotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment, and the selection of antibiotics and duration of treatment do not differ between brucellosis patients with and without hemolysis. Although rare, the potential for brucellosis should always be kept in mind in patients who present with hemolysis, especially those living in areas where brucellosis is endemic.

  20. [Seroepidemiology of brucellosis in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Merino, A; Migranas-Ortiz, R; Pérez-Miravete, A; Magos, C; Salvatierra-Izaba, B; Tapia-Conyer, R; Valdespino, J L; Sepúlveda, J

    1992-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important and widely distributed zoonosis in Mexican cattle which also affects an unknown proportion of the human population. This report presents the brucellosis antibody levels registered in the National Seroepidemiology Survey (NAS) in sera obtained from 66,982 healthy persons from one to 98 years of age and determined by the test of plaque microagglutination. Seroprevalences by states ranged from 0.24 per cent in Morelos to 13.5 per cent in the state of Mexico. The national mean was estimated to be 3.42 per cent. The analysis showed no statistical differences for brucellosis antibody levels by urban and rural residence and by density of family sleeping areas (three or more persons vs. one or two persons per bedroom). Adults between 20 and 39 years of age had greater seropositivity and children from one to nine years had the least. Women were most affected and had 48 per cent more seropositivity than men. According to the information obtained in the study, brucellosis in Mexico has the following characteristics: it is related to gender but not to occupation; affects persons in all age groups, social strata and is independent of size of the community of residence. Historically, brucellosis has been an endemic disease in Mexico. Recently an increasing incidence has been reported, and this is possibly due to a better national notification system.

  1. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

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    H. K. Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, modified RBPT (mRBPT, standard tube agglutination test (STAT, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA. Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  2. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H. K.; Kotwal, S. K.; Singh, D. K.; Malik, M. A.; Kumar, Arvind; Rajagunalan; Singh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), modified RBPT (mRBPT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years) age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis. PMID:27536036

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers in two provinces in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Shumaila; Thomson, Peter C.; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; McGill, David M.; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Heller, Jane

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers and identify practices at the farm and household level that might pose a risk for humans contracting brucellosis. Between February and June 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted among smallholder farms (n = 420) in five districts of Punjab and two districts of Sindh province. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on farmers’ knowledge about brucellosis and the potential risks for contracting the disease that are present for dairy farmers and their families. Logistic regression and ordinal logistic models were used to investigate potential predictors for risky behaviours. The results show almost all farmers (97%) were not aware of the modes of transmission of brucellosis. Relating to risk, the majority (66%) of the farmers’ families were reported to consume raw milk and its products, live in shared housing with animals (49%) and not cover hand cuts during contact with animals (74%). All farmers performed at least one risky practice on a regular basis for brucellosis transmission from animal to human. A multivariable analysis highlighted that the respondents with no formal education and those who had not heard of the disease displayed greater risky behaviour. Poor understanding of the disease, presence of multiple risky practices on farm and at the household, and incorrect perception supports the need for an educational awareness program in order to ensure uptake of improved practices. PMID:28301498

  4. Epidemiology of brucellosis among cattle in Korea from 2001 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hachung; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Lee, Soo-Han; Lee, Won-Chang; Her, Moon; Jeong, Wooseog; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Do-Soon

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the outbreak patterns of bovine brucellosis in Korea from 2000 to 2011 were analyzed to understand the epidemiological evolution of this disease in the country. A total of 85,521 brucella reactor animals were identified during 14,215 outbreaks over the 12-year study period. The number of bovine brucellosis cases increased after 2003 and peaked in 2006 before decreasing thereafter. The majority of the bovine brucellosis cases were Korean native cattle, Han Woo. The numbers of human brucellosis cases and cattle outbreaks increased and decreased in the same pattern. The correlation coefficient for human and bovine cases per year was 0.96 (95% confidence interval = 0.86 ˜ 0.99; p brucellosis appeared to be affected by the intensity of eradication programs that mainly involved a test- and-slaughter policy. Findings from the present study were based on freely available statistics from web pages maintained by government agencies. This unlimited access to information demonstrates the usefulness of government statistics for continually monitoring the health of animal populations.

  5. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Teresia M; Jack, Sherman W; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L; Lawrence, Mark L; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provides more plausible arguments to achieve better understanding of infectious and zoonotic diseases. We have developed a model for interlinking annotations of these diseases. These diseases are of particular interest because of the threats they pose to animal health, human health and global health security. We demonstrated the application of this model using brucellosis, an infectious and zoonotic disease. Preliminary annotations were deposited into VetBioBase database (http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu). This database is associated with user-friendly tools to facilitate searching, retrieving and downloading of disease-related information. Database URL: http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu.

  6. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka

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    D P Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. Results: We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Conclusion: Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  7. Clinical presentations and diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Metan, Gökhan; Alp, Emine

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Brucella species. The disease remains a significant economic and public health problem particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are variable and often nonspecific, simulating infectious and noninfectious diseases. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common focal complication of brucellosis and morbidity. Mortality rate due to brucellosis is low, mostly secondary to endocarditis and central nerve involvement of disease. The diagnosis of brucellosis depends on the clinical presentations and laboratory tests. Detection of Brucella species by culture method is sometimes unsuccessful; therefore, serological tests are preferred. These tests are easy to perform, and results can be obtained within a short span of time. Several serologic tests have been developed for the diagnosis of human brucellosis, including the standard agglutination tube (SAT) test, anti-human globulin (Coombs) test, indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAT is the primary test used in many clinical laboratories. IFA and ELISA are simple and reliable for the detection of immunoglobulin classes especially in complicated cases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is highly sensitive and specific for the determination of Brucella spp. from peripheral blood and other tissues. Recent patents are especially based on molecular assays in the diagnosis of brucellosis. However, PCR is still expensive and may not be appropriate for daily practice.

  8. Asymptomatic brucellosis infection in humans: implications for diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Q; Lu, Y; Yuan, X; Qiu, Y; Xu, J; Li, W; Ke, Y; Yu, Y; Huang, L; Wang, Y; Chen, Z

    2013-09-01

    Human brucellosis is mainly caused by contact with Brucella-infected animals and their secretions and carcasses. Individuals who are continuously in contact with animals are considered to be at a high risk but only some show symptoms and are diagnosed as cases of brucellosis. Here, we showed that asymptomatic brucellosis infections occur among humans. Asymptomatic infections mainly result from less frequent contact with Brucella and/or contact with low-virulence Brucella. In our study, patients with asymptomatic infection had low antibody titres and different contact patterns. Awareness of asymptomatic infection is important for early diagnosis of brucellosis and prevention of chronic infection.

  9. Disease and animal research: a meeting review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling V. Sun

    2011-01-01

    @@ Animal models have been playing an important role in disease research.They have advanced our knowledge about the genetics, development, environmental effects, and in turn, the mechanism of diseases.A recent review has pointed out that one-third of the high-impact animal research published in seven leading jourhals has been through clinical trial, and one-tenth of these studies have succeeded and been applied to disease treatment (Hackam and Redelmeier, 2006; van der Worp et al., 2010).

  10. Valvular Involvement in Brucellosis

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    Dohaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Brucella endocarditis, although an uncommon complication of brucellosis, is the main cause of the mortality related to this disease. The best therapy is a combination of antibiotic administration with valve replacement. After treatment of the first episode of endocarditis, new infection may be occurred as a relapse or reinfection. Case Presentation In this report, we described a patient with brucella endocarditis complicated with a reinfection of the mechanical prosthetic valve after one year of follow-up. Conclusions Both medical and surgical management should be done for better treatment of brucella endocarditis. Repeat infection is a problem during follow-up.

  11. Animals: Disease Risks for People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and others. The symptoms caused by these diseases vary, but may include pinpoint (or larger) blood spots on the skin and rashes, joint pain, muscle ache, fatigue and headache. Water-borne diseases People who swim in water frequented ...

  12. Engineering large animal models of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Sheets, Timothy P; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site-specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of gene editing tools we will see a dramatic increase in animal model resources available for both the study of human disease and the translation of this knowledge into the clinic. Comparative pathology will be central to the productive use of these animal models and the successful translation of new therapeutic strategies.

  13. Evaluation of Isfahan Inhabitant Attitude About Brucellosis and Common its Herbal Treatment

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    Ghomashlooyan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis, also called Malta fever, is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions. Brucella species are small, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped (coccobacilli bacteria. Objectives The aim of this study is to perform an evaluation of Isfahan inhabitant attitude about brucellosis and its common herbal treatment. Patients and Methods This evaluation was a simple random sample study, which was carried out on 162 people in the city of Isfahan, Iran, by means of questionnaires. The data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows (Version 21.0. Results Of 162 people that were interviewed, 90 (55.6% patients were male and the other were female. Of these, 74 (45.7% patients were single and 88 (54.3% were married. Forty-three (26.5% participants lived in the city. The average age of participants was 11.51 ± 29.11 years. There is no significant relationship between age, gender, education level, residence, and people familiar with the disease brucellosis, herbal treatment for brucellosis (P > 0.05. Conclusions Our data suggest that the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of people in Isfahan, Iran, show no relationship with the attitude of individuals regarding brucellosis and towards common herbal treatments for the disease.

  14. The use of live vaccine for vaccination of human beings against brucellosis in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERSHILOVA, P A

    1961-01-01

    The great majority of human brucellosis cases in the USSR are caused by contact with infected sheep and goats. Extensive action has been taken to prevent human infection and to reduce the incidence among farm animals, the main prophylactic measure in recent years being vaccination with live brucellosis vaccine. The author summarizes the steps leading to the development of a satisfactory vaccine and gives a brief description of the method of preparation. Discussing the results obtained, she states that there has been a nearly 60% reduction in the number of human cases over the period 1952-58.The subcutaneous route of administration is usually resorted to, but preliminary figures suggest that cutaneous vaccination is equally effective immunogenically, although in persons who have suffered from active brucellosis it causes strong reactions and may lead to exacerbation of the disease. Research is going forward into the development of a cutaneous vaccine capable of general use.

  15. [Brucellosis, an overview and current aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, Patrick; Zange, Sabine; Zöller, Lothar; Erkel, Joseph; Robert Thoma, Bryan

    2016-07-01

    Although brucellosis, a zoonosis mostly associated with sheep, goats and cattle, is not endemic in Germany, it is a relevant imported infectious disease. If patients suffer from fever of unknown origin after a stay in highly endemic countries like the Mediterranean area or the Arab world, it is mandatory to formally exclude brucellosis. Cultural methods are the diagnostic gold standard, but due to special methodical and infrastructural requirements it is essential to inform the laboratory at suspicion of infection. The treatment of brucellosis is challenging and usually based on a long-term combination regime using doxycycline and rifampin for at least 6 weeks.

  16. Transgenic animals resistant to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiley, L

    2016-04-01

    The list of transgenic animals developed to test ways of producing livestock resistant to infectious disease continues to grow. Although the basic techniques for generating transgenic animals have not changed very much in the ten years since they were last reviewed for the World Organisation for Animal Health, one recent fundamental technological advance stands to revolutionise genome engineering. The advent of technically simple and efficient site-specific gene targeting has profound implications for genetically modifying livestock species.

  17. Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Bertu, Wilson J; Ocholi, Reuben A; Gusi, Amahyel M; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Sue; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences.

  18. Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Ducrotoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences.

  19. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14, sex (males - 19 and females - 181, and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120 were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, and microtiter agglutination test (MAT. Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%, 10 (5.0% and 18 (9.0% were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (p<0.05. Conclusion: The presence of Brucella abortus antigen in the sera of slaughtered cattle in Gombe state poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to carry out further epidemiological studies on fulani herdsmen and cattle herds in the study area, in order to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence and perpetuation of brucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds.

  20. Review of clinical and laboratory features of human Brucellosis

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    Mantur B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Brucella spp. continues to pose a human health risk globally despite strides in eradicating the disease from domestic animals. Brucellosis has been an emerging disease since the discovery of Brucella melitensis by Sir David Bruce in 1887. Although many countries have eradicated B. abortus from cattle, in some areas B. melitensis and B. suis have emerged as causes of this infection in cattle, leading to human infections. Currently B. melitensis remains the principal cause of human brucellosis worldwide including India. The recent isolation of distinct strains of Brucella from marine mammals as well as humans is an indicator of an emerging zoonotic disease. Brucellosis in endemic and non-endemic regions remains a diagnostic puzzle due to misleading non-specific manifestations and increasing unusual presentations. Fewer than 10% of human cases of brucellosis may be clinically recognized and treated or reported. Routine serological surveillance is not practiced even in Brucella - endemic countries and we suggest that this should be a part of laboratory testing coupled with a high index of clinical suspicion to improve the level of case detection. The screening of family members of index cases of acute brucellosis in an endemic area should be undertaken to pick up additional unrecognised cases. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and automated detection systems for Brucella spp. are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time to decrease morbidity / mortality. The history of travel to endemic countries along with exposure to animals and exotic foods are usually critical to making the clinical diagnosis. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Therefore alertness of clinician and close collaboration with microbiologist are essential even in endemic areas to correctly diagnose and treat this protean human infection. Existing treatment options, largely based on

  1. Animal models for diseases of respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latest trends in understanding of respiratory diseases in human beings can be derived from thorough clinical studies of these diseases occurring in man, but conducting such studies in man is difficult in terms of experimental manipulation. In the last 2 decades, various types of experimental respiratory disease models has been developed and utilized by investigators, which have contributed a lot to the understanding of respiratory diseases in man, but only little investigation has been done on the naturally occurring pulmonary diseases of animals as potential models which could have added to our knowledge. There are certain selected examples of spontaneous pulmonary disease in animals that may serve as exploitable models for human chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, interstitial lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyaline membrane disease, and bronchial asthma.

  2. A bacterial engineered glycoprotein as a novel antigen for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocchini, Andrés E; Serantes, Diego A Rey; Melli, Luciano J; Guidolin, Leticia S; Iwashkiw, Jeremy A; Elena, Sebastián; Franco, Cristina; Nicola, Ana M; Feldman, Mario F; Comerci, Diego J; Ugalde, Juan E

    2014-08-27

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects livestock and human beings. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis mainly relies on serological diagnosis using serum and/or milk samples. Although there are several serological tests with different diagnostic performance and capacity to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, there is still no standardized reference antigen for the disease. Here we validate the first recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. This antigen can be produced in homogeneous batches without the need of culturing pathogenic brucellae; all characteristics that make it appropriate for standardization. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies in bovine samples was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to magnetic beads or ELISA plates. As a proof of concept and to validate the antigen, we analyzed serum, whole blood and milk samples obtained from non-infected, experimentally infected and vaccinated animals included in a vaccination/infection trial performed in our laboratory as well as more than 1000 serum and milk samples obtained from naturally infected and S19-vaccinated animals from Argentina. Our results demonstrate that OAg-AcrA-based assays are highly accurate for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, even in vaccinated herds, using different types of samples and in different platforms. We propose this novel recombinant glycoprotein as an antigen suitable for the development of new standard immunological tests for screening and confirmatory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in regions or countries with brucellosis-control programs.

  3. Brucellosis outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon in 2009: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaar, L; Chaaya, M; Ghosn, N; Mahfoud, Z

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with brucellosis infection in an outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon during summer 2009. Cases of brucellosis reported to the Ministry of Public Health were identified, and for each case 2 controls were matched by sex, age and residence. Sociodemographic data, exposure to animals and animal products, knowledge about brucellosis, symptoms and history of past brucellosis infections were collected. Consumption of raw cheese was a significant risk factor for contracting brucellosis (matched OR = 29.5), whereas wearing gloves when in contact with animals and animal products and self-preparing dairy products were protective factors (OR = 0.08 and 0.13 respectively). Low and inaccurate knowledge about brucellosis was prevalent among subjects, with a common misconception about human-human transmission. Ensuring animal vaccination, educating people on correct ways of milk pasteurization and handling meat products, and elevating food safety monitoring threshold are key elements in controlling brucellosis.

  4. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade.

  5. Detection of Brucellosis in Sika Deer ( Cervus nippon ) through Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianhong; Wei, Jie; Sun, Qingsong; Wang, Ben; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Ying; Wu, Wenrong

    2017-03-20

    Brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) can cause enormous losses to stag breeding, especially in areas in which stag breeding has become an important industry. It also poses a threat to humans because it is a zoonotic disease. Use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been poorly described in the diagnosis of brucellosis in deer. We developed a LAMP assay targeting the omp25 gene sequence to detect brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer. The reaction can be completed in 60 min at 63 C and, with a detection limit of 17 pg, it was more sensitive than conventional PCR, with its detection limit of 1.7 ng. No cross-reactivity was observed with four bacteria: Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Clostridium pasteurianum , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . We used 263 samples of blood to evaluate the reaction. The percentage of agreement between LAMP and PCR reached 91%; relative specificity reached 87%, and relative sensitivity reached 100%. The results indicate LAMP can be a simple and rapid diagnostic tool for detecting brucellosis in sika deer, particularly in the field, where it is essential to control brucellosis in deer with a rapid and accurate diagnosis for removal of positive animals.

  6. An overview of animal prion diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Muhammad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC. Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases.

  7. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Potashkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of the disease and provide a means for testing new treatments. However, the current animal models often fall short in replicating the true pathophysiology occurring in idiopathic PD, and thus results from animal models often do not translate to the clinic. In this paper we will explain the limitations of animal models of PD and why their use is inappropriate for the study of some aspects of PD.

  8. 78 FR 54620 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    .... abortus. In horses, the disease is known as fistulous withers. A third strain of Brucella, B. melitensis... Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... collection associated with the regulations for the payment of indemnity for sheep, goats, and...

  9. Sero-prevalence and risk factors study of brucellosis in small ruminants in Southern Zone of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklue, Teshale; Tolosa, Tadele; Tuli, Getachew; Beyene, Belay; Hailu, Birhanu

    2013-11-01

    This study reports a prevalence and risk factor survey of brucellosis in small ruminants in Southern Zone of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia between October 2011 and April 2012 to determine the sero-prevalence of small-ruminant brucellosis and to identify associated risk factors for the occurrence of disease in small ruminants under extensive production system. Multistage random sampling was followed to select locations, flocks, and individual animals. Laboratory analysis of serum samples provided sero-prevalence estimates for flocks and geographic location. Information on risk factors at the individual and flock level was obtained by examination of individual animal and a questionnaire interview to flock owners. The overall individual animal-level sero-prevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants was 3.5 % and flock level sero-prevalence was 28.3 %, and the within-flock sero-prevalence was ranged from 0 % to 22.2 % based on the Complement Fixation Test. Multivariable logistic regression showed that the major risk factors for flock level sero-positivity were flock size and abortion history. This study showed that small-ruminant brucellosis is prevalent in the study area. Larger flock size and history of previous abortion in the flock were major risk factors identified for sero-positivity of small-ruminant brucellosis.

  10. Serological survey and risk factors for brucellosis in water buffaloes in the state of Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Rangel, Charles Passos; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; de Morais, Eziquiel; Vinhote, Wagner Marcelo Souza; da Silva Lima, Danillo Henrique; da Silva e Silva, Natália; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and possible risk factors for brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus in water buffaloes in the state of Pará, Brazil, 3,917 female buffalo serum samples from pregnant and non-pregnant animals were examined: 2,809 from Marajó Island and 1,108 from the mainland. The buffered acidified plate antigen (BAPA) screening test positively diagnosed 4.8% (188/3,917) of the animals with brucellosis, and the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) confirmatory test affirmed 95.7% (180/188) of the results. The brucellosis prevalence was 4.17 times greater in mainland animals than on Marajó Island, with the highest prevalence in Tailândia (11.30%) and Paragominas (12.38%). Brucellosis seroprevalence was significantly influenced (p brucellosis infection is active in the Brazilian region containing the largest buffalo population and that this disease poses a threat to public health and buffalo production in Pará.

  11. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will allow... a potential new approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public...

  12. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have been eliminated from commercial swine herds within the United States,...

  13. Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Falk; Wareth, Gamal; El-Adawy, Hosny; Henning, Klaus; Pletz, Mathias W.; Heller, Regine; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    During 2014–2015, patients in northeastern Kenya were assessed for brucellosis and characteristics that might help clinicians identify brucellosis. Among 146 confirmed brucellosis patients, 29 (20%) had negative serologic tests. No clinical feature was a good indicator of infection, which was associated with animal contact and drinking raw milk. PMID:27662463

  14. Susceptibility of Mexican brucella isolates to moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin and other antimicrobials used in the treatment of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Merino, Ahidé; Contreras-Rodríguez, Araceli; Migranas-Ortiz, Roberto; Orrantia-Gradín, Rubén; Hernández-Oliva, Gerardo M; Gutiérrez-Rubio, Arturo Torres Y; Cardeñosa, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Brucellosis is a disease of domestic and wild animals that is transmitted to humans and exists worldwide. We assessed the in vitro activity of moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, doxicycline, rifampin, streptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) against 97 Brucella strains isolated from clinical samples, animals and dairy products in Mexico. Fluoroquinolones showed an antibacterial activity similar to that of tetracyclines (MIC(90) 0.5). Other drugs commonly used against brucellosis were less active, such as rifampin (MIC(90) 2.0 microg/ml) and streptomycin (MIC(90) 4.0 microg/ml). TMP/SMX showed the poorest activity (MIC(90) 8.0 microg/ml). Fluoroquinolones, either first-generation or the newer 8-methoxi derivatives, might be useful in the therapy of brucellosis, which remains to be assessed in clinical trials.

  15. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L

    2008-08-25

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the presence of brucellosis. The sensitivity calculated for the bovine, caprine, ovine and swine Brucella lateral flow assays based on results obtained for samples collected from animals with culture confirmed brucellosis was 90%, 100%, 90% and 73%, respectively. None of the samples from animals from herds free of brucellosis reacted in the flow assays indicating a high specificity. However, as expected, some degree of reactivity was observed when testing selected serum samples that reacted non-specific in reference tests for brucellosis.

  16. A comparative assessment of culture and serology in the diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, D; Byrne, W; Kelleher, P; O'Callaghan, H; Kenny, K; Heneghan, T; Power, S; Egan, J; Ryan, F

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the usefulness of culture for the confirmation of brucellosis in cattle, a comparison of culture and serology was undertaken on 248 animals in four dairy herds where the disease was active. Paired supramammary (SM), retropharyngeal (RP), and internal iliac (IL) lymph nodes were cultured, and five serological tests were deployed: the microserum agglutination test (MSAT), complement fixation test (CFT), the indirect (iELISA) and competitive ELISA, and the fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA). Brucella abortus was isolated from 86.8% of animals on combined culture of all three lymph nodes. Individually, the highest isolation rate was from the RP (90.5% of culture positives). Of culture positive animals, 13.7% and 6.2% were positive from the RP and SM alone, respectively. Approximately half of the positive cultures yielded diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. While the MSAT and FPA were the most sensitive serological tests, a significant percentage of infected animals were undetectable using these standard serological assays.

  17. Prevalence of Brucellosis among Women Presenting with Abortion/Stillbirth in Huye, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB and Kabutare District Hospital. Serum samples were collected and the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT was performed on each sample. A questionnaire was also used to investigate potential contacts with animals and/or consumption of raw milk. A total of 60 women were recruited and 15 (i.e., 25% were Brucella seropositive. The questionnaire showed that those with seropositivity either were in contact with domestic animals (cattle, goat, or sheep or were consuming raw cow’s milk. Human brucellosis appears to be of public health importance in Rwanda and more attention should be drawn on the disease. The current study provides a basis for larger studies to establish the incidence of human brucellosis in Rwanda. More mechanistic studies will also demonstrate the pathogenicity of Brucella in human placentas.

  18. Brucellosis: Review on the recent trends in pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmitted from animals to humans by the ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal or inhalation of aerosols. The last method is remarkably efficient given the relatively low concentration of organisms (10 - 100 bacteria needed to establish infection in humans, and has brought renewed attention to this old disease. Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that has the ability to survive and multiply in the phagocytes and cause abortion in cattle and undulant fever in humans. Brucella spp particularly B. melitensis, B. abortus, and B. suis represent a significant public health concern. At present, B. melitensis is the principle cause of human brucellosis in India. Molecular studies have demonstrated the phylogenetic affiliation of Brucella to Agrobacterium, Ochrobactrum, and Rhizobium. Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, with regard to the understanding of its pathogenic mechanism, severity, progression, and development of improved treatment regimens. Molecular studies have now highlighted the pathogenesis of Brucella, for the development of newer diagnostic tools that will be useful in developing countries where brucellosis is a common, but often a neglected disease. This review compiles all these issues in general and the pathogenicity and newer diagnostic tools in particular.

  19. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Farfel-Becker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD, is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  20. Targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklyarov, Oleg; Shumilov, Konstantin; Klimanov, Arkadii; Denisov, Aleksander

    2010-10-01

    The article presents a brief history of the brucellosis prevention in animals in the world and in the Russian Federation. Data are taken from studies on the immunogenic activity and epizootic efficacy of vaccines against brucellosis in animals, which made it possible, in the final analysis, to regard these preparations as highly important for brucellosis prevention. The relationship between the epizootic brucellosis situation in Russia and the employment of specific agents in targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats, and the sequence of their use, are presented briefly, substantiating the feasibility of their use and improvement.

  1. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities.

  2. High asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in patients with brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeloglu, Zafer; Sünnetcioglu, Mahmut; Tosun, Mehmet; Kücükbayrak, Abdülkadir; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Baran, Ali Irfan; Karahocagil, Mustafa; Akdeniz, Hayrettin

    2014-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is the main endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and is considered to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp., can manifest as vasculopathy. The present study was performed to investigate the relationship between ADMA and brucellosis. Serum samples from 39 patients with an accurate diagnosis of brucellosis and from 18 healthy control individuals were included in this study. ADMA levels were significantly higher in the patient group than the controls (P brucellosis and high levels of ADMA. In conclusion, ADMA levels should be tested in brucellosis cases and that further studies to clarify the mechanism underlying the association between ADMA and brucellosis are required.

  3. 9 CFR 95.3 - Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited. 95.3 Section 95.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  4. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanly Fon Tebug

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers’ awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers’ general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1% knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%. The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0% and meat (56.0%. Almost all survey participants (96.4% practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0% and consumption (34.0% of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%, whilst one animal (1.1% reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease

  5. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebug, Stanly Fon; Njunga, Gilson R; Chagunda, Mizeck G G; Mapemba, Jacob P; Awah-Ndukum, Julius; Wiedemann, Steffi

    2014-02-28

    Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers' awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers' general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1%) knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%). The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0%) and meat (56.0%). Almost all survey participants (96.4%) practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0%) and consumption (34.0%) of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%), whilst one animal (1.1%) reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease prevention

  6. Trends of reported human cases of brucellosis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Abdulaziz D; Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; McNabb, Scott J N

    2016-03-01

    Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease and is especially concerning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), where livestock importation is significant. We analyzed reported human brucellosis disease trends in KSA over time to help policymakers understand the magnitude of the disease and guide the design of prevention and control measures. By using data from the national registry from 2004 to 2012, we calculated the cumulative numbers by age group and months. Trends of incidence rates (IRs) by gender, nationality, and region were also calculated. We found that there was a greater number of cases (19,130) in the 15-44 years age group than in any other age group. The IRs significantly decreased from 22.9 in 2004 [95% confidence interval (CI)=22.3, 23.5] to 12.5 in 2012 (95% CI=12.1, 13). Males had a significantly greater IR than females. Most cases were reported during spring and summer seasons. The IR of Saudi citizens was significantly greater than that of non-Saudis, but this difference reduced over time. The IRs of Al-Qassim, Aseer, and Hail were in the highest 25th percentile. Young, male Saudi citizens living in highly endemic areas were at greatest risk of acquiring brucellosis. We recommend vaccinating susceptible animals against brucellosis and increasing the public's awareness of preventive measures.

  7. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay D. Pathak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO. Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed individuals. Methods: In this study, serum samples (n=282 from cases of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO (n=243, and occupationally exposed individuals (n=39 were collected and tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, indirect ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA. Blood culture for isolation of Brucella was performed for 10 serologically positive patients using BACTEC 9050 automated blood culture system. Biochemical tests and PCR techniques were used for confirmation of the isolates. Results: Of the samples tested, 4.25%, 3.54%, 6.02% and 4.96% samples were positive by RBPT, SAT, indirect ELISA and IgG ELISA, respectively. None of the sample was positive for IgM ELISA. Of the 10 blood samples cultured bacteriologically, one Brucella isolate was recovered. The isolate was confirmed as Brucella abortus. Amplification of the bcsp31 and IS711 genes was also observed. Conclusions: Seropositivity for brucellosis was observed among PUO cases, animal handlers and dairy workers in Goa, India. The serological tests showed variable results. One Brucella isolate was obtained by performing blood culture. Confirmation of the case was done rapidly using molecular tools. General awareness about clinical symptoms should be increased which will improve proper diagnosis within short time frame.

  8. Acute abdomen as atypical presentation of brucellosis: report of two cases and review of literature.

    OpenAIRE

    al Faraj, S

    1995-01-01

    Abdominal involvement in brucellosis is seen in the acute, subacute and chronic disease. It is not typical, however, that acute abdomen is the presenting feature of brucellosis. In this paper, two cases of serologically diagnosed brucellosis are reported, both presenting initially with acute abdomen and fever. In brucella-endemic regions of the world, brucellosis has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen and fever. With definitive diagnosis, unnecessary laparotomy ca...

  9. Possible brucellosis in an early hominin skeleton from sterkfontein, South Africa.

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    Ruggero D'Anastasio

    Full Text Available We report on the paleopathological analysis of the partial skeleton of the late Pliocene hominin species Australopithecus africanus Stw 431 from Sterkfontein, South Africa. A previous study noted the presence of lesions on vertebral bodies diagnosed as spondylosis deformans due to trauma. Instead, we suggest that these lesions are pathological changes due to the initial phases of an infectious disease, brucellosis. The macroscopic, microscopic and radiological appearance of the lytic lesions of the lumbar vertebrae is consistent with brucellosis. The hypothesis of brucellosis (most often associated with the consumption of animal proteins in a 2.4 to 2.8 million year old hominid has a host of important implications for human evolution. The consumption of meat has been regarded an important factor in supporting, directing or altering human evolution. Perhaps the earliest (up to 2.5 million years ago paleontological evidence for meat eating consists of cut marks on animal remains and stone tools that could have made these marks. Now with the hypothesis of brucellosis in A. africanus, we may have evidence of occasional meat eating directly linked to a fossil hominin.

  10. Large genetic animal models of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A Jennifer; Howland, David S

    2013-01-01

    The dominant nature of the Huntington's disease gene mutation has allowed genetic models to be developed in multiple species, with the mutation causing an abnormal neurological phenotype in all animals in which it is expressed. Many different rodent models have been generated. The most widely used of these, the transgenic R6/2 mouse, carries the mutation in a fragment of the human huntingtin gene and has a rapidly progressive and fatal neurological phenotype with many relevant pathological changes. Nevertheless, their rapid decline has been frequently questioned in the context of a disease that takes years to manifest in humans, and strenuous efforts have been made to make rodent models that are genetically more 'relevant' to the human condition, including full length huntingtin gene transgenic and knock-in mice. While there is no doubt that we have learned, and continue to learn much from rodent models, their usefulness is limited by two species constraints. First, the brains of rodents differ significantly from humans in both their small size and their neuroanatomical organization. Second, rodents have much shorter lifespans than humans. Here, we review new approaches taken to these challenges in the development of models of Huntington's disease in large brained, long-lived animals. We discuss the need for such models, and how they might be used to fill specific niches in preclinical Huntington's disease research, particularly in testing gene-based therapeutics. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animals in which the prodromal period of disease extends over a long time span. We suggest that there is considerable 'value added' for large animal models in preclinical Huntington's disease research.

  11. Heartworm disease in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, John W; Genchi, Claudio; Kramer, Laura H; Guerrero, Jorge; Venco, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Heartworm disease due to Dirofilaria immitis continues to cause severe disease and even death in dogs and other animals in many parts of the world, even though safe, highly effective and convenient preventatives have been available for the past two decades. Moreover, the parasite and vector mosquitoes continue to spread into areas where they have not been reported previously. Heartworm societies have been established in the USA and Japan and the First European Dirofilaria Days (FEDD) Conference was held in Zagreb, Croatia, in February of 2007. These organizations promote awareness, encourage research and provide updated guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of heartworm disease. The chapter begins with a review of the biology and life cycle of the parasite. It continues with the prevalence and distribution of the disease in domestic and wild animals, with emphasis on more recent data on the spreading of the disease and the use of molecular biology techniques in vector studies. The section on pathogenesis and immunology also includes a discussion of the current knowledge of the potential role of the Wolbachia endosymbiont in inflammatory and immune responses to D. immitis infection, diagnostic use of specific immune responses to the bacteria, immunomodulatory activity and antibiotic treatment of infected animals. Canine, feline and ferret heartworm disease are updated with regard to the clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, therapy and management of the disease, with special emphasis on the recently described Heartworm Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD) Syndrome in cats. The section devoted to heartworm infection in humans also includes notes on other epizootic filariae, particularly D. repens in humans in Europe. The chapter concludes with a discussion on emerging strategies in heartworm treatment and control, highlighting the potential role of tetracycline antibiotics in adulticidal therapy.

  12. Brucellosis Prevention Program: Applying “Child to Family Health Education” Method

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    H. Allahverdipour

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pupils have efficient potential to increase community awareness and promoting community health through participating in the health education programs. Child to family health education program is one of the communicative strategies that was applied in this field trial study. Because of high prevalence of Brucellosis in Hamadan province, Iran, the aim of this study was promoting families’ knowledge and preventive behaviors about Brucellosis in the rural areas by using child to family health education method.Materials & Methods: In this nonequivalent control group design study three rural schools were chosen (one as intervention and two others as control. At first knowledge and behavior of families about Brucellosis were determined using a designed questionnaire. Then the families were educated through “child to family” procedure. At this stage the students gained information. Then they were instructed to teach their parents what they had learned. After 3 months following the last session of education, the level of knowledge and behavior changes of the families about Brucellosis were determined and analyzed by paired t-test.Results: The results showed significant improvement in the knowledge of the mothers. The knowledge of the mothers about the signs of Brucellosis disease in human increased from 1.81 to 3.79 ( t:-21.64 , sig:0.000 , and also the knowledge on the signs of Brucellosis in animals increased from 1.48 to 2.82 ( t:-10.60 , sig:0.000. Conclusion: Child to family health education program is one of the effective and available methods, which would be useful and effective in most communities, and also Students potential would be effective for applying in the health promotion programs.

  13. Newcastle disease: a high consequence foreign animal disease

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    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (vNDV), the etiological agents of Newcastle disease (ND), are not found in poultry in the United States (U.S.). With 68 countries reporting ND outbreaks in domestic poultry to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) from 2013 to 2014, the U.S. must...

  14. Seroepidemiological survey of Q fever and brucellosis in Kurdistan Province, western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Pourhossein, Behzad; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Amiri, Fahimeh Bagheri; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Given that the there is little information about the current status of brucellosis and Q fever in most parts of Iran, the aim of this study was to assay the seroprevalence of these two diseases in high-risk populations of Kurdistan Province in western Iran. Two hundred fifty sera samples were collected from hunters and their families, butchers, health care workers, and those referred to medical diagnostic laboratories in the southwestern regions of Kurdistan Province. Sera were tested to detect specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against brucellosis and Coxiella burnetii (phase I and II). The seroprevalence of brucellosis and Q fever (C. burnetii IgG phase I and II) was 6.4% and 27.83% (20% and 14.52%), respectively. The highest seroprevalence of Q fever (38%) and brucellosis (12%) was seen in butchers, who handled cattle, sheep, and goats during their work. Age had a significant positive association with Q fever seropositivity (p=0.04). The seroprevalence of Q fever was higher in those people who had been in employment for more than 10 years (21.88%) compared to others (7.79%) (p=0.02). The keeping of animals (p=0.03), hunting and eating the meat of wild animals (p=0.02), and not disinfecting hands and faces after working (for health care workers and butchers) (p=0.02) were risk factors for Q fever seropositivity. This study showed a relatively high seroprevalence of brucellosis and Q fever in high-risk populations of Kurdistan Province. It is suggested that complementary studies be carried out in other parts of western Iran to clarify the epidemiological aspects of these diseases.

  15. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Q Fever among Butchers and Slaughterhouse Workers in South-Eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Pourhossein, Behzad; Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Bagheri Amiri, Fahimeh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases can be occupational hazards to people who work in close contact with animals or their carcasses. In this cross-sectional study, 190 sera were collected from butchers and slaughterhouse workers in different regions of the Sistan va Baluchestan province, in Iran in 2011. A questionnaire was filled for each participant to document personal and behavioural information. The sera were tested for detection of specific IgG antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever (phase I and II) using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The seroprevalence of brucellosis was 7.9%, leptospirosis 23.4%, and phase I and II of Q fever were 18.1% and 14.4%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Q fever and leptospirosis, but not brucellosis, varied among regions within the province (p = 0.01). Additionally, a significant relationship was found between seropositivity of Q fever and camel slaughtering (p = 0.04). Reduced seropositivity rate of brucellosis was associated with use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (p = 0.004). This study shows that brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever occur among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in this area.

  16. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Q Fever among Butchers and Slaughterhouse Workers in South-Eastern Iran.

