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Sample records for animal byproducts

  1. 9 CFR 95.3 - Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited. 95.3 Section 95.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  2. BYPRODUCTS OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY AS ANIMAL FEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    try. This product also has applications in the animal feed industry. The feeding value of molasses and the other by-products of the sugar industry have been subjects of earlier re- views by Cleasby (1963) and van der Merwe (1970), while van Niekerk (1979) has described the application of these by-products in the feeding of ...

  3. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din Farag, M.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  4. Bio-processing of agro-byproducts to animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, C M; Brar, S K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Godbout, S; Valéro, J R

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural and food-industry residues constitute a major proportion (almost 30%) of worldwide agricultural production. These wastes mainly comprise lignocellulosic materials, fruit and vegetable wastes, sugar-industry wastes as well as animal and fisheries refuse and byproducts. Agro-residues are rich in many bioactive and nutraceutical compounds, such as polyphenolics, carotenoids and dietary fiber among others. Agro residues are a major valuable biomass and present potential solutions to problems of animal nutrition and the worldwide supply of protein and calories, if appropriate technologies can be used for their valorization by nutrient enrichment. Technologies available for protein enrichment of these wastes include solid substrate fermentation, ensiling, and high solid or slurry processes. Technologies to be developed for the reprocessing of these wastes need to take account of the peculiarities of individual wastes and the environment in which they are generated, reprocessed, and used. In particular, such technologies need to deliver products that are safe, not just for animal feed use, but also from the perspective of human feeding. This review focuses on the major current applications of solid-state fermentation in relation to the feed sector.

  5. The Potential of Animal By-Products in Food Systems: Production, Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Alao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of animal by-products has continued to witness tremendous growth over the last decade. This is due to its potential to combat protein malnutrition and food insecurity in many countries. Shortly after slaughter, animal by-products are separated into edible or inedible parts. The edible part accounts for 55% of the production while the remaining part is regarded as inedible by-products (IEBPs. These IEBPs can be re-processed into sustainable products for agricultural and industrial uses. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans. This will also aid in reducing environmental pollution in the society. In this regard, proper utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta can result in cheaper feed, reduction in competition and lower cost of production. Over the years, the utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta as feed in livestock feed has been successfully carried out without any adverse effect on the animals. However, there are emerging gaps that need to be further addressed regarding the food security and sustainability of the products. Therefore, the objective of this review highlights the efficacy and effectiveness of using animal by-products as alternative sources of feed ingredients, and the constraints associated with their production to boost livestock performance in the industry at large.

  6. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  7. Byproducts of the sugar industry as animal feeds | van Niekerk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (1981) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.15 Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted...

  9. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected...... for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable...... and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were...

  10. Near infrared spectroscopy for enforcement of European legislation concerning the use of animal by-products in animal feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martnez A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the work done in the framework of two R&D projects aimed to demonstrate the contribution of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to help the enforcement of the European legislation governing the use of animal by-products in animal feeds. Three different types of animal feed products were studied: compound feeds (CFs, animal protein byproducts meals (APBPs and animal fats by-products (AFBPs. The quantitative and qualitative chemometric models produced with a large collection of compound feed samples (n = 1005 ground and 523 unground have demonstrated, that NIRS can be used for the detection and quantification of the meat and bone meal (MBM added to compound feeds. Discriminant models produced with unground samples produced 100% of correctly classified samples in two cloned instruments placed in two different locations. The results also show that two dimensions NIR spectra of Animal By-Products (ABP, animal meals and fats may contain information about the animal species or group of species from which the ABPs were produced. However, further work is needed to enlarge the sample bank and the spectral libraries with well authenticated samples in order to increase the robustness of the quantitative and qualitative NIRS models. The paper opens expectations for using NIRS for the enforcement of legislation concerning the use of ABPs in animal feeds. More research and demonstration efforts have to be done in order to obtain more definitive and robust predictive models and for optimising its implementation either at-line, on-line and in-line in feed factories and inspection laboratories.

  11. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  12. Characterization of Animal By-Product Hydrolysates to Be Used as Healthy and Bioactive Ingredients in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Trine Desiree

    The world meat production and consumption has increased rapidly over the last couple of decades, due to population and income growth. In contrast to the meat, the consumption of animal by-products has been declining, leaving large amounts of by-products underutilized. As many by-products are high...... with a higher dose. These results are interesting in regard to optimizing the value of animal by-products by converting such tissues into bioactive hydrolysates for potential use as natural ingredients in functional foods.......The world meat production and consumption has increased rapidly over the last couple of decades, due to population and income growth. In contrast to the meat, the consumption of animal by-products has been declining, leaving large amounts of by-products underutilized. As many by-products are highly...... and their “meat factor” effect, i.e. their ability to enhance in vitro iron availability. Hydrolysates of different animal by-products displayed antioxidant capacities as observed by several assays intended to test different antioxidant mechanisms. The radical scavenging capacity of the hydrolysates was found...

  13. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal...

  14. Characterization of Animal By-Product Hydrolysates to Be Used as Healthy and Bioactive Ingredients in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Trine Desiree

    and their “meat factor” effect, i.e. their ability to enhance in vitro iron availability. Hydrolysates of different animal by-products displayed antioxidant capacities as observed by several assays intended to test different antioxidant mechanisms. The radical scavenging capacity of the hydrolysates was found......The world meat production and consumption has increased rapidly over the last couple of decades, due to population and income growth. In contrast to the meat, the consumption of animal by-products has been declining, leaving large amounts of by-products underutilized. As many by-products are highly...... nutritious as well as being good sources of protein, they represent interesting substrates for the generation of bioactive hydrolysates and peptides. Different porcine and bovine by-products were hydrolysed with a mixture consisting of Alcalase®and Protamex, and tested in relation to antioxidant capacity...

  15. Utilization of tropical crop residues and agroindustrial by-products in animal nutrition. Constraints and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, T.R.; Parra, R.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of by-products and crop residues as animal feeds is increasing steadily. This is a consequence of the increasing demand for cereal grains as both human and animal (chiefly poultry) food, and the increasing demand for energy coupled with decreasing availability of fossil fuels. The effects of these two trends are that primary use of land for livestock production (usually grazing systems) will steadily diminish; at the same time, sources of biomass will increase in importance as renewable energy sources, and greater emphasis will be placed on draught animal power. Most by-products and crop residues are fibrous and therefore of only low to moderate nutritive value, or have special physical and chemical characteristics making them difficult to incorporate in conventional ''balanced'' rations. Such feed raw materials may need special processing and/or special forms of supplementation if they are to be used efficiently. It is hypothesized that industrial by-products and crop residues will be more efficiently utilized if they are incorporated in diversified and integrated production systems, i.e. (a) livestock production is integrated with production of cash crops both for food and fuel; (b) different livestock species are utilized in the same enterprise in a complementary way; (c) livestock feeding is based on crop residues (energy) supplemented with protein-rich forages and aquatic plants; and (d) animal wastes are recycled and used for food, fertilizer and fuel. This strategy is particularly suitable for the conditions in (i) tropical countries, whose climate favours high crop/biomass yields per unit area and ease of fermentation of organic wastes, and (ii) family farms, for which diversification means greater opportunity for self-sufficiency and increased possibilities for use of family resources. (author)

  16. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary......By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried...

  17. Wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Hakiem, N.F.; Hilali, E.A.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; Farag, M. Diaa Elp-Din H.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products after eliminating the pathogenic microorganisms by using gamma irradiation. Five groups of Dokki-4 chicks each group consists of 60 one-day old cockerels were fed for 24 weeks on a ration containing irradiated fish, meat, and blood meals by dose level 0.5, 10.0, 20.0, and 50,0 KGY for 24 weeks. The ratio of animal proteins to the total protein of ration fed was 56% for non-irradiated or irradiated meals. The effects of consumption of irradiated meals on live body weight and internal organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys) were studied. The observation gave an indication that body weight of all group as well as organs weight were normal and similar for the control group. Also, there was no clinically significant differences among the groups regarding red and white blood cells counts, haemoglobin contents, haematocrite value, and ESR for all groups. The results also showed no differences in total plasma protein, alkaline phosphatase activity and plasma Na, K, Mg, and Zn ions between the five groups studied

  18. Digestibility, growth, blood chemistry, and enzyme activity of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus fed isocaloric diets containing animal and plant byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Montoya-Mejía

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this work, we studied the digestibility, growth, blood chemistry, and enzyme activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (0.95±0.18 g using different animal (fish silage meal, whey meal, bovine blood meal, and red crab meal and plant (extruded bean, extruded chickpea meal, coconut paste, Jatropha curcas meal, and chickpea meal dietary byproducts. Nine isocaloric diets (321.92±9.10 kcal g−1 were evaluated for 60 days. The highest digestibility of crude protein values for animal and plant sources were obtained for the whey (93.6 and extruded bean meal (90.5 diets, respectively. The final body weight was higher for the red crab and extruded chickpea meal diets, meanwhile the fish silage and red crab byproducts obtained the highest protein efficiency ratio. Hematocrit was similar among the diets of each byproduct source and presented correlation with growth parameters. The highest glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride values were obtained for fish silage (138.0, 260.5, and 389.0 mg dL−1, respectively and whey meal (174.5, 242.3, and 284.0 mg dL−1, respectively groups. A positive correlation was found between the digestibility of crude protein of ingredients and chymotrypsin activity. Oreochromis niloticus is able to better utilize fish silage, whey, extruded bean, and extruded chickpea byproducts, adjusting its digestive physiology. Such ingredients can be used for formulating cheaper and efficient tilapia diets.

