WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal disease management

  1. Challenges for risk management related to emerging animal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Taina

    2010-01-01

    The uncertainties related to climate change and its effects on the spreading of animal diseases causes the most difficulties for the risk management. Preparedness and contingency planning for serious animal diseases in EU has mainly focused on conventional animal diseases, like foot- and-mouth-disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza.

  2. MTADM: The new Joint Master Programme in Transboundary Animal Disease Management for Eastern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) flagship Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). Focus is on livestock for trade and export. Better policies, institutions, regulatory framework and technologies are sought for livestock production and management and delivery of veterinary services and disease control. The disease status of African countries places the pivotal constraints on trade possibilities. Animal health standards imposed by importing countries for international, regional or bi-lateral trade, and through the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement must be met. 12 of the 15 most important transboundary animal diseases persist in Africa. Disease control under SPS, entailing new standards, regulations and technologies, can and is not be covered by conventional veterinary training. This specialist area of its own has to be addressed in a specialised postgraduate course for young personnel already involved and responsible for public, private and hybrid animal disease control services. Ambitious visions of a new African livestock sector with changed focus on production, disease, trade, marketing, organisation, delivery and internationality are only realistic with newly trained animal disease control personnel. To target these issues at the academic level the Addis Ababa University / Ethiopia with universities of 3 regional partner countries (Kenya, Uganda, Sudan) and the Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany, successfully applied for a grant to establish a Joint Master Course in Transboundary Animal Disease Management (MTADM) for Africa. The 3-year project is funded under the EU - EDULINK Programme of the 9th European Development Funds (EDF) as from 2008 to 2010. Currently, preparatory work is ongoing on the final technical details of the MTADM Course. The overall objective of the programme is to strengthen the capacity of national veterinary services in Africa to control and manage

  3. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  4. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Thomson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs, extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1 implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2 amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE] so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for

  5. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  6. Monitoring for the management of disease risk in animal translocation programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Grand, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring is best viewed as a component of some larger programme focused on science or conservation. The value of monitoring is determined by the extent to which it informs the parent process. Animal translocation programmes are typically designed to augment or establish viable animal populations without changing the local community in any detrimental way. Such programmes seek to minimize disease risk to local wild animals, to translocated animals, and in some cases to humans. Disease monitoring can inform translocation decisions by (1) providing information for state-dependent decisions, (2) assessing progress towards programme objectives, and (3) permitting learning in order to make better decisions in the future. Here we discuss specific decisions that can be informed by both pre-release and post-release disease monitoring programmes. We specify state variables and vital rates needed to inform these decisions. We then discuss monitoring data and analytic methods that can be used to estimate these state variables and vital rates. Our discussion is necessarily general, but hopefully provides a basis for tailoring disease monitoring approaches to specific translocation programmes.

  7. Animals: Disease Risks for People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Knowledge Base Browse AVMA Policies Browse by Animal/Species Browse by Topic Browse by Discipline Resources ... Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Disease Risks for ...

  8. Animal models of neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Mara Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD, increases with age, and the number of affected patients is expected to increase worldwide in the next decades. Accurately understanding the etiopathogenic mechanisms of these diseases is a crucial step for developing disease-modifying drugs able to preclude their emergence or at least slow their progression. Animal models contribute to increase the knowledge on the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. These models reproduce different aspects of a given disease, as well as the histopathological lesions and its main symptoms. The purpose of this review is to present the main animal models for AD, PD, and Huntington's disease.

  9. Animal models for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, J H

    1982-01-01

    The use of animal models for the study of human disease is, for the most part, a recent development. This discussion of the use of animal models for human diseases directs attention to the sterile period, early advances, some personal experiences, the human as the model, biological oddities among common laboratory animals, malignancies in laboratory animals, problems created by federal regulations, cancer tests with animals, and what the future holds in terms of the use of animal models as an aid to understanding human disease. In terms of early use of animal models, there was a school of rabbis, some of whom were also physicians, in Babylon who studied and wrote extensively on ritual slaughter and the suitability of birds and beasts for food. Considerable detailed information on animal pathology, physiology, anatomy, and medicine in general can be found in the Soncino Babylonian Talmudic Translations. The 1906 edition of the "Jewish Encyclopedia," has been a rich resource. Although it has not been possible to establish what diseases of animals were studied and their relationship to the diseases of humans, there are fascinating clues to pursue, despite the fact that these were sterile years for research in medicine. The quotation from the Talmud is of interest: "The medical knowledge of the Talmudist was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of disease and experiments upon animals." A bright light in the lackluster years of medical research was provided by Galen, considered the originator of research in physiology and anatomy. His dissection of animals and work on apes and other lower animals were models for human anatomy and physiology and the bases for many treatises. Yet, Galen never seemed to suggest that animals could serve as models for human diseases. Most early physicians who can be considered to have been students of disease developed their medical knowledge by observing the sick under their care. 1 early medical investigator

  10. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade.

  11. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M.; Philip H Jones; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J.; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J.M.; Radford, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    This second Small Animal Disease Surveillance report focuses on syndromic surveillance of i) respiratory disease in veterinary practice and ii) feline calicivirus (FCV) based on laboratory diagnosis, in a large veterinary-visiting pet population of the UK between January 2014 and December 2015. Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7%, 2.3% and 2.5% of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively. In dogs, the most frequent respiratory sign reported was coughing (71.1% of ...

  12. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause Lyme disease. Some wild animals may carry rabies. Enjoy wildlife from a distance. Pets can also make you sick. Reptiles pose a particular risk. Turtles, snakes and iguanas can transmit Salmonella bacteria to their owners. You can get rabies from an infected dog or toxoplasmosis from handling ...

  13. Animal Models for Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S. Oz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models and cell cultures have contributed new knowledge in biological sciences, including periodontology. Although cultured cells can be used to study physiological processes that occur during the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the complex host response fundamentally responsible for this disease cannot be reproduced in vitro. Among the animal kingdom, rodents, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates have been used to model human periodontitis, each with advantages and disadvantages. Periodontitis commonly has been induced by placing a bacterial plaque retentive ligature in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. In addition, alveolar bone loss has been induced by inoculation or injection of human oral bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis in different animal models. While animal models have provided a wide range of important data, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the findings are applicable to humans. In addition, variability in host responses to bacterial infection among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of periodontal diseases. A practical and highly reproducible model that truly mimics the natural pathogenesis of human periodontal disease has yet to be developed.

  14. Options for managing animal welfare on intensive pig farms confined by movement restrictions during an outbreak of foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, I J; Roche, S E; Wicks, R M; de Witte, K; Garner, M G

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Australia would trigger a major disease control and eradication program that would include restriction of movement of live animals within defined disease control zones. Experiences from outbreaks in other countries show that restrictions that limit the ability to turn off stock can lead to animal welfare compromise on intensively managed farms that are not infected with the disease. Intensive pig farms are considered to be at high risk of developing welfare problems during a control program due to the imposed movement restrictions and limited space available to house growing pigs. This study was designed to investigate strategies that could be used to mitigate animal welfare problems on intensive pig farms during a simulated outbreak of foot and mouth disease in a livestock dense region of Australia. Three strategies for managing farms affected by animal welfare problems were assessed, including on-farm culling of grower and finisher pigs, on-farm culling of finisher pigs only, and permit-based movement of finisher pigs to slaughter at abattoir. Under traditional approaches of giving infected premises (IP) priority over culling of farms with welfare problems (WP), delays of up to 25 days were experienced prior to culling of WPs. Deployment of vaccination did little to reduce the delay to culling of WPs. These delays were sensitive to resources available for control, with reduced resources increasing the time until welfare problems were addressed. Assigning equal priority to all farms requiring culling regardless of status as IP or WP and culling each as they arose reduced the delay to culling of WPs to no more than 4 days without large increases in either the duration or the size of the outbreaks observed.

  15. Engineering large animal models of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Timothy P Sheets; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site‐specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of...

  16. An overview of animal prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Saqib

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases. PMID:22044871

  17. An overview of animal prion diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Muhammad; Mahmood Saqib

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encep...

  18. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  19. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  20. Disease and animal research: a meeting review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling V. Sun

    2011-01-01

    @@ Animal models have been playing an important role in disease research.They have advanced our knowledge about the genetics, development, environmental effects, and in turn, the mechanism of diseases.A recent review has pointed out that one-third of the high-impact animal research published in seven leading jourhals has been through clinical trial, and one-tenth of these studies have succeeded and been applied to disease treatment (Hackam and Redelmeier, 2006; van der Worp et al., 2010).

  1. 河北省实行动物疫病风险监管的几点体会%Experiences in Implementation of Animal Disease Risk Management in Hebei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东来; 陈柳; 李湃; 丁红田; 杨浩

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of animal disease risk management is an effective measure in animal disease control. In recent years, some provinces,including Hebei have carried out active and effective exploration in this area with remark-able results. Hebei Animal Disease Risk Assessment and Grading Management Method was issued in August 2013. The main practices and experiences in the implementation of the Method in Hebei was described in this paper with emphasis on the implementation of animal disease risk management for fulfilling the Law of the PRC on Animal Epidemic Preven-tion,scientific supervision of animal diseases,awareness enhancement of stakeholders on risk management of animal diseases,improving the level of industrialization,and safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of animal health supervisors.%实施动物疫病风险管理是控制动物疫病的一种有效方法,河北省对此开展了积极的探索,并取得显著成效。本文简要介绍了《河北省动物疫病风险评估与分级管理办法》和相关做法,探讨了实施动物风险管理在贯彻落实《动物防疫法》、实现动物疫病的科学监管、增强相对人的动物疫病风险管理意识、提高产业化水平、维护动物卫生监督执法人员的合法权益等方面的重要作用。

  2. Experiences in Implementation of Animal Disease Risk Management in Hebei%河北省实行动物疫病风险监管的几点体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东来; 陈柳; 李湃; 丁红田; 杨浩

    2015-01-01

    实施动物疫病风险管理是控制动物疫病的一种有效方法,河北省对此开展了积极的探索,并取得显著成效。本文简要介绍了《河北省动物疫病风险评估与分级管理办法》和相关做法,探讨了实施动物风险管理在贯彻落实《动物防疫法》、实现动物疫病的科学监管、增强相对人的动物疫病风险管理意识、提高产业化水平、维护动物卫生监督执法人员的合法权益等方面的重要作用。%The implementation of animal disease risk management is an effective measure in animal disease control. In recent years, some provinces,including Hebei have carried out active and effective exploration in this area with remark-able results. Hebei Animal Disease Risk Assessment and Grading Management Method was issued in August 2013. The main practices and experiences in the implementation of the Method in Hebei was described in this paper with emphasis on the implementation of animal disease risk management for fulfilling the Law of the PRC on Animal Epidemic Preven-tion,scientific supervision of animal diseases,awareness enhancement of stakeholders on risk management of animal diseases,improving the level of industrialization,and safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of animal health supervisors.

  3. 人类疾病模型动物的管理要点%Scientific management of animal models of human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑佩; 郑振辉; 贾光

    2012-01-01

    近年来,国内、国外人类疾病模型动物品种、品系繁多,遗传背景各异.国内基因修饰动物模型发展也很快,这些模型动物既有我们自己研发的,也有从国外引进的.建立动物模型的上游科研工作成绩突出,但宝贵的动物模型建立或引进后,由于种种原因导致动物断种、失去原有生物学特性的案例却屡见不鲜.从人类疾病模型动物的引种、保种、检疫隔离、饲养管理的特殊性等方面加强管理,可有效地控制和避免突变系出现自身修复,转基因动物的基因丢失,敲除基因动物基因复位等问题,从而达到保持其固有生物学特性的目的.%In recent years,many kinds of animal models of human diseases with different genetic background were developed.Some were established in China,others were imported from abroad.Precious were these animal models,their biological features could be lost for various reasons,for instance,reverse from mutation,lost of modified or constructed gene,etc.This study provided some suggestions for scientific management of the animal models to in terms of quarantine inspection,specific feeding method and methods to maintain gene stability,so as to preserve their biological features.

  4. Animal models for diseases of respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latest trends in understanding of respiratory diseases in human beings can be derived from thorough clinical studies of these diseases occurring in man, but conducting such studies in man is difficult in terms of experimental manipulation. In the last 2 decades, various types of experimental respiratory disease models has been developed and utilized by investigators, which have contributed a lot to the understanding of respiratory diseases in man, but only little investigation has been done on the naturally occurring pulmonary diseases of animals as potential models which could have added to our knowledge. There are certain selected examples of spontaneous pulmonary disease in animals that may serve as exploitable models for human chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, interstitial lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyaline membrane disease, and bronchial asthma.

  5. Transgenic animals resistant to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiley, L

    2016-04-01

    The list of transgenic animals developed to test ways of producing livestock resistant to infectious disease continues to grow. Although the basic techniques for generating transgenic animals have not changed very much in the ten years since they were last reviewed for the World Organisation for Animal Health, one recent fundamental technological advance stands to revolutionise genome engineering. The advent of technically simple and efficient site-specific gene targeting has profound implications for genetically modifying livestock species.

  6. Cost-benefit analysis in animal disease control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal health economics is a relatively new discipline which is progressively developing a solid framework of concepts, procedures and data to support the decision making process in optimizing animal health management. Research in this field deals primarily with three interrelated aspects: (1) quantifying the financial effects of animal diseases, (2) developing methods for optimizing decisions when individual animals, herds or populations are affected, and (3) determining the costs and benefits of disease control measures. In the paper the four most common economic modelling techniques in animal health economics (i.e. partial budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, decision analysis, and systems simulation) are described and applied on three levels of veterinary decision making: the animal, herd and national level. Outcomes so far are summarized, and shortcomings indicated and discussed. The importance of a close link between economics and epidemiology is stressed for future development, as well as the need for, and possibilities of, an international exchange of models and procedures. (author)

  7. CRITTER: A database for managing research animals

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, V. Wayne; Lukey, Claire; Orr, Richard

    1993-01-01

    We describe CRITTER, a computer database program for managing research animals. We designed it especially for institutions which operate health surveillance plans, such as specific pathogen-free schemes. Because CRITTER can be used to record any type of test result in any species of animal, it can be customized to suit each institution and its management protocol. In addition to maintaining a current inventory of each individual animal and its location, the program retains historical informat...

  8. An overview of animal prion diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Muhammad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC. Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases.

  9. Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Latimer, Joyce G.; Close, David

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 Virginia Pest Management Guide provides the latest recommendations for controlling diseases, insects, and weeds for home grounds and animals. New for 2014 is information about prevention and nonchemical control as alternatives to chemical control or as part of an integrated pest management approach.

  10. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Potashkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of the disease and provide a means for testing new treatments. However, the current animal models often fall short in replicating the true pathophysiology occurring in idiopathic PD, and thus results from animal models often do not translate to the clinic. In this paper we will explain the limitations of animal models of PD and why their use is inappropriate for the study of some aspects of PD.

  11. Notification of animal and human diseases: the global legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, B; Thiermann, A; Ben Jebara, K; Dehove, A

    2013-08-01

    The successful control of a disease, and a possible epidemic, depends on rapid access to complete information on the disease situation. To ensure a timely response, diseases must be immediately notified in a transparent manner. The rapid exchange of information about animal diseases, including zoonoses, was the key objective in the establishment of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in 1924. For diseases concerning humans, a set of new rules dealing with the quick reporting of infectious diseases--the International Health Regulations--was adopted by Members of the World Health Organization (OMS) in 2005. The article explains these two systems of notification, which make information accessible to the public and allow decision-makers to better manage the risks related to the diseases concerned.

  12. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M; Jones, Philip H; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J M; Radford, Alan D

    2016-04-01

    Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7 per cent, 2.3 per cent and 2.5 per cent of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively, between January 2014 and December 2015Coughing was the most frequent respiratory sign reported in dogs (71.1 per cent of consultations); in cats it was sneezing (42.6 per cent)Mean percentage of samples testing positive for feline calicivirus (FCV) was 30.1 per cent in 2014 and 27.9 per cent in 2015January was the month with the highest percentage of FCV-positive samples in both 2014 and 2015. PMID:27056810

  13. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  14. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Potashkin; Blume, S. R.; Runkle, N. K.

    2011-01-01

    Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of t...

  15. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Farfel-Becker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD, is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  16. 9 CFR 95.3 - Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited. 95.3 Section 95.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  17. Animal and cellular models of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Arends, Mark; White, Eric; Whitelaw, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this eighteenth (2016) Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology, we present a collection of 19 invited review articles that cover different aspects of cellular and animal models of disease. These include genetically-engineered models, chemically-induced models, naturally-occurring models, and combinations thereof, with the focus on recent methodological and conceptual developments across a wide range of human diseases.

  18. Animal Models of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sider, Krista L.; Blaser, Mark C.; Simmons, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. However, many details of the pathobiological mechanisms of CAVD remain to be described, and new approaches to treat CAVD need to be identified. Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of the u...

  19. Large genetic animal models of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A Jennifer; Howland, David S

    2013-01-01

    The dominant nature of the Huntington's disease gene mutation has allowed genetic models to be developed in multiple species, with the mutation causing an abnormal neurological phenotype in all animals in which it is expressed. Many different rodent models have been generated. The most widely used of these, the transgenic R6/2 mouse, carries the mutation in a fragment of the human huntingtin gene and has a rapidly progressive and fatal neurological phenotype with many relevant pathological changes. Nevertheless, their rapid decline has been frequently questioned in the context of a disease that takes years to manifest in humans, and strenuous efforts have been made to make rodent models that are genetically more 'relevant' to the human condition, including full length huntingtin gene transgenic and knock-in mice. While there is no doubt that we have learned, and continue to learn much from rodent models, their usefulness is limited by two species constraints. First, the brains of rodents differ significantly from humans in both their small size and their neuroanatomical organization. Second, rodents have much shorter lifespans than humans. Here, we review new approaches taken to these challenges in the development of models of Huntington's disease in large brained, long-lived animals. We discuss the need for such models, and how they might be used to fill specific niches in preclinical Huntington's disease research, particularly in testing gene-based therapeutics. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animals in which the prodromal period of disease extends over a long time span. We suggest that there is considerable 'value added' for large animal models in preclinical Huntington's disease research. PMID:25063426

  20. Managing Advanced Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well.” 11 Managing Advanced Parkinson Disease DENTAL CARE Oral hygiene should remain an important part of the daily routine in order to prevent serious dental problems and the development of other illnesses. The ...

  1. Management of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammermeier, Jochen; Morris, Mary-Anne; Garrick, Vikki; Furman, Mark; Rodrigues, Astor; Russell, Richard K

    2016-05-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is rapidly increasing in children so an up to date knowledge of diagnosis, investigation and management is essential. Exclusive enteral nutrition is the first line treatment for active disease. The vast majority of children will need immunosuppressant treatment and around 20% will need treatment with biologics. Recent guidelines have helped make best use of available therapies.

  2. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Farfel-Becker; Vitner, Einat B.; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display sympt...

  3. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J; Hoog, de, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in co...

  4. Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2003-01-01

    Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent...

  5. Role of the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries' Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) in the 2007 equine influenza emergency animal disease response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, M G; Fraser, G C; Gaul, W N

    2011-07-01

    A Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) was used to manage the laboratory data and support planning and field activities as part of the response to the equine influenza outbreak in Australia in 2007. The database structure of the LIMS and the system configurations that were made to best handle the laboratory implications of the disease response are discussed. The operational aspects of the LIMS and the related procedures used at the laboratory to process the increased sample throughput are reviewed, as is the interaction of the LIMS with other corporate systems used in the management of the response. Outcomes from this tailored configuration and operation of the LIMS resulted in effective provision and control of the laboratory and laboratory information aspects of the response. The extent and immediate availability of the information provided from the LIMS was critical to some of the activities of key operatives involved in controlling the response. PMID:21711289

  6. Role of the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries' Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) in the 2007 equine influenza emergency animal disease response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, M G; Fraser, G C; Gaul, W N

    2011-07-01

    A Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) was used to manage the laboratory data and support planning and field activities as part of the response to the equine influenza outbreak in Australia in 2007. The database structure of the LIMS and the system configurations that were made to best handle the laboratory implications of the disease response are discussed. The operational aspects of the LIMS and the related procedures used at the laboratory to process the increased sample throughput are reviewed, as is the interaction of the LIMS with other corporate systems used in the management of the response. Outcomes from this tailored configuration and operation of the LIMS resulted in effective provision and control of the laboratory and laboratory information aspects of the response. The extent and immediate availability of the information provided from the LIMS was critical to some of the activities of key operatives involved in controlling the response.

  7. Management of diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützer, Roland H; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Diverticular disease is a common condition in Western countries and the incidence and prevalence of the disease is increasing. The pathogenetic factors involved include structural changes in the gut that increase with age, a diet low in fibre and rich in meat, changes in intestinal motility, the concept of enteric neuropathy and an underlying genetic background. Current treatment strategies are hampered by insufficient options to stratify patients according to individual risk. One of the main reasons is the lack of an all-encompassing classification system of diverticular disease. In response, the German Society for Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (DGVS) has proposed a classification system as part of its new guideline for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. The classification system includes five main types of disease: asymptomatic diverticulosis, acute uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis, as well as chronic diverticular disease and diverticular bleeding. Here, we review prevention and treatment strategies stratified by these five main types of disease, from prevention of the first attack of diverticulitis to the management of chronic complications and diverticular bleeding.

  8. DISEASE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bens Pardamean; Anindito; Anjela Djoeang; Nana Tobing

    2013-01-01

    The study designed an information system model for Disease Management (DisMan) that met the specifications and needs of a consumer electronics manufacturer. The diseases monitored by this study were diabetes, hypertension and tuberculosis. Data were collected through interviews with the companyâs human resources department and occupational health provider. As for the model, literature and online research were conducted to collect health standards and information system standards on existing D...

  9. Animal models for genetic neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainzof, Mariz; Ayub-Guerrieri, Danielle; Onofre, Paula C G; Martins, Poliana C M; Lopes, Vanessa F; Zilberztajn, Dinorah; Maia, Lucas S; Sell, Karen; Yamamoto, Lydia U

    2008-03-01

    The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal, sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models generally present physiological alterations observed in human patients and can be used as important tools for genetic, clinic, and histopathological studies. The mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although it is a good genetic and biochemical model, presenting total deficiency of the protein dystrophin in the muscle, this mouse is not useful for clinical trials because of its very mild phenotype. The canine golden retriever MD model represents a more clinically similar model of DMD due to its larger size and significant muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle MD forms models include the SJL/J mice, which develop a spontaneous myopathy resulting from a mutation in the Dysferlin gene, being a model for LGMD2B. For the human sarcoglycanopahties (SG), the BIO14.6 hamster is the spontaneous animal model for delta-SG deficiency, whereas some canine models with deficiency of SG proteins have also been identified. More recently, using the homologous recombination technique in embryonic stem cell, several mouse models have been developed with null mutations in each one of the four SG genes. All sarcoglycan-null animals display a progressive muscular dystrophy of variable severity and share the property of a significant secondary reduction in the expression of the other members of the sarcoglycan subcomplex and other components of the Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mouse models for congenital MD include the dy/dy (dystrophia-muscularis) mouse and the allelic mutant dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse

  10. Animal Models of Cardiac Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Lailiang; Li, Wenzhong; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yue(Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125, U.S.A.); Jie, Shen; Kong, Deling; Steinhoff, Gustav; Ma, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Animal models that mimic cardiovascular diseases are indispensable tools for understanding the mechanisms underlying the diseases at the cellular and molecular level. This review focuses on various methods in preclinical research to create small animal models of cardiac diseases, such as myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure, myocarditis and cardiac hypertrophy, and the related stem cell treatment for these diseases.

  11. Pathophysiology and management of progressive renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S A; Crowell, W A; Brown, C A; Barsanti, J A; Finco, D R

    1997-09-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that all renal diseases are inherently progressive and self-perpetuating has focused attention on adaptive changes in renal structure and function that occur whenever renal function is reduced. These glomerular adaptations to renal disease include increases in filtration rate, capillary pressure and size, and are referred to as glomerular hyperfiltration, glomerular hypertension and glomerular hypertrophy, respectively. Extrarenal changes, such as dietary phosphate excess, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, acidosis and hyperparathyroidism occur in animals with renal disease and may be contributors to progression of renal disease. Emphasis in the management of companion animals with renal disease has shifted to identifying, understanding and controlling those processes that play a role in the progression from early to end-stage renal failure. Advances made by veterinary nephrologists in the past 15 years permit resolution of old controversies, formulation of new hypotheses and discussion of unresolved issues about the nature of progressive renal disease in dogs and cats. PMID:9308397

  12. Joint diseases in animal paleopathology: Veterinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Stevanović,; Maciej Janeczek,; Aleksander Chrószcz; Nemanja Marković

    2015-01-01

    Animal paleopathology is not a very well known scientific discipline within veterinary science, but it has great importance for historical and archaeological investigations. In this paper, authors attention is focused on the description of one of the most common findings on the skeletal remains of animals - osteoarthropathies. This review particularly emphasizes the description and classification of the most common pathological changes in synovial joints. The authors have provided their obser...

  13. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionWithin the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds, establishment of control and surveillance zones with complete standstill of animals and possible export bans on live animals. Epidemics clearly have a serious impact, in particular on countries with a high farm density and an export- oriented produ...

  14. Animal Models of Human Granulocyte Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Klein, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In vivo animal models have proven very useful to understand basic biological pathways of the immune system, a prerequisite for the development of innovate therapies. This manuscript addresses currently available models for defined human monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes, including murine, zebrafish and larger mammalian species. Strengths and weaknesses of each system are summarized, and clinical investigators may thus be inspired to develop further lines of research to improve di...

  15. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.; Ipema, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal speci

  16. Using Powerpoint Animations to Teach Operations Management Techniques and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleven, Mark D.; Penlesky, Richard J.; Callarman, Thomas E.; Watts, Charles A.; Bragg, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the value of using complex animated PowerPoint presentations to teach operations management techniques and concepts. To provide context, literature covering the use of PowerPoint animations in business education is briefly reviewed. The specific animations employed in this study are identified and their expected benefits to…

  17. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Koene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry, recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

  18. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per Torp; Ney, Denise M; Sigalet, David L;

    2014-01-01

    enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, nutritional interventions and growth factor therapies. Animal studies may...

  19. Zoonotic disease concerns in animal-assisted therapy and animal visitation programs

    OpenAIRE

    Waltner-Toews, David

    1993-01-01

    A survey was done of 150 systematically selected United States animal care agencies and 74 Canadian humane societies to determine the prevalence of animal assisted therapy (AAT) programs; concerns about, and experience with, zoonotic diseases; and precautions taken to prevent zoonotic disease transmission. Of the 69 US agencies and 49 Canadian societies that reported having AAT programs, 94% used dogs and/or cats in their programs, 28% used rabbits, 15% used “pocket pets” (hamsters, gerbils, ...

  20. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare.

  1. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  2. The enduring importance of animal modelsin understanding periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hajishengallis, George; Lamont, Richard J.; Graves, Dana T.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas no single animal model can reproduce the complexity of periodontitis, different aspects of the disease can be addressed by distinct models. Despite their limitations, animal models are essential for testing the biological significance of in vitro findings and for establishing cause-and-effect relationships relevant to clinical observations, which are typically correlative. We provide evidence that animal-based studies have generated a durable framework for dissecting the mechanistic b...

  3. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa; Winblad, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer's disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind...... that of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer's disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to the existing mouse models. This review summarizes the contributions and current status of the rat...... as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease....

  4. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    OpenAIRE

    de Koeijer, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the availability of information and data to build and quantify these models is essential for applying such models in real life. In this thesis, models on the spread of infectious diseases in animals are...

  5. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen DONG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  6. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wen; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  7. Animal diseases of public health importance.

    OpenAIRE

    Orriss, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing pro...

  8. Animal models of primary myocardial diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S. K.; Tilley, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Feline and canine cardiomyopathies (primary myocardial diseases) were reviewed and divided into three groups based on the clinical, hemodynamic, angiocardiographic, and pathologic findings: (1) feline and canine hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, (2) feline and canine congestive (dilated) cardiomyopathy, and (3) feline restrictive cardiomyopathy. All three groups consisted predominantly of mature adult male cats and dogs. Cardiomyopathy in the hamster and turkey was also reviewed. The most common p...

  9. Engineering Large Animal Species to Model Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are an important resource for studying human diseases. Genetically engineered mice are the most commonly used species and have made significant contributions to our understanding of basic biology, disease mechanisms, and drug development. However, they often fail to recreate important aspects of human diseases and thus can have limited utility as translational research tools. Developing disease models in species more similar to humans may provide a better setting in which to study disease pathogenesis and test new treatments. This unit provides an overview of the history of genetically engineered large animals and the techniques that have made their development possible. Factors to consider when planning a large animal model, including choice of species, type of modification and methodology, characterization, production methods, and regulatory compliance, are also covered. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367161

  10. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Donagh P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.

  11. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionWithin the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds, establishment of control and surve

  12. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Bem; J.B. Domachowske; H.F. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for n

  13. The social and political impact of animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B

    2006-01-01

    The twenty-first century is characterised by 'epidemiological globalisation' on an unprecedented scale with resulting impacts at the interface of economic, scientific, social and political forces arising from the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases. Throughout history, animals have served as a source to humankind of food, transportation, medicines, entertainment, clothing, fuel, military advantage and financial security. It is therefore not at all surprising that animal diseases have resulted in significant social and political impacts that have shaped and continue to shape the course of national and international events. The social impacts can be expressed as indirect health consequences or behavioural changes, changes in societal values and changes in social standing and can be felt at the individual, family or community level. The political impact of major disease outbreaks can include loss of public and consumer confidence, resistance to investments in disease surveillance, reluctance to report disease detections in a timely or transparent manner, failure to implement science-based international standards for safe trade (which protect animal, human and ecosystem health) and the removal of government officials. The magnitude of these impacts would support that social and political impacts warrant their inclusion in the consequence assessment of a robust animal disease risk analysis framework. PMID:20429074

  14. Critical Behavior in a Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, P D; Chang, Julius

    2003-01-01

    Using a cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared on a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock on an infected premise (IP). Those farms that neighbor an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor iteractions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The non-local disease transport probability can be as low as .01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fissio...

  15. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  16. Management of Perthes′ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main complication of Perthes′ disease is femoral head deformation. Evidence from the literature highlights two important factors related to the cause and timing of this complication. (1 Extrusion of the femoral head appears to be a major factor that leads to femoral head deformation. (2 Deformation of the femoral head occurs in the latter part of the stage of fragmentation. The likelihood of preventing femoral head deformation is over 16 times higher if extrusion is reversed or prevented by the early stage of fragmentation than if done later. Several treatment options have been described in children who present later in the course of the disease but the outcomes of all these measures do not compare with those of early intervention.

  17. Models for managing wildlife disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCALLUM, Hamish

    2016-06-01

    Modelling wildlife disease poses some unique challenges. Wildlife disease systems are data poor in comparison with human or livestock disease systems, and the impact of disease on population size is often the key question of interest. This review concentrates specifically on the application of dynamic models to evaluate and guide management strategies. Models have proved useful particularly in two areas. They have been widely used to evaluate vaccination strategies, both for protecting endangered species and for preventing spillover from wildlife to humans or livestock. They have also been extensively used to evaluate culling strategies, again both for diseases in species of conservation interest and to prevent spillover. In addition, models are important to evaluate the potential of parasites and pathogens as biological control agents. The review concludes by identifying some key research gaps, which are further development of models of macroparasites, deciding on appropriate levels of complexity, modelling genetic management and connecting models to data. PMID:26283059

  18. Animal Control Chapter Management Plans: Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document will define station scope, objectives, and procedures for animal control activities specific to the overall station Objectives and Management Strategy...

  19. Animal Control Management Plan: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Animal Control Management Plan for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge outlines the procedures for controlling wildlife and fish populations to keep them...

  20. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lalander, Cecilia; Komakech, Allan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomp...

  1. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  2. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit th...

  3. Outline for an integrated modelling approach concerning risks and economic consequences of contagious animal diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Management decisions on control of major infectious animal diseases may have a large impact, but are usually based on scarce and unreliable information. An integrated model which combines the various aspects of outbreaks and risks with economic consequences has yet to be developed. A flexible model

  4. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-07-12

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy.

  5. Team management of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. By using published sources, the disease process, clinical findings, and medical management of Parkinson's disease are reviewed. The continual change in the clinical picture as well as the therapeutic needs require that clinicians have a full understanding of the disease and drugs used. This is followed by a description of a group program, including the evaluation process, treatment goals, and individual and group activities employed. Rehabilitation services are needed as medical management alone is not sufficient to maintain patient's daily living skills. The occupational therapist is skilled in assessment and training of activities for daily living. As a result, occupational therapy can be an integral part of the treatment program.

  6. Concise Review: Stem Cell Trials Using Companion Animal Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Andrew M; Dow, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports. Disease models included osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's fistulas, meningoencephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis-like), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Sjogren's syndrome-like), atopic dermatitis, and chronic (end-stage) kidney disease. Stem cells evaluated in these studies included mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (MSC, 17/19 trials), olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC, 1 trial), or neural lineage cells derived from bone marrow MSC (1 trial), and 16/19 studies were performed in dogs. The MSC studies (13/17) used adipose tissue-derived MSC from either allogeneic (8/13) or autologous (5/13) sources. The majority of studies were open label, uncontrolled studies. Endpoints and protocols were feasible, and the stem cell therapies were reportedly safe and elicited beneficial patient responses in all but two of the trials. In conclusion, companion animals with naturally occurring diseases analogous to human conditions can be recruited into clinical trials and provide realistic insight into feasibility, safety, and biologic activity of novel stem cell therapies. However, improvements in the rigor of manufacturing, study design, and regulatory compliance will be needed to better utilize these models. Stem Cells 2016;34:1709-1729. PMID:27066769

  7. CONTROL OF ANIMAL DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA: PRINCIPLES AND APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ahmad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available To continue to exist, a bacterial pathogen must reproduce and be disseminated among its hosts. Thus, an important aspect of bacterial disease control is a consideration of how reproduction and dissemination of the organism occur. One must identify components of bacterial dissemination that are primarily responsible for a particular disease. Control measures should be directed toward that part of the cycle which is most susceptible to control the weakest links in the chain of disease process. Reducing or eliminating the source or reservoir of infection, breaking the connection between the source of the infection and susceptible animals and reducing the number of susceptible animals by raising the general level of herd immunity with immunization are three main kinds of control measures against bacterial diseases.

  8. Review: management of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrosa DJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available David J Pedrosa, Lars Timmermann Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most frequent neurological diseases. Despite the modern imaging and nuclear techniques which help to diagnose it in a very early stage and lead to a better discrimination of similar diseases, PD has remained a clinical diagnosis. The increasing number of available treatment options makes the disease management often complicated even when the presence of PD seems undoubted. In addition, nonmotor symptoms and side effects of some therapies constitute some pitfalls already in the preclinical state or at the beginnings of the disease, especially with the progressive effect on patients. Therefore, this review aimed to summarize study results and depict recommended medical treatments for the most common motor and nonmotor symptoms in PD. Additionally, emerging new therapeutic options such as continuous pump therapies, eg, with apomorphine or parenteral levodopa, or the implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation were also considered. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, disease management, side effects, nonmotor symptoms, DBS, pump therapies

  9. Critical Behavior in Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, P. D.; Chang, Julius

    Using cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared in a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock in an infected premise (IP). Those farms in the neighboring of an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor interactions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The nonlocal disease transport probability can be as low as 0.01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fission cascade. Finally, we calculate that the percentage of culled animals that are actually healthy is ≈30%.

  10. Disease management and medication compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua; Christensen, Kathyrn; Feldman, Lanna

    2012-02-01

    Lack of medication compliance is harmful to health care systems from both a clinical and economic perspective. This study examines the methods that disease management organizations employ to identify nonadherent patients and to measure effectiveness of compliance programs for patients with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cystic fibrosis. In addition, this study investigates the degree to which disease managers assume risk in their contracts, and whether compliance strategies are being coordinated with payers' use of value-based insurance design, in which patient cost sharing is a function of the relative value of pharmaceuticals. This study's findings suggest that disease management may be falling short in terms of: (a) comprehensive commitment to expert-recommended at-home devices used to self-diagnose and measure health indicators; (b) early adoption of expert-recommended new technologies to measure and improve compliance; (c) intensity of use of standard tests in outpatient clinics; (d) coordination of compliance strategies with payers' use of value-based insurance design; and (e) the proportion of risk assumed in disease management contracts.

  11. Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

  12. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, A.A. de

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the a

  13. Regulatory T Cells and Their Role in Animal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, T

    2016-07-01

    In humans and mouse models, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are known to control all aspects of immune responses. However, only limited information exists on these cells' role in diseases of other animals. In this review, we cover the most important features and different types of regulatory T cells, which include those that are thymus-derived and peripherally induced, the mechanisms by which they control immune responses by targeting effector T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and most important, their role in animal health and diseases including cancer, infections, and other conditions such as hypersensitivities and autoimmunity. Although the literature regarding regulatory T cells in domestic animal species is still limited, multiple articles have recently emerged and are discussed. Moreover, we also discuss the evidence suggesting that regulatory T cells might limit the magnitude of effector responses, which can have either a positive or negative result, depending on the context of animal and human disease. In addition, the issue of plasticity is discussed because plasticity in regulatory T cells can result in the loss of their protective function in some microenvironments during disease. Lastly, the manipulation of regulatory T cells is discussed in assessing the possibility of their use as a treatment in the future. PMID:26945003

  14. Educational preparedness of veterinarians for foreign animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Mark C; Gibbs, E Paul J; Brown, Corrie C; Wagner, G Gale; Wilson, Terry M; Lautner, Beth A

    2003-05-15

    Veterinary medical education in FADs has been and will continue to be critically important if veterinarians are expected to fulfill the profession's primary obligations to society--those of protecting our animals' health, conserving our animal resources, and promoting public health. It is imperative that curricula and instruction in veterinary schools and colleges provide the depth and breadth of knowledge and understanding necessary to prepare all veterinarians, including those in private practice, for their key role in defending against FADs. Development and implementation of governmental and military programs to diagnose, prevent, control, and eradicate FADs will require a dedicated cadre of public sector veterinarians who have a solid educational foundation in FADs and understand the contemporary issues and global challenges we face. Animal-related industries, associations, and organizations will increasingly rely on well-educated veterinarians to help guide them in ways that will protect animals, clientele, consumers, and trading partners from effects of FADs. Agencies and organizations concerned with conservation of animal resources will require veterinary expertise necessary to prevent FADs in a multitude of animal species, including marine animals, wildlife, endangered species, zoologic specimens, and important genetic lines as well as our domestic companion and livestock species. Species affected by FADs also include human beings for those disease agents with zoonotic potential; thus, veterinary education also plays a key role in public health. PMID:12762377

  15. Taming wildlife disease: bridging the gap between science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Maxwell B.; Mihaljevic, Joseph R.; Arellano, Ana Lisette; Kueneman, Jordan G.; Cross, Paul C.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.

    2013-01-01

    1.Parasites and pathogens of wildlife can threaten biodiversity, infect humans and domestic animals, and cause significant economic losses, providing incentives to manage wildlife diseases. Recent insights from disease ecology have helped transform our understanding of infectious disease dynamics and yielded new strategies to better manage wildlife diseases. Simultaneously, wildlife disease management (WDM) presents opportunities for large-scale empirical tests of disease ecology theory in diverse natural systems. 2.To assess whether the potential complementarity between WDM and disease ecology theory has been realized, we evaluate the extent to which specific concepts in disease ecology theory have been explicitly applied in peer-reviewed WDM literature. 3.While only half of WDM articles published in the past decade incorporated disease ecology theory, theory has been incorporated with increasing frequency over the past 40 years. Contrary to expectations, articles authored by academics were no more likely to apply disease ecology theory, but articles that explain unsuccessful management often do so in terms of theory. 4.Some theoretical concepts such as density-dependent transmission have been commonly applied, whereas emerging concepts such as pathogen evolutionary responses to management, biodiversity–disease relationships and within-host parasite interactions have not yet been fully integrated as management considerations. 5.Synthesis and applications. Theory-based disease management can meet the needs of both academics and managers by testing disease ecology theory and improving disease interventions. Theoretical concepts that have received limited attention to date in wildlife disease management could provide a basis for improving management and advancing disease ecology in the future.