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    Saber Esmaeili

    Full Text Available Zoonotic diseases can be occupational hazards to people who work in close contact with animals or their carcasses. In this cross-sectional study, 190 sera were collected from butchers and slaughterhouse workers in different regions of the Sistan va Baluchestan province, in Iran in 2011. A questionnaire was filled for each participant to document personal and behavioural information. The sera were tested for detection of specific IgG antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever (phase I and II using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was 7.9%, leptospirosis 23.4%, and phase I and II of Q fever were 18.1% and 14.4%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Q fever and leptospirosis, but not brucellosis, varied among regions within the province (p = 0.01. Additionally, a significant relationship was found between seropositivity of Q fever and camel slaughtering (p = 0.04. Reduced seropositivity rate of brucellosis was associated with use of personal protective equipment (PPE (p = 0.004. This study shows that brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever occur among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in this area.

  17. Medical Meteorology: the Relationship between Meteorological Parameters (Humidity, Rainfall, Wind, and Temperature and Brucellosis in Zanjan Province

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    Yousefali Abedini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis (Malta fever is a major contagious zoonotic disease, with economic and public health importance. Methods To assess the effect of meteorological (temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind and climate parameters on incidence of brucellosis, brucellosis distribution and meteorological zoning maps of Zanjan Province were prepared using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW and Kriging technique in Arc GIS medium. Zoning maps of mean temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind were compared to brucellosis distribution maps. Results: Correlation test showed no relationship between the mean number of patients with brucellosis and any of the four meteorological parameters. Conclusion: It seems that in Zanjan province there is no correlation between brucellosis and meteorological parameters.

  18. On the origin of brucellosis in bison of Yellowstone National Park: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Mary; Meyer, Margaret E.

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus occurs in the free-ranging bison (Bison bison) of Yellowstone and Wood Buffalo National Parks and in elk (Cervus elaphus) of the Greater Yellowstone Area. As a result of nationwide bovine brucellosis eradication programs, states and provinces proximate to the national parks are considered free of bovine brucellosis. Thus, increased attention has been focused on the wildlife within these areas as potential reservoirs for transmission to cattle. Because the national parks are mandated as natural areas, the question has been raised as to whether Brucella abortus is endogenous or exogenous to bison, particularly for Yellowstone National Park. We synthesized diverse lines of inquiry, including the evolutionary history of both bison and Brucella, wild animals as Brucella hosts, biochemical and genetic information, behavioral characteristics of host and organism, and area history to develop an evaluation of the question for the National Park Service. All lines of inquiry indicated that the organism was introduced to North America with cattle, and that the introduction into the Yellowstone bison probably was directly from cattle shortly before 1917. Fistulous withers of horses was a less likely possibility. Elk on winter feedgrounds south of Yellowstone National Park apparently acquired the disease directly from cattle. Bison presently using Grand Teton National Park probably acquired brucellosis from feedground elk.

  19. Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in Arsi-Negele District Ethiopia: Prevalence in Ruminants and People's Behaviour towards Zoonoses

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    Amenu, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Arsi-Negele District of Southern Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in livestock and to identify risk behaviours that would facilitate the transmission of zoonoses to humans. The study involved testing some 400 cattle, 200 sheep and 170 goats for tuberculosis and brucellosis and interviewing 98 livestock keepers. Single comparative intradermal tuberculin test and Rose Bengal plate test were used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and brucellosis, respectively. Tuberculosis was recorded in 27 cattle, 1 goat and 1 sheep. In cattle, the estimated individuallevel and herd-level tuberculosis prevalence was 5.9% and 35%, respectively. The individual-level and herdlevel brucellosis prevalence in cattle was 2.6% and 12%, respectively. The questionnaire survey showed that most respondents had no accurate knowledge about the transmission of zoonoses. It was also found that some of their behaviours would potentially facilitate the transmission of zoonotic pathogens to human, such as raw animal product consumption and backyard slaughtering. Even though the prevalence of the two diseases was relatively low, surveillance and prevention may be warranted taking into account possible animal genetic improvement programs, unrestricted animal movement in the area and low awareness of the community about zoonoses, which might result in an increased transmission to humans.

  20. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Alabi, Peter I; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I B

    2013-03-06

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  1. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria

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    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH and livestock marketers (LM in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5% of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262. Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  2. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children with brucellosis: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Yöntem; Gözmen, Salih; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Oymak, Yeşim; Apa, Hurşit; Vergin, Canan; Devrim, İlker

    2015-10-29

    Brucellosis is a systemic zoonotic infectious disease that may cause fever, fatigue, sweating, arthritis, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, and lymphadenopathy. It continues to be an important health problem worldwide. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, high serum levels of ferritin and triglycerides, low serum fibrinogen levels, and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, or liver. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with brucellosis is a very rare condition in the pediatric age group. Here, three pediatric cases of secondary HLH associated with brucellosis are reported. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should be considered in patients with brucellosis having cytopenias. Hemophagocytosis in brucellosis seems to be cured with appropriate antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin.

  3. 布鲁菌病的临床诊治分析%Clinical diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莹; 吴志勤; 辛海光; 徐文胜; 金瑞日

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and review the epidemiology , clinical features , treatment and prognosis of brucellosis ,in order to raise awareness of brucellosis in clinic .Methods:Eight clinical cases of brucellosis in Changzheng Hospital from 2010‐2015 were analyzed retrospectively ,and the clinical treatment experiences were concluded .Results:Five patients had history of epidemic exposure ,the epidemic exposure history of 3 cases were unknown .All patients had fever , fatigue and hyperhidrosis ,which 5 cases were accompanied by arthritis ,orchitis ,lymphadenectasis ,or migratory myalgia .The percentages of neutrophils in 8 cases were normal or relatively low ,and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated in all patients ,in addition ,some indexes of liver function were elevated in 3 cases .All patients were cured by anti‐infective therapy , one patient who re‐contacted with goat was recrudescence .Conclusions: Brucellosis shows various clinical manifestations .Patients in non‐epidemic areas who have long‐term fever ,fatigue ,sweating or joint and muscle pain should be guarded against brucellosis ,and provide patients with early diagnosis and anti‐infective therapy .%目的:探讨布鲁菌病的临床特点、治疗和转归,以提高临床对布鲁菌病认识。方法:回顾性分析第二军医大学长征医院2010—2015年收治的8例布鲁菌病患者的临床资料,总结临床诊治经验。结果:5例患者有明确的流行病学史,3例患者流行病学史不明。8例患者临床表现均有发热、乏力、多汗,其中5例除上述症状外分别伴有关节炎、睾丸炎、淋巴结肿大和游走性肌肉疼痛。8例患者中性粒细胞比例正常或偏低,血沉均升高,其中3例患者部分肝功能指标升高。8例患者经内科积极治疗后治愈,1例患者出院后继续饲养山羊后再发。结论:布鲁菌病临床表现多样,非疫区患者出现发热、乏力、多汗或关节

  4. 布鲁氏菌病的研究进展%The Research Advancement of Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛景东; 王景龙; 杨艳玲

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis, especially caused by Brucella melitensis, remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide with more than 500000 human cases reported annually. The bacterial pathogen is classified by the CDC as a category (B)pathogen that has potential for development as a bio-weapon. Brucella spp. is considered as the most common laboratory-acquired pathogens. The geographical distribution of brucellosis is constantly changing with new foci emerging or re-emerging.The disease occurs worldwide in both animals and humans, except in those countries where bovine brucellosis has been eradicated. The worldwide economic losses due to brucellosis are extensive not only in animal production but also in human health. Although a number of successful vaccines are being used for immunization of animals, no satisfactory vaccine against human brucellosis is available. When the incidence of brucellosis is controlled in the animal reservoirs, there is a corresponding and significant decline in the incidence in humans.%布病,尤其是由羊种布鲁氏菌引起的布病,目前是世界上最常见的一种人兽共患传染病,全世界每年报道的布病病例超过500万.布鲁氏菌已经被CDC列为B类病原体,成为潜在的生物武器.布鲁氏菌也是最常见的实验室源性病原体.布病的流行地域在不断变化,每年都有新发地和复发地的报道.除了那些牛布病已经根除的国家,布病仍然在许多国家的人和动物中存在.全世界由于布病给动物产品及公共卫生安全而带来的经济损失是巨大的.虽然许多有效的疫苗正在用于动物免疫,但是还没有理想的人用疫苗可以使用.动物布病的控制将显著降低人布病的发生.

  5. Demographic and Epidemiological Study of Brucellosis in the Kohgilooye and Boyerahmad Province, 2009 -2013

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    S Shahriari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Brucellosis or Malta fever is a highly contagious zoonosis disease. In addition to clinical complications, the disease leads to an important economic loss. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and epidemiological prevalence of brucellosis in the Kohgilooye and Boyerahmad province (2009-2013. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 374 patients with brucellosis in a period of five-year (2009-2013. Demographic data and address of all patients were obtained from the health centers of Kohgilooye and Boyerahmad province and analyzed based on the statistical methods. For data analysis, descriptive and analytical tests were performed. Results: Distribution of patients in this study showed that the majority of patients were in the Kohgilooye, Boyerahmad and Gachsaran districts, respectively, and the lowest were in Basht and Bahmaei districts. Among 374 patients, 8.5%, 23.5% and 68% of cases showed nomadic, urban and rural origin, respectvely. 84% of patients had a history of contact with animals and 31.5% were ranchers and slaughterhouse workers in the province. 50.5% and 49.5% of patients were female and male respectively.The mean age of patients was 39 years old. Conclusion: Contact with livestock plays an important role in prevalence of brucellosis in this province. Refering to report of notable urban cases, consumption of contaminated diary may have priority in the urban regions. This study provides a guideline for health managers to determine hazard regions of brucellosis and so perform the more efficient and with lower budget control deals in this province.

  6. Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Hamid Amani; Massoud Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results:Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions:In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary.

  7. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander [Institut M T Kassab d' orthopedie, Department of Radiology, Ksar Said (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  8. Seroepidemiological Study of Brucellosis in High Risk Groups in Boyerahmad 1384

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    AM Khosravani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that may have a major public health and economic impact in most countries. The disease appears as a Malt fever in humans and abortion in animals. This study was designed to determine the serologic titer of Brucella in high risk and non high risk people in Boyerahmad. Materials & Methods: A retrospective seroepidemiological study was performed on samples collected from 604 high risk and non high risk people using Rose Bengol test, tube standard test as a rapid test and 2 mercaptoethanol (2ME and comb's wright as a confirmatory test. The data collected were analyzed by X2 test via SPSS. Results: Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in high risk people appeared to be high in the Rose Bengal and tube standard test (TST 6.62 at titer ≥1/40 whereas for non high risk it was 0%. Confirmation test in high risk people was shown with 2ME in four people. Conclusion: Brucellosis is a major cause of disease in high risk people which can be due to direct or indirect contact with diary products of the related animals.

  9. Herd prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in cattle in urban and peri-urban areas of the Kampala economic zone, Uganda

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    Eisler Mark C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human brucellosis has been found to be prevalent in the urban areas of Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. A cross-sectional study was designed to generate precise information on the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and risk factors for the disease in its urban and peri-urban dairy farming systems. Results The adjusted herd prevalence of brucellosis was 6.5% (11/177, 95% CI: 3.6%-10.0% and the adjusted individual animal prevalence was 5.0% (21/423, 95% CI: 2.7% - 9.3% based on diagnosis using commercial kits of the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA for Brucella abortus antibodies. Mean within-herd prevalence was found to be 25.9% (95% CI: 9.7% - 53.1% and brucellosis prevalence in an infected herd ranged from 9.1% to 50%. A risk factor could not be identified at the animal level but two risk factors were identified at the herd level: large herd size and history of abortion. The mean number of milking cows in a free-grazing herd (5.0 was significantly larger than a herd with a movement restricted (1.7, p Conclusions Vaccination should be targeted at commercial large-scale farms with free-grazing farming to control brucellosis in cattle in and around Kampala city.

  10. A review of Brucella seroprevalence among humans and animals in Bangladesh with special emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors and control opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Ariful; Khatun, Mst Minara; Werre, Stephen R; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M

    2013-10-25

    Brucellosis is a neglected bacterial zoonotic disease in many countries affecting both humans and animals. The aim of this paper is to review published reports of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and animals (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and dogs) in Bangladesh. The prevalence studies are based primarily on the following serological tests: rose bengal plate agglutination test (RBT), plate agglutination test (PAT), tube agglutination test (TAT), mercaptoethanol agglutination test (MET), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), slow agglutination test (SAT), milk ring test (MRT), indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (I-ELISA), competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) and fluorescent polarization assay (FPA). Seroprevalences of brucellosis were found to be affected by the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests employed. Brucellosis prevalence varied based on occupations of people (2.5-18.6%) and species of animals (3.7% in cattle, 4.0% in buffalo, 3.6% in goats and 7.3% in sheep). The prevalence of brucellosis in humans was reported in livestock farmers (2.6-21.6%), milkers (18.6%), butchers (2.5%) and veterinarians (5.3-11.1%) who have direct contact with animal and its products or who consume raw milk. According to published reports brucellosis does affect people and livestock of Bangladesh. There is an immediate need for a concerted effort to control and eradicate brucellosis from domesticated animals in Bangladesh.

  11. [A case of brucellosis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever coinfection in an endemic area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Çıkman, Aytekin; Akın, Hicran; Gülhan, Barış; Özçiçek, Adalet

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease which is especially seen in developing countries is still an important public health problem worldwide. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is another zoonotic disease that transmits to humans by infected tick bites as well as exposure to blood or tissue from infected animals. Both of the diseases are common among persons who live in rural areas and deal with animal husbandry. Since brucellosis usually presents with non-specific clinical symptoms and may easily be confused with many other diseases, the diagnosis of those infections could be delayed or misdiagnosed. In this report, a case of coinfection of brucellosis and CCHF has been presented to emphasize the possibility of association of these infections. A 70-year-old female patient with a history of dealing with animal husbandry in a rural area admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, malaise, generalized body and joint pains, and headache. Her complaints had progressed within the past two days. She also reported nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. She denied any history of tick bites. Her physical examination was significant for the presence of 38.8°C fever, increased bowel sounds and splenomegaly. Laboratory analysis revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high levels of liver enzymes. The patient was admitted to our service with the prediagnosis of CCHF. Serum sample was sent to the Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratory at Public Health Agency of Turkey for CCHF testing. During patient's hospitalization in service, more detailed history was confronted and it was learned that she had fatigue, loss of appetite, sweating, joint pain, and intermittent fever complaints were continuing within a month and received various antibiotic treatments. The tests for brucellosis were conducted and positive results for Brucella Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination (1/160 titers) and immune capture test with Coombs (1/320 titers) were determined

  12. An overview of the brucellosis epidemic conditions in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fallah rostami Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is as one of the most important infection common disease between human and cattle, which nowadays considered as one of serious health systems dilemma specifically in developing countries.Among brucellosis different species are the cause of infection, 4 species namely B.melitensis, BSuis, B.abortus , B.canis are the most major cause of disease in human(1.Indeed, in Iran that is considered as an endemic area of hygienic organization, B. melitensis is as the most prevalent cause of infection in human. This bacterium generally will transfer to human from contact with contaminated animals or the consumption of cattle production such as unpasteurized dairy (raw milk, soft cheese, cream or even via breathe can transfer to human. But the transfer of infection from person to person is very infrequent.Of course there is some evidence of transfer in a bone marrow transplanting. The most prevalent clinical symptoms of this disease are fever, night sweat, asthenia and anorexia (2.Naturally this infection involved different systems and organs in human body and the one of most major part of body can be mentioned to nervous system, muscuskeletal and also some organs like joints, heart and liver.Diagnosis of this infection can be made by some various laboratory tests like SAT, 2ME. But some misdiagnosis instances are very common. Thus, World Health Organization (WHO exposed in its report that the number of infected cases are maybe ten folds more than scale which stated by health organizations.

  13. How do you get the Rose Bengal Test at the point-of-care to diagnose brucellosis in Africa? The importance of a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Bardosh, Kevin L

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major neglected zoonotic disease, whose burden both in animals and humans is severely under-reported. Diagnosis in humans identifies cases in order to treat the disease at the individual level. In animals diagnosis is implemented at the population level in the context of appropriate control or eradication strategies. Molecular and bacteriological diagnosis are rarely undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa, at least outside research projects, due to cost, skills and laboratory infrastructure issues. The brucellosis toolbox contains a wide range of serological tests, but the perfect test for use in animals and humans respectively does not exist. Drug and diagnostic discovery for the neglected zoonoses are notoriously poor, and there is limited investment interest in developing new tools for brucellosis diagnosis. But are current tools being used to their full capacity? The rose Bengal test (RBT) stands out as an efficient, practical and very cheap test adapted for use in the resource-poor context. In this paper, we argue that a social science or system's approach to explore the practicality of improving diagnostic capacity at the point-of care in high-risk brucellosis areas of rural Africa may be a step towards solving the issue of under-diagnosis, but this must go hand-in-hand with implementation of control measures at source in the animal reservoir and capacity to treat human cases.

  14. Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Vertebrate Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjong; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with environmental risk factors and aging. Vertebrate genetic models, especially mice, have aided the study of autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive PD. Mice are capable of showing a broad range of phenotypes and, coupled with their conserved genetic and anatomical structures, provide unparalleled molecular and pathological tools to model human disease. These models used in combination with aging and PD-associated toxins have expanded our understanding of PD pathogenesis. Attempts to refine PD animal models using conditional approaches have yielded in vivo nigrostriatal degeneration that is instructive in ordering pathogenic signaling and in developing therapeutic strategies to cure or halt the disease. Here, we provide an overview of the generation and characterization of transgenic and knockout mice used to study PD followed by a review of the molecular insights that have been gleaned from current PD mouse models. Finally, potential approaches to refine and improve current models are discussed. PMID:22960626

  15. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  16. Several Important Animal Diseases and Their Prevention and Control%几种实验动物重要疫病及其防控研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松涛; 梁萌; 王承宇; 李忠义

    2011-01-01

    本文结合作者科研工作实际和相关文献资料,对犬、猫、猴等实验动物犬瘟热、犬细小病毒病、猫瘟热、布病、钩体病及弓形虫病等重要疫病及其防控研究进行了概述.%Combined with the actual research of the author and related reference, this paper was an overview of important diseases, such as canine distemper, canine parvovirus, feline parvovirus, brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis, of dogs, cats, monkeys and other experimental animals.

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Associated with Brucellosis in Livestock Owners in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, Imadidden I; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Guitian, Javier

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated livestock owners' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding brucellosis in Jordan. A questionnaire was administered and biological samples were examined to verify the serological status of animals. Seroprevalence estimates indicated that 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) of cattle herds and 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4-40.4) of small ruminant flocks were seropositive. The results showed that 100% of the interviewed livestock keepers were aware of brucellosis: 87% indicated a high risk of infection if unpasteurized milk is consumed and 75% indicated a high risk if unpasteurized dairy products are consumed. Awareness of the risk of infection through direct contact with fetal membranes or via physical contact with infected livestock is considerably lower, 19% and 13%, respectively. These knowledge gaps manifest in a high frequency of high-risk practices such as assisting in animal parturition (62%), disposing aborted fetuses without protective gloves (71.2%) or masks (65%), and not boiling milk before preparation of dairy products (60%). When brucellosis is suspected, basic hygiene practices are often disregarded and suspect animals are freely traded. Public health education should be enhanced as the disease is likely to remain endemic in the ruminant reservoir as long as a suitable compensation program is not established and trust on available vaccines is regained.

  18. Brucellosis outbreak in a rural endemic region of Mexico - a comprehensive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Garcia, Maria Rosario Morales-Garcia; Lopez-Mendez, Jaime; Pless, Reynaldo; Garcia-Morales, Emilio; Kosanke, Hannah; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Bedi, Jasbir; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Velazquez-Guadarram, Norma; Jimenez-Rojas, Leticia; Rontreras-Rodriguez, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. Generally, humans can be infected by either the consumption of raw milk and fresh cheeses made from unpasteurised milk or by contact with infected animals, mainly in endemic regions. In this study, we investigated a brucellosis outbreak in State of Guanajuato, an endemic region of Mexico. Microbiological culture of human blood, raw milk from cows and goats, and fresh cheeses was performed to isolate Brucella. Identification of the bacteria was done by bacteriological procedures and by multiplex Bruce-ladder polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Brucella melitensis was isolated from patients, infected goats, and fresh goat cheeses; while Brucella abortus was isolated from cows. All patients had eaten fresh cheese, but no occupational exposure to animals was reported. The results of molecular typing did not show any Brucella vaccine strains. The isolation, identification, and molecular characterisation of Brucella spp. in both human brucellosis cases and infected animals are very important to identify the source of infection and to take control measures in endemic regions.

  19. Brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current challenges for management, diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, M; Bertu, W J; Matope, G; Cadmus, S; Conde-Álvarez, R; Gusi, A M; Welburn, S; Ocholi, R; Blasco, J M; Moriyón, I

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella and affecting domestic and wild mammals. In this paper, the bacteriological and serological evidence of brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its epidemiological characteristics are discussed. The tools available for the diagnosis and treatment of human brucellosis and for the diagnosis and control of animal brucellosis and their applicability in the context of SSA are presented and gaps identified. These gaps concern mostly the need for simpler and more affordable antimicrobial treatments against human brucellosis, the development of a B. melitensis vaccine that could circumvent the drawbacks of the currently available Rev 1 vaccine, and the investigation of serological diagnostic tests for camel brucellosis and wildlife. Strategies for the implementation of animal vaccination are also discussed.

  20. Neonatal brucellosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemri, Abdul Rahman M; Hadid, Adnan; Hussain, Shaik Asfaq; Somily, Ali M; Sobaih, Badr H; Alrabiaah, Abdulkarim; Alanazi, Awad; Shakoor, Zahid; AlSubaie, Sarah; Meriki, Naema; Kambal, Abdelmageed M

    2017-02-28

    Although brucellosis is not uncommon in Saudi Arabia, neonatal brucellosis has been infrequently reported. In this case of neonatal brucellosis, Brucella abortus was isolated by blood culture from both the mother and the neonate. Serology was positive only in the mother.

  1. Comparison of Plasma Copper Concentrations in Patients with Brucellosis and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mobaien

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : There are some reports about influence of the rare nutrients such as copper and zinc on immune system. Serum concentrations of copper alter in patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis is a common and endemic disease and a health problem in Iran. We compared serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis and healthy individuals.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study, serum concentrations of copper was measured in patients with brucellosis and control group. Eighty six subjects were enrolled in the study, including 43 patients with brucellosis (34 men and 9 women and 43 healthy individuals. Serum concentrations of copper was measured by automatic absorptive spectrophotometer in patients with brucellosis and compared with control group. We employed a non parametrical test, kolmogrov – smirnov, to determine if data distribution was normal or not. Results: Mean age of patients with brucellosis was 40.1415.10 years with the range of 14-60 years. The most frequent symptoms were arthralgia (86%. Serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis were significantly higher than healthy subjects (160.8454.61, 101.7427.37 g/dl respectively, p<0.001.Conclusion: Serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis showed significant alterations in comparison with healthy subjects. So, we recommend using serum copper concentrations in patients with brucellosis as a marker in brucellosis diagnosis. Also we recommend another study for detection of serum copper concentrations before and during treatment.

  2. Quantifying Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Rural Northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kunda John; Julie Fitzpatrick; Nigel French; Rudovick Kazwala; Dominic Kambarage; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; Alastair MacMillan; Sarah Cleaveland

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission...

  3. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases.......Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel test...... interpretation and a positive dependence in test specificity reduces the specificity of serial interpretation. We calculate conditional covariances as a measure of dependence between binary tests and show their relationship to kappa (a chance-corrected measure of test agreement). We use published data...

  4. Assessment and simulation of the implementation of brucellosis control programme in an endemic area of the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Y M; Ridler, A L; Guitian, F J

    2009-10-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonosis in Middle Eastern countries. In this study we assessed the extent of the application of planned official brucellosis control programmes in Kafr El Sheikh governorate, Egypt and we used a stochastic simulation model to assess the probable impact of changes to the official control strategy on the dynamics of small-ruminant brucellosis. Our results show that brucellosis. Given our assumptions, the intensity with which infected animals are removed under the actual levels of implementation of test-and-slaughter programmes would permit brucellosis to remain endemic at a level >8% of the sheep and goat population.

  5. Serological evidence of brucellosis among predisposed patients with pyrexia of unknown origin in the north eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, M M; Sarkindared, S E; Brisibe, F

    2001-08-01

    Brucellosis is the zoonosis of world wide distribution and common cause of economic loss and ill health among animals and human populations. Patients with pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) who were predisposed to brucellosis through rearing of animals and consumption of different animal products were tested for presence of Brucella abortus antibodies using Rose Bengal and serum agglutination antigens. Twenty six (5.2%) of the 500 patients had B. abortus antibody. The high titres of 320, 640 and 1280 obtained in the sera of patients in this study are suggestive of the endemicity of the disease in this environment. No significant difference in age and sex distribution of brucella antibody prevalence was observed. Similarly, spatial distribution of brucella antibody in different locations was not statistically significant. Although higher serological prevalence was noted in children and students than in other populations examined, the difference in prevalence between the various occupational groups was not significant. Animal handling activities including rearing are not important factors in the prevalence of brucellosis. However, among the rearers, the highest prevalence (20%) was observed among cattle handlers followed in decreasing order of prevalence by goat rearers (10%), mixed sheep and cattle rearers (9%), mixed sheep and goat rearers (8%), and 4% among each of sheep rearers and non rearers of animals. In addition, consumers of yoghurt and fresh goat milk had higher prevalence (20%) than consumers of other milk products. However, brucella antibody prevalence between consumers and non-consumers of animal products was not significantly different. The high economic loss and public health implications of brucellosis necessitates the need for effective surveillance as well as appropriate preventive and control measure among human and animal populations.

  6. Distribution of brucellosis among small ruminants in the pastoral region of Afar, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenafi, F; Teshale, S; Ejeta, G; Fikru, R; Laikemariam, Y

    2007-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pastoral region of Afar, in eastern and central Ethiopia, to determine the distribution of brucellosis in small ruminants. Between December 2005 and June 2006, 1,568 serum samples were taken: 563 samples from sheep and 1,005 from goats. One hundred and forty-seven of these (9.4%) tested positive using the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and 76 (4.8%) also tested positive by the complement fixation test (CFT). Brucellosis was detected in all five administrative zones of the region. The difference in prevalence (P) among the zones was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The seroprevalence of Brucella infection was found to be 5.8% (n = 58) in goats and 3.2% (n = 18) in sheep. A prevalence rate of 5.3% was observed in adult animals and 1.6% in younger sheep and goats. Caprine species (chi2 = 5.56) and adult goats and sheep (chi2 = 4.84) were found to be at higher risk of Brucella infection (P 0.05). The study showed that small-ruminant brucellosis is a widely distributed disease in Afar. The authors recommend the implementation of well-organised disease control and prevention methods to mitigate the economic losses and public health hazard caused by the disease.

  7. Vaccination strategies for managing brucellosis in Yellowstone bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John J; Johnson, Joseph S; Wallen, Rick L; Cilles, Sara; Crowley, Philip H; Cox, John J; Maehr, David S; White, P J; Plumb, Glenn E

    2010-10-01

    Concerns over migratory bison (Bison bison) at Yellowstone National Park transmitting brucellosis (Brucella abortus) to cattle herds on adjacent lands led to proposals for bison vaccination. We developed an individual-based model to evaluate how brucellosis infection might respond under alternate vaccination strategies, including: (1) vaccination of female calves and yearlings captured at the park boundary when bison move outside the primary conservation area; (2) combining boundary vaccination with the remote delivery of vaccine to female calves and yearlings distributed throughout the park; and (3) vaccinating all female bison (including adults) during boundary capture and throughout the park using remote delivery of vaccine. Simulations suggested Alternative 3 would be most effective, with brucellosis seroprevalence decreasing by 66% (from 0.47 to 0.16) over a 30-year period resulting from 29% of the population receiving protection through vaccination. Under this alternative, bison would receive multiple vaccinations that extend the duration of vaccine protection and defend against recurring infection in latently infected animals. The initial decrease in population seroprevalence will likely be slow due to high initial seroprevalence (40-60%), long-lived antibodies, and the culling of some vaccinated bison that were subsequently exposed to field strain Brucella and reacted positively on serologic tests. Vaccination is unlikely to eradicate B. abortus from Yellowstone bison, but could be an effective tool for reducing the level of infection. Our approach and findings have applicability world-wide for managers dealing with intractable wildlife diseases that cross wildlife-livestock and wildlife-human interfaces and affect public health or economic well-being.

  8. Ocular involvement of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzazi, Nooshin; Yavarikia, Alireza; Keramat, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old male diagnosed with brucellosis a week earlier was referred to the ophthalmology clinic with visual complaints. On examination, visual acuity was 20/25, he had conjunctival injection on slit lamp examination. There was also bilateral optic disk swelling plus retinal hyperemia (optic disc hyperemia and vascular tortuosity) and intraretinal hemorrhage on funduscopy. The patient was admitted and treated with cotrimoxazole, rifampin, doxycycline and prednisolone for 2 months. Ocular manifestations subsided gradually within 6 months after treatment. Brucellosis can affect the eye and lead to serious ocular complications. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment should be considered in endemic areas.

  9. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Frankena, K; Blasco, J M; Muñoz, P M; de Jong, M C M

    2016-04-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data collected from 8 herds suffering natural swine brucellosis outbreaks, we assessed the efficacy of four control strategies: (i) oxytetracycline treatment only, as a default scenario, (ii) oxytetracycline treatment combined with skin testing and removal of positive animals, (iii) oxytetracycline treatment combined with serological testing (Rose Bengal test-RBT-and indirect ELISA -iELISA-) and removal of seropositive animals and (iv) oxytetracycline treatment combined with both serological (RBT/iELISA) and skin testing and removal of positive animals. A Susceptible-Infectious-Removal model was used to estimate the reproduction ratio (R) for each strategy. According to this model, the oxytetracycline treatment alone was not effective enough to eradicate the infection. However, this antibiotic treatment combined with diagnostic testing at 4-monthly intervals plus immediate removal of positive animals showed to be effective to eradicate brucellosis independent of the diagnostic test strategy used in an acceptable time interval (1-2 years), depending on the initial number of infected animals.

  10. Representative seroprevalences of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Dürr, Salome; Toktobaev, Nurjan; Doherr, Marcus G; Schueth, Tobias; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2012-06-01

    Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,774 human sera were tested in Naryn, Chuy, and Osh Oblasts. The overall apparent seroprevalences of brucellosis were 8.8% in humans (95% CI 4.5-16.5), 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.9%) in cattle, 3.3% (95% CI 1.5-6.9%) in sheep, and 2.5% (95% CI 1.4-4.5%) in goats. Naryn Oblast had the highest seroprevalences in humans and sheep. More men than women were seropositive (OR = 1.96; P brucellosis exposure, measured by serological tests, was more than ten times higher than the annual incidence of reported clinical brucellosis cases. This indicates an under-reporting of human brucellosis cases, even if only a fraction of seropositive people have clinical symptoms. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan and warrants rapid effective intervention, among others, by mass vaccination of sheep and goats but also of cattle.

  11. Osteoarticular tissue infection and development of skeletal pathology in murine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. Magnani

    2013-05-01

    Brucellosis, a frequent bacterial zoonosis, can produce debilitating chronic disease with involvement of multiple organs in human patients. Whereas acute brucellosis is well studied using the murine animal model, long-term complications of host-pathogen interaction remain largely elusive. Human brucellosis frequently results in persistent, chronic osteoarticular system involvement, with complications such as arthritis, spondylitis and sacroiliitis. Here, we focused on identifying infectious sites in the mouse that parallel Brucella melitensis foci observed in patients. In vivo imaging showed rapid bacterial dispersal to multiple sites of the murine axial skeleton. In agreement with these findings, immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of bacteria in bones and limbs, and in the lower spine vertebrae of the axial skeleton where they were preferentially located in the bone marrow. Surprisingly, some animals developed arthritis in paws and spine after infection, but without obvious bacteria in these sites. The identification of Brucella in the bones of mice corroborates the findings in humans that these osteoarticular sites are important niches for the persistence of Brucella in the host, but the mechanisms that mediate pathological manifestations in these sites remain unclear. Future studies addressing the immune responses within osteoarticular tissue foci could elucidate important tissue injury mediators and Brucella survival strategies.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of spinal brucellosis disease%脊柱布氏杆菌病的诊断与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小鹏; 马学晓; 岳斌; 张国庆; 相宏飞; 陈伯华

    2016-01-01

    Background:In recent years,the incidenc of spinal brucellosis presents a rising trend. It is very difficult to clari-fy a diagnosis for spinal brucellosis because it lacks specific diagnostic criteria. Objective:To retrospectively analyze clini-cal data of 16 cases of spinal brucellosis and to summarize diagnostic rule, treatment tactic and prognosis of the disease. Methods:From January 1999 to July 2015, 16 patients with spinal brucellosis were treated in our hospital. Their medical re-cords were collected. Complaints, clinical manifestations, serological and bacteriological results, imaging changes, clinical treatment and prognosis were analyzed. Results:There were 8 males and 8 females with a mean age of 49.25 years. They complained mainly for severe back pain or hip pain, and all had a history of exposure to cattles. The average of history was 3 months. Laboratory examination:ESR became faster in 14 patients (87.5%). The amount or percentage of monocytes in-creased in 15 patients (93.75%). In all 16 patients, CRP increased while white blood cell count kept normal. Blood cultures were negative, and the positive rate of bacterial culture was 50%. Lesions mainly involved lumbar vertebrae (13 cases, 81.25%). Imaging:X-ray and CT showed a parrot's beak appearance in 7 cases (63.6%);hypointense on T1-weighted imag-es, equal signal intensity on T2-weighted and hyperintense on FLAIR sequences of the intervertebral disc in MRI were found in 10 cases (71.4%). Nine patients underwent surgery and seven patients were treated by oral medicine. The mean du-ration of follow-up was 20.22 months (range, 2.5-197.0 months). Good prognosis was achieved in all patients. Conclusions:Once people have the following characteristics, spinal brucellosis should be highly suspected: severe low back pain, in-creased monocytes or mononuclear cell percentage, a history of exposure to cattle, a parrot's beak appearance in X-ray and CT, hypointense on T1-weighted images of the intervertebral

  13. Outbreak of Occupational Brucellosis at a Pharmaceutical Factory in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, B D; Wang, S Q; Lai, S M; Lu, Y; Shi, X G; Cao, G P; Hu, X L; Zheng, C J; Yu, Z Y; Zhang, J M; Fang, C F; Gong, Z Y

    2016-11-12

    Brucellosis is an occupational disease affecting workers in butcher shops, the milking and dairy product industry, causing more than 500 000 new cases around the world. As a national statutory B infectious disease in China, morbidity of brucellosis is rapidly increasing in recent years. We report an occupational outbreak of brucellosis infection in a pharmaceutical factory. Exposure was a result of manual operation in the process line, close contact with sheep placentas, insufficient disinfection and repeated using of protective suits and infected by aerosol dissemination. Improved preventive methods, appropriate public health measures and spread of health education would be helpful to prevent the occupational outbreak of brucellosis in future.

  14. Prevalence of positive autoimmune biomarkers in the brucellosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Abdollahi, Alireza; Ziaee, Vahid; Domiraei, Zeinab; Najafizadeh, Seyed-Reza; Jafari, Sirus; Ahmadinejad, Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease with articular involvement. Discrimination between brucellosis and rheumatologic disorders is difficult in regions endemic for brucellosis. There are few studies about the rate of positive autoantibodies as rheumatologic biomarkers in brucellosis, and the prevalence is variable. In this study, the rheumatologic tests were studied in brucellosis patients. This cross sectional study was performed in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Forty-nine patients with brucella infection and 42 healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Brucellosis was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical symptoms and positive serology for brucellosis. Rheumatic factor (RF) and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were evaluated in all patients. Cyclic citrullinated peptides antibody (ACPA) and anti-double strand DNA (anti-dsDNA) were checked in all patients and control groups. Out of 49 patients, 15 (30.6 %) were RF positive and 4 (8.2 %) were ANA positive. Anti-dsDNA was concurrently positive with ANA in 1 patient (2 %) but ACPA titer was positive in 8 patients (16.3 %). None of the patients with positive autoantibody biomarkers fulfilled the criteria for rheumatologic disorders. The rate of positive RF in healthy people was significantly lower than patient group (2.4 vs. 30.6 %), but the positiveness rate of other biomarkers did not have significant difference in two groups. Sixty percent of the patients with positive RF and 75 % with positive ACPA had skeletal involvement (P brucellosis. Rheumatologists should be aware of brucellosis in patients with musculoskeletal involvement and positive autoantibody biomarkers in endemic regions.