  19. Exploration of collagen recovered from animal by-products as a precursor of bioactive peptides: Successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Therkildsen, Margrethe; Aluko, Rotimi E; Lametsch, René

    2018-02-02

    A large amount of food-grade animal by-products is annually produced during industrial processing and they are normally utilized as animal feed or other low-value purposes. These by-products are good sources of valuable proteins, including collagen or gelatin. The revalorization of collagen may lead to development of a high benefit-to-cost ratio. In this review, the major approaches for generation of collagen peptides with a wide variety of bioactivities were summarized, including antihypertensive, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities, and beneficial effects on bone, joint and skin health. The biological potentials of collagen peptides and their bioavailability were reviewed. Moreover, the unique advantages of collagen peptides over other therapeutic peptides were highlighted. In addition, the current challenges for development of collagen peptides as functional food ingredients were also discussed. This article discusses the opportunity to utilize collagen peptides as high value-added bio-functional ingredients in the food industry.

  20. Investigation of farmers' perspectives on the disposal of fallen livestock and animal by-products in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, M; Brizuela, C; Wilkinson, R

    2010-10-16

    Two questionnaires were completed by a selection of farms in Great Britain during 2008 and 2009 to ascertain the role of the National Fallen Stock Company (NFSCo) in fallen livestock disposal, the current disposal methods used for fallen livestock and other animal by-products (ABPs), and factors determining use of a particular method. The results demonstrated a significant difference (Pfallen livestock carcases and other ABPs.

  1. Biogas production from animal manure and agri-organic by-products. An analysis of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boo, W.

    1997-12-01

    Growing interest in sustainable energy has been directed to the production of biogas from organic matter in animal manure and agri-organic by-products. The technology of biogas production by anaerobic digestion of organic materials is used in several parts of the world. Based on this experience and on positive results in a Novem study for the Netherlands situation in 1995, an actor survey has been carried out. The introduction of combined digestion of animal manure and agri-organic by-products has been discussed with companies, business associations and governmental organisations in the energy, agricultural and waste sectors. The survey has revealed that commercial exploitation of biogas plants with a capacity of 100 kton per year is possible under the following conditions: (1) costs of investment should not be higher than 100 Dutch Guilders (45 ECU) per ton processing capacity; (2) yield demands on investment capital, both equity and debt, should not be higher than 8%; (3) selling price for biogas should be around 0,30 Dutch Guilders (0,135 ECU) per m o 3 natural gas equivalents; (4) supply for processing of agri-organic by-products with a received minimum fee of 35 Dutch Guilders (15,7 ECU) per ton should be guaranteed; (5) dairy, pig and arable farmers involved in the biogas plant should have both financial and quality incentives to participation; (6) environmental legislation on the level of heavy metals in animal manure mixed with agri-organic byproducts should not be different from the accepted levels in 'normal' animal manure; and finally (7) the site of the biogas plant accepted by local authorities should be suitable by logistic standards for the transports of animal manure, agri-organic by-products, the digested mixture and biogas. It has been concluded that these conditions are not unrealistic, although there is no absolute certainty that they will be fulfilled. However, circumstances for the implementation of biogas plants have improved in recent years

  2. Greenhouse gas life cycle assessment of products arising from the rendering of mammalian animal byproducts in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Angel D; Humphries, Andrea C; Woodgate, Stephen L; Wilkinson, Robert G

    2012-01-03

    Animal byproducts (ABP) are unavoidable byproduct of meat production that are categorized under EU legislation into category 1, 2, and 3 materials, which are normally treated by rendering. Rendering is a thermal process that produces rendered fat and protein. Heat is provided from the combustion of natural gas and self-produced rendered fat. The main objectives of the study were (i) to assess energy intensity in the UK rendering industry, and (ii) to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of mammalian rendered products using life cycle assessment. Thermal energy requirements were 2646 and 1357 kJ/kg, whereas electricity requirements were 260 and 375 kJ/kg for category 1 and 3 ABP respectively. Fossil CO(2) emissions were -0.77 and 0.15 kg CO(2)e/kg category 1 and 3 mammalian rendered fat respectively and 0.15 kg CO(2)e/kg processed animal protein. These were low relative to vegetable products such as palm oil and soya bean meal because (i) ABP were considered wastes that do not incur the environmental burden of their production, and (ii) the rendering process produces biofuels that can be used to generate energy that can be used to offset the use of fossil fuels in other systems.

  3. Control tools to detect processed animal proteins in feed and in animal by-products: specificity and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodgate SL.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper reviews the current situation with regard to a total feed ban on the use of processed animal proteins in feed for meat producing animals within the EU. The scientific aspects surrounding the development of control tools are discussed. In particular, focus is given to methods for marking those materials prohibited in animal feeds and for the determination of species specificity in those proteins that are potentially allowed in animal feeds. The overall objective is that the advancements in science are utilized to achieve a partial relaxation of the total feed ban in the near future.

  4. ANIMAL MODELS FOR STUDYING MISCARRIAGE: ILLUSTRATION WITH STUDY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models for studying miscarriage: Illustration with study of drinking water disinfection by-productsAuthors & affiliations:Narotsky1, M.G. and S. Bielmeier Laffan2.1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tri...

  5. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomy, Catherine; Thonier, Gregoire; Gagnepain, Bruno; Mhiri, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  6. Antioxidant capacity of hydrolyzed animal by-products and relation to amino acid composition and peptide size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Trine; Lametsch, René; Otte, Jeanette

    2015-10-01

    The antioxidative capacity of six different tissue hydrolysates (porcine colon, heart and neck and bovine lung, kidney and pancreas) were tested by three different assays monitoring iron chelation, ABTS radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid oxidation in emulsions, respectively. The hydrolysates were also investigated with respect to amino acid composition and peptide size distribution. The hydrolysates contained peptides ranging from 20 kDa to below 100 Da with a predominance of peptides with low molecular weight (53.8 to 89.0 % below 3 kDa). All hydrolysates exhibited antioxidant activity as assessed with all three methods; inhibition of lipid oxidation ranging from 72 to 88 % (at a final protein concentration of 7 mg/mL), iron chelation capacity from 23 to 63 % (at 1.1 mg/mL), and ABTS radical scavenging from 38 to 50 % (at 10 μg /mL). The antioxidant activity did not correlate with the proportion of low molecular weight peptides in the hydrolysed tissues, but with the content of specific amino acid residues. The ABTS radical scavenging capacity of the tissues was found to correlate with the content of Trp, Tyr, Met and Arg, whereas the ability to inhibit the oxidation of lineoleic acid correlated with the content of Glu and His. The chosen animal by-products thus represent a natural source of antioxidants with potential for food application.

  7. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis to the determination of essential and toxic elements in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Carla Mitie

    1999-01-01

    In the present work the concentrations of essential elements Ca (calcium), CI (chlorine), K (potassium), Mg (magnesium), Na (sodium), Co (cobalt), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese). Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), V (vanadium) and Zn (zinc), the toxic elements As (arsenic), Cd (cadmium) and Hg (mercury) and the elements without defined functions to the animal metabolism, such as Br (bromine), Eu (europium). La (lanthanum), Rb (rubidium), Sb (antinomies), Sc (scandium), Ta (tantalum), Th (thorium) and U (uranium) were determined in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Forty samples of agroindustrial by-products were analyzed, six of which are from animal origin and the others are from vegetable origin. All these materials are widely used in bovine feeding, mainly in dry season, when the forage become scarce. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by means of analysis of the following certified reference materials: Rice Flour NIES-CRM-10C, Pig Kidney BCR-CRM, Oyster Tissue NIST-SRM-1566a e Buffalo River Sediment NIST-SRM-2704. The results, in general, are lower than 10 %. The results for the most of essential minerals were lower than the toxic limit for animals, and they reached the minimum requirements for domestic animals, although some agroindustrial by-products showed concentrations lower than the requirement. For all samples, the concentrations of toxic minerals were lower than the toxic limit (author)

  8. Detection of undeclared animal by-products in commercial canine canned foods: Comparative analyses by ELISA and PCR-RFLP coupled with slab gel electrophoresis or capillary gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kun; Shih, Pei-Yin; Wei, Chia-Fong; Vickroy, Thomas W; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2016-03-30

    The potential presence of undeclared animal by-products in pet foods is not subject to routine examination. Previously published methods for species-based identification of animal by-products have not been used routinely owing to inconsistent results. The present study evaluated the utility of several approaches for accurate identification of animal by-products in 11 commercial brands of canine canned foods. Canine canned foods from several countries were analysed by ELISA, PCR-RFLP coupled with slab-gel electrophoresis (SGE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) to test for evidence of by-products derived from cattle, chicken, sheep or pig. While CGE-based analysis detected all (24) animal-derived by-products that were reported for the 11 test samples, SGE and ELISA detected only 22/24 (92%) and 14/24 (58%) of labelled by-products, respectively. In addition, undeclared animal by-products were found using all three analytical approaches with CGE detecting more positives (19) than SGE (17) or ELISA (5). Significant disparities were evident between the labelled contents and the detected content of animal by-products. CGE-based testing for PCR products appears to provide greater sensitivity and accuracy than either SGE or ELISA-based methods. As testing of commercial products becomes more reliable and mainstream, manufacturers will need to develop more thorough and accurate labelling protocols. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Next generation sequencing for gut microbiome characterization in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed animal by-product meals as an alternative to fishmeal protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Simona; Terova, Genciana; Ascione, Chiara; Giannico, Riccardo; Brambilla, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Animal by-product meals from the rendering industry could provide a sustainable and commercially viable alternative to fishmeal (FM) in aquaculture, as they are rich in most essential amino acids and contain important amounts of water-soluble proteins that improve feed digestibility and palatability. Among them, poultry by-product meal (PBM) have given encouraging results in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the introduction of new ingredients in the diet needs to be carefully evaluated since diet is one of the main factors affecting the gut microbiota, which is a complex community that contributes to host metabolism, nutrition, growth, and disease resistance. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of partial replacement of dietary FM with a mix of animal by-product meals and plant proteins on intestinal microbiota composition of rainbow trout in relation to growth and feeding efficiency parameters. We used 1540 trout with an initial mean body weight of 94.6 ± 14.2 g. Fish were fed for 12 weeks with 7 different feed formulations. The growth data showed that trout fed on diets rich in animal by-product meals grew as well as fish fed on control diet, which was rich in FM (37.3%) and PBM-free. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (MiSeq platform, Illumina) was utilised to study the gut microbial community profile. After discarding Cyanobacteria (class Chloroplast) and mitochondria reads a total of 2,701,274 of reads taxonomically classified, corresponding to a mean of 96,474 ± 68,056 reads per sample, were obtained. Five thousand three hundred ninety-nine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which predominantly mapped to the phyla of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The ratio between vegetable and animal proteins proved to play a central role in determining microbiome profiles and Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla were particularly discriminatory for diet type in trout. Plant ingredients