  16. Animal models for Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Götz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In dementia research, animal models have become indispensable tools. They not only model aspects of the human condition, but also simulate processes that occur in humans and hence provide insight into how disease is initiated and propagated. The present review discusses two prominent human neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. It discusses what we would like to model in animals and highlights some of the more recent achievements using species as diverse as mice, fish, flies and worms. Advances in imaging and therapy are explored. We also discuss some anticipated new models and developments. These will reveal how key players in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, such as the peptide Aβ (amyloid β and the protein tau, cause neuronal dysfunction and eventually, neuronal demise. Understanding these processes fully will lead to early diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Prion and prion-like diseases in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; García, Consolación; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Andreoletti, Olivier; Torres, Juan María

    2015-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopaties (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the aggregation and accumulation of the misfolded prion protein in the brain. Other proteins such as β-amyloid, tau or Serum Amyloid-A (SAA) seem to share with prions some aspects of their pathogenic mechanism; causing a variety of so called prion-like diseases in humans and/or animals such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Type II diabetes mellitus or amyloidosis. The question remains whether these misfolding proteins have the ability to self-propagate and transmit in a similar manner to prions. In this review, we describe the prion and prion-like diseases affecting animals as well as the recent findings suggesting the prion-like transmissibility of certain non-prion proteins.

  18. Challenges and opportunities for managing respiratory disease in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amy

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is important for the Ontario dairy industry due to the large economic and welfare costs of this disease. Practical science-based management techniques are needed to control and reduce the risk of this disease. Currently, the emphasis on BRD is focused on early detection of disease and prevention. These areas are important but it is not practical to assume this disease will be eliminated in the near future. It is necessary to determine the best practices for caring for sick animals, monitoring their recovery and making changes to their management to facilitate health and recovery. If management changes can be made for animals that are failing to thrive in a current situation, a more complete recovery may be possible and the welfare and economic costs of BRD may be minimized. PMID:20003645

  19. Animal models of Parkinson's disease and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Jin Park, Ting Ting Zhao, Myung Koo LeeDepartment of Pharmacy, Research Center for Bioresource and Health, College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that occurs mainly due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neuronal cells in the substantia nigra. l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA is the most effective known therapy for PD. However, chronic L-DOPA administration results in a loss of drug efficacy and irreversible adverse effects, including L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, affective disorders, and cognitive function disorders. To study the motor and non-motor symptomatic dysfunctions in PD, neurotoxin and genetic animal models of PD have been widely applied. However, these animal models do not exhibit all of the pathophysiological symptoms of PD. Regardless, neurotoxin rat and mouse models of PD have been commonly used in the development of bioactive components from natural herbal medicines. Here, the main animal models of PD and their applications have been introduced in order to aid the development of therapeutic and adjuvant agents. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, neurotoxin animal models, genetic animal models, adjuvant therapeutics

  20. Animal models of skin disease for drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Pinar; Sadasivam, Magesh; Gupta, Asheesh; De Melo, Wanessa CMA; Huang, Ying-Ying; Yin, Rui; Rakkiyappan, Chandran; Kumar, Raj; Otufowora, Ayodeji; Nyame, Theodore; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Discovery of novel drugs, treatments, and testing of consumer products in the field of dermatology is a multi-billion dollar business. Due to the distressing nature of many dermatological diseases, and the enormous consumer demand for products to reverse the effects of skin photodamage, aging, and hair loss, this is a very active field. Areas covered In this paper, we will cover the use of animal models that have been reported to recapitulate to a greater or lesser extent the features of human dermatological disease. There has been a remarkable increase in the number and variety of transgenic mouse models in recent years, and the basic strategy for constructing them is outlined. Expert opinion Inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases are all represented by a range of mouse models both transgenic and normal. Skin cancer is mainly studied in mice and fish. Wound healing is studied in a wider range of animal species, and skin infections such as acne and leprosy also have been studied in animal models. Moving to the more consumer-oriented area of dermatology, there are models for studying the harmful effect of sunlight on the skin, and testing of sunscreens, and several different animal models of hair loss or alopecia. PMID:23293893

  1. The Cambridge MRI database for animal models of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Cambridge animal brain magnetic resonance imaging repository comprising 400 datasets to date from mouse models of Huntington disease. The data include raw images as well as segmented grey and white matter images with maps of cortical thickness. All images and phenotypic data for each subject are freely-available without restriction from (http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/243361/). Software and anatomical population templates optimised for animal brain analysis with MRI are also available from this site.

  2. Unintended Consequences of Conservation Actions: Managing Disease in Complex Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvenet, Aliénor L. M.; Durant, Sarah M.; Ray Hilborn; Nathalie Pettorelli

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly recognised to be a major threat to biodiversity. Disease management tools such as control of animal movements and vaccination can be used to mitigate the impact and spread of diseases in targeted species. They can reduce the risk of epidemics and in turn the risks of population decline and extinction. However, all species are embedded in communities and interactions between species can be complex, hence increasing the chance of survival of one species can ...

  3. Animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihisa Takahashi; Yurie Soejima; Toshio Fukusato

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of a patient without a history of alcohol abuse.Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH),a severe form of NAFLD,can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.NAFLD is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and incidence has been increasing worldwide in line with the increased prevalence of obesity,type 2 diabetes,and hyperlipemia.Animal models of NAFLD/NASH give crucial information,not only in elucidating pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH but also in examining therapeutic effects of various agents.An ideal model of NAFLD/NASH should correctly reflect both hepatic histopathology and pathophysiology of human NAFLD/NASH.Animal models of NAFLD/NASH are divided into genetic,dietary,and combination models.In this paper,we review commonly used animal models of NAFLD/NASH referring to their advantages and disadvantages.

  4. On the surveillance for animal diseases in small herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Small herds may present a problem in surveillance for infectious animal diseases because typical levels of a within-herd design prevalence are not directly applicable. We suggest a definition of small herds as those smaller than 2/(within-herd design prevalence) on the basis that such herds would...... be expected to have less than two (i.e. only one) infected animals. Consequently, the probability of detecting small herds cannot be improved by choosing a larger sample size within the herd. We derive necessary sample sizes of herds and the probability ("confidence") of detecting disease within a stratum...... of small herds, given the among-herd design prevalence and test diagnostic sensitivity. Both a binomial model and a Poisson model can be used to establish the confidence for a given sample size of herds (and vice versa). The results of a simulation study suggest that the Poisson model provides more...

  5. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of

  6. Large Animal Models for Batten Disease: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Krystal; Pearce, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively referred to as Batten disease, make up a group of inherited childhood disorders that result in blindness, motor and cognitive regression, brain atrophy, and seizures, ultimately leading to premature death. So far more than 10 genes have been implicated in different forms of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Most related research has involved mouse models, but several naturally occurring large animal models have recently been discovered. In th...

  7. Tuberculosis: a re-emerging disease in animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles O. Thoen, DVM, PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be an important disease both in humans and animals. It causes morbidity, mortality and economic loss worldwide. The occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis disease in humans, domesticated and wild animals confirms the relevance of this zoonosis. M. bovis in humans continues to be reported in industrialised countries and in immigrants from regions of the world where tuberculosis in cattle is endemic. The real incidence of M. bovis in humans in developing countries continues to be roughly under-estimated due to the scarcity of appropriate laboratory facilities to isolate and to differentiate M. bovis strains. In Latin America, less than 1% of tuberculosis cases are reported as being due to M. bovis. However, the economic relevance that meat and dairy industries play in these countries stimulates the promotion of bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes. Human-to-human airborne transmission of M. bovis does occur and it may be important where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in humans is prevalent, M. bovis infection in cattle is enzootic and pasteurisation of dairy products is not routinely practised. Eradication of M. bovis in cattle and pasteurisation of dairy products are the cornerstones of prevention of human disease. Measures should be developed to identify and control M. bovis infection in wild animals as these may be important reservoirs of infection for domesticated food-producing animals. There is a need for medical and veterinary professionals to cooperate on disease outbreaks. The information presented herein strongly supports the ‘One World/One Health/One Medicine’ concept.

  8. European organic dairy farmers’ preference for animal health management within the farm management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van F.J.S.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management an

  9. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrew W

    2012-07-01

    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

  10. Malarial birds: modeling infectious human disease in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leo B

    2005-01-01

    Through the examination of avian malarias as models of infectious human disease, this paper reveals the kinds of claims that scientists and physicians made on the basis of animal models-biological systems in the laboratory and the field-and what characteristics made for congruence between these models and human malaria. The focus is on the period between 1895 and 1945, and on the genesis and trajectory of certain animal models of malaria within specific locations, such as the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore and Bayer (I. G. Farben) in Elberfeld. These exemplars illustrate a diversity of approaches to malaria-as-disease, and the difficulties of framing aspects of this disease complex within an animal or laboratory system. The diversity and nearness to wild types of the birds, protozoan parasites, and mosquitoes that made up these malaria models contributed a great deal to the complexity of the models. Avian malarias, adopted with enthusiasm, were essential to the success of the U.S. antimalarial program during World War II.

  11. Disease management: program design, development, and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, N; DePue, D M

    1997-06-01

    Disease management is an emerging approach to patient management, customer satisfaction, and cost containment that comprises disease modeling; patient segmentation and risk assessment; clinical protocols; and wellness, self-management, and education. Implementing a disease management program poses significant challenges to healthcare organizations. To successfully implement a disease management program, a tightly integrated continuum of care, sophisticated information systems, and disease management support systems must be in place. Strategic partnerships with outside vendors may speed program implementation and provide opportunities to develop risk-sharing relationships. PMID:10167840

  12. Utilization and environmental management of residues from intensive animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manures are traditional sources of nutrients in agriculture. Under proper management, manures provide nutrients to soil, reducing or eliminating the use of commercial fertilizers, as well as organic carbon that improves soil physical properties and soil health. However, excessive application ...

  13. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully.

  14. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully. PMID:20375436

  15. Infectious animal diseases: the wildlife/livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengis, R G; Kock, R A; Fischer, J

    2002-04-01

    The long-standing conflict between livestock owners and animal health authorities on the one hand, and wildlife conservationists on the other, is largely based on differing attitudes to controlling diseases of livestock which are associated with wildlife. The authors have attempted to highlight the fact that these disease problems are frequently bi-directional at the wildlife/livestock interface. The different categories of diseases involved are presented. A new dimension being faced by veterinary regulatory authorities is the spectre of emerging sylvatic foci of diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis, bovine brucellosis and possibly rinderpest; these diseases threaten to undermine national and international eradication schemes, which have been implemented and executed with significant success, and at great cost. Conversely, wildlife-based ecotourism world-wide has expanded rapidly over the past decade and is the source of lacking foreign revenue for many developing countries. Traditional subsistence farming is still the largest source of much-needed protein on some continents and this, together with the growth and hunger of historically disadvantaged communities for land, is forcing enterprises and communities with markedly different objectives and land-use practices to operate effectively in close proximity. Some land-users rely exclusively on wildlife, others on livestock and/or agronomy, while yet others need to combine these activities. The net result may be an expansion or intensification of the interface between wildlife and domestic livestock, which will require innovative control strategies that permit differing types of wildlife/livestock interaction, and that do not threaten the land-use options of neighbours, or the ability of a country to market animals and animal products profitably.

  16. MeCP2-Related Diseases and Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinelo D. Ezeonwuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of epigenetics in human disease has become an area of increased research interest. Collaborative efforts from scientists and clinicians have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Several neurological and non-neurological disorders are associated with mutations in genes that encode for epigenetic factors. One of the most studied proteins that impacts human disease and is associated with deregulation of epigenetic processes is Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2. MeCP2 is an epigenetic regulator that modulates gene expression by translating epigenetic DNA methylation marks into appropriate cellular responses. In order to highlight the importance of epigenetics to development and disease, we will discuss how MeCP2 emerges as a key epigenetic player in human neurodevelopmental, neurological, and non-neurological disorders. We will review our current knowledge on MeCP2-related diseases, including Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Hirschsprung disease, and Cancer. Additionally, we will briefly discuss about the existing MeCP2 animal models that have been generated for a better understanding of how MeCP2 impacts certain human diseases.

  17. REVIEW ON IMPORTANT HELMINTHIC DISEASES IN ANIMAL IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. P. Suweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.

  18. Relationship of trade patterns of the Danish swine industry animal movements network to potential disease spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Barfod, Kristen; Mortensen, Sten;

    2007-01-01

    can be randomly generated on the basis of farm density of the surrounding area of any farm is not correct since the patterns of animal movements have the topology of a scale-free network with a large degree of heterogeneity. This supported the opinion that the disease spread software assuming...... homogeneity in farm-to-farm relationship should only be used for large-scale interpretation and for epidemic preparedness. The network approach, based on graph theory, can be used efficiently to express more precisely, on a local scale (premise), the heterogeneity of animal movements. This approach......, by providing network knowledge to the local veterinarian in charge of controlling disease spread, should also be evaluated as a potential tool to manage epidemics during the crisis. Geographic information systems could also be linked in the approach to produce knowledge about local transmission of disease....

  19. The history of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) 1920-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert P; Ellis, L Susanne Squires; Kohler, Erwin M

    2015-12-01

    The following history has been compiled and written by the authors. The historical facts are available from the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) archives, dating back to letters and summaries written by the founders, and by a few of the Secretary-Treasurers from the early decades through 2014. THE ORGANIZATION AND PURPOSE: The CRWAD is a non-profit organization and has been since its origin. The sole purpose of CRWAD is to discuss and disseminate the most current research advances in animal diseases. Graduate students and industry and academic professionals present and discuss the most recent advances on subjects of interest to the CRWAD and of importance to the global livestock and companion animal industries. The oral and poster abstracts of new and unpublished data presented at the meeting sessions are published each year in the CRWAD Proceedings (formerly the CRWAD Abstracts). CRWAD publishes, copyrights, and distributes the Proceedings. The presentations are arranged into the following 10 sections, according to the primary topic of the presentation: Bacterial Pathogenesis, Biosafety and Biosecurity, Companion Animal Epidemiology, Ecology and Management of Foodborne Agents, Epidemiology and Animal Health Economics, Immunology, Pathobiology of Enteric and Foodborne Pathogens, Respiratory Diseases, Vector-Borne and Parasitic Diseases, and Viral Pathogenesis. Prospective members should be actively engaged in animal disease research or research administration. Meeting information and membership applications may be obtained by contacting the Executive Director or by visiting the CRWAD website. Annual abstracts are currently available on-line at the On-line Meeting Planner and Itinerary Builder, with access through the CRWAD website.

  20. Epidemiology and Economics Support Decisions about Freedom from Aquatic Animal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, E J; Otte, M J

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we review the application of epidemiology and economics to decision-making about freedom from aquatic animal disease, at national and regional level, and recent examples from Europe. Epidemiological data (e.g. pathogen prevalence and distribution) determine the technical feasibility and cost of eradication. The eradication of pathogens which exist in wild populations, or in a latent state, is technically difficult, uncertain and expensive. Notably, the eradication of diseases of molluscs is rarely attempted because host populations (farmed and wild) cannot be completely removed from open water systems. Doubt about the success of eradication translates into uncertain ex-ante cost estimates. Additionally, the benefits of an official disease-free status cannot be estimated with any accuracy. For example, in Europe, official freedom from epizootic ulcerative syndrome and white spot syndrome virus has not been pursued, arguably because the evidence does not exist for the benefits (reduced risk of disease in wild populations) to be estimated and thus weighed against the costs of maintaining disease freedom (e.g. restriction on imports). Economic analysis must assess not only whether the benefits of disease freedom outweigh costs, but whether it is the economically optimal disease control option. Government may also want to compare investment in aquatic animal health with other opportunities. As resources become scarce, governments have sought to share costs of disease control with industry, and thus to ensure equity, the distribution benefits must be known so costs can be borne by those who benefit. The economic principles to support decisions about disease freedom are well established, but their application is constrained by lack of epidemiological data, which may explain the lack of economic analysis in support of aquatic animal management in Europe. The integration of epidemiology and economics in disease control planning will identify research aimed at

  1. Defective membrane remodeling in neuromuscular diseases: insights from animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda S Cowling

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in membrane remodeling play an essential role in a plethora of cell functions including endocytosis and intracellular transport. Defects in several of them lead to human diseases. Myotubularins, amphiphysins, and dynamins are all proteins implicated in membrane trafficking and/or remodeling. Mutations in myotubularin, amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, and dynamin 2 lead to different forms of centronuclear myopathy, while mutations in myotubularin-related proteins cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. In addition to centronuclear myopathy, dynamin 2 is also mutated in a dominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. While several proteins from these different families are implicated in similar diseases, mutations in close homologues or in the same protein in the case of dynamin 2 lead to diseases affecting different tissues. This suggests (1 a common molecular pathway underlying these different neuromuscular diseases, and (2 tissue-specific regulation of these proteins. This review discusses the pathophysiology of the related neuromuscular diseases on the basis of animal models developed for proteins of the myotubularin, amphiphysin, and dynamin families. A better understanding of the common mechanisms between these neuromuscular disorders will lead to more specific health care and therapeutic approaches.

  2. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike. PMID:27217172

  3. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.

  4. Management to reduce nitrogen losses in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen loss in animal production requires whole-farm management. Reduced loss from one farm component is easily negated in another if all components are not equally well managed. Animal excretion of manure N can be decreased by improving the balance of protein or amino acids fed to that required by individual animals or animal groups or by improving production efficiency. Management to increase milk, meat, or egg production normally improves efficiency by reducing the maintenance protein required per unit of production. Large losses of manure nitrogen occur through the ammonia and nitrous oxide that are emitted into the atmosphere and the nitrate leached into groundwater. Up to half of the excreted nitrogen is lost from the housing facility, but this loss can be decreased through frequent manure removal and by avoiding deep litter systems and feedlots. Techniques such as acid treatment of manure, scrubbing of ventilation air, and floor designs for separating feces and urine substantially reduce ammonia emissions, but these practices are often impractical or uneconomical for general use. Manure storage units improve nutrient utilization by allowing better timing of nutrient application with crop needs. At least 70% of the nitrogen entering anaerobic lagoons is typically lost, but a less than 10% loss can be maintained using slurry storage with a natural crust or other cover, or by drying poultry manure to at least 50% dry matter. Irrigation and surface spreading of manure without soil incorporation often ensures the loss of all remaining nonorganic nitrogen (typically, 20 to 40% of remaining nitrogen). Rapid incorporation and shallow injection methods decrease this loss by at least 50%, and deep injection into the soil essentially eliminates this loss. For grazing animals, excessive loss can be avoided by not overstocking pastures and avoiding late fall and winter grazing. Reducing emissions between the animal and the soil can lead to greater leaching

  5. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoki Mwabukusi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara, Burundi (Muyinga and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke. Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server–client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6, and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing

  6. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    .  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk......  The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  7. Animer le web 2.0 : Community manager

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The document describes the new job of community manager. Au début, il y avait le jeu. Tout est là, surtout dans les jeux en ligne MMO : interactivité, réactivité, animation, réseau, communauté. Animer le jeu, créer du trafic, dynamiser le site, générer du chiffre d'affaires... L'évolution du e-commerce et du web 2.0 a vu naître un nouveau métier, la fonction de community manager, à la frontière entre communication, relation clientèle et marketing.

  8. Toxin-Induced and Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hisahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The major pathological hallmarks of PD are the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intraneuronal aggregates termed Lewy bodies (LBs, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Epidemiologically, environmental neurotoxins such as pesticides are promising candidates for causative factors of PD. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by these toxins could contribute to the progression of PD. While most cases of PD are sporadic, specific mutations in genes that cause familial forms of PD have led to provide new insights into its pathogenesis. This paper focuses on animal models of both toxin-induced and genetically determined PD that have provided significant insight for understanding this disease. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and limitations of representative models.

  9. Diagnosis and epidemiology of animal diseases in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Support for scientists and their endeavours in developing countries by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is provided through FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects (TCPs). Using these mechanisms the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agricultural aims to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in developing countries to identify and resolve problems connected with improving livestock productivity and health. In 1986, the Section introduced and animal health component into its Project. The initial support was for five years but in 1991 this was extended for a further three years and linked with the support available from the IAEA's Technical Co-operation Project through national and regional TCPs and ARCAL activities in Latin America dealing with diagnosis of animal diseases. Central to this overall project ws the use of ELISA for the diagnosis and control of livestock diseases. FAO/IAEA CRPs are developed around a well defined research topic on which between 15 and 20 national institutes collaborate - the topic itself being defined through consultation with national authorities in developing and developed countries and international agricultural research centers and organizations. The primary role of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in such programmes is to ensure that the inputs and efforts under these programmes are co-ordinated and that the results are published. The studies being reported in this IAEA TECDOC were initiated in 1991 and whilst the focus was on three major disease affecting livestock in the region (foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), brucellosis and babesiosis) the approach taken by individual Research Control holders was different and thus in some cases research concentrated on assay validation whilst in other cases the focus was on the

  10. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Preventing disease spillover from animals to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health: NLM update Transcript Preventing disease spillover from animals to humans : 07/11/2016 To use the ... weekly topics. The prevention of disease transmission from animals to humans begins by careful surveillance of the ...

  11. Animal viral diseases and global change: Bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel eJimenez-Clavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue and West Nile fever/encephalitis, have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. Bluetongue, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. West Nile fever/encephalitis affects wildlife (birds, domestic animals (equines and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife and livestock. In Europe, West Nile virus is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the XXth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world?

  12. Disease risk assessments involving companion animals: an overview for 15 selected pathogens taking a European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rijks, J. M.; Cito, F.; Cunningham, A. A.; Rantsios, A. T.; Givannini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as dogs and cats, but also included diseases occurring in captive wild animals and production animal species. The prioritization process led to the selection of 15 diseases of prime public health releva...

  13. Humans, Other Animals and Disease: a comparative approach towards the development of a standardised recording protocol for animal palaeopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Vann

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the impact of animal disease on human societies has had an extremely high profile, with the spread of diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE and foot and mouth among animal populations, as well as the transmission of diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Ebola and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS from animal to human populations. The social and economic impact of such illnesses has been profound. However, studies on the effect of animal disease in past human populations have been widely neglected. This is partly due to the inconsistent manner in which instances of animal disease (palaeopathology are recorded, diagnosed and interpreted which, together with the typically low incidence of specimens per site, has precluded detailed studies of regional or temporal trends. This article outlines the archaeological rationale behind developing a generic methodology to enable the consistent recognition, recording and description of animal palaeopathological data. Furthermore, the experience of palaeopathologists concerned with human populations has been drawn upon to develop a downloadable, stand-alone recording system to facilitate the recording of animal palaeopathological data and enable questions concerning past animal health and disease to be better explored in future.

  14. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

  15. Integrated epidemiology and economics modelling for the management of animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Randolph, T F

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of integrated epidemiology and economics modelling in animal health planning, with particular reference to the evaluation of national level interventions that involve the vaccination of livestock. Well-integrated epidemiology and economics is considered essential if model outputs are to be of value in national animal disease control planning. The different approaches to the use of modelling in priority setting and resource allocation in animal health are reviewed and discussed. The authors conclude that this particular application of modelling is poorly developed, due in part to the complexities involved. Much more has been done to develop models that evaluate the merits of different intervention scenarios for a given single disease, and examples of these are presented. However, the authors conclude that despite the widespread use of such models, there is still considerable scope for the development of a more standardised approach, incorporating consideration of both direct and indirect implications of intervention options. In discussing the changing demands on animal health economics modelling, the authors propose that increased attention should be given to the valuation of "externalities", the calculation and interpretation of the distribution of costs and benefits, the evaluation of the impact of disease control on poverty reduction, and the development of real-time economics modelling techniques, to assist particularly in the effective management of disease outbreaks. PMID:15742652

  16. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov, A.N.; Ott, T.; Tricarico, J; Rotz, A.; Waghorn, G; Adesogan, A.T.; Dijkstra, J.; Montes, F.; Oh, J; Kebreab, E.; Oosting, S.J.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; H. P. S. Makkar; Firkins, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data on animal management practices that mitigate enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Increasing animal productivity can be a very effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of livestock product. Improving the genetic potential of animals through planned cross-breeding or selection within breeds and achieving this genetic potential through proper nutrition and improvements...

  17. Wildlife in U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hadidian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in the United States with a focus on the moral concerns this raises. Much of the future for urban wildlife will depend on reform in governance, but much as well will depend on cultural changes that promote greater respect and understanding for wild animals and the biotic communities of which they and we are both a part.

  18. Wildlife in U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidian, John

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in the United States with a focus on the moral concerns this raises. Much of the future for urban wildlife will depend on reform in governance, but much as well will depend on cultural changes that promote greater respect and understanding for wild animals and the biotic communities of which they and we are both a part. PMID:26569317

  19. Associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Mahony, T J; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S

    2016-03-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Animal characteristics were recorded at induction, when animals were individually identified and enrolled into study cohorts (comprising animals in a feedlot pen). Environmental risk factors included the year and season of induction, source region and feedlot region and summary variables describing weather during the first week of follow-up. In total, 35,131 animals inducted into 170 cohorts within 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building and multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Breed, induction weight and season of induction were significantly and strongly associated with risk of BRD. Compared to Angus cattle, Herefords were at markedly increased risk (OR: 2.0, 95% credible interval: 1.5-2.6) and tropically adapted breeds and their crosses were at markedly reduced risk (OR: 0.5, 95% credible interval: 0.3-0.7) of developing BRD. Risk of BRD declined with increased induction weight, with cattle in the heaviest weight category (≥480kg) at moderately reduced risk compared to cattle weighing risk compared to animals inducted during spring. Knowledge of these risk factors may be useful in predicting BRD risk for incoming groups of cattle in Australian feedlots. This would then provide the opportunity for feedlot managers to tailor management strategies for specific subsets of animals according to predicted BRD risk.

  20. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  1. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies

  2. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies. PMID:25728090

  3. Pathogenesis and management of Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    Hepatolenticular degeneration, commonly known as Wilson disease, is an autosomal recessive inherited disease of abnormal copper metabolism, characterized by the accumulation of copper in the body due to decreased biliary excretion of copper from hepatocytes. Wilson disease protein, ATP7B, functions in copper excretion into bile and in copper secretion to the bloodstream coupled with ceruloplasmin synthesis. Various kinds of mutations of ATP7B cause Wilson disease. Wilson disease is a rare genetic disease that can be treated pharmacologically. Recognition and prompt diagnosis are very important, because Wilson disease is fatal if left untreated. In this review, I summarize the pathogenesis and management of Wilson disease.

  4. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are positive... from the animals positive to an official Johne's disease test to the healthy animals in the vehicle....

  5. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals for slaughter. Domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test may be moved...

  6. Isotope and radiation research on animal diseases and their vectors. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.

  7. ANIMAL MODELS FOR HUNTINGTON’S DISEASES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Manisha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited autosomal, progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with involuntary abnormal movements (chorea, cognitive impairments and psychiatric disturbances. HD is caused by an abnormal expansion of a CAG region located in exon 1 of the gene encoding the huntingtin protein (Htt and is the causative factor in the pathogenesis of HD Animal models of HD have provided insight into disease pathology and the outcomes of thera- peutic strategies. Earlier studies of HD most often used toxin-induced models to study mitochondrial impairment and excitotoxicity-induced cell death, which are both mechanisms of degeneration seen in the HD brain. These models, based on 3-nitropropionic acid and quinolinic acid, respectively, are still often used in HD studies. The discovery in 1993 of the huntingtin mutation led to the creation of newer models that incorporate a similar genetic defect. These models, which include transgenic and knock-in rodents, are more representative of the HD progression and pathology. An even more recent model that uses a ovine transgenic model (sheep model,fly models ,cell cultures models for better understanding of gene mutation in and in mammalian and nonhuman primates, as it is difficult to produce genetic models in these species. This article examines the aforementioned models and describes their use in HD research, including aspects of the creation, de- livery, pathology, and tested therapies for each model.

  8. Cattle trade and the risk of importing animal diseases into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Dopfer, D.D.V.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the risk of importing animal diseases into the Netherlands through livestock trade. It presents projections of Dutch cattle imports until 2010, and applies quantitative epidemiology to estimate the related probabilities of importing three animal diseases (foot and mouth disease,

  9. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R.; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiol...

  10. A cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human's disease state

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Shuhao; Zheng Lulu; Li Yun; Li Chunyan; Ma Chenchen; Li Yixue; Li Xuan; Hao Pei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Animal models are indispensable tools in studying the cause of human diseases and searching for the treatments. The scientific value of an animal model depends on the accurate mimicry of human diseases. The primary goal of the current study was to develop a cross-species method by using the animal models' expression data to evaluate the similarity to human diseases' and assess drug molecules' efficiency in drug research. Therefore, we hoped to reveal that it is feasible an...

  11. Farm-level plans and husbandry measures for aquatic animal disease emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C V; Phillips, M J; Bhat, B V; Umesh, N R; Padiyar, P A

    2008-04-01

    Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better management practices (BMPs) should be simple, science-based, cost-effective and appropriate to their context if farmers are to adopt and implement them. As part of a regional initiative by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) to control aquatic animal diseases, effective extension approaches to promote the widespread adoption of BMPs have been developed in India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, and have proved their worth. A highly successful programme, which addresses rising concerns about the effect of disease on the sustainability of shrimp farming in India, is now in its seventh year. In this paper, the authors present a brief insight into the details of the programme, its outcomes and impact, the lessons learned and the way forward.

  12. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  13. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  14. Active adaptive management for reintroduction of an animal population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Captive animals are frequently reintroduced to the wild in the face of uncertainty, but that uncertainty can often be reduced over the course of the reintroduction effort, providing the opportunity for adaptive management. One common uncertainty in reintroductions is the short-term survival rate of released adults (a release cost), an important factor because it can affect whether releasing adults or juveniles is better. Information about this rate can improve the success of the reintroduction program, but does the expected gain offset the costs of obtaining the information? I explored this question for reintroduction of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) by framing the management question as a belief Markov decision process, characterizing uncertainty about release cost with 2 information state variables, and finding the solution using stochastic dynamic programming. For a reintroduction program of fixed length (e.g., 5 years of releases), the optimal policy in the final release year resembles the deterministic solution: release either all adults or all juveniles depending on whether the point estimate for the survival rate in question is above or below a specific threshold. But the optimal policy in the earlier release years 1) includes release of a mixture of juveniles and adults under some circumstances, and 2) recommends release of adults even when the point estimate of survival is much less than the deterministic threshold. These results show that in an iterated decision setting, the optimal decision in early years can be quite different from that in later years because of the value of learning. 

  15. Perioperative management of cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti, N A; Malik, A A; Ihsan, K M; Aftab, S M E; Khan, W S

    2014-01-01

    Pre-existing cardiac disease contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality amongst patients undergoing non cardiac surgery. Patients with pre-existing cardiac disease or with risk factors for it, have as much as a 3.9% risk of suffering a major perioperative cardiac event (Lee et al 1999, Devereaux 2005). Furthermore, the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) is increased 10 to 50 fold in patients with previous coronary events (Jassal 2008).

  16. Strengthening research on animal reproduction and disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the results presented by participants of a final Research Co-ordination Meeting which was held from 1 to 5 February 1993 at the University of Chulalongkorn, Bangkok, Thailand, as part of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Strengthening Research on Animal Reproduction and Disease Diagnosis in Asia through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques. The purpose of this Programme was essentially to encourage national livestock production and veterinary institutes in Asia to conduct on-farm research into existing constraints on animal productivity and ways of reducing or removing these through low cost changes in management. Emphasis was given to defining existing levels of reproductive efficiency in indigeneous livestock and examining responses to nutritional or other interventions, and to exploring possibilities for using new approaches for diagnosing and controlling some diseases considered to impact adversely on Asian livestock production. Within the framework of all studies, immunoassay (radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were employed for measuring levels of reproductive hormones or detecting antibodies to a variety of disease causing agents, the aim being to gain better insight into the underlying nature of the problems being encountered and reasons for the success or otherwise of approaches taken for their resolution. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Martone, Maryann E.; Mungall, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have expl...

  18. The present status of infectious diseases of laboratory animals in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul; Awal

    2005-01-01

    The commonlaboratory animals in Bangladesh are rabbit,guinea pig,rat&mice.Commoninfectious diseases of rabbitare pasteurellosis,infectious myxomatosis,pneumonia,tyzzer’s disease,nasal catarrh,Conjunctivitis(weepy eye)&abscess formation.Amongthem,laterthree diseases are most commonin most of the animal housesin Bangladesh.Ente-rotoxaemia,primarilya diarrhoeal disease of rabbit caused by Clostridiumspiroformoccurs during4-8weeks of age show-ing clinical signslikelassitude,rough hair coat,perianal regioncovere...

  19. Animal Models of Helicobacter-Induced Disease: Methods to Successfully Infect the Mouse [chapter

    OpenAIRE

    James G Fox

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of microbial diseases in humans are an essential component for determining fulfillment of Koch’s postulates and determining how the organism causes disease, host response(s), disease prevention, and treatment. In the case of Helicobacter pylori, establishing an animal model to fulfill Koch’s postulates initially proved so challenging that out of frustration a human volunteer undertook an experiment to become infected with H. pylori and to monitor disease progression in order to ...

  20. Managing diseases in seed garlic: What are the options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes) causing diseases of seed garlic are discussed in terms of their pathogenic abilities, aggressiveness, management constraints and management options. Management options for vectors (for viral diseases) are placed in context. Concise and general manag...

  1. Diagnosis and management of bullous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Maria Yadira; Mattox, Adam R

    2013-05-01

    As the population ages, the prevalence of bullous skin diseases will escalate. Efficient management depends on timely recognition by the physician and reduces the morbidity associated with the disease course. This article outlines the common bullous dermatoses affecting older adults and provides tips for a streamlined approach to workup and treatment.

  2. Management of inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Vermeire (Silvio); F. Carbonnel (Franck); P.G. Coulie (Pierre); V. Geenen (Vincent); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); P.L. Masson (Pierre); F. de Keyser (Filip); E. Louis (Edouard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease affecting mainly young people in their reproductive years. IBD therefore has a major impact on patients' family planning decisions. Management of IBD in pregnancy requires a challenging balance between optimal dis

  3. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  4. Regional network for Latin America on animal disease diagnosis using immunoassay and labelled DNA probe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an introduction describing the co-ordinated research program the proceedings contain the contributions presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting. The papers are in four sections: general aspects of immunoassays in animal disease diagnosis; viral and chlamydial diseases; bacterial diseases; and parasitic diseases. The individual contributions have been indexed separately for inclusion in INIS. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. WAHIS-Wild and its interface: the OIE worldwide monitoring system for wild animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebara, Karim Ben

    2016-06-30

    Wild animal diseases are a global growing concern, given the threat that they pose to animal health and their zoonotic potential. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) was among the first organisations to recognise the importance of having a comprehensive knowledge of the disease situation in wild animals, collecting information on wildlife diseases worldwide since 1993, when for the first time an annual questionnaire was distribute by OIE to members Countries in order to collect qualitative and quantitative data on selected diseases in wild animals. Starting with 2008 until 2012 an updated version of questionnaire was circulated to allow for identifying wildlife species by their Latin name and by their common names in the 3 OIE official languages (English, French, and Spanish). This specific functionality was then implemented in the World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) in 2012, when this information was made available to the public through WAHIS-Wild Interface. PMID:27393871

  6. Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K.; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M.; Petroff, Brian K.; Petroff, Margaret G.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in associ...

  7. Economics of Homeland Security: Carcass Disposal and the Design of Animal Disease Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yanhong H.; Haung, Wei; McCarl, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to bolster confidence and protect the nation the U.S. government through agencies like the Department of Homeland Security is identifying vulnerabilities and evolving strategies for protection. Agricultural food supply is one identified vulnerable area, and animal disease defense is one of the major concerns there under. Should an outbreak of animal disease occur, it is likely to have a mass slaughter and disposal of animal carcasses. The current existing policy, mainly including...

  8. Management of thyroid eye disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalena, Luigi; Tanda, Maria Laura [Department of Endocrinology, University of Insubria, Ospedale di Circolo, Viale Borri, 57, 21100 Varese (Italy); Marcocci, Claudio; Pinchera, Aldo [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2002-08-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. In most instances it is mild and non-progressive, but in 3%-5% of cases it is severe. Non-severe TED requires only supportive measures, such as eye ointments, sunglasses and prisms. By contrast, severe TED requires aggressive treatment, either medical (high-dose glucocorticoids, orbital radiotherapy) or surgical (orbital decompression). The choice of treatment relies on the assessment of both TED severity and activity. Removal of controllable risk factors, especially cigarette smoking, is important to improve the course and the therapeutic outcome. A coordinated approach to the treatment of hyperthyroidism and TED is also required. Novel promising treatments, to be verified in large series of patients, include somatostatin analogues and cytokine antagonists. (orig.)

  9. Listeria Monocytogenes as Contaminant of Food Derived from Animal (Foodborne Disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Tati Ariyanti

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes often contaminates food derived from animal and serves as pathogenic bacteria for animals and human. The outbreaks were related with the consumption of food derived from animals such as meat, milk, egg, seafood and its product that poorly cooked. Human listeriosis could be transmitted by direct contact with infected animal. The disease often is asymtomatic and widely distributes in the world. The mortality rate reaches to 30%. The bacteria is important because of the w...

  10. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  11. A comprehensive infectious disease management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Alex; Farley, John D

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electronic management system is now an essential tool for the successful management and monitoring of those affected by communicable infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, hepatitis C - HEP C) during the course of the treatment. The current methods which depend heavily on manual collecting, compiling and disseminating treatment information are labor-intensive and time consuming. Clinics specialized in the treatment of infectious diseases use a mix of electronic systems that fail to interact with each other, result in data duplication, and do not support treatment of the patient as a whole. The purpose of the Infectious Disease Management System is to reduce the administrative overhead associated with data collection and analysis while providing correlation abilities and decision support in accordance with defined treatment guidelines. This Infectious Disease Management System was developed to: Ensure cost effectiveness by means of low software licensing costs, Introduce a centralized mechanism of collecting and monitoring all infectious disease management data, Automate electronic retrieval of laboratory findings, Introduce a decision support mechanism as per treatment guidelines, Seamlessly integrate of application modules, Provide comprehensive reporting capabilities, Maintain a high level of user friendliness.

  12. Management of Diverticular Disease in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Johannes K; Yaqub, Sheraz; Øresland, Tom

    2016-10-01

    Throughout the last century, the incidence of diverticular disease of the colon has increased tremendously in industrialized countries; nevertheless, the management of this condition is still controversial. Although several international guidelines for the management of diverticular disease are based on the same evidence, the recommendations differ greatly, emphasizing the lack of high-quality prospective studies. In Scandinavia, official guidelines for the management of diverticular disease exist only in Denmark. However, the treatment policies are quite similar in all Scandinavian countries. Computed tomography is the first choice for imaging of acute diverticulitis and its complications. Furthermore, the use of antibiotics in uncomplicated diverticulitis is nearly abandoned in Scandinavia, whereas several international guidelines still recommend their use. There is a broad consensus that abscesses secondary to acute diverticulitis can safely be managed with percutaneous drainage, which is in line with international recommendations. The surgical management of perforated diverticulitis with peritonitis is still as controversial in Scandinavia as elsewhere. Common surgical options are laparoscopic peritoneal lavage, primary resection with anastomosis, and primary resection with terminal colostomy (Hartmann's procedure). Elective sigmoid resection in patients with diverticular disease seems to be performed less frequently in Scandinavia than in other European countries; the right indications are a current matter of debate. Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease in the absence of diverticulitis has not gained great attention in Scandinavia. PMID:27622365

  13. Symposium on Housing and Diseases of Rabbits, furbearing animals and pet animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Jong, de I.C.; Greef, de K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Within the Welfare Quality® project protocols have been developed to assess animal welfare on-farm in an objective, science based and practically applicable way. For various species like broilers and laying hens, sows and growing pigs, dairy cattle and veal calves, welfare assessment protocols have

  14. Bespoke microbiome therapy to manage plant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali eGopal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biological technologies are revealing that the microbiome, located in gut and rhizosphere, is responsible for maintaining the health of human beings and plants, respectively. Within the complete microbiome a ‘core-microbiome’ exists that plays the pivotal role. Recent studies in medicine have shown that an artificial mixture of bacteria representing the core gut microbiome of healthy person when transferred into gut of diseased person results in re-establishment of normal microflora in the latter leading to alleviation from diseased condition. In agriculture, plant disease management has been achieved through transfer of microbiome by mixing disease suppressive soils with disease conducive soils. However, the exact practice of transferring artificially cultivated core-microbiome as in medicine has not thus far been attempted in plant disease management. Nonetheless, as the gut and rhizosphere microbiome are known to share many common traits, there exists a good scope for accomplishing similar studies in agriculture. Based upon the information in microbiome studies of gut and rhizosphere, we propose that tailor-made core-microbiome transfer therapy can become a viable strategy for management of plant diseases in future.