  15. Screening Household Members of Acute Brucellosis Cases in Endemic Areas and Risk Factors for Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Secil; Baykam, Nurcan; Celikbas, Aysel; Yilmaz, Sirin Menekse; Guzel, Tugba Cirkin; Dokuzoguz, Basak; Ergonul, Onder

    2015-08-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of acute brucellosis cases were targeted by screening the household members of the index cases. We also aimed to describe the causal relations of brucellosis in an endemic region. A cross-sectional study was performed among household members (29 index cases, 113 household members). Brucellosis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings, serum agglutinin titer of ≥1/160 in standard tube agglutination test (STA), or a positive blood culture. Index cases were defined as patients who had been admitted to the clinic on suspicion of brucellosis and then confirmed as brucellosis cases. The people who lived in the same house as the index cases were defined as household members. The risk factors for seropositivity were studied by multivariate analysis. Independent variables of gender, consuming fresh cheese, blood groups, dealing with husbandry, and contact with the placenta of infected animals were included to the model. Backward and forward selections were performed. Nineteen out of 113 (17%) screened individuals had agglutination titers ≥1/160. The mean ages of index cases and household members were 43 years (standard deviation [SD] 18) and 29 years (SD 19), respectively. In multivariate analysis, consuming fresh cheese (odds ratio [OR]=3.1, confidence interval [CI] 1.07-9.68, p=0.049), blood group A (OR=2.6, CI 1.18-5.96, p=0.018), contact with the placenta of the infected animals (OR=3.7, CI 1.42-9.68, p=0.007), and age >30 years (OR=2.8, CI 1.25-6.51, p=0.13) were found to be associated with brucellosis. In univariate analysis, the individuals with blood group B were protected from brucella infection (p=0.013). In conclusion, screening of the people in brucellosis-endemic areas should be considered for early diagnosis and treatment. To our knowledge, blood groups were studied for the first time by this study. Higher prevalence of brucellosis among the individuals with blood group A and less prevalence among the individuals with

  16. Evaluation of five serological tests for the diagnosis of porcine brucellosis in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praud, Anne; Gimenez, Olivier; Zanella, Gina; Pozzi, Nathalie; Antras, Valérie; Meyer, Laurence; Garin-Bastuji, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Porcine brucellosis due to Brucella suis biovar 1 raises important issues for pig breeders in French Polynesia. In this region, the disease is enzootic, spreads silently and engenders economic losses in infected farms as well as sporadic human cases. While serological tests are essential in surveillance and control programmes of animal diseases, to date none of the available tests have been shown to be reliable enough to be used as a gold standard in routine individual diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. Few studies about the estimation of the sensitivity and the specificity of porcine brucellosis screening tests have been published, none of them dealing with French Polynesia. The studied population included 1,595 pigs from French Polynesia. Five tests were evaluated: Rose Bengal test, fluorescence polarisation assay, indirect ELISA, and two competitive ELISAs (C-ELISA). The sensitivity and the specificity of each test were estimated. C-ELISA2 was the most sensitive test (Se C-ELISA2=0.954 [0.889; 0.992] 95% credibility interval (CrI)) while both C-ELISA and Rose Bengal test (RBT) were the most specific ones (Sp C-ELISA1=0.856 [0.806; 0.915] 95% CrI; Sp C-ELISA2=0.849 [0.817; 0.879] 95% CrI; Sp RBT=0.853 [0.812; 0.898] 95% CrI).

  17. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Bovine Brucellosis Seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar Salihu Anka; Latiffah Hassan; Siti Khairani-Bejo; Mohamed Abidin Zainal; Ramlan Bin Mohamad; Annas Salleh; Azri Adzhar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-fiv...

  18. Performance of skin tests with allergens from B. melitensis B115 and rough B. abortus mutants for diagnosing swine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Blasco, J M; De Miguel, M J; Marín, C M; Barberán, M; Conde-Álvarez, R; Moriyón, I; Muñoz, P M

    2014-01-10

    Swine brucellosis by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease whose control is based on serological testing and culling. However, current serological tests detect antibodies to the O-polysaccharide (O/PS) moiety of Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS), and thus lack specificity when infections by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other gram-negative bacteria carrying cross-reacting O/PS occur. The skin test with the protein-rich brucellin extract obtained from rough B. melitensis B115 is assumed to be specific for discriminating these false positive serological reactions (FPSR). However, B115 strain, although unable to synthesize S-LPS, accumulates O/PS internally, which could cause diagnostic problems. Since the brucellin skin test has been seldom used in pigs and FPSR are common in these animals, we assessed its performance using cytosoluble protein extracts obtained from B. abortus rough mutants in manBcore or per genes (critical for O/PS biosynthesis) and B. melitensis B115. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined in B. suis biovar 2 culture positive and brucellosis free sows, and apparent prevalence in sows of unknown individual bacteriological and serological status belonging to B. suis biovar 2 naturally infected herds. Moreover, the specificity in discriminating brucellosis from FPSR was assessed in brucellosis free boars showing FPSR. The skin test with B. abortus ΔmanBcore and B. melitensis B115 allergens performed similarly, and the former one resulted in 100% specificity when testing animals showing FPSR in indirect ELISA, Rose Bengal and complement fixation serological tests. We conclude that O/PS-free genetically defined mutants represent an appropriate alternative to obtain Brucella protein extracts for diagnosing swine brucellosis.

  19. BOCI-Egypt : Brucellosis and Tuberculosis control 21- 25 March 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, A.J.; Vugt, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This is the report of the first mission to Egypt for the project: Impact of brucellosis and tuberculosis on animal production and public health (BO-10-009-118). The objective of this mission was: to make an assessment of the current needs and problems in Egypt related to brucellosis and tuberculosis

  20. Cervical Spondylitis and Epidural Abscess Caused by Brucellosis: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşorlu Hatice

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease widely seen in endemic regions and that can lead to systemic involvement. The musculoskeletal system is frequently affected, and the disease can exhibit clinical involvements such as arthritis, spondylitis, spondylodiscitis, osteomyelitis, tenosynovitis and bursitis. Spondylitis and spondylodiscitis, common complications of brucellosis, predominantly affect the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae.

  1. The emerging disease occurrence of pet animals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Habiba

    2016-12-01

    Results: Among the most general pet animals in Bangladesh (dog, cat, rabbit, the mostly occured diseases were scabies (23.07%, feline ascariasis (37.14% and rabbit mange (34.61%, while the less frequent diseases were canine parvovirus enteritis (2.19%, cat scratch disease (5.71% and overgrown teeth (7.69%. Conclusion: The study provides basic information about the current status and the percentage (% of disease occurrence considering the emerging diseases of pet animals in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 413-419

  2. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided.

  3. An interesting case of childhood brucellosis with unusual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksugur, Sevil Bilir; Bekdas, Mervan; Gurel, Safiye; Tas, Tekin; Sarac, Esma Gokcen; Demircioglul, Fatih; Kismet, Erol

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection, which is still a major public health concern worldwide. Common clinical findings are usually nonspecific involving fever, arthralgia, myalgia, weakness and malaise. Since none of the symptoms of brucellosis is pathognomonic, it may have a similar course with various multisystemic diseases. In terms of focal involvement, sacroiliitis is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation in adult patients, while it is quite rare in pediatric patients. Blood culture is the gold standard in the diagnosis of brucellosis. In the absence of culture facilities, the diagnosis traditionally relies on serologic testing with a variety of agglutination tests such as the Rose Bengal test and the serum agglutination test. However, these agglutination tests are accompanied by frequent false negative results such as seen in prozone phenomenon, which may lead to diagnostic delays. In this article we present a rarely encountered pediatric brucellosis patient who had sacroiliitis-spondylitis, which are rarely reported in children, and exhibited prozone phenomenon in agglutination tests.

  4. Joint diseases in animal paleopathology: Veterinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Animal paleopathology is not a very well known scientific discipline within veterinary science, but it has great importance for historical and archaeological investigations. In this paper, authors attention is focused on the description of one of the most common findings on the skeletal remains of animals - osteoarthropathies. This review particularly emphasizes the description and classification of the most common pathological changes in synovial joints. The authors have provided their obser...

  5. Assessment of a strain 19 brucellosis vaccination program in elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maichak, Eric J.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Edwards, William H.; Wise, Benjamin; Smith, Scott G.; Kreeger, Terry J.

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases in wildlife present substantial challenges and risks to host populations, susceptible domestic livestock populations, and affected stakeholders. Brucellosis, a disease caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus, is endemic among elk (Cervus canadensis) attending winter feedgrounds and adjacent areas of western Wyoming, USA. To minimize transmission of brucellosis from elk to elk and elk to livestock, managers initiated a B. abortus strain 19 ballistic vaccination program in 1985. We used brucellosis prevalence (1971–2015) and reproductive outcome (2006–2015) data collected from female elk attending feedgrounds to assess efficacy of the strain 19 program while controlling for potentially confounding factors such as site and age. From our generalized linear models, we found that seroprevalence of brucellosis was 1) not lower following inception of vaccination; 2) not inversely associated with proportion of juveniles vaccinated over time; 3) not inversely associated with additional yearlings and adults vaccinated over time; and 4) associated more with feeding end-date than proportion of juveniles vaccinated. Using vaginal implant transmitters in adult females that were seropositive for brucellosis, we found little effect of vaccination coverage at reducing reproductive failures (i.e., abortion or stillbirth). Because we found limited support for efficacy of the strain 19 program, we support research to develop an oral vaccine and suggest that continuing other spatio-temporal management actions will be most effective to minimize transmission of brucellosis and reduce dependency of elk on supplemental winter feeding.

  6. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the disease, clinical presentations, serological test, serum biochemistry and reatment were collected from hospital medical records. The diagnosis of brucellosis based on clinical and laboratory findings. Results: This descriptive study included 47 patients, who 33 of them (70.2% were males. The mean age was 37.9 ± 19.3 years. The route of transmission of the disease was known in 28 59.5% of them. Direct contact with livestock in 22 (46.8% and ingestion of dairy products in six cases (12.7% were reported as the transmission route. The majority of patients (27 patients, 57.4% were from rural area. The main presenting symptoms were atigue, fever and arthralgia. Osteoarticular manifestations were the common forms of localized disease. Regarding to the therapy, 45 (95.7% of patients were treated with streptomycin and doxycycline for the first three weeks. Conclusion: Human brucellosis is not a common in Kosovo but there is a potential risk. Osteoarticular symptoms were the most common presentation reasons. The most effective and preferred treatment regimen was Streptomycin plus Doxycycline for the first three weeks, and Doxycycline plus Rifampicin thereafter. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 147-150

  7. A brucellosis case presenting with vesicular and maculopapular rash and febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmin Dirgen Çaylak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a systemic disease in which all kind of tissues and organs can be affected. Brucellosis may present with different symptoms and symptoms are non-specific. A broad spectrum of clinical manifestations can be seen, therefore diagnosis can be difficult. Cutaneous complications and febrile neutropenia have been rarely reported. Here, a rare brucellosis case was reported that he applied with fever, skin eruption and neutropenia. We emphasized that especially in endemic areas brucellosis should always be kept on mind in the differential diagnosis of patient with skin eruption and febril neutropenia.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 39-41

  8. [Brucellosis in pregnancy: course and perinatal results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Damian, R; Rojas Rodríguez, L; Marcano Tochon, E S

    1995-05-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affect cows, goats and pigs, but in endemic zones human beings are frequently infected. Brucella infection in animals is associated with a high incidence of abortion, in humans a cause-effect relationship has not been proven. We present four cases of pregnant women with Brucella infection, all were treated only with rifampin, the patients had adequate obstetric evolution, the deliveries were at term and there were not birth defects or intrauterine growth retardation. One woman had a relapse during her puerperium. In the medical literature review there were not enough support to attribute to brucellosis as causal factor of abortion in humans. The treatment during pregnancy must include the combination of rifampin with another antibiotic with intracellular action.

  9. A review of gastrointestinal manifestations of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Shahid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is hyperendemic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA with more than 8,000 cases reported each year to the public health authorities. The disease can affect almost any organ system in the body including the gastrointestinal system. In some instances, gastrointestinal manifestations may be the only presenting features of the disease. These range from milder complaints like diarrhea, vomiting to more serious complications like involvement of the liver, the spleen and the gallbladder to rarely life-threatening complications like colitis, pancreatitis, peritonitis and intestinal obstruction. Recognition of this type of presentation of brucellosis is important because early diagnosis and treatment usually result in complete recovery without complications

  10. Genitourinary brucellosis: results of a multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, H; Elaldi, N; Ak, O; Gulsun, S; Tekin, R; Ulug, M; Duygu, F; Sunnetcioglu, M; Tulek, N; Guler, S; Cag, Y; Kaya, S; Turker, N; Parlak, E; Demirdal, T; Ataman Hatipoglu, C; Avci, A; Bulut, C; Avci, M; Pekok, A; Savasci, U; Kaya, S; Sozen, H; Tasbakan, M; Guven, T; Bolukcu, S; Cesur, S; Sahin-Horasan, E; Kazak, E; Denk, A; Gonen, I; Karagoz, G; Haykir Solay, A; Alici, O; Kader, C; Senturk, G; Tosun, S; Turan, H; Baran, A I; Ozturk-Engin, D; Bozkurt, F; Deveci, O; Inan, A; Kadanali, A; Sayar, M S; Cetin, B; Yemisen, M; Naz, H; Gorenek, L; Agalar, C

    2014-11-01

    This study reviewed the clinical, laboratory, therapeutic and prognostic data on genitourinary involvement of brucellosis in this largest case series reported. This multicentre study pooled adult patients with genitourinary brucellar involvement from 34 centres treated between 2000 and 2013. Diagnosis of the disease was established by conventional methods. Overall 390 patients with genitourinary brucellosis (352 male, 90.2%) were pooled. In male patients, the most frequent involved site was the scrotal area (n=327, 83.8%), as epididymo-orchitis (n=204, 58%), orchitis (n=112, 31.8%) and epididymitis (n=11, 3.1%). In female patients, pyelonephritis (n=33/38, 86.8%) was significantly higher than in male patients (n=11/352, 3.1%; pbrucellosis occurred in one patient. A localized scrotal infection in men or pyelonephritis in women in the absence of leucocytosis and with mild to moderate increases in inflammatory markers should signal the possibility of brucellar genitourinary disease.

  11. Pathogenesis and immunobiology of brucellosis: review of Brucella-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Paul; Ficht, Thomas A; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Rossetti, Carlos A; Adams, L Garry

    2015-06-01

    This review of Brucella-host interactions and immunobiology discusses recent discoveries as the basis for pathogenesis-informed rationales to prevent or treat brucellosis. Brucella spp., as animal pathogens, cause human brucellosis, a zoonosis that results in worldwide economic losses, human morbidity, and poverty. Although Brucella spp. infect humans as an incidental host, 500,000 new human infections occur annually, and no patient-friendly treatments or approved human vaccines are reported. Brucellae display strong tissue tropism for lymphoreticular and reproductive systems with an intracellular lifestyle that limits exposure to innate and adaptive immune responses, sequesters the organism from the effects of antibiotics, and drives clinical disease manifestations and pathology. Stealthy brucellae exploit strategies to establish infection, including i) evasion of intracellular destruction by restricting fusion of type IV secretion system-dependent Brucella-containing vacuoles with lysosomal compartments, ii) inhibition of apoptosis of infected mononuclear cells, and iii) prevention of dendritic cell maturation, antigen presentation, and activation of naive T cells, pathogenesis lessons that may be informative for other intracellular pathogens. Data sets of next-generation sequences of Brucella and host time-series global expression fused with proteomics and metabolomics data from in vitro and in vivo experiments now inform interactive cellular pathways and gene regulatory networks enabling full-scale systems biology analysis. The newly identified effector proteins of Brucella may represent targets for improved, safer brucellosis vaccines and therapeutics.

  12. Animal Diseases Caused by Orbiviruses, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Hafsa; Casal, Jordi; Alba, Anna; Allepuz, Alberto; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Hafsi, Leila; Kount-Chareb, Houria; Bouayed-Chaouach, Nadera; Saadaoui, Hassiba

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies against bluetongue virus were detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels in Algeria in 2008. Antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were detected in cattle, but antibodies against African horse sickness virus were not detected in horses and mules. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in northern Africa poses a major risk for the European Union. PMID:22172371

  13. Comparison of Coombs' and immunocapture-agglutination tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurittin Ardic; Mustafa Ozyurt; Ogun Sezer; Ali Erdemoglu; Tuncer Haznedaroglu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella encountered in animals such as cows, sheep, goats and pigs as well as in humans. It is one of the most widely seen infections and nearly half a million cases are declared annually. Endemic infections occur especially in the Mediterranean, Middle East, Latin America and Asia.1 Seropositiveness ratios vary between 2% and 12% in Turkey.2 The average annual number of cases declared to the Turkish Ministry of Health between 1991 and 2000 was 9000.3

  14. The "effects" of Rev-1 vaccination of sheep and goats on human brucellosis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, A; Minas, M; Stournara, A; Tselepidis, S

    2004-06-10

    Vaccination of young animals (3-6-month-old sheep and goats) with Rev-1 vaccine for 15 years in Greece, importantly decreased the abortions in sheep and goats as well as the incidence of brucellosis in humans. After the stop of vaccination in 1994, all over Greece, the prevalence of brucellosis in animals and the incidence in humans quickly increased. It was a positive rank correlation (0.90) among these variables. Once an emergency mass-vaccination programme of young and adult animals with Rev-1 vaccine was started in 1998, the human incidence again decreased. The association of the vaccination coverage of animals and incidence of brucellosis in humans was not linear; the decrease in human brucellosis incidence was observed when the vaccination coverage of animals was >30%.

  15. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent da

  16. Transmission dynamics and control for a brucellosis model in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingtao; Sun, Guiquan; Zhang, Juan; Jin, Zhen; Sun, Xiangdong; Wang, Youming; Huang, Baoxu; Zheng, Yaohui

    2014-10-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major infectious and contagious bacterial diseases in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia, China. The number of newly infected human brucellosis data in this area has increased dramatically in the last 10 years. In this study, in order to explore effective control and prevention measures we propose a deterministic model to investigate the transmission dynamics of brucellosis in Hinggan League. The model describes the spread of brucellosis among sheep and from sheep to humans. The model simulations agree with newly infected human brucellosis data from 2001 to 2011, and the trend of newly infected human brucellosis cases is given. We estimate that the control reproduction number Rc is about 1.9789 for the brucellosis transmission in Hinggan League and compare the effect of existing mixed cross infection between basic ewes and other sheep or not for newly infected human brucellosis cases. Our study demonstrates that combination of prohibiting mixed feeding between basic ewes and other sheep, vaccination, detection and elimination are useful strategies in controlling human brucellosis in Hinggan League.

  17. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis.

  18. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare.

  19. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems...

  20. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa; Winblad, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer's disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind...... that of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer's disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to the existing mouse models. This review summarizes the contributions and current status of the rat...... as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease....

  1. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen DONG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  2. Acute brucellosis associated with leukocytoclastic vasculitis and splenic infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçmak, Feyzullah; Uçmak, Derya; Beştaş, Remzi; Anli, Ruken Azizoğlu; Adanir, Haydar

    2014-12-01

    Brucellosis is globally the most prevalent multisystem infection of zoonotic origin, while it is still one of the most important public health problems in Turkey as non-pasteurised milk and dairy products are consumed. Early diagnosis is vital to prevent the possibly lethal complications caused by the disease. However, diagnosis might be delayed as the disease does not have a single and typical manifestation and presents with various symptoms of different systems. Brucellosis and associated splenic infarct have rarely been studied, there being few cases in the literature. One of the rare involvements in this disease is dermatological involvement, which has been found in less than 10 percent of brucellosis cases. In this study, we discuss a 17 year old male patient who was admitted to our hospital due to fever, abdominal pain, arthralgia and rash on legs, diagnosed with brucellosis through brucellosis tube agglutination test and found to have splenic infarct upon examination and leukocytoclastic vasculitis according to the skin biopsies in the light of the present literature.

  3. Ten years' work on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebara, Karim Ben; Cáceres, Paula; Berlingieri, Francesco; Weber-Vintzel, Laure

    2012-12-01

    This article gives an overview of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System and highlights the major achievements during the past decade. It describes the different types of disease notification reports received and processed by the OIE. It also evaluates the three strategies implemented by the OIE in the recent years aimed at improving disease notification: introduction and use of a secure online notification system World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) and its database interface World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID); implementation of active search and verification procedures for non-official information; and enhanced building of capacity for animal disease notification to the OIE by Members Countries. The improvements are evidenced by the increasing number of reports submitted on an annual basis and the reduction in submission time together with an improvement in the quality and quantity of the immediate notifications and follow-up reports, six-monthly and annual reports submitted by Veterinary Authorities. In the recent years, the OIE's notification system provides an early warning system more sensitive and global. Consequently, there is a greater knowledge of animal diseases' distribution worldwide. As a result, it is possible to ensure better prevention, more accurate risk assessment and evaluation by diminishing the spread of known or newly emerging pathogens.

  4. Foodborne outbreak of human brucellosis caused by ingested raw materials of fetal calf on Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Young Ree; Yoo, Seung Jin

    2015-02-01

    Since the first reported case of human brucellosis in 2002 in South Korea, its incidence has been increasing nationally. However, bovine brucellosis has not been present from 2005 to date on Jeju Island. Despite Jeju Island being considered a clean area for bovine brucellosis, we experienced an outbreak of human brucellosis between 2012 and 2013. Herein, we report cases with human brucellosis after ingestion of raw materials of fetal calf at a restaurant. Patients were identified by isolation of the Brucella abortus in their blood and joint tissue. Because all patients developed zoonosis by a faulty folk remedy, we emphasize the importance of educational programs to increase the awareness of zoonosis, and the need for active surveillance and detection of illegal distribution channels of the infected animal. After the outbreak, we took control of the involved restaurant and its illegal distribution channel, and there have been no further outbreaks.

  5. A Case of Brucellosis Associated with Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis: A Diagnostic Pitfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dalton Wheeler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of brucellosis are rare in the United States and difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a young female who underwent a diagnostic investigation of fever of unknown origin, which included a lymph node biopsy. The biopsy was consistent with Kikuchi’s Disease, or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, an entity where the major differential diagnosis is systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly, serologic studies supported the diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucellosis has rarely been associated with histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. This association has never been reported in the United States, thus suggesting that brucellosis should be considered in the differential for histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, along with lupus-like autoimmune disease. As the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, brucellosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus are distinct, it is important to differentiate these entities. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(5.000: 274-279

  6. Notification of animal and human diseases: the global legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, B; Thiermann, A; Ben Jebara, K; Dehove, A

    2013-08-01

    The successful control of a disease, and a possible epidemic, depends on rapid access to complete information on the disease situation. To ensure a timely response, diseases must be immediately notified in a transparent manner. The rapid exchange of information about animal diseases, including zoonoses, was the key objective in the establishment of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in 1924. For diseases concerning humans, a set of new rules dealing with the quick reporting of infectious diseases--the International Health Regulations--was adopted by Members of the World Health Organization (OMS) in 2005. The article explains these two systems of notification, which make information accessible to the public and allow decision-makers to better manage the risks related to the diseases concerned.

  7. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    .... Troy Bigelow, Swine Health Programs, Aquaculture, Swine, Equine, and Poultry Programs, National Center... treated for brucellosis with antibiotics. The brucellosis regulations in 9 CFR part 78 (referred to...

  8. Proteomics in farm animals models of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Restelli, Laura; Lecchi, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. It is becoming increasingly evident that the few species utilised to date cannot be regarded as universal. There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. Farm animals, including pigs, cows, sheep and horses, represent a valid alternative to commonly utilised rodent models. There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. Focus will be on specific topics of biomedical research in which farm animal models have been characterised through the application of proteomic techniques.

  9. [Brucellosis as a cause of hemophagocytic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Saliha; Günal, Özgür; Taşkın, Mehmet Hakan; Atilla, Aynur; Kılıç, Süleyman Sırrı

    2015-04-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare syndrome of excessive inflammation and tissue destruction due to abnormal immune activation and inflammation. HLH can occur primarily due to genetic etiology, or secondarily associated with malignancies, autoimmmune diseases or infections. There are a number of reports that revealed the relationship of hemophagocytosis with brucellosis. In this report, we described a brucellosis-related HLH case. A 73-year-old male who work as farmer was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever continuing for 10 days, loss of appetite and back pain. Physical examination revealed right upper quadrant tenderness and hepatomegaly. Since the patient exhibited five of the diagnostic criteria for HLH (fever, hepatosplenomegaly, bicytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia and high ferritin level), he was diagnosed as secondary HLH. PCR, microscopic agglutination and indirect fluorescent antibody tests gave negative results for the diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, leptospirosis and Q fever, respectively. On the other hand, Rose Bengal test for brucellosis was positive, while standard tube agglutination test (STA) was negative. The patient's serum yielded a very high positive (1/1280) result when Coombs' test was performed in terms of the possibility of blocking antibodies or prozone phenomenon. Additionally, B.melitensis was isolated from his blood culture on the sixth day. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampicin, and on the 10th day of antibiotic therapy the patient was discharged and recommended to complete his treatment up to 6 weeks. In conclusion, in patients with secondary HLH symptoms especially in the endemic areas, brucellosis should be considered as a predisposing infection.

  10. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionWithin the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds, establishment of control and surve

  11. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  12. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2013-04-23

    In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  13. Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States.

  14. A Case of Adolescent Brucellosis Presented with Epididymoorchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Karlı

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a sistemic infectious disease and it is a major public health problem in our country. It can involve many organs and systems and epididymoorchitis can be a rare presentation of this zoonotic disease in children. Here we report an adolescent patient who presented only with scrotal sweeling and brucella epididymoorchitis diagnosed later. Brucellosis can be rarely seen as epididimoorchitis. So it should be especially considered in the differential diagnosis in endemic areas of brucellosis. It can be diagnosed with a well documented history and relevant laboratory investigations and appropriate treatments can prevent a number of serious complications such as necrotizing orchitis, oligospermia and azospermia. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 150-2

  15. Critical Behavior in a Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, P D; Chang, Julius

    2003-01-01

    Using a cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared on a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock on an infected premise (IP). Those farms that neighbor an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor iteractions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The non-local disease transport probability can be as low as .01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fissio...

  16. Unusual presentation of Brucellosis:Afebrile,culture posi-tive Brucellosis and culture positive,seronegative Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Avijgan; Masoud Hafizi; Ardeshir Salemi; Shams al-sadate Izadi Dehkordi

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the unusual presentation of brucellosis.Methods:This prospective study was carried out on 46 patients suspected to brucellosis.The diagnosis was made with isolation of brucella species by Bone Marrow culture.Results:Among 40 culture positive patients,there were two unusual presentations of brucello-sis;Afebrile culture positive and culture positive seronegative brucellosis.Conclusion:Some brucellosis pa-tients would not match with criteria for diagnosis of brucellosis.Although it is needed to have positive serology or culture for diagnosis of brucellosis but sometimes,it is the clinical experiences,which help to diagnose and treat these kinds of patients.

  17. [THE PERSPECTIVES OF STUDYING OF POLYMORPHISM OF GENES OF GAMMA-INTERFERON UNDER CHRONIC BRUCELLOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurpeisova, A Kh; Kolomeietz, A N

    2016-02-01

    The brucellosis is an actual zoonotic disease in many countries, Russia included. The complexity of individual prognosis of disease and choice of tactics of maintenance of patients is explained by heterogeneity of clinical manifestations of brucellosis and different rate of progression of organs pathology. Despite of low mortality, this pathology quite often results in disability of patient. The frequent transition of acute process into chronic one (40-60%), probability of development of primary chronic brucellosis determines interest of researchers to issues of immunopathogenesis of this disease. The article presents review of achievements in studies of polymorphism of genes of gamma-interferon in the given area.

  18. A randomized, comparative study of dual therapy (doxycycline–rifampin versus triple therapy (doxycycline–rifampin–levofloxacin for treating acute/subacute brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasanain

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to compare both the efficacy and safety profile of the WHO-recommended, dual therapy (doxycycline–rifampin to a quinolone-based, triple therapy (doxycycline–rifampin–levofloxacin for treating acute/subacute brucellosis. Patients and methods We studied 107 consecutive, naïve patients with acute/subacute brucellosis admitted to Assiut University Hospital. Patients were randomly allocated to receive the dual therapy of doxycycline–rifampin (group-A or to receive the triple therapy of doxycycline–rifampin–levofloxacin (group-B. Acute/subacute brucellosis was diagnosed based on the presence of: (1 contact with animals or fresh animal products, (2 suggestive clinical manifestations of less than one-year duration, and (3 positive antibody titer (1:160 by standard tube agglutination test. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their demographic data. Fever was the most frequent manifestation (96.3%. Epigastric pain was the most frequent adverse effect of treatment (12.1%. Group-A patients had a significantly higher relapse rate compared to group-B patients (22.6% versus 9.3%, p-value = 0.01. The rate of treatment adverse effects was higher among group-B patients, although not reaching statistical significance (20.4% versus 11.3%, p-value = 0.059. Conclusions Adding levofloxacin to the dual therapy for acute/subacute brucellosis (doxycycline–rifampin may increase its efficacy in terms of lowering the relapse rate of the disease. Further, larger scale studies are needed before considering modifying the standard, dual therapy for brucellosis.

  19. Involvement and Complications Associated with Brucellosis Connected Rare Evaluation of 46 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Turunc

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In this study, it is determined that cases were followed with brucellosis (10.2% atypical disease and / or complications, and the first assesses made by outside the Department of Infectious Diseases. For this reason, we think not only experts in Infectious Diseases, all other branches of physicians should keep in mind in the differential diagnosis of brucellosis. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 829-839

  20. The Leeuwenhoek Lecture 2001. Animal origins of human infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R A

    2001-06-29

    Since time immemorial animals have been a major source of human infectious disease. Certain infections like rabies are recognized as zoonoses caused in each case by direct animal-to-human transmission. Others like measles became independently sustained with the human population so that the causative virus has diverged from its animal progenitor. Recent examples of direct zoonoses are variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease arising from bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and the H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Hong Kong. Epidemics of recent animal origin are the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some retroviruses jump into and out of the chromosomal DNA of the host germline, so that they oscillate between being inherited Mendelian traits or infectious agents in different species. Will new procedures like animal-to-human transplants unleash further infections? Do microbes become more virulent upon cross-species transfer? Are animal microbes a threat as biological weapons? Will the vast reservoir of immunodeficient hosts due to the HIV pandemic provide conditions permissive for sporadic zoonoses to take off as human-to-human transmissible diseases? Do human infections now pose a threat to endangered primates? These questions are addressed in this lecture.

  1. A Primary Investigation on Serum CTX-II Changes in Patients Infected with Brucellosis in Qinghai Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi Jun; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Ma, Li; Xu, Li Qing; Yang, Pei Zhen; Meng, Xian Ya; Yu, Hui Zhen; Xu, Xiao Qing; Cao, Jian Ying

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, with the most frequent complication being osteoarticular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in patients infected with brucellosis. A total of 84 brucellosis patients and 43 volunteers were selected and divided into brucellosis vs. control groups. Serum samples were subjected to serological tests for brucellosis, and CTX-II levels in all samples were measured simultaneously with ELISA. The results showed that serum CTX-II levels in human brucellosis were higher than those of healthy controls, without a statistically significant difference, but serum CTX-II levels in male patients were significantly higher than those of female patients (Pbrucellosis.

  2. An analysis of human brucellosis epidemic characteristic and trend in Wuhai during 2010 to 2014%2010—2014年乌海市布鲁氏菌病疫情特征及趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄喜平; 银福

    2015-01-01

    目的 掌握乌海市人间布鲁氏菌病疫情流行动态,分析疫情特征及现状,预测疫情发展趋势,为布鲁氏菌病的科学防治提供理论依据.方法 收集分析2010—2014年中国疾病预防控制信息系统传染病报告资料;2010—2014年人间布病防治项目调查及监测资料,历史资料.结果 乌海市人间布鲁氏菌病疫情呈上升态势,但发病总体上呈散发状态;该地区人间布病为较典型的"城市型"布病,病例多集中在养殖、屠宰、兽医、畜产品购销等行业,非职业人群发病增多.结论 加强对高危人群的监测工作,加大布病防治知识的宣传力度,做好畜间检疫、免疫、淘汰宰杀病畜等工作,有效控制人间布病疫情.%Objective To master the human brucellosis dynamics epidemic situation,to analysis the epidemic characteristic and present situation,and to predict the development trend of the epidemic of Wuhai to provide a the-oretical basis for brucellosis control.Methods Analysis on the brucellosis data of infectious disease report of 2010-2014 China disease prevention and control information system,investigation and monitoring data of 2010-2014 hu-man brucellosis prevention and control project and the historical data.Results The human brucellosis epidemic of Wuhai is rising gradually,but the incidence is interspersed on the whole.This area of human brucellosis is a typical urban type.Most cases was concentrated in the breeding,slaughtering,veterinary,animal products purchasing and supplying industry,and the incidence of occupational population was increased.Conclusions We should strength-en the monitoring of high-risk groups and the propaganda of the knowledge of prevention and control of brucellosis, and do well the work of animal quarantine and immunization and out of the slaughter of sick livestock,to effective control of the human brucellosis.

  3. Co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle in Ibadan, Nigeria: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy A. Stack

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case report on co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered at the Bodija abattoir in Ibadan, Nigeria. Out of 32 animals that were seropositive for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal test, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and competitive ELISA, six were also demonstrated as being infected with tuberculosis through mycobacterial culture. This is the first report of co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in Nigeria. There is a need for further studies to investigate this occurrence.

  4. Concise Review: Stem Cell Trials Using Companion Animal Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Andrew M; Dow, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports. Disease models included osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's fistulas, meningoencephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis-like), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Sjogren's syndrome-like), atopic dermatitis, and chronic (end-stage) kidney disease. Stem cells evaluated in these studies included mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (MSC, 17/19 trials), olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC, 1 trial), or neural lineage cells derived from bone marrow MSC (1 trial), and 16/19 studies were performed in dogs. The MSC studies (13/17) used adipose tissue-derived MSC from either allogeneic (8/13) or autologous (5/13) sources. The majority of studies were open label, uncontrolled studies. Endpoints and protocols were feasible, and the stem cell therapies were reportedly safe and elicited beneficial patient responses in all but two of the trials. In conclusion, companion animals with naturally occurring diseases analogous to human conditions can be recruited into clinical trials and provide realistic insight into feasibility, safety, and biologic activity of novel stem cell therapies. However, improvements in the rigor of manufacturing, study design, and regulatory compliance will be needed to better utilize these models. Stem Cells 2016;34:1709-1729.

  5. Recurrent Epistaxis and Bleeding as the Initial Manifestation of Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali Aghdam, Mojtaba; Davari, Kambiz; Eftekhari, Kambiz

    2016-03-01

    Severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding is rarely reported in children with brucellosis, and recurrent epistaxis is extremely rare. Brucellosis with hemorrhage should be differentiated from viral hemorrhagic fever, malignancy, and other blood disorders. Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is mandatory to differentiate from other blood diseases. An 8-year-old boy was admitted with recurrent epistaxis, petechiae and purpura on face and extremities and bleeding from the gums. During the hospitalization, he was febrile and complained of muscle pain. Leukopenias associated with thrombocytopenia were observed. BMA showed to be normal. Among the multiple tests requested, only serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-MercaptoEthanol test (2-ME) were positive. He was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) associated with co-trimoxazole and rifampin. Finally, fever subsided, and he was discharged with good condition and normal platelet count. Brucellosis should be a differential diagnosis in patients with fever and bleeding disorders and a history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy, in endemic areas.

  6. An optimal control problem for ovine brucellosis with culling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannyonga, B; Mwanga, G G; Luboobi, L S

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is used to study the dynamics of ovine brucellosis when transmitted directly from infected individual, through contact with a contaminated environment or vertically through mother to child. The model developed by Aïnseba et al. [A model for ovine brucellosis incorporating direct and indirect transmission, J. Biol. Dyn. 4 (2010), pp. 2-11. Available at http://www.math.u-bordeaux1.fr/∼pmagal100p/papers/BBM-JBD09.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2012] was modified to include culling and then used to determine important parameters in the spread of human brucellosis using sensitivity analysis. An optimal control analysis was performed on the model to determine the best way to control such as a disease in the population. Three time-dependent controls to prevent exposure, cull the infected and reduce environmental transmission were used to set up to minimize infection at a minimum cost.

  7. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures.

  8. CONTROL OF ANIMAL DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA: PRINCIPLES AND APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ahmad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available To continue to exist, a bacterial pathogen must reproduce and be disseminated among its hosts. Thus, an important aspect of bacterial disease control is a consideration of how reproduction and dissemination of the organism occur. One must identify components of bacterial dissemination that are primarily responsible for a particular disease. Control measures should be directed toward that part of the cycle which is most susceptible to control the weakest links in the chain of disease process. Reducing or eliminating the source or reservoir of infection, breaking the connection between the source of the infection and susceptible animals and reducing the number of susceptible animals by raising the general level of herd immunity with immunization are three main kinds of control measures against bacterial diseases.

  9. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of cystic fibrosis: gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary disease and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Alicia K; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Meyerholz, David K

    2015-03-15

    Multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and hepatobiliary systems, are affected by cystic fibrosis (CF). Many of these changes begin early in life and are difficult to study in young CF patients. Recent development of novel CF animal models has expanded opportunities in the field to better understand CF pathogenesis and evaluate traditional and innovative therapeutics. In this review, we discuss manifestations of CF disease in gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary systems of humans and animal models. We also compare the similarities and limitations of animal models and discuss future directions for modeling CF.

  10. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ismayilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster model and the Vuong-Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio supported the cluster model. Brucellosis cases in the second cluster (19% reported higher percentages of poly-lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, arthritis, myositis, and neuritis and changes in liver function tests compared to cases of the first cluster. Patients in the second cluster had a severe brucellosis disease course and were associated with longer delay in seeking medical attention. Moreover, most of them were from Beylagan, a region focused on sheep and goat livestock production in south-central Azerbaijan. Patients in cluster 2 accounted for one-quarter of brucellosis cases and had a more severe clinical presentation. Delay in seeking medical care may explain severe illness. Future work needs to determine the factors that influence brucellosis case seeking and identify brucellosis species, particularly among cases from Beylagan.

  11. Quarantine, exports and animal disease in Australia 1901-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Aj

    2011-09-01

    The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions.