  10. Next generation sequencing for gut microbiome characterization in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed animal by-product meals as an alternative to fishmeal protein sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Simona; Ascione, Chiara; Giannico, Riccardo; Brambilla, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Animal by-product meals from the rendering industry could provide a sustainable and commercially viable alternative to fishmeal (FM) in aquaculture, as they are rich in most essential amino acids and contain important amounts of water-soluble proteins that improve feed digestibility and palatability. Among them, poultry by-product meal (PBM) have given encouraging results in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the introduction of new ingredients in the diet needs to be carefully evaluated since diet is one of the main factors affecting the gut microbiota, which is a complex community that contributes to host metabolism, nutrition, growth, and disease resistance. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of partial replacement of dietary FM with a mix of animal by-product meals and plant proteins on intestinal microbiota composition of rainbow trout in relation to growth and feeding efficiency parameters. We used 1540 trout with an initial mean body weight of 94.6 ± 14.2 g. Fish were fed for 12 weeks with 7 different feed formulations. The growth data showed that trout fed on diets rich in animal by-product meals grew as well as fish fed on control diet, which was rich in FM (37.3%) and PBM-free. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (MiSeq platform, Illumina) was utilised to study the gut microbial community profile. After discarding Cyanobacteria (class Chloroplast) and mitochondria reads a total of 2,701,274 of reads taxonomically classified, corresponding to a mean of 96,474 ± 68,056 reads per sample, were obtained. Five thousand three hundred ninety-nine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which predominantly mapped to the phyla of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The ratio between vegetable and animal proteins proved to play a central role in determining microbiome profiles and Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla were particularly discriminatory for diet type in trout. Plant ingredients

  11. Characterization of the animal by-product meal industry in Costa Rica: Manufacturing practices through the production chain and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, A; Granados-Chinchilla, F; Redondo-Solano, M; Arrieta-González, M; Pineda-Salazar, E; Molina, A

    2018-03-19

    Animal by-product rendering establishments are still relevant industries worldwide. Animal by-product meal safety is paramount to protect feed, animals, and the rest of the food chain from unwanted contamination. As microbiological contamination may arise from inadequate processing of slaughterhouse waste and deficiencies in good manufacturing practices within the rendering facilities, we conducted an overall establishment's inspection, including the product in several parts of the process.An evaluation of the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) was carried out, which included the location and access (i.e., admission) to the facilities, integrated pest management programs, physical condition of the facilities (e.g., infrastructure), equipments, vehicles and transportation, as well as critical control points (i.e., particle size and temperature set at 50 mm, 133°C at atmospheric pressure for 20 min, respectively) recommended by the OIE and the European Commission. The most sensitive points according to the evaluation are physical structure of the facilities (avg 42.2%), access to the facilities (avg 48.6%), and cleaning procedures (avg 51.4%).Also, indicator microorganisms (Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., total coliforms, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7) were used to evaluate the safety in different parts of the animal meal production process. There was a prevalence of Salmonella spp. of 12.9, 14.3, and 33.3% in Meat and Bone Meal (MBM), poultry by-products, and fish meal, respectively. However, there were no significant differences (P = 0.73) in the prevalence between the different animal meals, according to the data collected.It was also observed that renderings associated with the poultry industry (i.e., 92.0%) obtained the best ratings overall, which reflects a satisfactory development of this sector and the integration of its production system as a whole.

  12. A comparative study of zinc protoporphyrin IX-forming properties of animal by-products as sources for improving the color of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Murakami, Naoko; Nishimura, Takanori

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain fundamental data for improving the color of meat products by using animal by-products. We investigated zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP)-forming properties of various internal organs from pigs and chickens. ZnPP was formed in the liver, heart and kidney, whereas the porcine spleen and bile, which are involved in the metabolism of heme, did not have ZnPP-forming properties. The optimum pH values were different among the internal organs and the ZnPP-forming properties of porcine organs were better than those of chicken organs. The porcine liver showed the greatest ZnPP-forming properties among all of the internal organs investigated in this study. The optimum pH value for ZnPP formation in the liver was lower than that of skeletal muscle. Oxygen did not inhibit the formation of ZnPP in the liver, unlike in skeletal muscle. Animal by-products such as the liver have good ability for the formation of ZnPP and might be useful for improving the color of meat products. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Detection of bovine central nervous system tissues in rendered animal by-products by one-step real-time reverse transcription PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrievskaia, Olga; Tangorra, Erin

    2014-12-01

    Contamination of rendered animal byproducts with central nervous system tissues (CNST) from animals with bovine spongiform encephalopathy is considered one of the vehicles of disease transmission. Removal from the animal feed chain of CNST originated from cattle of a specified age category, species-labeling of rendered meat products, and testing of rendered products for bovine CNST are tasks associated with the epidemiological control of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. A single-step TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT) PCR assay was developed and evaluated for specific detection of bovine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA, a biomarker of bovine CNST, in rendered animal by-products. An internal amplification control, mammalian b -actin mRNA, was coamplified in the duplex RRT-PCR assay to monitor amplification efficiency, normalize amplification signals, and avoid false-negative results. The functionality of the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR was assessed through analysis of laboratory-generated binary mixtures of bovine central nervous system (CNS) and muscle tissues treated under various thermal settings imitating industrial conditions. The assay was able to detect as low as 0.05 % (wt/wt) bovine brain tissue in binary mixtures heat treated at 110 to 130°C for 20 to 60 min. Further evaluation of the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR assay involved samples of industrial rendered products of various species origin and composition obtained from commercial sources and rendering plants. Low amounts of bovine GFAP mRNA were detected in several bovine-rendered products, which was in agreement with declared species composition. An accurate estimation of CNS tissue content in industrial-rendered products was complicated due to a wide range of temperature and time settings in rendering protocols. Nevertheless, the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR assay may be considered for bovine CNS tissue detection in rendered products in combination with other available tools (for example, animal age

  14. Bakery by-products based feeds borne-Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with probiotic and antimycotoxin effects plus antibiotic resistance properties for use in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Valeria; Salvato, Lauranne; Pereyra, Carina; Oliveira, Aguida; Rosa, Carlos; Cavaglieri, Lilia; Keller, Kelly Moura

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to select S. cerevisiae strains able to exert probiotic and antimycotoxin effects plus antibiotics resistance properties for use in animal production. S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 were isolated from bakery by-products intended for use in animal feed and examined for phenotypic characteristics and nutritional profile. Resistance to antibiotic, tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions, autoaggregation and coaggregation assay, antagonism to animal pathogens and aflatoxin B 1 binding were studied. S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 showed resistance to all the antibiotics assayed (ampicillin, streptomycin, neomycin, norfloxacin, penicillin G, sulfonamide and trimethoprim). The analysis showed that exposure time to acid pH had a significant impact onto the viable cell counts onto both yeast strains. Presence of bile 0.5% increased significantly the growth of the both yeast strains. Moreover, they were able to tolerate the simulated gastrointestinal conditions assayed. In general, the coaggregation was positive whereas the autoaggregation capacity was not observed. Both strains were able to adsorb AFB 1 . In conclusion, selected S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 have potential application to be used as a biological method in animal feed as antibiotic therapy replacement in, reducing the adverse effects of AFB 1 and giving probiotic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Near-infrared microscopic methods for the detection and quantification of processed by-products of animal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, O.; Fernández Pierna, J. A.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2010-04-01

    Since the BSE crisis, researches concern mainly the detection, identification, and quantification of meat and bone meal with an important focus on the development of new analytical methods. Microscopic based spectroscopy methods (NIR microscopy - NIRM or/and NIR hyperspectral imaging) have been proposed as complementary methods to the official method; the optical microscopy. NIR spectroscopy offers the advantage of being rapid, accurate and independent of human analyst skills. The combination of an NIR detector and a microscope or a camera allows the collection of high quality spectra for small feed particles having a size larger than 50 μm. Several studies undertaken have demonstrated the clear potential of NIR microscopic methods for the detection of animal particles in both raw and sediment fractions. Samples are sieved and only the gross fraction (superior than 250 μm) is investigated. Proposed methodologies have been developed to assure, with an acceptable level of confidence (95%), the detection of at least one animal particle when a feed sample is adulterated at a level of 0.1%. NIRM and NIR hyperspectral imaging are running under accreditation ISO 17025 since 2005 at CRA-W. A quantitative NIRM approach has been developed in order to fulfill the new requirements of the European commission policies. The capacities of NIRM method have been improved; only the raw fraction is analyzed, both the gross and the fine fractions of the samples are considered, and the acquisition parameters are optimized (the aperture, the gap, and the composition of the animal feed). A mapping method for a faster collection of spectra is also developed. The aim of this work is to show the new advances in the analytical methods developed in the frame of the feed ban applied in Europe.