  15. IMPORTANT PROTOZOAN DISEASES OF ANIMALS IN INDONESIA (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeprapto Soekardono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An account on important protozoan diseases mostiy with obvious clinical symptoms are emphasized and their current status reviewed. Those diseases are surra, trichomonosis in catde, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, theileriosis, leucocyto-zoonosis in chicken, and coccidiosis. Toxoplasmosis, histomonosis, chicken malaria, balantidiosis and diseases caused by Giardia, Haemoproteus and Sarcocystis are not reviewed because significant problems caused by these parasites considered important economically do not appear in Indonesia.

  16. Managing livestock using animal behavior: Mixed-species stocking and flerds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed-species stocking can foster sound landscape management while offering economic and ecological advantages compared to mono-species stocking. Producers contemplating a mixed-species enterprise should reflect on several considerations before implementing this animal management strategy. Factors...

  17. Mechanisms underlying disease transmission between spatially separated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnik, van B.A.D.

    2014-01-01

      Transmission of infections between spatially separated hosts is a common problem, not only during major outbreaks of livestock diseases, but also in many other settings such as the transmission of infectious diseases between plants and crops or in healthcare settings. During the last major e

  18. Coffee and Alzheimer’s disease - animal & cellular evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increases in lifespan in modern times have put significant social and academic emphasis on age-related pathologies. Of the many chronic, non-acquired diseases, dementias are among the most fiscally and psychologically burdensome to society. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent and well kno...

  19. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. H

  20. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. de Hoog; V.A. Vicente; M.J. Najafzadeh; M.J. Harrak; H. Badali; S. Seyedmousavi

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. H

  1. Infectious Disease Management: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noni E Macdonald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade in Canada, infectious disease outbreaks have repeatedly been in the public spotlight. The Escherichia coli outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario (1, the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Toronto, Ontario (2 and the Clostridium difficile hospital outbreak in Montreal, Quebec (3, have cost lives, grabbed headlines and stressed local health care systems. Each outbreak raised questions about our ability to prevent outbreaks, detect outbreaks early, and respond efficiently and effectively to infectious disease crises; these outbreaks also highlighted gaps in Canada's preparedness for managing major infectious disease problems when multiple jurisdictions are involved (4. Canada's poor track record of tuberculosis control in the north (5 raises the concern that this problem is not limited to crisis situations, but rather has deeper implications for the management of infectious diseases in Canada.

  2. Current insights into animal models of Graves' disease and orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesweg, B; Johnson, K T M; Eckstein, A K; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U

    2013-08-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is characterized by hyperthyroidism, orbitopathy and in rare cases dermopathy. Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is an inflammatory disease of eye and orbit which occurs in about 30-60% of patients. Hyperthyroidism occurs due to the presence of stimulating TSHR-autoantibodies (TRAbs) leading to increased serum levels of thyroid hormones. Attempts to induce Graves' disease in mice by immunization against the hTSHR or its variants have resulted in production of TRAbs that stimulate thyroid follicular cells to increase thyroid hormone secretion. Graves' like orbital changes, such as inflammation, adipogenesis and muscle fibrosis are more difficult to induce. In this review we summarize different methods used to induce murine Graves'-like disease and their impact on murine orbits.

  3. 9 CFR 71.14 - Slaughter of poultry or other animals to prevent spread of disease; ascertainment of value and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slaughter of poultry or other animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.14 Slaughter of poultry... to slaughter any diseased or exposed animals, including poultry, and the purchase of such...

  4. Animal-induced injuries and disease, neonatal jaundice, immunizations, and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, W T

    1996-08-01

    Highlights from the past years' literature on the topics of animal-induced injuries and diseases, neonatal jaundice, immunizations, and viral infections are discussed from the perspective of the general pediatrician. An effort is made to place recent advances in care or understanding of clinical problems into the context of the pediatric office practice. The current reality of health care-be it managed care, care for the underserved, or the recent pressures on academic and hospital-based medicine-does not alter the importance of the delivery of quality care at the office level. Although it is now popular to define quality of health care in cute advertising copy, as if we are selling durable goods, excellence in pediatric office-based practice continues to require broad strokes of medical knowledge coupled with a unswerving commitment to and advocacy for the needs and well-being of infants, children, and young adults. PMID:8954278

  5. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is probably one of the most prevalent diseases in the world that also compromises the quality of life of the affected significantly. Its incidence in Brazil is 12%, corresponding to 20 million individuals. Objective To update the GERD management and the new trends on diagnosis and treatment, reviewing the international and Brazilian experience on it. Method The literature review was based on papers published on Medline/Pubmed, SciELO, Lilacs...

  6. Laryngomalacia: Disease Presentation, Spectrum, and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, April M.; Thompson, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor in newborns, affecting 45–75% of all infants with congenital stridor. The spectrum of disease presentation, progression, and outcomes is varied. Identifying symptoms and patient factors that influence disease severity helps predict outcomes. Findings. Infants with stridor who do not have significant feeding-related symptoms can be managed expectantly without intervention. Infants with stridor and feeding-related symptoms benefit from acid...

  7. The Impact of Mad Cow Disease in Quebec: What to Do with Animal Carcasses?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Nancy; Gagnon, Marie-France

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, after the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease) crisis in Europe, and after the first case of BSE was found in Alberta, both regulation and producers’ initiatives have lead to an ever smaller demand for meat meal and animal fat used in animal feed. Meat meal and animal fat were produced in great part from the rendering of carcasses, i.e., animals that died on the farm due to disease or accident. In Quebec, agricultural producers used to sell the carcasses...

  8. Immunosuppression and Chagas disease: a management challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Jesús Pinazo

    Full Text Available Immunosuppression, which has become an increasingly relevant clinical condition in the last 50 years, modifies the natural history of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in most patients with Chagas disease. The main goal in this setting is to prevent the consequences of reactivation of T. cruzi infection by close monitoring. We analyze the relationship between Chagas disease and three immunosuppressant conditions, including a description of clinical cases seen at our center, a brief review of the literature, and recommendations for the management of these patients based on our experience and on the data in the literature. T. cruzi infection is considered an opportunistic parasitic infection indicative of AIDS, and clinical manifestations of reactivation are more severe than in acute Chagas disease. Parasitemia is the most important defining feature of reactivation. Treatment with benznidazole and/or nifurtimox is strongly recommended in such cases. It seems reasonable to administer trypanocidal treatment only to asymptomatic immunosuppressed patients with detectable parasitemia, and/or patients with clinically defined reactivation. Specific treatment for Chagas disease does not appear to be related to a higher incidence of neoplasms, and a direct role of T. cruzi in the etiology of neoplastic disease has not been confirmed. Systemic immunosuppressive diseases or immunosuppressants can modify the natural course of T. cruzi infection. Immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids have not been associated with higher rates of reactivation of Chagas disease. Despite a lack of evidence-based data, treatment with benznidazole or nifurtimox should be initiated before immunosuppression where possible to reduce the risk of reactivation. Timely antiparasitic treatment with benznidazole and nifurtimox (or with posaconazole in cases of therapeutic failure has proven to be highly effective in preventing Chagas disease reactivation, even if such treatment has not been

  9. TSUNAMI: an antisense method to phenocopy splicing-associated diseases in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Sahashi, Kentaro; Hua, Yimin; Ling, Karen K Y; Hung, Gene; Rigo, Frank; Horev, Guy; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen; Ko, Chien-Ping; Bennett, C. Frank; Krainer, Adrian R.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an antisense oligonucleotide methodology to phenocopy a disease—in this case, the motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy in mice. Sahashi et al. show that it is possible to fine-tune disease severity through dose-dependent effects on RNA splicing, making this a novel animal model for monitoring disease onset and progression as well as testing candidate therapeutics.

  10. Management of animal botulism outbreaks: from clinical suspicion to practical countermeasures to prevent or minimize outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anniballi, F.; Fiore, A.; Löfström, Ch.; Skarin, H.; Auricchio, B.; Woudstra, C.; Bano, L.; Segerman, B.; Koene, M.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease that affects humans, all warm-blooded animals, and some fishes. The disease is caused by exposure to toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other botulinum toxin–producing clostridia. Botulism in animals represents a severe environmental and economic

  11. The use of models in the analysis and management of aquatic and terrestrial animal production systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.; Udo, H.M.J.; Densen, van W.L.T.

    1994-01-01

    Modelling of animal production systems as a whole is mainly used for extensively managed systems, such as fishing and hunting natural animal populations. This type of modelling is widely used in fisheries management, but has as yet found limited application in the modelling of extensive cultivation

  12. Managing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Jing Hieng; Goh, George Boon Bee; Poh, Zhongxian; Soetikno, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing rapidly with the obesity and diabetes mellitus epidemics. It is rapidly becoming the most common cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD can progress to serious complications such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Therefore, it is important to recognise this condition so that early intervention can be implemented. Lifestyle modifications and strict control of metabolic risk factors are the mainstay of treatment. As disease progression is slow in the majority of NAFLD patients, most can be managed well by primary care physicians. NAFLD patients with advanced liver fibrosis should be referred to specialist care for further assessment. PMID:27439352

  13. Nonoperative Management of Complicated Diverticular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffzin, David M.; Wong, W. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The complications of diverticular disease of the colon can be divided into those related to inflammatory conditions (diverticular abscess, fistula, and perforation) and those related to noninflammatory conditions (lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage and noninflammatory stricture or obstruction). Nonoperative management of uncomplicated diverticulitis includes bowel rest and antibiotics. For abscesses, percutaneous drainage by radiologic guidance often turns complicated diverticulitis to an unco...

  14. Disease management in soilless culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.

    2010-01-01

    EU legislation, laid down in the Water Framework Directive, demands to minimize emissions of nitrogen, phosphate and crop protection products to achieve an excellent chemical and ecological quality in 2015. The aim is to force growers to a better water and disease management. Supply water of excelle

  15. Animal Hospital Management System Design Based on C/S/S Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jing; ZHAO Jie; WEI Xiaoli

    2008-01-01

    By analysis of the functions of animal hospital's departments,combining with management information development truth,the paper developed animal hospital management system.The system included six modules, like system management module, basic information management module,sections management module,and so on.The paper used Visual C++6.0 and SQL Server 2000,and ODBC database accessing technology,which can encapsulate any database table and operation into class.The system could make any window to share table's operation to realize hospital management quickly and efficiency.

  16. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  17. Wildlife in U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals

    OpenAIRE

    John Hadidian

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Wild animals are increasingly adapting to living in urbanizing environments, even as urban living has become the dominant human life style. This leads to greater opportunities to experience and enjoy wildlife, but also to increases in the kind and frequency of human-wildlife conflicts. Conflicts occur not only with species deemed to be perennial pests or nuisances, but situationally and episodically with others that are valued and esteemed. Regardless of how we view wild animal...

  18. Updates in management of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Heon; Chae, Shung Chull [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has been increasing during the last decade and is the one of major causes of death. The management of patients with coronary artery disease has evolved considerably. There are two main strategies in the management of CAD, complementary, not competitive, each other; the pharmacologic therapy to prevent and treat CAD and the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore coronary flow. Antiplatelet drugs and cholesterol lowering drugs have central roles in pharmacotherapy. Drug eluting stent (DES) bring about revolutional changes in PCL in the management of patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI), there has been a debate on the better strategy for the restoration of coronary flow. Thrombolytic therapy is widely available and easy to administer, whereas primary PCI is less available and more complex, but more complete. Recently published evidences in the pharmacologic therapy including antiplatelet and statin, and PCI including DES and reperfusion therapy in patients with ST segment elevation AMI were reviewed.

  19. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cito, F.; Rijks, J.; Rantsios, A.T.;

    2016-01-01

    for each disease covered by the questionnaire was analysed to obtain two final overall scores, one for human health impact and one for agricultural economic impact. The adapted method was then applied to select the 15 most important pathogens (five for each pathogen group: viral, bacterial and parasitic......, animal species involved and impact of the diseases, the list of prioritized diseases had to accommodate the realities in different European countries and the differences in biology and animal-human relationships in a wide range of species including cats and dogs, pet pigs and sheep as well as captive...... on methods described by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Modifications were applied to allow for the paucity of specific information on companion animal transmissible diseases. The OIE method was also adapted to the subject and to the regional scope of the interprofessional network addressing...

  20. Correlated Inflammatory Responses and Neurodegeneration in Peptide-Injected Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    McLarnon, James G

    2014-01-01

    Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which emphasize activation of microglia may have particular utility in correlating proinflammatory activity with neurodegeneration. This paper reviews injection of amyloid- β (A β ) into rat brain as an alternative AD animal model to the use of transgenic animals. In particular, intrahippocampal injection of Aβ 1-42 peptide demonstrates prominent microglial mobilization and activation accompanied by a significant loss of granule cell neurons. Furtherm...

  1. Inherited metabolic disease in companion animals: Searching for nature’s mistakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sewell, Adrian C; Haskins, Mark E; Giger, Urs

    2006-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism are caused by genetic defects in intermediary metabolic pathways. Although long considered to be the domain of human paediatric medicine, they are also recognised with increasing frequency in companion animals. The diagnosis of diseased animals can be achieved by searching for abnormal metabolites in body fluids, although such screening programmes have, until now, not been widely available to the small animal clinician. A comprehensive battery of analytical tools e...

  2. Management of Pruritus in Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There continues to be uncertainty on the ideal treatment of pruritus in chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to gather the latest information on the evidence-based management of pruritus in chronic liver disease. Methodology. A literature search for pruritus in chronic liver disease was conducted using Pubmed and Embase database systems using the MeSH terms “pruritus,” “chronic liver disease,” “cholestatic liver disease,” and “treatment.” Results. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus is described in addition to detailing research into contemporary treatment options of the condition. These medical treatments range from bile salts, rifampicin, and opioid receptor antagonists to antihistamines. Conclusion. The burden of pruritus in liver disease patients persists and, although it is a common symptom, it can be difficult to manage. In recent years there has been greater study into the etiology and treatment of the condition. Nonetheless, pruritus remains poorly understood and many patients continue to suffer, reiterating the need for further research to improve our understanding of the etiology and treatment for the condition.

  3. Toxin-Induced and Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shun Shimohama; Shin Hisahara

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The major pathological hallmarks of PD are the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intraneuronal aggregates termed Lewy bodies (LBs), but the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Epidemiologically, environmental neurotoxins such as pesticides are promising candidates for causative factors of PD. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by these tox...

  4. The management and welfare of working animals: identifying problems, seeking solutions and anticipating the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul Rahman, S; Reed, K

    2014-04-01

    Working animals, mainly equids, camelids and bovids, are draught animals that perform transport and traction activities. In developed countries technological development has resulted in animal power being minimised, however, in developing countries most agricultural operations are still being conducted by animals, and animal welfare is a major concern. Inadequate knowledge and inappropriate attitudes and practices regarding the management and welfare of working animals are the main contributory factors to welfare problems. The paper highlights the situation of working animals in developing countries, especially those of equids in Africa and Asia and bullocks in India, which are examined as examples. There is much room for improvement in the welfare of working animals, via the provision of basic veterinary care, technical advice on health and husbandry, including foot care, improved design and maintenance of harnesses and other equipment, and the development of appropriate policies and legislation. The paper discusses the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health in addressing these issues.

  5. Taking the Lab into the Field. Nuclear Applications Rapidly Diagnose Animal Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock supports the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people worldwide. As populations increase, countries not only need to increase livestock production, but also need more efficient tools for the prevention, diagnosis and control of animal diseases. Nuclear and nuclear-related technologies have an essential role to play in maintaining animal health and protecting vulnerable communities.

  6. ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

  7. MicroRNAs are potential therapeutic targets in fibrosing kidney disease: lessons from animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Duffield, Jeremy S.; Grafals, Monica; Portilla, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease of the kidneys has reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations. New therapies are urgently sought. Using a combination of animal models of kidney disease and human biopsy samples, a pattern of dysregulated microRNA expression has emerged which is common to chronic diseases. A number of these dysregulated microRNA have recently been shown to have functional consequences for the disease process and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets. We highlight microRNA-...

  8. How To Become a Top Model: Impact of Animal Experimentation on Human Salmonella Disease Research ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolis, Renée M.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sus...

  9. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are proba...

  10. Accelerating drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease: best practices for preclinical animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shineman, Diana W; Basi, Guriqbal S.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Colton, Carol A.; Greenberg, Barry D.; Hollister, Beth A; Lincecum, John; Leblanc, Gabrielle G.; Lee, Linda H; Luo, Feng; Morgan, Dave; Morse, Iva; Refolo, Lorenzo M; Riddell, David R; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a result, over 300 interventions have been investigated and reported to mitigate pathological phenotypes or improve behavior in AD animal models or both. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in target validation in humans or successful translation to disease-modifying therapies. Challenges in translating preclinical studies to clinical...

  11. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  12. Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Draheim, Megan M.; Patterson, Katheryn W.; Rockwood, Larry L.; Gregory A. Guagnano; E. Christien M. Parsons

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Understanding the public’s attitudes towards urban wildlife is an important step towards creating management plans, increasing knowledge and awareness about wildlife, and fostering coexistence between people and wildlife. Using undergraduate college students in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area (where coyotes are a recent arrival), this study examined attitudes towards coyotes and coyote management methods. Amongst other findings, we found differences in opinion between ke...

  13. A SPATIAL MODEL OF ANIMAL DISEASE CONTROL IN LIVESTOCK: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE IN THE SOUTHERN CONE

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Karl M.; Winter-Nelson, Alex

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-market model of animal disease control that extends the current literature by accounting for spatial and inter-temporal relations in both epidemiological and economic variables. The model is applied to Foot and Mouth Disease control in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, but it is broadly generalizable.

  14. Update on thyroid eye disease and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick D Bothun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Erick D Bothun,1,2 Ryan A Scheurer,1 Andrew R Harrison,1,3 Michael S Lee1,4,51Departments of Ophthalmology, 2Pediatrics, 3Otolaryngology, 4Neurosurgery, and 5Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USAAbstract: Thyroid eye disease is a heterogeneous autoimmune orbital reaction typically manifesting in middle age. The inflammation may parallel or remain isolated from a related inflammatory cascade in the thyroid called Graves’ disease. The orbital manifestations can lead to severe proptosis, dry eyes, strabismus, and optic neuropathy. In this article, we will discuss this unique condition including the ophthalmic findings and management. Keywords: Graves’ disease, thyroid eye disease, proptosis, orbital decompression, enlarged extraocular muscles

  15. Influence of Species Differences on the Neuropathology of Transgenic Huntington's Disease Animal Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Li; Shihua Li

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have revealed much about the pathogenesis of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases and proved to be a useful tool for uncovering therapeutic targets.Huntington's disease is a well-characterized neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat,which results in expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the N-terminal region of huntingtin (HTT).Similar CAG/glutamine expansions are also found to cause eight other neurodegenerative diseases that affect distinct brain regions in an agedependent manner.Identification of this CAG/glutamine expansion has led to the generation of a variety of transgenic animal models.Of these different animal models,transgenic mice have been investigated extensively,and they show similar neuropathology and phenotypes as seen in their respective diseases.The common pathological hallmark of age-dependent neurodegeneration is the formation of aggregates or inclusions consisting of misfolded proteins in the affected brain regions; however,overt or striking neurodegeneration and apoptosis have not been reported in most transgenic mouse models for age-dependent diseases,including HD.By comparing the neuropathology of transgenic HD mouse,pig,and monkey models,we found that mutant HTT is more toxic to larger animals than mice,and larger animals also show neuropathology that has not been uncovered by transgenic mouse models.This review will discuss the importancc of transgenic large animal models for analyzing the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and developing effective treatments.

  16. PARKINSON’S DISEASE: ANIMAL MODELS AND DOPAMINERGIC CELL VULNERABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Blesa

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects about 1.5% of the global population over 65 years of age. A hallmark feature of PD is the degeneration of the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the consequent striatal DA deficiency. Yet, the pathogenesis of PD remains unclear. Despite tremendous growth in recent years in our knowledge of the molecular basis of PD and the molecular pathways of cell death, important questions remain, such ...

  17. Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimer's Disease in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Cordeiro, M.; Mohamed Abdi; Miles Parnell; Li Guo

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, and the pathological changes of senile plaques (SPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD brains are well described. Clinically, a diagnosis remains a postmortem one, hampering both accurate and early diagnosis as well as research into potential new treatments. Visual deficits have long been noted in AD patients, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that histopathological changes already noted in the brain also occur in an ...

  18. Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy: insight from animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Scharfman, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and epilepsy are separated in the medical community, but seizures occur in some patients with AD, and AD is a risk factor for epilepsy. Furthermore, memory impairment is common in patients with epilepsy. The relationship between AD and epilepsy remains an important question because ideas for therapeutic approaches could be shared between AD and epilepsy research laboratories if AD and epilepsy were related. Here we focus on one of the many types of epilepsy, temporal ...

  19. Building the chronic kidney disease management team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The need to be efficient and the demands for performance-based service are changing how nephrologists deliver care. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in patients with complex medical and social problems. CKD management requires that multidisciplinary professionals provide patient education, disease management, and psychosocial support. To remain cost-efficient, many physicians are training and supervising midlevel practitioners in the delivery of specialized health care. Specialized care that meets present CKD patient needs is best delivered in a CKD clinic. Three models of CKD clinic are identified: (1) anemia management CKD clinic, (2) the basic CKD clinic, and (3) the comprehensive CKD clinic. Each clinic model is based on critical elements of staffing, billable services, and patient-focused health care. Billable services are anemia-management services, physician services that may be provided by midlevel practitioners, and medical nutrition therapy. In some cases, social worker services may be billable. Building a patient-focused clinic that offers CKD management requires planning, familiarity with federal regulations and statutes, and skillful practitioners. Making services cost-efficient and outcome oriented requires careful physician leadership, talented midlevel practitioners, and billing professionals who understand the goals of the CKD clinic. As Medicare payment reforms evolve, a well-organized CKD program can be well poised to meet the requirements of payers and congressional mandates for performance-based purchasing.

  20. Animal Bite Management Practices: Study at Three Municipal Corporation Hospitals of Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Sheetal, Gupta Kinnari, Bhatt Gneyaa, Tiwari Hemant

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Rabies is a deadly Zoonotic disease most often transmitted to humans through a dog bite. Most of these deaths could be prevented through post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, including immediate wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin administration and vaccination. Aims: To study attitude and pre-treatment practices among the study population. Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out by conducting exit interview of 100 cases of animal bite each from three hospitals run by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Observations: Total 300 cases of animal bites were studied in the present study. Most common biting animal was dog as 97.33% cases gave history of dog bite. Almost half of the cases belonged to age group less than 20 years with mean age of 19+ 20.2 years and male to female ratio was 3:1. Right lower limb was the most common (45.7% biting site and majority (59% had category III bites. Immediate pre-treatment of wound was practiced by 72% of cases before visiting hospitals however only 5.7% had gone for immediate washing of wound with soap and water. The local applications at the site of bite were tobacco snuff, red chilli, turmeric, and miscellaneous things like Garlic, Jaggery, Kerosene, Lime, Bandage, Soframycine, Ghee, Wheat flour etc. which were practiced by 66% of cases. The average time interval between bite and visiting the hospital was 32 hours. Conclusions: With the availability of safe and effective tissue culture vaccines prevention of rabies is virtually assured by immediate and appropriate post exposure treatment. There is need for creating awareness in public and medical community about proper wound management, judicious use of anti-rabies serum and use of modern tissue culture vaccine after animal bite.

  1. Surgical management of hepatic hydatid disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Vagholkar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is strictly a zoonosis. Humans are an accidental host. The disease is endemic in rural agricultural areas. However if acquired by humans, it can cause extensive spread affecting a wide range of organs with predilection for the liver. Managing such cases requires a sound fundamental knowledge of the parasite and its pathogenicity. It is essential that surgeons who deal with such cases have a good working knowledge of the disease. The approaches to hepatic hydatids with respect to the principles of surgical treatment are presented in this article. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1834-1837

  2. Lafora disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monaghan, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    Lafora disease is a rare, fatal, autosomal recessive, progressive myoclonic epilepsy. It may also be considered as a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism because of the formation of polyglucosan inclusion bodies in neural and other tissues due to abnormalities of the proteins laforin or malin. The condition is characterized by epilepsy, myoclonus and dementia. Diagnostic findings on MRI and neurophysiological testing are not definitive and biopsy or genetic studies may be required. Therapy in Lafora disease is currently limited to symptomatic management of the epilepsy, myoclonus and intercurrent complications. With a greater understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved, there is justified hope for future therapies.

  3. Use of DNA probes in animal disease diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional approaches for detecting aetiological agents of infectious diseases include the isolation of microorganisms and their direct detection in pathological samples by microscopy and immunoassays. Although the availability of monoclonal antibodies has improved some of these techniques, none of them alone is completely reliable. The advent of genetic engineering has opened a new approach to the diagnosis of infectious diseases by permitting detection of the genetic blueprint of the causal agent. Since each pathogen has its own unique genetic material and because nucleic acid hybridization is based on the ability of DNA or RNA probes to hybridize to their complementary sequences, genomic DNA or RNA is an ideal target for specific diagnostic tests. This new technique will allow the detection of some organisms which are difficult to culture and can broaden the spectrum of diseases which can be diagnosed. In veterinary medicine, many infectious agents are now identified by nucleic acid hybridization and some examples are given in the review. However, the use of this technique is still limited to research laboratories. Indeed there are some drawbacks to the routine use of nucleic acid technology for diagnostic tests. Firstly, radiolabelled probes have a short half-life; they are hazardous and their handling requires special equipment. Secondly, nonradioactive probes are less sensitive than radiolabelled ones. Their use on crude samples can give rise to significant non-specific background reactions, which makes them less attractive for routine diagnosis. Improvements in their sensitivity and in the signal/background ratio may allow their wider application in the future. (author). 44 refs

  4. The Accountable Animal : Naturalising the management control problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.I. Eskenazi (Philip)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this dissertation we investigate two themes around the topic of social relations in management control structures. We use developments in neuroscience and eye-tracking to supplement the traditional psychological and economic perspective on management accounting. Fir

  5. MODERNIZATION OF ACCOUNTING ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT IN ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sigidov Y. I.; Chernyavskaya S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with system organization aspects of automatized consolidated managerial accounting. The organization is based on the specification and accounting efficiency, i.e. special accounting source documents, which provide the formation of complete and authentic information in the main production (animal breeding)

  6. Animal genomics in natural reservoirs of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowled, C; Wang, L-F

    2016-04-01

    Natural virus reservoirs such as wild bats, birds, rodents and non-human primates are generally non-model organisms that have, until recently, presented limited opportunities for in-depth study. Next-generation sequencing provides a way to partially circumvent this limitation, since the methods required for data acquisition and analysis are largely species-independent. Comparative genomics and other 'omics' provide new opportunities to study the structure and function of various biological systems of wild species that are otherwise out of reach. Genomes of natural reservoir hosts can help to identify dominant pathways of virus-host interaction and to reveal differences between susceptible and resistant organisms, populations and species. This is of great scientific interest and may also provide a resource for the rational design of treatments for viral diseases in humans and livestock. In this way, we will 'learn from nature' and one day apply this knowledge to create disease-resistant livestock or develop novel therapeutic and prevention strategies. Reservoir host genomics will also open up possibilities for developing novel vaccines for wildlife, aid in the development of new diagnostic platforms, and have broad implications for developmental and evolutionary biology. In this review, the authors focus on natural reservoir hosts of viral pathogens, although most of the discussion points should be equally applicable to natural reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria, fungi or other parasites. PMID:27217176

  7. Interaction of the role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, James E

    2016-03-01

    Most significant change in the evolution of the influenza virus is the rapid growth of the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on a global scale. These industrial agricultural operations have the potential of housing thousands of animals in a relatively small area. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) event can be considered as a shift in the pathogen-host-environment interplay characteristics described by Engering et al. (2013). These changes in the host-environment and the disease ecology are key to creating novel transmission patterns and selection of novel pathogens with a modification of genetic traits. With the development of CAFOs throughout the world, the need for training of animal caretakers to observe, identify, treat, vaccinate and cull if necessary is important to safeguard public health. The best defense against another pandemic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) is the constant monitoring of the livestock and handlers of CAFOs and the live animal markets. These are the most likely epicenter of the next pandemic.

  8. Pain management in patients with vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seretny, M; Colvin, L A

    2016-09-01

    Vascular disease covers a wide range of conditions, including arterial, venous, and lymphatic disorders, with many of these being more common in the elderly. As the population ages, the incidence of vascular disease will increase, with a consequent increase in the requirement to manage both acute and chronic pain in this patient population. Pain management can be complex, as there are often multiple co-morbidities to be considered. An understanding of the underlying pain mechanisms is helpful in the logical direction of treatment, particularly in chronic pain states, such as phantom limb pain or complex regional pain syndrome. Acute pain management for vascular surgery presents a number of challenges, including coexisting anticoagulant medication, that may preclude the use of regional techniques. Within the limited evidence base, there is a suggestion that epidural analgesia provides better pain relief and reduced respiratory complications after major vascular surgery. For carotid endarterectomy, there is again some evidence supporting the use of local anaesthetic analgesia, either by infiltration or by superficial cervical plexus block. Chronic pain in vascular disease includes post-amputation pain, for which well-known risk factors include high pain levels before amputation and in the immediate postoperative period, emphasizing the importance of good pain control in the perioperative period. Complex regional pain syndrome is another challenging chronic pain syndrome with a wide variety of treatment options available, with the strongest evidence being for physical therapies. Further research is required to gain a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in pain associated with vascular disease and the best analgesic approaches to manage it. PMID:27566812

  9. Disease management in soilless culture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Os, van, Koen

    2010-01-01

    EU legislation, laid down in the Water Framework Directive, demands to minimize emissions of nitrogen, phosphate and crop protection products to achieve an excellent chemical and ecological quality in 2015. The aim is to force growers to a better water and disease management. Supply water of excellent chemical quality will have to be recirculated as long as possible, for which adequate disinfection equipment have to be used. Several sources of water are used as supply water. Rainwater is chem...

  10. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. National training course on ELISA for seradiagnosis of animal diseases (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the content of a three-week national training course for 16 participants from regional Disease Investigation Centres and other agencies in Indonesia. The subject of the course was the use of ELISA for the diagnosis of animal diseases in Indonesia, with particular emphasis placed on bovine brucellosis

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of inflammatoryand autoimmune diseases in experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew W Klinker; Cheng-Hong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also known asmesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are currently beingstudied as a cell-based treatment for inflammatorydisorders. Experimental animal models of humanimmune-mediated diseases have been instrumental inestablishing their immunosuppressive properties. Inthis review, we summarize recent studies examiningthe effectiveness of MSCs as immunotherapy in severalwidely-studied animal models, including type 1 diabetes,experimental autoimmune arthritis, experimentalautoimmune encephalomyelitis, inflammatory boweldisease, graft-vs -host disease, and systemic lupuserythematosus. In addition, we discuss mechanismsidentified by which MSCs mediate immune suppressionin specific disease models, and potential sources offunctional variability of MSCs between studies.

  12. Review on prion diseases in animals with emphasis to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajender P. Gupta

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are known as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE. These are degenerative brain disorders characterized by tiny microscopic holes that give the brain 'spongy' appearance. The causative agent is proteinaceous infective particle called prion. Prion diseases affect a variety of mammals including humans. The disease is transmitted by contaminated food or feed containing prion protein. In animals the diseases caused by prions are Scrapie, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD, Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE and exotic Engulate Encephalopathy (EUE. Currently the only reliable test is histo-pathological examination of tissues. Control measures are surveillance, culling sick animals and banning specified risk materials. In India no case of BSE has been reported so far but the disease warrants constant monitoring and surveillance if once introduced or imported would be a herculean task to eradicate it. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 443-448

  13. Porcine models of digestive disease: the future of large animal translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in non-rodent translational models for the study of human disease. The pig, in particular, serves as a useful animal model for the study of pathophysiological conditions relevant to the human intestine. This review assesses currently used porcine models of gastrointestinal physiology and disease and provides a rationale for the use of these models for future translational studies. The pig has proven its utility for the study of fundamental disease conditions such ...

  14. OUTLINE OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR APPROPRIATE DOMESTIC RABBIT MANAGEMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH ANIMAL PROTECTION AND WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Löliger, H.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract not available. Löliger, H. (1996). OUTLINE OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR APPROPRIATE DOMESTIC RABBIT MANAGEMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH ANIMAL PROTECTION AND WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10473.

  15. Integrative molecular phylogeography in the context of infectious diseases on the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco

    2012-12-01

    The rate of new emerging infectious diseases entering the human population has increased over the past century, with pathogens originating from animals or from products of animal origin accounting for the vast majority. Primary risk factors for the emergence and spread of emerging zoonoses include expansion and intensification of animal agriculture and long-distance live animal transport, live animal markets, bushmeat consumption and habitat destruction. Developing effective control strategies is contingent upon the ability to test causative hypotheses of disease transmission within a statistical framework. Broadly speaking, molecular phylogeography offers a framework in which specific hypotheses regarding pathogen gene flow and dispersal within an ecological context can be compared. A number of different methods has been developed for this application. Here, our intent is firstly to discuss the application of a wide variety of statistically based methods (including Bayesian reconstruction, network parsimony analysis and regression) to specific viruses (influenza, salmon anaemia virus, foot and mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever) that have been associated with animal farming/movements; and secondly to place them in the larger framework of the threat of potential zoonotic events as well as the economic and biosecurity implications of pathogen outbreaks among our animal food sources. PMID:22931895

  16. Sleep disturbances in the rotenone animal model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Fabio; Ponce, Sonia; Brown, Richard; Cussen, Victoria; Krueger, James M

    2005-05-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the presence of intracytoplasmatic inclusions known as Lewy bodies. Chronic administration of rotenone (RT) produces Parkinson's-like symptoms in rats. Because PD patients have disrupted sleep patterns, we determined if chronic RT administration produces similar changes in rat sleep. RT was administered for 28 days to rats. Basal and vehicle (VH) rats received saline or dimethyl sulfoxide and polyethylene glycol (1:1), respectively. VH infusion induced a progressive decrease in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the 4-week period of VH infusion and REMS was reduced in the third and fourth week of VH infusion. VH infusion did not induce dopaminergic cell degeneration. Rats receiving RT infusion also showed decreased NREMS during the treatment. REMS was dramatically reduced on day 7 although subsequently on days 13 and 20 REMS was similar to basal values. After 4 weeks of RT infusion, time in REMS was decreased again. In RT-treated rats, progressive dopaminergic cell degeneration occurred in the SNc. After 4 weeks of daily injections of L-dopa in RT-infused rats, NREMS values remained similar to those values obtained after RT alone. L-dopa therapy did, however, induce a recovery of REMS in weeks 3 and 4 of RT infusion. Dopaminergic cell damage persisted in the L-dopa-RT-infused rats. We conclude that the RT-PD rat model is associated with large long-term sleep disruption, however, the vehicle, DMSO/PEG had as large an effect as RT on sleep, thus changes in sleep cannot be ascribed to loss of dopaminergic cells. Such results question the validity of the RT-PD rat model. PMID:15854587

  17. Nitrogen in global animal production and management options for improving nitrogen use efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oene; Oenema; Seerp; Tamminga

    2005-01-01

    Animal production systems convert plant protein into animal protein. Depending on animal species, ration and management, between 5% and 45 % of the nitrogen (N) in plant protein is converted to and deposited in animal protein. The other 55%-95% is excreted via urine and feces, and can be used as nutrient source for plant (= often animal feed) production. The estimated global amount of N voided by animals ranges between 80 and 130 Tg N per year, and is as large as or larger than the global annual N fertilizer consumption. Cattle (60%), sheep (12%) and pigs (6%) have the largest share in animal manure N production.The conversion of plant N into animal N is on average more efficient in poultry and pork production than in dairy production, which is higher than in beef and sheep production. However, differences within a type of animal production system can be as large as differences between types of animal production systems, due to large effects of the genetic potential of animals, animal feed and management. The management of animals and animal feed, together with the genetic potential of the animals, are key factors to a high efficiency of conversion of plant protein into animal protein.The efficiency of the conversion of N from animal manure, following application to land, into plant protein ranges between 0 and 60%, while the estimated global mean is about 15%. The other 40%- 100% is lost to the wider environment via NH3 volatilization, denitrification, leaching and run-off in pastures or during storage and/or following application of the animal manure to land. On a global scale, only 40%-50% of the amount of N voided is collected in barns, stables and paddocks, and only half of this amount is recycled to crop land. The N losses from animal manure collected in barns, stables and paddocks depend on the animal manure management system. Relative large losses occur in confined animal feeding operations, as these often lack the land base to utilize the N from animal

  18. Data and animal management software for large-scale phenotype screening

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Keith A.; Michael P Cooke; Tarantino, Lisa M; Lapp, Hilmar

    2006-01-01

    The mouse N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis program at the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) uses MouseTRACS to analyze phenotype screens and manage animal husbandry. MouseTRACS is a Web-based laboratory informatics system that electronically records and organizes mouse colony operations, prints cage cards, tracks inventory, manages requests, and reports Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocol usage. For efficient phenotype screening, Mous...

  19. Management of Sickle Cell Disease in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Suzie A; Sadreameli, S Christy; Strouse, John J

    2016-09-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a heterogeneous inherited disorder of hemoglobin that causes chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and endothelial dysfunction. These physiologic derangements often lead to multiorgan damage in infancy and throughout childhood. The most common types of SCD are homozygous hemoglobin S (HbSS disease), hemoglobin SC disease, and sickle β thalassemia. HbSS disease and sickle β(0) thalassemia often are referred to as sickle cell anemia because they have similar severity. Screening and preventive measures, including infection prophylaxis and vaccination, have significantly improved outcomes for children with SCD. Evidence-based therapies, such as hydroxyurea and transfusion, play an important role in preventing progression of select complications. Many chronic complications develop insidiously and require multidisciplinary care for effective treatment. Primary care physicians, as well as physicians in many other disciplines, may care for these patients and should be familiar with the potential acute and chronic complications of this disease. This review addresses healthcare maintenance guidelines, common complications, and recommendations for management of pediatric patients with SCD. PMID:27598348

  20. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava.

  1. A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, K M M; Nieboer, A P; van Schayck, C P; Asin, J D; Huijsman, R

    2008-12-01

    Disease management has emerged as a new strategy to enhance quality of care for patients suffering from chronic conditions, and to control healthcare costs. So far, however, the effects of this strategy remain unclear. Although current models define the concept of disease management, they do not provide a systematic development or an explanatory theory of how disease management affects the outcomes of care. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for valid evaluation of disease-management initiatives. The evaluation model is built on two pillars of disease management: patient-related and professional-directed interventions. The effectiveness of these interventions is thought to be affected by the organisational design of the healthcare system. Disease management requires a multifaceted approach; hence disease-management programme evaluations should focus on the effects of multiple interventions, namely patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions. The framework has been built upon the conceptualisation of these disease-management interventions. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these interventions revealed that learning and behavioural theories support the core assumptions of disease management. The evaluation model can be used to identify the components of disease-management programmes and the mechanisms behind them, making valid comparison feasible. In addition, this model links the programme interventions to indicators that can be used to evaluate the disease-management programme. Consistent use of this framework will enable comparisons among disease-management programmes and outcomes in evaluation research.