  12. Polymyositis-like syndrome with rhabdomyolysis in association with brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kushal Naha; Suman Karanth; Sowjanya Dasari; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse myositis with progression to rhabdomyolysis has been reported in association with wide range of viral infections.We report a case of polymyositis-like syndrome complicated by rhabdomyolysis secondary to brucellosis.This case report thus contributes yet another atypical presentation to a disease already infamous for its protean manifestations.

  13. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, A.A. de

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the a

  14. The Caribbean animal health network: new tools for harmonization and reinforcement of animal disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Victor; Trotman, Mark; Thomas, Reginald; Max, Millien; Zamora, Pastor Alfonso; Lepoureau, Maria Teresa Frias; Phanord, Siméon; Quirico, Jocelyn; Douglas, Kirk; Pegram, Rupert; Martinez, Dominique; Petitclerc, Martial; Chouin, Emilie; Marchal, Céline; Chavernac, David; Doyen, David; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Molia, Sophie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) is a collaboration of veterinary services, diagnostic laboratories, research institutes, universities, and regional/international organizations to improve animal health in the Caribbean. New tools were used by the network to develop regional animal health activities: (1) A steering committee, a coordination unit, and working groups on specific diseases or activities were established. The working group on avian influenza used a collaborative Web site to develop a regionally harmonized avian influenza surveillance protocol and performance indicators. (2) A specific network was implemented on West Nile virus (WNV) to describe the WNV status of the Caribbean countries, to perform a technology transfer of WNV diagnostics, and to establish a surveillance system. (3) The CaribVET Web site (http://www.caribvet.net) encompasses information on surveillance systems, diagnostic laboratories, conferences, bibliography, and diseases of major concern in the region. It is a participatory Web site allowing registered users to add or edit information, pages, or data. An online notification system of sanitary information was set up for Guadeloupe to improve knowledge on animal diseases and facilitate early alert.

  15. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Ismayilova; Emilya Nasirova; Colleen Hanou; Rivard, Robert G.; Bautista, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC) analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster mo...

  16. Animal models for Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Götz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In dementia research, animal models have become indispensable tools. They not only model aspects of the human condition, but also simulate processes that occur in humans and hence provide insight into how disease is initiated and propagated. The present review discusses two prominent human neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. It discusses what we would like to model in animals and highlights some of the more recent achievements using species as diverse as mice, fish, flies and worms. Advances in imaging and therapy are explored. We also discuss some anticipated new models and developments. These will reveal how key players in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, such as the peptide Aβ (amyloid β and the protein tau, cause neuronal dysfunction and eventually, neuronal demise. Understanding these processes fully will lead to early diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Prion and prion-like diseases in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; García, Consolación; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Andreoletti, Olivier; Torres, Juan María

    2015-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopaties (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the aggregation and accumulation of the misfolded prion protein in the brain. Other proteins such as β-amyloid, tau or Serum Amyloid-A (SAA) seem to share with prions some aspects of their pathogenic mechanism; causing a variety of so called prion-like diseases in humans and/or animals such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Type II diabetes mellitus or amyloidosis. The question remains whether these misfolding proteins have the ability to self-propagate and transmit in a similar manner to prions. In this review, we describe the prion and prion-like diseases affecting animals as well as the recent findings suggesting the prion-like transmissibility of certain non-prion proteins.

  18. Animal models of Parkinson's disease and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Jin Park, Ting Ting Zhao, Myung Koo LeeDepartment of Pharmacy, Research Center for Bioresource and Health, College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that occurs mainly due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neuronal cells in the substantia nigra. l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA is the most effective known therapy for PD. However, chronic L-DOPA administration results in a loss of drug efficacy and irreversible adverse effects, including L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, affective disorders, and cognitive function disorders. To study the motor and non-motor symptomatic dysfunctions in PD, neurotoxin and genetic animal models of PD have been widely applied. However, these animal models do not exhibit all of the pathophysiological symptoms of PD. Regardless, neurotoxin rat and mouse models of PD have been commonly used in the development of bioactive components from natural herbal medicines. Here, the main animal models of PD and their applications have been introduced in order to aid the development of therapeutic and adjuvant agents. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, neurotoxin animal models, genetic animal models, adjuvant therapeutics

  19. Evaluation of childhood brucellosis in the central Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çıraklı, Sevgi; Karlı, Arzu; Şensoy, Gülnar; Belet, Nurşen; Yanık, Keramettin; Çıraklı, Alper

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease that leads to various clinical pictures and is still a significant health problem in Turkey. In this study, 52 pediatric patients diagnosed with brucellosis between January 2008 and December 2013 were examined. Clinical and laboratory findings, response to treatment, prognosis and complications were evaluated. Diagnosis of brucellosis was made based on a clinical picture compatible with the disease, together with standard tube agglutination test (SAT) positivity (1/160 or higer titer) or isolation of Brucella spp. in a sterile body fluid culture. The cases comprised 10 females and 42 males. In 75% of cases, there was a history of consumption of unpasteurized milk or dairy products. The most commonly seen symptoms and findings were fever (75%), arthralgia (54%), fatigue (19%), splenomegaly (44%), hepatomegaly (42%) and arthritis (19%). Atypical presentations were seen in one case of epidydymo-orchitis and three cases of bleeding of the nose and gums. In the laboratory examinations, anemia was determined in 56% of cases, leukopenia in 40% and thrombocytopenia in 27%. In blood cultures taken from 41 patients, Brucella spp. were isolated in 23 (56.1%). All patients recovered, and sequelae were seen only in a patient with osteoarthritis. In conclusion, although brucellosis leads to many different clinical pictures, a very good response to treatment can be obtained. If effective treatment cannot be implemented in time, the disease may become chronic, and complications and relapses may be encountered. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is of great importance.

  20. Animal models of skin disease for drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Pinar; Sadasivam, Magesh; Gupta, Asheesh; De Melo, Wanessa CMA; Huang, Ying-Ying; Yin, Rui; Rakkiyappan, Chandran; Kumar, Raj; Otufowora, Ayodeji; Nyame, Theodore; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Discovery of novel drugs, treatments, and testing of consumer products in the field of dermatology is a multi-billion dollar business. Due to the distressing nature of many dermatological diseases, and the enormous consumer demand for products to reverse the effects of skin photodamage, aging, and hair loss, this is a very active field. Areas covered In this paper, we will cover the use of animal models that have been reported to recapitulate to a greater or lesser extent the features of human dermatological disease. There has been a remarkable increase in the number and variety of transgenic mouse models in recent years, and the basic strategy for constructing them is outlined. Expert opinion Inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases are all represented by a range of mouse models both transgenic and normal. Skin cancer is mainly studied in mice and fish. Wound healing is studied in a wider range of animal species, and skin infections such as acne and leprosy also have been studied in animal models. Moving to the more consumer-oriented area of dermatology, there are models for studying the harmful effect of sunlight on the skin, and testing of sunscreens, and several different animal models of hair loss or alopecia. PMID:23293893

  1. Study of toxic properties of prototypes of photo inactivated vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis by speckle microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega V.; Ulyanov, Sergey

    2011-03-01

    Testing of prototypes of vaccines against extremely dangerous diseases, such as tularemia and brucellosis has been performed using speckle-microscopy. Changes of microcirculation caused by effect of toxins at applications of suspension of photoinactivated bacteria have been studied. Toxic properties of prototypes of vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis have been analyzed.

  2. The Cambridge MRI database for animal models of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Cambridge animal brain magnetic resonance imaging repository comprising 400 datasets to date from mouse models of Huntington disease. The data include raw images as well as segmented grey and white matter images with maps of cortical thickness. All images and phenotypic data for each subject are freely-available without restriction from (http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/243361/). Software and anatomical population templates optimised for animal brain analysis with MRI are also available from this site.

  3. CLINICAL-IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Atakhodjayeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is acute zoonotic, multi-systemic infection caused by Brucella bacteria kind. Brucellosis is met everywhere on all continents of the world, especially in the countries where livestock sector is developed. Nowadays in spite of significant success in the struggle against brucellosis this infection is a social problem. Brucellosis has specific clinical manifestations during various age periods. Problems interrelated with the study of the pathogenesis of brucellosis infection, particularly immune genesis, defining the progress and the outcome of the disease have great importance. Object of the research: to study peculiarities of the progress of acute brucellosis in children taking into account clinical-immunologic data. Materials and methods of the research: the research was based on the results of examinations of 23 children from 3 to 14 years old with brucellosis mostly living in endemic foci of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The diagnosis was defined based on epidemiologic anamnesis, clinical symptoms and laboratory data. All examined children got the analysis of detailed blood immunogramm. The corresponding data of 20 healthy children served to be controlling ones. Results and discussion: The analysis of epidemiologic anamnesis showed, that 78.3% of the examined patients with brucellosis were villagers keeping sheep, goats and cattle. In 73.9% cases source of infection was sheep and goats, 8.7% - cattle, and in 17.4% cases we could observe mixed type of infection. 78% of patients applied to hospital during prodromal period. Main complaints were weakness, frustration, headache, fatigue, bad appetite. These symptoms lasted not more than 3-5 days, after which there were symptoms of intoxication of organism with the rise of cardinal symptoms such as fever with chill (100%, arthalgia (69%, slight sweating (70%, hepato-lienal syndrome (68%. 32.9% of patients had tachycardia. Objective visual examination showed enlargement of

  4. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per Torp; Ney, Denise M; Sigalet, David L

    2014-01-01

    enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, nutritional interventions and growth factor therapies. Animal studies may......, newborn pigs and weanling rats represent a translational advantage for infant SBS due to their immature intestine. A balance among practical, economical, experimental and ethical constraints determines the choice of SBS model for each clinical or basic research question....

  5. Spinal epidural abscess in brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyaci, Ahmet; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Dokumaci, Dilek Sen

    2013-09-26

    Involvement of the skeletal system is a common complication of brucellosis. However, muscle involvement or paraspinal abscess formation are rare complications. Paraspinal abscess usually develops secondary to spondylitis. A case is reported here of a 33-year-old woman with symptoms of night sweats, fever and low back pain. Rose-Bengal test for brucellosis was positive and Brucella standard tube agglutination test was positive at a titre of 1/160. The diagnosis was made on MRI. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampin daily for 16 weeks. On day 14 of treatment, decline was observed in the patient's symptoms. In the presence of inflammatory lower back pain and fever, brucellosis should be considered particularly in the endemic areas. Furthermore, tuberculosis should be remembered in the differential diagnosis when a spinal epidural abscess is determined.

  6. Animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihisa Takahashi; Yurie Soejima; Toshio Fukusato

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of a patient without a history of alcohol abuse.Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH),a severe form of NAFLD,can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.NAFLD is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and incidence has been increasing worldwide in line with the increased prevalence of obesity,type 2 diabetes,and hyperlipemia.Animal models of NAFLD/NASH give crucial information,not only in elucidating pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH but also in examining therapeutic effects of various agents.An ideal model of NAFLD/NASH should correctly reflect both hepatic histopathology and pathophysiology of human NAFLD/NASH.Animal models of NAFLD/NASH are divided into genetic,dietary,and combination models.In this paper,we review commonly used animal models of NAFLD/NASH referring to their advantages and disadvantages.

  7. Animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Soejima, Yurie; Fukusato, Toshio

    2012-05-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of a patient without a history of alcohol abuse. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and incidence has been increasing worldwide in line with the increased prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipemia. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH give crucial information, not only in elucidating pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH but also in examining therapeutic effects of various agents. An ideal model of NAFLD/NASH should correctly reflect both hepatic histopathology and pathophysiology of human NAFLD/NASH. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH are divided into genetic, dietary, and combination models. In this paper, we review commonly used animal models of NAFLD/NASH referring to their advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Soejima, Yurie; Fukusato, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of a patient without a history of alcohol abuse. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and incidence has been increasing worldwide in line with the increased prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipemia. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH give crucial information, not only in elucidating pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH but also in examining therapeutic effects of various agents. An ideal model of NAFLD/NASH should correctly reflect both hepatic histopathology and pathophysiology of human NAFLD/NASH. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH are divided into genetic, dietary, and combination models. In this paper, we review commonly used animal models of NAFLD/NASH referring to their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:22654421

  9. Preliminary results of sero-conversion of kids and lambs vaccinated with Brucella melitensis rev -1 strain. Current achievements and feature challenges on brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XHELIL KOLECI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat brucellosis is an endemic and most important infectious disease of livestock in Albania. It continues to remain a frequent zoonotic disease and an important public health issue. Among available strategies, mass vaccination is an acceptable, cost effective approach, and is a widely used strategy in many countries including some neighbouring Balkan countries. Albanian veterinary services supported by the European Union-funded PAZA project (Protection Against Zoonotic diseases, Albania applied two successive annual mass vaccination campaigns that aimed to vaccinate all small ruminants in the country. These two campaigns aimed at significantly reducing disease spread, however, a small number of infection foci could remain and persist in some parts of country. Post-vaccination surveillance is essential for early detection and proper control of cases of brucellosis that might re-emerge. Limitation major complication arising from mass vaccination is the difficulty of interpretation of the results of serological tests conducted to diagnose the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of vaccinated animals that showed sero-conversion and the duration of detectable levels of agglutinins (antibody against brucellosis in vaccinated animals. Methods. In total, 69 individual animals, 23 lambs and 46 kids aged from 4 to 7 months, were sampled at monthly intervals. Jugular blood was collected before vaccination and at intervals thereafter and tested by means of the Rose Bengal test. All animals were serologically negative before vaccination with modified live Brucella melitensis Rev.1 strain vaccine. Rose Bengal test was performed before vaccination, 18 days, 2, 3 and 4 months after vaccination. Results. Eighteen days after vaccination, 63 out of 69 animals (91.3% 82.6% of lambs (19 out of 23 lambs and 95.6% of goat kids (44 out of 46 showed strong sero-conversion in Rose Bengal test. The proportion of positive vaccinated

  10. [A case of brucellosis misdiagnosed as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiş, Habip; Yakıncı, Cengiz

    2012-07-01

    Brucellosis which is a zoonotic infection, is an important public health problem in Turkey and all over the world. The disease may involve many organs and systems. Since the symptoms of brucellosis are non-specific, difficulties in differential diagnosis and misdiagnosis are frequent. In this case report we present a case of brucellosis, misdiagnosed as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). A 13-year-old boy was referred from another medical center with preliminary diagnosis of CCHF and admitted to our clinic with fever and a history of presence of a tick on his back. His physical observation only included splenomegaly. The laboratory results on admission were anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevation of acute phase reactants and liver transaminase levels. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed splenomegaly. Since the patient had anemia, epistaxis, fever and thrombocytopenia, he was initially diagnosed as CCHF. Meantime serum sample of the patient had been sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency for CCHF PCR test. The fever of the patient could not be controlled. His detailed medical history revealed stockbreeding and consumption of raw milk products. Patient's signs and symptoms were also compatible with brucellosis and standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis was positive at 1/1280 titer in serum. The patient was diagnosed as brucellosis and the treatment was started with combination of rifampicin (1 x 600 mg/day) and doxycycline (2 x 100 mg/day). Blood cultures yielded negative result. The PCR tests for CCHF was found also negative. His fever and other complaints improved with treatment which was completed in six weeks and the follow-up was without complications. Turkey is endemic both for brucellosis and CCHF. This case was reported to emphasize that the cases of brucellosis could mimic other diseases and brucellosis should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of CCHF.

  11. Human brucellosis at a pig slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Gabriela I; Jacob, Néstor R; López, Gustavo; Ayala, Sandra M; Whatmore, Adrian M; Lucero, Nidia E

    2013-12-01

    Seventeen workers in a pig slaughterhouse with signs and symptoms compatible with brucellosis were clinically examined at the outpatient service of different health institutions and studied by serological tests during the period 2005-2011. Eleven blood cultures were taken and six Brucella suis strains were isolated, three biovar 1 and three with atypical characteristics. In order to confirm that these cases had no common source, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on 5 of the 6 strains whose results showed substantial heterogeneity in the genotypes, thereby demonstrating that the immediate origin was not the same. Two hundred adult pigs admitted for slaughter at the plant were sampled by convenience and tested by buffered antigen plate test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-mercapto-ethanol test (MET). Seven of 62 males (11%) and 25/138 (18%) females tested positive. The study results contribute information on risk scenarios for packing plant workers and underscore the need to improve plant workers' education on appropriate containment measures and to actively screen animals for swine brucellosis.

  12. On the surveillance for animal diseases in small herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Small herds may present a problem in surveillance for infectious animal diseases because typical levels of a within-herd design prevalence are not directly applicable. We suggest a definition of small herds as those smaller than 2/(within-herd design prevalence) on the basis that such herds would...... be expected to have less than two (i.e. only one) infected animals. Consequently, the probability of detecting small herds cannot be improved by choosing a larger sample size within the herd. We derive necessary sample sizes of herds and the probability ("confidence") of detecting disease within a stratum...... of small herds, given the among-herd design prevalence and test diagnostic sensitivity. Both a binomial model and a Poisson model can be used to establish the confidence for a given sample size of herds (and vice versa). The results of a simulation study suggest that the Poisson model provides more...

  13. Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Esther; Roth, Felix; Bonfoh, Bassirou; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Although industrialized countries have been able to contain recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, many resource-limited and transitioning countries have not been able to react adequately. The key for controlling zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis, and brucellosis is to focus on the animal reservoir. In this respect, ministries of health question whether the public health sector really benefits from interventions for livestock. Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective. Combining the total societal benefits, the intervention in the animal sector saves money and provides the economic argument, which opens new approaches for the control of zoonoses in resource-limited countries through contributions from multiple sectors. PMID:17553265

  14. Viral hepatitis E: A disease of humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureljušić Branislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis E virus is ubiquitous in all parts of the world where pig production exists. The infection occurs in several animal species and its course is mostly asymptomatic. Viral strains isolated from pigs and humans are genetically similar, which indicates a potential zoonotic nature of the disease, and the possibility that pigs, and perhaps also other species of animals diseased with viral hepatitis E are a source of infection to humans. The pig hepatitis E virus, which is similar to the hepatitis E virus in humans, was isolated and described for the first time in the USA in 1997. The infection of pigs with hepatitis E virus occurs through faeco-oral transmission, by ingestion of feed and water contaminated with the virus, or through direct contact between infected and healthy animals. The pathogenesis of this infection in pigs differs from its pathogenesis in humans and it has not been sufficiently examined in all its aspects. Even though viral hepatitis E in pigs has been described as a subclinical disease, some authors describe changes in the concentration of certain biochemical parameters in blood serum of the infected pigs. Histologically, a mild to moderate lymphotic-plasma cellular infiltration is observed in livers of infected pigs, as well as focal areas of hepatocyte necrosis. Viral hepatitis E is an endemic disease of humans in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In developed countries, hepatitis E sporadically occurs in humans, but it is becoming of increasing importance in particular in Japan, North America, and Europe, because the populations of these areas travel extensively to the endemic regions or as a result of the consumption of thermally untreated meat of wild boar and products made from thermally untreated meat. Pork products can be contaminated with hepatitis E virus. Further proof that indicates the zoonotic potential of this virus and places this diseases among the group of professional diseases of farmers and

  15. Tuberculosis: a re-emerging disease in animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles O. Thoen, DVM, PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be an important disease both in humans and animals. It causes morbidity, mortality and economic loss worldwide. The occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis disease in humans, domesticated and wild animals confirms the relevance of this zoonosis. M. bovis in humans continues to be reported in industrialised countries and in immigrants from regions of the world where tuberculosis in cattle is endemic. The real incidence of M. bovis in humans in developing countries continues to be roughly under-estimated due to the scarcity of appropriate laboratory facilities to isolate and to differentiate M. bovis strains. In Latin America, less than 1% of tuberculosis cases are reported as being due to M. bovis. However, the economic relevance that meat and dairy industries play in these countries stimulates the promotion of bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes. Human-to-human airborne transmission of M. bovis does occur and it may be important where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in humans is prevalent, M. bovis infection in cattle is enzootic and pasteurisation of dairy products is not routinely practised. Eradication of M. bovis in cattle and pasteurisation of dairy products are the cornerstones of prevention of human disease. Measures should be developed to identify and control M. bovis infection in wild animals as these may be important reservoirs of infection for domesticated food-producing animals. There is a need for medical and veterinary professionals to cooperate on disease outbreaks. The information presented herein strongly supports the ‘One World/One Health/One Medicine’ concept.

  16. Animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Soejima, Yurie; Fukusato, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of a patient without a history of alcohol abuse. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and incidence has been increasing worldwide in line with the increased prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipemia. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH ...

  17. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios Papaioannides

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Context :Acute pancreatitis can be caused by a variety of infectious agents but it is regarded as an extremely rare complication of brucellosis. Case report: We briefly describe a 56-yearold man who presented with acute pancreatitis, fever, myalgia, and other clinical symptoms. Brucella melitensis was cultured from his blood. All clinical manifestations gradually resolved with the institution of intramuscular streptomycin and oral doxycycline therapy. Conclusion :Acute pancreatitis may rarely be a complication of infection with B. melitensis. In areas where brucellosis is endemic, it should be kept in mind that acute pancreatitis may result from infection with brucella organisms..

  18. Malarial birds: modeling infectious human disease in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leo B

    2005-01-01

    Through the examination of avian malarias as models of infectious human disease, this paper reveals the kinds of claims that scientists and physicians made on the basis of animal models-biological systems in the laboratory and the field-and what characteristics made for congruence between these models and human malaria. The focus is on the period between 1895 and 1945, and on the genesis and trajectory of certain animal models of malaria within specific locations, such as the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore and Bayer (I. G. Farben) in Elberfeld. These exemplars illustrate a diversity of approaches to malaria-as-disease, and the difficulties of framing aspects of this disease complex within an animal or laboratory system. The diversity and nearness to wild types of the birds, protozoan parasites, and mosquitoes that made up these malaria models contributed a great deal to the complexity of the models. Avian malarias, adopted with enthusiasm, were essential to the success of the U.S. antimalarial program during World War II.

  19. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research.

  20. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

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    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  1. In memoriam: Cristiana Patta, DVM, 1958-2012. Virologist and specialist in African swine fever and exotic animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The veterinary world is shocked and deeply saddened by the untimely death of Cristiana Patta, manager at Sardinia's Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale. Cristiana was a nationally and internationally acclaimed virologist, distinguished throughout her intense but all-too-brief life by her talent and professionalism. After studying microbiology and virology at the University of Sassari, specialising in microbiological and virological techniques, she began her career as a researcher in the viral animal diseases sector at the Istituto di Sassari. Her work included the main aspects of exotic animal diseases, from diagnosis to control, as well as the planning and management of eradication programmes for the principal infectious diseases (swine fever, brucellosis, tuberculosis and bluetongue) under European Union surveillance. Her knowledge of swine fever - and particularly African swine fever - led her to become a national and international expert in the control of this disease. In this role, she became a member of the roster of experts of the Ministry of Health and the European Commission. She contributed to numerous European research projects and was an invited speaker at many scientific assemblies sponsored by international organisations such as the OIE, FAO and EU. Cristiana also provided an authoritative contribution to training activities promoted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale' in Teramo in its capacity as OIE collaboration centre for veterinary training, epidemiology, food safety and animal welfare, offering her expertise in exotic livestock diseases. The Italian veterinary service and national and European reference centres all benefitted from her experience and knowledge, through training events organised by the Ministry of Health and the regional authorities. Her technical expertise was matched by her managerial skills, in particular in the clinical management of veterinary public health facilities. The

  2. In memoriam: Cristiana Patta, DVM, 1958-2012, Virologist and specialist in African swine fever and exotic animal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The veterinary world is shocked and deeply saddened by the untimely death of Cristiana Patta, manager at Sardinia’s Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale.Cristiana was a nationally and internationally acclaimed virologist, distinguished throughout her intense but all-too-brief life by her talent and professionalism. After studying microbiology and virology at the University of Sassari, specialising in microbiological and virological techniques, she began her career as a researcher in the viral animal diseases sector at the Istituto di Sassari. Her work included the main aspects of exotic animal diseases, from diagnosis to control, as well as the planning and management of eradication programmes for the principal infectious diseases (swine fever, brucellosis, tuberculosis and bluetongue under European Union surveillance.Her knowledge of swine fever – and particularly African swine fever – led her to become a national and international expert in the control of this disease. In this role, she became a member of the roster of experts of the Ministry of Health and the European Commission. She contributed to numerous European research projects and was an invited speaker at many scientific assemblies sponsored by international organisations such as the OIE, FAO and EU.Cristiana also provided an authoritative contribution to training activities promoted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’ in Teramo in its capacity as OIE collaboration centre for veterinary training, epidemiology, food safety and animal welfare, offering her expertise in exotic livestock diseases. The Italian veterinary service and national and European reference centres all benefitted from her experience and knowledge, through training events organised by the Ministry of Health and the regional authorities. Her technical expertise was matched by her managerial skills, in particular in the clinical management of veterinary public

  3. MeCP2-Related Diseases and Animal Models

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    Chinelo D. Ezeonwuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of epigenetics in human disease has become an area of increased research interest. Collaborative efforts from scientists and clinicians have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Several neurological and non-neurological disorders are associated with mutations in genes that encode for epigenetic factors. One of the most studied proteins that impacts human disease and is associated with deregulation of epigenetic processes is Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2. MeCP2 is an epigenetic regulator that modulates gene expression by translating epigenetic DNA methylation marks into appropriate cellular responses. In order to highlight the importance of epigenetics to development and disease, we will discuss how MeCP2 emerges as a key epigenetic player in human neurodevelopmental, neurological, and non-neurological disorders. We will review our current knowledge on MeCP2-related diseases, including Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Hirschsprung disease, and Cancer. Additionally, we will briefly discuss about the existing MeCP2 animal models that have been generated for a better understanding of how MeCP2 impacts certain human diseases.

  4. MeCP2-Related Diseases and Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeonwuka, Chinelo D.; Rastegar, Mojgan

    2017-01-01

    The role of epigenetics in human disease has become an area of increased research interest. Collaborative efforts from scientists and clinicians have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Several neurological and non-neurological disorders are associated with mutations in genes that encode for epigenetic factors. One of the most studied proteins that impacts human disease and is associated with deregulation of epigenetic processes is Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). MeCP2 is an epigenetic regulator that modulates gene expression by translating epigenetic DNA methylation marks into appropriate cellular responses. In order to highlight the importance of epigenetics to development and disease, we will discuss how MeCP2 emerges as a key epigenetic player in human neurodevelopmental, neurological, and non-neurological disorders. We will review our current knowledge on MeCP2-related diseases, including Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Hirschsprung disease, and Cancer. Additionally, we will briefly discuss about the existing MeCP2 animal models that have been generated for a better understanding of how MeCP2 impacts certain human diseases.

  5. A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria

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    Mai Hassan M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried out to investigate the status of brucellosis in cattle under various management systems in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, northern Nigeria. Using multi-stage sampling, serum samples of 4,745 cattle from 271 herds were tested using the Rose-Bengal plate-agglutination test (RBPT and positives were confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA. Results Prevalence estimates were calculated by adjusting for sampling weights and where possible for test sensitivity and specificity. Thirty-seven percent of all animals were RBPT positive, and after confirmation with c-ELISA the overall animal-level prevalence, adjusted for sampling weights, was 26.3% (95% CI, 22.1%-31.0%. Of the herds sampled, 210 (77.5%; 95% CI, 68.6%-84.5% had at least one animal positive to both tests; this did not differ significantly between states (P = 0.538. Mean within-herd seroprevalence in positive herds was 30.2% (95% CI, 25.3%-35.1% and ranged from 3.1% to 85.7%. Overall animal-level seroprevalences of 29.2% (95% CI, 22.5%-36.9% n = 1,827, 23.3% (95% CI, 18.9%-28.3% n = 1,870 and 26.7% (95% CI, 18.8%-36.7% n = 1,048 were observed in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, respectively (P = 0.496. A significantly higher seroprevalence was found in males (38.2%; 95% CI, 31.7%-45.2% than in females (24.7%; 95% CI, 20.4%-29.5% (P P P 7 years. Seroprevalence also varied between management systems (P  Conclusion This is the first large study to assess the prevalence of bovine brucellosis over a wide geographic area of northern Nigeria, in a variety of management systems and using accurate tests. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was high, and higher than results of previous studies in northern Nigeria. The pastoral management systems of the traditional Fulanis may be encouraging the dissemination of the disease. Public enlightenment of the farmers about the disease, vaccination and appropriate national

  6. REVIEW ON IMPORTANT HELMINTHIC DISEASES IN ANIMAL IN INDONESIA

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    I.G. P. Suweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.

  7. Sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in small ruminants in Hamedan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Gharekhani; Mahmoudreza Rasouli; Ehsan Abbasi-Doulatshahi; Mohammadali Bahrami; Zahra Hemati; Aliakbar Rezaei; Aboulghasem Shahreiari

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis with global distribution. The disease remains endemic in many countries including Iran, while its seroprevalence in endemic area is not well documented. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Hamedan province, west of Iran. Material and methods: A total of 3,250 blood samples from 2,550 sheep and 700 goats were collected randomly. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Brucella antibodies ...

  8. Prevalence of Brucellosis among Women Presenting with Abortion/Stillbirth in Huye, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Rujeni; Léonidas Mbanzamihigo

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB) and Kabutare District Hospital. Se...

  9. The Prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle, Goats and Humans in Rural Uganda: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R; Nakavuma, J L; Ssajjakambwe, P; Vudriko, P; Musisi, N; Kaneene, J B

    2016-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the presence of brucellosis in cattle, goats and humans in farms from south-western Uganda and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in these three host groups. Data and serum samples were collected from 768 cattle, 315 goats and 236 humans, with 635 samples of bovine milk, from 70 farms in two different study areas in south-western Uganda. Sera from livestock were tested with the Rose Bengal Plate test, using B. abortus and B. melitensis antigens, and human sera were tested with a commercial IgG/IgM lateral flow assay. Milk samples were tested using the OIE-approved milk ring test. Screening tests for brucellosis were positive in 14% of cattle serum, 29% of bovine milk, 17% of goat serum and 11% of human serum samples. There were significant differences in the test prevalence of brucellosis by study site, with levels higher in the study area near Lake Mburo National Park than in the study area near Queen Elizabeth National Park. Multivariable regression models identified risk factors associated with increasing test positivity at the individual and farm levels for cattle, goats and humans. Positive associations were seen between increasing seropositivity of brucellosis in goats, cattle and humans. Results of multivariable analyses suggest that improvements in farm biosecurity and hygiene may reduce the risk of brucellosis on the farm and suggest a role for ticks in bovine brucellosis. Although cattle are the focus of brucellosis control in Uganda, the significant associations between seropositivity in humans and seropositivity in goats suggest that brucellosis in goats may be an important contributor to the epidemiology of the disease on the farm.

  10. Comparison of a flow assay for brucellosis antibodies with the reference cELISA test in West African Bos indicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend M deC Bronsvoort

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (approximately 87% and highly specific (approximately 97%. The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities.

  11. Animal models to investigate the pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Rush

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic fever (RF and rheumatic heart disease (RHD are sequelae of group A streptococcal (GAS infection. Although an autoimmune process has long been considered to be responsible for the initiation of RF/RHD, it is only in the last few decades that the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory condition have been unravelled partly due to experimentation on animal models.RF/RHD is a uniquely human condition and modelling this disease in animals is challenging. Antibody and T cell responses to recombinant GAS M protein (rM and the subsequent interactions with cardiac tissue have been predominantly investigated using a rat autoimmune valvulitis model. In Lewis rats immunized with rM, the development of hallmark histological features akin to RF/RHD, both in the myocardial and in valvular tissue have been reported, with the generation of heart tissue cross reactive antibodies and T cells. However, studies of cardiac function are more challenging in such a model. Recently a Lewis rat model of Sydenham’s chorea (SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders has also been described. Rodent models are very useful for assessing disease mechanisms due to the availability of reagents to precisely determine sequential events following infection with GAS or post-challenge with specific proteins and or carbohydrate preparations from GAS. However, studies of cardiac function are more problematic in such models. In this review an historical overview of animal models previously used and those that are currently available will be discussed in terms of their usefulness in modelling different aspects of the disease process. Ultimately, cardiologists, microbiologists, immunologists and physiologists may have to resort to diverse models to investigate different aspects of RF/RHD.

  12. Changing Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis, China, 1955–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Hang; Xiong, Weiyi; Gilbert, Marius; Huang, Zhuojie; Yu, Jianxing; Yin, Wenwu; Wang, Liping; Chen, Qiulan; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Zeng, Lingjia; Ren, Xiang; Geng, Mengjie; Zhang, Zike; Cui, Buyun; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali; Li, Zhongjie; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease, was made statutorily notifiable in China in 1955. We analyzed the incidence and spatial–temporal distribution of human brucellosis during 1955–2014 in China using notifiable surveillance data: aggregated data for 1955–2003 and individual case data for 2004–2014. A total of 513,034 brucellosis cases were recorded, of which 99.3% were reported in northern China during 1955–2014, and 69.1% (258, 462/374, 141) occurred during February–July in 1990–2014. Incidence remained high during 1955–1978 (interquartile range 0.42–1.0 cases/100,000 residents), then decreased dramatically in 1979–1994. However, brucellosis has reemerged since 1995 (interquartile range 0.11–0.23 in 1995–2003 and 1.48–2.89 in 2004–2014); the historical high occurred in 2014, and the affected area expanded from northern pastureland provinces to the adjacent grassland and agricultural areas, then to southern coastal and southwestern areas. Control strategies in China should be adjusted to account for these changes by adopting a One Health approach. PMID:28098531

  13. 2005~2011年白银区布鲁杆菌病疫情监测与分析%Surveillance and analysis of Brucellosis from 2005 to 2011 in Baiyin Distinct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺翠; 李云生; 朱庆莉; 王宏卫

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To know epidemic situation of brucellosis in Baiyin Distinct so as to provide basis for disease prevention and control. Method Statistical data of brucellosis in human and animal from 2005 to 2011 in Baiyin District were collected and analyzed with the effort of prevention and control work. Results The average brucellosis serological test positive rate in human was 2. 17% . 19 new positive cases were found, new positive rate was 0. 93% . Conclusion Brucellosis epidemic situation in Baiyin Distinct worsened, infectious source exists between human and animal, the epidemic situation is far from optimistic, it would go a long way toward brucellosis prevention and control.%目的 掌握白银区布鲁杆菌病(以下简称布病)疫情形势,做好全面防控工作.方法 统计白银区2005 ~ 2011年布病在人间、畜间发病及监测数据,并结合开展的防治工作进行分析.结果 白银区2005 ~ 2011年人间布病血清学检测平均阳性率为2.17%;新发现血清学阳性19例,新发阳性率0.93%.结论 白银区布病疫情波动,人畜间传染源存在,疫情形势不容乐观,布病监测防治工作任重道远.

  14. ADP and brucellosis indemnity systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, W.M.; Harlan, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Our initial study of the USDA/TAHC Brucellosis Indemnity Program in Texas has shown that both the efficiency and rate of claim payments can be increased by the application of present day computer technologies. Two main factors contribute to these increases: the number of discrepancies that are caused by poor penmanship, transposition of numbers, and other human errors can be monitored and minimized; and the documented information can be indexed, sorted, and searched faster, more efficiently, and without human error. The overall flow of documentation that is used to control the movement of infected or exposed animals through commerce should be studied. A new system should be designed that fully utilizes present day computer and electronic technologies.

  15. Defective membrane remodeling in neuromuscular diseases: insights from animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda S Cowling

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in membrane remodeling play an essential role in a plethora of cell functions including endocytosis and intracellular transport. Defects in several of them lead to human diseases. Myotubularins, amphiphysins, and dynamins are all proteins implicated in membrane trafficking and/or remodeling. Mutations in myotubularin, amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, and dynamin 2 lead to different forms of centronuclear myopathy, while mutations in myotubularin-related proteins cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. In addition to centronuclear myopathy, dynamin 2 is also mutated in a dominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. While several proteins from these different families are implicated in similar diseases, mutations in close homologues or in the same protein in the case of dynamin 2 lead to diseases affecting different tissues. This suggests (1 a common molecular pathway underlying these different neuromuscular diseases, and (2 tissue-specific regulation of these proteins. This review discusses the pathophysiology of the related neuromuscular diseases on the basis of animal models developed for proteins of the myotubularin, amphiphysin, and dynamin families. A better understanding of the common mechanisms between these neuromuscular disorders will lead to more specific health care and therapeutic approaches.

  16. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.

  17. Neuroprotective Transcription Factors in Animal Models of Parkinson Disease

    OpenAIRE

    François-Xavier Blaudin de Thé; Hocine Rekaik; Alain Prochiantz; Julia Fuchs; Joshi, Rajiv L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of transcription factors, including En1/2, Foxa1/2, Lmx1a/b, Nurr1, Otx2, and Pitx3, with key roles in midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuron development, also regulate adult mDA neuron survival and physiology. Mouse models with targeted disruption of some of these genes display several features reminiscent of Parkinson disease (PD), in particular the selective and progressive loss of mDA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The characterization of these animal models ha...

  18. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhanli; Zhang, Yaxian; Bai, Liyun; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Chunfang; Ma, An; Yu, Hui

    2014-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique for the nucleic acid amplification, which is commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases. The use of PCR for pathogens detection, genotyping and quantification has some advantages, such as high sensitivity, high specificity, reproducibility and technical ease. Brucellosis is a common zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., which still remains as a major health problem in many developing countries around the world. The direct culture and immunohistochemistry can be used for detecting infection with Brucella spp. However, PCR has the potential to address limitations of these methods. PCR are now one of the most useful assays for the diagnosis in human brucellosis. The aim of this review was to summarize the main PCR techniques and their applications for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with brucellosis. Moreover, advantages or limitation of the different PCR methods as well as the evaluation of PCR results for treatment and follow-up of human brucellosis were also discussed.