  16. Investigation of pharmaceuticals in processed animal by-products by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Ibáñez, María; Serrano, Roque; Boix, Clara; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Hannisdal, Rita; Alm, Martin; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2016-07-01

    There is an on-going trend for developing more sustainable salmon feed in which traditionally applied marine feed ingredients are replaced with alternatives. Processed animal products (PAPs) have been re-authorized as novel high quality protein ingredients in 2013. These PAPs may harbor undesirable substances such as pharmaceuticals and metabolites which are not previously associated with salmon farming, but might cause a potential risk for feed and food safety. To control these contaminants, an analytical strategy based on a generic extraction followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) using quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer (QTOF MS) was applied for wide scope screening. Quality control samples, consisting of PAP commodities spiked at 0.02, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg with 150 analytes, were injected in every sample batch to verify the overall method performance. The methodology was applied to 19 commercially available PAP samples from six different types of matrices from the EU animal rendering industry. This strategy allows assessing possible emergent risk exposition of the salmon farming industry to 1005 undesirables, including pharmaceuticals, several dyes and relevant metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  18. Valores energéticos de subprodutos de origem animal para aves Energy values of animal by-products for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Nunes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn e os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade aparente (CMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (CMAn de cinco alimentos. Cento e vinte pintos de corte com 21 dias de idade foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em seis tratamentos (uma ração-referência e cinco rações-teste e quatro repetições de cinco aves. Os alimentos avaliados foram: resíduo de incubatório (RI, farinha de penas (FP, farinha de vísceras de aves (FVA e duas farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO 1 e FCO 2. Os alimentos substituíram em 20% a ração-referência. Para determinação dos valores de EMA e EMAn, foi utilizado o método tradicional de coleta total de excretas. Os valores de EMA, expressos em kcal/kg de matéria natural (MN, para os alimentos RI, FP, FVA, FCO 1 e FCO 2, foram de 1.495, 2.774, 2.676, 2.537 e 1.652 e os de EMAn, de 1.301, 2.758, 2.384, 2.307 e 1.488, respectivamente. De acordo com os valores de EMA, EMAn e energia bruta (EB, foram calculados os CMA e o CMAn para os alimentos RI, FP, FVA, FCO 1 e FCO 2, que foram, respectivamente, de 60,09; 55,49; 69,31; 67,71 e 51,14, para o CMA, e de 52,26; 55,18; 61,75; 60,85 e 46,07, para o CMAn.The apparent metabolizable energy (AME, nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable (AMEn, apparent metabolizability coefficient (AMC and nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizability coefficient (AMCn of five feedstuffs were determined. The feedstuffs investigated were: hatchery by-product meal (HM, feather meal (FM, poultry viscera meal (PVM and two meat and bone meal (MBM 1 and MBM 2 of different origin. The values of AME and AMEn were determined by the total excreta collection method. One hundred and twenty broiler chicks at 21 days old were randomly allotted to six treatments (one basal reference diet and five test diets, with four replications with five birds per

  19. Rastreabilidade de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas com levedura e trigo para frangos Traceability of animal byproducts in diets containing yeast and wheat meal for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gottmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi rastrear a inclussão de farinhas de origem animal em rações para frango de corte com ou sem levedura de cana-de-açúcar e farelo de trigo, por meio da análise do músculo peitoral das aves pelas técnicas dos isótopos estáveis de carbono e nitrogênio. Foram utilizados 210 pintos machos (Cobb, com um dia de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em sete tratamentos de 30 aves cada, tendo sido um tratamento controle (dieta vegetal e seis com inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos bovina ou farinha de vísceras de aves na dieta, com ou sem levedura de cana-de-açúcar e farelo de trigo. Aos 42 dias de idade, foram abatidas quatro aves, por tratamento, escolhidas ao acaso, cujo músculo peitoral foi retirado para análise da razão isotópica. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise multivariada. Os tratamentos experimentais diferiram do tratamento controle, e foi identificada a inclusão de farinha de origem animal, pelas técnicas dos isótopos estáveis, mesmo com inclusão de levedura ou farelo de trigo na dieta.The aim of this paper was to trace the presence of meals from animal origin, in diets for broilers with or without yeast and wheat meal, through the analysis of breast muscle, by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope techniques. Two hundred ten male chicks (Cobb one-day old were randomly distributed to seven treatments (30 birds each, with a control diet (exclusively vegetal, and six diets containing meat and bone meal or poultry offal meal, with or without yeast and wheat meal in their compositions. At 42 days of age, four broilers randomly chosen, by treatment were slaughtered, and their breast muscles were collected for isotopic ratio analysis. The isotopic results were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis of variance. The treatments differed from the control and the inclusion of meals of animal origin was identified by stable isotope techniques, even when there was yeast or

  20. Utilization of fermented animal by-product blend as fishmeal replacer in the diet of Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Samaddar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to evaluate efficiency of Labeo rohita to utilize fermented animal protein blend containing slaughter house blood (SHB and fish offal (FO as dietary fishmeal (FM replacer. Five isoproteic (30%, isolipidic (8% and isoenergitic (15.00 kJ g−1 feed were prepared by replacing 0 (T1, 25 (T2, 50 (T3, 75 (T4 and 100% (T5 FM protein with the fermented blend and fingerlings of L. rohita (mean weight 2.07 g were fed each of these feed in triplicate groups. The results showed that apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of protein significantly increased in T3–T5, while ADC of lipid and total amino acid absorption rate increased in T2–T5 as compared to control (T1. Among the essential amino acids (EAA, arginine exhibited maximum absorption followed by histidine, phenylalanine, valine and lysine while aspartic acid showed a high absorption among the non-essential amino acids (NAA. Fish fed up to 75% of replacement level (T4 did not show any significant difference (P < 0.05 in weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU between the dietary groups (T1–T4. But FCR was increased and other growth parameters were significantly reduced in 100% replacement group (T5, while body muscle protein was significantly reduced in both T4 and T5. Deposition of EAA (except histidine and methionine in T4 and NAA (except cystine in both T4 and T5 in the muscle of fish were also significantly reduced as compared to control (T1. Multi-objective optimization programming technique was used to determine FM replacement level that optimized all the growth parameters (WG, SGR, FCR and PER simultaneously. By using Global Criterion method, it was obtained that 21.11% replacement of FM by the fermented blend was ideal for optimum growth of L. rohita.

  1. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  2. Byproducts to New Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Alaska fisheries industry harvests over 2 million metric tons of wild fish annually, and after processing, over 1 million metric tons of fish byproducts are produced. This presentation will discuss current utilization of products made from fish byproducts in Alaska, and opportunities for enhanci...

  3. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  4. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  6. Feedstuffs potential of harvest by-products from two oleaginous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisateur de Microsoft Office

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... Among the generated crop residues and by-products in tropical agriculture, those of cucurbits represent great opportunities for animal nutrition. Nutritive profile of harvest by-products (dried leaves, fermented fruits, non fermented fruits and seeds shells) of two oleaginous cucurbits (Citrullus lanatus and.

  7. Determinação da composição mineral de subprodutos agroindustriais utilizados na alimentação animal, pela técnica de ativação neutrônica Determination of the mineral composition in agroindustrial by-products used in animal nutrition, by neutron activation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cleto da Silva Filho

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar alguns subprodutos agroindustriais utilizados na alimentação animal e identificar os principais minerais presentes. Amostras de farelos de algodão, arroz, canola, soja e trigo; farinhas de peixe, carne e penas + vísceras; cascas de algodão, arroz, laranja; bagaços de tomate e de laranja foram coletadas em diferentes locais de produção. O método analítico empregado foi a análise por ativação com nêutrons seguida de espectrometria gama. Os níveis de minerais encontrados em todas as amostras, inclusive aqueles considerados tóxicos, tais como As, Cd e Hg, não excederam os limites máximos permitidos em dietas para animais domésticos. Os valores obtidos foram comparados com os comumente encontrados em forragens.This study aimed to analyze some agroindustrial by-products used to feed animals in order to identify the presence of the main minerals. Samples of cotton seed meal, rice, canola, soybean and wheat; fish meal, feather meal, meat meal, feather plus viscera meal; rinds of cotton, rice, orange; citrus pulp and tomato residue were collected in different sites of production of the by-products. The method of analysis used was the neutron activation followed by gamma ray spectrometry. The levels of minerals found in all samples were compared with the levels commonly found in forages. The mineral concentration, even those of the toxic elements, as As, Cd and Hg, was at low level and did not exceed the maximum tolerable levels for domestic animals.

  8. Valorization of rapeseed grain by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Kormanjos, Sandor M.; Popovic, Sanja J.; Kostadinovic, Ljiljana M.; Marjanovic-Jeromela, Ana M.; Spasevski, Nedeljka J.

    2016-01-01

    After technological processing of rapeseed significant amounts of useful and useless waste products stand out. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, content of glucosinolates, microbiological safety, and presence of mycotoxins and heavy element contents of useful rapeseed by-products which are intended for animal nutrition. Feed components as well as complete mixtures for animal feed must be safe and in accordance with the requirements of the current nation...

  9. Chemical characteristics of poultry slaughterhouse byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Okanović Đorđe; Ristić M.; Kormanjoš Š.; Filipović S.; Živković B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, nutritional components that are obtained during poultry slaughtering having significance with respect to processing into animal feeds were investigated. By-products obtained during poultry slaughtering are considered very valuable raw materials for production of highly valuable animal feeds and energetic feeds. Recognition of chemical and physical characteristics of the raw materials represents essential prerequisite for conduction of any technological process, for proper raw m...

  10. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...... hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion...... of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 degrees C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone....

  11. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  12. Valorization of rapeseed grain by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kormanjos Sandor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After technological processing of rapeseed significant amounts of useful and useless waste products stand out. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, content of glucosinolates, microbiological safety, and presence of mycotoxins and heavy element contents of useful rapeseed by-products which are intended for animal nutrition. Feed components as well as complete mixtures for animal feed must be safe and in accordance with the requirements of the current national regulation. The investigated useful by-products contained significant amounts of proteins (21.80% and fat (33.78%. As a part of the research, extrusion of the mixture containing rapeseed by-products and maize in the ratio of 50:50% was performed. The process of extrusion was carried out at 130 °C. Based on the obtained results it was noticed that the investigated extruded mixture is a convenient protein-energy supplement suitable for animal feed production with significantly reduced glucosinolate content (from 10.30 to 7.82 µmol/g. It was also observed that the extrusion of feed mixture led to the reduction of the number of microorganisms which ensures safe feedstuff for animal feed production.