  2. The disease management approach to controlling asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahtela, T

    2002-02-01

    Asthma has become an important public health issue worldwide and certain groups, such as children, are at particular risk of the disease. Often asthma remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. Despite these worrying trends, the disease management approach to asthma control can help most asthma patients achieve a 'normal' way of life. The increased prevalence and greater diagnostic awareness of asthma have placed increased demands on healthcare resources, but effective asthma control can minimize the personal, social and economic burdens of asthma. Early diagnosis and immediate anti-inflammatory treatment is the first step in gaining control of symptoms. A stepwise approach is then used to classify asthma severity and treatment, with the number and frequency of medications increasing (step up) as asthma severity increases and decreasing (step down) when asthma is under control. This stepwise approach to asthma management necessitates regular review of treatment once asthma is under control. However, effective asthma management is dependent on successful patient education, adherence to prescribed medication and good doctor patient partnerships. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of a written asthma management plan that should be agreed between the doctor and patient. These plans should cover all aspects of asthma treatment, including prevention steps for long-term control and action steps to stop attacks once a worsening in asthma has been recognized. This comprehensive approach to asthma management increases the likelihood of achieving asthma control, which in turn reduces the need for emergency visits to the hospital or clinic and reduces the limitations on physical activity previously imposed by the condition.

  3. Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Animal Production

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and social responsibility is becoming more and more important in todayapos;s global economy. There are thousands of environmental and social codes and standards in the world today. The codes and standards define the rules and the objectives. But the challenge is in the implementation. An environmental and social management system (ESMS) helps companies to integrate the ru...

  4. Stem cell transplantation in neurological diseases: improving effectiveness in animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella eAdami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological diseases afflict a growing proportion of the human population. There are two reasons for this: first, the average age of the population (especially in the industrialised world is increasing, and second, the diagnostic tools to detect these pathologies are now more sophisticated and can be used on a higher percentage of the population. In many cases, neurological disease has a pharmacological treatment which, as in the case of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy, and Multiple Sclerosis can reduce the symptoms and slow down the course of the disease but cannot reverse its effects or heal the patient.In the last two decades the transplantation approach, by means of stem cells of different origin, has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. The choice of slightly different animal models and the differences in methods of stem cell preparation make it difficult to compare the results of transplantation experiments. Moreover, the translation of these results into clinical trials with human subjects is difficult and has so far met with little success.This review seeks to discuss the reasons for these difficulties by considering the differences between human and animal cells (including isolation, handling and transplantation and between the human disease model and the animal disease model.

  5. A framework for evaluating animals as sentinels for infectious disease surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday, Jo E.B; Meredith, Anna L.; Darryn L Knobel; Darren J Shaw; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of infectious diseases are highly variable. Host ranges, host responses to pathogens and the relationships between hosts are heterogeneous. Here, we argue that the use of animal sentinels has the potential to use this variation and enable the exploitation of a wide range of pathogen hosts for surveillance purposes. Animal sentinels may be used to address many surveillance questions, but they may currently be underused as a surveillance tool and there is a need for improved interd...

  6. Large animal induced pluripotent stem cells as pre-clinical models for studying human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan R Plews; Gu, Mingxia; Longaker, Michael T.; Joseph C. Wu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and subsequently human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has energized regenerative medicine research and enabled seemingly limitless applications. Although small animal models, such as mouse models, have played an important role in the progression of the field, typically, they are poor representations of the human disease phenotype. As an alternative, large animal models should be explored as a potentially better approach for clinica...

  7. Finding new ways to prevent disease in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-23

    Increasing concern about antimicrobial resistance and moves to restrict the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals mean that farmers will need new ways of preventing and controlling disease in their animals. With its focus on addressing the needs of the farming industry, the Moredun Research Institute sees this as an opportunity to be at the forefront of developing new solutions. Kristy Ebanks reports from an event organised to showcase some of the institute's latest research. PMID:26795855

  8. Reduced animal use in efficacy testing in disease models with use of sequential experimental designs.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterton JC, Middleton BJ, Pickford R, Allott CP, Checkley D, Keith RA.

    2000-01-01

    Although the use of animals in efficacy tests has declined substantially, there remains a small number of well-documented disease models which provide essential information about the efficacy of new compounds. Such models are typically used after extensive in vitro testing, to evaluate small numbers of compounds and to select the most promising agents for clinical trial in humans. The aim of this study was to reduce the number of animals required to achieve valid results, without compromising...

  9. ON-FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jug

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The on-farm management systems under development in order to insure data collection, regular data processing needed on a farm as well as automatic data exchange between farm and computing centre. The core of information system presents relational database (RDBMS accompanied with tools developed in APIIS. A system analysis method has been done on two pig industrial units, on national selection program for swine in Slovenia, and compared with examples from other countries and species. Public domain software like PostgreSQL, Perl and Linux have been chosen for use on farms and can be replaced with commercial software like Oracle for more demanding central systems. The system contains at this stage applications for entering, managing, and viewing the data as well as transferring the information between local and central databases.

  10. Botulinum Neurotoxin for Pain Management: Insights from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siro Luvisetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs at the neuromuscular junction has been extensively investigated and knowledge gained in this field laid the foundation for the use of BoNTs in human pathologies characterized by excessive muscle contractions. Although much more is known about the action of BoNTs on the peripheral system, growing evidence has demonstrated several effects also at the central level. Pain conditions, with special regard to neuropathic and intractable pain, are some of the pathological states that have been recently treated with BoNTs with beneficial effects. The knowledge of the action and potentiality of BoNTs utilization against pain, with emphasis for its possible use in modulation and alleviation of chronic pain, still represents an outstanding challenge for experimental research. This review highlights recent findings on the effects of BoNTs in animal pain models.

  11. Botulinum neurotoxin for pain management: insights from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Flaminia; Luvisetto, Siro

    2010-12-01

    The action of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) at the neuromuscular junction has been extensively investigated and knowledge gained in this field laid the foundation for the use of BoNTs in human pathologies characterized by excessive muscle contractions. Although much more is known about the action of BoNTs on the peripheral system, growing evidence has demonstrated several effects also at the central level. Pain conditions, with special regard to neuropathic and intractable pain, are some of the pathological states that have been recently treated with BoNTs with beneficial effects. The knowledge of the action and potentiality of BoNTs utilization against pain, with emphasis for its possible use in modulation and alleviation of chronic pain, still represents an outstanding challenge for experimental research. This review highlights recent findings on the effects of BoNTs in animal pain models.

  12. Domesticated animals and human infectious diseases of zoonotic origins: domestication time matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The rate of emergence for emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically over the last century, and research findings have implicated wildlife as an importance source of novel pathogens. However, the role played by domestic animals as amplifiers of pathogens emerging from the wild could also be significant, influencing the human infectious disease transmission cycle. The impact of domestic hosts on human disease emergence should therefore be ascertained. Here, using three independent datasets we showed positive relationships between the time since domestication of the major domesticated mammals and the total number of parasites or infectious diseases they shared with humans. We used network analysis, to better visualize the overall interactions between humans and domestic animals (and amongst animals) and estimate which hosts are potential sources of parasites/pathogens for humans (and for all other hosts) by investigating the network architecture. We used centrality, a measure of the connection amongst each host species (humans and domestic animals) in the network, through the sharing of parasites/pathogens, where a central host (i.e. high value of centrality) is the one that is infected by many parasites/pathogens that infect many other hosts in the network. We showed that domesticated hosts that were associated a long time ago with humans are also the central ones in the network and those that favor parasites/pathogens transmission not only to humans but also to all other domesticated animals. These results urge further investigation of the diversity and origin of the infectious diseases of domesticated animals in their domestication centres and the dispersal routes associated with human activities. Such work may help us to better understand how domesticated animals have bridged the epidemiological gap between humans and wildlife.

  13. Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

    2012-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms.

  14. Challenges of Managing Animals in Disasters in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian E. Heath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common to many of the repeated issues surrounding animals in disasters in the U.S. is a pre-existing weak animal health infrastructure that is under constant pressure resulting from pet overpopulation. Unless this root cause is addressed, communities remain vulnerable to similar issues with animals they and others have faced in past disasters. In the US the plight of animals in disasters is frequently viewed primarily as a response issue and frequently handled by groups that are not integrated with the affected community’s emergency management. In contrast, animals, their owners, and communities would greatly benefit from integrating animal issues into an overall emergency management strategy for the community. There is no other factor contributing as much to human evacuation failure in disasters that is under the control of emergency management when a threat is imminent as pet ownership. Emergency managers can take advantage of the bond people have with their animals to instill appropriate behavior amongst pet owners in disasters.

  15. Listeria Monocytogenes as Contaminant of Food Derived from Animal (Foodborne Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Ariyanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes often contaminates food derived from animal and serves as pathogenic bacteria for animals and human. The outbreaks were related with the consumption of food derived from animals such as meat, milk, egg, seafood and its product that poorly cooked. Human listeriosis could be transmitted by direct contact with infected animal. The disease often is asymtomatic and widely distributes in the world. The mortality rate reaches to 30%. The bacteria is important because of the widespread in the environment, tolerant to acid, hot or salt environments, forms a biofilm layer and produces virulent factor (listeriolisin O/LLO. The bacteria can grow at 4°C or in the frozen food. Appropriate handlings of animals and their products are important to prevent from L. monocytogenes contamination.

  16. Managing waste from confined animal feeding operations in the United States: the need for sanitary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Nachman, Keeve E

    2010-12-01

    Confined food-animal operations in the United States produce more than 40 times the amount of waste than human biosolids generated from US wastewater treatment plants. Unlike biosolids, which must meet regulatory standards for pathogen levels, vector attraction reduction and metal content, no treatment is required of waste from animal agriculture. This omission is of concern based on dramatic changes in livestock production over the past 50 years, which have resulted in large increases in animal waste and a high degree of geographic concentration of waste associated with the regional growth of industrial food-animal production. Regulatory measures have not kept pace with these changes. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) review trends that affect food-animal waste production in the United States, 2) assess risks associated with food-animal wastes, 3) contrast food-animal waste management practices to management practices for biosolids and 4) make recommendations based on existing and potential policy options to improve management of food-animal waste. PMID:20705978

  17. Surgical management of polycystic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Adult polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is an autosomal dominant condition commonly associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However in the last decade, it has been recognized that there is a distinct form of autosomal dominant PCLD that arises without concomitant ADPKD. Early knowledge of the pathogenesis was gained from the study of hepatic cysts in patients with ADPKD. Bile duct overgrowth after embryogenesis results in cystic hepatic dilatations that are known as biliary microhamartomas or von Meyenburg complexes. Further dilatation arises from cellular proliferation and fluid secretion into these cysts.There is a variable, broad spectrum of manifestations of PCLD. Although PCLD is most often asymptomatic,massive hepatomegaly can lead to disabling symptoms of abdominal pain, early satiety, persistent nausea,dyspnea, ascites, biliary obstruction, and lower body edema. Complications of PCLD include cyst rupture and cyst infection. Also, there are associated medical problems, especially intracranial aneurysms and valvular heart disease, which clinicians need to be aware of and evaluate in patients with PCLD. In asymptomatic patients, no treatment is indicated for PCLD. In the symptomatic patient, surgical therapy is the mainstay of treatment tailored to the extent of disease for each patient. Management options include cyst aspiration and sclerosis, open or laparoscopic fenestration, liver resection with fenestration, and liver transplantation.The surgical literature discussing treatment of PCLD,including techniques, outcomes, and complication rates,are summarized in this review.

  18. [Mechanism on biodiversity managing crop diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Shi, Zhu-Feng; Gao, Dong; Liu, Lin; Zhu, You-Yong; Li, Cheng-Yun

    2012-11-01

    Reasonable utilization of natural resource and protection of ecological environment is the foundation for implementing agricultural sustainable development. Biodiversity research and protection are becoming an important issue concerned commonly in the world. Crop disease is one of the important natural disasters for food production and safety, and is also one of the main reasons that confine sustainable development of agricultural production. Large-scale deployment of single highly resistant variety results in reduction of agro-biodiversity level. In this case, excessive loss of agro-biodiversity has become the main challenge in sustainable agriculture. Biodiversity can not only effectively alleviate disease incidence and loss of crop production, but also reduce pollution of agricultural ecological environment caused by excessive application of pesticides and fertilizers to the agricultural ecological environment. Discovery of the mechanism of biodiversity to control crop diseases can reasonably guide the rational deployment and rotation of different crops and establish optimization combinations of different crops. This review summarizes recent advances of research on molecular, physiological, and ecological mechanisms of biodiversity managing crop diseases, and proposes some research that needs to be strengthened in the future. PMID:23208136

  19. Laryngomalacia: Disease Presentation, Spectrum, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M. Landry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor in newborns, affecting 45–75% of all infants with congenital stridor. The spectrum of disease presentation, progression, and outcomes is varied. Identifying symptoms and patient factors that influence disease severity helps predict outcomes. Findings. Infants with stridor who do not have significant feeding-related symptoms can be managed expectantly without intervention. Infants with stridor and feeding-related symptoms benefit from acid suppression treatment. Those with additional symptoms of aspiration, failure to thrive, and consequences of airway obstruction and hypoxia require surgical intervention. The presence of an additional level of airway obstruction worsens symptoms and has a 4.5x risk of requiring surgical intervention, usually supraglottoplasty. The presence of medical comorbidities predicts worse symptoms. Summary. Most with laryngomalacia will have mild-to-moderate symptoms and not require surgical intervention. Those with gastroesophageal reflux and/or laryngopharyngeal reflux have symptom improvement from acid suppression therapy. Those with severe enough disease to require supraglottoplasty will have minimal complications and good outcomes if multiple medical comorbidities are not present. Identifying patient factors that influence disease severity is an important aspect of care provided to infants with laryngomalacia.

  20. Laryngomalacia: disease presentation, spectrum, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, April M; Thompson, Dana M

    2012-01-01

    Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor in newborns, affecting 45-75% of all infants with congenital stridor. The spectrum of disease presentation, progression, and outcomes is varied. Identifying symptoms and patient factors that influence disease severity helps predict outcomes. Findings. Infants with stridor who do not have significant feeding-related symptoms can be managed expectantly without intervention. Infants with stridor and feeding-related symptoms benefit from acid suppression treatment. Those with additional symptoms of aspiration, failure to thrive, and consequences of airway obstruction and hypoxia require surgical intervention. The presence of an additional level of airway obstruction worsens symptoms and has a 4.5x risk of requiring surgical intervention, usually supraglottoplasty. The presence of medical comorbidities predicts worse symptoms. Summary. Most with laryngomalacia will have mild-to-moderate symptoms and not require surgical intervention. Those with gastroesophageal reflux and/or laryngopharyngeal reflux have symptom improvement from acid suppression therapy. Those with severe enough disease to require supraglottoplasty will have minimal complications and good outcomes if multiple medical comorbidities are not present. Identifying patient factors that influence disease severity is an important aspect of care provided to infants with laryngomalacia. PMID:22518182

  1. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease.

  2. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Wexler, Anthony; Ristenpart, William

    2014-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in modulating the pathogen transmission, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulence intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of a standard axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We demonstrate that the fan speed counterintuitively has no effect on the downstream plume width, a result replicated with a variety of different fan types and configurations. The results point toward a useful simplification in modeling of airborne disease transmission via fan-generated flows.

  3. Foot and mouth disease eradication policy: social impact and animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marins Pettres

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina is the only Brazilian state that does not immunize the bovine herd against foot and mouth disease. This article discusses the policy adopted for the foot and mouth disease in Santa Catarina, especially the non-vaccination, and relates this policy with ethical, human and animal welfare issues. Nine representatives of agricultural institutions in the state were interviewed, as well as, in a case study, seven families of farmers in Jóia - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where foot and mouth disease occurred in 2000, leading to the sacrifice of 11,067 animals, most of them dairy animals. The majority of the agricultural institutions in Santa Catarina are contrary to vaccination, in order to keep and extend pig and poultry export markets. Concerns on social repercussions tended to concentrate on the effects on the income of the affected families. The case study in Jóia demonstrated that the life styles of the affected farmers were deeply harmed due to effects on human mental health, loss of income and changes in the local economy. The study concludes that the experience of a foot and mouth disease outbreak results in traumatic and long term consequences and that there is a need for policies that include social, ethical and environmental provisions, once animal welfare aspects and impacts on other areas of the economy are not contemplated in the public policy of animal sanitary defense.

  4. Implementation and assessment of an animal management system for small-animal micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, David W.; Detombe, Sarah A.; Chiodo, Chris; Fricke, Stanley T.; Drangova, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Advances in laboratory imaging systems for CT, SPECT, MRI, and PET facilitate routine micro-imaging during pre-clinical investigations. Challenges still arise when dealing with immune-compromised animals, biohazardous agents, and multi-modality imaging. These challenges can be overcome with an appropriate animal management system (AMS), with the capability for supporting and monitoring a rat or mouse during micro-imaging. We report the implementation and assessment of a new AMS system for mice (PRA-3000 / AHS-2750, ASI Instruments, Warren MI), designed to be compatible with a commercial micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging system (eXplore speCZT, GE Healthcare, London ON). The AMS was assessed under the following criteria: 1) compatibility with the imaging system (i.e. artifact generation, geometric dimensions); 2) compatibility with live animals (i.e. positioning, temperature regulation, anesthetic supply); 3) monitoring capabilities (i.e. rectal temperature, respiratory and cardiac monitoring); 4) stability of co-registration; and 5) containment. Micro-CT scans performed using a standardized live-animal protocol (90 kVp, 40 mA, 900 views, 16 ms per view) exhibited low noise (+/-19 HU) and acceptable artifact from high-density components within the AMS (e.g. ECG pad contacts). Live mice were imaged repeatedly (with removal and replacement of the AMS) and spatial registration was found to be stable to within +/-0.07 mm. All animals tolerated enclosure within the AMS for extended periods (i.e. > one hour) without distress, based on continuous recordings of rectal temperature, ECG waveform and respiratory rate. A sealed AMS system extends the capability of a conventional micro-imaging system to include immune-compromised and biosafety level 2 mouse-imaging protocols.

  5. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Nathoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  6. SPECIAL TOPICS-Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov, AN; Ott, T.; Tricarico, J; Rotz, A.; Waghorn, G; Adesogan, A; Dijkstra, J.; Montes, F.; Oh, J; Kebreab, E.; Oosting, SJ; Gerber, PJ; Henderson, B.; Makkar, HPS.; Firkins, JL

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data on animal management practices that mitigate enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Increasing animal productivity can be a very effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of livestock product. Improving the genetic potential of animals through planned cross-breeding or selection within breeds and achieving this genetic potential through proper nutrition and improvements...

  7. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  8. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology. PMID:18198116

  9. Disease management: new wine in new bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J M

    1996-05-01

    Cost pressures are driving the reorganization of the health care delivery system in the United States, causing health care delivery organizations to become larger and more diversified. These new health care delivery entities are arriving at the same time as a new approach to clinical care: commercial population-based medicine. This approach is sharing an increasing amount of space with the traditional physician-patient-based approach and offers strategies for managing a population's risk, demand, diseases, and outcomes. Although commercial population-based medicine strategies such as disease management may use many of the same tools as traditional public health approaches, they focus on the relatively short-term health needs of defined populations because of the underlying economic incentives facing payers. Population-based-medicine promises better use of resources and a systems approach to health care delivery, but it also presents the pitfalls of subversion by the needs of commercial companies, unanticipated adverse effects, and wide application without adequate preparation. PMID:8610954

  10. Cardiovascular disease management through restrained inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Tabrez, Shams

    2016-01-01

    Cardio vascular disease (CVD) is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the coronary arteries and remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Vascular inflammation and associated ongoing inflammatory responses have been considered as the critical culprits in the pathogenesis of CVD. Moreover, the activation of inflammatory pathways is not confined to coronary lesions only but involves the activation of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. In view of high mortality rate associated with this devastated disease, it is essential that CVD and related complications should be taken care off at its earliest. To achieve that goal, some inflammatory mediators could be potentially targeted. In the current article, we will highlight targeting some inflammatory mediators viz. IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α etc for CVD management. As far as our knowledge goes, we are for the first time reporting the targeting inflammatory mediators especially IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α together in a single article. Based on our review, we believe that scientific community will come up with certain anti-inflammatory agents against atherosclerosis in near future and hopefully that will be used for the successful management of CVD patients.

  11. Monkeypox disease transmission in an experimental setting: prairie dog animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is considered the most significant human public health threat in the genus Orthopoxvirus since the eradication of variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox. MPXV is a zoonotic agent endemic to forested areas of Central and Western Africa. In 2003, MPXV caused an outbreak in the United States due to the importation of infected African rodents, and subsequent sequential infection of North American prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and humans. In previous studies, the prairie dog MPXV model has successfully shown to be very useful for understanding MPXV since the model emulates key characteristics of human monkeypox disease. In humans, percutaneous exposure to animals has been documented but the primary method of human-to-human MPXV transmission is postulated to be by respiratory route. Only a few animal model studies of MPXV transmission have been reported. Herein, we show that MPXV infected prairie dogs are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple transmission routes. All secondarily exposed animals were infected with MPXV during the course of the study. Notably, animals secondarily exposed appeared to manifest more severe disease; however, the disease course was very similar to those of experimentally challenged animals including inappetence leading to weight loss, development of lesions, production of orthopoxvirus antibodies and shedding of similar levels or in some instances higher levels of MPXV from the oral cavity. Disease was transmitted via exposure to contaminated bedding, co-housing, or respiratory secretions/nasal mucous (we could not definitively say that transmission occurred via respiratory route exclusively. Future use of the model will allow us to evaluate infection control measures, vaccines and antiviral strategies to decrease disease transmission.

  12. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strains Isolated from Crohn's Disease Patients and Animal Species Exhibit Similar Polymorphic Locus Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadiali, Alifiya H.; Strother, Megan; Naser, Saleh A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of short sequence repeats of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from Crohn's disease patients identified two alleles, both of which clustered with strains derived from animals with Johne's disease. Identification of a limited number of genotypes among human strains implies the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals.

  13. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases....

  14. A branching model for the spread of infectious animal diseases in varying environments

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Pieter; Meester, R; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a stochastic model, describing outbreaks of infectious diseases that have potentially great animal or human health consequences, and which can result in such severe economic losses that immediate sets of measures need to be taken to curb the spread. During an outbreak of such a disease, the environment that the infectious agent experiences is therefore changing due to the subsequent control measures taken. In our model, we introduce a general branching process in ...

  15. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Nabeela Nathoo; V Wee Yong; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future resear...

  16. [The design and development of a quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases at the National Centre for Animal and Plant Health in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oca, N Montes; Villoch, A; Pérez Ruano, M

    2004-12-01

    A quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases was developed at the national centre for animal and plant health (CENSA), responsible for coordinating the clinical, epizootiological and laboratory diagnosis of causal agents of exotic animal diseases in Cuba. A model was designed on the basis of standard ISO 9001:2000 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), standard ISO/IEC 17025:1999 of ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission, recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and other regulatory documents from international and national organisations that deal specifically with the treatment of emerging diseases. Twenty-nine standardised operating procedures were developed, plus 13 registers and a checklist to facilitate the evaluation of the system. The effectiveness of the quality system was confirmed in the differential diagnosis of classical swine fever at an animal virology laboratory in Cuba. PMID:15861883

  17. Antisense treatment of caliciviridae: an emerging disease agent of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alvin W; Matson, David O; Stein, David A; Skilling, Douglas E; Kroeker, Andrew D; Berke, Tamas; Iversen, Patrick L

    2002-04-01

    The Earth's oceans are the primary reservoir for an emerging family of RNA viruses, the Caliciviridae, which can cause a spectrum of diseases in marine animals, wildlife, farm animals, pets and humans. Certain members of this family have unusually broad host ranges, and some are zoonotic (transmissible from animals to humans). The RNA virus replicative processes lack effective genetic repair mechanisms, and, therefore, virtually every calicivirus replicate is a mutant. Hence, traditional therapeutics dependent on specific nucleic acid sequences or protein epitopes lack the required diversity of sequence or conformational specificity that would be required to reliably detect, prevent or treat infections from these mutant clusters (quasi-species) of RNA viruses, including the Caliciviridae. Antisense technology using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers shows promise in overcoming these current diagnostic and therapeutic problems inherent with newly emerging viral diseases. PMID:12044040

  18. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy t

  19. From animal models to human disease: a genetic approach for personalized medicine in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picher-Martel, Vincent; Valdmanis, Paul N; Gould, Peter V; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Dupré, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disease in adults. Classical ALS is characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons leading to progressive paralysis. Approximately 10 % of ALS patients have familial form of the disease. Numerous different gene mutations have been found in familial cases of ALS, such as mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma (FUS), C9ORF72, ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2), optineurin (OPTN) and others. Multiple animal models were generated to mimic the disease and to test future treatments. However, no animal model fully replicates the spectrum of phenotypes in the human disease and it is difficult to assess how a therapeutic effect in disease models can predict efficacy in humans. Importantly, the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of ALS leads to a variety of responses to similar treatment regimens. From this has emerged the concept of personalized medicine (PM), which is a medical scheme that combines study of genetic, environmental and clinical diagnostic testing, including biomarkers, to individualized patient care. In this perspective, we used subgroups of specific ALS-linked gene mutations to go through existing animal models and to provide a comprehensive profile of the differences and similarities between animal models of disease and human disease. Finally, we reviewed application of biomarkers and gene therapies relevant in personalized medicine approach. For instance, this includes viral delivering of antisense oligonucleotide and small interfering RNA in SOD1, TDP-43 and C9orf72 mice models. Promising gene therapies raised possibilities for treating differently the major mutations in familial ALS cases. PMID:27400686

  20. Correlated Inflammatory Responses and Neurodegeneration in Peptide-Injected Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. McLarnon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD which emphasize activation of microglia may have particular utility in correlating proinflammatory activity with neurodegeneration. This paper reviews injection of amyloid-β (Aβ into rat brain as an alternative AD animal model to the use of transgenic animals. In particular, intrahippocampal injection of Aβ1-42 peptide demonstrates prominent microglial mobilization and activation accompanied by a significant loss of granule cell neurons. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory reactivity is demonstrated by a broad spectrum of drugs with a common endpoint in conferring neuroprotection in peptide-injected animals. Peptide-injection models provide a focus on glial cell responses to direct peptide injection in rat brain and offer advantages in the study of the mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation in AD brain.

  1. Analysis and Management of Animal Populations: Modeling, Estimation and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Conroy, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with the processes involved in making informed decisions about the management of animal populations. It covers the modeling of population responses to management actions, the estimation of quantities needed in the modeling effort, and the application of these estimates and models to the development of sound management decisions. The book synthesizes and integrates in a single volume the methods associated with these themes, as they apply to ecological assessment and conservation of animal populations. KEY FEATURES * Integrates population modeling, parameter estimation and * decision-theoretic approaches to management in a single, cohesive framework * Provides authoritative, state-of-the-art descriptions of quantitative * approaches to modeling, estimation and decision-making * Emphasizes the role of mathematical modeling in the conduct of science * and management * Utilizes a unifying biological context, consistent mathematical notation, * and numerous biological examples

  2. Rapid cohort generation and analysis of disease spectrum of large animal model of cone dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Kostic

    Full Text Available Large animal models are an important resource for the understanding of human disease and for evaluating the applicability of new therapies to human patients. For many diseases, such as cone dystrophy, research effort is hampered by the lack of such models. Lentiviral transgenesis is a methodology broadly applicable to animals from many different species. When conjugated to the expression of a dominant mutant protein, this technology offers an attractive approach to generate new large animal models in a heterogeneous background. We adopted this strategy to mimic the phenotype diversity encounter in humans and generate a cohort of pigs for cone dystrophy by expressing a dominant mutant allele of the guanylate cyclase 2D (GUCY2D gene. Sixty percent of the piglets were transgenic, with mutant GUCY2D mRNA detected in the retina of all animals tested. Functional impairment of vision was observed among the transgenic pigs at 3 months of age, with a follow-up at 1 year indicating a subsequent slower progression of phenotype. Abnormal retina morphology, notably among the cone photoreceptor cell population, was observed exclusively amongst the transgenic animals. Of particular note, these transgenic animals were characterized by a range in the severity of the phenotype, reflecting the human clinical situation. We demonstrate that a transgenic approach using lentiviral vectors offers a powerful tool for large animal model development. Not only is the efficiency of transgenesis higher than conventional transgenic methodology but this technique also produces a heterogeneous cohort of transgenic animals that mimics the genetic variation encountered in human patients.

  3. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa; Winblad, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer’s disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind that of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer’s disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to...

  4. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle. PMID:22374122

  5. In memoriam: Cristiana Patta, DVM, 1958-2012, Virologist and specialist in African swine fever and exotic animal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The veterinary world is shocked and deeply saddened by the untimely death of Cristiana Patta, manager at Sardinia’s Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale.Cristiana was a nationally and internationally acclaimed virologist, distinguished throughout her intense but all-too-brief life by her talent and professionalism. After studying microbiology and virology at the University of Sassari, specialising in microbiological and virological techniques, she began her career as a researcher in the viral animal diseases sector at the Istituto di Sassari. Her work included the main aspects of exotic animal diseases, from diagnosis to control, as well as the planning and management of eradication programmes for the principal infectious diseases (swine fever, brucellosis, tuberculosis and bluetongue under European Union surveillance.Her knowledge of swine fever – and particularly African swine fever – led her to become a national and international expert in the control of this disease. In this role, she became a member of the roster of experts of the Ministry of Health and the European Commission. She contributed to numerous European research projects and was an invited speaker at many scientific assemblies sponsored by international organisations such as the OIE, FAO and EU.Cristiana also provided an authoritative contribution to training activities promoted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’ in Teramo in its capacity as OIE collaboration centre for veterinary training, epidemiology, food safety and animal welfare, offering her expertise in exotic livestock diseases. The Italian veterinary service and national and European reference centres all benefitted from her experience and knowledge, through training events organised by the Ministry of Health and the regional authorities. Her technical expertise was matched by her managerial skills, in particular in the clinical management of veterinary public

  6. In memoriam: Cristiana Patta, DVM, 1958-2012. Virologist and specialist in African swine fever and exotic animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The veterinary world is shocked and deeply saddened by the untimely death of Cristiana Patta, manager at Sardinia's Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale. Cristiana was a nationally and internationally acclaimed virologist, distinguished throughout her intense but all-too-brief life by her talent and professionalism. After studying microbiology and virology at the University of Sassari, specialising in microbiological and virological techniques, she began her career as a researcher in the viral animal diseases sector at the Istituto di Sassari. Her work included the main aspects of exotic animal diseases, from diagnosis to control, as well as the planning and management of eradication programmes for the principal infectious diseases (swine fever, brucellosis, tuberculosis and bluetongue) under European Union surveillance. Her knowledge of swine fever - and particularly African swine fever - led her to become a national and international expert in the control of this disease. In this role, she became a member of the roster of experts of the Ministry of Health and the European Commission. She contributed to numerous European research projects and was an invited speaker at many scientific assemblies sponsored by international organisations such as the OIE, FAO and EU. Cristiana also provided an authoritative contribution to training activities promoted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale' in Teramo in its capacity as OIE collaboration centre for veterinary training, epidemiology, food safety and animal welfare, offering her expertise in exotic livestock diseases. The Italian veterinary service and national and European reference centres all benefitted from her experience and knowledge, through training events organised by the Ministry of Health and the regional authorities. Her technical expertise was matched by her managerial skills, in particular in the clinical management of veterinary public health facilities. The

  7. 75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Additional...: Mr. Neil Hammerschmidt, Program Manager, Animal Disease Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road...

  8. Unintended consequences of conservation actions: managing disease in complex ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliénor L M Chauvenet

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are increasingly recognised to be a major threat to biodiversity. Disease management tools such as control of animal movements and vaccination can be used to mitigate the impact and spread of diseases in targeted species. They can reduce the risk of epidemics and in turn the risks of population decline and extinction. However, all species are embedded in communities and interactions between species can be complex, hence increasing the chance of survival of one species can have repercussions on the whole community structure. In this study, we use an example from the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania to explore how a vaccination campaign against Canine Distemper Virus (CDV targeted at conserving the African lion (Panthera leo, could affect the viability of a coexisting threatened species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. Assuming that CDV plays a role in lion regulation, our results suggest that a vaccination programme, if successful, risks destabilising the simple two-species system considered, as simulations show that vaccination interventions could almost double the probability of extinction of an isolated cheetah population over the next 60 years. This work uses a simple example to illustrate how predictive modelling can be a useful tool in examining the consequence of vaccination interventions on non-target species. It also highlights the importance of carefully considering linkages between human-intervention, species viability and community structure when planning species-based conservation actions.

  9. Heart Failure Update: Chronic Disease Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Lorna B

    2016-03-01

    With high mortality and readmission rates among patients with heart failure (HF), multiple disease management models have been and continue to be tested, with mixed results. Early postdischarge care improves outcomes for patients. Telemonitoring also can assist in reducing mortality and HF-related hospitalizations. Office-based team care improves patient outcomes, with important components including rapid access to physicians, partnerships with clinical pharmacists, education, monitoring, and support. Pay-for-performance measures developed for HF, primarily use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers, also improve patient outcomes, but the influence of adherence to other measures has been minimal. Evaluating comorbid conditions, including diabetes and hypertension, and making drug adjustments for patients with HF to include blood pressure control and use of metformin, when possible, can reduce mortality and morbidity.

  10. Heart Failure Update: Chronic Disease Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Lorna B

    2016-03-01

    With high mortality and readmission rates among patients with heart failure (HF), multiple disease management models have been and continue to be tested, with mixed results. Early postdischarge care improves outcomes for patients. Telemonitoring also can assist in reducing mortality and HF-related hospitalizations. Office-based team care improves patient outcomes, with important components including rapid access to physicians, partnerships with clinical pharmacists, education, monitoring, and support. Pay-for-performance measures developed for HF, primarily use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers, also improve patient outcomes, but the influence of adherence to other measures has been minimal. Evaluating comorbid conditions, including diabetes and hypertension, and making drug adjustments for patients with HF to include blood pressure control and use of metformin, when possible, can reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:26974003

  11. Management of Complex Perineal Fistula Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Ricardo Tadayoshi; Rodrigues, Fabio Gontijo; da Silva, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    Management of complex perineal fistulas such as high perianal, rectovaginal, pouch-vaginal, rectourethral, or pouch-urethral fistulas requires a systematic approach. The first step is to control any sepsis with drainage of abscess and/or seton placement. Patients with large, recurrent, irradiated fistulas benefit from stoma diversion. In patients with Crohn's disease, it is essential to induce remission prior to any repair. There are different approaches to repair complex fistulas, from local repairs to transperineal and transabdominal approaches. Simpler fistulas are amenable to local repair. More complex fistulas, such as those secondary to irradiation, require interposition of healthy, well-vascularized tissue. The most common flap used for this treatment is the gracilis muscle with good outcomes reported. Once healing is confirmed by imaging and endoscopy, the stoma is reversed. PMID:27247533

  12. Recent advances using zebrafish animal models for muscle disease drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maves, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Animal models have enabled great progress in the discovery and understanding of pharmacological approaches for treating muscle diseases like Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Areas covered With this article, the author provides the reader with a description of the zebrafish animal model, which has been employed to identify and study pharmacological approaches to muscle disease. In particular, the author focuses on how both large-scale chemical screens and targeted drug treatment studies have established zebrafish as an important model for muscle disease drug discovery. Expert opinion There are a number of opportunities arising for the use of zebrafish models for further developing pharmacological approaches to muscle diseases, including studying drug combination therapies and utilizing genome editing to engineer zebrafish muscle disease models. It is the author’s particular belief that the availability of a wide range of zebrafish transgenic strains for labeling immune cell types, combined with live imaging and drug treatment of muscle disease models, should allow for new elegant studies demonstrating how pharmacological approaches might influence inflammation and the immune response in muscle disease. PMID:24931439

  13. Sex-specific lung diseases: effect of oestrogen on cultured cells and in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosung Shim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex prevalence in lung disease suggests that sex-specific hormones may contribute to the pathogenesis and/or progression of at least some lung diseases, such as lung adenocarcinoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM and benign metastasising leiomyoma (BML. Oestrogen is an important hormone in normal lung development and in the pathogenesis of female predominant pulmonary diseases. In vivo and in vitro studies have facilitated our understanding of disease pathogenesis and discovery of potential therapeutic targets. Oestrogen promoted disease progression in cell and animal models of lung adenocarcinoma, LAM and BML. Specifically, oestrogen enhanced tumour growth and metastasis in animal models of these diseases. Furthermore, 17β-estradiol (E2, the most abundant form of oestrogen in humans, increased the size and proliferation of cultured cells of lung adenocarcinoma and LAM. Coupled with the known mechanisms of oestrogen metabolism and signalling, these model systems may provide insights into the diverse effects of oestrogen and other hormones on lung diseases. Anti-oestrogen treatments that target key events of oestrogen synthesis or signalling, such as aromatase activity, oestrogen receptors and signalling pathways, may offer additional opportunities for clinical trials.

  14. Infectious disease in cervids of North America: data, models, and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mary Margaret; Ebinger, Michael Ryan; Blanchong, Julie Anne; Cross, Paul Chafee

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a steady increase in the study and management of wildlife diseases. This trend has been driven by the perception of an increase in emerging zoonotic diseases and the recognition that wildlife can be a critical factor for controlling infectious diseases in domestic animals. Cervids are of recent concern because, as a group, they present a number of unique challenges. Their close ecological and phylogenetic relationship to livestock species places them at risk for receiving infections from, and reinfecting livestock. In addition, cervids are an important resource; revenue from hunting and viewing contribute substantially to agency budgets and local economies. A comprehensive coverage of infectious diseases in cervids is well beyond the scope of this chapter. In North America alone there are a number of infectious diseases that can potentially impact cervid populations, but for most of these, management is not feasible or the diseases are only a potential or future concern. We focus this chapter on three diseases that are of major management concern and the center of most disease research for cervids in North America: bovine tuberculosis, chronic wasting disease, and brucellosis. We discuss the available data and recent advances in modeling and management of these diseases.

  15. Infectious disease in cervids of North America: data, models, and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mary Margaret; Ebinger, Michael Ryan; Blanchong, Julie Anne; Cross, Paul Chafee

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a steady increase in the study and management of wildlife diseases. This trend has been driven by the perception of an increase in emerging zoonotic diseases and the recognition that wildlife can be a critical factor for controlling infectious diseases in domestic animals. Cervids are of recent concern because, as a group, they present a number of unique challenges. Their close ecological and phylogenetic relationship to livestock species places them at risk for receiving infections from, and reinfecting livestock. In addition, cervids are an important resource; revenue from hunting and viewing contribute substantially to agency budgets and local economies. A comprehensive coverage of infectious diseases in cervids is well beyond the scope of this chapter. In North America alone there are a number of infectious diseases that can potentially impact cervid populations, but for most of these, management is not feasible or the diseases are only a potential or future concern. We focus this chapter on three diseases that are of major management concern and the center of most disease research for cervids in North America: bovine tuberculosis, chronic wasting disease, and brucellosis. We discuss the available data and recent advances in modeling and management of these diseases. PMID:18566093

  16. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  17. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  18. Water management requirements for animal and plant maintenance on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Rasmussen, D.; Curran, G.

    1987-01-01

    Long-duration Space Station experiments that use animals and plants as test specimens will require increased automation and advanced technologies for water management in order to free scientist-astronauts from routine but time-consuming housekeeping tasks. The three areas that have been identified as requiring water management and that are discusseed are: (1) drinking water and humidity condensate of the animals, (2) nutrient solution and transpired water of the plants, and (3) habitat cleaning methods. Automation potential, technology assessment, crew time savings, and resupply penalties are also discussed.