  19. Simultaneous acute deep vein thrombosis and acute brucellosis. A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaç, Şeyda; Kalender, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Onur; İmre, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease common in developing countries. Vascular complications, including arterial and venous, associated with Brucella infection have rarely been reported. A case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) developing after a diagnosis of acute brucellosis in a young milkman is presented. A 26-year-old man presented with pain in the right leg. The patient's medical history included a diagnosis of brucellosis in our hospital where he had presented with complaints of weakness and fever. Peripheral venous Doppler ultrasound showed DVT, and the patient was treated with anticoagulants. The patient was discharged with warfarin therapy and anti-brucellosis treatment. Although rare, some infectious agents may cause vascular pathologies. Patients presenting with symptoms of DVT or similar vascular pathologies should be assessed for infectious agents, particularly in those coming from Brucella-endemic areas. PMID:27516795

  20. Animal models of disease: feline hyperthyroidism: an animal model for toxic nodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Since first discovered just 35 years ago, the incidence of spontaneous feline hyperthyroidism has increased dramatically to the extent that it is now one of the most common disorders seen in middle-aged to senior domestic cats. Hyperthyroid cat goiters contain single or multiple autonomously (i.e. TSH-independent) functioning and growing thyroid nodules. Thus, hyperthyroidism in cats is clinically and histologically similar to toxic nodular goiter in humans. The disease in cats is mechanistically different from Graves' disease, because neither the hyperfunction nor growth of these nodules depends on extrathyroidal circulating stimulators. The basic lesion appears to be an excessive intrinsic growth capacity of some thyroid cells, but iodine deficiency, other nutritional goitrogens, or environmental disruptors may play a role in the disease pathogenesis. Clinical features of feline toxic nodular goiter include one or more palpable thyroid nodules, together with signs of hyperthyroidism (e.g. weight loss despite an increased appetite). Diagnosis of feline hyperthyroidism is confirmed by finding the increased serum concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, undetectable serum TSH concentrations, or increased thyroid uptake of radioiodine. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrates a heterogeneous pattern of increased radionuclide uptake, most commonly into both thyroid lobes. Treatment options for toxic nodular goiter in cats are similar to that used in humans and include surgical thyroidectomy, radioiodine, and antithyroid drugs. Most authorities agree that ablative therapy with radioiodine is the treatment of choice for most cats with toxic nodular goiter, because the animals are older, and the disease will never go into remission.

  1. Intestinal brucellosis associated with celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery stenosis and with ileum mucosa and submucosa thickening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaoqian; Zhu, Qingli; Yang, Qian; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Xinning; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Baotong; Li, Zhenghong; Yang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Brucellosis is a multisystem infection found worldwide that has a broad range of characteristics, which range from acute fever and hepatomegaly to chronic infections that most commonly affect the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, or skeletal system. Gastrointestinal and splanchnic artery involvements in brucellosis are relatively uncommon. Patient concerns: We report a case of brucellosis in an adolescent presenting as intermittent abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fever, with intestinal tract involvement. And stenosis of the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery was found after exposed to risk factors of Brucella infection. Splanchnic vessels stenosis and an endothelial lesion may exacerbate the prevalent symptom of abdominal pain, as a form of colic pain, occurring after eating. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed as brucellosis. The narrowing of the SMA and CA was suspected to be vasculitis secondary to the brucellosis. Interventions: The patient was treated with minocycline and rifampicin for 12 weeks totally. Outcomes: The gastrointestinal manifestations of brucellosis recovered rapidly under intensive treatment. However, follow-up imaging revealed that the superior mesenteric artery and celiac artery stenosis was unimproved. Lessons: In brucellosis, gastrointestinal manifestations may be the only observable features of the disease. Splanchnic arterial stenosis is a rare complication of brucellosis. Sonography and computed tomography may be useful for both diagnosis and follow-up. PMID:28079834

  2. Acupuncture points for treating Parkinson's disease based on animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sunoh; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Seungtae

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease caused by dopaminergic cell death in the nigrostriatal pathway. Recent studies have shown that acupuncture can be a potential therapy for the treatment of PD, but it is not clear which acupuncture points (acupoints) play major roles in reliving symptoms of PD. Yanglingquan (GB 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Fengfu (GV 16), Taichong (LR 3), Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) acupoints have frequently been to investigate the effectiveness and action mechanism of acupuncture for treating PD, but it is not clear why they were selected. This review summarizes the current understanding of the acupoints for PD treatment based on Oriental medicine theories and on the accumulated findings from previous animal studies. The results of this study will be useful to development of a strategy for future research in this field.

  3. Rapid Detection and Characterization of Emerging Foreign Animal Disease Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    To best safeguard human and animal health requires early detection and characterization of disease events. This must include effective surveillance for emerging infectious diseases. Both deliberate and natural outbreaks have enormous economic and public health impacts, and can present serious threats to national security. In this project, we developed novel next generation detection technologies to protect the agricultural economy and biosecurity. The first technology is a multiplexed assay to simultaneously detection 10 swine viral and bacterial pathogens. The second one is the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) which can detect more than 10,000 microbial species including 4219 viruses, 5367 bacteria, 265 fungi, 117 protozoa and 293 archaea. We analyzed a series of swine clinical samples from past disease events to demonstrate the utility of the assays for faster and cheaper detection of emerging and foreign animal disease pathogens, and their utility as s routine diagnosis and surveillance tool. A second goal of the study is to better understand mechanisms of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection in pigs to aid the development of countermeasures and diagnostics. There is no vaccine available for ASF. ASF outbreak is on the rise on several European countries. Though ASF is not currently in the U.S., a potential outbreak in the U.S. would be detrimental to the swine industry and the US agricultural economy. We pursued a genome-wide approach to characterize the pig immune responses after ASFV infection. We used RNA sequencing and bioinformatics methods to identify genes and pathways that are affected during ASF infection. We have identified a list of most differentially expressed genes that are in the immune response pathways.

  4. Humans, Other Animals and Disease: a comparative approach towards the development of a standardised recording protocol for animal palaeopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Vann

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the impact of animal disease on human societies has had an extremely high profile, with the spread of diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE and foot and mouth among animal populations, as well as the transmission of diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Ebola and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS from animal to human populations. The social and economic impact of such illnesses has been profound. However, studies on the effect of animal disease in past human populations have been widely neglected. This is partly due to the inconsistent manner in which instances of animal disease (palaeopathology are recorded, diagnosed and interpreted which, together with the typically low incidence of specimens per site, has precluded detailed studies of regional or temporal trends. This article outlines the archaeological rationale behind developing a generic methodology to enable the consistent recognition, recording and description of animal palaeopathological data. Furthermore, the experience of palaeopathologists concerned with human populations has been drawn upon to develop a downloadable, stand-alone recording system to facilitate the recording of animal palaeopathological data and enable questions concerning past animal health and disease to be better explored in future.

  5. Vestibular animal models: contributions to understanding physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Hans; Zwergal, Andreas; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge of the vestibular sensory system, its functional significance for gaze and posture stabilization, and its capability to ensure accurate spatial orientation perception and spatial navigation has greatly benefitted from experimental approaches using a variety of vertebrate species. This review summarizes the attempts to establish the roles of semicircular canal and otolith endorgans in these functions followed by an overview of the most relevant fields of vestibular research including major findings that have advanced our understanding of how this system exerts its influence on reflexive and cognitive challenges encountered during daily life. In particular, we highlight the contributions of different animal models and the advantage of using a comparative research approach. Cross-species comparisons have established that the morpho-physiological properties underlying vestibular signal processing are evolutionarily inherent, thereby disclosing general principles. Based on the documented success of this approach, we suggest that future research employing a balanced spectrum of standard animal models such as fish/frog, mouse and primate will optimize our progress in understanding vestibular processing in health and disease. Moreover, we propose that this should be further supplemented by research employing more "exotic" species that offer unique experimental access and/or have specific vestibular adaptations due to unusual locomotor capabilities or lifestyles. Taken together this strategy will expedite our understanding of the basic principles underlying vestibular computations to reveal relevant translational aspects. Accordingly, studies employing animal models are indispensible and even mandatory for the development of new treatments, medication and technical aids (implants) for patients with vestibular pathologies.

  6. Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Brucellosis in the Country of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhvlediani, Tamar; Bautista, Christian T.; Garuchava, Natalia; Sanodze, Lia; Kokaia, Nora; Malania, Lile; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Rivard, Robert G.; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.; Imnadze, Paata; Trapaidze, Nino

    2017-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the country of Georgia. According to the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia (NCDC), the average annual number of brucellosis cases was 161 during 2008–2012. However, the true number of cases is thought to be higher due to underreporting. The aim of this study was to provide current epidemiological and clinical information and evaluate diagnostic methods used for brucellosis in Georgia. Methodology Adult patients were eligible for participation if they met the suspected or probable case definition for brucellosis. After consent participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, epidemiology, history of present illness, and clinical manifestation. For the diagnosis of brucellosis, culture and serological tests were used. Results A total of 81 participants were enrolled, of which 70 (86%) were from rural areas. Seventy-four percent of participants reported consuming unpasteurized milk products and 62% consuming undercooked meat products before symptom onset. Forty-one participants were positive by the Wright test and 33 (41%) were positive by blood culture. There was perfect agreement between the Huddelston and Wright tests (k = 1.0). Compared with blood culture (the diagnostic gold standard), ELISA IgG and total ELISA (IgG + IgM), the Wright test had fair (k = 0.12), fair (k = 0.24), and moderate (k = 0.52) agreement, respectively. Conclusions Consumption of unpasteurized milk products and undercooked meat were among the most common risk factors in brucellosis cases. We found poor agreement between ELISA tests and culture results. This report also serves as an initial indication that the suspected case definition for brucellosis surveillance purposes needs revision. Further research is needed to characterize the epidemiology and evaluate the performance of the diagnostic methods for brucellosis in Georgia. PMID

  7. Brucellosis in Mexico: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Martínez, J Eduardo; Mejía-Terán, Claudia

    2002-12-20

    Traditionally, Mexico has been recognized as endemic with brucellosis. The improvements in diagnostics techniques and vaccination strategies and the enforcement of a national eradication policy have contributed significantly to making progress in the control of brucellosis. The current status of brucellosis and its risk factors, in the different production species as well as in human population is reviewed. Also the trends in control and eventual eradication strategies and perspectives for the near future of Mexico are presented.

  8. ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenpour, Behzad; Hajibagheri, Katayon; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghasembegloo, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between blood groups and some infections such as norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Despite the importance of brucellosis, there is a lack of data on the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, the blood groups of 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of a positive Coombs Wright test or a history of brucellosis. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. The variables that met inclusion criteria for the regression model were entered into the logistic regression model. A total of 43% patients were female and 57% male; 27% were urban and 73% rural. Regression analysis showed that the likelihood of brucellosis infection was 6.26 times more in people with blood group AB than in those with blood group O (Pbrucellosis infection. Thus, there is a relationship between blood group and brucellosis. People with blood group AB were susceptible to brucellosis, but no difference was observed for brucellosis infection in terms of blood Rh type.

  9. Brucellosis update in Libya and regional prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Bennour, Emad M; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C

    2015-02-01

    Brucellosis is a global bacterial zoonosis responsible for high morbidity in humans and significant livestock economic losses. While brucellosis remains a public health concern worldwide, its global geographic distribution is variable, largely due to different management schemes; however, paucity of information renders the status of brucellosis unclear and incomplete in many countries, especially those with low income and under-developed infrastructure. This short article summarizes and discusses recent important updates on brucellosis from the North African countries, with a particular brief emphasis on the current status and recent updates in Libya.

  10. Serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using B. melitensis strain B115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrente, Marialaura; Desario, Costantina; Parisi, Antonio; Grandolfo, Erika; Scaltrito, Domenico; Vesco, Gesualdo; Colao, Valeriana; Buonavoglia, Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is diagnosed by official tests, such as Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation test (CFT). Both tests detect antibodies directed against the lipolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella cell wall. Despite their good sensitivity, those tests do not discriminate between true positive and false positive serological reactions (FPSR), the latter being generated by animals infected with other Gram negative microorganisms that share components of Brucella LPS. In this study, an antigenic extract from whole Brucella melitensis B115 strain was used to set up an ELISA assay for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. A total of 148 serum samples from five different groups of animals were tested: Group A: 28 samples from two calves experimentally infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O:9; Group B: 30 samples from bovines infected with Brucella abortus; Group C: 50 samples from brucellosis-free herds; Group D: 20 samples RBPT positive and CFT negative; Group E: 20 samples both RBPT and CFT positive. Group D and Group E serum samples were from brucellosis-free herds. Positive reactions were detected only by RBPT and CFT in calves immunized with Y. enterocolitica O:9. Sera from Group B animals tested positive also in the ELISA assay, whereas sera from the remaining groups were all negative. The results obtained encourage the use of the ELISA assay to implement the serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

  11. A network control theory approach to modeling and optimal control of zoonoses: case study of brucellosis transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Roy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing control policies for zoonotic diseases is challenging, both because of the complex spread dynamics exhibited by these diseases, and because of the need for implementing complex multi-species surveillance and control efforts using limited resources. Mathematical models, and in particular network models, of disease spread are promising as tools for control-policy design, because they can provide comprehensive quantitative representations of disease transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A layered dynamical network model for the transmission and control of zoonotic diseases is introduced as a tool for analyzing disease spread and designing cost-effective surveillance and control. The model development is achieved using brucellosis transmission among wildlife, cattle herds, and human sub-populations in an agricultural system as a case study. Precisely, a model that tracks infection counts in interacting animal herds of multiple species (e.g., cattle herds and groups of wildlife for brucellosis and in human subpopulations is introduced. The model is then abstracted to a form that permits comprehensive targeted design of multiple control capabilities as well as model identification from data. Next, techniques are developed for such quantitative design of control policies (that are directed to both the animal and human populations, and for model identification from snapshot and time-course data, by drawing on recent results in the network control community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The modeling approach is shown to provide quantitative insight into comprehensive control policies for zoonotic diseases, and in turn to permit policy design for mitigation of these diseases. For the brucellosis-transmission example in particular, numerous insights are obtained regarding the optimal distribution of resources among available control capabilities (e.g., vaccination, surveillance and culling, pasteurization of milk and points in

  12. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction...

  13. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

  14. Epidemiology of Brucellosis and Genetic Diversity of Brucella abortus in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Elena; Shevtsov, Alexandr; Mukanov, Kasim; Filipenko, Maxim; Kamalova, Dinara; Sytnik, Igor; Syzdykov, Marat; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Assel; Zharova, Mira; Karibaev, Talgat; Tarlykov, Pavel; Ramanculov, Erlan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major zoonotic infection in Kazakhstan. However, there is limited data on its incidence in humans and animals, and the genetic diversity of prevalent strains is virtually unstudied. Additionally, there is no detailed overview of Kazakhstan brucellosis control and eradication programs. Here, we analyzed brucellosis epidemiological data, and assessed the effectiveness of eradication strategies employed over the past 70 years to counteract this infection. We also conducted multiple loci variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Brucella abortus strains found in Kazakhstan. We analyzed official data on the incidence of animal brucellosis in Kazakhstan. The records span more than 70 years of anti-brucellosis campaigns, and contain a brief description of the applied control strategies, their effectiveness, and their impact on the incidence in humans. The MLVA-16 method was used to type 94 strains of B. abortus and serial passages of B. abortus 82, a strain used in vaccines. MLVA-8 and MLVA-11 analyses clustered strains into a total of four and seven genotypes, respectively; it is the first time that four of these genotypes have been described. MLVA-16 analysis divided strains into 28 distinct genotypes having genetic similarity coefficient that varies from 60 to100% and a Hunter & Gaston diversity index of 0.871. MST analysis reconstruction revealed clustering into "Kazakhstani-Chinese (Central Asian)", "European" and "American" lines. Detection of multiple genotypes in a single outbreak confirms that poorly controlled trade of livestock plays a crucial role in the spread of infection. Notably, the MLVA-16 profile of the B. abortus 82 strain was unique and did not change during 33 serial passages. MLVA genotyping may thus be useful for epidemiological monitoring of brucellosis, and for tracking the source(s) of infection. We suggest that countrywide application of MLVA genotyping would improve the control of brucellosis in Kazakhstan. PMID

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF PATHOGENETIC THERAPY ON THE LEVER OF CYTOKINES IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kovalevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the level of proinflammatory cytokines: IL-12, IL-8 and IFNγ, neopterin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in the serum of patients with acute brucellosis before and after antibiotic therapy. The clinical data from 32 patients with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis — “acute brucellosis” admitted to the diagnosis, treatment and examination of occupational diseases brucellosis GBUZ SC “City Clinical Hospital No. 2”, the city of Stavropol were used in the study. The concentrations IL-12, IL-8, IFNγ cytokines and acute-phase proteins in serum was determined by ELISA. In the acute phase of brucellosis infection (before treatment had high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IFNγ, but despite holding a course of antibiotic treatment in the serum of patients with preserved high levels of IL-8, indicative of active inflammation in the absence of clinical manifestations. IL-12 level, a key cytokine in the initiation of lymphocyte-dependent immune response was lower than in the control group. Evaluation of the cytokine status (IL-8, IL-12, IL-18 and proteins of acute inflammation phase (neopterin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein will provide valuable information for monitoring the effect of pharmacotherapy of acute brucellosis. Indicators of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and neopterin in the serum of patients with brucellosis should be considered as a marker of inflammatory activity and as a predictor of outcome of acute brucellosis.

  16. Peste des Petits Ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albina, Emmanuel; Kwiatek, Olivier; Minet, Cécile; Lancelot, Renaud; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Libeau, Geneviève

    2013-07-26

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a widespread viral disease caused by a Morbillivirus (Paramyxoviridae). There is a single serotype of PPR virus, but four distinct genetic lineages. Morbidity and mortality are high when occurring in naive sheep and goats populations. Cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are asymptomatically infected. Other wild ruminants and camels may express clinical signs and mortality. PPR has recently spread in southern and northern Africa, and in central and far-east Asia. More than one billion sheep and goats worldwide are at risk. PPR is also present in Europe through western Turkey. Because of its clinical incidence and the restrictions on animal movements, PPR is a disease of major economic importance. A live attenuated vaccine was developed in the 1980s, and has been widely used in sheep and goats. Current researches aim (i) to make it more thermotolerant for use in countries with limited cold chain, and (ii) to add a DIVA mark to shorten and reduce the cost of final eradication. Rinderpest virus-another Morbillivirus-was the first animal virus to be eradicated from Earth. PPRV has been proposed as the next candidate. Considering its wide distribution and its multiple target host species which have an intense mobility, it will be a long process that cannot exclusively rely on mass vaccination. PPR specific epidemiological features and socio-economic considerations will also have to be taken into account, and sustained international, coordinated, and funded strategy based on a regional approach of PPR control will be the guarantee toward success.

  17. Imaging of cerebrovascular pathology in animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klohs, Jan; Rudin, Markus; Shimshek, Derya R.; Beckmann, Nicolau

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as well as Aβ transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of Aβ on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature. PMID:24659966

  18. Brucellosis in nomadic pastoralists and their goats in two provinces of the eastern Algerian high plateaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabli, Abdelhafid; Agabou, Amir; Gabli, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    A 31-months study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence of brucellosis in nomadic pastoralists and their goats in two provinces of the eastern Algerian high plateaus. Five hundred eight human and 4955 animal sera were screened with the Rose Bengal plate test and the complement fixation test for confirmation. Uterine fluids from aborting goats were subjected to microbiological analyses to determine the biovars responsible for abortions. The overall seroprevalence was 0.98% among animals and 15.84% among herds. A significant correlation was recorded between occurrence of brucellosis and herd size (r = 0.4046, P Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was the only aetiology of brucellosis-associated abortion in goats of the studied region.

  19. Control of Bovine Brucellosis from Persistently Infected Holdings Using RB51 Vaccination with Test-and-Slaughter: A Comparative Case Report from a High Incidence Area in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, M C; Afonso, F; Ribeiro, R; Fonseca, A P; Abernethy, D A; Boinas, F

    2016-02-01

    Bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus infection causes significant reproductive and production losses in cattle and is a major zoonosis. Eradication of this disease has proved difficult to achieve in Portugal where it still occurs in some regions despite an ongoing national eradication programme. In 2004, the Alentejo region, a major cattle producing area, reported one of the highest levels of bovine brucellosis in the country, especially in one divisional area. In that area, bovine brucellosis was particularly problematic in a holding of ten herds, the largest extensive cattle unit in the country, which remained infected despite an extensive test-and-slaughter programme and depopulation of five herds. A 5-year programme of RB51 vaccination with biannual test-and-slaughter was thus implemented in 2004. The apparent animal seroprevalence decreased from 19% (646/3,400) to 3% (88/2930) on the third herd-level test and remained below 0.8% (27/3324) after the fourth test. After the tenth test, the holding had a prevalence of 0.1% (2/2332) and only one herd remained positive with a within-herd prevalence of 1.1% (2/177). The results were compared to all other herds (n = 10) in the divisional area that were also persistently infected but were subject only to test-and-slaughter before being depopulated. In these herds, the strategy of test-and-slaughter did not reduce the prevalence, which remained significantly higher than the vaccinated group (median = 0.48% and 8.5% in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated herds; Wilcoxon rank sum test; P Portugal provided a valuable case study to the official veterinary services by illustrating the value of RB51 vaccination with parallel testing and improved biosecurity as a comprehensive and sustainable strategy for bovine brucellosis control in persistently infected herds.

  20. Concurrent Brucellosis and Q Fever Infection: a Case Control Study in Bamyan Province, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 500,000 people are affected by brucellosis each year while the incidence of Q fever is poorly recorded. Consistent outbreaks of brucellosis have been reported in Afghanistan, affecting social and economic life. This study aimed to determine the means of propagation of brucellosis and Q-fever and establish appropriate control measures for both. Methods and Materials: An outbreak of 1,317 cases of brucellosis and Q fever was investigated from May 2011 to the end of 2012 in Bamyan province of Afghanistan. A total of 100 cases were selected by random sampling with equal number of neighbor controls. Data were collected through structured questionnaire.Results: The average age was 30 years ±14 years. Of those sampled, 62% were female, 38% were male, and resided in three districts: Punjab, Yakawlang and Waras. Using multivariate analysis, being a housewife (OR=7.36, being within proximity of kitchens to barns (OR= 2.98, drinking un-boiled milk (OR= 5.26, butchering (OR= 3.53 and purchasing new animals in the last six months (OR= 3.53 were significantly associated with contraction of brucellosis and Q fever. Conclusion: Health educators should focus on families dealing with animals, especially on females. Pasturing, healthy milking, dunging, and slaughtering practices, along with use of safe dairy products should be the focus of preventive measures.

  1. ANIMAL MODELS FOR HUNTINGTON’S DISEASES: A REVIEW

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    Sharma Manisha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited autosomal, progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with involuntary abnormal movements (chorea, cognitive impairments and psychiatric disturbances. HD is caused by an abnormal expansion of a CAG region located in exon 1 of the gene encoding the huntingtin protein (Htt and is the causative factor in the pathogenesis of HD Animal models of HD have provided insight into disease pathology and the outcomes of thera- peutic strategies. Earlier studies of HD most often used toxin-induced models to study mitochondrial impairment and excitotoxicity-induced cell death, which are both mechanisms of degeneration seen in the HD brain. These models, based on 3-nitropropionic acid and quinolinic acid, respectively, are still often used in HD studies. The discovery in 1993 of the huntingtin mutation led to the creation of newer models that incorporate a similar genetic defect. These models, which include transgenic and knock-in rodents, are more representative of the HD progression and pathology. An even more recent model that uses a ovine transgenic model (sheep model,fly models ,cell cultures models for better understanding of gene mutation in and in mammalian and nonhuman primates, as it is difficult to produce genetic models in these species. This article examines the aforementioned models and describes their use in HD research, including aspects of the creation, de- livery, pathology, and tested therapies for each model.

  2. Simulating sterilization, vaccination, and test-and-remove as brucellosis control measures in bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, M.; Cross, P.; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Treanor, John

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, infects wildlife, cattle, and humans worldwide, but management of the disease is often hindered by the logistics of controlling its prevalence in wildlife reservoirs. We used an individually based epidemiological model to assess the relative efficacies of three management interventions (sterilization, vaccination, and test-and-remove). The model was parameterized with demographic and epidemiological data from bison in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Sterilization and test-and-remove were most successful at reducing seroprevalence when they were targeted at young seropositive animals, which are the most likely age and sex category to be infectious. However, these approaches also required the most effort to implement. Vaccination was less effective (even with a perfect vaccine) but also required less effort to implement. For the treatment efforts we explored (50–100 individuals per year or 2.5–5% of the female population), sterilization had little impact upon the bison population growth rate when selectively applied. The population growth rate usually increased by year 25 due to the reduced number of Brucella-induced abortions. Initial declines in seroprevalence followed by rapid increases (>15% increase in 5 years) occurred in 3–13% of simulations with sterilization and test-and-remove, but not vaccination. We believe this is due to the interaction of superspreading events and the loss of herd immunity in the later stages of control efforts as disease prevalence declines. Sterilization provided a mechanism for achieving large disease reductions while simultaneously limiting population growth, which may be advantageous in some management scenarios. However, the field effort required to find the small segment of the population that is infectious rather than susceptible or recovered will likely limit the utility of this approach in many free-ranging wildlife populations. Nevertheless, we encourage

  3. Analysis of a multi patch dynamical model about cattle brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of cattle brucellosis in Zhejiang province of China can be attributed to the transport of cattle between cities within the province. In this paper,an n-patch dynamical model is proposed to study the effect of cattle dispersal on brucellosis spread. Theoretically,we analyze the dynamical behavior of the muti-patch model. For the 2-patch submodel,sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number R0 and the number of the infectious cattle in term of model parameters are carried out. By numerical analysis,it is obtained that the dispersal of susceptible cattle between patches and the centralization of infected cattle to the large scale patch can alleviate the epidemic and are in favor of the control of disease in the whole region.

  4. Diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using a homogeneous fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Gall, D; Lin, M; Massangill, C; Samartino, L; Perez, B; Coats, M; Hennager, S; Dajer, A; Nicoletti, P; Thomas, F

    1998-12-11

    To evaluate the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, 118 sera from cattle which were culture positive for Brucella abortus, 1751 sera from cattle from premises containing cattle infected with B. abortus, 1222 sera from cattle vaccinated with B. abortus strain 19 and 1199 sera from cattle with no evidence of brucellosis were tested in Argentina, Chile, Mexico and in the American states of Iowa, Missouri and Texas. Initial determination of serological positivity and negativity was based upon reactivity in currently used serological tests, consisting of a rapid screening test, the rose-bengal or the buffered plate antigen tests, followed by a second serological test, the complement fixation test. Sensitivity of the FPA (sera from culture positive animals) ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Serological positivity of cattle from infected premises ranged from 65.5% to 99.0% while the % negative cattle in herds without evidence of brucellosis was between 94.9 and 100%. Of B. abortus strain 19 vaccinated cattle which were positive in at least one in-use serological tests, 88.2% were negative in the FPA. In contrast, previous Canadian studies, sensitivity values were 99.0% and 100% and the specificity in both cases was 100%. This discrepancy was probably due to the use of less well characterized sera in the current study.

  5. ELISA for brucellosis detection based on three Brucella recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsuriyanont, Pikun; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Chanket, Panita; Tunyong, Wittawat; Kalambaheti, Thareerat

    2014-01-01

    Control of brucellosis among farm animals, wildlife and humans require reliable diagnosis. Rose Bengal serological test (RBT) is based on lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella, which may cross react with other gram-negative bacteria and produce false positive result. Immunoreactive proteins, such as outer-membrane protein BP26, ribosome recycling factor protein CP24 and Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS), previously reported to be recognized by infected sheep sera, were selected for production of recombinant proteins for use in an ELISA in order to investigate immune response among goats and cows, in comparison with commercial RBT. Cut-off value for ELISA was based on the immune response of in vitro fertilized goats and cows. Goats positive for Brucella culture or by RBT were ELISA positive for either IgG or IgM against at least one recombinant protein. For animals with negative RBT, animals with positive ELISA could be detected, and 61.6% possessed ELISA values as high as in infected animals. Thus, this ELISA procedure is proposed as an alternative to RBT for screening of brucellosis in farm animals.

  6. Estimation of sensitivity and specificity of five serological tests for the diagnosis of porcine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praud, Anne; Gimenez, Olivier; Zanella, Gina; Dufour, Barbara; Pozzi, Nathalie; Antras, Valérie; Meyer, Laurence; Garin-Bastuji, Bruno

    2012-04-01

    While serological tests are essential in surveillance and control programs of animal diseases, to date none of the common serological tests approved in the EU (complement fixation test or Rose-Bengal test) has been shown to be reliable in routine individual diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, and some more recent tests like ELISA have not been fully evaluated yet. In the absence of a gold standard, this study allowed the estimation of sensitivities and specificities of these tests with a Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms. The pig population that was tested included 6422 animals from Metropolitan France. Serum samples were collected from a large population of pigs, representative of European swine population and tested with five brucellosis serological tests: Rose-Bengal test (RBT), fluorescence polarization assay (FPA), indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) and two competitive ELISAs (C-ELISA). The sensitivity and the specificity of each test were estimated. When doubtful results were excluded, the most sensitive and specific test was C-ELISA(2) (Se C-ELISA(2)=0.964, [0.907; 0.994], 95% credibility interval (CrI); Sp C-ELISA(2)=0.996, [0.982; 1.0], 95% CrI). When doubtful results were considered as negative, C-ELISA(2) was still the most sensitive and specific test (Se C-ELISA(2)=0.960, [0.896; 0.994], 95% CrI and Sp C-ELISA(2)=0.994, [0.977; 0.999], 95% CrI). The same conclusions were reached when doubtful results were considered as positive (Se C-ELISA(2)=0.963, [0.904, 0.994], 95% CrI and Sp C-ELISA(2)=0.996, [0.986; 1.0], 95% CrI).

  7. 对花海农场一起羊感染布鲁氏菌病的调查及处置%Diagnosis and Control of a Brucellosis Outbreak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建功

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella, not only harmful to the healthy development of animal husbandry, affecting the quality and safety of animal products, but also a serious threat to human health. A brucel-losis outbreak was put under effective control by means of timely slaughtering,disinfecting and culling 87 brucellosis infected sheep in huahai dairy farm,Yumen city without causing further spreading. The future brucellosis prevention and control measures were proposed according to problems and disease causes found during the investigations,and in combination with the actual conditions.%布鲁氏菌病是由布鲁氏菌引起的人畜共患病,不仅危害畜牧业健康发展,影响畜产品质量安全,而且严重威胁人类健康。本文通过对玉门市花海农场87只布鲁氏菌病羊只的扑杀消毒、淘汰净化和周边羊只的调查监测,及时、有效地控制了布鲁氏菌病,没有形成蔓延扩散之势。针对调查中找出发生布病的原因和存在问题,结合实际,提出了今后羊布鲁氏菌病的防控对策。

  8. Zoonotic disease surveillance--inventory of systems integrating human and animal disease information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, A; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A

    2015-02-01

    Although 65% of recent major disease outbreaks throughout the world have a zoonotic origin, there is still a sharp division among the disciplines into the human and animal health sectors. In the last few decades, a global integrative concept, often referred to as 'One Health', has been strongly endorsed. Surveillance and monitoring efforts are major components for effective disease prevention and control. As human health and animal health are inextricably linked, it is assumed that a cross-sectoral data interpretation of zoonotic disease information will improve their prevention, prediction and control. To provide an overview of existing systems throughout the world which integrate information from humans and animals on zoonotic diseases, a literature review was conducted. Twenty projects were identified and described regarding their concepts and realization. They all vary widely depending on their surveillance purpose, their structure and the source of information they use. What they have in common is that they quite often use data which have already been collected for another purpose. Therefore, the challenges of how to make use of such secondary data are of great interest.

  9. First results on small ruminant brucellosis and tuberculosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderot de Cardona, Kristina; De Gracia Scanapieco, Abelardo; Braun, Peggy G

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a first-time study performed in El Salvador on the presence or absence of antibodies to three important animal diseases in small ruminants. The work was conducted in the west and central departments of the country, selecting 42 and 43 cantons with an existing sheep and goat population, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 396 sheep and 335 goats and tested for seropositivity to Brucella (B.) spp. The specimens from goats were also tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus. Four (1 %) sheep and none of the goats were seropositive by Rose Bengal test. All animals were negative by indirect ELISA (iELISA) for B. abortus. All animals were negative by iELISA for CAE. A total of 383 sheep and 330 goats underwent the single intradermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) test for tuberculosis. Seventy (18 %) sheep and 43 (13 %) goats reacted to the SICT test. Those reactors were subjected to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, and one (0.3 %) goat was deemed to be a positive reactor. No mycobacteria were diagnosed in concluding analyses, and further studies are considered necessary to determine the prevalence of the investigated diseases. Additionally, it is recommended that small ruminants should be included in the national eradication program on bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis to prevent potential reservoirs.

  10. Bovine Brucellosis Eradication Campaign in Australia%澳大利亚牛布鲁菌病根除运动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖钰; 胡长敏; 郭爱珍

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonosis disease caused by Bacillus abortus, and leads to huge losses to cattle industry and public health. Australia proposed the bovine brucellosis eradication on 1969, and the national campaign began at 1970, with the ifnancial and technique support of government, Australia eradicated bovine brucellosis on 1989 by “quarantine and slaughter” and vaccination, the campaign lasted for 19 years, because of that, Australia initiative in international trading. From this case we found that, industry engagement, government coordinate, ifnancial and technique support and trace back system are very important in the control and eradication of animal diseases. This successful experience provided the enlightenment for us to control bovine brucellosis.%牛布鲁氏菌病是由流产布氏杆菌引起的一种以流产为主要症状的接触性人畜共患病,给养牛业和公共卫生带来巨大的损失。澳大利亚自1969年起开始提出牛布鲁氏菌病控制和根除计划,1970年开始实施全国性的根除计划,在政府大力的财政支持及技术支持下,通过“检疫-扑杀”并配合“免疫”的策略,澳大利亚于1989年取得无牛布病状态,共花了19年时间,在国际贸易上争取了主动权。通过澳大利亚牛布鲁氏菌病根除计划的成功实施,笔者总结发现,工业参与、国家协调、经费保障、技术支撑、科研支持和可追溯体系在动物疫病的根除计划中起着十分重要的作用。澳大利亚的成功经验为我国牛布鲁氏菌病的控制提供了启示。

  11. Serological study of brucellosis and leptospirosis in equines of island Maiandeua (Algodoal) state of Para

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the seroepidemiological profile of brucellosis and leptospirosis in horses traction Island Maiandeua, state of Pará. In two distinct periods, blood samples were collected from 52 animals of both sexes and different ages (2 to 17 years), totaling 104 samples. For the research of antibodies anti-Brucella abortus were used in rapid agglutination test in plate. In the first harvest, none animal was positive, however in the second harvest there were three animals...

  12. Cattle trade and the risk of importing animal diseases into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Dopfer, D.D.V.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the risk of importing animal diseases into the Netherlands through livestock trade. It presents projections of Dutch cattle imports until 2010, and applies quantitative epidemiology to estimate the related probabilities of importing three animal diseases (foot and mouth disease,

  13. Epididymoorchitis as the First Finding in Patients with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Karaköse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Acute scrotal pain as the first symptom of brucellosis is rarely observed. We aimed to evaluate the data of male patients with brucellosis and epididymoorchitis as the initial diagnosis. Material and Methods. The data of seven patients presented with testicular pain, hyperemia, swelling, and increased fever were reviewed. Concomitant focal diseases as well as clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Results. The mean age of the patients was 22.28 ± 7.78 (16–35 years. All patients presented with scrotal pain, swelling, and increased sweating. Additional findings included fever, asthenia, arthralgia, dysuria, shiver and rash, weight loss, and vomiting in 6, 5, 4, 4, 3, 2, and 1 patient, respectively. In all of 7 patients, the agglutination tests of Rose-Bengal and Wright were positive. Coombs test was positive only in 3 patients. The patients underwent antibiotic and conservative treatment. No relapse was observed following the treatment. Conclusion. In endemic regions, epididymoorchitis caused by brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute scrotal pain. Clinical and serological findings are sufficient for the diagnosis. Conservative management combined with antibiotic therapy is adequate for managing brucellar epididymoorchitis.