  13. Utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas formuladas com base em proteína bruta e proteína ideal para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade Use of animal by-products in diets formulated based on crude and ideal protein fed to broiler from 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Cancherini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas para frangos de corte, formuladas com base na proteína bruta ou proteína ideal. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2+1, com duas fontes de proteína de origem animal (farinha de vísceras de aves e farinha de sangue bovino, dois conceitos de formulação (proteína bruta e proteína ideal e uma dieta testemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja, com quatro repetições. As características avaliadas foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar. Houve efeito significativo das interações entre fontes de proteína de origem animal e conceitos de formulação para consumo de ração e ganho de peso. Quanto à conversão alimentar, não houve diferença significativa na interação e os melhores valores de conversão alimentar foram encontrados quando se incorporou a farinha de vísceras às dietas. Os melhores ganhos de peso foram obtidos com as dietas com farinha de sangue formuladas com base na proteína bruta e com farinha de vísceras de aves com base na proteína ideal.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of animal by-products in broiler diets, formulated based on crude and ideal protein. The experimental design was a completely randomized in a factorial arrangement 2x2+1, with two animal protein sources (poultry viscera meal and bovine blood meal, two formulation concepts (based on crude and ideal protein and a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, with four replications. The evaluated characteristics were weight gain, feed intake and feed: gain ratio. There was a significant effect of the interaction animal protein source x formulation concepts on feed intake and weight gain. There was not significant effect of the interaction on feed: gain ratio and the best values were found when the poultry viscera meal was added to the diets. The best weight gains were obtained with the

  14. Utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas formuladas com base em proteína bruta e proteína ideal para frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade Use of animal by-products in diets formulated based on crude and ideal protein fed to broilers from 22 to 42 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Cancherini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas para frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade, formuladas com base nos conceitos de proteína bruta e proteína ideal. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2+1, ou seja, duas fontes de proteína de origem animal (farinha de vísceras de aves e farinha de sangue bovino, dois conceitos de formulação (proteína bruta e proteína ideal e uma dieta controle à base de milho e farelo de soja, com quatro repetições. As características avaliadas foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, rendimentos de carcaça e de peito e gordura abdominal. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar não foram afetados pelas fontes de proteína e conceitos de formulação, no entanto, o teor de gordura abdominal foi menor nas aves alimentadas com farinha de vísceras que naquelas alimentadas com dieta contendo farinha de sangue.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of animal by-products in diets of broilers from 22 to 42 days of age, formulated based on crude and ideal protein concepts. The experimental design was a completely randomized in a factorial arrangement 2x2+1 with two animal protein sources (poultry viscera meal and bovine blood meal, two formulation concepts (based on crude and ideal protein and a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, with four replications. The evaluated characteristics were weight gain, feed intake, feed: gain ratio, carcass and breast yield and abdominal fat content. Weight gain, feed intake and feed: gain ratio were not affected by the protein sources and formulation concepts, however, abdominal fat content of broilers fed diets with poultry viscera meal was lower compared to birds that fed diets containing bovine blood meal.

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  16. 10 CFR 962.3 - Byproduct material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Byproduct material. 962.3 Section 962.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 962.3 Byproduct material. (a) For purposes of this part, the term byproduct material means any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in or made...

  17. Parameters for quantity calculations of poultry by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Đorđe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant group of inedible by-products from industrial slaughterhouses that can be used as a raw material for processing into quality feed for pigs and pets are byproducts of slaughtered poultry. The poultry industry yields a large amount of inedible byproducts of which the removal or processing requires hygienic and economic solutions. These activities primarily include the protection of the environmental from degradation processes and biological pollution, as well as securing high-protein animal feed. The incorporation of inedible slaughtered poultry by-products into food for animals involves the application of various technological processes. These processes should be simple and feasible for investments where it is necessary to obtain a quality product. At the same time, it must be taken into account that the production process does not create new secondary products or waste gases that could contaminate the environment. Scientific knowledge in the field of exploitation of inedible slaughtered poultry by-products provides the necessary basis for calculating the amount of certain types of raw materials.

  18. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been...

  19. By-products by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Some mining by-products that are currently stockpiled or disposed of could be put to use preventing nutrients from entering river systems, helping reduce the potential for algal blooms. A joint project between CSIRO and the Western Australia (WA) Department of Water investigated a range of spent materials from mining and industry to determine their ability to filter nutrients from natural waters or to treat wastewater. “The largely unexploited by-product materials we generate in Western Australia could be developed as 'designer' contaminant adsorbents,” said CSIRO project leader Dr Grant Douglas. The use of abundant, low-cost wastes generated from mineral processing, in particular, offers a potentially cost- effective and environmentally-friendly strategy for removing nutrients. “The productive use of the by-products also has the potential to reduce the environmental footprint of mining and mineral processing industries by lowering by-product stockpiles,” he said. But the key benefits are in water; not only improving the health of surface waters but, by facilitating reuse, also easing the competition for water resources in an increasingly climate constrained part of the country. Re-use of industrial by-products in WA is currently considered on a case-by-case basis rather than regulated according to established standards. The project aimed to inject some rigour by characterising for the first time the nutrient, trace element uptake and acid neutralising capacity of a range of low-cost by-products (see Fact File). It also underpinned the development of a draft protocol for screening similar by-products in the future. The comprehensive characterisation included identification and procurement, and basic characterisation of by-products included major and trace element geochemistry, mineralogy, radioactivity, geochemical modelling and leachate chemistry and toxicity. These inherent properties and suitability of by-products for potential

  20. Utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em dietas para frangos de corte com base no conceito de proteínas bruta e ideal, no período de 43 a 49 dias de idade Utilization of animal by-products in broilers diets based on the concept of crude and ideal protein in the period from 43 to 49 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Cancherini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a utilização de subprodutos de origem animal em rações para frangos de corte, formuladas com base nas proteínas bruta e ideal no período de 43 a 49 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 600 frangos machos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 2x2+1, com duas fontes de proteína de origem animal (farinha de vísceras de aves e farinha de sangue bovino, dois conceitos de formulação (proteínas bruta e ideal e uma ração testemunha à base de milho e de farelo de soja, com quatro repetições cada. As características avaliadas foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, rendimento de carcaça, peito e porcentagem de gordura abdominal. Os melhores ganho em peso e conversão alimentar foram obtidos quando a dieta à base de milho e farelo de soja foi utilizada. As farinhas de vísceras e de sangue e os conceitos de formulação não exerceram influência sobre as características avaliadas.One experiment was conducted to study the utilization of animal by-products in broilers diets based on the concept of crude and ideal protein form 43 to 49 days of age. Sixty hundred Ross male broilers were used in a factorial arrangement 2x2+1 (two animal sources by-products - poultry viscera meal and bovine blood meal crude and ideal protein and one basal diet (corn + soybean meal, envolving a total of five treatments with four replications of thirty broilers each. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass and breast yield and the abdominal fat percentage were evaluated. The best weight gain and feed conversion were obtained when birds were fed a corn and soybean meal based diet. The poultry viscera and bovine blood meals and formulation concepts did not influence on evaluated parameters.

  1. The Advantage and Limitation of Agriculture Byproduct and Feeding Strategy Based on Agriculture Byproduct for Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyono

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed supply is getting limited since the use of land for forages has been replaced by building industries big plantation, agriculture. Sustainable integration between animal and food crop and plantation is efficient and gives advantage for both. Rice, cassava soybean, groundnut, palm oil, coconut, coffee, cocoa and sugar cane are food crop and plantation which their byproducts are generally used or modified/processed for ruminant production. This paper describes optimization on the use of these byproducts to decrease feed cost without ignoring the feed quality. These byproducts have special characteristic and limitation with fluctuated price. Their nutritive values vary and they can be grouped into fiber, fiber-energy, fiber-protein, protein or energy sources. Therefore, special strategy for each location and purpose of livestock industry is required to get an efficient and optimal feed composition.

  2. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  3. 10 CFR 35.75 - Release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... material or implants containing byproduct material. 35.75 Section 35.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct material. (a) A licensee may... material or implants containing byproduct material if the total effective dose equivalent to any other...

  4. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1986-01-01

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  5. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  6. Maximizing Utilization of Energy from Crop By-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of crop by-products is huge during harvesting times as related to the vast agricultural land area; however, their utilization is still limited due to lack of knowledge and handling problem. Seasonal effect is obvious especially during wet season when high rainfall hinders proper management of crop by-products. Crop by-products are energy rich feedstuffs in the form of chemical substance such as cellulose and hemicellulose. The utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose as sources of energy can be maximized by the application of technologies to increase the digestibility. Cellulose is polymer of glucose while hemicellulose is polymer of xylose which both can be converted to volatile fatty acids by rumen microbial enzyme activities and subsequently used by the host animal as source of energy. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose can also be used as substrates for bioethanol production leaving behind residual matter with higher concentration of protein which is also appropriate for ruminant feeds. The fat content of crop by-products such as those in rice bran and corn germ can be extracted for oil production that can be used for human consumption with concomitant production of high nutritive value of residues for ruminant feeds. The oil extraction technologies are available; however the high cost of ethanol and oil production should obtain high attention to make the technologies more applicable at farmers’ level.

  7. Performance of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival M. de Lima Júnior

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate intake, digestibility, and performance in sheep fed increasing levels of annatto byproduct (AB. A total of 32 male sheep without defined breed were used. Their initial weight was 23.17±1.45 kg. The animals were housed in individual pens and offered feed twice a day. Nutrient intake was quantified by the difference between the fractions present in the offered feed and the remains. The apparent digestibility was estimated with the aid of the external marker LIPE®. Weight gain was measured by the difference between the initial and final weight of the animals. The intake of dry matter (DM; g/day; g/kg BW; g/kg0.75, organic matter (g/day, crude protein (CP; g/day, and neutral detergent fibre (g/day was not affected (P>0.05 by addition of AB. The intake of ether extract (EE; g/day and non-fibre carbohydrates (g/day was influenced by the inclusion of AB. The apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, and EE was not affected (P>0.05 by the addition of AB. The AB can be included in the diet at levels up 300 g/kg of total DM without affecting consumption, digestibility, and weight gain in sheep.