  19. Faecal calprotectin: Management in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José; Manuel; Benítez; Valle; García-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disorder which leads to an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. A tailored therapy to achieve mucosal healing with the less adverse events has become a key issue in the management of IBD. In the past, the clinical remission was the most important factor to consider for adapting diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies. However, there is no a good correlation between symptoms and intestinal lesions, so currently the goals of treatment are to achieve not only the control of symptoms, but deep remission, which is related with a favourable prognosis. Thus, the determination of biological markers or biomarkers of intestinal inflammation play a crucial role. Many biomarkers have been extensively evaluated in IBD showing significant correlation with endoscopic lesions, risk of recurrence and response to treatment. One of the most important markers is faecal calprotectin(FC). Despite calprotectin limitations, this biomarker represents a reliable and noninvasive alternative to reduce the need for endoscopic procedures. FC has demonstrated its performance for regular monitoring of IBD patients, not only to the diagnosis for discriminating IBD from non-IBD diagnosis, but for assessing disease activity, relapse prediction and response to therapy. Although, FC provides better results than other biomarkers such as C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, these surrogate markers of intestinal inflammation should not be used isolation but in combination with other clinical, endoscopic, radiological or/and histological parameters enabling a comprehensive assessment of IBD patients.

  20. The potential of disease management for neuromuscular hereditary disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Gagnon, Cynthia; Laberge, Luc; Tremblay, Carmen; Côté, Charlotte; Leclerc, Nadine; Mathieu, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular hereditary disorders require long-term multidisciplinary rehabilitation management. Although the need for coordinated healthcare management has long been recognized, most neuromuscular disorders are still lacking clinical guidelines about their long-term management and structured evaluation plan with associated services. One of the most prevalent adult-onset neuromuscular disorders, myotonic dystrophy type 1, generally presents several comorbidities and a variable clinical picture, making management a constant challenge. This article presents a healthcare follow-up plan and proposes a nursing case management within a disease management program as an innovative and promising approach. This disease management program and model consists of eight components including population identification processes, evidence-based practice guidelines, collaborative practice, patient self-management education, and process outcomes evaluation (Disease Management Association of America, 2004). It is believed to have the potential to significantly improve healthcare management for neuromuscular hereditary disorders and will prove useful to nurses delivering and organizing services for this population.

  1. [DNA-diagnosis of congenital diseases in companion animals and the role of the practicing veterinarian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbink, G J; Stades, F C; Rothuizen, J

    2002-04-15

    The knowledge on the impact of gene defects on the development of disease in companion animals is increasing rapidly. The gene defects may be differentiated in an initiating defect, which is the cause of illness, and a promoting defect, which enhances the chance on illness. Up till now only initiating defects are known in dogs and cats. All this is of great importance for breeding purposes, because within a breed there is narrow relationship which means the genetic diversity is small, and with all the disadvantages thereof. The identification in good time of gene defects in breeding animals, so that these animals being excluded from breeding, is of utmost importance in preventing congenital diseases. For that reason more and more the owners will appeal to veterinary surgeons to cooperate in procedures to screen potential breeding animals, or to declare the animals free from gene defects. The problems with regard to the diagnostic tests, including the DNA-tests, and their predictive values are discussed.

  2. Interaction of the role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, James E

    2016-03-01

    Most significant change in the evolution of the influenza virus is the rapid growth of the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on a global scale. These industrial agricultural operations have the potential of housing thousands of animals in a relatively small area. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) event can be considered as a shift in the pathogen-host-environment interplay characteristics described by Engering et al. (2013). These changes in the host-environment and the disease ecology are key to creating novel transmission patterns and selection of novel pathogens with a modification of genetic traits. With the development of CAFOs throughout the world, the need for training of animal caretakers to observe, identify, treat, vaccinate and cull if necessary is important to safeguard public health. The best defense against another pandemic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) is the constant monitoring of the livestock and handlers of CAFOs and the live animal markets. These are the most likely epicenter of the next pandemic. PMID:26656834

  3. What are Production Diseases, and How do We Manage Them?

    OpenAIRE

    Nir (Markusfeld) Oded

    2003-01-01

    The term "Production Diseases" referred traditionally to those diseases induced by management practices, metabolic diseases are typical examples. Recently, the term "Production related diseases" has been enhanced to include other traits, such as infertility, and diseases such as mastitis and lameness that might involve infectious agents but exacerbated by nutritional or managemental factors. The presentation deals with Production Diseases in the context of integrated herd health programs, us...

  4. Study in Parkinson Disease of Exercise (SPARX): Translating high-intensity exercise from animals to humans

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Charity G.; Schenkman, Margaret; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Delitto, Anthony; Hall, Deborah A.; Corcos, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A burgeoning literature suggests that exercise has a therapeutic benefit in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and in animal models of PD, especially when animals exercise at high intensity. If exercise is to be prescribed as “first-line” or “add-on” therapy in patients with PD, we must demonstrate its efficacy and dose-response effects through testing phases similar to those used in the testing of pharmacologic agents. The SPARX Trial is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded...

  5. Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems in clinical disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, JRBJ

    1996-01-01

    Advanced and controlled drug delivery systems are important for clinical disease management. In this review the most important new systems which have reached clinical application are highlighted. Microbiologically controlled drug delivery is important for gastrointestinal diseases like ulcerative co

  6. Gamma Radiation for Sterilizing the Carcasses of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infected Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on sterilization by means of gamma rays of the carcasses of animals experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been carried out. In the first part the author studied the presence and survival of FMDV in the carcasses and in the organs of infected slaughtered animals. The results obtained are sufficient to underline the problem of the sterilization of carcasses of animals infected by FMDV. The experiments on the inactivation of the FMDV by gamma irradiation in vitro showed the same radiation sensitivity of the three types, O, A and C, of FMDV inaqueous solutions and showed that the fraction of surviving virus is an exponential function of the gamma-ray dose. The results obtained confirm the remarkable resistance of viruses to the effect of radiation. As far as the dry virus is concerned special tests indicated the necessity of greater doses for inactivating the same virus in the dry as opposed to the liquid state. In the third part the author studied the possibility of utilizing gamma rays for the sterilization of carcasses of infected (or suspected of being infected) FMDV animals using some tissues of infected animals (pigs) (blood, bone marrow, vertebrae, lymph nodes). The results obtained show that the inactivation of FMDV types O, A and C in the carcasses of infected animals can be made by treatment with gamma rays. (author)

  7. Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The livestock revolution so robustly and frequently described in the past five years, is argued to provide a real opportunity for the rural livestock keeper in developing countries to escape the poverty trap, move away from subsistence farming and enter the more rewarding areas of farm enterprise and income generation. To do so though, will require more than merely acknowledging this marketing opportunity. It will be essential to address the many constraints and critical risks that constantly face rural farming in developing countries. Of these, livestock disease rates as one of the most challenging. However, for effective participation in the livestock revolution it will be essential that livestock disease is either controlled or prevented. For the livestock producer in developing countries, many of the life threatening diseases that have been eradicated from the developed world area are ever present and the extent and range of production-limiting diseases are considerable. The situation is further compounded since in many cases veterinary services and other animal health delivery systems are either nonexistent or ineffective. For some time donor organisations have been driving countries in transition to privatise services such as animal health delivery. The current situation is the virtual elimination of functioning State veterinary services without replacement by a private system and certainly not in rural areas. The elimination of the major killer diseases of livestock in the developed world was achieved, for the most part, through considerable State investment, extensive veterinary input and a large share of public money. Such resources are certainly not available today in most developing countries. No wonder therefore that diseases such as Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, African Swine Fever ad Foot and Mouth Disease continue to exist endemically in most poorer regions of Africa and elsewhere. In terms of the production limiting diseases, control of these

  8. Optogenetic approaches to evaluate striatal function in animal models of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Krystal L; Kim, Youngcho; Alberico, Stephanie L; Emmons, Eric B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S

    2016-03-01

    Optogenetics refers to the ability to control cells that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels. The introduction of optogenetic approaches has facilitated the dissection of neural circuits. Optogenetics allows for the precise stimulation and inhibition of specific sets of neurons and their projections with fine temporal specificity. These techniques are ideally suited to investigating neural circuitry underlying motor and cognitive dysfunction in animal models of human disease. Here, we focus on how optogenetics has been used over the last decade to probe striatal circuits that are involved in Parkinson disease, a neurodegenerative condition involving motor and cognitive abnormalities resulting from degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The precise mechanisms underlying the striatal contribution to both cognitive and motor dysfunction in Parkinson disease are unknown. Although optogenetic approaches are somewhat removed from clinical use, insight from these studies can help identify novel therapeutic targets and may inspire new treatments for Parkinson disease. Elucidating how neuronal and behavioral functions are influenced and potentially rescued by optogenetic manipulation in animal models could prove to be translatable to humans. These insights can be used to guide future brain-stimulation approaches for motor and cognitive abnormalities in Parkinson disease and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  9. How well do serodiagnostic testes predict the infection or disease status of animals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serodiagnostic test results do not always predict the disease status of an animal as might be expected. When few false negative and few false positive test results are reported for a test (high test sensitivity and specificity), the assumption is that the test is a very accurate predictor of infection/disease status. This assumption is correct if the disease prevalence is high. However, when disease prevalence drops to, for instance, 0.1%, such as may occur after several years of a vaccination campaign, a test having a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 99% becomes a poor predictor of infected animals: in this scenario, a positive test result will be wrong 91% of the time. A negative test result, however, virtually always will correctly identify uninfected animals when prevalence of infection remains low. The purpose of this paper is to offer an intuitive approach toward an understanding of the statistical terminology associated with serodiagnostic test results. It also provides a simplified method for computing the reliability (predictive value) of test results. The differential diagnosis is better served when the strengths and weaknesses of serotest results are fully understood. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Perceptions of zoonotic and animal diseases in the Van Gujjar community of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alice; Thrusfield, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Humans living in and around forest areas are at increased risk of zoonotic disease transmission. The transhumant Van Gujjars of North India are one such population, but there is an absence of health data, including evidence of zoonotic diseases, in this community. Pastoral communities can have a wide breadth of knowledge of livestock diseases, but not necessarily of human diseases. This study investigated the perceptions that the Van Gujjars have specifically of zoonotic diseases, using participatory epidemiological methods, including semi-structured interviews, ranking, proportional piling, transect walks and direct observation, triangulated by informal interviews with local veterinarians. The community did not have a wide appreciation of zoonotic diseases, apart from rabies and potentially zoonotic skin diseases. In contrast, animal diseases were of much greater concern to the community; the locally-named surra (trypanosomiasis), ajar, khuriya (foot-and-mouth disease), dakhutra, gheru, taku, and 'blood in urine' (possibly babesiosis), being of most concern. A participatory epidemiological approach was found to be an effective method of data collection and analysis; and the findings suggest that access to health services, particularly veterinary health services, should be improved for Van Gujjars.

  11. Grazing management as it affects nutrition, animal production and economics of beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S D; Allison, C D

    1991-03-01

    Until recently, the nutritional fate of the grazing animal has been largely ignored by both animal and range scientists despite the economic dependence of the extensive livestock industry on nutrition from grass. Of the three factors that can be manipulated to improve profit gross margin per animal, is one that is directly affected by nutrition and, hence, grazing management. The relationship between economics and grazing management may be summarized as: Gross margin = f(Animal Performance); Animal Performance = f(nutrition); Nutrition = f(grazing). Economical beef production must consider the needs of the animal and the forage plant at the same time. The health of the sward must be maintained while improving individual animal performance and simultaneously increasing stocking rate. Generally, plants that have been defoliated require a period of recovery before again being grazed. A sward is kept in a vigorous state by preventing repetitive defoliation at the one extreme, and avoiding excessive shading (mature growth) of photosynthetic material at the other. This state is best achieved where livestock grazing is controlled. For any individual paddock, periods of grazing are followed by periods that allow adequate physiologic recovery of the plants. A grazing regimen that keeps the plant in a healthy state is fortuitously also well suited to the nutritional requirements of the animal. Animals on overgrazed pastures are likely to suffer from inadequate feed intake because of deficiencies in feed quantity. Conversely, on over-rested pastures, intake deficiency results from paucity in feed quality. On most unmanaged ranges, overgrazed and over-rested plants are likely to be found side by side. By controlling duration of the rest period as well as duration of the grazing period through pasture subdivision, requirements of both the plant and the animal can be met. With artificially high economic demands placed on animal production, some form of supplementation is

  12. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them...

  13. Nutrient management for intensive animal agriculture: policies and practices for sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sims, J.L.; Bergstrom, L.F.; Bowden, B.T.; Oenema, O.

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of animal production around the world has increased substantially during the last half-century, which has led to large problems with the disposal of manures and waste waters. The focus of this paper is on the development of national policies to improve the nutrient management of concen

  14. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone 10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously. PMID:27032222

  15. The Impact of Farmers' Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Hammitt, James K; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions. PMID:27300368

  16. The Impact of Farmers’ Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitt, James K.; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions. PMID:27300368

  17. Diagnosis and therapy of oral cavity diseases in small domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nikola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In parallel with the stepped up urbanisation of modern man, there is an increasing number of house pets of different breeds and species who suffer certain biological and physiological changes because of the specific manner of breeding and upkeep. The altered conditions of their natural environment can lead to disorders in the animal genetic fund, which is why numerous diseases include cases of constitutional flaws (caries, periodontosis and related complications, cysts, abscesses, malformations of hereditary origin - hypodontia, andontia, impacted teeth, and others. The paper presents cases of the most frequent diseases of teeth and supporting tissues, as well as the optimal manner of therapy. It also points out certain limitations in practicing veterinary orthodontia aimed at avoiding situations when certain congenital or acquired anomalies are corrected but result in the animal no longer meeting the required standards for its species.

  18. Diabetes Mellitus Induces Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology: Histopathological Evidence from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kimura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the major causative disease of dementia and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs in the brain. Although genetic studies show that β-amyloid protein (Aβ, the major component of SPs, is the key factor underlying AD pathogenesis, it remains unclear why advanced age often leads to AD. Interestingly, several epidemiological and clinical studies show that type II diabetes mellitus (DM patients are more likely to exhibit increased susceptibility to AD. Moreover, growing evidence suggests that there are several connections between the neuropathology that underlies AD and DM, and there is evidence that the experimental induction of DM can cause cognitive dysfunction, even in rodent animal models. This mini-review summarizes histopathological evidence that DM induces AD pathology in animal models and discusses the possibility that aberrant insulin signaling is a key factor in the induction of AD pathology.

  19. Farming of Plant-Based Veterinary Vaccines and Their Applications for Disease Prevention in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pit Sze Liew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been studied for the production of pharmaceutical compounds for more than two decades now. Ever since the plant-made poultry vaccine against Newcastle disease virus made a breakthrough and went all the way to obtain regulatory approval, research to use plants for expression and delivery of vaccine proteins for animals was intensified. Indeed, in view of the high production costs of veterinary vaccines, plants represent attractive biofactories and offer many promising advantages in the production of recombinant vaccine proteins. Furthermore, the possibility of conducting immunogenicity and challenge studies in target animals has greatly exaggerated the progress. Although there are no edible plant-produced animal vaccines in the market, plant-based vaccine technology has great potentials. In this review, development, uses, and advantages of plant-based recombinant protein production in various expression platforms are discussed. In addition, examples of plant-based veterinary vaccines showing strong indication in terms of efficacy in animal disease prevention are also described.

  20. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee.

  1. Induction of animal model of Graves' disease in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu-fang Tian; Bing-yin Shi; Xiao-yan Wu; Li Xu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To construct an animal model of Graves' disease (GD) by immunizing BALB/c mice with hM12 cells co-expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅱ molecules and human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) molecules. Methods BALB/c mice in experimental group (H-2d) were immunized with hM12 cells Intraper-itoncally every 2 weeks for six times, while mice in control group were immunized with M12 cells. Five weeks later, the thyroids were histologically examined, and serum samples were tested for thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb) and thyroid hormone levels. Results One BALB/c mouse in experimental group developed Graves'-like disease. Total T4 and T3 levels in this mouse were above the upper limit of normal, TSAb activity was displayed in its serum. The thyroid histologically showed the features of thyroid hyperactivity including thyrocyte hypercellularity and colloid absorption.None of control mice developed Graves'-like disease. Conclusion An animal model with some characteristics of human Graves' disease was successfully induced and the model will facilitate studies aimed directly at understanding the patho-genesis of autoimmunity in Graves' disease.

  2. Neurodegeneration in an animal model of Parkinson's disease is exacerbated by a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Jill K.; Bomhoff, Gregory L.; Stanford, John A.; Geiger, Paige C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous clinical studies supporting a link between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Parkinson's disease (PD), the clinical literature remains equivocal. We, therefore, sought to address the relationship between insulin resistance and nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) in a preclinical animal model. High-fat feeding in rodents is an established model of insulin resistance, characterized by increased adiposity, systemic oxidative stress, and hyperglycemia. We subjected rats to a normal chow or high-...

  3. Needs for animal models of human diseases of the respiratory system.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    Animal models are of two types those that occur spontaneously and those that the scientist produces by artefact. One value of spontaneously occurring models is that if pathogenetic mechanisms are identified, they give new leads for the study of human disease. There is a need for spontaneously occurring examples of so-called primary or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension (arterial or venous), and emphysema. Acquired or artefactual models of each of these conditions are availa...

  4. Use of radiations and radioisotopes for investigating problems connected with parasitic diseases of animals in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the present knowledge regarding the use of isotopes and radiations for studies of animal parasitic diseases in India is reviewed. The concepts in immunology of metazoan parasites with relevance to vaccination have been discussed. A brief review of radiation attenuated vaccines against certain economically important species of helminth parasites and the use of radioisotopes for pathophysiological investigations and for the study of anthelmintic activity is given. (auth.)

  5. Bile acids: emerging role in management of liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharpour, Amon; Kumar, Divya; Sanyal, Arun

    2015-10-01

    Bile acids are well known for their effects on cholesterol homeostasis and lipid digestion. Since the discovery of bile acid receptors, of which there are farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor, and the plasma membrane G-protein receptor, as well as Takeda G-protein coupled receptor clone 5, further roles have been elucidated for bile acids including glucose and lipid metabolism as well as inflammation. Additionally, treatment with bile acid receptor agonists has shown a decrease in the amount of atherosclerosis plaque formation and decreased portal vascular resistance and portal hypotension in animal models. Furthermore, rodent models have demonstrated antifibrotic activity using bile acid receptor agonists. Early human data using a FXR agonist, obeticholic acid, have shown promising results with improvement of histological activity and even a reduction of fibrosis. Human studies are ongoing and will provide further information on bile acid receptor agonist therapies. Thus, bile acids and their derivatives have the potential for management of liver diseases and potentially other disease states including diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26320013

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons from Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Joerg; Seeger, Werner; Weissmann, Norbert; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) diseases such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, and stroke. Based on human research, sympathetic activation, inflammation, and oxidative stress are thought to play major roles in the pathophysiology of OSA-related CV diseases. Animal models of OSA have shown that endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, and systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as heart failure can develop in response to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The available animal data are clearly in favour of oxidative stress playing a key role in the development of all of these CV manifestations of OSA. Presumably, the oxidative stress is due to an activation of NADPH oxidase and other free oxygen radicals producing enzymes within the CV system as evidenced by data from knockout mice and pharmacological interventions. It is hoped that animal models of OSA-related CV disease will continue to contribute to a deeper understanding of their underlying pathophysiology and will foster the way for the development of cardioprotective treatment options other than conventional CPAP therapy. PMID:23533685

  7. Disease spread models in wild and feral animal populations: application of artificial life models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M P; Laffan, S W; Highfield, L D

    2011-08-01

    The role that wild and feral animal populations might play in the incursion and spread of important transboundary animal diseases, such as foot and mouth disease (FMD), has received less attention than is warranted by the potential impacts. An artificial life model (Sirca) has been used to investigate this issue in studies based on spatially referenced data sets from southern Texas. An incursion of FMD in which either feral pig or deer populations were infected could result in between 698 and 1557 infected cattle and affect an area of between 166 km2 and 455 km2 after a 100-day period. Although outbreak size in deer populations can be predicted bythe size of the local deer population initially infected, the resulting outbreaks in feral pig populations are less predictable. Also, in the case of deer, the size of potential outbreaks might depend on the season when the incursion occurs. The impact of various mitigation strategies on disease spread has also been investigated. The approach used in the studies reviewed here explicitly incorporates the spatial distribution and relationships between animal populations, providing a new framework to explore potential impacts, costs, and control strategies.

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons from Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Dumitrascu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV diseases such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, and stroke. Based on human research, sympathetic activation, inflammation, and oxidative stress are thought to play major roles in the pathophysiology of OSA-related CV diseases. Animal models of OSA have shown that endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, and systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as heart failure can develop in response to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH. The available animal data are clearly in favour of oxidative stress playing a key role in the development of all of these CV manifestations of OSA. Presumably, the oxidative stress is due to an activation of NADPH oxidase and other free oxygen radicals producing enzymes within the CV system as evidenced by data from knockout mice and pharmacological interventions. It is hoped that animal models of OSA-related CV disease will continue to contribute to a deeper understanding of their underlying pathophysiology and will foster the way for the development of cardioprotective treatment options other than conventional CPAP therapy.

  9. The application of medical informatics to the veterinary management programs at companion animal practices in Alberta, Canada: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Maclean, K; Russell, M L; Jamal, I; Stephen, C

    2014-02-01

    Companion animals closely share their domestic environment with people and have the potential to, act as sources of zoonotic diseases. They also have the potential to be sentinels of infectious and noninfectious, diseases. With the exception of rabies, there has been minimal ongoing surveillance of, companion animals in Canada. We developed customized data extraction software, the University of, Calgary Data Extraction Program (UCDEP), to automatically extract and warehouse the electronic, medical records (EMR) from participating private veterinary practices to make them available for, disease surveillance and knowledge creation for evidence-based practice. It was not possible to build, generic data extraction software; the UCDEP required customization to meet the specific software, capabilities of the veterinary practices. The UCDEP, tailored to the participating veterinary practices', management software, was capable of extracting data from the EMR with greater than 99%, completeness and accuracy. The experiences of the people developing and using the UCDEP and the, quality of the extracted data were evaluated. The electronic medical record data stored in the data, warehouse may be a valuable resource for surveillance and evidence-based medical research.

  10. Managing Abiotic Factors of Compost to Increase Soilborne Disease Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Deirdre E.

    2012-01-01

    Soilborne pathogens can devastate crops, causing economic losses for farmers due to reduced yields and expensive management practices. Fumigants and fungicides have harmful impacts on the surrounding environment and can be toxic to humans. Therefore, alternative methods of disease management are important. The disease suppressive abilities of…

  11. Applications of information theory in plant disease management

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Information theory is a branch of probability and statistics involving the analysis of communications. Information theory enables us to analyze and quantify the information content of predictions made in the context of plant disease management and related disciplines. In this article, some applications of information theory in plant disease management are outlined.

  12. Symmetric Dimethylarginine: Improving the Diagnosis and Staging of Chronic Kidney Disease in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relford, Roberta; Robertson, Jane; Clements, Celeste

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition in cats and dogs, traditionally diagnosed after substantial loss of kidney function when serum creatinine concentrations increase. Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a sensitive circulating kidney biomarker whose concentrations increase earlier than creatinine as glomerular filtration rate decreases. Unlike creatinine SDMA is unaffected by lean body mass. The IDEXX SDMA test introduces a clinically relevant and reliable tool for the diagnosis and management of kidney disease. SDMA has been provisionally incorporated into the International Renal Interest Society guidelines for CKD to aid staging and targeted treatment of early and advanced disease. PMID:27499007

  13. Studying human respiratory disease in animals--role of induced and naturally occurring models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kurt; Roman, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory disorders like asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis affect millions of Americans and many more worldwide. Despite advancements in medical research that have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions and sometimes to new therapeutic interventions, these disorders are for the most part chronic and progressive; current interventions are not curative and do not halt disease progression. A major obstacle to further advancements relates to the absence of animal models that exactly resemble the human condition, which delays the elucidation of relevant mechanisms of action, the unveiling of biomarkers of disease progression, and identification of new targets for intervention in patients. There are currently many induced animal models of human respiratory disease available for study, and even though they mimic features of human disease, discoveries in these models have not always translated into safe and effective treatments in humans. A major obstacle relates to the genetic, anatomical, and functional variations amongst species, which represents the major challenge to overcome when searching for appropriate models of respiratory disease. Nevertheless, rodents, in particular mice, have become the most common species used for experimentation, due to their relatively low cost, size, and adequate understanding of murine genetics, among other advantages. Less well known is the fact that domestic animals also suffer from respiratory illnesses similar to those found in humans. Asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis are among the many disorders occurring naturally in dogs, cats, and horses, among other species. These models might better resemble the human condition and are emphasized here, but further investigations are needed to determine their relevance.

  14. Studying human respiratory disease in animals--role of induced and naturally occurring models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kurt; Roman, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory disorders like asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis affect millions of Americans and many more worldwide. Despite advancements in medical research that have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions and sometimes to new therapeutic interventions, these disorders are for the most part chronic and progressive; current interventions are not curative and do not halt disease progression. A major obstacle to further advancements relates to the absence of animal models that exactly resemble the human condition, which delays the elucidation of relevant mechanisms of action, the unveiling of biomarkers of disease progression, and identification of new targets for intervention in patients. There are currently many induced animal models of human respiratory disease available for study, and even though they mimic features of human disease, discoveries in these models have not always translated into safe and effective treatments in humans. A major obstacle relates to the genetic, anatomical, and functional variations amongst species, which represents the major challenge to overcome when searching for appropriate models of respiratory disease. Nevertheless, rodents, in particular mice, have become the most common species used for experimentation, due to their relatively low cost, size, and adequate understanding of murine genetics, among other advantages. Less well known is the fact that domestic animals also suffer from respiratory illnesses similar to those found in humans. Asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis are among the many disorders occurring naturally in dogs, cats, and horses, among other species. These models might better resemble the human condition and are emphasized here, but further investigations are needed to determine their relevance. PMID:26467890

  15. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome: translational relevance and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangild, Per T; Ney, Denise M; Sigalet, David L; Vegge, Andreas; Burrin, Douglas

    2014-12-15

    Intestinal failure (IF), due to short bowel syndrome (SBS), results from surgical resection of a major portion of the intestine, leading to reduced nutrient absorption and need for parenteral nutrition (PN). The incidence is highest in infants and relates to preterm birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus, and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, and nutritional and pharmacological interventions. Animal studies are needed to carefully evaluate the cellular mechanisms, safety, and translational relevance of new procedures. Distal intestinal resection, without a functioning colon, results in the most severe complications and adaptation may depend on the age at resection (preterm, term, young, adult). Clinically relevant therapies have recently been suggested from studies in preterm and term PN-dependent SBS piglets, with or without a functional colon. Studies in rats and mice have specifically addressed the fundamental physiological processes underlying adaptation at the cellular level, such as regulation of mucosal proliferation, apoptosis, transport, and digestive enzyme expression, and easily allow exogenous or genetic manipulation of growth factors and their receptors (e.g., glucagon-like peptide 2, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor). The greater size of rats, and especially young pigs, is an advantage for testing surgical procedures and nutritional interventions (e.g., PN, milk diets, long-/short-chain lipids, pre- and probiotics). Conversely, newborn pigs (preterm or term) and weanling rats provide better insights into the developmental aspects of treatment for SBS in infants owing to their immature intestines. The review shows that a balance among practical, economical, experimental, and ethical constraints will determine the

  16. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  17. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  18. Climatic changes, seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the last few years the potential impact of climate change on infectious and parasitic diseases has drawn an increasing attention although the issue is still quite controversial. Many infectious diseases, especially of wildlife, have a remarkable meteo-climatic footprint. In some cases, outbreaks are clearly synchronized with seasonal fluctuations in temperature, humidity and rainfall patterns. Seasonal changes are ubiquitous in ecology and affect the timing of both outbreak and wildlife demography on a yearly basis but more subtly, can contribute to generate more complex, inter-annual dynamics on a longer time scale. Meteo-climatic fluctuations can affect the infective agent directly by modifying the life expectancy of the free-living stages or, indirectly, through changes in immune response, behaviour, demography (timing of reproduction, mortality, etc.), abundance (birth pulses, resources availability) of the host and vectors. This may result in turn in a change of probability of transmission between susceptible and infected animals or between susceptible hosts and infective stages/propagules with remarkable effects on the epidemiological patterns at the population or community level. Changes in the statistical properties of climate, especially in the combination of temperature and rainfall patterns, can thus ultimately affect the geographical distribution and the dynamics of pathogens and vectors. In the present work, I briefly illustrate two specific examples of how seasonality in meteo-climatic variables can affect the dynamics of infectious diseases caused by micro and macroparasites. In the first case, I investigate how seasonal fluctuations in demography of the host affect the dynamics of rabies epidemics and show how short-living, fast-reproducing host species may respond to seasonality differently than long-living, slowly reproducing ones. The second example is about the effect of seasonality in the development of hypobiosis (arrested stage

  19. Effects of Low-Dose-Gamma Rays on the Immune System of Different Animal Models of Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shimura, Noriko; Kojima, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the beneficial or harmful effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on several diseases based on a search of the literature. The attenuation of autoimmune manifestations in animal disease models irradiated with low-dose γ-rays was previously reported by several research groups, whereas the exacerbation of allergic manifestations was described by others. Based on a detailed examination of the literature, we divided animal disease models into two groups: one group consisting of collage...

  20. Associations between feedlot management practices and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-06-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between factors related to feedlot management and risk of BRD. In total, 35,131 animals in 170 pens (cohorts) inducted into 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow separate estimation of total and direct effects. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. The placement of pen water troughs such that they could be accessed by animals in adjoining pens was associated with markedly increased risk of BRD (OR 4.3, 95% credible interval: 1.4-10.3). Adding animals to pens over multiple days was associated with increased risk of BRD across all animals in those pens compared to placing all animals in the pen on a single day (total effect: OR 1.9, 95% credible interval: 1.2-2.8). The much attenuated direct effect indicated that this was primarily mediated via factors on indirect pathways so it may be possible to ameliorate the adverse effects of adding animals to pens over multiple days by altering exposure to these intervening factors (e.g. mixing history). In pens in which animals were added to the pen over multiple days, animals added ≥7 days (OR: 0.7, credible interval: 0.5-0.9) or 1-6 days (OR: 0.8, credible interval: 0.7-1.0) before the last animal was added were at modestly reduced risk of BRD compared to the animals that were added to the pen on the latest day. Further research is required to disentangle effects of cohort formation patterns at animal-level and higher levels on animal-level risk of BRD. Vaccination against Bovine herpesvirus 1 at feedlot entry was investigated but results were inconclusive and further research is required to evaluate vaccine efficacy. We conclude that there are practical interventions available to

  1. Derivation of neural stem cells from an animal model of psychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, A; Walton, N M; Shin, R; Chen, Q; Miyake, S; Tajinda, K; Gross, A K; Kogan, J H; Heusner, C L; Tamura, K; Matsumoto, M

    2013-01-01

    Several psychiatric and neurological diseases are associated with altered hippocampal neurogenesis, suggesting differing neural stem cell (NSC) function may play a critical role in these diseases. To investigate the role of resident NSCs in a murine model of psychiatric disease, we sought to isolate and characterize NSCs from alpha-calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II heterozygous knockout (CaMK2α-hKO) mice, a model of schizophrenia/bipolar disorder. These mice display altered neurogenesis, impaired neuronal development and are part of a larger family possessing phenotypic and behavioral correlates of schizophrenia/bipolar disorder and a shared pathology referred to as the immature dentate gyrus (iDG). The extent to which NSCs contribute to iDG pathophysiology remains unclear. To address this, we established heterogeneous cultures of NSCs isolated from the hippocampal neuropoietic niche. When induced to differentiate, CaMK2α-hKO-derived NSCs recapitulate organotypic hippocampal neurogenesis, but generate larger numbers of immature neurons than wild-type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, mutant neurons fail to assume mature phenotypes (including morphology and MAP2/calbindin expression) at the same rate observed in WT counterparts. The increased production of immature neurons which fail to mature indicates that this reductionist model retains key animal- and iDG-specific maturational deficits observed in animal models and human patients. This is doubly significant, as these stem cells lack several developmental inputs present in vivo. Interestingly, NSCs were isolated from animals prior to the emergence of overt iDG pathophysiology, suggesting mutant NSCs may possess lasting intrinsic alterations and that altered NSC function may contribute to iDG pathophysiology in adult animals. PMID:24193728

  2. Chronic Disease Management Programmes: an adequate response to patients’ needs?

    OpenAIRE

    Rijken, M; Bekkema, N.; Boeckxstaens, P.; Schellevis, F G; De Maeseneer, J M; Groenewegen, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inspired by American examples, several European countries are now developing disease management programmes (DMPs) to improve the quality of care for patients with chronic diseases. Recently, questions have been raised whether the disease management approach is appropriate to respond to patient-defined needs. Objective: In this article we consider the responsiveness of current European DMPs to patients needs defined in terms of multimorbidity, functional and participation problems,...

  3. Bush animal attacks: management of complex injuries in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Katrina B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Though animal-related injuries and fatalities have been documented throughout the world, the variety of attacks by wild animals native to rural East Africa are less commonly described. Given the proximity of our northwestern Tanzania hospital to Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and the Serengeti National Park, and presentation of several patients attacked by bush animals and suffering a variety of complex injuries, we sought to report the pattern of attacks and surgical management in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods Four patients who were admitted to the northwestern Tanzania tertiary referral hospital, Bugando Medical Centre (BMC, in 2010-2011 suffered attacks by different bush animals: hyena, elephant, crocodile, and vervet monkey. These patients were triaged as trauma patients in the Casualty Ward, then admitted for inpatient monitoring and treatment. Their outcomes were followed to discharge. Results The age and gender of the patients attacked was variable, though all but the pediatric patient were participating in food gathering or guarding activities in rural locations at the time of the attacks. All patients required surgical management of their injuries, which included debridement and closure of wounds, chest tube insertion, amputation, and external fixation of an extremity fracture. All patients survived and were discharged home. Discussion Though human injuries secondary to encounters with undomesticated animals such as cows, moose, and camel are reported, they often are indirect traumas resulting from road traffic collisions. Snake attacks are well documented and common. However, this series of unique bush animal attacks describes the initial and surgical management of human injuries in the resource-limited setting of the developing world. Conclusion Animal attacks are common throughout the world, but their pattern may vary in Africa throughout jungle and bush environmental settings. It is

  4. A descriptive study of visits by animal health specialists in pig farming: type, frequency, and herd-health management factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, J; van de Laak, M J; Tielen, M J; Huirne, R B; Dijkhuizen, A A

    1998-10-01

    This research was carried out to analyse the visits specialists of the Dutch Animal Health Service made to growing and fattening pig farms. The type and frequency of the visits and identified herd-health management factors that did not meet accepted standards were investigated. In total 373 visit reports were studied. The majority of the visits (n = 306 of 373) were made to investigate the cause of health, welfare, and performance problems ('problem-solving visits'). Respiratory disorders were the main reason for requesting a specialist to assess farm conditions and management (n = 156). In the other 67 of 373 visit reports the specialists screened for herd-health management factors that did not meet standards for the prevention of disease ('screening visits'). For both types of visits, the main factors detected were abrupt changes in feeding regimens (e.g. changes in feed type, feed composition or feed supplier) (37%), inadequate measures to prevent introduction of pathogens by people and trucks (83%), and incorrect adjustment of the ventilation system (58-60%). The specialists focusing on housing-climate management, identified the majority of factors in an equal number irrespective of whether the visit was a problem-solving visit or a screening visit. This implies that even on farms that appear not to have health or performance problems, factors that relate to disease are present and may cause problems sooner or later. Although veterinary practitioners and other farm advisors assist farmers in their management to optimize herd health, the findings of the research suggest that advisors could provide additional support in situations where environmental and managerial factors play a role in pig health and performance. The knowledge of advisors about integrated herd-health management can be broadened by means of textbooks, courses, or computer programs.

  5. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. National training course on ELISA for seradiagnosis of animal diseases (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details and UNDP/FAO/IAEA consultancy undertaken from Monday 13 February to Saturday 25 February 1989. The purpose of the consultancy was to provide practical and theoretical training to Indonesian scientists in ELISA technology. This occurred under the program title of ''National Training Course on the Use of ELISA for Serodiagnosis of Animal Diseases, with Emphasis on Brucellosis''. The course was held in the Bacteriology Department, Research Institute for Veterinary Sciences (Balitvet), Bogor, Indonesia. The majority of the 19 participants came from the Regional Disease Investigation Centre Laboratories within Indonesia. The principal course instructor was Dr. Richard Jacobson who was assisted by Dr. Larry McClure, Dr. Susan Sutherland, Dr. Mark Eisler, Dr. Barry Patten and myself. The course concluded with a one day seminar organized by BATAN, DITKESWAN and BALITVET entitled ''Bovine Brucellosis: A Challenging Disease for Indonesia'' which was attended by approximately fifty people. Refs and tabs

  6. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Pravas Ranjan; Sethy, Kamadev; Mohapatra, Swagat; Panda, Debasis

    2016-05-01

    India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease. PMID:27284221

  7. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  8. Diagnosis and management of fistulizing Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Rogler, Gerhard; Hahnloser, Dieter;

    2009-01-01

    The transmural inflammation characteristic of Crohn's disease predisposes patients to the formation of fistulas. Up to 50% of patients with Crohn's disease are affected by fistulas, which is a major problem given the considerable morbidity associated with this complication. Appropriate treatment...... of fistulizing Crohn's disease. Particular focus is given to external and perianal fistulas, for which treatment options are well established. Available therapeutic options, including novel therapies, are discussed. Wherever possible, practical and evidence-based treatment regimens for Crohn's disease...

  9. Whole animal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be us...

  10. Diagnosis and management of polycystic liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, T.J.G.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is arbitrarily defined as a liver that contains >20 cysts. The condition is associated with two genetically distinct diseases: as a primary phenotype in isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) and as an extrarenal manifestation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidn

  11. Identified and unidentified challenges for reproductive biotechnologies regarding infectious diseases in animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibier, M

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the known and theoretical risks for in vivo derived and in vitro produced embryos as well as for nuclear transferred or transgenic embryos in terms of animal diseases or diseases of public health consequence. For in vivo derived embryos, a considerable number of experiments and scientific investigations have resulted in recommended guidelines and procedures that ensure a high level of safety. The effectiveness of these measures has been validated by field experience with the safe transfer of several million embryos over the past three decades. In vitro produced embryos have several characteristics that differentiate them from the former, in particular a structure of the zona pellucida that results in a more frequent possible association of pathogens with the embryo. However, the guidelines prescribed by the IETS, the international standard setting body (OIE) and existing national regulatory frameworks are in place to minimize the risk of disease transmission. No specific public health risks have been identified to date with respect to in vivo or in vitro derived embryos. In regard to nuclear transferred and transgenic embryos, theoretical risks have been identified in relation to the potential effects on some intrinsic viruses such as endogenous retroviruses but very little targeted experimental work has been carried out on infectious diseases that could have adverse consequences on animal or human health. Although there has been no report of such adverse consequences associated with the limited number of animals produced to date by such reproductive technologies, a precautionary approach is warranted given the potential negative impacts and it would be prudent to restrict at this stage, the international movement of such "manipulated" embryos.

  12. Priority threat management of invasive animals to protect biodiversity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Maggini, Ramona; Chadès, Iadine; Nicol, Sam; Walters, Belinda; Reeson, Andy; Martin, Tara G; Possingham, Hugh P; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Ponce-Reyes, Rocio; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity, and its impacts can act synergistically to heighten the severity of other threats. Most research on projecting species range shifts under climate change has not been translated to informing priority management strategies on the ground. We develop a prioritization framework to assess strategies for managing threats to biodiversity under climate change and apply it to the management of invasive animal species across one-sixth of the Australian continent, the Lake Eyre Basin. We collected information from key stakeholders and experts on the impacts of invasive animals on 148 of the region's most threatened species and 11 potential strategies. Assisted by models of current distributions of threatened species and their projected distributions, experts estimated the cost, feasibility, and potential benefits of each strategy for improving the persistence of threatened species with and without climate change. We discover that the relative cost-effectiveness of invasive animal control strategies is robust to climate change, with the management of feral pigs being the highest priority for conserving threatened species overall. Complementary sets of strategies to protect as many threatened species as possible under limited budgets change when climate change is considered, with additional strategies required to avoid impending extinctions from the region. Overall, we find that the ranking of strategies by cost-effectiveness was relatively unaffected by including climate change into decision-making, even though the benefits of the strategies were lower. Future climate conditions and impacts on range shifts become most important to consider when designing comprehensive management plans for the control of invasive animals under limited budgets to maximize the number of threatened species that can be protected.