  14. Osteoarticular Involvement among Brucellosis Cases in Konya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Turan Ozden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brucellosis is a systemic disease that can affect many organs and tissues. Musculoskeletal system is one of the most commonly affected systems. Disease may present itself with sacroiliitis, peripheral arthritis, spondylitis, paraspinal abscess, bursitis or osteomyelitis. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency, types and clinical features of osteoarticular involvement among cases with brucellosis in Konya city and to establish the differences between patients with and without osteoarticular involvement. Material and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen patients with Brucellosis who presented between June 2003 and June 2014 were included in the study. Brucellosis was diagnosed by positive Brucella Standard Agglutination Test ( and #61619;1/160 titer and/or growth of Brucella spp. in blood culture in addition to the presence of clinical signs and findings. Diagnosis of osteoarticular system complications was established by physical examination and radiological findings obtained by diagnostic imaging tools. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic, lumbar or sacral vertebrae were acquired in patients with back pain, low back pain and sacro-iliac joint pain. Results: Osteoarticular involvement was noted in 129 patients (40.8% (females: 52% and males: 48%. The most common route of transmission was employment in farming and/or consumption of un-pasteurized milk or dairy products, especially fresh cheese, in 97 (75% cases. Mean age was 46 and #61617;18 years. Sacroiliitis was the most frequent osteoarticular involvement (n: 68, 52.7%, 70.5% of which were bilateral. Sacroiliitis was followed by spondylodiscitis in 35 (38.7%, peripheral arthritis in 20 (15.5%, bursitis in 1 (0.8% cases. Patients with osteoarticular involvement received medical treatment for at least three months. Discussion: Ratio and anatomical region of osteoarticular involvement in brucellosis shows variability among areas. In the present study, we

  15. Bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis patients with hematologic abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz Demir; Mustafa Kasim Karahocagil; Ramazan Esen; Murat Atmaca; Hayriye G(o)nüllü; Hayrettin Akdeniz

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis can mimic various multisytem diseases,showing wide clinical polymorphism that frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay,further increasing the complication rates.In this study,we aimed to examine bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis cases presenting with hematologic abnormalities.Methods Forty-eight brucellosis cases were prospectively investigated.Complaints and physical examination findings of patients were recorded.Patients' complete blood count,routine biochemical tests,erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and serological screenings were performed.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration was performed in patients with cytopenia,for bone marrow examination and brucella culture,in accordance with the standard procedures from spina iliaca posterior superior region of pelvic bone.Results Of the 48 patients,35 (73%) were female and 13 (27%) were male.Mean age was (34.8±15.4) years (age range:15-70 years).Anemia,leukopenia,thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia were found in 39 (81%),28 (58%),22 (46%) and 10 patients (21%),respectively.In the examination of bone marrow,hypercellularity was found In 35 (73%) patients.Increased megacariocytic,erythroid and granulocytic series were found in 28 (58%),15 (31%) and 5 (10%) patients,respectively.In addition,hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 (31%) patients,granuloma observed in 12 (25%) and increased eosinophil and plasma cells observed in 9 (19%) patients.Conclusion According to the results of our series,hemophagocytosis,microgranuloma formation and hypersplenism may be responsible for hematologic complications of brucellosis.

  16. Effect evaluation of a health education program on brucellosis in both the population engaged in animal husbandry and non-livestock feeding population%天津市静海县养殖人群与非养殖人群布鲁杆菌病宣传干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 吕杰; 闫继梅; 王文权; 刘怡芳; 郝杰; 赵春蕾; 徐文体; 张颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the score of health knowledge and behavior on brucellosis in both the population engaged in animal husbandry and non-livestock feeding population before and after the health education,and to explore appropriate health education methods for different populations.Methods Farmers engaged in animal husbandry and non-livestock feeding population in Jinghai County,Tianjin were randomly selected.Health Care Seminar was given to farmers engaged in animal husbandry,and media and propaganda broadcast were given to non-livestock feeding population for one month.The effects were compared before and after intervention by questionnaires.Results A total of 500 farmers engaged in animal husbandry and 502 non-livestock feeding population were surveyed by questionnaires.250 farmers engaged in animal husbandry were surveyed before and after intervention,and 257,245 non-livestock feeding population were surveyed before and after intervention,respectively.Before the intervention,the brucellosis awareness rate of farmers engaged in animal husbandry [18.8% (47/250)] was higher than that of non-livestock feeding population [5.8%(15/257),x2=19.84,P < 0.05].After the intervention,the brucellosis awareness rates of the two groups were significantly improved,and the rate of farmers engaged in animal husbandry [100.0% (250/250)] remained higher than that [68.6% (168/245)] of nonlivestock feeding population.After the intervention,the recognition rates in health behavior of the two groups were improved in both groups,the rate of farmers engaged in animal husbandry was higher than that of non-livestock feeding population.Conclusions Health Care Seminar can significantly improve the awareness and knowledge of brucellosis in farmers engaged in animal husbandry; media,radio and other forms of publicity coverage may be more suitable for non-livestock feeding population.%目的 比较干预前后养殖人群和非养殖人群布鲁杆菌病(布病)知识和健康行为

  17. Comparison of PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis in suspected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhosssein; Sadeh, Maryam; Khalili, Mohammad Bagher; Mollaabedin, Mansour; Sazmand, Alireza

    2013-11-15

    Brucellosis has long been prevalent in Iran, with considerable medical and economic importance. Timely diagnosis is needed for early management and effective prevention of its consequences in human beings and animals. Current diagnostic methods impose peculiar challenges in terms of analytical method performance. This study compares diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive Value of Positive (PVP) and Predictive Value of Negative (PVN) for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Wright agglutination test and blood culture used for patients suspected of brucellosis. In 120 patients clinically suspected of brucellosis and referred by physicians to the Yazd central Medical Laboratory, some relevant demographic, occupational, nutritional and clinical data were collected. Also, venous blood samples were drawn for diagnosis of brucellosis using PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture techniques. The most frequent symptom of patients was arthralgia (82 cases, 68.3%). PCR was positive in 25 cases (20.8%), wright test in 21 patients (17.5%) and blood culture in 6 cases (5%). In 20 out of 21 wright-positive cases, PCR was positive and all of the culture-positive patients had positive PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PVP and PVN of blood culture compared to PCR (as the gold standard test) were 24, 100, 100 and 86%, respectively, but the above parameters when PCR is compared with blood culture (as gold standard) were 100, 83, 24 and 95%, respectively. PCR has better analytical performances than blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis and is suitable for confirmation of Wright-positive cases.

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in cattle in selected districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirar, Bashahun Gebremichael; Nasinyama, George William; Gelalcha, Benti Deresa

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town and Chora Botor district of Jimma zone from February 2014 to May 2014 to determine seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in cattle. A total of 348 blood samples (174 each from zebu and crossbreed) were collected. The sera were separated and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and positive sera were retested by complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 1.4 and 0.3 % as tested by RBPT and CFT, respectively. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in indigenous and crossbreed cattle was 1.1 and 0.6 % and 1.7 and 0 % using RBPT and CFT, respectively. Retained fetal membrane was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis in this study (p = 0.019). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was very low. However, due to the zoonotic and economic importance of the disease, prevention and control measures are required to stop further spread of the disease. To effectively implement this, the One Health (OH) is the most constructive approach we recommend.

  19. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  20. The Brucellosis Eradication Program in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    r•. • -- J 4"•:,••’• ’W#,•Q ’-’• ’’ ... •.... . -•- . ’, .• ... • 61 than Area C herd owners. 12. BRUCELLOSIS INFECTION IN SWINE, GOAT , SHEEP AND...replacement heifers? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Not Sure 12. Were you aware that brucellosis could also infect swine, goats , sheep, dogs and horses? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Only...94.6 Not Sure 0 No Response 2 5.4 100.0 TOTAL 37 100.0 - - 102 Q 12 Area C - BRUCELLOSIS INFECTION IN SWINE. GOAT , SHEEP, HORSES RELATIVE CUM ABSOLUTE

  1. A NEW APPROACH TO BRUCELLOSIS ALLERGODIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Ponomarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The new cytometric method for laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis in vitro conditions based on detection of hypersensitivity to Brucella has been developed. This test allows to differentiate vaccinal and infectious processes in case of chronic brucellosis, and to measure the level of patient sensibilization to Brucella. Thus, the test might be used to estimate intensity of post-vaccination immunity before re-immunization against brucellosis. Using of flow cytometry in the test excludes additional antigenic influence on human organism and allows to provide testing within 1 hour.

  2. 76 FR 65935 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Troy Bigelow, Swine Health Programs, Aquaculture, Swine, Equine... conditions, including arthritis. Humans can be treated for brucellosis with antibiotics. In an interim...

  3. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  4. Acutely developed elbow arthritis in a patient with Brucellosis: Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Yula

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF is an autosomal recessivedisorder that is prevalent in non-Ashkenazi Jews,Armenians, Turks and Arabs. The characteristic featuresof FMF is recurrent self-limited attacks of fever, polyserositis(synovitis, peritonitis, and pleuritis, and secondaryamyloidosis. Genetic studies have shown that the genefor FMF is located on chromosome 16p is designatedMEFV. The diagnosis of FMF is based on a clinical historyof typical acute attacks, ethnic background, and familyhistory.Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease caused bygram-negative bacillus. The prevalence of the disease ishigher in developing countries. It is frequently transmittedto humans via consumption of infected unpasteurizeddairy products and infected by direct contact with infectedanimals.In this article, we discussed a patient who was in our followup with diagnosis of brucellosis, after sudden effusionof elbow; we diagnosed the case FMF together with brucellosis.J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 437-440

  5. 误诊为痛风性关节炎的布鲁菌病一例并文献复习%Brucellosis Misdiagnosed as Gouty Arthritis:A Case Report and Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏益民; 黄淑玉; 刘峰; 邹毅; 吴敏; 朱钊; 李玲; 廖世波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical features of brucellosis and reduce the misdiagnosis and mistreatment rates. Methods A retrospective analysis of clinical data was made for 1 case of brucellosis misdiagnosed as gouty arthritis, and the literature was reviewed. Results The patient with right ankle joint pain and fever as the main symptoms was suspec-ted as having acute gouty arthritis upon admission. Anti-infection and pain relief measures were taken with no obvious effect. The patient was found having a history of animal contact recently and detection of brucellosis tube agglutination titer was more than 1∶ 400, the rose Bengal plate agglutination test was positive, and therefore brucellosis was confirmed and then rifampicin and doxycycline antibiotic therapy were given. The patient recovered well. Conclusion We should consider to rule out the possibility of brucellosis for patients with intermittent fever and peripheral arthritis, and should ask if the patient has a history of contact with diseased animals such as cattle and sheep. Suspected patients should be given brucellosis serological tests quickly to confirm the diagnosis.%目的:探讨布鲁菌病的临床特点,减少误诊误治。方法回顾分析1例误诊为痛风性关节炎的布鲁菌病的临床资料,并复习相关文献。结果本例以右踝关节疼痛、发热为主要临床表现,初诊考虑痛风性关节炎急性发作,经抗感染、镇痛治疗效果不明显,追溯病史了解患者近期有病畜接触史,布鲁杆菌试管凝集试验效价>1∶400,虎红平板凝集试验阳性,明确诊断为布鲁菌病,予利福平、多西环素治疗,痊愈。结论对间断低热、外周单关节炎患者需注意排除布鲁菌病的可能,注意详细询问牛、羊等病畜接触史,疑诊者应及时行布鲁杆菌血清学检查以确诊。

  6. Serological and molecular investigation for brucellosis in swine in selected districts of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erume, Joseph; Roesel, Kristina; Dione, Michel M; Ejobi, Francis; Mboowa, Gerald; Kungu, Joseph M; Akol, Joyce; Pezo, Danilo; El-Adawy, Hosny; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy; Neubauer, Heinrich; Grace, Delia

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is a notifiable zoonotic disease affecting livestock, humans, and wildlife in Uganda. Pigs can be infected with human pathogenic Brucella suis biovars 1 and 3 and can be a significant source of brucellosis for humans. Uganda has a rapidly growing pig population, and the pork consumption per capita is the highest in East Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Ugandan pigs. A cross-sectional serosurvey of pigs was conducted in three of the major pig-keeping districts in Uganda (Masaka (n = 381 samples), Mukono (n = 398), and Kamuli (n = 414)). In addition, pigs originating from these districts were sampled in the major pig abattoir in Kampala (n = 472). In total, 1665 serum samples were investigated by serological and molecular tests. Only three putative brucellosis-positive samples were detected serologically using indirect ELISA. These sera were found negative for Brucella antibodies by CFT; however, two had antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica as determined by SAT. Presence of antibodies against Yersiniae was confirmed by Y. enterocolitica antibody-specific ELISA. The two Yersiniae ELISA-positive samples were brucellosis negative using real-time PCR. We tested additional 142 sera from the 1665 samples with real-time PCR. All tested negative. Under this type of production system, we expect a maximum B. suis prevalence of less than 1 % at 95 % confidence level, and therefore, the risk of acquiring brucellosis from the pigs or their products is negligible. However, pigs may harbor the zoonotic Y. enterocolitica. This is the first study to investigate the occurrence of brucellosis in pigs in Uganda and the first study to report Y. enterocolitica antibodies in swine in Uganda.

  7. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorvash Farzin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  8. Serum annexin A2 levels in acute brucellosis and brucellar spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktug Demir, N; Kolgelier, S; Sumer, S; Inkaya, A C; Ozcimen, S; Demir, L S; Ural, O; Arpaci, A

    2014-10-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic granulomatous infection and may present with various clinical manifestations. Brucellar spondylodiscitis symptoms are initially subtle and nonspecific. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is involved in various biological functions, including osteoclast formation, bone resorption, and cell growth regulation. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical significance of serum ANXA2 levels in acute brucellosis and brucellar spondylodiscitis. This prospective study included 96 acute brucellosis patients and 51 healthy controls. Acute brucellosis was diagnosed by a 1/160 or higher titer in a standard tube agglutination (STA) test or a four-fold increase in titers between two STA tests performed two weeks apart in the presence of clinical symptoms within the last eight weeks and/or growth of Brucella spp. in appropriately prepared culture media. ANXA2 levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty (41.7 %) of 96 acute brucellosis patients were male and 56 (58.3 %) were female. Serum ANXA2 levels were elevated in patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001). Eighteen of 96 (18.7 %) acute brucellosis patients had brucellar spondylodiscitis. The serum ANXA2 levels of patients with brucellar spondylodiscitis were higher than those of patients with acute disease without brucellar spondylodiscitis (p = 0.001). ANXA2, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values were elevated in the brucellar spondylodiscitis group compared to patients without brucellar spondylodiscitis. Serum ANXA2 measurement together with ESR and CRP is thought to be indicative in the diagnosis of brucellar spondylodiscitis, a common complication of brucellosis.

  9. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  10. Risk factors for occupational brucellosis among veterinary personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Murat; Ergonul, Onder; Sayin-Kutlu, Selda; Guven, Tumer; Ustun, Cemal; Alp-Cavus, Sema; Ozturk, Serife Barcın; Acicbe, Ozlem; Akalin, Serife; Tekin, Recep; Tekin-Koruk, Suda; Demiroglu, Yusuf Ziya; Keskiner, Ramazan; Gönen, Ibak; Sapmaz-Karabag, Sevil; Bosnak, Vuslat; Kazak, Esra

    2014-11-01

    Veterinarians and veterinary technicians are at risk for occupational brucellosis. We described the risk factors of occupational brucellosis among veterinary personnel in Turkey. A multicenter retrospective survey was performed among veterinary personnel who were actively working in the field. Of 712 veterinary personnel, 84 (11.8%) had occupational brucellosis. The median number of years since graduation was 7 (interquartile ranges [IQR], 4-11) years in the occupational brucellosis group, whereas this number was 9 (IQR, 4-16) years in the non-brucellosis group (pbrucellosis. We suggest that all veterinary personnel should be trained on brucellosis and the importance of using personal protective equipment in order to avoid this infection.

  11. A Case of Brucellosis with Recurrent Attacks of Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affects several organs or systems. Skin involvement is nonspecific and it is reported to range between 0,4 and 17% of the patients with brucellosis. Here, we defined a 36-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with a clinical picture of recurrent attacks of vasculitis due to brucellosis for the first time. Skin involvement and vasculitic lesions as a finding of skin involvement are nonspecific in brucellosis. Therefore, in the regions like Turkey where brucellosis is endemic, brucellosis should be kept in mind necessarily in the differential diagnosis of vasculitis.

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Brucellosis in Non-pastoral Areas——Clinical Analysis of 30 Cases of Brucellosis%非牧区布氏杆菌病的诊治——布氏杆菌病30例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 李云华; 张蕾; 刘同刚; 夏风飞

    2013-01-01

    研究滨州地区布氏杆菌病的流行病学、临床特征、治疗及预后情况.对2010年4月~2012年9月入住我院的30例布氏杆菌病患者的临床特征及疗效进行分析.滨州地区布氏杆菌病在4月~6月高发,近3年发病人数有增多趋势.主要表现为发热、多汗、乏力及关节痛,部分可出现肝脾大、血小板减少.多西环素、利福平、左氧氟沙星联合治疗1个疗程(6周),治愈率为80%.滨州地区布氏杆菌病发病率较前升高.对发热伴血小板减少的患者要想到布氏杆菌病的可能.须加强对病畜的检疫工作,提高个人防护意识,重视从事养殖业及畜牧业人员的防疫.早期、规范、联合抗生素治疗是关键.%To study the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment and prognosis of brucellosis in Binzhou region, clinical characteristics and treatment effect of 30 cases with brucellosis hospitalized from April 2010 to September 2012. April, May and June were the fastigium that brucellosis disease occurrence in the region were analyzed, and the number increased gradually in the past three years. Its major clinical manifestations were fever, sweating, fatigue and arthralgia, some patients appeared hepatosplenomegaly and platelet reduction. The cure rate of a course (6 weeks) using doxycycline, ri-fampin, levofloxacin combination treatment was 80%. The incidence of brucellosis increased compared with the previous. Take into account the possibility of brucellosis for patients with fever and thrombocytopenia. Strengthen the quarantine of sick animals, raise the self — protective consciousness, paid more attention to epidemic prevention of staffs engaging in farming and animal husbandry were needed. Early, standard and combinational therapy of antibiotic was the key.

  13. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gebreyohans; Tsegaye, Wondeson; Chanie, Mersha; Abinet, Fisseha

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms from November 2003 to April 2004. A total of 1,202 blood samples were collected from non-vaccinated, cross-bred dairy cattle. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) was used as a screening test. Those serum samples reacting positively to RBPT were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The RBPT detected 30 of 1,202 (2.5%) of the samples as brucellosis positive. The positive sera when further retested using CFT, 18 out of the 30 RBPT positive sera were confirmed to be positive. The prevalence of brucellosis based on CFT in the study area was 1.5%, and all positive sera were from female cattle. Result of the questionnaire survey revealed that percentage of 4.4% abortion and 9.5% retained fetal membranes. Abortion and retained fetal membranes were associated with Brucella antibodies (P < 0.05). A total of 153 cattle attendants and owners in the farms were interviewed, and 73.5% were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis, only 20.8% wear protective gloves during handling aborted material and 39.6% responded that they consume raw milk. Results of this study showed that prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the study area is low and a test-and-slaughter policy can be used in order to control the diseases in dairy farms of Addis Ababa.

  14. Brucellosis Transmission between Wildlife and Livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Inferences from DNA Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael P; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Anderson, Neil; Ceballos, Ruben M; Edwards, William H; Harris, Beth; Wallen, Rick L; Costa, Vânia

    2017-01-24

    The wildlife of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th Century. Brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, Brucella abortus . We examined B. abortus transmission between American bison ( Bison bison ), Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( Bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers on DNA from 98 B. abortus isolates recovered from populations in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, USA. Our analyses reveal interspecies transmission. Two outbreaks (2007, 2008) in Montana cattle had B. abortus genotypes similar to isolates from bison and elk. Nevertheless, similarity in elk and cattle isolates from the 2008 outbreak suggest that elk are the likely source of brucellosis transmission to cattle in Montana and Wyoming. Brucella abortus isolates from sampling in Montana appear to be divided in two clusters: one exclusive to local Montana elk, cattle, and bison; and another composed mainly of elk and some bison individuals, found in many Wyoming elk, which is consistent with brucellosis having entered Montana via migration of infected elk from Wyoming. Our findings illustrate complex patterns of brucellosis transmission among elk, bison, and cattle as well as the utility of VNTRs to infer the wildlife species of origin for disease outbreaks in livestock.

  15. MicroRNA Expression Patterns of CD8+ T Cells in Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Ferah; Bal, S. Haldun; Tezcan, Gulcin; Guvenc, Furkan; Akalin, E. Halis; Goral, Guher; Deniz, Gunnur

    2016-01-01

    Although our knowledge about Brucella virulence factors and the host response increase rapidly, the mechanisms of immune evasion by the pathogen and causes of chronic disease are still unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the immunological factors which belong to CD8+ T cells and their roles in the transition of brucellosis from acute to chronic infection. Using miRNA microarray, more than 2000 miRNAs were screened in CD8+ T cells of patients with acute or chronic brucellosis and healthy controls that were sorted from peripheral blood with flow cytometry and validated through qRT-PCR. Findings were evaluated using GeneSpring GX (Agilent) 13.0 software and KEGG pathway analysis. Expression of two miRNAs were determined to display a significant fold change in chronic group when compared with acute or control groups. Both miRNAs (miR-126-5p and miR-4753-3p) were decreased (p 2). These miRNAs have the potential to be the regulators of CD8+ T cell-related marker genes for chronic brucellosis infections. The differentially expressed miRNAs and their predicted target genes are involved in MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and focal adhesion indicating their potential roles in chronic brucellosis and its progression. It is the first study of miRNA expression analysis of human CD8+ T cells to clarify the mechanism of inveteracy in brucellosis. PMID:27824867

  16. 布鲁氏菌病诊断方法的研究进展%Research Progress of Diagnosis Technique of Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凤菊

    2011-01-01

    近年来,布鲁氏菌病疫情在人、畜间呈逐年上升的趋势.不仅严重地威胁着人类健康,还影响着国民经济持续快速发展,成为世界性公共卫生问题.文章概述了目前中国动物布鲁氏菌病主要的实验室诊断方法以及国内外在本病诊断技术方面所取得的新进展,为中国研究更为快速、敏感、易于操作的布鲁氏菌病诊断技术提供参考,为快速、精确地诊断本病提供技术支持,以有效地防控本病.%In recent years, brucellosis has shown ascendant trend between human and livestock. Not only did seriously threaten human health, but also it affected the rapid development of national economy, it has become a worldwide public health problem. This paper overviewed current main laboratory diagnosis methods of animal brucellosis at home and gained much new progress of the disease diagnosis technology in domestic and abroad. These new development provided a reference for our research rapider, more sensitive, easier operation brucellosis diagnostic technique, and which also provided technical support for the fast, accurate diagnosis of this disease. So we can effectively prevent and control the disease.

  17. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jiang

    Full Text Available In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3 is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82 belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal. The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70 were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs.

  18. Agroterrorism: Minimizing the Consequences of Intentionally Introduced Foreign Animal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Subsequently, the Secretary of Agriculture is suggesting that Canada and Mexico begin the prophylaxis for FMD, mandatory vaccination. This decision is...commissioner is authorized condemn affected animals and order mass euthanasia to protect uninfected animals (K.S.A. 47-614). (5) The livestock...Microbes." Science 284, Number 5421, June 11, 1999: 1754-1755. American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia

  19. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cito, F; Rijks, J; Rantsios, A T; Cunningham, A A; Baneth, G; Guardabassi, L; Kuiken, T; Giovannini, A

    2016-01-01

    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals. In this stud

  20. Epidemic analysis on Brucellosis in Baoding from 2007 to 2012%保定市2007-2012年布病疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 刘燕丽; 王萌

    2013-01-01

    目的分析2007-2012年保定市布病疫情分布特征。方法应用描述流行病学方法对保定市2007-2012年通过国家《疾病监测信息报告管理系统》上报的布病疫情资料进行分析。结果全市25个县区中有24个县区有人间布病分布,六年来的发病率为1.36~2.38/10万。发病年龄为3月龄~83岁之间,发病人群以青壮年为主,男女发病人数之比为2.59:1,病例多集中在4~8月份,季节分布明显。职业分布特征是以饲养、屠宰加工和皮毛加工人员为主。结论保定市人间布病疫情自2007年以来处于较高发病水平,卫生部门的监测和健康干预工作持续开展,公众知晓率不断提升,但同时存在知识和行为分离现象。布病防控的根本策略是清除畜间布病,卫生、畜牧等多部门的、区域间的联防联控方是控制人间布病疫情的治本之策。%Objective To analyze epidemic distribution of brucellosis in the city of Baoding from 2007 to 2012. Methods The epidemic data of brucellosis in Baoding from 2007 to 2012 were analyzed epidemiologically, according to Disease Surveillance Information Reporting System. Results Human brucellosis was distributed in 24 counties out of 25 of the whole city. And the incidence was 1.36 to 2.38 hundred thousandth. From 3-month-olds to 83-year-olds, the patients were mostly the young and adults. The ratio of male and female patients was 2.59: 1. Brucellosis cases, which occurred more frequently from April to August, were apparently seasonal. Occupationally, stock breeding farm workers, butchers and fur processors were at high risk of infection. Conclusion The incidence of human brucellosis in the city of Baoding has been high since 2007. Public awareness had improved, since surveillance and health intervention has been continuously carried out by health department. Meanwhile, the separation of knowledge and behavior still exists. Eliminating animal brucellosis is the

  1. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  2. Southwestern Internal Medicine Conference: brucellosis: don't let it get your goat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radolf, J D

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly pleomorphic zoonotic infection caused by one of the following four species of gram-negative facultative intracellular coccobacilli: Brucella melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, or B. canis. The disease is a worldwide public health problem and a significant cause of economic losses in domestic live-stock. Although largely eradicated in most industrialized countries, in the United States there has been an upsurge of B. melitensis cases associated with the ingestion of unpasteurized goat's milk or goat's milk cheese from Mexico. Brucellosis can be either insidious or abrupt in onset and can affect virtually every organ system; skeletal involvement (spondylitis, arthritis) is the most frequent metastatic complication. Cases are diagnosed either by isolation of the bacterium (usually from blood) or by serologic testing. Treatment of brucellosis requires the administration of two antimicrobial agents. Doxycycline plus streptomycin or rifampin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampin appear to be the most effective regimens.

  3. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  4. Symposium on Housing and Diseases of Rabbits, furbearing animals and pet animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Jong, de I.C.; Greef, de K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Within the Welfare Quality® project protocols have been developed to assess animal welfare on-farm in an objective, science based and practically applicable way. For various species like broilers and laying hens, sows and growing pigs, dairy cattle and veal calves, welfare assessment protocols have

  5. Zoonotic disease awareness in animal shelter workers and volunteers and the effect of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steneroden, K K; Hill, A E; Salman, M D

    2011-11-01

    Animal shelter workers are a vulnerable population whose exposure to zoonotic disease may be greater compared with the general population. The aim of this project was to identify baseline zoonotic disease knowledge of animal shelter workers and to develop and evaluate zoonotic disease awareness training. Ten animal shelters in six western states were randomly selected. One hundred and eleven trainees were evaluated by identical pre- and post-training tests. Training topics included identification of clinical signs, susceptible species, and transmission of disease to animals and to humans. Zoonotic diseases included rabies, plague, leptospirosis, internal parasites, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and salmonella. A statistically significant difference in overall total scores between pre-test (58.5%) and post-test (69.5%) was observed (P = 0.0001). No association was observed between test scores and length of time working in animal shelters, or with the participants' role at the animal shelter. Overall test scores were raised by 11%. The lowest baseline levels of knowledge were found with leptospirosis, MRSA, plague and rabies, emerging diseases with increasing prevalence and high consequence. Zoonotic disease awareness training is a valuable service to animal shelters. In the current study, training was modestly successful in transferring short-term knowledge to animal shelter workers. To understand and evaluate the effectiveness of training completely, observable or measureable behaviours should be compared before and after training. Long-term assessment with measureable outcomes is needed.

  6. Comparison between Efficacy of Ciprofioxacin -Doxycycline with Rifampin – Doxycycline Regimens inrelapse of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sarmadian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is one of the endemic diseases in Iran that has a worldwide spread and is associated with chronic disabilities in humans. Combination therapy of Brucellosis leads to recovery of symptoms, shortening of the symptomatic intervals, and decrease in the rate of relapse and drug resistance. Considering the use of rifampin in the treatment of tuberculosis, and the necessity for an alternative treatment in regions endemic for both tuberculosis and brucellosis, the aim ofthis study was to compare the efficiency of the regimen of rifampin-Doxycycline with ciprofloxacin-Doxycycline in relapse of brucellosis. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 90 patients, older than 17 years old, affected with brucellosis, which were referred to the Infectious Disease Clinics at ArakUniversity of medical sciences between the years 1384-1387. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the DR groups, receiving 100 mg of Doxycycline twice a day and 300 mg of rifampin Bid daily for eight weeks and the CD group, receiving 100 mg of Doxycycline plus 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice a day for eight weeks. The patients were analyzed for the relief of symptoms, drug side effects, and laboratory findings during the treatment. Results:In this study, the rate of relapse in both groups were similar. The relapse was seen in 4.5% and 3.2% of the patients for the DR and CD groups, respectively (P=0.168. The drug side effects were slight in both of groups, with no significant difference, and did not lead to discontinuation of the therapy. Conclusion: According to the same rate of relapse in both CD and DR regimens in the treatment of brucellosis and considering the usage of rifampin in regions with high prevalence of tuberclusis, the CD regimen is recommended as an appropriate one.

  7. A Survey On Gastrointestinal And Hepatic Manifestations Of Brucellosis Imam Hospital (1995-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AhmadiNejad Z

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. Despite its control in many developing countries the disease remains endemic in Iran. The symptoms, signs and laboratory results are variable and nonspecific. This case series study was conducted to determine the liver complications of Brucellosis in Iran"nMaterials and Methods: We studied 188 patients (108 males and 80 females with Brucellosis, fulfilled the diagnostic criteria, aged 1-79 years (mean 34.8 years were registered in Imam Khomeini Hospital, a referral center in Tehran, during the six years (1995-2001."nResults: Thirty-four of 188 cases (18.08 percent had elevated liver enzyme (elevated SGOT only, 6 patients; elevated SGPT only 1 patient; elevation of both transaminases, 27 patients. The prominent symptoms included anorexia (74 cases, weight loss (62 cases, right upper quadrant pain (32 cases, epigastric pain (25 cases and nausea and vomiting (23 cases. Among the gastrointestinal signs were found in these patients, hepatomegaly was seen in 28 patients. Jaundice and ascitis were present in only 7 and 3 patients, respectively. Other laboratory results showed elevated alkaline phosphatase in 28 cases and abnormal bilirubin in 10 cases. Fifty-seven patients had a focal illness, representing 30.32 percent of all patients. Osteoarticular complications were the most frequent focal forms, being present in 34 cases. Twelve male patients had genitourinary Brucellosis, representing 10.53 percent of focal forms. Also, 5 patients had neurologic complications."nConclusion: In conclusion liver involvement is frequent in Brucellosis, although the rate of this complication in our study was lower than other studies. So, in patients with evidence of overt clinical or laboratory findings compatible with liver disturbance etiologies other than brucellosis should be considered in Iran."n"n"n 

  8. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O. Akinseye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013 from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105 was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.22. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04 and sex ( p £ 0.0001 of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries.Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, RBT, Epidemiology, Public Health, Nigeria

  9. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and typing of Brucella melitensis biovar 2 in lactating cows in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel El-Gohary

    2016-09-01

    Results: The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 339 (7.25% by BAPAT, 332 (7.1% by RBPT, and 329 (7.04% by CFT. The results revealed that, 42 (8.6%, 5 (1.4% and 292 (7.6% sera were positive for brucellosis by BAPAT in the cows of Al-Wafra, Al-Kabed and Al-Salebia areas, respectively. Whereas, their respective number and seroreactive cases by RBPT were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 288 (7.4%. Similarly, as confirmatory test by CFT, the number and seroreactive cases in these areas were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 285 (7.46%. MRT revealed that the average positive case was 61.67% (59.46% in Al-Wafra; 60% in Al-Kabed and 66.6% in Al-Salebia. Two Brucella isolates could be recovered from the stomach content of the two aborted feti and typed as Brucella melitensis biovar 2. Conclusion: Brucellosis is prevalent among lactating cows in Kuwait. This indicates the potential role of these dairy animals in disseminating and spread of such zoonosis to human. Considering public health significance, appropriate preventive measures are suggestive for combating brucellosis in Kuwait. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 229-235

  10. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  11. A serological and bacteriological survey of canine brucellosis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Castro, R; Segura, R

    1976-07-01

    Using agglutination procedures, 203 human and 500 dog sera collected in Mexico City were tested for canine brucellosis. Blood samples from the 500 dogs also were cultured for Brucella canis (B. canis). Positive agglutination titers (1:100 or greater) were found in 27 (13.3%) of the human and 140 (28.0%) of the dog sera tested. B. canis was isolated from the blood of eight dogs. The disease was experimentally produced in susceptible dogs by inoculation with one of the isolated strains.

  12. A Case of Brucellosis with Recurrent Attacks of Vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar Korkmaz; Mehtap Kıdır; Nazlı Dizen Namdar; Ahmet Özmen; Cemile Uyar; Ayşe Nur Değer

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affects several organs or systems. Skin involvement is nonspecific and it is reported to range between 0,4 and 17% of the patients with brucellosis. Here, we defined a 36-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with a clinical picture of recurrent attacks of vasculitis due to brucellosis for the first time. Skin involvement and vasculitic lesions as a finding of skin involvement are nonspecific in brucellosis. Therefore, in the regions like Turkey where ...

  13. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. H

  14. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. H

  15. Pompe disease : Current state of treatment modalities and animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, T. M.; McLaughlin, P. M. J.; de Leij, L. F. M. H.; Ruiters, M. H. J.; Niezen-Koning, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of acid-alpha-glucosidase (GAA). This deficiency results in glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes, leading to lysosomal swelling, cellular damage and organ dysfunction. In early-onset patients (the classical

  16. Coffee and Alzheimer’s disease - animal & cellular evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increases in lifespan in modern times have put significant social and academic emphasis on age-related pathologies. Of the many chronic, non-acquired diseases, dementias are among the most fiscally and psychologically burdensome to society. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent and well kno...

  17. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cito, F.; Rijks, J.; Rantsios, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    on methods described by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Modifications were applied to allow for the paucity of specific information on companion animal transmissible diseases. The OIE method was also adapted to the subject and to the regional scope of the interprofessional network addressing......A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals....... In this study, available epidemiological data for diseases transmissible from companion animals to man were analysed with the aim of developing a procedure suitable for their prioritization within a European framework. A new method and its associated questionnaire and scoring system were designed based...

  18. Standardization or tailorization of veterinary vaccines: a conscious endeavour against infectious disease of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Protecting animals from infection is a major obligation of every veterinarian's work in order to preserve animal welfare while assuring human health. Highly infectious animal diseases can reduce the performances of food producing animals and may have a great economical impact on many industries. Some animal diseases can be transmitted to humans, and control of these types of diseases, is beneficial to public health. In the wild, animal populations reduced by disease can dramatically affect the ecological balance of an area. Vaccination is one part of an effective health program as it helps to prevent disease and, in most cases, is more cost-effective than treating sick animals. Veterinarians have succeeded in greatly reducing the incidence of important diseases by taking advantage from improved technologies in vaccines production and by planning vaccination schedules based on the different characteristics of available products. Today, veterinarians can recommend and plan to use vaccines designed for a specific herd or flock or class of animals and even for individual treatments.

  19. Current insights into animal models of Graves' disease and orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesweg, B; Johnson, K T M; Eckstein, A K; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U

    2013-08-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is characterized by hyperthyroidism, orbitopathy and in rare cases dermopathy. Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is an inflammatory disease of eye and orbit which occurs in about 30-60% of patients. Hyperthyroidism occurs due to the presence of stimulating TSHR-autoantibodies (TRAbs) leading to increased serum levels of thyroid hormones. Attempts to induce Graves' disease in mice by immunization against the hTSHR or its variants have resulted in production of TRAbs that stimulate thyroid follicular cells to increase thyroid hormone secretion. Graves' like orbital changes, such as inflammation, adipogenesis and muscle fibrosis are more difficult to induce. In this review we summarize different methods used to induce murine Graves'-like disease and their impact on murine orbits.

  20. 9 CFR 71.14 - Slaughter of poultry or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slaughter of poultry or other animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.14 Slaughter of poultry... to slaughter any diseased or exposed animals, including poultry, and the purchase of such...

  1. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  2. Applications of animal models of infectious arthritis in drug discovery: a focus on alphaviral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Lara; Nelson, Michelle; Bettadapura, Jayaram; Gahan, Michelle E; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    Animal models, which mimic human disease, are invaluable tools for understanding the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and development of treatment strategies. In particular, animal models play important roles in the area of infectious arthritis. Alphaviruses, including Ross River virus (RRV), o'nyong-nyong virus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), mayaro virus, Semliki Forest virus and sindbis virus, are globally distributed and cause transient illness characterized by fever, rash, myalgia, arthralgia and arthritis in humans. Severe forms of the disease result in chronic incapacitating arthralgia and arthritis. The mechanisms of how these viruses cause musculoskeletal disease are ill defined. In recent years, the use of a mouse model for RRV-induced disease has assisted in unraveling the pathobiology of infection and in discovering novel drugs to ameliorate disease. RRV as an infection model has the potential to provide key insights into such disease processes, particularly as many viruses, other than alphaviruses, are known to cause infectious arthritides. The emergence and outbreak of CHIKV in many parts of the world has necessitated the need to develop animal models of CHIKV disease. The development of non-human primate models of CHIKV disease has given insights into viral tropism and disease pathogenesis and facilitated the development of new treatment strategies. This review highlights the application of animal models of alphaviral diseases in the fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to disease and for defining the role that the immune response may have on disease pathogenesis, with the view of providing the foundation for new treatments.