  8. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, c...

  9. An Onion Byproduct Affects Plasma Lipids in Healthy Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, E.; Jensen, R. I.; Krath, Britta

    2010-01-01

    lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing...... that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals...... and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels....

  10. Thermochemical conversion of animal by-products and rendering products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Milagros; Garcia, Angela Nuria; Marcilla, Antonio; Martinez-Castellanos, Isabel; Navarro, Rosa; Catala, Lucía

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the characterization of real waste from slaughterhouses as well as their rendering products (protein and fat) through different pyrolytic techniques: thermogravimetric analysis (TG), analytical pyrolysis in a pyroprobe equipment and hydrothermal liquefaction process (HTL). The experiments have allowed a deeper knowledge about the thermal behavior of these wastes under different conditions: slow pyrolysis up to 800°C (TG), flash pyrolysis at 500°C and room pressure (pyroprobe) and slow pyrolysis at 290°C and 110-130bar (HTL batch reactor). Experiments with each one of the materials (real waste, PAP and fat) as well as some mixtures have been performed. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify the pyrolytic products obtained. The results indicate that fatty acids and fatty esters are the major group obtained in the pyrolysis of fat samples, followed by aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the case of PAP pyrolysis, heterocyclic aromatic compounds, which includes typical products coming from protein degradation, is the major group obtained. Oxygenated aliphatics are also obtained in high amounts. In the case of the HTL experiments, significant glycerine amounts were detected in the aqueous phase. The yield of biocrude obtained under HTL conditions is about 30%, with a high proportion of nitrogenated compounds (amides, pyrrole and pyridine derivatives). Generation of amides is much higher under HTL conditions than in the analytical pyrolysis runs while the proportion of acids is reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. By-product information can stabilize the reliability of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, G D

    2012-12-01

    Although communication underpins many biological processes, its function and basic definition remain contentious. In particular, researchers have debated whether information should be an integral part of a definition of communication and how it remains reliable. So far the handicap principle, assuming signal costs to stabilize reliable communication, has been the predominant paradigm in the study of animal communication. The role of by-product information produced by mechanisms other than the communicative interaction has been neglected in the debate on signal reliability. We argue that by-product information is common and that it provides the starting point for ritualization as the process of the evolution of communication. Second, by-product information remains unchanged during ritualization and enforces reliable communication by restricting the options for manipulation and cheating. Third, this perspective changes the focus of research on communication from studying signal costs to studying the costs of cheating. It can thus explain the reliability of signalling in many communication systems that do not rely on handicaps. We emphasize that communication can often be informative but that the evolution of communication does not cause the evolution of information because by-product information often predates and stimulates the evolution of communication. Communication is thus a consequence but not a cause of reliability. Communication is the interplay of inadvertent, informative traits and evolved traits that increase the stimulation and perception of perceivers. Viewing communication as a complex of inadvertent and derived traits facilitates understanding of the selective pressures shaping communication and those shaping information and its reliability. This viewpoint further contributes to resolving the current controversy on the role of information in communication. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary

  12. Overwintering beef animals on kikuyu ( Pennisetum clandestinum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overwintering beef animals on kikuyu ( Pennisetum clandestinum ) — its effect on animal performance and soil fertility. ... These by-products of animal digestion contain many ingredients necessary for plant growth, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Disadvantages include a tendency for K levels to ...

  13. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  14. Omissions and byproducts across moral domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter DeScioli

    Full Text Available Research indicates that moral violations are judged less wrong when the violation results from omission as opposed to commission, and when the violation is a byproduct as opposed to a means to an end. Previous work examined these effects mainly for violent offenses such as killing. Here we investigate the generality of these effects across a range of moral violations including sexuality, food, property, and group loyalty. In Experiment 1, we observed omission effects in wrongness ratings for all of the twelve offenses investigated. In Experiments 2 and 3, we observed byproduct effects in wrongness ratings for seven and eight offenses (out of twelve, respectively, and we observed byproduct effects in forced-choice responses for all twelve offenses. Our results address an ongoing debate about whether different cognitive systems compute moral wrongness for different types of behaviors (surrounding violence, sexuality, food, etc., or, alternatively, a common cognitive architecture computes wrongness for a variety of behaviors.

  15. Omissions and byproducts across moral domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeScioli, Peter; Asao, Kelly; Kurzban, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that moral violations are judged less wrong when the violation results from omission as opposed to commission, and when the violation is a byproduct as opposed to a means to an end. Previous work examined these effects mainly for violent offenses such as killing. Here we investigate the generality of these effects across a range of moral violations including sexuality, food, property, and group loyalty. In Experiment 1, we observed omission effects in wrongness ratings for all of the twelve offenses investigated. In Experiments 2 and 3, we observed byproduct effects in wrongness ratings for seven and eight offenses (out of twelve), respectively, and we observed byproduct effects in forced-choice responses for all twelve offenses. Our results address an ongoing debate about whether different cognitive systems compute moral wrongness for different types of behaviors (surrounding violence, sexuality, food, etc.), or, alternatively, a common cognitive architecture computes wrongness for a variety of behaviors.

  16. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  18. Review and Analysis of Alternatives for the Valorisation of Agro-Industrial Olive Oil By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By-products and waste from olive production (agriculture and the olive oil industry (mills and refineries are an important environmental issue in Mediterranean areas. Industrial waste and by-products contain highly valuable components that can also be phytotoxic. This article reviews recent research on the valorisation of olive by-products under the bioeconomy strategy. The alternatives are classified according to the ‘bioeconomy value pyramid’, which prioritises higher value uses over the current energy and compost valorisation. Special attention is paid to the use of these by-products for animal feed that can be improved by reducing the content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and increase the polyunsaturated fatty acids amount considered beneficial in response to their use; this makes the food healthier for humans while simultaneously reducing feeding costs and the environmental impact of livestock.

  19. Productive performance lambs on grazing supplemented with concentrates containing fruit processing by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bonfim Manera

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of sheep kept in irrigated Tifton 85 pastures receiving concentrate supplementation containing different fruits processing by-products. The pasture area corresponded to 0.58 ha, divided in 24 paddocks, under rotational grazing with 20 days of interval of grazing and four days of grazing. 24 male sheep, castrated with 26.9±2.4 of initial body weight and ten months like testers animals, were used. Three fruit processing by-products (guava, barbados cherry and grape wine industry including in 30% of dry matter basis in supplements, besides the treatment “control” containing traditional ingredients (dry ground corn, soybean meal and wheat bran, were compared. The experimental design was a completely randomized with six replicates by treatments. The concentrates evaluated containing fruit processing by-products did not affect the daily weight gain, the total weight gain and the final body weight of sheep kept in irrigated pastures. The stoking rate of pastures, an average was 90.96 lambs/ha and estimative of meat production by area of 2,756.50 kg/ha/year. Thus, guava, barbados cherry and grape wine industry by-products may substitute 30% of dry matter the traditional ingredients in concentrate without harming the productive performance of animals and area.

  20. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  1. 75 FR 36211 - Requirements for Distribution of Byproduct Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Distribution of Byproduct Material; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 121 / Thursday, June 24..., and 70 RIN 3150-AH91 [NRC-2008-0338] Requirements for Distribution of Byproduct Material AGENCY... proposing to amend its regulations to make requirements for distributors of byproduct material clearer, less...

  2. Biological Treatment of Water Disinfection Byproducts using ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the chlorination process of drinking water include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acides (HAA5). THMs mainly consist of chloroform, and other harsh chemicals. Prolonged consumptions of drinking water containing high levels of THMs has been linked with diseases of the liver, kidneys, bladder, or central nervous system and may increase likelihood of cancer. A risk also exists for THMs exposure via inhalation while showering, bathing or washing clothes and dishes. Due to these risks, the U.S. EPA regulate THMs content in drinking water. This research investigates biological degradation of THM using chloroform as a model compound. The study aims to decrease possible risks of THMs through filtration. Throughout this year’s presentations, there is a common theme of health and safety concerns. UC researchers are working hard to clean water ways of naturally occurring contaminates as well as man-made toxins found in our waterways. The significance of these presentations translates into the promise of safer environments, and more importantly saved lives, as UC’s faculty continues to produce real-world solutions to problems threatening the world around us. A biotech process has been developed and demonstrated that effectively remove and treat volatile disinfection by-products from drinking water. The process strips low concentration disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes, that are formed during the chlori

  3. Features and News: The Importance of Discoveries in Animal Science to Human Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioScience, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)

  4. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Broekhoven, Van Sarah; Huis, Van Arnold; Loon, Van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from byproducts of food

  5. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.

    1994-05-01

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  6. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides.

  7. CONSIDERATIONS IN UTILIZING BY-PRODUCT CARBOHYDRATES IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    By-product feeds provide a variety of carbohydrates that can vary greatly in their content, digestibility, and physical effects. Variation in the composition and quality of by-product feeds needs to be evaluated to assess whether the variation poses an acceptable risk for inclusion of small or larg...

  8. Charcoal byproducts as potential styrene-butadiene rubber composte filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, various renewable charcoals in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural byproducts were evaluted as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated s...