  13. A Review of Exotic Animal Disease in Great Britain and in Scotland Specifically between 1938 and 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Peiso, Onneile O.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de C.; Handel, Ian G.; Volkova, Victoriya V

    2011-01-01

    Background: Incursions of contagious diseases of livestock into disease-free zones are inevitable as long as the diseases persist elsewhere in the world. Knowledge of where, when and how incursions have occurred helps assess the risks, and regionalize preventative and reactive measures.Methodology: Based on reports of British governmental veterinary services, we review occurrence of the former OIE List A diseases, and of Aujeszky's disease, anthrax and bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in farm-animal...

  14. A Review of Exotic Animal Disease in Great Britain and in Scotland Specifically between 1938 and 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Peiso, Onneile O.; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Handel, Ian G.; Volkova, Victoriya V

    2011-01-01

    Background Incursions of contagious diseases of livestock into disease-free zones are inevitable as long as the diseases persist elsewhere in the world. Knowledge of where, when and how incursions have occurred helps assess the risks, and regionalize preventative and reactive measures. Methodology Based on reports of British governmental veterinary services, we review occurrence of the former OIE List A diseases, and of Aujeszky's disease, anthrax and bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in farm-animals...

  15. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries.

  16. Clinical application of Patlak plot CT-GFR in animals with upper urinary tract disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kate; Dunn, Marilyn; Carmel, Eric Norman; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E

    2010-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), an important parameter of renal function, is difficult to assess clinically. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen measurements lack sensitivity, whereas radionuclide determination of GFR is not always available and requires postinjection patient isolation. GFR can be determined using computed tomography (CT), most commonly via Patlak plot analysis. Four adult cats, two adult dogs, and a foal underwent abdominal CT under general anesthesia for various diseases of the upper urinary tract. CT-GFR was measured with a single-slice dynamic acquisition and Patlak plot analysis. In five animals, the total CT-GFR appeared to be below normal, corresponding with mild (two animals) and moderate (two animals) increases of serum creatinine in four. In the two animals with normal or increased CT-GFR, serum creatinine was within the reference values. A significant negative logarithmic relationship was found between CT-GFR and serum creatinine values (P = 0.008; r2 = 0.75). No complications occurred during or following CT-GFR. CT examination provided clinically relevant information in 3/5 patients with possible ureteral obstruction and in 3/3 patients with suspected ureteral calculi. Single-slice dynamic CT-GFR was practical and provided clinically useful information in this small series of patients undergoing CT of the upper urinary tract. There was a significant relationship between CT-GFR and serum creatinine values, which supports the clinical potential of CT-GFR and justifies further investigation of this technique. PMID:20806874

  17. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance.

  18. Challenges and opportunities in developing and marketing vaccines for OIE List A and emerging animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, C G; Salt, J; Balaski, C

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceutical products generated 14.5 billion U.S. Dollars (USD) in worldwide sales in 2000, with biological products contributing 16.2 percent or 2.3 billion USD. The leading biological products were foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines, with 284 million USD in sales, representing 26.4 percent of the entire livestock biological business. Despite the potential opportunities for the biologicals industry, non-vaccination policies and undefined control and eradication strategies have deterred the private sector from significant investments in the research and development of vaccines against List A diseases. The primary research focus remains vaccines for infectious diseases that have an impact on current domestic herd health management systems. Changing the vaccine paradigm, investing in new technologies, and creating the future by integrating into key alliances with producers and regulatory authorities will be paramount in protecting our poultry and livestock industries against highly infectious diseases and potential acts of bioterrorism. PMID:14677694

  19. [Application of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing for constructing animal models of human diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhanhui; Sun, Xiaofang

    2016-08-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a new targeted nuclease for genome editing, which can directly introduce modifications at the targeted genomic locus. The system utilizes a short single guide RNA (sgRNA) to direct the endonuclease Cas9 in the genome. Upon targeting, Cas9 can generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As such DSBs are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology directed repair (HDR), therefore facilitates introduction of random or specific mutations, repair of endogenous mutations, or insertion of DNA elements. The system has been successfully used to generate gene targeted cell lines including those of human, animals and plants. This article reviews recent advances made in this rapidly evolving technique for the generation of animal models for human diseases.

  20. [Application of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing for constructing animal models of human diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhanhui; Sun, Xiaofang

    2016-08-10

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a new targeted nuclease for genome editing, which can directly introduce modifications at the targeted genomic locus. The system utilizes a short single guide RNA (sgRNA) to direct the endonuclease Cas9 in the genome. Upon targeting, Cas9 can generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As such DSBs are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology directed repair (HDR), therefore facilitates introduction of random or specific mutations, repair of endogenous mutations, or insertion of DNA elements. The system has been successfully used to generate gene targeted cell lines including those of human, animals and plants. This article reviews recent advances made in this rapidly evolving technique for the generation of animal models for human diseases. PMID:27455021

  1. An architecture model for multiple disease management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lichin; Yu, Hui-Chu; Li, Hao-Chun; Wang, Yi-Van; Chen, Huang-Jen; Wang, I-Ching; Wang, Chiou-Shiang; Peng, Hui-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chi-Huang; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chung, Yufang; Lai, Feipei

    2013-04-01

    Disease management is a program which attempts to overcome the fragmentation of healthcare system and improve the quality of care. Many studies have proven the effectiveness of disease management. However, the case managers were spending the majority of time in documentation, coordinating the members of the care team. They need a tool to support them with daily practice and optimizing the inefficient workflow. Several discussions have indicated that information technology plays an important role in the era of disease management. Whereas applications have been developed, it is inefficient to develop information system for each disease management program individually. The aim of this research is to support the work of disease management, reform the inefficient workflow, and propose an architecture model that enhance on the reusability and time saving of information system development. The proposed architecture model had been successfully implemented into two disease management information system, and the result was evaluated through reusability analysis, time consumed analysis, pre- and post-implement workflow analysis, and user questionnaire survey. The reusability of the proposed model was high, less than half of the time was consumed, and the workflow had been improved. The overall user aspect is positive. The supportiveness during daily workflow is high. The system empowers the case managers with better information and leads to better decision making.

  2. Modeling vector-borne disease risk in migratory animals under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Brown, Leone M; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Recent theory suggests that animals that migrate to breed at higher latitudes may benefit from reduced pressure from natural enemies, including pathogens ("migratory escape"), and that migration itself weeds out infected individuals and lowers infection prevalence ("migratory culling"). The distribution and activity period of arthropod disease vectors in temperate regions is expected to respond rapidly to climate change, which could reduce the potential for migratory escape. However, climate change could have the opposite effect of reducing transmission if differential responses in the phenology and distribution of migrants and disease vectors reduce their overlap in space and time. Here we outline a simple modeling framework for exploring the influence of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics in a migratory host. We investigate two scenarios under which pathogen transmission dynamics might be mediated by climate change: (1) vectors respond more rapidly than migrants to advancing phenology at temperate breeding sites, causing peak susceptible host density and vector emergence to diverge ("migratory mismatch") and (2) reduced migratory propensity allows increased nonbreeding survival of infected hosts and larger breeding-site epidemics (loss of migratory culling, here referred to as "sedentary amplification"). Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of climate-induced changes to migratory behavior and vector activity to predict pathogen prevalence and its impacts on migratory animals. PMID:27252225

  3. Morphological changes of glutamatergic synapses in animal models of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M Villalba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus are the main entry doors for extrinsic inputs to reach the basal ganglia circuitry. The cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem are the key sources of glutamatergic inputs to these nuclei. There is functional and neurochemical evidence that glutamatergic neurotransmission is altered in the striatum and subthalamic nucleus of animal models of Parkinson’s disease, and that these changes may contribute to aberrant network neuronal activity in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry. Postmortem studies of animal models and PD patients have revealed significant pathology of glutamatergic synapses, dendritic spines and microcircuits in the striatum of parkinsonians. More recent findings have also demonstrated a significant breakdown of the glutamatergic corticosubthalamic system in parkinsonian monkeys. In this review, we will discuss evidence for synaptic glutamatergic dysfunction and pathology of cortical and thalamic inputs to the striatum and subthalamic nucleus in models of Parkinson’s disease. The potential functional implication of these alterations on synaptic integration, processing and transmission of extrinsic information through the basal ganglia circuits will be considered. Finally, the significance of these pathological changes in the pathophysiology of motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease will be examined.

  4. Arranging the bouquet of disease: floral traits and the transmission of plant and animal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Scott H; Koch, Hauke; Irwin, Rebecca E; Adler, Lynn S

    2014-05-01

    Several floral microbes are known to be pathogenic to plants or floral visitors such as pollinators. Despite the ecological and economic importance of pathogens deposited in flowers, we often lack a basic understanding of how floral traits influence disease transmission. Here, we provide the first systematic review regarding how floral traits attract vectors (for plant pathogens) or hosts (for animal pathogens), mediate disease establishment and evolve under complex interactions with plant mutualists that can be vectors for microbial antagonists. Attraction of floral visitors is influenced by numerous phenological, morphological and chemical traits, and several plant pathogens manipulate floral traits to attract vectors. There is rapidly growing interest in how floral secondary compounds and antimicrobial enzymes influence disease establishment in plant hosts. Similarly, new research suggests that consumption of floral secondary compounds can reduce pathogen loads in animal pollinators. Given recent concerns about pollinator declines caused in part by pathogens, the role of floral traits in mediating pathogen transmission is a key area for further research. We conclude by discussing important implications of floral transmission of pathogens for agriculture, conservation and human health, suggesting promising avenues for future research in both basic and applied biology. PMID:24528408

  5. Acupuncture for Parkinson's Disease: a review of clinical, animal, and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Danqing

    2015-12-01

    Acupuncture has been commonly used as an adjuvant therapy or monotherapy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in China and in other countries. Animal studies have consistently show that this treatment is both neuroprotective, protecting dopaminergic neurons from degeneration and also restorative, restoring tyrosine hydroxylase positive dopaminergic terminals in striatum, resulting in improvements in motor performance in animal models of Parkinsonism. Studies show that this protection is mediated through the same common mechanisms as other neuroprotective agents, including anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways at molecular and cellular levels. Restoration of function seems to involve activation of certain compensatory brain regions as a mechanism at the network level to correct the imbalances to the nervous system resulting from loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. Clinical studies in China and Korea, in particular, have shown a positive benefit of acupuncture in treating Parkinson's disease, especially in reducing the doses of dopaminergic medications and the associated side effects. However, large and well-controlled clinical trials are still needed to further demonstrate the efficacy and effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  6. Modeling HCV Disease in Animals: Virology, Immunology and Pathogenesis of HCV and GBV-B Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia eManickam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has become a global public health burden costing billions of dollars in health care annually. Even with rapidly advancing scientific technologies, this disease still looms large due to a lack of vaccines and affordable treatment options. The immune correlates of protection and predisposing factors towards chronicity remain major obstacles to development of HCV vaccines and immunotherapeutics due, at least in part, to lack of a tangible infection animal model. This review discusses the currently available animal models for HCV disease, with a primary focus on GB virus B (GBV-B infection of New World primates that recapitulates the dual hepacivirus phenotypes of acute viral clearance and chronic pathologic disease. HCV and GBV-B are also closely phylogenetically related, and advances in characterization of the immune systems of New World primates have already led to the use of this model for drug testing and vaccine trials. Herein, we discuss the benefits and caveats of the GBV-B infection model and discuss potential avenues for future development of novel vaccines and immunotherapies.

  7. A branching model for the spread of infectious animal diseases in varying environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Pieter; Meester, Ronald; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2004-12-01

    This paper is concerned with a stochastic model, describing outbreaks of infectious diseases that have potentially great animal or human health consequences, and which can result in such severe economic losses that immediate sets of measures need to be taken to curb the spread. During an outbreak of such a disease, the environment that the infectious agent experiences is therefore changing due to the subsequent control measures taken. In our model, we introduce a general branching process in a changing (but not random) environment. With this branching process, we estimate the probability of extinction and the expected number of infected individuals for different control measures. We also use this branching process to calculate the generating function of the number of infected individuals at any given moment. The model and methods are designed using important infections of farmed animals, such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza as motivating examples, but have a wider application, for example to emerging human infections that lead to strict quarantine of cases and suspected cases (e.g. SARS) and contact and movement restrictions. PMID:15565446

  8. Modeling vector-borne disease risk in migratory animals under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Brown, Leone M; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Recent theory suggests that animals that migrate to breed at higher latitudes may benefit from reduced pressure from natural enemies, including pathogens ("migratory escape"), and that migration itself weeds out infected individuals and lowers infection prevalence ("migratory culling"). The distribution and activity period of arthropod disease vectors in temperate regions is expected to respond rapidly to climate change, which could reduce the potential for migratory escape. However, climate change could have the opposite effect of reducing transmission if differential responses in the phenology and distribution of migrants and disease vectors reduce their overlap in space and time. Here we outline a simple modeling framework for exploring the influence of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics in a migratory host. We investigate two scenarios under which pathogen transmission dynamics might be mediated by climate change: (1) vectors respond more rapidly than migrants to advancing phenology at temperate breeding sites, causing peak susceptible host density and vector emergence to diverge ("migratory mismatch") and (2) reduced migratory propensity allows increased nonbreeding survival of infected hosts and larger breeding-site epidemics (loss of migratory culling, here referred to as "sedentary amplification"). Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of climate-induced changes to migratory behavior and vector activity to predict pathogen prevalence and its impacts on migratory animals.

  9. Rad World -- computer-animated video radiation and hazardous waste-management science curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, B. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Rad World computer-animated video and curriculum materials were developed through a grant from the Waste-management Education and Research Consortium. The package, which includes a computer-animated video, hands-on activities, and multidisciplinary lessons concerning radiation and hazardous-waste management, was created to approach these subjects in an informative, yet entertaining, manner. The lessons and video, designed to supplement studies of energy and physical science at the middle school and high school level, also implement quality and consistent science education as outlined by the New Mexico Science Standards and Benchmarks (1995). Consistent with the curriculum standards and benchmarks, the curriculum includes library research, collaborative learning, hands-on-science, and discovery learning. Pre- and post-tests are included.

  10. Prevention and control measures of animal disease in the post-disaster%自然灾害期间的动物疫病防控浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡钧; 刘家利; 杨国丽; 郑洪玲

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters have a serious impact on animal disease, it can damage the rearing environment, drinking water resources and accelerate the dissemination of the disease. This article describes the impact of disasters on the microbial com-munity and how to carry out prevention and control measures of animal disease in the post-disaster, including timely processing of livestock deaths, good post-disinfec-tion, to carry out immunization and quarantine, improving the emergency mechanism, strengthen animal husbandry management, attention to personnel safety, etc., wish to provide guidance for prevention and control measures of animal disease in the post-disaster.%  自然灾害对动物疫病有严重的影响,可使饲养环境、饮用水资源等遭到破坏,而且使疫病加速传播。本文对灾害对微生物群落的影响及如何开展灾后动物疫病的防控措施作以简要介绍,包括及时处理死亡畜禽、做好灾后消毒、开展免疫检疫、完善应急机制、加强畜禽饲养管理、重视人员安全防护等内容,以期为灾后动物疫病的防控提供指导。

  11. Possibilities of Strawberry Integrated Disease Management in Different Cultivation System

    OpenAIRE

    Tihomir Miličević; Dario Ivić; Bogdan Cvjetković; Boris Duralija

    2006-01-01

    In the last few years strawberry production in Croatia is constantly increasing. One of the main problems in production are diseases. During two-year trials in strawberry plantations in northern Croatia, the occurrence of diseases was monitored in order to establish the most effective methods of integrated disease management. Trials were performed in three cultivation system: open field, greenhouse and hydroponics. The most frequent disease in all three production systems was gray mould (Botr...

  12. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  13. Achieving sustainable plant disease management through evolutionary principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Plants and their pathogens are engaged in continuous evolutionary battles and sustainable disease management requires novel systems to create environments conducive for short-term and long-term disease control. In this opinion article, we argue that knowledge of the fundamental factors that drive host-pathogen coevolution in wild systems can provide new insights into disease development in agriculture. Such evolutionary principles can be used to guide the formulation of sustainable disease management strategies which can minimize disease epidemics while simultaneously reducing pressure on pathogens to evolve increased infectivity and aggressiveness. To ensure agricultural sustainability, disease management programs that reflect the dynamism of pathogen population structure are essential and evolutionary biologists should play an increasing role in their design.

  14. Attitudes and concerns of Canadian animal health technologists toward postoperative pain management in dogs and cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Dohoo, S E; Dohoo, I R

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty-two Canadian animal health technologists (AHTs) were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward postoperative pain management in dogs and cats following 6 surgical procedures, their concerns regarding the use of opioid analgesics, and their role within veterinary practices with respect to postoperative pain control. Two hundred and sixty-four (82%) returned the questionnaire. Pain perception was defined as the average of pain rankings for dogs and cats (on a scale o...

  15. From animals to crops : environmental consequences of current and future strategies for manure management

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, N.

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is a key component that links crop and livestock production as it contains valuable nutrients for the soil and crop. Manure is also a source of environmental pollution through losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and losses of carbon (C). These losses are largely determined by the way manure is managed. Technologies to reduce nutrient and C losses from manure mainly focused on reducing a single emission while unwillingly increasing another emission at th...

  16. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities.

  17. Citrus phytophthora diseases: Management challenges and successes

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, J; Feichtenberger, E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora spp. are present in nearly all citrus groves in Florida and Brazil and phytophthora-induced diseases, especially foot and root rot, have the potential to cause economically important crop losses. Disease-related losses due to root rot are difficult to estimate because fibrous root damage and yield loss are not always directly proportional. Challenges from phytophthora diseases have been addressed in both countries by enacting phytosanitary requirements for production of pathogen-...

  18. Irradiated T. cruzi and resistant consomic animals can be useful in Chagas disease studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Chagas disease is considered the most significant parasitic disease in Latin America. It is estimated that 16-18 million people are infected by T. cruzi. As a consequence, approximately 50,000 deaths occur every year. The acute infection usually goes unrecognized and enters into a chronic stage that persists throughout the host's life span. However, roughly 30% of infected individuals eventually will develop disease with an array of possible manifestations affecting the heart, the digestive tract, and/or the peripheral nervous system. This disease is commonly modeled in inbred mice even though mouse strains used to simulate experimental infection vary considerably. In this way, Wrightsman and Trischmann showed that chromosome 17 was directly involved in a T. cruzi resistance, showing the influence of host's genetic constitution on disease severity. Additionally, in 2003, Passos and Graefe, working separately, quantified parasite burdens in resistant and susceptible strains and applied a backcross strategy to map the genomic loci linked to susceptibility and resistance in inbred mice. The genomes of the animals were scanned with microsatellite markers and the results found by these authors showed that the resistance mechanism is polygenic and is under the control of a complex network. In the particular case of Y strain, in vivo assays indicated that survival was related to the chromosomes 7,11,14,17 and 19. In order to evaluate the influence of each isolated chromosome as well as their interactions, we employed susceptible isogenic mice to construct consomic lineages for each one of those chromosomes. The consomic strains were injected with irradiated and native forms of Y strain T. cruzi, and the infectivity parameters were evaluated by quantitative methods. Radiation caused inability of trypanosomes to infect and kill mice, when these parasites were irradiated with 1 kGy of gamma rays from a 60Co source. In this experiment we used 101, 102, 103, 104 and 105

  19. Health information technology: transforming chronic disease management and care transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaline; Brammer, Craig; McKethan, Aaron; Buntin, Melinda B

    2012-06-01

    Adoption of health information technology (HIT) is a key effort in improving care delivery, reducing costs of health care, and improving the quality of health care. Evidence from electronic health record (EHR) use suggests that HIT will play a significant role in transforming primary care practices and chronic disease management. This article shows that EHRs and HIT can be used effectively to manage chronic diseases, that HIT can facilitate communication and reduce efforts related to transitions in care, and that HIT can improve patient safety by increasing the information available to providers and patients, improving disease management and safety.

  20. Impaired Levels of Gangliosides in the Corpus Callosum of Huntington Disease Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pardo, Alba; Amico, Enrico; Maglione, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Huntington Disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by broad types of cellular and molecular dysfunctions that may affect both neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations. Among all the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex pathogenesis of the disease, alteration of sphingolipids has been identified as one of the most important determinants in the last years. In the present study, besides the purpose of further confirming the evidence of perturbed metabolism of gangliosides GM1, GD1a, and GT1b the most abundant cerebral glycosphingolipids, in the striatal and cortical tissues of HD transgenic mice, we aimed to test the hypothesis that abnormal levels of these lipids may be found also in the corpus callosum white matter, a ganglioside-enriched brain region described being dysfunctional early in the disease. Semi-quantitative analysis of GM1, GD1a, and GT1b content indicated that ganglioside metabolism is a common feature in two different HD animal models (YAC128 and R6/2 mice) and importantly, demonstrated that levels of these gangliosides were significantly reduced in the corpus callosum white matter of both models starting from the early stages of the disease. Besides corroborating the evidence of aberrant ganglioside metabolism in HD, here, we found out for the first time, that ganglioside dysfunction is an early event in HD models and it may potentially represent a critical molecular change influencing the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:27766070

  1. Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny B. Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a broad disorder encompassing multiple forms of arterial disease outside of the heart. As such, PAD development is a multifactorial process with a variety of manifestations. For example, aneurysms are pathological expansions of an artery that can lead to rupture, while ischemic atherosclerosis reduces blood flow, increasing the risk of claudication, poor wound healing, limb amputation, and stroke. Current PAD treatment is often ineffective or associated with serious risks, largely because these disorders are commonly undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Active areas of research are focused on detecting and characterizing deleterious arterial changes at early stages using non-invasive imaging strategies, such as ultrasound, as well as emerging technologies like photoacoustic imaging. Earlier disease detection and characterization could improve interventional strategies, leading to better prognosis in PAD patients. While rodents are being used to investigate PAD pathophysiology, imaging of these animal models has been underutilized. This review focuses on structural and molecular information and disease progression revealed by recent imaging efforts of aortic, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease models in mice, rats, and rabbits. Effective translation to humans involves better understanding of underlying PAD pathophysiology to develop novel therapeutics and apply non-invasive imaging techniques in the clinic.

  2. Self-management education and support in chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Patrick T

    2012-06-01

    With the changing health care environment, prevalence of chronic health conditions, and burgeoning challenges of health literacy, obesity, and homelessness, self-management support provides an opportunity for clinicians to enhance effectiveness and, at the same time, to engage patients to participate in managing their own personal care. This article reviews the differences between patient education and self-management and describes easy-to-use strategies that foster patient self-management and can be used by health care providers in the medical setting. It also highlights the importance of linking patients to nonmedical programs and services in the community.

  3. Self-management education and support in chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Patrick T

    2012-06-01

    With the changing health care environment, prevalence of chronic health conditions, and burgeoning challenges of health literacy, obesity, and homelessness, self-management support provides an opportunity for clinicians to enhance effectiveness and, at the same time, to engage patients to participate in managing their own personal care. This article reviews the differences between patient education and self-management and describes easy-to-use strategies that foster patient self-management and can be used by health care providers in the medical setting. It also highlights the importance of linking patients to nonmedical programs and services in the community. PMID:22608868

  4. Data and animal management software for large-scale phenotype screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Keith A; Cooke, Michael P; Tarantino, Lisa M; Lapp, Hilmar

    2006-04-01

    The mouse N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis program at the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) uses MouseTRACS to analyze phenotype screens and manage animal husbandry. MouseTRACS is a Web-based laboratory informatics system that electronically records and organizes mouse colony operations, prints cage cards, tracks inventory, manages requests, and reports Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocol usage. For efficient phenotype screening, MouseTRACS identifies mutants, visualizes data, and maps mutations. It displays and integrates phenotype and genotype data using likelihood odds ratio (LOD) plots of genetic linkage between genotype and phenotype. More detailed mapping intervals show individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the context of phenotype. In addition, dynamically generated pedigree diagrams and inventory reports linked to screening results summarize the inheritance pattern and the degree of penetrance. MouseTRACS displays screening data in tables and uses standard charts such as box plots, histograms, scatter plots, and customized charts looking at clustered mice or cross pedigree comparisons. In summary, MouseTRACS enables the efficient screening, analysis, and management of thousands of animals to find mutant mice and identify novel gene functions. MouseTRACS is available under an open source license at http://www.mousetracs.sourceforge.net. PMID:16596450

  5. Data and animal management software for large-scale phenotype screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Keith A; Cooke, Michael P; Tarantino, Lisa M; Lapp, Hilmar

    2006-04-01

    The mouse N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis program at the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) uses MouseTRACS to analyze phenotype screens and manage animal husbandry. MouseTRACS is a Web-based laboratory informatics system that electronically records and organizes mouse colony operations, prints cage cards, tracks inventory, manages requests, and reports Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocol usage. For efficient phenotype screening, MouseTRACS identifies mutants, visualizes data, and maps mutations. It displays and integrates phenotype and genotype data using likelihood odds ratio (LOD) plots of genetic linkage between genotype and phenotype. More detailed mapping intervals show individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the context of phenotype. In addition, dynamically generated pedigree diagrams and inventory reports linked to screening results summarize the inheritance pattern and the degree of penetrance. MouseTRACS displays screening data in tables and uses standard charts such as box plots, histograms, scatter plots, and customized charts looking at clustered mice or cross pedigree comparisons. In summary, MouseTRACS enables the efficient screening, analysis, and management of thousands of animals to find mutant mice and identify novel gene functions. MouseTRACS is available under an open source license at http://www.mousetracs.sourceforge.net.

  6. Update on the Current Status of Kidney Transplantation for Chronic Kidney Disease in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Lillian R

    2016-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is a novel treatment option for cats suffering from chronic renal failure or acute irreversible renal injury. Improvement in quality of life as well as survival times of cats that have undergone transplantation has helped the technique to gain acceptance as a viable treatment option for this fatal disease. This article reviews information regarding the optimal time for intervention, congenital and acquired conditions that have been successfully treated with transplantation, recipient and donor screening, immunosuppressive therapy, recent advances in anesthetic and surgical management, postoperative monitoring and long-term management, and troubleshooting perioperative and long-term complications. PMID:27593577

  7. Herd-level interpretation of test results for epidemiologic studies of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette; Gardner, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values......), the factors affecting these estimates, and available software for calculations. We present new aspects and considerations concerning the effect of precision and bias in estimation of individual-test performance on herd-test performance and suggest methods (pooled testing, targeted sampling of subpopulations...... with higher prevalence, and use of combinations of tests) to improve herd-level sensitivity when the expected within-herd prevalence is low....

  8. Induction of animal model of Graves disease in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To construct an animal model of Graves' disease(GD)by immunizing BALB/c mice with hM12 cells co-expressing major histocompatibility complex(MHC)class II molecules and human thyrotropin receptor(TSHR)molecules.Methods BALB/c mice in experimental group(H-2d)were immunized with hM12 cells intraperitoneally every 2 weeks for six times,while mice in control group were immunized with M12 cells.Five weeks later,the thyroids were histologically examined,and serum samples were tested for thyroid-stimulatin...

  9. The history of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) 1920–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Robert P.; Ellis, L. Susanne Squires; Kohler, Erwin M.

    2015-01-01

    The following history has been compiled and written by the authors. The historical facts are available from the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) archives, dating back to letters and summaries written by the founders, and by a few of the Secretary-Treasurers from the early decades through 2014. The Organization and Purpose: The CRWAD is a non-profit organization and has been since its origin. The sole purpose of CRWAD is to discuss and disseminate the most current rese...

  10. Regulatory acceptance of animal models of disease to support clinical trials of medicines and advanced therapy medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Joy; Silva Lima, Beatriz

    2015-07-15

    The utility of animal models of disease for assessing the safety of novel therapeutic modalities has become an increasingly important topic of discussion as research and development efforts focus on improving the predictive value of animal studies to support accelerated clinical development. Medicines are approved for marketing based upon a determination that their benefits outweigh foreseeable risks in specific indications, specific populations, and at specific dosages and regimens. No medicine is 100% safe. A medicine is less safe if the actual risks are greater than the predicted risks. The purpose of preclinical safety assessment is to understand the potential risks to aid clinical decision-making. Ideally preclinical studies should identify potential adverse effects and design clinical studies that will minimize their occurrence. Most regulatory documents delineate the utilization of conventional "normal" animal species to evaluate the safety risk of new medicines (i.e., new chemical entities and new biological entities). Animal models of human disease are commonly utilized to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate efficacy but less frequently utilized in preclinical safety assessment. An understanding of the limitations of the animal disease models together with a better understanding of the disease and how toxicity may be impacted by the disease condition should allow for a better prediction of risk in the intended patient population. Importantly, regulatory authorities are becoming more willing to accept and even recommend data from experimental animal disease models that combine efficacy and safety to support clinical development.

  11. Coffee and cardiovascular disease: in vitro, cellular, animal, and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonita, Jennifer Stella; Mandarano, Michael; Shuta, Donna; Vinson, Joe

    2007-03-01

    Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage with potential health benefits. This review will focus on cardiovascular disease. There are three preparations of coffee that are commonly consumed and thus worthy of examination; boiled unfiltered coffee, filtered coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. Coffee has over a thousand chemicals, many formed during the roasting process. From a physiological point of view, the potential bioactives are caffeine, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol found in the oil, and the polyphenols, most notably chlorogenic acid. We will examine coffee and its bioactives and their connection with and effect on the risk factors which are associated with heart disease such as lipids, blood pressure, inflammation, endothelial function, metabolic syndrome and potentially protective in vivo antioxidant activity. These will be critically examined by means of in vitro studies, cell experiments, animal supplementation, epidemiology, and the most definitive evidence, human trials.

  12. Pathological mitochondrial copper overload in livers of Wilson's disease patients and related animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischka, Hans; Lichtmannegger, Josef

    2014-05-01

    In Wilson's disease (WD) and related animal models, liver mitochondria are confronted with an increasing copper burden. Physiologically, the mitochondrial matrix may act as a dynamic copper buffer that efficiently distributes the metal to its copper-dependent enzymes. Mitochondria are the first responders in the event of an imbalanced copper homeostasis, as typical changes of their structure are among the earliest observable pathological features in WD. These changes are due to accumulating copper in the mitochondrial membranes and can be reversed by copper-chelating therapies. At the early stage, copper-dependent oxidative stress does not seem to occur. On the contrary, however, when copper is massively deposited in mitochondria, severe structural and respiratory impairments are observed upon disease progression. This provokes reactive oxygen species and consequently causes the mitochondrial membranes to disintegrate, which triggers hepatocyte death. Thus, in WD mitochondria are prime targets for copper, and the excessive copper burden causes their destruction, subsequently provoking tissue failure and death.

  13. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun;

    2010-01-01

    The prophylactic use of vaccines against exotic viral infections in production animals is undertaken exclusively in regions where the disease concerned is endemic. In such areas, the infection pressure is very high and so, to assure optimal protection, the most efficient vaccines are used. However......, in areas considered to be free from these diseases and in which there is the possibility of only limited outbreaks, the use of Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or marker vaccines allows for vaccination while still retaining the possibility of serological surveillance...... for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry....

  14. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals : a global health concern with parallels to human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, Jacques; Arné, Pascal; de Hoog, G Sybren; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    The importance of aspergillosis in humans and various animal species has increased over the last decades. Aspergillus species are found worldwide in humans and in almost all domestic animals and birds as well as in many wild species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fata

  15. Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Gil Shitrit, Ariella; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Goldin, Eran

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually affects women during their reproductive years and many concerns arise among these young patients. Pre-pregnancy consultation with a multi-disciplinary team is very important. The team should make patients aware of the critical importance of ensuring that conception occurs during a period of disease remission. Conception during an IBD flare-up results in disease activity or even exacerbates disease in two-thirds of women. Exacerbation of the disease is associated with increased frequency of maternal and fetal complications. Drug therapy constitutes a considerable source of patient anxiety but most drugs used for treating IBD are considered safe. Therefore, continuing pharmacological therapy during pregnancy is necessary to maintain disease control. Optimization of pre-conception nutritional status and smoking cessation are also emphasized. The general guideline for most patients, except for active perianal disease patients, is to aim for vaginal delivery in the absence of obstetric contraindications. Consistent, ongoing follow-up, as detailed in this review, should allay the anxieties and fears surrounding continuing immunosuppressive drugs during pregnancy, allowing each patient to attain the optimal conditions for achieving her goal of holding a healthy baby. PMID:27068171

  16. Update on epidemiology and control of Foot and Mouth Disease - A menace to international trade and global animal enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Depa

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD is one of the most economically and socially devastating disease affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. This review describes economic impact of disease outbreaks, an update of recent findings in epidemiology of FMD both at International and national level and control of this disease. The etiological agent (FMD virus is examined in detail at genetic and molecular characterization level and in terms of antigenic diversity. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 694-704

  17. Design of the plutonium facility for animal experiments and its management experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and radiation control of authors' facility which was made as a nuclear fuel laboratory for animal experiments were described. Before construction, the animals thought to be used were rats, mice, beagle dogs and monkeys. 239Pu and certain other radioisotopes were to be used. At present, 200 dogs and 1800 small animals can be maintained. The points for design were tolerability against quake, reduced-pressure management and permanent storage of waste containing Pu. The facility building composed from 2nd, 4th, and 6th laboratory floors and between them, from the so-called mechanical floors which are spaces for ducts. The latter floors are quite useful. The system for reduced pressure is of 3 patterns of rooms without hood, with ordinary hood and with air-curtain hood. For animal maintenance, there are 3 types of maintenance means: Glove box, hood and ordinary animal room. There are drainage equipment where Pu can be removed by precipitation and charcoal adsorption and incineration equipment which is necessary for reducing the waste volume. In the latter, HEPA filters are finally used for releasing the gas. There is no particular problem in the radiation control. For the personnel control, lung-monitoring is performed before and at the end of personnel registration. Environmental monitoring of Pu is optionally performed. Removal of Pu particles generated in the inhalation experiments could be attained by the use of ULPA and HEPA filters to the level less than 1/1017 times the reference level. Keeping the technology level enough high for facility maintenance and management was considered to be important at present and in future. (K.H.)

  18. Robust detection of exotic infectious diseases in animal herds : a comparative study of three decision methodologies under severe uncertainty.

    OpenAIRE

    Troffaes, Matthias C. M.; Gosling, John Paul

    2012-01-01

    When animals are transported and pass through customs, some of them may have dangerous infectious diseases. Typically, due to the cost of testing, not all animals are tested: a reasonable selection must be made. How to test effectively whilst avoiding costly disease outbreaks? First, we extend a model proposed in the literature for the detection of invasive species to suit our purpose. Secondly, we explore and compare three decision methodologies on the problem at hand, namely, Bayesian stati...

  19. Carcinoid heart disease: Diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Sushil A; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Hedinger syndrome refers to carcinoid valvular heart disease. The disease is believed to be triggered by vasoactive substances that result in valvular fibrosis. It classically occurs in patients with metastatic carcinoid and preferentially involves the right sided cardiac valves. Affected valves become thickened and retracted, exhibiting regurgitation and sometimes, stenosis. Echocardiography is recommended in patients with carcinoid syndrome and a follow up study is advisable in those who develop a murmur or other symptoms or signs of valvular heart disease. For appropriately selected patients, valve replacement surgery appears to improve outcomes.

  20. Laboratory Animal Management Assistant (LAMA): a LIMS for active research colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, Marko; Hearty, Taryn; Wong, Tony Y. T.; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Simpson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory Animal Management Assistant (LAMA) is an internet-based system for tracking large laboratory mouse colonies. It has a user-friendly interface with powerful search capabilities that ease day-to-day tasks such as tracking breeding cages and weaning litters. LAMA was originally developed to manage hundreds of new mouse strains generated by a large functional genomics program, the Pleiades Promoter Project (http://www.pleiades.org). The software system has proven to be highly flexible, suitable for diverse management approaches to mouse colonies. It allows custom tagging and grouping of animals, simplifying project-specific handling and access to data. Finally, LAMA was developed in close collaboration with mouse technicians to ease the transition from paper- or Excel-based management systems to computerized tracking, allowing data export in a popular spreadsheet format and automatic printing of cage cards. LAMA is an open-access software tool, freely available to the research community at http://launchpad.net/mousedb. PMID:20411264

  1. OIE activities for the global improvement of animal disease detection and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The OIE, the World Organisation for Animal Health, which was created in 1924 to prevent animal diseases from spreading around the world has, since then, enlarged its mandate to the improvement of animal health worldwide. The OIE is an intergovernmental organisation with a total of 172 Member Countries and Territories. It is recognised by the sanitary and phytosanitary agreement (SPS agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as the international reference organisation for international standards, guidelines and recommendations related to global animal health with the main purpose of facilitating international trade in animals and animal products. The OIE develops and publishes two types of international health standards for animals and animal products - trade standards and biological standards. These standards are developed through the elected Specialist Commissions and are adopted democratically by OIE Members during the annual OIE General Assembly. They are developed for use not only by the veterinary services of Members, but also by the private sector. For strengthening surveillance of disease, public-private sector partnership is essential and should be based on the collaboration between official veterinarians, private veterinarians, farmers and other stakeholders. The most effective way of detecting, diagnosing, controlling and responding to animal disease and zoonotic incursions, is to ensure good veterinary governance in Member Countries. Integral to good governance is the ability and capacity of all Member Countries to comply with the guidelines, recommendations and international standards of the OIE and to establish efficient chains of command. The OIE has therefore embarked on a unique strategic initiative to develop an assessment and evaluation system to assist countries to identify weaknesses in their system that makes it difficult for them to comply with the minimum standards, guidelines and recommendations of the OIE. The evaluation

  2. Etiology, pathophysiology and conservative management of degenerative joint disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Etiology of degenerative joint diseases Etiology of degenerative joint diseases is still not clearly understood and there is no specific management for this group of diseases. Various pathological conditions cause damage of the articular cartilage and lead to clinically and radiographically recognized impairment. Biomechanical, metabolic, genetic factors inflammation and other risk factors contribute to development of osteoarthrosis. Pathophysiology of degenerative joint diseases Osteoarthrosis is characterized by progressive erosion of articular cartilage and bone overgrowth at the joint margins. Cartilage integrity requires balance between synthesis and degradation of matrix components. Chondrocytes react to various mechanical and chemical stresses in order to stabilize and restore the tissue. Failures in stabilizing and restoring the tissue lead to cartilage degeneration that may be irreversibile. For better understanding of conservative management of degenerative joint diseases it is important to know the impact of pathophysiology mechanisms on development of degenerative joint diseases. There is great variability in the rate of progression of erosive processes in articular cartilage in clinical radiographic signs and course of the disease. This is in relation with many factors, as well as with management and response to therapy. Treatment of degenerative joint diseases Treatment should vary depending on the severity of disease and patient's expectations and level of activity. Besides analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, conventional and not conventional treatment and techniques can be used for management of osteoarthrosis. Physical therapy and exercises are very important for maintaining muscle strength, joint stability and mobility, but should be closely monitored for optimal efficacy.

  3. Aspergillus flavus genomics: gateway to human and animal health, food safety, and crop resistance to diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiujiang; Cleveland, Thomas E; Nierman, William C; Bennett, Joan W

    2005-12-01

    Aspergillus flavus is an imperfect filamentous fungus that is an opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis in humans, animals, and insects. It also causes allergic reactions in humans. A. flavus infects agricultural crops and stored grains and produces the most toxic and potent carcinogic metabolites such as aflatoxins and other mycotoxins. Breakthroughs in A. flavus genomics may lead to improvement in human health, food safety, and agricultural economy. The availability of A. flavus genomic data marks a new era in research for fungal biology, medical mycology, agricultural ecology, pathogenicity, mycotoxin biosynthesis, and evolution. The availability of whole genome microarrays has equipped scientists with a new powerful tool for studying gene expression under specific conditions. They can be used to identify genes responsible for mycotoxin biosynthesis and for fungal infection in humans, animals and plants. A. flavus genomics is expected to advance the development of therapeutic drugs and to provide information for devising strategies in controlling diseases of humans and other animals. Further, it will provide vital clues for engineering commercial crops resistant to fungal infection by incorporating antifungal genes that may prevent aflatoxin contamination of agricultural harvest. PMID:16499411

  4. Lavandula angustifolia extract improves deteriorated synaptic plasticity in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soheili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Neurodegenerative Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with profound deficits in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Long-term potentiation (LTP, an experimental form of synaptic plasticity, is intensively examined in hippocampus. In this study we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia on induction of LTP in the CA1 area of hippocampus. In response to stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals the baseline or tetanized field extracellular postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs were recorded in the CA1 area. Materials and Methods: The electrophysiological recordings were carried out in four groups of rats; two control groups including the vehicle (CON and lavender (CE treated rats and two Alzheimeric groups including the vehicle (ALZ and lavender (AE treated animals. Results: The extract inefficiently affected the baseline responses in the four testing groups. While the fEPSPs displayed a considerable LTP in the CON animals, no potentiation was evident in the tetanized responses in the ALZ rats. The herbal medicine effectively restored LTP in the AE group and further potentiated fEPSPs in the CE group. Conclusion:The positive effect of the lavender extract on the plasticity of synaptic transmission supports its previously reported behavioral effects on improvement of impaired spatial memory in the Alzheimeric animals.