  3. Compensation and exotic livestock disease management: the views of animal keepers and veterinarians in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Webb, A; Naylor, R; Little, R; Maye, D

    2016-11-19

    Relatively little is known about the perceived influence of different compensation systems on animal keepers' management of exotic livestock disease. This paper aims to address this research gap by drawing on interviews with 61 animal keepers and 21 veterinarians, as well as a series of nine animal keeper focus groups across five different livestock sectors in England. The perceived influence of current compensation systems on disease control behaviour was explored and alternative compensation systems that respectively reward positive practices and penalise poor practices were presented in the form of scenarios, alongside a third system that considered the option of a cost-sharing levy system between industry and government. The results indicate that animal keepers consider themselves to be influenced by a range of non-financial factors, for example, feelings of responsibility, reputation and animal welfare concerns, in the context of their exotic disease management practices. The majority of animal keepers were unaware of the current compensation systems in place for exotic diseases, and were therefore not consciously influenced by financial recompense. Concerns were raised about linking compensation to disease management behaviour due to auditing difficulties. A cost-sharing levy system would likely raise awareness of exotic disease and compensation among animal keepers, but differentiation of payments based upon individual farm-level risk assessments was called for by participants as a strategy to promote positive disease management practices.

  4. Milk production increase in a dairy farm under a six-year Brucellosis control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Enrique; Palomares, Gabriela; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2008-12-01

    The present work aims to quantify milk production in a bovine dairy herd during a 6-year brucellosis control program in Hidalgo, Mexico, where bovine brucellosis is endemic. This 6-year longitudinal pilot study comprised 74 monthly samplings to determine the incidence of brucellosis and to quantify daily milk production. To determine the monthly incidence of brucellosis, an average of 346 Holstein cows was examined each month with the card and Rivanol tests. These animals had been vaccinated as calves with the normal dose of Brucella abortus RB51 and were revaccinated annually with a reduced dose. Brucellosis is endemic in Mexico, where the control programs include vaccination and diagnosis; nevertheless, it is uncommon to carry out other essential control practices, such as separation and elimination of positive cows. In this herd, the cows positive to the card and rivanol tests were separated in specific units, especially at the moment of delivery. These cows were placed at the end of the line for milking and were eliminated from the herd at the end of their productive cycle. In this dairy herd, cows were milked three times a day and there was a monthly average of 300 cows in production. At the beginning of this study the prevalence of brucellosis was 8.43%; from days 180-330 the incidence was from 0.51% to 0.90%. Between days 360-570, the incidence diminished to 0%; between days 600 to 1140, it increased to 4.46%; and from days 1440 to 2220 the incidence was kept beneath 1%. The average of dairy milk production for each cow per day started with 24 L, increasing in direct proportion to the decrease in the presence of new cases of brucellosis: in the subsequent years, the production increased successively to 25, 27, 28, 29, and 30 L. The daily average per year of milk production in the herd was also quantified: at the beginning of the study it was 7220 L and in subsequent years was 7470, 7710, 8340, 8790, 8970, and 9150 L, respectively. We conclude that a direct

  5. Representative seroprevalences of human and livestock brucellosis in two Mongolian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolzaya, Baljinnyam; Selenge, Tsend; Narangarav, Tsegeen; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Erdenechimeg, Dashzevge; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2014-09-01

    Mongolia implemented a brucellosis livestock mass vaccination campaign from 2000 to 2009. However, the number of human cases did not decline since 2004 and the current epidemiological situation in Mongolia was uncertain. The objective of this study was to estimate the representative seroprevalences of humans and livestock in two provinces in view of their comparison with officially reported data. A representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, sheep, goats, cattle, yaks, horses, camels and dogs was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 8054 livestock and dog sera and 574 human sera were collected in Sukhbaatar and Zavkhan provinces. Human and animal sera were tested with the Rose Bengal and ELISA tests. The overall apparent seroprevalence of brucellosis was 27.3% in humans (95% CI 23.7-31.2%), 6.2% (95% CI 5.5-7.1%) in sheep, 5.2% (95% CI 4.4-5.9%) in goats, 16.0% (95% CI 13.7-18.7%) in cattle, 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-7.6%) in camels, 8.3 (95% CI 6.0-11.6%) in horses and 36.4% (95% CI 26.3-48.0%) in dogs. More women than men were seropositive (OR = 1.7; P brucellosis, inferred from the seroprevalence using a catalytic model, was by a factor of 4.6 (1307/280) in Sukhbaatar and by a factor of 59 (1188/20) in Zavkhan. This represents a 15-fold underreporting of human brucellosis in Mongolia. The lack of access to brucellosis diagnostic testing at the village level hinders rural people from receiving appropriate treatment. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of human and livestock brucellosis in Mongolia. Stringent monitoring and quality control of operational management of a nationwide mass vaccination of small and large ruminants is warranted to assure its effectiveness. More research is needed to understand the complex animal-human interface of brucellosis transmission at different scales from farm to provincial level.

  6. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Edwards, William H.; Brennan, Angela; Ebinger, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km2; range = [95–10237]). The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  7. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Cross

    Full Text Available The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km(2; range = [95-10237]. The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  8. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Keilbach Baer, N.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vacci

  10. Applications of urinary proteomics in renal disease research using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of renal disease are essential tools in research on kidney disease and have provided valuable insights into pathogenesis. Use of animal models minimises inter-individual differences, allows specific pathological changes to be examined, and facilitates collection of tissue samples. Thus, mechanistic research and identification of biomarkers are possible. Various animal models manifesting specific pathological lesions can be used to investigate acute or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Urine, a terminal metabolic product, is produced via glomerular filtration, reabsorption, and excretion in the tubular and collecting ducts, reflecting the functions of glomeruli or tubular tissue stimulated in various ways or subject to disease. Almost 70 % of urinary proteins originate from the kidney (the other 30 % come from plasma), and urinary sampling is important to noninvasively detect renal disease. Proteomics is powerful when used to screen urine components. Increasingly, urine proteomics is used to explore the pathogenesis of kidney disease in animals and to identify novel biomarkers of renal disease. In this section, we will introduce the field of urinary proteomics as applied in different models of animal renal disease and the valuable role played by proteomics in noninvasive diagnosis and rational treatment of human renal disease.

  11. Biowarfare, bioterrorism, and animal diseases as bioweapons: Chapter 6 in Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    Linkages between disease in humans and the maladies of animals continue to be a focus for those concerned with disease effects on human health. References to animal diseases, particularly zoonoses such as rabies and glanders, are found in the writings of Greek (Hippocrates, Democritus, Aristotle, Galen, Dioscorides), Byzantine (Oribasius, Actius of Amida), and Roman (Pliny the Elder, Celsus) physicians and naturalists.3 Also, early advances in disease knowledge were closely associated with the study of contagions in animals to the extent that “The most complete ancient accounts of the concepts of contagion and contamination are found in treatises on veterinary medicine.”4,5Opportunities for disease transfer between animals and humans have increased during modern times, partly because of advances in animal husbandry and intensive agriculture that result in increased contacts among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Infectious pathogens exploit these contacts, and must be considered in this era of increased world tensions and international terrorism (Fig. 6.1).Disease emergence and resurgence are generally associated with natural processes and unanticipated outcomes related to human behavior and actions. That perspective has been broadened by recent acts of bioterrorism. A new category of deliberately emerging diseases contains emerging microbes that are developed by humans, usually for nefarious use.211 Included are naturally occurring microbial agents and those altered by bioengineering.This chapter highlights the wildlife component of the pathogen-host-environment triad to focus attention on the potential for bioterrorists to use wildlife as a means for infectious disease attacks against society. The value of this focus is that the underlying causes of disease emergence and the optimal prevention or control response frequently differ for disease emergence, resurgence, and deliberately emerging diseases.211 Differences also exist relative to the potential

  12. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N

    2009-08-01

    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances.

  13. Cross-sectional study of brucellosis in Jordan: Prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in small ruminants and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, I I; Abo-Shehada, M; Omar, M; Guitian, J

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is considered endemic in many Middle Eastern countries including Jordan. To determine the frequency, risk factors and spatial distribution of ruminant brucellosis in Jordan, a nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted. Small ruminant flocks (n=333) and cattle herds (n=204) were randomly selected, and their disease status was ascertained by testing individual serum samples using the Rose Bengal Test and a competitive ELISA (sheep and goats) and milk samples using an indirect ELISA (cattle). Information on putative risk factors was collected using standardized questionnaires. A logistic model with a binomial outcome was built to identify risk factors for being seropositive. The estimated true seroprevalence values were 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) (cattle-only herds), 22.2% (95% CI: 16.5-28.8) (sheep flocks), 45.4% (95% CI: 30.3-61.6) (goat herds), 70.4% (95% CI: 55.5-84.9) (mixed sheep-goat flocks), 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4, 40.4) (all small ruminant flocks) and 38.5% (95% CI: 24.3-51.8) (mixed herds of cattle and small ruminants). Only 1.5% of small ruminant flocks were vaccinated. The seroprevalence was higher in northern areas, where livestock density is also higher. The logistic model fitted the data well and had a very high predictive ability. In the small ruminant model, five variables were significantly associated with a higher odds of seropositivity: lending/borrowing rams (OR=8.9, 95% CI: 3.0-26.1), feeding aborted material to dogs (OR=8.0, 95% CI: 3.5-18.1) the presence of goats (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.1-15.4), introducing new animals to the flock (OR=5.8, 95% CI: 2.5-13.6), and a large flock size (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6). Conversely, separating newly introduced animals (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.47), separating animals that had aborted (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.08-0.46) and using disinfectants to clean pens (OR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.83) were significantly associated with a lower odds of being seropositive. The main risk factor for cattle herds being

  14. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities.

  15. Two cases of brucellosis epididymo-orchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Dede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epididymoorchitis caused by Brucella species is a rare infection. In this report two cases of epididymoorchitis due to brucellosis are presented with their clinical and laboratory findings. The patients complained of fever, and painful testicles with swelling, the duration of which varied between 7 to 10 days. They had unilateral epididymoorchitis. Brucellosis was diagnosed serologically in all patients, whereas Brucella spp. was isolated from the blood culture of one patient. One patient was given rifampicin and doxycycline, and the other streptomycin, doxycycline and rifampicin. In all cases, complete resolution was achieved with medical treatment and relapse did not occur. Brucellosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of epididymoorchitis in endemic areas.

  16. Outbreaks of brucellosis related to the consumption of unpasteurized camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcell, Humberto G; Garcia, Elias G; Pueyo, Pedro V; Martín, Isis R; Arias, Ariadna V; Alfonso Serrano, Ramon N

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonosis reported in Qatar, mainly related to exposure to infected camels. An outbreak of human brucellosis in 14 members of a family living in a rural area in Qatar is reported herein. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory results from all 14 patients with Brucella and 12 non-confirmed family members were collected from files. All patients reported fever for a maximum of 14 days, associated with arthralgia (6 patients), weakness (4 patients), headache (4 patients), diarrhea (2 patients) and abdominal pain (2 patients). The median age of the patients was 10 years and that of non-cases was 16 years, with a predominance of males (92.9%). Elevated levels of transaminases were observed in patients. A mixed infection caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis was identified by blood culture and serology. The source of the infection was the milk of an infected camel. The outbreak of brucellosis melitensis/abortus related to the consumption of camel milk constitutes a gap in the prevention and control of the potential sources of brucellosis in animal farms. Proper control and education of the population are required.

  17. 布鲁氏菌病的健康干预%Brucellosis health intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟惠云; 王迪; 张国芳; 孙洪杰

    2014-01-01

    吉林省前郭县是布鲁氏菌病(以下简称布病)的老疫区,多年来虽然狠抓布病的防治工作并取得了显著成果,但随着近年来养殖规模的增大,粗放管理模式加上自我防范意识的缺乏,使一度控制的布病出现了多发的趋势,不但威胁到养殖人员的健康,还严重制约了当地畜牧业的发展,如何遏制布病的传播显得尤为重要和紧迫。%Jilin Province Qianguo County is an old epidemic area of brucellosis(hereinafter referred to as the Bubing).Over the years,although we have paid close attention to the prevention and control of brucellosis and achieve remarkable results,but with the breeding scale increases in recent years,extensive management pattern and the lack of awareness of self-protection,the control of brucellosis appeared multiple development trend.It not only threatens the farm staff health,but also seriously hampers local animal husbandry development.How to curb the spread of brucellosis is particularly important and urgent.

  18. ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

  19. Outbreak of Human Brucellosis from Consumption of Raw Goats' Milk in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kar Nim; Chow, Ting Soo; Wong, Peng Shyan; Hamzah, Siti Hawa; Ahmad, Norazah; Ch'ng, Chin Chin

    2015-09-01

    We report the largest outbreak of brucellosis in Penang, Malaysia. Brucellosis is not endemic in this region. The index case was a 45-year-old goat farm owner presented with 3 weeks of fever, headache, severe lethargy, poor appetite, and excessive sweating. He claimed to have consumed unpasteurized goat's milk that he had also sold to the public. Tests were negative for tropical diseases (i.e., dengue fever, malaria, leptospirosis and scrub typhus) and blood culture showed no growth. Based on epidemiological clues, Brucella serology was ordered and returned positive. Over a period of 1 year, 79 patients who had consumed milk bought from the same farm were diagnosed with brucellosis. Two of these patients were workers on the farm. Four laboratory staff had also contracted the disease presumably through handling of the blood samples. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 53 days with a maximum duration of 210 days. A combination treatment of rifampin and doxycycline for 6 weeks was the first line of treatment in 90.5% of patients. One-third of the patients had sequelae after recovering and 21% had a relapse. We highlight the importance of Brucellosis as a differential diagnosis when a patient has unexplained chronic fever.

  20. Epidemiology of Brucellosis in High Risk Group & PUO Patients of Western – Rajasthan

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    Prabhu Prakash, Suman Bhansali, Ekta Gupta, Dinesh Kothari, Arvind Mathur, Sneha Ambuwani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. Brucellosis in India is yet a very common but often neglected disease. Methods: A retro prospective study was done in western Rajasthan on PUO patients those who attended Hospital attached of Dr. SNMC Jodhpur. Total 570 samples were tested for Brucella antibodies titration. In study group samples of PUO Patients (420, Milkmen & Veterinarians (70, Meat Handlers (30 & Healthy Control (50 were taken for finding their Antibrucella antibody titers Typhoid by Widal Test, Malaria by MP Strip Test were included in exclusion criteria for PUO patients All samples were tested by Stained Febrile Antigen. Results: Positivity for Antibrucella Antibody was 25.72%, 26.66%, 37.14%& 6.00% in PUO Patients, Meat Handlers & Veterinarians, Milkman & Healthy Control respectively. Conclusion & Recommendations: As climatic conditions of Western Rajasthan mimics with Middle East where Brucellosis is prevalent, in clinical practice Brucellosis should be kept in differential diagnosis & management of PUO& all preventive measure should be used for prevention of this Zoonotic disease.. A safe and effective vaccine in human is not yet available. Prevention is dependent upon increasing public awareness through health education programmes and safe livestock practices. Active co-operation between health and veterinary services should be promoted.

  1. Human brucellosis mimicking axial spondyloarthritis: a challenge for rheumatologists when applying the 2009 ASAS criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cong; Shen, Gui-Fen; Li, Shou-Xin; Dong, Ling-Li; Yu, Yi-Kai; Tu, Wei; Zhu, Ying-Zi; Hu, Shao-Xian

    2016-06-01

    Although the development of the 2009 SpA classification criteria by Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) represents an important step towards a better definition of the early disease stage particularly in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), the specificity of the criteria has been criticized these days. As the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide, human brucellosis can mimic a large number of diseases, including SpA. This study was performed to determine the frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with brucellosis and the chance of misdiagnosing them as having axSpA in central China. The results showed that clinical manifestations of axSpA could be observed in brucellosis. Over half of patients had back pain, and one fifth of the patients with back pain were less than 45 years old at onset and had the symptom for more than 3 months. Two young males were falsely classified as suffering from axSpA according to the ASAS criteria, and one with MRI proved sacroiliitis was once given Etanercept for treatment. Therefore, differential diagnosis including human brucellosis should always be kept in mind when applying the ASAS criteria, even in traditionally non-endemic areas.

  2. Effects of management and climate on elk brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Edwards, W.H.; Scurlock, B.M.; Maichak, E.J.; Rogerson, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Every winter, government agencies feed ???6000 metric tons (6 ?? 106 kg) of hay to elk in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) to limit transmission of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis, from elk to cattle. Supplemental feeding, however, is likely to increase the transmission of brucellosis in elk, and may be affected by climatic factors, such as snowpack. We assessed these possibilities using snowpack and feeding data from 1952 to 2006 and disease testing data from 1993 to 2006. Brucellosis seroprevalence was strongly correlated with the timing of the feeding season. Longer feeding seasons were associated with higher seroprevalence, but elk population size and density had only minor effects. In other words, the duration of host aggregation and whether it coincided with peak transmission periods was more important than just the host population size. Accurate modeling of disease transmission depends upon incorporating information on how host contact rates fluctuate over time relative to peak transmission periods. We also found that supplemental feeding seasons lasted longer during years with deeper snowpack. Therefore, milder winters and/or management strategies that reduce the length of the feeding season may reduce the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the elk populations of the southern GYE. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. MicroRNAs are potential therapeutic targets in fibrosing kidney disease: lessons from animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Duffield, Jeremy S; Grafals, Monica; Portilla, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease of the kidneys has reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations. New therapies are urgently sought. Using a combination of animal models of kidney disease and human biopsy samples, a pattern of dysregulated microRNA expression has emerged which is common to chronic diseases. A number of these dysregulated microRNA have recently been shown to have functional consequences for the disease process and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets. We highlight microRNA-...

  4. Defective Membrane Remodeling in Neuromuscular Diseases: Insights from Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Cowling, Belinda S; Anne Toussaint; Jean Muller; Jocelyn Laporte

    2012-01-01

    Proteins involved in membrane remodeling play an essential role in a plethora of cell functions including endocytosis and intracellular transport. Defects in several of them lead to human diseases. Myotubularins, amphiphysins, and dynamins are all proteins implicated in membrane trafficking and/or remodeling. Mutations in myotubularin, amphiphysin 2 (BIN1), and dynamin 2 lead to different forms of centronuclear myopathy, while mutations in myotubularin-related proteins cause Charcot-Marie-Too...

  5. Influence of Species Differences on the Neuropathology of Transgenic Huntington's Disease Animal Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Li; Shihua Li

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have revealed much about the pathogenesis of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases and proved to be a useful tool for uncovering therapeutic targets.Huntington's disease is a well-characterized neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat,which results in expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the N-terminal region of huntingtin (HTT).Similar CAG/glutamine expansions are also found to cause eight other neurodegenerative diseases that affect distinct brain regions in an agedependent manner.Identification of this CAG/glutamine expansion has led to the generation of a variety of transgenic animal models.Of these different animal models,transgenic mice have been investigated extensively,and they show similar neuropathology and phenotypes as seen in their respective diseases.The common pathological hallmark of age-dependent neurodegeneration is the formation of aggregates or inclusions consisting of misfolded proteins in the affected brain regions; however,overt or striking neurodegeneration and apoptosis have not been reported in most transgenic mouse models for age-dependent diseases,including HD.By comparing the neuropathology of transgenic HD mouse,pig,and monkey models,we found that mutant HTT is more toxic to larger animals than mice,and larger animals also show neuropathology that has not been uncovered by transgenic mouse models.This review will discuss the importancc of transgenic large animal models for analyzing the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and developing effective treatments.

  6. A serological survey for brucellosis in reindeer in Finnmark county, northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Åsbakk

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available During September-December, 1990 to 1994, serum samples from a total of 5792 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandm tarandm from Finnmark county, northern Norway, were screened for brucellosis on an indirect ELISA. There were no serologically positive animals. Twenty six of the animals had levels of antibodies detectable on the ELISA and were classed as suspicious, but the ELISA optical density readings were low compared to the readings for reindeer that were both culture positive and seropositive for Brucella suis biovar 4. When assayed on the standard tube agglutination test (STAT, all the 26 animals were seronegative. When absorbed with cells of Yersinia enterocolitica 0-9, the antibody detectable on the ELISA could be removed to a great extent from most of the sera, indicating previous or ongoing exposure to bacteria serologically cross-reacting with Brucella in these animals. We concluded that brucellosis was not present among reindeer in Finnmark during this study. This is supported by the absence of any reports of brucellosis among reindeer in Norway.

  7. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R

    2015-09-02

    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiological differences, such as body size and longevity. In contrast, large animal models, including sheep, provide an alternative to mice for biomedical research due to their greater physiological parallels with humans. Completion of the full genome sequences of many species, and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, means it is now feasible to screen large populations of domesticated animals for genetic variants that resemble human genetic diseases, and generate models that more accurately model rare human pathologies. In this review, we discuss the notion of using sheep as large animal models, and their advantages in modelling human genetic disease. We exemplify several existing naturally occurring ovine variants in genes that are orthologous to human disease genes, such as the Cln6 sheep model for Batten disease. These, and other sheep models, have contributed significantly to our understanding of the relevant human disease process, in addition to providing opportunities to trial new therapies in animals with similar body and organ size to humans. Therefore sheep are a significant species with respect to the modelling of rare genetic human disease, which we summarize in this review.

  8. Simple solutions to false results with plate/slide agglutination tests in diagnosis of infectious diseases of man and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Hari Mohan; Chothe, Shubhada; Kaur, Paviter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new Superagglutination test for serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. It differs from conventional plate/slide agglutination tests (PAT/SAT) by three additional steps: prior staining of serum antibody by adding a dye and addition of diluted biotinylated antiglobulin and avidin in sequence after mixing the antigen with the test serum. The new steps circumvent the problems of false positive and false negative results of PAT/SAT. In serodiagnosis of brucellosis, Superagglutination test had higher positive predictive value and specificity than Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and higher negative predictive value and sensitivity than RBPT, STAT, ELISA and Complement Fixation Test (CFT).•Superagglutination is a simple, accurate and economic screening test for infections.•More specificity, sensitivity, positive & negative predictive value than RBPT, STAT.•More sensitivity, negative predictive value than ELISA and Complement Fixation Test.

  9. Simulation modeling to derive the value-of-information for risky animal disease-import decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, W Terry; Peters, Mark A

    2003-11-12

    Simulation modeling can be used in aiding decision-makers in deciding when to invest in additional research and when the risky animal disease-import decision should go forward. Simulation modeling to evaluate value-of-information (VOI) techniques provides a robust, objective and transparent framework for assisting decision-makers in making risky animal and animal product decisions. In this analysis, the hypothetical risk from poultry disease in chicken-meat imports was modeled. Economic criteria were used to quantify alternative confidence-increasing decisions regarding potential import testing and additional research requirements. In our hypothetical example, additional information about poultry disease in the exporting country (either by requiring additional export-flock surveillance that results in no sign of disease, or by conducting additional research into lack of disease transmittal through chicken-meat ingestion) captured >75% of the value-of-information attainable regarding the chicken-meat-import decision.

  10. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, LABORATORY AND IMAGING ASPECTS OF BRUCELLOSIS WITH AND WITHOUT NEUROLOGICAL INVOLVEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffarpour

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in our country. Neurobrucellosis occurs in 5 to 10% of cases, and can present at any stage of of the disease. This study was undertaken to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and paraclinical aspects of brucellosis with and without neurological manifestations. Data of 30 patients, 15 cases with nervous system involvement (neurobrucellosis and 15 cases without neurological complication (brucellosis were collected and analyzed. Constitutional manifestations of the disease were detected with nearly the same frequencies in both groups. Exceptions were headache which was more common in patients with neurobrucellosis (73% vs. 33% and arthralgia which was detected more frequently in cases with brucellosis than neurobrucellosis (53% vs. 13%. Signs and symptoms of meningeal irritation and disturbances of consciousness were the most common manifestations in cases with neurobrullosis, which had been detected in 60% and 46.7% of cases, respectively. Less common neurological presentations, in decreasing order of frequency were ophthalmoplegia, papilledema and seizures, spastic weakness of limbs, hearing loss and spinal epidural abscess. In two patients with negative serum and CSF agglutinin test, diagnosis of neurobrucellosis was made by blood and CSF cultures. In patients with neurobrucellosis, MRI of brain and spinal cord showed abnormalities in 5/15(33.3% of cases, including decreased lateral ventricular volume due to brain swelling (2/15, hydrocephalus with periventricular edema and meningeal enhancement in posterior fossa (1/15, multiple hypodense periventricular lesions, ischemic or demyelinating in nature (1/15 and spinal epidural abscess (1/15. Brucellosis should be kept in mind in patients with neurological presentations.

  11. [Animal models for bone and joint disease. CIA, CAIA model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Jun; Tanaka, Sakae

    2011-02-01

    The collagen-induced arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis, CIA) is an autoimmune arthritis that resembles rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in many ways, therefore it has been used most commonly as a model of RA. CIA is induced by immunization with an emulsion of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and type II collagen (C II ) . Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) is induced by the administration of a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies recognizing conserved epitopes located within the CB11 fragment. CAIA offers several advantages over CIA, including rapid disease onset, high uptake rate, and the capacity to use genetically modified mice, such as transgenics and knockouts.

  12. Dry eye disease and uveitis: A closer look at immune mechanisms in animal models of two ocular autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Tanima; Diedrichs-Möhring, Maria; Wildner, Gerhild

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases is a prerequisite for specific and effective therapeutical intervention. This review focuses on animal models of two common ocular inflammatory diseases, dry eye disease (DED), affecting the ocular surface, and uveitis with inflammation of the inner eye. In both diseases autoimmunity plays an important role, in idiopathic uveitis immune reactivity to intraocular autoantigens is pivotal, while in dry eye disease autoimmunity seems to play a role in one subtype of disease, Sjögren' syndrome (SjS). Comparing the immune mechanisms underlying both eye diseases reveals similarities, and significant differences. Studies have shown genetic predispositions, T and B cell involvement, cytokine and chemokine signatures and signaling pathways as well as environmental influences in both DED and uveitis. Uveitis and DED are heterogeneous diseases and there is no single animal model, which adequately represents both diseases. However, there is evidence to suggest that certain T cell-targeting therapies can be used to treat both, dry eye disease and uveitis. Animal models are essential to autoimmunity research, from the basic understanding of immune mechanisms to the pre-clinical testing of potential new therapies.

  13. A review on camel brucellosis: a zoonosis sustained by ignorance and indifference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lisa D; Al-Dahouk, Sascha; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-07-01

    In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals. This short review aims at providing an overview on diagnostic investigations, as well as the public health and economic impact of brucellosis in old world camels.

  14. Early detection of emerging zoonotic diseases with animal morbidity and mortality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Ssebide, Benard J; Marra, Peter P

    2015-03-01

    Diseases transmitted between animals and people have made up more than 50% of emerging infectious diseases in humans over the last 60 years and have continued to arise in recent months. Yet, public health and animal disease surveillance programs continue to operate independently. Here, we assessed whether recent emerging zoonotic pathogens (n = 143) are known to cause morbidity or mortality in their animal host and if so, whether they were first detected with an animal morbidity/mortality event. We show that although sick or dead animals are often associated with these pathogens (52%), only 9% were first detected from an animal morbidity or mortality event prior to or concurrent with signs of illness in humans. We propose that an animal morbidity and mortality reporting program will improve detection and should be an essential component of early warning systems for zoonotic diseases. With the use of widespread low-cost technology, such a program could engage both the public and professionals and be easily tested and further incorporated as part of surveillance efforts by public health officials.

  15. Interaction of the role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, James E

    2016-03-01

    Most significant change in the evolution of the influenza virus is the rapid growth of the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on a global scale. These industrial agricultural operations have the potential of housing thousands of animals in a relatively small area. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) event can be considered as a shift in the pathogen-host-environment interplay characteristics described by Engering et al. (2013). These changes in the host-environment and the disease ecology are key to creating novel transmission patterns and selection of novel pathogens with a modification of genetic traits. With the development of CAFOs throughout the world, the need for training of animal caretakers to observe, identify, treat, vaccinate and cull if necessary is important to safeguard public health. The best defense against another pandemic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) is the constant monitoring of the livestock and handlers of CAFOs and the live animal markets. These are the most likely epicenter of the next pandemic.

  16. Inappropriate Dietary and Occupational Patterns: Major Risk Factors Associated With Brucellosis in the Area Covered by Karaj Health Center No. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is one of the most common diseases among humans and livestock. Using contaminated and unpasteurized dairy products, having contact with infected livestock and, in general, inappropriate dietary patterns, as well as lack of hygiene, can be noted as the most common modes of transmission for such a disease. Objectives Since the establishment of Alborz province in Iran and, accordingly, Alborz university of medical sciences, Karaj, Iran, there has been no study on the epidemiological situation of the disease. Therefore, the present study examines the epidemiology of Brucellosis at Karaj Health center No. 2, Karaj, Iran, during 2011 - 2012. Patients and Methods This research was a cross-sectional descriptive study, on patients with Brucellosis, during 2011 - 2012, in the area covered by Karaj health center No. 2, Karaj, Iran. The data about all suspected cases, collected from polyclinic, laboratories and health centers, and confirmed by Wright, combs Wright and 2ME tests were reviewed. After recording the demographic data and laboratory results, they were entered into STATA 11 software and analyzed. Results The number of patients reported in this study was 67. The incidence of the disease during 2011 - 2012 was, respectively, 3.75 and 4.6 per hundred thousand and the average incidence of the disease was 4.2 per hundred thousand. The highest rate of infection, in terms of occupation, was found among ranchers (40.29%. In 100% of the cases, there was a history of consumption of cottage cheese, fresh cow milk or other unpasteurized dairy products. Considering the incidence season, most cases of the disease (38.80% had occurred in the spring. In terms of gender, 56.71% were male and 43.28% of patients were female. As well, in terms of age, more 50% of the patients were in the age groups of 31 - 40 and 41 - 50 years old. Conclusions Given the occurrence of more cases of the disease among individuals with risk factors, such as

  17. Sex differences in acupuncture effectiveness in animal models of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many animal experimental studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sex differences are a major issue in all diseases including PD. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews investigating sex differences on the effectiv

  18. Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone Cholestasis and Pericardial Effusion Due to Brucellosis Infection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Cumhur Dülger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH is an extremely rare complication of infectious diseases. A rare case of brucellosis complicated by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH cholestasis and pericardial involvement is reported. A 27-year-old woman was admitted for fever, abdominal pain, and scleral icterus. Her medical history revealed no recent use of diuretic agents. In addition to cholestasis and elevated liver enzymes, euvolemic hyponatremia, hypouricemia, low plasma osmolality, and high urinary osmolality were also detected. Surrenal and thyroid tests were also within normal range. Echocardiography revealed minimal pericardial effusion with normal cardiac functions. The final diagnosis was SIADH due to Brucellosis. Hyponatremia, cholestasis, and pericardial disease were resolved with effective antibrucellar treatment with streptomycine and doxycycline. After completing treatment of brucellosis, there was not any more evidence of cholestasis and pericardial fluid.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of inflammatoryand autoimmune diseases in experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew W Klinker; Cheng-Hong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also known asmesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are currently beingstudied as a cell-based treatment for inflammatorydisorders. Experimental animal models of humanimmune-mediated diseases have been instrumental inestablishing their immunosuppressive properties. Inthis review, we summarize recent studies examiningthe effectiveness of MSCs as immunotherapy in severalwidely-studied animal models, including type 1 diabetes,experimental autoimmune arthritis, experimentalautoimmune encephalomyelitis, inflammatory boweldisease, graft-vs -host disease, and systemic lupuserythematosus. In addition, we discuss mechanismsidentified by which MSCs mediate immune suppressionin specific disease models, and potential sources offunctional variability of MSCs between studies.

  20. Osteoarticular complications of brucellosis: a study of 169 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, A R; Muhtaseb, S A; Almudallal, D S; Khodeir, S M; Marafie, A A

    1987-01-01

    Of 452 patients with brucellosis, 169 (111 male and 58 female) had osteoarticular complications. Brucella melitensis was isolated from the blood in 7.7% of the cases. Fever, chills, arthralgia, backache, high levels of C-reactive protein, positive rheumatoid factor, and splenomegaly were more frequent in osteoarticular brucellosis than in nonosteoarticular disease. Arthritis occurred in the hip joint in 90 cases (53%), knees in 61 (36%), sacroiliacs in 33 (20%), ankles in 25 (15%), elbows in nine (5.3%), shoulders in eight (5%), wrists in six (3.5%), and sternoclavicular arthritis occurred in three cases (1.8%). Spondylitis occurred in 10 cases (6%), osteomyelitis in four (2.4%), and tendinitis or bursitis in two (1.2%). Treatment with tetracycline or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) alone (four to eight weeks) or in combination with streptomycin (two to four weeks) resulted in a relapse rate of 16.6%. No relapses occurred in seven patients treated with repeated four- to six-weeks courses of rifampin plus tetracycline or TMP-SMZ plus streptomycin.

  1. Brucellosis presenting as piriformis myositis: a case report

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    Romanos Odysseas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Myositis is a rare bacterial muscle infection. Involvement of the piriformis muscle has been rarely reported in the literature. In this report we describe a case of piriformis myositis due to Brucella melitensis, which to the best of our knowledge is the first such case presented in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian man who presented to our institution with fever and right hip pain. Brucellosis was suspected, but the clinical suspicion was for spondylodiscitis. A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan allowed prompt diagnosis of inflammatory involvement of the right piriformis muscle. Blood culture results were positive for B. melitensis. Our patient was treated with antibiotics, and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans showed resolution of the inflammation. Conclusion Brucellosis can present as piriformis myositis. The clinical diagnosis of piriformis myositis is difficult, as it can mimic other common entities such as referred back pain from spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for establishing the diagnosis in the early stages of the disease, as late diagnosis can lead to abscess formation and the need for drainage.

  2. Small ruminant brucellosis and community perception in Jijiga District, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Mihreteab; Mohammed, Hassen; Tefera, Mulugeta; Tolosa, Tadele

    2011-04-01

    A cross-sectional study of brucellosis in small ruminants was carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Jijiga District, Somali Regional State of Ethiopia. Seven hundred thirty sera samples (421 of sheep and 309 of goats) were randomly collected from purposively selected villages of the study area. Structured questionnaire format was developed, pre-tested and administered to assess the perception of the community pertaining to brucellosis in sheep and goats. Sera samples were screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), and all samples tested positive by the RBPT were subjected to Complement Fixation Test (CFT) for confirmation. Of 12 serum samples that were positive by RBPT, 11 were positive by CFT. Statistically significant differences were not observed between the species as well as the sex groups (P > 0.05); however, the variation between the age groups was statistically significant (P brucellosis in their livestock and exposes the community to a public health hazard. In general, the sero-prevalence in the study area was not so high; nevertheless, appropriate brucellosis control and prevention methods should be implemented to circumvent future potential for economic losses and the public health hazard of the disease.

  3. Exceptionally high titres in atypical presentation of occult epididymo-orchitis due to brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Shashank; Metgud, S C; Gokale, Shilpa K

    2012-03-01

    A male patient of 32 years was referred for surgical drainage and orchidectomy of the right testis following a cycling injury. A Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test was requested by the surgery department to rule out secondary syphilis. Although serum samples gave a negative result in the VDRL test, qualitative screening was performed for Brucella antibodies, as per hospital policy, since brucellosis is endemic in this region. Following a positive reaction, a quantitative standard tube agglutination test was carried out yielding titres that were exceptionally high (STAT = 40 960 IU ml(-1); 2-ME = 1 : 5120). This finding correlated with the patient's history which included a number of predisposing factors for contracting brucellosis including exposure to cattle, consumption of raw milk and assisting in the parturition of cattle. Consequently, surgery was postponed and treatment was changed from injections of ceftriaxone to the WHO regimen for the treatment of brucellosis: 1 g streptomycin once daily, administered intra-muscularly, plus 100 mg doxycycline twice daily, taken orally. Following 3 days of this treatment, the testicular swelling reduced considerably and orchidectomy was not required. Indeed, after a week, swelling was completely resolved and the patient was discharged. To our knowledge, this is the first case of such high titres in a patient as a result of epididymo-orchitis without the typical clinical presentation of fever and joint pain that is normally associated with brucellosis.

  4. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-07-12

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy.

  5. Evaluation of Regulatory T Cells in Patients with Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Ali; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; khosravi, Khadije; Zarinfar, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis is one of the most common chronic diseases, with widespread distribution. In spite of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) modulated mainly via activated T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells, brucellosis can advance to chronic disease in about 10-30% of cases. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are involved the immune response to brucellosis; however, their role, particularly in the change from the acute to the chronic phase, have not yet been elucidated. The main hypothesis of this study was that Treg cells play critical roles in the progression of brucellosis from the acute to the chronic phase. Methods: Forty-eight unrelated subjects participated in this case-control study. The percentages of CD4+, CD25+, FoxP3+, and CD25/FoxP3+ T cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of acute (AB) and chronic brucellosis (CB) patients and healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. The mean florescence intensities (MFIs) of CD4+, CD25+, and FoxP3+ T cells were also measured. Results: We found a significantly lower percentage of CD25/FoxP3+ Treg cells in CB than in the AB and control groups (p < 0.05). Also, CD4 and CD25 MFIs were significantly less in CB than in AB and controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions: We propose that the reduced number of CD25/FoxP3+ Treg cells in the CB group leads to T cell anergy and this contributes to the development of chronic infection. PMID:28367469

  6. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

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    Mukhtar Salihu Anka

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05; originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19 and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83 were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24 and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90 when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  7. The Effect of Brucellosis on Women’s Health and Reproduction

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    Mertihan Kurdoglu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its potential harmful effects on the general health and reproductive life of the women, in the light of available literature, it was aimed to review the effect of human brucellosis on women’s health and reproduction. Data from 75 reports belonging to the years 1917 through 2015, obtained via a search on various internet sources by the words “Brucella”, “brucellosis,” “women’s health,” “human pregnancy,” “human reproduction,” “abortion,” “preterm birth,” “intrauterine fetal demise,” and “intrauterine fetal death” were used to characterize basic microbiological features together with the risk factors, clinical presentations and complications of the human brucellosis related to various aspects of reproductive well-being. A high rate of spontaneous abortion was a more consistent finding rather than high rates of preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death in pregnant women with brucellosis. The occurrence of abortion was not associated with the magnitude of serum agglutination titre or the clinical type of disease. The novel replication profiles of Brucella in human trophoblasts give insights into the pathogenesis of infectious abortion. Brucellosis is a risk factor for women’s general health and reproduction as well as for many obstetric complications during pregnancy, of which spontaneous abortion is the mostly known. In order to prevent the disease and these complications, education of the women, especially the poor ones of childbearing age with low educational level is strongly advised. When the infected women present for medical care, an appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be started promptly.