  9. Consumo e digestibilidade de subprodutos do processamento de frutas em ovinos Intake and dry matter digestibility of by-products of fruit processer in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edilton Lousada Junior

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada objetivando-se avaliar o valor nutritivo de subprodutos do processamento de frutas. Foram estudados subprodutos de abacaxi, acerola, goiaba, maracujá e melão, utilizando-se 20 ovinos machos castrados, com peso médio de 34,5 kg. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (subprodutos e quatro repetições. Os consumos de matéria seca (CMS dos subprodutos de goiaba, maracujá e melão foram semelhantes, porém superiores ao CMS do subproduto de acerola. Os maiores consumos de proteína bruta (CPB foram observados com maracujá e melão (g/animal/dia, g/UTM, enquanto acerola apresentou menor CPB. O subproduto de goiaba apresentou maior consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN e fibra em detergente ácido (CFDAe o de maracujá, maior coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DMS. Os subprodutos de acerola e goiaba apresentaram DMS inferior aos demais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta dos subprodutos de maracujá e melão foram superiores aos demais subprodutos. Quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fibra em detergente neutro (DFDN e da fibra em detergente ácido (DFDA, os subprodutos de acerola e goiaba mostraram-se inferiores, enquanto o subproduto de maracujá apresentou DFDA e DFDN superiores aos demais subprodutos. Não foram observadas diferenças para o balanço de nitrogênio entre os subprodutos estudados. Os resultados comprovaram que os subprodutos de abacaxi, maracujá e melão podem ser utilizados na alimentação de ruminantes, enquanto os subprodutos de acerola e goiaba apresentaram baixos coeficientes de digestibilidade, limitando sua utilização para ruminantes.This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the nutritive value of byproducts of fruit processor. Byproducts of pineapple, west indian cherry (WIC, guava, passion fruit and melon were evaluated. Twenty sheep castrated males, with average weight

  10. Toxic Byproduct Formation during Electrochemical Treatment of Latrine Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical systems are an attractive option for onsite latrine wastewater treatment due to their high efficiency and small footprint. While concerns remain over formation of toxic byproducts during treatment, rigorous studies examining byproduct formation are lacking. Experiments treating authentic latrine wastewater over variable treatment times, current densities, chloride concentrations, and anode materials were conducted to characterize byproducts and identify conditions that minimize their formation. Production of inorganic byproducts (chlorate and perchlorate) and indicator organic byproducts (haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes) during electrolysis dramatically exceeded recommendations for drinking water after one treatment cycle (∼10–30 000 times), raising concerns for contamination of downstream water supplies. Stopping the reaction after ammonium was removed (i.e., the chlorination breakpoint) was a promising method to minimize byproduct formation without compromising disinfection and nutrient removal. Though treatment was accelerated at increased chloride concentrations and current densities, byproduct concentrations remained similar near the breakpoint. On TiO2/IrO2 anodes, haloacetic acids (up to ∼50 μM) and chlorate (up to ∼2 μM) were of most concern. Although boron-doped diamond anodes mineralized haloacetic acids after formation, high production rates of chlorate and perchlorate (up to ∼4 and 25 μM) made them inferior to TiO2/IrO2 anodes in terms of toxic byproduct formation. Organic byproduct formation was similar during chemical chlorination and electrolysis of wastewater, suggesting that organic byproducts are formed by similar pathways in both cases (i.e., reactions with chloramines and free chlorine). PMID:28538093

  11. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella... Decisions § 500.35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. (a) Investigations by the Food..., and other animal byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella...

  12. Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Kume, Tamikazu; Othman, Z.BT.; Awang, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author)

  13. Antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties of wines and winery byproducts in relation to their flavonoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2014-07-02

    Grapes produce organic compounds that may be involved in the defense of the plants against invading phytopathogens. These metabolites include numerous phenolic compounds that are also active against human pathogens. Grapes are used to produce a variety of wines, grape juices, and raisins. Grape pomace, seeds, and skins, the remains of the grapes that are a byproduct of winemaking, also contain numerous bioactive compounds that differ from those found in grapes and wines. This overview surveys and interprets our present knowledge of the activities of wines and winery byproducts and some of their bioactive components against foodborne (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus), medical (Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and oral pathogenic bacteria, viruses (adeno, cytomegalo, hepatitis, noro, rota), fungi (Candida albicans, Botrytis cinerea), parasites (Eimeria tenella, Trichomonas vaginalis), and microbial toxins (ochratoxin A, Shiga toxin) in culture, in vivo, and in/on food (beef, chicken, frankfurters, hot dogs, lettuce, oysters, peppers, pork, sausages, soup, spinach) in relation to composition and sensory properties. Also covered are antimicrobial wine marinades, antioxidative and immunostimulating aspects, and adverse effects associated with wine consumption. The collated information and suggested research needs might facilitate and guide further studies needed to optimize the use of wines and byproducts to help improve microbial food safety and prevent or treat animal and human infections.

  14. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  15. Leaching of FGD Byproducts Using a CSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kairies, C.L.; Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.

    2005-09-01

    Leaching studies of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) are often performed to determine the compatibility of the material in a particular end-use or disposal environment. Typically, these studies are conducted using either a batch or a fixed-bed column technique. Fixed-bed columns offer the advantage of a continuous flow of effluent that provides elution profiles with changing elution volume and pH. Unfortunately, clogs can form in fixed-bed leaching columns, either because of cementitious properties of the material itself, such as is seen for fluidized bed combustion (FBC) fly ash, or because of precipitate formation, such as can occur when a high-calcium ash is subjected to sulfate-containing leachates. Also, very fine-grained materials, such as gypsum, do not provide sufficient permeability for study in a fixed-bed column. A continuous, stirred-tank extractor (CSTX) is being used as an alternative technique that can provide the elution profile of column leaching but without the low permeability problems. The CSTX has been successfully employed in the leaching of flue gas desulfurization products that would not be sufficiently permeable under traditional column leaching conditions. The results indicate that the leaching behavior depends on a number of factors, including (but not limited to) solubility and neutralization capacity of the mineral phases present, sorption properties of these phases, behavior of the solubilized material in the tank, and the type of species in solution. In addition, leaching to near-exhaustion of a wallboard produced from FGD gypsum has allowed the isolation of a highly adsorptive phase. This phase appears to be present in at least some FGD gypsums and accounts for the immobilization of trace metals such as arsenic, cobalt, lead, and mercury.

  16. Sustainable aggregates production : green applications for aggregate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of : aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizeshence, increased : amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs ...

  17. Comparative Phytonutrient Analysis of Broccoli By-Products: The Potentials for Broccoli By-Product Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengpei Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The phytonutrient concentrations of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica florets, stems, and leaves were compared to evaluate the value of stem and leaf by-products as a source of valuable nutrients. Primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, as well as glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, essential mineral elements, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis and hydrolysis genes were quantified from the different broccoli tissues. Broccoli florets had higher concentrations of amino acids, glucoraphanin, and neoglucobrassicin compared to other tissues, whereas leaves were higher in carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Leaves were also good sources of calcium and manganese compared to other tissues. Stems had the lowest nitrile formation from glucosinolate. Each tissue exhibited specific core gene expression profiles supporting glucosinolate metabolism, with different gene homologs expressed in florets, stems, and leaves, which suggests that tissue-specific pathways function to support primary and secondary metabolic pathways in broccoli. This comprehensive nutrient and bioactive compound profile represents a useful resource for the evaluation of broccoli by-product utilization in the human diet, and as feedstocks for bioactive compounds for industry.

  18. Industry of petroleum and its by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Antoine

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of petroleum industry and its by-products is presented. Petroleum, since its origin and all steps of its industry including its detection, production and transportation is described. A historical description of the production and formation of fuels under the ground strates through million of years, as well as its chemical composition are presented. A full description of refining petrol and all by-products derived is given. Pictures and tables enhance the explanation

  19. System selection for coal combustion by-product transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-01-01

    Coal combustion by-product transportation and handling systems are presented within the context of underground placement of the by-products in the old workings of the coal mines. The factors affecting the system selection are presented along with the tools and procedures developed to aid the selection process. A hypothetical case applicable to southern and central Illinois is given to illustrate the use of the developed products. 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study is to develop the technical criteria and regulatory system for establishing the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally. Up to this point, domestically, though many byproduct materials are distributed and used already, it seems that there are no related technical criteria and regulatory system and it becomes an obstacle in the development of relating industry. Since this kind of situation may give negative impact on the proper recognizance of the radiation to public, it is very urgent to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material. In relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A. A determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material. A tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  1. Environmental Value of Draught Animals: Saving of Fossil-fuel and Prevention of Greenhouse Gas Emission

    OpenAIRE

    Dikshit, A.K.; Birthal, Pratap Singh

    2010-01-01

    Animal energy is a renewable and sustainable source of energy. It is renewable because the animals can be reproduced by breeding and rearing the required number of animals. It is sustainable because the animals derive their energy for work largely from agricultural by-products. In addition, there are other environmental contributions of the working animal stock — consider replacing it by agricultural machinery run on fossil-fuel. Animal energy saves natural resources, fossil fuel and preven...

  2. The impact of processing on amino acid racemization and protein quality in processed animal proteins of poultry origin

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Bellagamba; Fabio Caprino; Tiziana Mentasti; Mauro Vasconi; Vittorio Maria Moretti

    2015-01-01

    Re-authorization of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in EU, derived from by-products of human food production, could increase manufacturing of proteins for feed ingredients and reduce the need of imported proteins mainly of plant origin. The PAPs production is largely done by the rendering process during which authorized animal by-products are heat treated to extract valuable protein and animal fat, ensuring sterilizing conditions of raw incoming materials. Proteins exposure to certain proces...

  3. MEETING IN CHINA: CHLORINATED VS. CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER: TOXICITY-BASED IDENTIFICATION OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS USING ESI-MS AND ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) are of concern because epidemiologic studies have shown that they are associated with bladder cancer and adverse reproductive/developmental effects in human populations, and some cause cancer in laboratory animals. As a result, the U...

  4. Neutron activation analysis for determining of inorganic trace elements in by-products of soybean, cotton, corn, wheat, sorghum and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Carla M.; Armelin, Maria Jose; Silva Filho, Jose Cleto; Silva, Aliomar G.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper the instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine some essential and toxic elements in six agroindustrial by-products utilized to feed animal. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by means of reference material analysis. In general, the precision of the method was lower than 10% and the accuracy near to 5%. (author)

  5. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  6. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  7. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  8. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  9. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The

  10. Effects of byproducts on intestinal microbiota and the immune modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Yoon Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although the efficacy of Rubus coreanus (RC byproducts as a feed additive has been recognized, its effects on intestinal microorganisms and the immune system are still unknown. Methods Six-week-old male rats were treated with 0.5% RC (T1, 1.0% RC (T2, and 1.5% RC (T3 for 4 weeks. Results We found that treatment with RC byproducts significantly increased the daily gain of body weight and feed intake. Treg-cell differentiation was enhanced in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen from the rats fed with RC byproducts. Illumina sequencing showed that bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes decreased and while those in the phylum Bacteroidetes increased in RC-treated groups. Particularly, the pathogenic microorganisms in the family Peptococcaceae decreased, and the non-pathogenic families Lachnospiraceae and S24-7 increased. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the RC byproducts increased the lactic acid bacteria Bifidobacterium spp., Oscillospira spp., Leuconostoc citreum, and Weissella cibaria in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion RC byproducts may be effective in immunomodulation by affecting intestinal microorganisms.