  5. Clinical assessment of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease from computer-generated animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Tiffany R; Cho, Catherine; Dilda, Valentina; Shine, James M; Naismith, Sharon L; Lewis, Simon J G; Moore, Steven T

    2013-06-01

    The current 'gold standard' for clinical evaluation of freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is determination of the number of FOG episodes from video by independent raters. We have previously described a robust technique for objective FOG assessment from lower-limb acceleration. However, there is no existing method for validation of autonomous FOG measures in the absence of video documentation. In this study we compared the results of clinical evaluation of FOG from computer-generated animations (derived from body-mounted inertial sensors) during a timed up and go test with the 'gold standard' of clinical video assessment, utilizing a cohort of 10 experienced raters from four PD centers. Agreement between the 10 clinical observers for scoring of FOG from computer animations was more robust for the relative duration of freeze events (percent time frozen; intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.65) than number of FOG episodes, and was comparable with clinical evaluation of the patient from video (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.73). This result suggests that percent time frozen should be considered (along with number of FOG events) to better convey FOG severity. The ability of clinical observers to quantify FOG from computer-generated animation derived from lower-limb motion data provides a potential approach to validation of accelerometry-based FOG identification outside of the clinic.

  6. There are big gaps in our knowledge, and thus approach, to zoo animal welfare: a case for evidence-based zoo animal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, V A

    2009-11-01

    There are gaps in knowledge that hinder our ability within zoos to provide good animal welfare. This does not mean that zoos cannot or do not provide good welfare, only that currently this goal is hindered. Three reasons for these gaps are identified as: (1) there is an emphasis on the identification and monitoring of indicators that represent poor welfare and it is assumed that an absence of poor welfare equates to good welfare. This assumption is overly simplistic and potentially erroneous; (2) our understanding of how housing and husbandry (H&H) affects animals is limited to a small set of variables determined mostly by our anthropogenic sensitivities. Thus, we place more value on captive environmental variables like space and companionship, ignoring other factors that may have a greater impact on welfare, like climate; (3) finally, whether intentional or not, our knowledge and efforts to improve zoo animal welfare are biased to very few taxa. Most attention has been focused on mammals, notably primates, large cats, bears, and elephants, to the exclusion of the other numerous species about which very little is known. Unfortunately, the extent to which these gaps limit our ability to provide zoo animals with good welfare is exacerbated by our over reliance on using myth and tradition to determine zoo animal management. I suggest that we can fill these gaps in our knowledge and improve our ability to provide zoo animals with good welfare through the adoption of an evidence-based zoo animal management framework. This approach uses evidence gathered from different sources as a basis for making any management decisions, as good quality evidence increases the likelihood that these decisions result in good zoo animal welfare.

  7. Protection of the consumer from enteric diseases caused by foods of animal origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between actual enteric diseases and their sources in foods of animal origin is not directly established, since the physician does not always receive the complaint, and rarely has a chance to actually test the food consumed. However, the incidence of various pathogenic microorganisms in such foods as well as that in humans who have consumed such foods are related and therefore measures must be applied to reduce exposure of humans to contaminated foods. Conventional means of intervention and decontamination from enteric pathogenic microorganisms are discussed. The advantages of ionizing radiations compared to conventional methods are pointed out, and the reasons for its limited application mainly because of public non-acceptance, are enumerated. Ways to surmount this resistance are suggested. The irradiation technology, its parameters, and its effects as regards reduction of food microorganisms, are described and microbiological standards for control of the application of this technology are suggested. It is concluded that combination of conventional with irradiation technology can completely eliminate gastro-enteric diseases transmitted via foods of animal origin

  8. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourits, M C M; van Asseldonk, M A P M; Huirne, R B M

    2010-09-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy that best meets all of the conflicting interests. The presented application focused on the evaluation of alternative strategies to control Classical Swine Fever (CSF) epidemics within the European Union (EU) according to the preferences of the European Chief Veterinary Officers (CVO). The performed analysis was centred on the three high-level objectives of epidemiology, economics and social ethics. The appraised control alternatives consisted of the EU compulsory control strategy, a pre-emptive slaughter strategy, a protective vaccination strategy and a suppressive vaccination strategy. Using averaged preference weights of the elicited CVOs, the preference ranking of the control alternatives was determined for six EU regions. The obtained results emphasized the need for EU region-specific control. Individual CVOs differed in their views on the relative importance of the various (sub)criteria by which the performance of the alternatives were judged. Nevertheless, the individual rankings of the control alternatives within a region appeared surprisingly similar. Based on the results of the described application it was concluded that the structuring feature of the MCDM technique provides a suitable tool in assisting the complex decision making process of controlling contagious animal diseases.

  9. Animal models of Huntington's disease: implications in uncovering pathogenic mechanisms and developing therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-hui WANG; Zheng-hong QIN

    2006-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, which is caused by an abnormal expansion of Cytosine Adenine Guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat in the gene making huntingtin (Htt). Despite intensive research efforts devoted to investigate molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, effective therapy for this devastating disease is still not available at present. The development of various animal models of HD has offered alternative approaches in the study of HD molecular pathology. Many HD models, including chemical-induced models and genetic models, mimic some aspects of HD symptoms and pathology. To date, however, there is no ideal model which replicates all of the essential features of neuropathology and progressive motor and cognitive impairments of human HD. As a result, our understanding of molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in HD is still limited. A new model is needed in order to uncover the pathogenesis and to develop novel therapies for HD. In this review we discussed usefulness and limitations of various animal and cellular models of HD in uncovering molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and developing novel therapies for HD.

  10. Self-Management of Heart Disease in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh-Hohnbaum, Anh-Luu T.; Marshall, Lia; Villa, Valentine M.; Lee, Gi

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association estimates that 81% of people who die of coronary heart disease are 65 years old or older. The leading risk health behaviors include physical inactivity, poor diet, smoking and binge drinking. Using the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), this study looked at how self-management, which includes a plan developed by a medical professional and the confidence to manage one’s disease, may decrease negative risk behaviors in older adults. The presence ...

  11. Antepartal nursing management of Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacic, B

    1986-01-01

    The signs and symptoms of Grave's disease may be difficult to distinguish from the normal thyroid changes that occur in pregnancy. A brief review of thyroid physiology, thyroid changes during pregnancy, the effect of Grave's disease during pregnancy on the woman and fetus, and an assessment tool for use during the antepartal period is presented. Recommendations of specific areas of need seen in the pregnant Grave's patient during the antepartal period are also outlined. PMID:3635591

  12. MicroRNAs are potential therapeutic targets in fibrosing kidney disease: lessons from animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Jeremy S; Grafals, Monica; Portilla, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease of the kidneys has reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations. New therapies are urgently sought. Using a combination of animal models of kidney disease and human biopsy samples, a pattern of dysregulated microRNA expression has emerged which is common to chronic diseases. A number of these dysregulated microRNA have recently been shown to have functional consequences for the disease process and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets. We highlight microRNA-21, the most comprehensively studied microRNA in the kidney so far. MicroRNA-21 is expressed widely in healthy kidney but studies from knockout mice indicate it is largely inert. Although microRNA-21 is upregulated in many cell compartments including leukocytes, epithelial cells and myofibroblasts, the inert microRNA-21 also appears to become activated, by unclear mechanisms. Mice lacking microRNA-21 are protected from kidney injury and fibrosis in several distinct models of kidney disease, and systemically administered oligonucleotides that specifically bind to the active site in microRNA-21, inhibiting its function, recapitulate the genetic deletion of microRNA-21, suggesting inhibitory oligonucleotides may have therapeutic potential. Recent studies of microRNA-21 targets in kidney indicate that it normally functions to silence metabolic pathways including fatty acid metabolism and pathways that prevent Reactive Oxygen Species generation in peroxisomes and mitochondria in epithelial cells and myofibroblasts. Targeting specific pathogenic microRNAs in a specific manner is feasible in vivo and may be a new therapeutic target in disease of the kidney PMID:25018773

  13. Linking human diseases to animal models using ontology-based phenotype annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Washington

    2009-11-01

    gene candidates and animal models of human disease, which may shorten the lengthy path to identification and understanding of the genetic basis of human disease.

  14. Cryptic Diversity of Malassezia pachydermatis from Healthy and Diseased Domestic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Laura; Castellá, Gemma; Cabañes, F Javier

    2016-10-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal cutaneous microbiota of wild and domestic carnivores. However, under certain conditions this yeast can overproliferate and cause several diseases in its host, mainly otitis and dermatitis in dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular characterization of M. pachydermatis isolates from healthy and diseased domestic animals, in order to assess the molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationship within this species. The large subunit (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal RNA, chitin synthase 2 (CHS2) and β-tubulin genes from sixteen strains isolated from dogs, cats, a goat, a pig and a horse were sequenced. A different number of types of sequences were identified for each target gene, including some types described for the first time. Five sequence types were characterized for the LSU, eleven for the ITS region, nine for CHS2 and eight for β-tubulin. A multilocus analysis was performed including the four genes, and the resulting phylogenetic tree revealed fifteen genotypes. Genotypes were distributed in two well-supported clades. One clade comprised strains isolated from different domestic animals and a strongly supported cluster constituted by strains isolated from cats. The second clade included strains isolated mainly from dogs and an outlier strain isolated from a horse. No apparent association could be observed between the health status of the animal hosts and concrete strains. The multilocus phylogenetic analysis is a useful tool to assess the intraspecific variation within this species and could help understand the ecology, epidemiology and speciation process of M. pachydermatis. PMID:27283291

  15. They see a rat, we seek a cure for diseases: the current status of animal experimentation in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review article was to examine current and prospective developments in the scientific use of laboratory animals, and to find out whether or not there are still valid scientific benefits of and justification for animal experimentation. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the following key words: animal models, basic research, pharmaceutical research, toxicity testing, experimental surgery, surgical simulation, ethics, animal welfare, benign, malignant diseases. Important relevant reviews, original articles and references from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed for data on the use of experimental animals in the study of diseases. The use of laboratory animals in scientific research continues to generate intense public debate. Their use can be justified today in the following areas of research: basic scientific research, use of animals as models for human diseases, pharmaceutical research and development, toxicity testing and teaching of new surgical techniques. This is because there are inherent limitations in the use of alternatives such as in vitro studies, human clinical trials or computer simulation. However, there are problems of transferability of results obtained from animal research to humans. Efforts are on-going to find suitable alternatives to animal experimentation like cell and tissue culture and computer simulation. For the foreseeable future, it would appear that to enable scientists to have a more precise understanding of human disease, including its diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic intervention, there will still be enough grounds to advocate animal experimentation. However, efforts must continue to minimize or eliminate the need for animal testing in scientific research as soon as possible. PMID:24217224

  16. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Zhang

    2016-03-01

    provider education and improved clinical guidelines for syndrome-based disease management to provoke diagnostic consideration of locally relevant zoonoses in the absence of laboratory confirmation.

  17. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Helen L.; Mnzava, Kunda W.; Mitchell, Sarah T.; Melubo, Matayo L.; Kibona, Tito J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Crump, John A.; Sharp, Joanne P.; Halliday, Jo E. B.

    2016-01-01

    capacity alongside healthcare provider education and improved clinical guidelines for syndrome-based disease management to provoke diagnostic consideration of locally relevant zoonoses in the absence of laboratory confirmation. PMID:26943334

  18. The management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, Charlotte; Hebbard, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    If there are no features of serious disease, suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux disease can be initially managed with a trial of a proton pump inhibitor for 4–8 weeks. This should be taken 30–60 minutes before food for optimal effect.

  19. Small Bowel Imaging in Managing Crohn’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg G. Albert

    2012-01-01

    bowel CD, and treatment control with imaging is increasingly used to optimize the patients outcome. Thereby, capsule endoscopy, Balloon-assisted enteroscopy, and Magnetic resonance imaging have become key players to manage CD patients. In this review, role of small bowel imaging is detailed discussed for use in diagnosing and managing Crohn's disease patients.

  20. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.;

    2008-01-01

    and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation......The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code...

  1. Design of an advanced positron emission tomography detector system and algorithms for imaging small animal models of human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudray, Angela Marie Klohs

    Detecting, quantifying and visualizing biochemical mechanism in a living system without perturbing function is the goal of the instrument and algorithms designed in this thesis. Biochemical mechanisms of cells have long been known to be dependent on the signals they receive from their environment. Studying biological processes of cells in-vitro can vastly distort their function, since you are removing them from their natural chemical signaling environment. Mice have become the biological system of choice for various areas of biomedical research due to their genetic and physiological similarities with humans, the relatively low cost of their care, and their quick breeding cycle. Drug development and efficacy assessment along with disease detection, management, and mechanism research all have benefited from the use of small animal models of human disease. A high resolution, high sensitivity, three-dimensional (3D) positioning positron emission tomography (PET) detector system was designed through device characterization and Monte Carlo simulation. Position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) were characterized in various packaging configurations; coupled to various configurations of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystals. Forty novelly packaged final design devices were constructed and characterized, each providing characteristics superior to commercially available scintillation detectors used in small animal imaging systems: ˜1mm crystal identification, 14-15% of 511 keV energy resolution, and averaging 1.9 to 5.6 ns coincidence time resolution. A closed-cornered box-shaped detector configuration was found to provide optimal photon sensitivity (˜10.5% in the central plane) using dual LSO-PSAPD scintillation detector modules and Monte Carlo simulation. Standard figures of merit were used to determine optimal system acquisition parameters. A realistic model for constituent devices was developed for understanding the signals reported by the

  2. Probiotics in the Management of Lung Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mortaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiology and pathology of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are closely related. This similarity between the two organs may underlie why dysfunction in one organ may induce illness in the other. For example, smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and IBD and increases the risk of developing Crohn’s disease. Probiotics have been defined as “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host.” In model systems probiotics regulate innate and inflammatory immune responses. Commonly used probiotics include lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces, and these are often used as dietary supplements to provide a health benefit in gastrointestinal diseases including infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer. In this respect, probiotics probably act as immunomodulatory agents and activators of host defence pathways which suggest that they could influence disease severity and incidence at sites distal to the gut. There is increasing evidence that orally delivered probiotics are able to regulate immune responses in the respiratory system. This review provides an overview of the possible role of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases.

  3. Probiotics in the management of lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M; Folkerts, Gert; Barnes, Peter J; Paul Vos, Arjan; Garssen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are closely related. This similarity between the two organs may underlie why dysfunction in one organ may induce illness in the other. For example, smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and IBD and increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease. Probiotics have been defined as "live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host." In model systems probiotics regulate innate and inflammatory immune responses. Commonly used probiotics include lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces, and these are often used as dietary supplements to provide a health benefit in gastrointestinal diseases including infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer. In this respect, probiotics probably act as immunomodulatory agents and activators of host defence pathways which suggest that they could influence disease severity and incidence at sites distal to the gut. There is increasing evidence that orally delivered probiotics are able to regulate immune responses in the respiratory system. This review provides an overview of the possible role of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases. PMID:23737654

  4. The relationship of Haitian small farm management to goat and cattle diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, H P; McCarthy, F; Friedericks, J; Cashin, M; Angert, R

    1993-01-01

    A 40 week study of 43 farmers, 60 goats and 60 cattle was conducted in order to identify abnormal conditions or diseases and predisposing seasonal, managemental or nutritional factors. Farms were visited, farmers interviewed and animals examined up to 4 times, about every 10 weeks and bled for Ht, total WBC, selected serum vitamins and minerals hair collected for mineral analysis. Soil and forages were collected for analysis. There were serious soil, forage and animal phosphorus and lesser vitamin E and A deficiencies due to a lack of appropriate soil fertilization, and/or dietary insufficiency. Presumptive parasitic anaemia was a common clinical sign in goats (43% incidence) and in cattle (19% incidence). Infectious diseases, external and internal parasitism were partially controlled by animal isolation, movement and tethering, rarely by therapeutics. Overall, livestock condition was fair, reproductive and growth performance poor, but catastrophic disease rare. Ruminant feeding was entirely from scavenging of crop residues for human consumption, or voluntary plants. Given the scarcity and/or high cost of forages, fertilizer, vitamin-mineral supplements, drugs and vaccines, the present system of Haitian small farm management is successful in catastrophic disease prevention, but is inefficient for minor diseases, reproduction and growth. PMID:8134655

  5. Disease Spread through Animal Movements: A Static and Temporal Network Analysis of Pig Trade in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Hartmut H. K.; Koher, Andreas; Hövel, Philipp; Gethmann, Jörn; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Selhorst, Thomas; Conraths, Franz J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Animal trade plays an important role for the spread of infectious diseases in livestock populations. The central question of this work is how infectious diseases can potentially spread via trade in such a livestock population. We address this question by analyzing the underlying network of animal movements. In particular, we consider pig trade in Germany, where trade actors (agricultural premises) form a complex network. Methodology The considered pig trade dataset spans several years and is analyzed with respect to its potential to spread infectious diseases. Focusing on measurements of network-topological properties, we avoid the usage of external parameters, since these properties are independent of specific pathogens. They are on the contrary of great importance for understanding any general spreading process on this particular network. We analyze the system using different network models, which include varying amounts of information: (i) static network, (ii) network as a time series of uncorrelated snapshots, (iii) temporal network, where causality is explicitly taken into account. Findings We find that a static network view captures many relevant aspects of the trade system, and premises can be classified into two clearly defined risk classes. Moreover, our results allow for an efficient allocation strategy for intervention measures using centrality measures. Data on trade volume do barely alter the results and is therefore of secondary importance. Although a static network description yields useful results, the temporal resolution of data plays an outstanding role for an in-depth understanding of spreading processes. This applies in particular for an accurate calculation of the maximum outbreak size. PMID:27152712

  6. Advances in the Management of Cerebral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qadir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cerebral vascular disease occurred with the arteries of brain due to the less supply of blood.  Stroke is mostly caused by cerebral vascular disease and it is also a common cause of vascular dementia due to reduced oxygen supply and blood flow to the brain. In industrialized countries, neurologic disability is most frequently caused by cerebeovascular disease. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and high blood pressure etc are at higher possibility for cerebral vascular disease. After malignancy and heart disease, cerebral vascular disease is the third leading of death and estimated that an average 500,000 new stroke occurred in each year. Advance techniques such as Carotid Endarterectomy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Angiography and Single photon emission computed tomography etc are used for management of cerebral vascular disease.

  7. [Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: priorities for disease management and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Chor, Dóra; Aquino, Estela M L; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mill, José Geraldo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Vigo, Alvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-01

    Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases are the main source of disease burden in Brazil. In 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched the Strategic Plan of Action for Management of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases focusing on population-based interventions to manage cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases mainly through fighting tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol. Although a significant number of scientific studies on chronic diseases and their risk factors have been undertaken in Brazil, few are of cohort design. In this context, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort study of 15,105 Brazilian public servants reflects the reality of high prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and the main chronic diseases risk factors. The diversity of information that the Study will produce can provide important input to better understand the causes of chronic diseases and to support public policies for fighting them.

  8. Integrating wildlife issues into the prevention, control and response to transboundary animal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) Wildlife Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) was established to investigate the role that wildlife species play in diseases that impact livestock and agriculture based livelihoods. Land-use changes and the competition for natural resources are bringing human populations, agricultural lands and livestock into closer contact with wildlife. This increased contact creates opportunities for the transmission of endemic and newly emerging infectious diseases between livestock, wildlife and humans. It is clear that there is a need to establish long-term, sustainable wildlife disease monitoring programs globally, with a focus on understanding the ecology and epidemiology of diseases between domestic and wild animals. With the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 it became apparent that multidisciplinary in-country and regional capacity building was necessary amongst, biologists, veterinarians, ornithologist and others. To date, the Wildlife Unit that has coordinated, facilitated, or implemented training of more than 1,000 in-country nationals from over 100 countries worldwide on wildlife disease surveillance. The EMPRES Wildlife Unit is leading and facilitating a range of collaborative activities to study the epidemiology and ecology of HPAI H5N1 in wild birds, migratory routes, habitat use and the role wild birds may play in virus introduction and movement. FAO has deployed almost 400 transmitters in 9 countries and is monitoring global migratory bird movements across more than 40 countries to determine whether wild bird movements are temporally or spatially associated with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. An overview of the Wildlife unit activities will be presented, along with insights on the role of wild birds in the transmission and spread of HPAI H5N1- an area that has been intensively studied over the past several years. (author)

  9. Managing Cushing's disease: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colao, Annamaria; Boscaro, Marco; Ferone, Diego; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-09-01

    Cushing's disease is a rare chronic disease caused by a pituitary adenoma, which leads to excess secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The over-production of ACTH leads to hyperstimulation of the adrenal glands and a chronic excess of cortisol, resulting in the signs and symptoms of a severe clinical state (Cushing's syndrome) that leads to significant morbidity, negative impacts on the patient's quality of life, and, if untreated, increased mortality. The management of patients with Cushing's disease is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, with signs and symptoms that overlap with those of other diseases, and high subclinical incidence rates. Controversies surrounding the tests used for screening and identifying patients with Cushing's disease add to the challenge of patient management. Surgical intervention to remove the adenoma is the first-line treatment for patients with Cushing's disease, but medical therapies are useful in patients who relapse or are unsuitable for surgery. The recent introduction of pasireotide, the first pituitary-directed medical therapy, expands the number of treatment options available for patients with Cushing's disease. This state-of-the-art review aims to provide an overview of the most recent scientific research and clinical information regarding Cushing's disease. Continuing research into improving the diagnosis and treatment of Cushing's disease will help to optimize patient management.

  10. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals: a global health concern with parallels to human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, Jacques; Arné, Pascal; de Hoog, G Sybren; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-11-01

    The importance of aspergillosis in humans and various animal species has increased over the last decades. Aspergillus species are found worldwide in humans and in almost all domestic animals and birds as well as in many wild species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, as well as allergic responses to inhaled conidia. Some prevalent forms of animal aspergillosis are invasive fatal infections in sea fan corals, stonebrood mummification in honey bees, pulmonary and air sac infection in birds, mycotic abortion and mammary gland infections in cattle, guttural pouch mycoses in horses, sinonasal infections in dogs and cats, and invasive pulmonary and cerebral infections in marine mammals and nonhuman primates. This article represents a comprehensive overview of the most common infections reported by Aspergillus species and the corresponding diseases in various types of animals.

  11. Medical foods: products for the management of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sarah L; Baggott, Joseph E

    2006-11-01

    Medical foods are a specific category of therapeutic agents created under the Orphan Drug Act of 1988, which separated medical foods from drugs for regulatory purposes. Products in this category share the requirements that they are intended for the nutritional management of a specific disease, are used under the guidance of a physician, and contain ingredients that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). An example of medical foods are formulations intended to manage patients with inborn errors in amino acid metabolism. Newer medical foods are designed to manage hyperhomocysteinemia, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, inflammatory conditions, cancer cachexia, and other diseases. PMID:17131945

  12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: School Nurse Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitto, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Initial symptoms and diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually occur between 10 and 20 years of age, although younger cases are reported. The complicated nature of IBD diagnosis and treatment can interfere with physical and emotional development that normally occurs in school-age children and adolescents. The school nurse should be…

  13. Diagnosis of animal diseases using nuclear and related techniques: Developments and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques such as radioimmune precipitation, radioimmunoassay, DNA cloning and amino acid sequencing have led to a greater understanding of protein structure and function, antigenic variation and the immune response to infection. Knowledge gained from the use of this technology has led to the development of improved diagnostic assays. Although radioimmunoassay has been used for animal disease diagnosis for many years, more recently it has been replaced by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA offers advantages in speed of reading and longer reagent shelf life and obviates the use of radiochemicals. This is particularly important in developing countries, which may have no facilities for storage, handling and disposal of radioactive materials. In the case of rinderpest diagnosis, taken as an example, the virus neutralization test was replaced by a simple indirect ELISA for seromonitoring throughout the Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign. In the near future, this will be replaced by a competitive ELISA using a rinderpest specific monoclonal antibody, which will offer significant advantages in sensitivity and specificity. In the future it may be possible to replace the rinderpest antigen with vector expressed proteins or synthetic polypeptides. More recent developments such as the 'amplified' ELISA and the use of fluorogenic and bioluminescent substrates may further improve disease diagnosis. The knowledge gained from the use of modern technology is essential to the development of improved diagnostic assays which in turn will lead to improved disease diagnosis and control. (author). 9 refs

  14. Follicular Helper CD4+ T Cells in Human Neuroautoimmune Diseases and Their Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular helper CD4+ T (TFH cells play a fundamental role in humoral immunity deriving from their ability to provide help for germinal center (GC formation, B cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells, and antibody production in secondary lymphoid tissues. TFH cells can be identified by a combination of markers, including the chemokine receptor CXCR5, costimulatory molecules ICOS and PD-1, transcription repressor Bcl-6, and cytokine IL-21. It is difficult and impossible to get access to secondary lymphoid tissues in humans, so studies are usually performed with human peripheral blood samples as circulating counterparts of tissue TFH cells. A balance of TFH cell generation and function is critical for protective antibody response, whereas overactivation of TFH cells or overexpression of TFH-associated molecules may result in autoimmune diseases. Emerging data have shown that TFH cells and TFH-associated molecules may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuroautoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS, neuromyelitis optica (NMO/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD, and myasthenia gravis (MG. This review summarizes the features of TFH cells, including their development, function, and roles as well as TFH-associated molecules in neuroautoimmune diseases and their animal models.

  15. Aminochrome induces dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction: a new animal model for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Andrea; Muñoz, Patricia; Paris, Irmgard; Díaz-Veliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Inzunza, Jose; Hultenby, Kjell; Cardenas, Cesar; Jaña, Fabián; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Gysling, Katia; Abarca, Jorge; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2016-09-01

    L-Dopa continues to be the gold drug in Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment from 1967. The failure to translate successful results from preclinical to clinical studies can be explained by the use of preclinical models which do not reflect what happens in the disease since these induce a rapid and extensive degeneration; for example, MPTP induces a severe Parkinsonism in only 3 days in humans contrasting with the slow degeneration and progression of PD. This study presents a new anatomy and develops preclinical model based on aminochrome which induces a slow and progressive dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons. The unilateral injection of aminochrome into rat striatum resulted in (1) contralateral rotation when the animals are stimulated with apomorphine; (2) absence of significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neuronal elements both in substantia nigra and striatum; (3) cell shrinkage; (4) significant reduction of dopamine release; (5) significant increase in GABA release; (6) significant decrease in the number of monoaminergic presynaptic vesicles; (7) significant increase of dopamine concentration inside of monoaminergic vesicles; (8) significant increase of damaged mitochondria; (9) significant decrease of ATP level in the striatum (10) significant decrease in basal and maximal mitochondrial respiration. These results suggest that aminochrome induces dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons where the contralateral behavior can be explained by aminochrome-induced ATP decrease required both for anterograde transport of synaptic vesicles and dopamine release. Aminochrome could be implemented as a new model neurotoxin to study Parkinson's disease. PMID:27001668

  16. Application of a theoretical model to evaluate COPD disease management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asin Javier D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes are heterogeneous in nature and often lack a theoretical basis. An evaluation model has been developed in which theoretically driven inquiries link disease management interventions to outcomes. The aim of this study is to methodically evaluate the impact of a disease management programme for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD on process, intermediate and final outcomes of care in a general practice setting. Methods A quasi-experimental research was performed with 12-months follow-up of 189 COPD patients in primary care in the Netherlands. The programme included patient education, protocolised assessment and treatment of COPD, structural follow-up and coordination by practice nurses at 3, 6 and 12 months. Data on intermediate outcomes (knowledge, psychosocial mediators, self-efficacy and behaviour and final outcomes (dyspnoea, quality of life, measured by the CRQ and CCQ, and patient experiences were obtained from questionnaires and electronic registries. Results Implementation of the programme was associated with significant improvements in dyspnoea (p Conclusions The application of a theory-driven model enhances the design and evaluation of disease management programmes aimed at improving health outcomes. This study supports the notion that a theoretical approach strengthens the evaluation designs of complex interventions. Moreover, it provides prudent evidence that the implementation of COPD disease management programmes can positively influence outcomes of care.

  17. IT SOLUTION FOR DISEASE MANAGEMENT AT PT PANASONIC MANUFACTURING INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bens Pardamean

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One of company's occupational health programs is disease management which is a part of preventive health care. In its realization, it was discovered that there some challenges in data collection, monitoring of catering and sport activity, employee health reports, and medical costs. The purpose of this study is to design an IT solution for the disease management program at PT. Panasonic Manufacturing Indonesia (PMI. The diseases in focus are diabetes, hypertension, and tuberculosis. Methodology starts with survey on PT. PMI requirements, research parameters, problem analysis, literature study, and system design. Solution is focused on designing a registry system that includes Alert Management System, Food Tracking, EHR, Sport Tracking, Guidelines, and Report System. The results of this study is a web-based information system that can assist health care workers in seeking data, monitoring food intake and sport activity, and reporting systems for upper-level management.

  18. Management of adynamic bone disease in chronic kidney disease: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi K. Sista

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO work group released recommendations in 2006 to define the bone-related pathology associated with chronic kidney disease as renal osteodystrophy. In 2009, KDIGO released revised clinical practice guidelines which redefined systemic disorders of bone and mineral metabolism due to chronic kidney disease as chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders. Conditions under this overarching term include osteitis fibrosa cystica, osteomalacia, and adynamic bone disease. We aim to provide a brief review of the histopathology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnostic features of adynamic bone disease, focusing on current trends in the management of this complex bone disorder.

  19. Transmission of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer: implications for disease spread and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Jennelle

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.

  20. Transmission of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer: implications for disease spread and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, Christopher S; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.

  1. Scenario tree model for animal disease freedom framed in the OIE context using the example of a generic swine model for Aujeszky's disease in commercial swine in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jette; Vallières, André

    2016-01-01

    "Freedom from animal disease" is an ambiguous concept that may have a different meaning in trade and science. For trade alone, there are different levels of freedom from OIE listed diseases. A country can: be recognized by OIE to be "officially free"; self-declare freedom, with no official recognition by the OIE; or report animal disease as absent (no occurrence) in six-monthly reports. In science, we apply scenario tree models to calculate the probability of a population being free from disease at a given prevalence to provide evidence of freedom from animal disease. Here, we link science with application by describing how a scenario tree model may contribute to a country's claim of freedom from animal disease. We combine the idea of a standardized presentation of scenario tree models for disease freedom and having a similar model for two different animal diseases to suggest that a simple generic model may help veterinary authorities to build and evaluate scenario tree models for disease freedom. Here, we aim to develop a generic scenario tree model for disease freedom that is: animal species specific, population specific, and has a simple structure. The specific objectives were: to explore the levels of freedom described in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code; to describe how scenario tree models may contribute to a country's claim of freedom from animal disease; and to present a generic swine scenario tree model for disease freedom in Canada's domestic (commercial) swine applied to Aujeszky's disease (AD). In particular, to explore how historical survey data, and data mining may affect the probability of freedom and to explore different sampling strategies. Finally, to frame the generic scenario tree model in the context of Canada's claim of freedom from AD. We found that scenario tree models are useful to support a country's claim of freedom either as "recognized officially free" or as part of a self-declaration but the models should not stand alone in a

  2. The contemporary management of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xinyi; Wong, Ka Sing; Leung, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is the most common cause of cerebral vasculopathy and an important stroke etiology worldwide, with a higher prevalence in Asian, Hispanic and African ethnicities. Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease portends a recurrent stroke risk as high as 18% at one year. The key to secondary prevention is an understanding of the underlying stroke mechanism and aggressive control of conventional cardiovascular risks. Contemporary treatment includes antiplatelet therapy, optimal glycemic and blood pressure control, statin therapy and lifestyle modifications. For patients with high-grade (70-99%) symptomatic steno-occlusion, short-term dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel followed by life-long single antiplatelet therapy may reduce the recurrent risk. Current evidence does not advocate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting as an initial treatment. External counterpulsation, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis and remote limb ischemic preconditioning are treatments under investigation. Future studies should aim at predicting patients prone to recurrence despite of medical therapies and testing the efficacy of emerging therapies.

  3. Myeloma bone disease: Pathophysiology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Silbermann, Rebecca; Roodman, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma bone disease is marked by severe dysfunction of both bone formation and resorption and serves as a model for understanding the regulation of osteoblasts (OBL) and osteoclasts (OCL) in cancer. Myeloma bone lesions are purely osteolytic and are associated with severe and debilitating bone pain, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression, as well as increased mortality. Interactions within the bone marrow microenvironment in myeloma are responsible for the ...

  4. [Atherosclerotic renal artery disease management update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Pascal; Haesler, Erik; Teta, Daniel; Qanadli, Salah Dine; Burnier, Michel

    2009-02-01

    In the case of atherosclerotic renal artery disease, the best conclusive results lie principally not in the degree of the stenosis but rather in the degree the renal parenchymal disease beyond the stenosis itself. These determining factors involve the controlling of the patients blood pressure, the improvement in the renal function and the beneficial results to the cardiovascular system. Besides the indispensable medical treatment, a revascularisation by angioplasty may be indicated. This procedure with or without vascular stent often allows satisfactory angiographic results. A treatment by surgical revascularisation is only recommended in the case of extensive atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta, complex lesions of the latter or an abdominal aortic aneurism. Although the frequency of restenosis of angioplasty with stent remains extremely low, the risk of cholesterol emboli due to the diffuse atherosclerotic lesions of the abdominal aorta, must be considered at the time of each aortic catheterization. The therapeutic approach of atherosclerotic renal artery disease must be dictated by the whole cardiovascular risk factors and by the threat of target organs. The control of the blood pressure and the maintenance of the renal function must be integrated in the decisional algorithm as well as the possible risks in carrying out an eventual revascularisation procedure. Finally, the renal angioplasty should in numerous situations be integrated in the overall assumption of responsibility of the atherosclerotic vascular diseases, and should be part of the medical treatment. Several questions still do exist; at what moment an atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis should and e considered critical, and which procedure should be considered for which patient? The purpose of this review is to propose a decisional tool for individualized treatments in the light of results from randomized and controlled studies. PMID:18815087

  5. Mitochondrial Diseases: Clinical Features- Management of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Koc

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are unique organells which their own DNA in cells. Human mitochondrial DNA is circular, double-stranded molecule and small. Because all mitochondria are contributed by the ovum during the formation of the zygote, the mitochondrial genom is transmitted by maternal inheritance. Multisystem disorders such as deafness, cardiomyopathy, miyopathy can be seen in mitochondrial diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(0.100: 14-31

  6. Probiotics in the Management of Lung Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeil Mortaz; Adcock, Ian M; Gert Folkerts; Peter J. Barnes; Arjan Paul Vos; Johan Garssen

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are closely related. This similarity between the two organs may underlie why dysfunction in one organ may induce illness in the other. For example, smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and IBD and increases the risk of developing Crohn’s disease. Probiotics have been defined as “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host.” In model systems probiotics regulat...

  7. Bespoke microbiome therapy to manage plant diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Murali eGopal; Alka eGupta; Thomas, George V

    2013-01-01

    Advanced biological technologies are revealing that the microbiome, located in gut and rhizosphere, is responsible for maintaining the health of human beings and plants, respectively. Within the complete microbiome a ‘core-microbiome’ exists that plays the pivotal role. Recent studies in medicine have shown that an artificial mixture of bacteria representing the core gut microbiome of healthy person when transferred into gut of diseased person results in re-establishment of normal microflor...

  8. The management of rheumatic diseases in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, K.; Kaul, M.; Clowse, MEB

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy can create a challenge for physicians caring for women with rheumatic diseases. For many women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), pregnancy can provide a reprieve from long-term joint pain and inflammation, but others will not experience remission and will continue to need medication. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may remain quiet in some women, but in others may become more aggressive during pregnancy, putting both mother and foetus at risk. Women with limited scleroderma can do ...

  9. Atypical Celiac Disease: From Recognizing to Managing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Admou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonclassic clinical presentation of celiac disease (CD becomes increasingly common in physician’s daily practice, which requires an awareness of its many clinical faces with atypical, silent, and latent forms. Besides the common genetic background (HLA DQ2/DQ8 of the disease, other non-HLA genes are now notably reported with a probable association to atypical forms. The availability of high-sensitive and specific serologic tests such as antitissue transglutuminase, antiendomysium, and more recent antideamidated, gliadin peptide antibodies permits to efficiently uncover a large portion of the submerged CD iceberg, including individuals having conditions associated with a high risk of developing CD (type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, Down syndrome, family history of CD, etc., biologic abnormalities (iron deficiency anemia, abnormal transaminase levels, etc., and extraintestinal symptoms (short stature, neuropsychiatric disorders, alopecia, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent aphtous stomatitis, etc.. Despite the therapeutic alternatives currently in developing, the strict adherence to a GFD remains the only effective and safe therapy for CD.

  10. Management of diverticular disease is changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin H Floch; Jonathan A White

    2006-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is primarily a disease of humans living in westernized and industrialized countries. Sixty percent of humans living in industrialized countries will develop colonic diverticula. It is rare before the age of 40, but more prone to complications when it occurs in the young. By age 80, over 65% of humans have colonic diverticula. The cause remains uncertain, but epidemiologic studies attribute it to dietary fiber deficiency. The cause of diverticulitis remains uncertain, but new observations and hypotheses suggest that it is due to chronic inflammation in the bowel wall. Standard medical therapies of bowel rest and antibiotics are still the recommended treatment.However, changing concepts and new therapies indicate that anti-inflammatory agents such as mesalamine and possibly probiotics may be helpful in shortening the course and perhaps preventing recurrences. Standard surgical treatment for perforation for severe acute disease has developed so that two-stage procedures are recommended. In addition, laparoscopic surgery has proven safe and may slowly become the technique of choice.