  8. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program...(2)(C), the National Park Service announces the availability of the Bison Brucellosis...

  9. Ruminant brucellosis in the Kafr El Sheikh Governorate of the Nile Delta, Egypt: prevalence of a neglected zoonosis.

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    Yamen M Hegazy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a neglected tropical zoonosis allegedly reemerging in Middle Eastern countries. Infected ruminants are the primary source of human infection; consequently, estimates of the frequency of ruminant brucellosis are useful elements for building effective control strategies. Unfortunately, these estimates are lacking in most Middle East countries including Egypt. Our objectives are to estimate the frequency of ruminant brucellosis and to describe its spatial distribution in Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Nile Delta, Egypt. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 791 sheep, 383 goats, 188 cattle milk tanks and 173 buffalo milk tanks were randomly selected in 40 villages and tested for the presence of antibodies against Brucella spp. The seroprevalence among different species was estimated and visualized using choropleth maps. A spatial scanning method was used to identify areas with significantly higher proportions of seropositive flocks and milk tanks. We estimated that 12.2% of sheep and 11.3% of goats in the study area were seropositive against Brucella spp. and that 12.2% and 12% of cattle and buffalo milk tanks had antibodies against Brucella spp. The southern part of the governorate had the highest seroprevalence with significant spatial clustering of seropositive flocks in the proximity of its capital and around the main animal markets. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed that brucellosis is endemic at high levels in all ruminant species in the study area and questions the efficacy of the control measures in place. The high intensity of infection transmission among ruminants combined with high livestock and human density and widespread marketing of unpasteurized milk and dairy products may explain why Egypt has one of the highest rates of human brucellosis worldwide. An effective integrated human-animal brucellosis control strategy is urgently needed. If resources are not

  10. Porcine models of digestive disease: the future of large animal translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in non-rodent translational models for the study of human disease. The pig, in particular, serves as a useful animal model for the study of pathophysiological conditions relevant to the human intestine. This review assesses currently used porcine models of gastrointestinal physiology and disease and provides a rationale for the use of these models for future translational studies. The pig has proven its utility for the study of fundamental disease conditions such ...

  11. Update on treatment options for spinal brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu-Kilic, A; Karakas, A; Erdem, H; Turker, T; Inal, A S; Ak, O; Turan, H; Kazak, E; Inan, A; Duygu, F; Demiraslan, H; Kader, C; Sener, A; Dayan, S; Deveci, O; Tekin, R; Saltoglu, N; Aydın, M; Horasan, E S; Gul, H C; Ceylan, B; Kadanalı, A; Karabay, O; Karagoz, G; Kayabas, U; Turhan, V; Engin, D; Gulsun, S; Elaldı, N; Alabay, S

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of antibiotic regimens and optimal duration of therapy in complicated and uncomplicated forms of spinal brucellosis. This is a multicentre, retrospective and comparative study involving a total of 293 patients with spinal brucellosis from 19 health institutions. Comparison of complicated and uncomplicated spinal brucellosis was statistically analysed. Complicated spinal brucellosis was diagnosed in 78 (26.6%) of our patients. Clinical presentation was found to be significantly more acute, with fever and weight loss, in patients in the complicated group. They had significantly higher leukocyte and platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels, and lower haemoglobulin levels. The involvement of the thoracic spine was significantly more frequent in complicated cases. Spondylodiscitis was complicated, with paravertebral abscess in 38 (13.0%), prevertebral abscess in 13 (4.4%), epidural abscess in 30 (10.2%), psoas abscess in 10 (3.4%) and radiculitis in 8 (2.7%) patients. The five major combination regimens were: doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and gentamicin 5 mg/kg; doxycycline 200 mg/day and rifampicin 600 mg/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; and doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and ciprofloxacin 1 g/day. There were no significant therapeutic differences between these antibiotic groups; the results were similar regarding the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Patients were mostly treated with doxycycline and rifampicin with or without an aminoglycoside. In the former subgroup, complicated cases received antibiotics for a longer duration than uncomplicated cases. Early recognition of complicated cases is critical in preventing devastating complications. Antimicrobial treatment should be prolonged in complicated spinal brucellosis in particular.

  12. Animals models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of alcohol-induced liver disease: pathophysiology, translational relevance, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Stephanie; Xu, Mingjiang; Wang, Hua; Bertola, Adeline; Gao, Bin

    2014-05-15

    Over the last four decades, chronic ethanol feeding studies in rodents using either ad libitum feeding or intragastric infusion models have significantly enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Recently, we developed a chronic plus binge alcohol feeding model in mice that is similar to the drinking patterns of many alcoholic hepatitis patients: a history of chronic drinking and recent excessive alcohol consumption. Chronic+binge ethanol feeding synergistically induced steatosis, liver injury, and neutrophil infiltration in mice, which may be useful for the study of early alcoholic liver injury and inflammation. Using this chronic+binge model, researchers have begun to identify novel mechanisms that participate in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury, thereby revealing novel therapeutic targets. In this review article, we briefly discuss several mouse models of ALD with a focus on the chronic+binge ethanol feeding model.

  13. The animal models of dementia and Alzheimer's disease for pre-clinical testing and clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Akshay; Banik, Avijit; Thakur, Keshav; Masters, Colin L

    2012-11-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome with abnormal degree of memory loss and impaired ability to recall events from the past often characterized by Alzheimer's disease. The various strategies to treat dementia need validation of novel compounds in suitable animal models for testing their safety and efficacy. These may include novel anti-amnesic drugs derived from synthetic chemistry or those derived from traditional herbal sources. Multiple approaches have been adopted to create reliable animal models ranging from rodents to non-human primates, where the animals are exposed to a predetermined injury or causing genetic ablation across specific regions of brain suspected to affect learning functions. In this review various animal models for Alzheimer's disease and treatment strategies in development of anti dementia drugs are discussed and an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive report of the latest developments in the field.

  14. Diseases in pet guinea pigs: a retrospective study in 1000 animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Jeklova, E; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V

    2015-08-22

    Guinea pigs are commonly kept as pet animals; however, information about particular disease prevalence is lacking. The objective of this article was to present disease prevalence in 1000 pet guinea pigs from private owners divided into three age groups: under two years; between two and five years; and above five years. Medical records of guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) that were presented to the authors' clinic in the period from January 2008 to August 2013 were reviewed. The most commonly diagnosed disease in guinea pigs was dental disease (36.3 per cent), with higher prevalence in the middle age group (Pguinea pigs (Pguinea pigs from a total of 1000 animals were healthy. This is the first study to describe the disease prevalence in three age groups of pet guinea pigs.

  15. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted.

  16. Stem cell transplantation in neurological diseases: improving effectiveness in animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella eAdami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological diseases afflict a growing proportion of the human population. There are two reasons for this: first, the average age of the population (especially in the industrialised world is increasing, and second, the diagnostic tools to detect these pathologies are now more sophisticated and can be used on a higher percentage of the population. In many cases, neurological disease has a pharmacological treatment which, as in the case of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy, and Multiple Sclerosis can reduce the symptoms and slow down the course of the disease but cannot reverse its effects or heal the patient.In the last two decades the transplantation approach, by means of stem cells of different origin, has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. The choice of slightly different animal models and the differences in methods of stem cell preparation make it difficult to compare the results of transplantation experiments. Moreover, the translation of these results into clinical trials with human subjects is difficult and has so far met with little success.This review seeks to discuss the reasons for these difficulties by considering the differences between human and animal cells (including isolation, handling and transplantation and between the human disease model and the animal disease model.

  17. Unraveling the disease consequences and mechanisms of modular structure in animal social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Leu, Stephan T; Cross, Paul C; Hudson, Peter J; Bansal, Shweta

    2017-04-03

    Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in animal societies. From these empirical studies, we identified the features of interaction patterns associated with network modularity and developed a theoretical network model to investigate when and how subdivisions in social networks influence disease dynamics. Contrary to prior work, we found that disease risk is largely unaffected by modular structure, although social networks beyond a modular threshold experience smaller disease burden and longer disease duration. Our results illustrate that the lowering of disease burden in highly modular social networks is driven by two mechanisms of modular organization: network fragmentation and subgroup cohesion. Highly fragmented social networks with cohesive subgroups are able to structurally trap infections within a few subgroups and also cause a structural delay to the spread of disease outbreaks. Finally, we show that network models incorporating modular structure are necessary only when prior knowledge suggests that interactions within the population are highly subdivided. Otherwise, null networks based on basic knowledge about group size and local contact heterogeneity may be sufficient when data-limited estimates of epidemic consequences are necessary. Overall, our work does not support the hypothesis that modular structure universally mitigates the disease impact of group living.

  18. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Xue; Richard Rosen; Adrienne Jordan; Dan-Ning Hu

    2015-01-01

    Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and ...

  19. Domesticated animals and human infectious diseases of zoonotic origins: domestication time matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The rate of emergence for emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically over the last century, and research findings have implicated wildlife as an importance source of novel pathogens. However, the role played by domestic animals as amplifiers of pathogens emerging from the wild could also be significant, influencing the human infectious disease transmission cycle. The impact of domestic hosts on human disease emergence should therefore be ascertained. Here, using three independent datasets we showed positive relationships between the time since domestication of the major domesticated mammals and the total number of parasites or infectious diseases they shared with humans. We used network analysis, to better visualize the overall interactions between humans and domestic animals (and amongst animals) and estimate which hosts are potential sources of parasites/pathogens for humans (and for all other hosts) by investigating the network architecture. We used centrality, a measure of the connection amongst each host species (humans and domestic animals) in the network, through the sharing of parasites/pathogens, where a central host (i.e. high value of centrality) is the one that is infected by many parasites/pathogens that infect many other hosts in the network. We showed that domesticated hosts that were associated a long time ago with humans are also the central ones in the network and those that favor parasites/pathogens transmission not only to humans but also to all other domesticated animals. These results urge further investigation of the diversity and origin of the infectious diseases of domesticated animals in their domestication centres and the dispersal routes associated with human activities. Such work may help us to better understand how domesticated animals have bridged the epidemiological gap between humans and wildlife.

  20. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (I): A citizen-science based risk model for bovine brucellosis transmission from elk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Scurlock, Brandon; Logan, Jim; Robinson, Timothy; Cook, Walt; Boroff, Kari; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-09-15

    Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals. This information was used to parameterize a spatially-explicit risk model to estimate the number of elk expected to overlap with cattle during the brucellosis transmission risk period. Elk-cattle overlap was predicted in areas further from roads and forest boundaries in areas with wolf activity, with higher slopes, lower hunter densities, and where the cost-distance to feedgrounds was very low or very high. The model was used to estimate the expected number of years until a cattle reactor will be detected, under alternative management strategies. The model predicted cattle cases every 4.28 years in the highest risk herd unit, a higher prediction than the one case in 26 years we have observed. This difference likely indicates that ongoing management strategies are at least somewhat effective in preventing potential elk-cattle brucellosis transmission in these areas. Using this model, we can infer the expected effectiveness of various management strategies for reducing the risk of brucellosis spillover from elk to cattle.

  1. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  2. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... farm weeds. (2) The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other Federal or State agencies...

  3. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Nathoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  4. Development and comparative evaluation of a plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant outer membrane antigens Omp28 and Omp31 for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sapana; Kumar, Ashu; Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Mangalgi, Smita; Rathod, Vedika; Prakash, Archana; Barua, Anita; Arora, Sonia; Sathyaseelan, Kannusamy

    2013-08-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic infectious disease of humans and livestock with worldwide distribution and is caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. The diagnosis of brucellosis always requires laboratory confirmation by either isolation of pathogens or detection of specific antibodies. The conventional serological tests available for the diagnosis of brucellosis are less specific and show cross-reactivity with other closely related organisms. These tests also necessitate the handling of Brucella species for antigen preparation. Therefore, there is a need to develop reliable, rapid, and user-friendly systems for disease diagnosis and alternatives to vaccine approaches. Keeping in mind the importance of brucellosis as an emerging infection and the prevalence in India, we carried out the present study to compare the recombinant antigens with the native antigens (cell envelope and sonicated antigen) of Brucella for diagnosis of human brucellosis by an indirect plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Recombinant outer membrane protein 28 (rOmp28) and rOmp31 antigens were cloned, expressed, and purified in the bacterial expression system, and the purified proteins were used as antigens. Indirect plate ELISAs were then performed and standardized for comparison of the reactivities of recombinant and native antigens against the 433 clinical samples submitted for brucellosis testing, 15 culture-positive samples, and 20 healthy donor samples. The samples were separated into four groups based on their positivity to rose bengal plate agglutination tests (RBPTs), standard tube agglutination tests (STATs), and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) tests. The sensitivities and specificities of all the antigens were calculated, and the rOmp28 antigen was found to be more suitable for the clinical diagnosis of brucellosis than the rOmp31 antigen and native antigens. The rOmp28-based ELISA showed a very high degree of agreement with the conventional agglutination tests and

  5. [Analysis of a case with Brucellosis misdiagnosed as osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Liying; Yao, Dongmei

    2014-02-01

    Brucellosis is far more frequent in a pasturing area in the northern part of our country and it has many clinical manifestations. It may cause multiple organ damage and its features lack specificity. It is rare in the south, so it is extremely easy to be misdiagnosed or overlooked. The retrospective analysis of a case with Brucellosis misdiagnosed as osteoarthrosis provides a guide for clinical doctors to understand Brucellosis, so that early diagnosis would be accessible, and prognosis could be improved.

  6. How Relevant Are Imaging Findings in Animal Models of Movement Disorders to Human Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Darryl; Landau, Anne M; Doudet, Doris J

    2015-08-01

    The combination of novel imaging techniques with the use of small animal models of disease is often used in attempt to understand disease mechanisms, design potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, and develop novel methods with translatability to human clinical conditions. However, it is clear that most animal models are deficient when compared to the complexity of human diseases: they cannot sufficiently replicate all the features of multisystem disorders. Furthermore, some practical differences may affect the use or interpretation of animal imaging to model human conditions such as the use of anesthesia, various species differences, and limitations of methodological tools. Nevertheless, imaging animal models allows us to dissect, in interpretable bits, the effects of one system upon another, the consequences of variable neuronal losses or overactive systems, the results of experimental treatments, and we can develop and validate new methods. In this review, we focus on imaging modalities that are easily used in both human subjects and animal models such as positron emission and magnetic resonance imaging and discuss aging and Parkinson's disease as prototypical examples of preclinical imaging studies.

  7. Foot and mouth disease eradication policy: social impact and animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marins Pettres

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina is the only Brazilian state that does not immunize the bovine herd against foot and mouth disease. This article discusses the policy adopted for the foot and mouth disease in Santa Catarina, especially the non-vaccination, and relates this policy with ethical, human and animal welfare issues. Nine representatives of agricultural institutions in the state were interviewed, as well as, in a case study, seven families of farmers in Jóia - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where foot and mouth disease occurred in 2000, leading to the sacrifice of 11,067 animals, most of them dairy animals. The majority of the agricultural institutions in Santa Catarina are contrary to vaccination, in order to keep and extend pig and poultry export markets. Concerns on social repercussions tended to concentrate on the effects on the income of the affected families. The case study in Jóia demonstrated that the life styles of the affected farmers were deeply harmed due to effects on human mental health, loss of income and changes in the local economy. The study concludes that the experience of a foot and mouth disease outbreak results in traumatic and long term consequences and that there is a need for policies that include social, ethical and environmental provisions, once animal welfare aspects and impacts on other areas of the economy are not contemplated in the public policy of animal sanitary defense.

  8. Established patterns of animal study design undermine translation of disease-modifying therapies for Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, Caroline J.; Allore, Heather G.; Beck, Amanda P.

    2017-01-01

    Translation of disease-modifying therapies in neurodegenerative disease has been disappointing. Parkinson’s disease (PD) was used to compare patterns of preclinical study design for symptomatic and potentially disease-modifying interventions. We examined the relationship of model, intervention type and timing, outcomes and outcome measures in 543 animal and human studies (1973–2015) across a contemporary cohort of animal and human interventional studies (n = 445), animal studies for approved interventions (n = 28), animal and human studies for those that failed to translate (n = 70). Detailed study design data were collected for 216 studies in non-human primate (NHP) and rodent toxin-induced models. Species-specific patterns of study design prevailed regardless of whether interventions were symptomatic or potentially disease-modifying. In humans and NHPs, interventions were typically given to both sexes well after the PD phenotype was established, and clinical outcome measures were collected at single (symptomatic) or multiple (disease-modifying) time-points. In rodents, interventions often preceded induction of the model, acute toxic protocols were common, usually given to young males, clinical outcome measures were used less commonly, and outcomes were less commonly assessed at multiple time points. These patterns were more prevalent in mice than rats. In contrast, study design factors such as randomization and blinding did not differ appreciably across symptomatic and disease-modifying intervention categories. The translational gap for potentially disease-modifying interventions in PD in part results from study designs, particularly in mice, that fail to model the progressive nature and relatively late intervention characteristic of PD, or that anchor mechanistic and neuropathologic data to longitudinal clinical outcomes. Even if measures to improve reproducibility are broadly adopted, perpetuation of these norms will continue to impede effective translation

  9. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  10. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  11. Direct Urease Test and Acridine Orange Staining on Bactec Blood Culture for Rapid Presumptive Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Maleknejad

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in Iran and human brucellosis is endemic in all parts of the country. Growth of Brucella is slow and blood culture of these bacteria by use of classical methods is time-consuming. Furthermore, in endemic area culture is required for definitive diagnosis. In the present study, direct urease test and acridine orange staining were tried on the BACTEC blood culture broths for early presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Blood cultures were attempted in 102 seropositive patients. In the forty one blood cultures positive for Brucella, coccobacilli were seen in broth smears stained with acridine orange stain, and also were urease test positive, thus providing presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Urease test was negative and bacteria were not seen in the broth smears of the remaining 61 broths negative for Brucella growth. Because of simplicity, reliability and reproducibility, these tests can be routinely incorporated in the laboratory for diagnosis of brucellosis.

  12. Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Krista A; Hellerstein, Marc K

    2007-07-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) and alternate-day fasting (ADF) represent 2 different forms of dietary restriction. Although the effects of CR on chronic disease prevention were reviewed previously, the effects of ADF on chronic disease risk have yet to be summarized. Accordingly, we review here animal and human evidence concerning ADF and the risk of certain chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. We also compare the magnitude of risk reduction resulting from ADF with that resulting from CR. In terms of diabetes risk, animal studies of ADF find lower diabetes incidence and lower fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, effects that are comparable to those of CR. Human trials to date have reported greater insulin-mediated glucose uptake but no effect on fasting glucose or insulin concentrations. In terms of cardiovascular disease risk, animal ADF data show lower total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, a lower heart rate, improved cardiac response to myocardial infarction, and lower blood pressure. The limited human evidence suggests higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations and lower triacylglycerol concentrations but no effect on blood pressure. In terms of cancer risk, there is no human evidence to date, yet animal studies found decreases in lymphoma incidence, longer survival after tumor inoculation, and lower rates of proliferation of several cell types. The findings in animals suggest that ADF may effectively modulate several risk factors, thereby preventing chronic disease, and that ADF may modulate disease risk to an extent similar to that of CR. More research is required to establish definitively the consequences of ADF.

  13. The Development of a General Auxiliary Diagnosis System for Common Disease of Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianhua; Wang, Hongbin; Zhang, Ru; Luan, Peixian; Li, Lin; Xu, Danning

    In order to development one expert system for animal disease in china, and this expert system can help veterinary surgeon diagnose all kinds of disease of animal. The design of an intelligent medical system for diagnosis of animal diseases is presented in this paper. The system comprises three major parts: a disease case management system (DCMS), a Knowledge management system (KMS) and an Expert System (ES). The DCMS is used to manipulate patient data include all kinds of data about the animal and the symptom, diagnosis result etc. The KMS is used to acquire knowledge from disease cases and manipulate knowledge by human. The ES is used to perform diagnosis. The program is designed in N-layers system; they are data layer, security layer, business layer, appearance layer, and user interface. When diagnosis, user can select some symptoms in system group by system. One conclusion with three possibilities (final diagnosis result, suspect diagnosis result, and no diagnosis result) is output. By diagnosis some times, one most possible result can be get. By application, this system can increased the accurate of diagnosis to some extent, but the statistics result was not compute now.

  14. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology.

  15. Household Animal and Human Medicine Use and Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Risk Factors for Emerging Zoonotic Disease and Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roess, A A; Winch, P J; Akhter, A; Afroz, D; Ali, N A; Shah, R; Begum, N; Seraji, H R; El Arifeen, S; Darmstadt, G L; Baqui, A H

    2015-11-01

    Animal antimicrobial use and husbandry practices increase risk of emerging zoonotic disease and antibiotic resistance. We surveyed 700 households to elicit information on human and animal medicine use and husbandry practices. Households that owned livestock (n = 265/459, 57.7%) reported using animal treatments 630 times during the previous 6 months; 57.6% obtained medicines, including antibiotics, from drug sellers. Government animal healthcare providers were rarely visited (9.7%), and respondents more often sought animal health care from pharmacies and village doctors (70.6% and 11.9%, respectively), citing the latter two as less costly and more successful based on past performance. Animal husbandry practices that could promote the transmission of microbes from animals to humans included the following: the proximity of chickens to humans (50.1% of households reported that the chickens slept in the bedroom); the shared use of natural bodies of water for human and animal bathing (78.3%); the use of livestock waste as fertilizer (60.9%); and gender roles that dictate that females are the primary caretakers of poultry and children (62.8%). In the absence of an effective animal healthcare system, villagers must depend on informal healthcare providers for treatment of their animals. Suboptimal use of antimicrobials coupled with unhygienic animal husbandry practices is an important risk factor for emerging zoonotic disease and resistant pathogens.

  16. The history of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) 1920-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert P; Ellis, L Susanne Squires; Kohler, Erwin M

    2015-12-01

    The following history has been compiled and written by the authors. The historical facts are available from the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) archives, dating back to letters and summaries written by the founders, and by a few of the Secretary-Treasurers from the early decades through 2014. THE ORGANIZATION AND PURPOSE: The CRWAD is a non-profit organization and has been since its origin. The sole purpose of CRWAD is to discuss and disseminate the most current research advances in animal diseases. Graduate students and industry and academic professionals present and discuss the most recent advances on subjects of interest to the CRWAD and of importance to the global livestock and companion animal industries. The oral and poster abstracts of new and unpublished data presented at the meeting sessions are published each year in the CRWAD Proceedings (formerly the CRWAD Abstracts). CRWAD publishes, copyrights, and distributes the Proceedings. The presentations are arranged into the following 10 sections, according to the primary topic of the presentation: Bacterial Pathogenesis, Biosafety and Biosecurity, Companion Animal Epidemiology, Ecology and Management of Foodborne Agents, Epidemiology and Animal Health Economics, Immunology, Pathobiology of Enteric and Foodborne Pathogens, Respiratory Diseases, Vector-Borne and Parasitic Diseases, and Viral Pathogenesis. Prospective members should be actively engaged in animal disease research or research administration. Meeting information and membership applications may be obtained by contacting the Executive Director or by visiting the CRWAD website. Annual abstracts are currently available on-line at the On-line Meeting Planner and Itinerary Builder, with access through the CRWAD website.

  17. Monkeypox disease transmission in an experimental setting: prairie dog animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is considered the most significant human public health threat in the genus Orthopoxvirus since the eradication of variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox. MPXV is a zoonotic agent endemic to forested areas of Central and Western Africa. In 2003, MPXV caused an outbreak in the United States due to the importation of infected African rodents, and subsequent sequential infection of North American prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and humans. In previous studies, the prairie dog MPXV model has successfully shown to be very useful for understanding MPXV since the model emulates key characteristics of human monkeypox disease. In humans, percutaneous exposure to animals has been documented but the primary method of human-to-human MPXV transmission is postulated to be by respiratory route. Only a few animal model studies of MPXV transmission have been reported. Herein, we show that MPXV infected prairie dogs are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple transmission routes. All secondarily exposed animals were infected with MPXV during the course of the study. Notably, animals secondarily exposed appeared to manifest more severe disease; however, the disease course was very similar to those of experimentally challenged animals including inappetence leading to weight loss, development of lesions, production of orthopoxvirus antibodies and shedding of similar levels or in some instances higher levels of MPXV from the oral cavity. Disease was transmitted via exposure to contaminated bedding, co-housing, or respiratory secretions/nasal mucous (we could not definitively say that transmission occurred via respiratory route exclusively. Future use of the model will allow us to evaluate infection control measures, vaccines and antiviral strategies to decrease disease transmission.

  18. The non-motor complications in Parkinson's disease - what can we learn from animal models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnik, Magdalena; Thor, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic Parkinson's disease is a widespread human disease that has never been reported in non-human vertebrates. The etiopathogenesis of the non-motor symptoms in the disease is not well understood and it is difficult to interpret the roles of affected neurotransmitters in currently available animal models. Most of the non-motor symptoms do not correlate with the stage of motor deficits and precede the development of motor symptoms by many years, before the permanent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the advantages and limitations of the well-recognized mammalian animal models with special regard to the non-motor complications of the prodromal and early stage Parkinson's disease.

  19. Situation of human epidemic of Brucellosis in Shandan County of Gansu Province from 2008-2010%2008-2010年甘肃省山丹县人间布鲁杆菌病流行现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨精锐; 汪杰; 顾学海; 杨振中

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握甘肃省山丹县当前布鲁杆菌病(以下简称布病)流行状况,为制定布病的防治措施提供科学依据.方法 采取询问座谈、血清学检查等方法进行调查.结果 ①居民布病虎红平板试验阳性率为7.3%.②问卷调查表明,伴有布病感染症状的居民53人,感染率为2.65%.③居民当中牧民的感染率最高,为13.24%( 100/755),且感染率呈逐年上升趋势.④布病发病人群年龄在20~60岁之间,占发病总人数的78.61%.⑤男性感染者多于女性,男女性别比为2.90∶1.结论 目前,山丹县居民布病疫情处于逐年上升趋势.尤其对从事放牧工作的牧民应加大宣传教育力度,加强动物情疫监测,杜绝布病带菌牲畜的输入,同时做好病区患者的治疗管理,严防人间布病的流行.%[Objective] To understand the prevalence of brucellosis in Shandan County of Gansu Province, and provide scientific evidence for developing its control measures. [Methods]Inquiry discussion, serological examination, etc were adopted for investigation. [Results] ①The bengal plate test positive rate of Brucellosis of the residents was 7. 3%. ②After a survey of brucellosis, S3 residents associated with infection symptoms, with the infection rate of 2.65%. ③Most patients were herdsmen, with the highest infection rate of 13.24% (100/755), and infection rates were increasing. ④Brucellosis disease population aged 20-60 years old, accounting for 78.61% of total cases. ⑤Infected male were more than female, the ratio was 2.90 : 1. [Conclusion] The epidemic situation of Brucellosis is increasing annually. The health education should be strengthened , especially for herdsmen. Meanwhile, it is necessary to enhance animal disease surveillance, to eliminate brucellosis contaminated livestock input, and do well in patient treatment and management to prevent human epidemic of Brucellosis.

  20. Fyn Kinase Regulates Microglial Neuroinflammatory Responses in Cell Culture and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sustained neuroinflammation mediated by resident microglia is recognized as a key pathophysiological contributor to many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), but the key molecular signaling events regulating persistent microglial activation have yet to be clearly defined. In the present study, we examined the role of Fyn, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, in microglial activation and neuroinflammatory mechanisms in cell culture and animal models of PD. The well-charac...

  1. A Rare Complication of Brucellosis: Testicular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This case was a male patient who developed Brucella epidiymo-orchitis and testicular abscess. He had fever, arthralgia and his right epididymis and right testicle were enlarged and tender. Ultrasound evaluation showed hypertrophy of the right epididymis and testis and moreover hypoechoic area within the testis. Brucella serology was positive and the patient did not respond completely to treatment with streptomycin, doxycycline, and rifampicina. Unilateral orchidectomy was decided. In areas where brucella infection is endemic brucella epididymo-orchitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Effective and rapid treatment is important. It should be noted that these patients may develop testicular abscess.

  2. Transgenic animal models for study of the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Renbao; Liu, Xudong; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a genetic mutation that results in polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal regions of huntingtin. As a result, this polyQ expansion leads to the misfolding and aggregation of mutant huntingtin as well as age-dependent neurodegeneration. The genetic mutation in HD allows for generating a variety of animal models that express different forms of mutant huntingtin and show differential pathology. Studies of these animal models have provided an important insight into the pathogenesis of HD. Mouse models of HD include transgenic mice, which express N-terminal or full-length mutant huntingtin ubiquitously or selectively in different cell types, and knock-in mice that express full-length mutant Htt at the endogenous level. Large animals, such as pig, sheep, and monkeys, have also been used to generate animal HD models. This review focuses on the different features of commonly used transgenic HD mouse models as well as transgenic large animal models of HD, and also discusses how to use them to identify potential therapeutics. Since HD shares many pathological features with other neurodegenerative diseases, identification of therapies for HD would also help to develop effective treatment for different neurodegenerative diseases that are also caused by protein misfolding and occur in an age-dependent manner.

  3. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieste-Pérez, L.; Frankena, K.; Blasco, J. M.; Muñoz, P. M.; De Jong, M. C M

    2016-01-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data co

  4. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieste-Pérez, L.; Frankena, K.; Blasco, J.M.; Muñoz, P.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data

  5. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  6. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chunyan; Rosen, Richard; Jordan, Adrienne; Hu, Dan-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons) against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  7. Relationship of trade patterns of the Danish swine industry animal movements network to potential disease spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Barfod, Kristen; Mortensen, Sten

    2007-01-01

    , by providing network knowledge to the local veterinarian in charge of controlling disease spread, should also be evaluated as a potential tool to manage epidemics during the crisis. Geographic information systems could also be linked in the approach to produce knowledge about local transmission of disease.......The movements of animals were analysed under the conceptual framework of graph theory in mathematics. The swine production related premises of Denmark were considered to constitute the nodes of a network and the links were the animal movements. In this framework, each farm will have a network...... of other premises to which it will be linked. A premise was a farm (breeding, rearing or slaughter pig), an abattoir or a trade market. The overall network was divided in premise specific subnets that linked the other premises from and to which animals were moved. This approach allowed us to visualise...

  8. Tick-borne Diseases in Animals and USDA Research on Tick Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick-borne diseases represent a major threat to animal health in the United States. The cattle industry in the United States has benefited greatly from the continued USDA efforts through the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program in preventing the re-introduction of cattle ticks and associated pathog...

  9. Role of lung surfactant in respiratory disease: current knowledge in large animal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, U; Buechner-Maxwell, V A; Witonsky, S G; Hite, R D

    2009-01-01

    Lung surfactant is produced by type II alveolar cells as a mixture of phospholipids, surfactant proteins, and neutral lipids. Surfactant lowers alveolar surface tension and is crucial for the prevention of alveolar collapse. In addition, surfactant contributes to smaller airway patency and improves mucociliary clearance. Surfactant-specific proteins are part of the innate immune defense mechanisms of the lung. Lung surfactant alterations have been described in a number of respiratory diseases. Surfactant deficiency (quantitative deficit of surfactant) in premature animals causes neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Surfactant dysfunction (qualitative changes in surfactant) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome and asthma. Analysis of surfactant from amniotic fluid allows assessment of fetal lung maturity (FLM) in the human fetus and exogenous surfactant replacement therapy is part of the standard care in premature human infants. In contrast to human medicine, use and success of FLM testing or surfactant replacement therapy remain limited in veterinary medicine. Lung surfactant has been studied in large animal models of human disease. However, only a few reports exist on lung surfactant alterations in naturally occurring respiratory disease in large animals. This article gives a general review on the role of lung surfactant in respiratory disease followed by an overview of our current knowledge on surfactant in large animal veterinary medicine.

  10. Monitoring for the management of disease risk in animal translocation programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Grand, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is best viewed as a component of some larger programme focused on science or conservation. The value of monitoring is determined by the extent to which it informs the parent process. Animal translocation programmes are typically designed to augment or establish viable animal populations without changing the local community in any detrimental way. Such programmes seek to minimize disease risk to local wild animals, to translocated animals, and in some cases to humans. Disease monitoring can inform translocation decisions by (1) providing information for state-dependent decisions, (2) assessing progress towards programme objectives, and (3) permitting learning in order to make better decisions in the future. Here we discuss specific decisions that can be informed by both pre-release and post-release disease monitoring programmes. We specify state variables and vital rates needed to inform these decisions. We then discuss monitoring data and analytic methods that can be used to estimate these state variables and vital rates. Our discussion is necessarily general, but hopefully provides a basis for tailoring disease monitoring approaches to specific translocation programmes.

  11. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy t

  12. Correlated Inflammatory Responses and Neurodegeneration in Peptide-Injected Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. McLarnon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD which emphasize activation of microglia may have particular utility in correlating proinflammatory activity with neurodegeneration. This paper reviews injection of amyloid-β (Aβ into rat brain as an alternative AD animal model to the use of transgenic animals. In particular, intrahippocampal injection of Aβ1-42 peptide demonstrates prominent microglial mobilization and activation accompanied by a significant loss of granule cell neurons. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory reactivity is demonstrated by a broad spectrum of drugs with a common endpoint in conferring neuroprotection in peptide-injected animals. Peptide-injection models provide a focus on glial cell responses to direct peptide injection in rat brain and offer advantages in the study of the mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation in AD brain.

  13. Transgenic animal models for study of the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang RB

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renbao Chang,1 Xudong Liu,1 Shihua Li,2 Xiao-Jiang Li1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD is caused by a genetic mutation that results in polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal regions of huntingtin. As a result, this polyQ expansion leads to the misfolding and aggregation of mutant huntingtin as well as age-dependent neurodegeneration. The genetic mutation in HD allows for generating a variety of animal models that express different forms of mutant huntingtin and show differential pathology. Studies of these animal models have provided an important insight into the pathogenesis of HD. Mouse models of HD include transgenic mice, which express N-terminal or full-length mutant huntingtin ubiquitously or selectively in different cell types, and knock-in mice that express full-length mutant Htt at the endogenous level. Large animals, such as pig, sheep, and monkeys, have also been used to generate animal HD models. This review focuses on the different features of commonly used transgenic HD mouse models as well as transgenic large animal models of HD, and also discusses how to use them to identify potential therapeutics. Since HD shares many pathological features with other neurodegenerative diseases, identification of therapies for HD would also help to develop effective treatment for different neurodegenerative diseases that are also caused by protein misfolding and occur in an age-dependent manner. Keywords: transgenic animal models, Huntington’s disease, pathogenesis, therapy

  14. Animal viral diseases and global change: Bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel eJimenez-Clavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue and West Nile fever/encephalitis, have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. Bluetongue, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. West Nile fever/encephalitis affects wildlife (birds, domestic animals (equines and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife and livestock. In Europe, West Nile virus is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the XXth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world?

  15. Intestinal flora of animal models of human diseases as an environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, K; Narushima, S

    2005-03-01

    Genetically-engineered animals are known to be useful in clarifying the functions of many genes and as animal models for human diseases. However, it has been widely reported that pathophysiology is not expressed in these animals when they become germfree or SPF animals, i.e., the pathophysiology is not the result of genes alone and a combination of gene function and intestinal flora as an environmental factor are necessary. It is important to determine the roles of each of these two factors by pathophysiological analysis. Gnotobiotic mice were produced by establishment of specified bacterial species in germfree animals to form the intestinal flora of SPF animals and they were placed in barrier facilities. Measures have been taken against infections by bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae. In addition, gnotobiotic mice with a highly normal physiology are required. Analysis of the effects of each bacterial species and combinations of bacteria on in vivo functions, i.e., the cross-talk between the host and intestinal flora, is essential in the creation of better laboratory animals. Monitoring of the intestinal flora, a key factor in the colonies produced, is a topic for future research.

  16. Rapid cohort generation and analysis of disease spectrum of large animal model of cone dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Kostic

    Full Text Available Large animal models are an important resource for the understanding of human disease and for evaluating the applicability of new therapies to human patients. For many diseases, such as cone dystrophy, research effort is hampered by the lack of such models. Lentiviral transgenesis is a methodology broadly applicable to animals from many different species. When conjugated to the expression of a dominant mutant protein, this technology offers an attractive approach to generate new large animal models in a heterogeneous background. We adopted this strategy to mimic the phenotype diversity encounter in humans and generate a cohort of pigs for cone dystrophy by expressing a dominant mutant allele of the guanylate cyclase 2D (GUCY2D gene. Sixty percent of the piglets were transgenic, with mutant GUCY2D mRNA detected in the retina of all animals tested. Functional impairment of vision was observed among the transgenic pigs at 3 months of age, with a follow-up at 1 year indicating a subsequent slower progression of phenotype. Abnormal retina morphology, notably among the cone photoreceptor cell population, was observed exclusively amongst the transgenic animals. Of particular note, these transgenic animals