  11. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

  12. Usefulness of radioisotopes in animal nutrition research on health and disease aspects of livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioisotopes in India commenced in seventies under international programmes to investigate certain aspects of metabolic disorders at 4 to 5 centres in the country. In due course of time, many universities and institutes also started using nuclear techniques in animal science research because such techniques are more sensitive, accurate, fast and there is every possibility of estimating micro quantities otherwise not possible by gravimetric methods. Their use is also helpful to understand and trace the biochemical mechanisms of certain nutrients in tissues both from deficiency or toxicity point of view. Literature has thus accumulated in a number of developing countries to establish the causes of some important metabolic diseases which are discussed along with utilization of nutrients for production traits under normal conditions

  13. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lago, E G; Gennari, S M; Su, C; Jones, J L

    2012-09-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Brazil. The burden of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans is considered to be very high. The high prevalence and encouragement of the Brazilian Government provides a unique opportunity for international groups to study the epidemiology and control of toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Brazil were published in Portuguese and often not available to scientists in English-speaking countries. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, molecular epidemiology, and control of T. gondii in humans and animals in Brazil. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians, and physicians. Brazil has a very high rate of T. gondii infection in humans. Up to 50% of elementary school children and 50-80% of women of child-bearing age have antibodies to T. gondii. The risks for uninfected women to acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and fetal transmission are high because the environment is highly contaminated with oocysts. The burden of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children is also very high. From limited data on screening of infants for T. gondii IgM at birth, 5-23 children are born infected per 10 000 live births in Brazil. Based on an estimate of 1 infected child per 1000 births, 2649 children with congenital toxoplasmosis are likely to be born annually in Brazil. Most of these infected children are likely to develop symptoms or signs of clinical toxoplasmosis. Among the congenitally infected children whose clinical data are described in this review, several died soon after birth, 35% had neurological disease including hydrocephalus, microcephaly and mental retardation, 80% had ocular lesions, and in one report 40% of children had hearing loss. The severity of clinical toxoplasmosis in Brazilian children may be associated with the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates prevailing in

  14. Animated Powerpoint Presentations for Teaching Operations and Supply Chain Management: Perceived Value and Electronic Exchange of Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleven, Mark D.; Penlesky, Richard J.; Callarman, Thomas E.; Watts, Charles A.; Bragg, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the innovation of sharing animated PowerPoint presentations used in teaching operations and supply chain management techniques and concepts through an international electronic exchange. The plan for the exchange is presented and discussed. The potential benefits to faculty and students of using PowerPoint animations in…

  15. Neuroprotective effects of protocatechuic aldehyde against neurotoxin-induced cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL has been reported to bind to DJ-1, a key protein involved in Parkinson's disease (PD, and exerts potential neuroprotective effects via DJ-1 in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective pharmacological effects of PAL against neurotoxin-induced cell and animal models of PD. In cellular models of PD, PAL markedly increased cell viability rates, mitochondrial oxidation-reduction activity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced intracellular ROS levels to prevent neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. In animal models of PD, PAL reduced the apomorphine injection, caused turning in 6-OHDA treated rats, and increased the motor coordination and stride decreases in MPTP treated mice. Meanwhile, in an MPTP mouse model, PAL prevented a decrease of the contents of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in the striatum and TH-positive dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra (SN. In addition, PAL increased the protein expression of DJ-1 and reduced the level of α-synuclein in the SN of MPTP lesioned mice. PAL also increased the spine density in hippocampal CA1 neurons. The current study demonstrates that PAL can efficiently protect dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxin injury in vitro and in vivo, and that the potential mechanisms may be related to its effects in increasing DJ-1, decreasing α-synuclein and its growth-promoting effect on spine density.

  16. Object recognition test for studying cognitive impairments in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Xabier; Rodriguez-Perdigon, Manuel; Ramirez, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are essential resources in basic research and drug discovery in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As the main clinical feature in AD is cognitive failure, the ultimate readout for any interventions or the ultimate goal in research should be measures of learning and memory. Although there is a wealth of genetic and biochemical studies on proposed AD pathogenic pathways, the aetiology of the illness remains unsolved. Therefore, assessment by cognitive assays should target relevant memory systems without assumptions about pathogenesis. The description of several tests that are available for assessing cognitive functioning in animal models can be found in literature. Among the behavioural test, the novel object recognition (NOR) task is a method to measure a specific form of recognition memory. It is based on the spontaneous behaviour of rodents and offers the advantage of not needing external motivation, reward or punishment. Therefore, the NOR test has been increasingly used as an experimental tool in assessing drug effects on memory and investigating the neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. This review describes the basic procedure, modifications, practical considerations, and the requirements and caveats of this behavioural paradigm to be considered as appropriate for the study of AD. Altogether, NOR test could be considered as a very useful instrument that allows researchers to explore the cognitive status of rodents, and hence, for studying AD related pathological mechanisms or treatments. PMID:25961683

  17. Associations between prior management of cattle and risk of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Schibrowski, M L; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot populations worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess associations between risk factors related to on-farm management prior to transport to the feedlot and risk of BRD in a population of feedlot beef cattle sourced from throughout the cattle producing regions of Australia. Exposure variables were derived from questionnaire data provided by farmers supplying cattle (N=10,721) that were a subset of the population included in a nationwide prospective study investigating numerous putative risk factors for BRD. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow estimation of effects of interest. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Animals that were yard weaned were at reduced risk (OR: 0.7, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.0) of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals immediately returned to pasture after weaning. Animals that had previously been fed grain (OR: 0.6, 95% credible interval: 0.3-1.1) were probably at reduced risk of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals not previously fed grain. Animals that received prior vaccinations against Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.1) or Mannheimia haemolytica (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.6-1.0) were also probably at reduced risk compared to non-vaccinated animals. The results of this study confirm that on-farm management before feedlot entry can alter risk of BRD after beef cattle enter feedlots.

  18. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, K. S.; HÄSLER, B.; K. D. C. Stärk

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mi...

  19. Hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease: the quest for the best animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent eMailly

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC making the virus the most common cause of liver failure and transplantation. HCV is estimated to chronically affect 130 million individuals and to lead to more than 350,000 deaths per year worldwide. A vaccine is currently not available. The recently developed direct acting antivirals (DAAs have markedly increased the efficacy of the standard of care but are not efficient enough to completely cure all chronically infected patients and their toxicity limits their use in patients with advanced liver disease, co-morbidity or transplant recipients. Because of the host restriction, which is limited to humans and non-human primates, in vivo study of HCV infection has been hampered since its discovery more than 20 years ago. The chimpanzee remains the most physiological model to study the innate and adaptive immune responses, but its use is ethically difficult and is now very restricted and regulated. The development of a small animal model that allows robust HCV infection has been achieved using chimeric liver immunodeficient mice, which are therefore not suitable for studying the adaptive immune responses. Nevertheless, these models allowed to go deeply in the comprehension of virus-host interactions and to assess different therapeutic approaches. The immunocompetent mouse models that were recently established by genetic humanization have shown an interesting improvement concerning the study of the immune responses but are still limited by the absence of the complete robust life cycle of the virus. In this review, we will focus on the relevant available animal models of HCV infection and their usefulness for deciphering the HCV life cycle and virus-induced liver disease, as well as for the development and evaluation of new therapeutics. We will also discuss the perspectives on future immunocompetent mouse models and the hurdles to their development.

  20. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2006-01-01

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the An...

  1. Human and Animal Sentinels for Shared Health Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH; Matthew Scotch, PhD, MPH; Lisa Conti, DVM, MPH

    2009-01-01

    The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions, and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal...

  2. Anticipating the Emerging of Some Strategical Infectious Animal Diseases in Indonesia Related to The Effect of Global Warming and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sjamsul Bahri; T Syafriati

    2011-01-01

    The effect of global warming and climate change is changing the season, included flooding in one area and very dry in other area, changing the temperature and humidity. These changes will trigger changing of the life of biological agent (virus, bacteria, parasites and so on), variety of animal species, variety of vectors as reservoir host of animal with the role of transmitting the disease to other animal species, This condition will trigger the new animal disease (emerging disease) or old di...

  3. Pathogen evolution across the agro-ecological interface: implications for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Jeremy J; Thrall, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Infectious disease is a major causal factor in the demography of human, plant and animal populations. While it is generally accepted in medical, veterinary and agricultural contexts that variation in host resistance and pathogen virulence and aggressiveness is of central importance to understanding patterns of infection, there has been remarkably little effort to directly investigate causal links between population genetic structure and disease dynamics, and even less work on factors influencing host-pathogen coevolution. The lack of empirical evidence is particularly surprising, given the potential for such variation to not only affect disease dynamics and prevalence, but also when or where new diseases or pathotypes emerge. Increasingly, this lack of knowledge has led to calls for an integrated approach to disease management, incorporating both ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we argue that plant pathogens occurring in agro-ecosystems represent one clear example where the application of evolutionary principles to disease management would be of great benefit, as well as providing model systems for advancing our ability to generalize about the long-term coevolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen systems. We suggest that this is particularly the case given that agro-ecological host-pathogen interactions represent a diversity of situations ranging from those that only involve agricultural crops through to those that also include weedy crop relatives or even unrelated native plant communities. We begin by examining some of the criteria that are important in determining involvement in agricultural pathogen evolution by noncrop plants. Throughout we use empirical examples to illustrate the fact that different processes may dominate in different systems, and suggest that consideration of life history and spatial structure are central to understanding dynamics and direction of the interaction. We then discuss the implications that such interactions have for

  4. Diagnosis of dementia and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacologic management of disease progression and cognitive impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    van Reekum, R; Simard, M.(Université de Montréal, Physique des Particules, H3C 3J7, Montréal, Québec, Canada); Farcnik, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of family physicians in the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias. To provide an update on the diagnostic workup of people with suspected dementia and on the pharmacologic management of cognitive impairment and disease progression in AD. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE and Psychological Abstracts were searched using the terms "cognitive enhancers" or a specific drug name and "dementia (exp)." Evidence is generally limited but promisin...

  5. [Surgical management of intestinal Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Yuji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Ken-Ichi; Haneda, Sho; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Ikezawa, Fumie; Unno, Michiaki

    2015-03-01

    Various intestinal conditions such as stricture, fistula, abscess, perforation, and hemorrhage are complications of Crohn's disease. Surgical intervention remains important, even in the era of biologic therapy. Limited surgical resection is essential to avoid short bowel syndrome after massive resection or multiple operations. Strictureplasty is effective for short, isolated stricture of the small intestine and provides good results equivalent to those of intestinal resection. Fecal diversion in the case of very complicated lesions not suitable for immediate resection can offer patients general and local improvement. Although bypass surgery is currently not performed because of the possibility of deterioration or carcinogenesis of the bypassed segment, bypass surgery is useful for avoiding stoma. Laparoscopic surgery is indicated for patients with nonperforating, localized ileocecal lesions, and for those presenting initially. The cumulative postoperative reoperation rate is about 50% to 60% at 10 years. The risk factors for early recurrence are smoking, perforating type, previous reoperation, and small intestinal disease. During postoperative follow-up and maintenance treatment, the importance of an algorithm comprising regular check-ups with ileocolonoscopy and the use of thioprines and biologics has been proposed. PMID:26050508

  6. Fibromyalgia Complicating Disease Management in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate frequency of fibromyalgia in rheumatoid arthritis and its effect on disease activity score. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Indus Hospital, Karachi, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: All adult patients of either gender diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis on the basis of clinical, laboratory and X-ray criteria were included in the study. The sample data was separated into two groups depending on presence or absence of fibromyalgia and 28 joint disease activity score (DAS-28) value was evaluated. Results: There were 31 (25.83%) patients with rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia (RAFM) out of the total 120. The median (IQR) age of patients was 40 (32 - 51) years. All were females. The overall female frequency was 79 (88.8%). The median (IQR) DAS-28 score in RA group was 4.9 (3.66 - 5.71), while the median (IQR) DAS-28 score in RAFM was 7.04 (6.62 - 7.64) [p < 0.0001]. The number of patient getting combination therapy of DMARD in RAFM group was 61.3% while in RA group was 42.7%. Conclusion: DAS-28 was found to be significantly higher in RAFM patients probably because of higher perception of pain. (author)

  7. The contemporary management of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xinyi; Wong, Ka Sing; Leung, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is the most common cause of cerebral vasculopathy and an important stroke etiology worldwide, with a higher prevalence in Asian, Hispanic and African ethnicities. Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease portends a recurrent stroke risk as high as 18% at one year. The key to secondary prevention is an understanding of the underlying stroke mechanism and aggressive control of conventional cardiovascular risks. Contemporary treatment includes antiplatelet therapy, optimal glycemic and blood pressure control, statin therapy and lifestyle modifications. For patients with high-grade (70-99%) symptomatic steno-occlusion, short-term dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel followed by life-long single antiplatelet therapy may reduce the recurrent risk. Current evidence does not advocate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting as an initial treatment. External counterpulsation, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis and remote limb ischemic preconditioning are treatments under investigation. Future studies should aim at predicting patients prone to recurrence despite of medical therapies and testing the efficacy of emerging therapies. PMID:27082149

  8. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of necrotizing enterocolitis: pathophysiology, translational relevance, and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Peng; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Jia, Hongpeng; Shaffiey, Shahab; Good, Misty; Branca, Maria F.; Hackam, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from gastrointestinal disease in premature infants and is characterized by initial feeding intolerance and abdominal distention followed by the rapid progression to coagulation necrosis of the intestine and death in many cases. Although the risk factors for NEC development remain well accepted, namely premature birth and formula feeding, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Current thinking indicate...

  9. IMPROVEMENT SYSTEM OF BIOLOGICAL FACTORS MANAGEMENT IN THE BREEDING OF FARM ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shendakov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to economical transformations of 1990-s in the sphere of milking cows breeding its profitability has grown low on many Russian cow-breeding farms, which was accompanied by the deterioration of zootechnical registration, selection and analytical approach to salvation of agro industrial complex topical problems. It caused the necessity of animal breeding enterprises reorganization. The introduction of intensive technologies, intellectual and methodical potential of domestic and foreign science to the animal breeding set a number of new problems before zootechnicians and stock-breeders. One of these tasks - improving the management of breeding and, especially, its biological factors (heritability, genetic correlations, the effect of heterosis, etc.. The situation is complicated by the fact that currently used in the selection of inbreeding, which often leads to inbreeding depression on intensity of growth, live weight, reproductive qualities and other selection signs. For the decision it is problems us researches of influence of inbreeding on efficiency of Black-and-White cows have been conducted. In scientific work the results of a comparative evaluation of milk yield of cows with inbreeding and conventional breeding. In the scientific is work studied the percentage of heifers and steers at calving, the number of calves-twins, stillborn calves and abortions in inbreeding and normal of animals groups. Inbreeding no had significant effect on stillbirths. The percentage of Holstein genes may influence of the sexes ratio in their offspring. The article presents the analysis of the level of development and the trends of production and selection in dairy cattle breeding, given prognosis for pig-breeding in Russia, a scheme of management of biological factors of selection, is work said about results of selection of Black-and-White, Simmental and Holstein cattle, also pig in Orel region.

  10. Possibilities of Strawberry Integrated Disease Management in Different Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years strawberry production in Croatia is constantly increasing. One of the main problems in production are diseases. During two-year trials in strawberry plantations in northern Croatia, the occurrence of diseases was monitored in order to establish the most effective methods of integrated disease management. Trials were performed in three cultivation system: open field, greenhouse and hydroponics. The most frequent disease in all three production systems was gray mould (Botrytis cinerea. In open field production, the occurrence of common leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae and leaf scorch (Diplocarpon earliana were also frequently observed, while leaf blotch (Gnomonia comari, leaf blight (Phomopsis obscurans and fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp. were only sporadically present. For the control of the most important disease, gray mould, forecast model BOTMAN was implemented. As relatively simple model based on meteorological data, BOTMAN allowed effective, ecologically and economically more acceptable control, based on integrated chemical and biological measures. Meteorological data were obtained from the State Hydrometeorological Department (DHMZ. Results showed no significant difference in intensity of gray mould infection between usual chemical control and BOTMAN-based control. Two-years research on strawberry disease management in Croatia revealed perspective possibilities of integrated strawberry disease management.

  11. Possibilities of Strawberry Integrated Disease Management in Different Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years strawberry production in Croatia is constantly increasing. One of the main problems in production are diseases. During two-year trials in strawberry plantations in northern Croatia, the occurrence of diseases was monitored in order to establish the most effective methods of integrated disease management. Trials were performed in three cultivation system: open field, greenhouse and hydroponics. The most frequent disease in all three production systems was gray mould (Botrytis cinerea. In open field production, the occurrence of common leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae and leaf scorch (Diplocarpon earliana were also frequently observed, while leaf blotch (Gnomonia comari, leaf blight (Phomopsis obscurans and fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp. were only sporadically present. For the control of the most important disease, gray mould, forecast model BOTMAN was implemented. As relatively simple model based on meteorological data, BOTMAN allowed effective, ecologically and economically more acceptable control, based on integrated chemical and biological measures. Meteorological data were obtained from the State Hydrometeorological Department (DHMZ. Results showed no significant difference in intensity of gray mould infection between usual chemical control and BOTMAN-based control. Two-years research on strawberry disease management in Croatia revealed perspective possibilities of integrated strawberry disease management.

  12. Research progress in animal models and stem cell therapy for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabin Han,1,2 Wei Wang1, Chao Chen1 1Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, 2Department of Neurology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital/The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD causes degeneration of brain neurons and leads to memory loss and cognitive impairment. Since current therapeutic strategies cannot cure the disease, stem cell therapy represents a powerful tool for the treatment of AD. We first review the advances in molecular pathogenesis and animal models of AD and then discuss recent clinical studies using small molecules and immunoglobulins to target amyloid-beta plaques for AD therapy. Finally, we discuss stem cell therapy for AD using neural stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, embryonic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cell from bone marrow, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood. In particular, patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells are proposed as a future treatment for AD. Keywords: amyloid-beta plaque, neurofibrillary tangle, neural stem cell, olfactory ensheathing cell, mesenchymal stem cell, induced pluripotent stem cell

  13. Prebiotics in food animals: A potential to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animals can be seriously impacted by bacterial pathogens that affect their growth efficiency and overall health, as well as food safety of animal-derived products. Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, can be a shared problem for both human and animal health and can be found in many animal ...

  14. Prebiotics in food animals, a potential to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animals can be seriously impacted by bacterial pathogens that affect their growth efficiency and overall health, as well as food safety of animal-derived products. Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, can be a shared problem for both human and animal health and can be found in many animal ...

  15. Current trends in pharmacy benefit designs: a threat to disease management in chronic complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gary; Emons, Matthew F; Christian-Herman, Jennifer; Lawless, Grant

    2007-04-01

    With a focus on those patients who are candidates for treatment with biologic agents, we review the impact that current pharmacy benefit trends have on patients with chronic complex diseases and how they affect opportunities for disease management in this unique patient population. Dramatic increases in health care costs have led to a variety of strategies to manage cost. Many of these strategies either limit access to care or increase the patient's responsibility for choosing and paying for care, especially for medications. These strategies have a disproportionate impact on patients with chronic complex diseases, particularly those who require the use of biologic medications. A fundamental prerequisite of disease management has been coverage of disease-modifying therapies. If current pharmacy benefit trends continue, unintended consequences will likely occur including lost opportunities for disease management. Current pharmacy benefit trends could adversely impact disease management, particularly for patients requiring the use of biologic agents. Health plans should consider innovative benefit designs that reflect an appropriate level of cost sharing across all key stake-holders, ensuring appropriate access to needed therapies. Additional research is needed to clarify the value of newer approaches to therapies or benefit design changes.

  16. A web-based system for near real-time surveillance and space-time cluster analysis of foot-and-mouth disease and other animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Andres M; Zeng, Daniel; Tseng, Chun-ju; Chen, Hsinchun; Whedbee, Zachary; Paton, David; Thurmond, Mark C

    2009-09-01

    Considerable attention has been given lately to the need for global systems for animal disease surveillance that support real-time assessment of changing temporal-spatial risks. Until recently, however, prospects for development of such systems have been limited by the lack of informatics tools and an overarching collaboration framework to enable real-time data capturing, sharing, analysis, and related decision-making. In this paper, we present some of the tools of the FMD BioPortal System (www.fmd.ucdavis.edu/bioportal), which is a web-based system that facilitates near real-time information sharing, visualization, and advanced space-time cluster analysis for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Using this system, FMD information that is collected and maintained at various data acquisition and management sites around the world can be submitted to a data repository using various mutually agreed upon Extensible Markup Language (XML) formats, including Health Level Seven (HL7). FMD BioPortal makes available a set of advanced space-time cluster analysis techniques, including scan statistic-based methods and machine learning-based clustering methods. These techniques are aimed at identifying local clusters of disease cases in relation to the background risk. Data and analysis results can be displayed using a novel visualization environment, which supports multiple views including GIS, timeline, and periodical patterns. All FMD BioPortal functionalities are accessible through the Web and data confidentiality can be secured through user access control and computer network security techniques such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). FMD BioPortal is currently operational with limited data routinely collected by the Office International des Epizooties, the GenBank, the FMD World Reference Laboratory in Pirbright, and by the FMD Laboratory at the University of California in Davis. Here we describe technical attributes and capabilities of FMD BioPortal and illustrate its functionality

  17. A web-based system for near real-time surveillance and space-time cluster analysis of foot-and-mouth disease and other animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Andres M; Zeng, Daniel; Tseng, Chun-ju; Chen, Hsinchun; Whedbee, Zachary; Paton, David; Thurmond, Mark C

    2009-09-01

    Considerable attention has been given lately to the need for global systems for animal disease surveillance that support real-time assessment of changing temporal-spatial risks. Until recently, however, prospects for development of such systems have been limited by the lack of informatics tools and an overarching collaboration framework to enable real-time data capturing, sharing, analysis, and related decision-making. In this paper, we present some of the tools of the FMD BioPortal System (www.fmd.ucdavis.edu/bioportal), which is a web-based system that facilitates near real-time information sharing, visualization, and advanced space-time cluster analysis for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Using this system, FMD information that is collected and maintained at various data acquisition and management sites around the world can be submitted to a data repository using various mutually agreed upon Extensible Markup Language (XML) formats, including Health Level Seven (HL7). FMD BioPortal makes available a set of advanced space-time cluster analysis techniques, including scan statistic-based methods and machine learning-based clustering methods. These techniques are aimed at identifying local clusters of disease cases in relation to the background risk. Data and analysis results can be displayed using a novel visualization environment, which supports multiple views including GIS, timeline, and periodical patterns. All FMD BioPortal functionalities are accessible through the Web and data confidentiality can be secured through user access control and computer network security techniques such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). FMD BioPortal is currently operational with limited data routinely collected by the Office International des Epizooties, the GenBank, the FMD World Reference Laboratory in Pirbright, and by the FMD Laboratory at the University of California in Davis. Here we describe technical attributes and capabilities of FMD BioPortal and illustrate its functionality

  18. Hybrid Workflow Policy Management for Heart Disease Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Youn, Chan-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    As science technology grows, medical application is becoming more complex to solve the physiological problems within expected time. Workflow management systems (WMS) in Grid computing are promising solution to solve the sophisticated problem such as genomic analysis, drug discovery, disease identification, etc. Although existing WMS can provide basic management functionality in Grid environment, consideration of user requirements such as performance, reliability and interaction with user is missing. In this paper, we propose hybrid workflow management system for heart disease identification and discuss how to guarantee different user requirements according to user SLA. The proposed system is applied to Physio-Grid e-health platform to identify human heart disease with ECG analysis and Virtual Heart Simulation (VHS) workflow applications.

  19. Hybrid Workflow Policy Management for Heart Disease Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As science technology grows, medical application is becoming more complex to solve the physiological problems within expected time. Workflow management systems (WMS in Grid computing are promisingsolution to solve the sophisticated problem such as genomic analysis, drug discovery, disease identification, etc. Although existing WMS can provide basic management functionality in Grid environment, consideration of user requirements such as performance, reliability and interaction with user is missing. In this paper, we proposehybrid workflow management system for heart disease identification and discuss how to guarantee different user requirements according to user SLA. The proposed system is applied to Physio-Grid e-health platform to identify human heart disease with ECG analysis and Virtual Heart Simulation (VHS workflow applications.

  20. Parkinson's disease managing reversible neurodegeneration [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hinz M, Stein A, Cole T, McDougall B, Westaway M. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2016;12:763–775.On page 774, Disclosure section, “MH discloses his relationship with DBS Laboratory services and NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. The other authors report no conflicts of interest in this work” should have been “MH discloses his relationship with DBS Laboratory services and NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. CHK Nutrition is a subsidiary of West Duluth Distribution Co. The CEO of this company is Amy M. Gunther-Hinz and the Registered Agent is Thais M Hinz. These persons are the daughter and the wife of Dr Marty Hinz. Thais Hinz is also a shareholder of West Duluth Distribution Co. The other authors report no conflicts of interest in this work”. Read the original article

  1. The management of combined coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Cassar (Andrew); D. Poldermans (Don); C.S. Rihal (Charanjit); B.J. Gersh (Bernard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCoronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) remain highly prevalent in the population due to population ageing, smoking, diabetes, unhealthy lifestyles, and the epidemic of obesity, and frequently coexist. The management of combined CAD and PVD is a common challen

  2. Refinement and use of Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (Health Certificates) for optimal assurance of disease freedom in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, D E; Palić, D; Scarfe, A D

    2007-01-01

    Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (CVI), generally termed "Health Certificates", are pivotal for ensuring that translocated animals are not diseased or do not harbour significant pathogens. While used very successfully with terrestrial animal movement for decades, CVIs for aquatic animals are not well refined, understood or used, despite the availability of several aquatic animal "certification processes", "permits" and "health certificates", including the OIE model health certificates. Correctly designed CVIs provide the single most economical and effective assurance of disease status (generally freedom from specific diseases or pathogens) for individuals or lots of animals, at any point in time. When issued by a qualified independent third-party (typically a licensed and government accredited veterinarian) they provide the official level of assurance necessary for intrastate, interstate and international trade. Tailored modifications of CVIs are also useful for other purposes requiring the evaluation of animal health (e.g. specific pathogen-free (SPF) assurance for premises, risk-mitigating assurance necessary for insurance policies, breeding soundness assurance of broodstock, etc.). Here we discuss necessary information for aquatic animal CVIs: animal, ownership and location; standardized diagnostic results and their interpretation; and language contained in CVIs. Also addressed is the viability for use with multiple aquatic species and diseases/pathogens of interest, and their use in conjunction with established veterinary inspection procedures. A revised model aquatic CVI, with broad potential use for individual operations, states or countries, is offered for discussion, comment and refinement. In addition an optimally designed model CVI may be of use with electronic systems that are evolving in, for example, Europe, the USA and Australia/New Zealand (e.g. TRACES, e-CVI, e-Certs). PMID:18306523

  3. Hormonal Influences on Lung Function and Response to Environmental Agents: Lessons from Animal Models of Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Card, Jeffrey W.; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies in humans and experimental animals have identified considerable sex differences in respiratory physiology and in the response of the lung to environmental agents. These differences appear to be mediated, at least in part, by sex hormones and their nuclear receptors. Moreover, animal models are increasingly used to study pathogenic mechanisms and test potential therapies for a variety of human lung diseases, many of which appear to be influenced by sex and sex hormones. In thi...

  4. Genetic management strategies for controlling infectious diseases in livestock populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Stephen C

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the use of disease resistance genes to control the transmission of infection through an animal population. Transmission is summarised by R0, the basic reproductive ratio of a pathogen. If R0 > 1.0 a major epidemic can occur, thus a disease control strategy should aim to reduce R0 below 1.0, e.g. by mixing resistant with susceptible wild-type animals. Suppose there is a resistance allele, such that transmission of infection through a population homozygous for this allele will be R02 01, where R01 describes transmission in the wildtype population. For an otherwise homogeneous population comprising animals of these two groups, R0 is the weighted average of the two sub-populations: R0 = R01ρ + R02 (1 - ρ, where ρ is the proportion of wildtype animals. If R01 > 1 and R02 0 ≤ 1, i.e. ρ ≤ (R0 - R02/(R01 - R02. If R02 = 0, the proportion of resistant animals must be at least 1 - 1/R01. For an n genotype model the requirement is still to have R0 ≤ 1.0. Probabilities of epidemics in genetically mixed populations conditional upon the presence of a single infected animal were derived. The probability of no epidemic is always 1/(R0 + 1. When R0 ≤ 1 the probability of a minor epidemic, which dies out without intervention, is R0/(R0 + 1. When R0 > 1 the probability of a minor and major epidemics are 1/(R0 + 1 and (R0 - 1/(R0 + 1. Wherever possible a combination of genotypes should be used to minimise the invasion possibilities of pathogens that have mutated to overcome the effects of specific resistance alleles.

  5. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: recent advances in clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhiguo; Chong, Jiehan; Ong, Albert C M

    2016-01-01

    The first clinical descriptions of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) go back at least 500 years to the late 16 (th) century. Advances in understanding disease presentation and pathophysiology have mirrored the progress of clinical medicine in anatomy, pathology, physiology, cell biology, and genetics. The identification of PKD1 and PKD2, the major genes mutated in ADPKD, has stimulated major advances, which in turn have led to the first approved drug for this disorder and a fresh reassessment of patient management in the 21 (st) century. In this commentary, we consider how clinical management is likely to change in the coming decade. PMID:27594986

  6. Disease management strategy: initiative links pharmaceutical and mental health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, J P

    1996-02-01

    The emphasis in healthcare is shifting to practical applications of medical knowledge for the provision of more cost-effective care. This requires greater linkages among clinical information systems across multiple organizations. This article describes new initiatives in disease management to link the traditionally separate data systems fo pharmaceutical, behavioral and general medical care. The potential for improved patient care is highlighted. The author is an expert consultant for a large pharmaceutical manufacturer's disease state management initiative, and has an extensive leadership background in many segments of the behavioral healthcare industry.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF DISEASES OF LONG BONES WITH KUNTSCHER NAILS

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikant; Vibha; Singh,, G.; Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AIMS: SETTINGS AND DESIGN : The aim of this study was, to devise economical, easy, simple, quick method of fixation of diseased long bones, so that pathological fracture could be prevented and to provide rigid fixation, in those cases which have already developed pathological fractu re, and to achieve arthrodesis. Ten, cases of long bone diseases were managed with the help of K nails, in the Department of Orthopaedics, in CIMS, between, December 2002 ...

  8. [The physician-patient relationship in chronic disease management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginies, P

    2008-07-01

    The relationship between patients and clinicians is a key element in the management of chronic diseases. With the objective of a more efficient communication, the clinician should know his own personality but also the patient personality. The organisation of the consultation, of the waiting room and of the secretary has to facilitate this relationship. The amelioration of this relationship is usefulness only for the clinician in particularly complicated cases but also for the patients suffering from chronic diseases.

  9. Management of inflammatory bowel disease in the pregnant patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flavio M Habal; Nikila C Ravindran

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disorder affecting young adults in their reproductive years.Many young women with IBD express concern about the effect their disease will have on fertility,pregnancy course and fetal development This article presents an approach to management of IBD in the pregnant patient,including counseling and investigation,and summarizes existing data on the safety of medications used to treat IBD in pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  10. Spousal Undermining of Older Diabetic Patients’ Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Shayna L.; Rook, Karen S.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Franks, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Marriage can enhance health for individuals with a chronic disease, yet spouses may also undermine disease management. The current study investigated spousal undermining of dietary regimen in 129 patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 40 patients reported that their spouses tempted them with forbidden foods, and 15 reported that their spouses conveyed disregard for their diabetic diet. Spousal tempting was associated with worse dietary adherence, and spousal disregard wit...

  11. Hybrid Workflow Policy Management for Heart Disease Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Hyun Kim; Woo-Ram Jung; Chan-Hyun Youn.

    2010-01-01

    As science technology grows, medical application is becoming more complex to solve the physiological problems within expected time. Workflow management systems (WMS) in Grid computing are promising solution to solve the sophisticated problem such as genomic analysis, drug discovery, disease identification, etc. Although existing WMS can provide basic management functionality in Grid environment, consideration of user requirements such as performance, reliability and interaction with user is m...

  12. Contemporary surgical management of rectovaginal fistula in Crohn's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Michael A; Hull, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Rectovaginal fistula is a disastrous complication of Crohn’s disease (CD) that is exceedingly difficult to treat. It is a disabling condition that negatively impacts a women’s quality of life. Successful management is possible only after accurate and complete assessment of the entire gastrointestinal tract has been performed. Current treatment algorithms range from observation to medical management to the need for surgical intervention. A wide variety of success rates have been reported for a...

  13. Survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium animal care staff attitudes regarding humane euthanasia for population management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David M; Ardaiolo, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    The humane euthanasia of animals for population management, or culling, has been suggested as one possible tool for managing animal populations for sustainability, and recent, highly publicized euthanasia of zoo animals in Copenhagen has stimulated global conversation about population management in zoos. We conducted a nationwide survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium personnel, including keepers, managers, and leaders of AZA animal programs, to assess their overall attitudes regarding population management euthanasia. The surveyed populations were generally very aware of the concept of population management euthanasia. Managers and animal program leaders were more supportive of euthanasia than keepers. We found that regardless of role, men were more supportive of euthanasia than women. Those personnel who were aware of instances of population management euthanasia at their institutions before were more supportive of it than those who were not. Support for culling varied with the kind of animal being considered for it, with three general taxon acceptability groupings emerging. Education, tenure in the profession, taxonomic expertise, and whether or not the responder took the survey before or after the Copenhagen events were not strong predictors of attitudes. Overall, the surveyed populations were approximately evenly split in terms of being in favor of euthanasia, not supporting euthanasia, or being unsure. Most responders indicated that they would be more likely to accept culling if more information was provided on its rationale. These results will form the basis for further discussions on the role of humane euthanasia for population management. Zoo Biol. 35:187-200, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Crisis management and recovery from the damage to the laboratory animal production facility due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Charles River Laboratories Japan produces laboratory animals, mainly mice and rats. In its history, we have experienced many crises such as mass food poisoning of staff and contamination of animals. However, we overcame these crises, accomplishing our corporate missions to secure steady supply of healthy animals. Under such circumstances, in 2008, we faced an unprecedented crisis involving a novel influenza possibly becoming pandemic. Therefore, we prepared a Crisis Management Plan (CMP) and Business Continuity Plan (BCP) to avoid the worst case scenario. Fortunately, the novel influenza did not develop into a pandemic and no major problems occurred in production of our laboratory animals. In March 2011, our Tsukuba Breeding Center was struck by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Many cages fell from racks, and consequently, 14,000 mice and rats were euthanized. Moreover, this animal production facility experienced not only blackouts and water outage but also various maintenance problems. After triage of the animals, almost half of the animals kept were eventually lost. However, we recovered and resumed shipment of animals two weeks after the disaster by utilizing the CMP and BCP we initially created as a countermeasure against novel influenza. After two months, our production volume returned to normal except for two strains. I sincerely hope this review, which highlights our experience and related issues, will be a useful resource in regard to crisis management for people who are engaged in laboratory animal care and use. PMID:22293667

  15. Operative Management of Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Chao; Osti, Orso Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease is extremely common. Current evidence supports surgery in carefully selected patients who have failed non-operative treatment and do not exhibit any substantial psychosocial overlay. Fusion surgery employing the correct grafting and stabilization techniques has long-term results demonstrating successful clinical outcomes. However, the best approach for fusion remains debatable. There is some evidence supporting the more complex, technically demanding and higher risk interbody fusion techniques for the younger, active patients or patients with a higher risk of non-union. Lumbar disc arthroplasty and hybrid techniques are still relatively novel procedures despite promising short-term and mid-term outcomes. Long-term studies demonstrating superiority over fusion are required before these techniques may be recommended to replace fusion as the gold standard. Novel stem cell approaches combined with tissue engineering therapies continue to be developed in expectation of improving clinical outcomes. Results with appropriate follow-up are not yet available to indicate if such techniques are safe, cost-effective and reliable in the long-term. PMID:27559465

  16. Operative Management of Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Chao; Zotti, Mario Giuseppe Tedesco; Osti, Orso Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease is extremely common. Current evidence supports surgery in carefully selected patients who have failed non-operative treatment and do not exhibit any substantial psychosocial overlay. Fusion surgery employing the correct grafting and stabilization techniques has long-term results demonstrating successful clinical outcomes. However, the best approach for fusion remains debatable. There is some evidence supporting the more complex, technically demanding and higher risk interbody fusion techniques for the younger, active patients or patients with a higher risk of non-union. Lumbar disc arthroplasty and hybrid techniques are still relatively novel procedures despite promising short-term and mid-term outcomes. Long-term studies demonstrating superiority over fusion are required before these techniques may be recommended to replace fusion as the gold standard. Novel stem cell approaches combined with tissue engineering therapies continue to be developed in expectation of improving clinical outcomes. Results with appropriate follow-up are not yet available to indicate if such techniques are safe, cost-effective and reliable in the long-term. PMID:27559465

  17. Computational Prediction of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease MicroRNAs in Domestic Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hai Yang; Lin, Zi Li; Yu, Xian Feng; Bao, Yuan; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    As the most common neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are two of the main health concerns for the elderly population. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been used as biomarkers of infectious, genetic, and metabolic diseases in humans but they have not been well studied in domestic animals. Here we describe a computational biology study in which human AD- and PD-associated miRNAs (ADM and PDM) were utilized to predict orthologous miRNAs in the foll...

  18. Eco-Friendly Management of Rice Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Amanut Ullah Razu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative efficacy of BAU-Biofungicide (2%, a product of Trichoderma harzianum, Garlic (Allium sativum clove extract (5%, Allamanda(Allamanda cathartica leaf extract (5%, Bion (25ppm, Amistar (0.1% and Tilt 250EC (0.1% were evaluated for eco-friendly managementof diseases of rice cv. BRRI Dhan-49 under field and laboratory conditions from July,2013 to March,2014. The field experiment was carriedout following Randomised Complete Block Design and the laboratory experiments were done following Completely Randomized Design.Brown spot, Narrow brown leaf spot, Bacterial leaf blight and Sheath blight were recorded in the field. The lowest incidence of brown spotand narrow brown leaf spot was observed in plots treated with BAU-Biofungicide and that of bacterial leaf blight was observed in plots sprayedwith Allamanda leaf extract. In case of sheath blight, the lowest incidence was observed in BAU-Biofungicide sprayed plots. The highest grainyield (3680.34kg/ha was recorded in plots sprayed with BAU-Biofungicide which is 40.56% higher over control. The highest seed germination(% was recorded when seeds were treated with Garlic clove extract (89.29% followed by BAU-Biofungicide (87.30%. The prevalence ofseed-borne fungi was investigated by blotter method. The identified seed-borne fungal species were Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum,Fusarium moniliforme, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Maximum reduction of seed-borne infection of pathogenswas obtained by treating seeds with BAU-Biofungicide (2% of seed weight.

  19. From shared care to disease management: key-influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard M.J.G. Eijkelberg

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to improve the quality of care of chronically ill patients the traditional boundaries between primary and secondary care are questioned. To demolish these boundaries so-called ‘shared care’ projects have been initiated in which different ways of substitution of care are applied. When these projects end, disease management may offer a solution to expand the achieved co-operation between primary and secondary care. Objective: Answering the question: What key factors influence the development and implementation of shared care projects from a management perspective and how are they linked? Theory: The theoretical framework is based on the concept of the learning organisation. Design: Reference point is a multiple case study that finally becomes a single case study. Data are collected by means of triangulation. The studied cases concern two interrelated Dutch shared care projects for type 2 diabetic patients, that in the end proceed as one disease management project. Results: In these cases the predominant key-influencing factors appear to be the project management, commitment and local context, respectively. The factor project management directly links the latter two, albeit managing both appear prerequisites to its success. In practice this implies managing the factors' interdependency by the application of change strategies and tactics in a committed and skilful way. Conclusion: Project management, as the most important and active key factor, is advised to cope with the interrelationships of the influencing factors in a gradually more fundamental way by using strategies and tactics that enable learning processes. Then small-scale shared care projects may change into a disease management network at a large scale, which may yield the future blueprint to proceed.

  20. Nasal Administration of Quercetin Liposomes Improves Memory Impairment and Neurodegeneration in Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terdthai Tong-un

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present, the development of protective strategy against Alzheimer’s Disease (AD is increasing its importance due to the high prevalence of AD, a limitation of therapeutic efficacy and its high impacts on economic and social aspects. The development of the preventive and therapeutic strategy to protect against the path physiology induced by free radicals in AD from antioxidant has gained very much concentration. Quercetin, one of the flavonoids in fruits and vegetables, has a powerful antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, poor absorption, rapid metabolism and limited ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier are obstacles to its use for treatment of AD. Liposome’s have been used as an effective delivery system to the brain. Advantages associated with the nasal administration over oral route include higher bioavailability due to no first pass hepatic metabolism and rapid absorption leading to shorter time to onset of effect. Based on all these points, the possible effects of quercetin liposomes via nasal route on improving cognitive behavior and neurodegeneration in animal model of Alzheimer’s disease were investigated. Approach: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with quercetin liposome’s, containing 0.5 mg of quercetin in 20 μL (dose = 20 μg, via intranasal route once daily continually for 2 weeks before and 1 week after AF64A administration. Learning and memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze test at 7 days after the AF64A administration and then the rats were sacrificed for determining the density of neurons and cholinergic neurons in hippocampus using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Results: Nasal administration of quercetin liposome’s significantly prevented changes of spatial memory of AF64A treated rats. The cognitive enhancement of quercetin liposome’s was found to be related to its ability to inhibit the degeneration of neurons and cholinergic neurons in hippocampus