  11. Utilization of by-products in ruminant diets in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economides, S.; Hadjipanayiotou, M.

    1987-01-01

    Five experiments were carried out with the objective of studying the nutritive value of crop residues and agro-industrial by-products, either alone or in combination with non-protein nitrogen, and the use of these by-products in ruminant diets. The intake and nutritive value of poor quality roughages and other by-products (cereal straw, peanut hulls and waste paper) were improved considerably by supplements that provide nitrogen (soybean meal or urea) and energy (barley grain). Partial replacement of soybean meal in diets of fattening lambs by urea was possible and dry mature sheep could be maintained on cereal straw diets supplemented with small quantities of barley grain, urea, minerals and vitamins. Silage was made from citrus peels or grape marc and poultry litter. It replaced successfully part of the concentrate mixture in the diets of lactating cows and growing heifers. (author)

  12. Chlorination of humic materials: Byproduct formation and chemical interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckhow, D.A.; Singer, P.C.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Ten aquatic humic and fulvic acids were isolated and studied with respect to their reaction with chlorine. Yields of TOX, chloroform, trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetonitrile, and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone were measured at pH 7 and 12. Humic acids produced higher concentrations than their corresponding fulvic acids of all byproducts except 1,1,1-trichloropropanone. Chlorine consumption and byproduct formation were related to fundamental chemical characteristics of the humic materials. A statistical model was proposed for activated aromatic content based on 13C NMR and base titration data. The values estimated from this model were found to be well correlated with chlorine consumption. Specific byproduct formation was related to UV absorbance, nitrogen content, or the activated aromatic content. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  13. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)); Haefner, R. (Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  14. Animal consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Emilie; Boissy, Alain; Boivin, Xavier; Calandreau, Ludovic; Delon, Nicolas; Deputte, Bertrand; Desmoulin‐Canselier, Sonia; Dunier, Muriel; Faivre, Nathan; Giurfa, Martin; Guichet, Jean‐Luc; Lansade, Léa; Larrère, Raphaël; Mormède, Pierre; Prunet, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    After reviewing the literature on current knowledge about consciousness in humans, we present a state-of-the art discussion on consciousness and related key concepts in animals. Obviously much fewer publications are available on non-human species than on humans, most of them relating to laboratory or wild animal species, and only few to livestock species. Human consciousness is by definition subjective and private. Animal consciousness is usually assessed through behavioural performance. Beha...

  15. Animal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed.

  16. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the ...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  17. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  18. Physicochemical and functional properties of micronized jincheng orange by-products (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) dietary fiber and its application as a fat replacer in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tian; Huang, Xingjian; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Lufeng

    2014-08-01

    Orange by-products from juice extraction are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to their low market value. However, orange by-products show potential as dietary fiber (DF) and fat replacers in products such as yogurt. This study assessed the benefits of using orange by-products in DF-enriched materials such as DF powders (OP) and micronized DF with ball-milling (MDF). The study also investigated the effects of adding different levels of OP and MDF on the quality of low-fat yogurt. Results show that MDF showed better physicochemical and functional properties than OP, and that 2% MDF as a fat replacer in yogurt retained most of the textural and sensory properties of full-fat yogurt. Therefore, this study showed that MDF is a promising alternative as a fat replacer in low-fat yogurt, without sacrificing good taste and other qualities of full-fat yogurt.

  19. Effects of utilization of local food by-products as total mixed ration silage materials on fermentation quality and intake, digestibility, rumen condition and nitrogen availability in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yani, Srita; Ishida, Kyohei; Goda, Shuzo; Azumai, Shigeyoshi; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Okano, Kanji; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by-products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce cake and green tea waste) were obtained. Four types of TMR silage were used: control (C) containing roughage and commercial concentrate, T1:20% and T1:40% containing the five by-products replacing 20% and 40% of the commercial concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, and T2:40% containing three by-products (potato waste, noodle waste and soybean curd residue) replacing 40% of the commercial concentrate on a DM basis. The ingredients were mixed and preserved in oil drum silos for 4 months. The TMR silages showed 4.02-4.44% and 1.75-2.19% for pH and lactic acid contents, respectively. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient content were higher (P nitrogen excretion tended to be lower (P = 0.07) for T2:40% than for C. The results suggested 40% replacing of commercial concentrate by using the three food by-products can be most suitable for TMR silage. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. ANIMAL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-02-28

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables.

  1. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  2. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  3. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  4. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  5. Osteoprotective Effects of Polysaccharide-Enriched Hizikia fusiforme Processing Byproduct In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Tae; Baek, Seung Hwa; Jeong, Sang Chul; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Kim, Ok Hee; Oh, Byung Chul; Jung, Ji Wook; Kim, Jin Hee

    2016-08-01

    The traditional manufacturing method used to produce goods from Hizikia fusiforme, utilizes extraction steps with hot water. The byproduct (of hot water extraction) is rich in polysaccharide and is considered a waste. To evaluate the osteogenic effects of the byproduct of H. fusiforme (HFB), osteogenic cells and animal models were used to test it effects on osteogenesis. The HFB-treated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells exhibited significant dose dependently elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and slightly increased bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). HFB also suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and TRAP staining in the bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) cells that had been stimulated with the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kB ligand/macrophage colony-stimulating factor kB ligand. In addition, HFB also increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) level. Finally, osteogenic effects of HFB were clearly confirmed in the three in vivo models: zebrafish, ovariectomized mice, and mouse calvarial bones. HFB accelerated the rate of skeletal development in zebrafish and prevented much of the mouse femoral bone density loss of ovariectomized mice. Moreover, HFB enhanced woven bone formation over the periosteum of mouse calvarial bones. Our result showed that HFB functions as a bone resorption inhibitor as well as an activator of bone formation in vivo and in osteogenic in vitro cell systems.

  6. Nanodetection of the disinfection by-products on GC-MS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristoiu, Dumitru; Haydee, Melinda; Ristoiu, Tania

    2009-01-01

    Exposures to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in residential drinking water occur through multiple routes and vary across the population because of differences in the amount and ways people use water. Municipal water in the Romania is disinfected, with chlorine being the most common disinfectant agent. Disinfection of water, in additional to having the benefit of destroying microbes that can transmit diseases, has the drawback of producing a series of compounds known as disinfection by-products (DBPs). Chlorination produces many compounds containing chlorine and/or bromine, some of which have been shown to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and/or teratogenic in animal studies. The most abundant class of DBPs that result from chlorination of drinking water are trihalomethanes (THMs) - chloroform (CHCl3), dichlorobromomethane (CHCl2Br), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl) and bromoform (CHBr3). The most predominant THM species was CHCl3 and it highest concentration was 85•106 ng/m3. The others THMs compounds concentration were lower, between 65•104 ng/m3 and 12•106 ng/m3. THMs compounds were analyzed on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS) and head space technique (HS) was used for all analysis.

  7. Transforming beef by-products into valuable ingredients: which spell/recipe to use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Mary Henchion

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying the increasing global demand for protein results in challenges from a supply perspective. Increased use of animal proteins, through greater use of meat by-products, could form part of the solution, subject to consumer acceptance. This research investigates consumer evaluations of food products that incorporate ingredients derived from offals that have been produced through a range of food processing technologies. Using focus groups incorporating product stimuli representing various combinations of offals, processing and carrier products, the research finds that the physical state and perceived naturalness of the ingredients influences acceptance. It also highlights the impact of life experiences, linked to demographic characteristics, on interpretations and evaluations of products and processes. Ideational influences, i.e. knowledge of the nature or origin of the substance, are reasons for rejecting some concepts, with misalignment between nature of processing and the product resulting in rejection of others. Lack of perceived necessity also results in rejection. Alignment of ingredients with existing culinary practices and routines, communication of potential sensory or other benefits as well as naturalness are factors likely to promote acceptance, and generate repeat purchase, in some consumer segments. Trust in oversight that the products are safe is a prerequisite for acceptance in all cases. These findings have implications for pathways to increase sustainability of beef production and consumption through increased use of beef by-products.

  8. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  9. THE TOXICOLOGY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical disinfection of water is a major public health advance that has decreased dramatically water-borne disease. Chemical disinfectants react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water to produce a wide variety of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). DBP num...

  10. Determination of Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of ethanol corn processing by-products as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various ...

  11. Determining Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of corn ethanol processing byproducts (i.e., DDGS) as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling...

  12. 10 CFR 20.2008 - Disposal of certain byproduct material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of certain byproduct material. 20.2008 Section 20.2008 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal... Disposal Act, as authorized under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. [72 FR 55922, Oct. 1, 2007] ...

  13. Pullulan production from coconut by-products by Aureobasidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... structure of the pullulan synthesized from coconut by-products exhibited was similar when it was compared using FT-IR spectroscopy with that of pullulan available commercially. Key words: Pullulan, Aureobasidium pullulans, coconut water, coconut milk, characterization, FT-IR. INTRODUCTION. Pullulan ...

  14. Evaluation of an Industrial Byproduct Glycol Mixture for Denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Boardman, Gregory D; Bott, Charles B

      In this study, the effectiveness of an industrial byproduct that contained ethylene and propylene glycols to serve as a denitrification carbon source was investigated. Use of the byproduct was compared to methanol on the basis of denitrification rate and yield. Three sequencing batch reactors (SBR) were studied; one was fed methanol, the other two were fed with low and high dosages of the byproduct separately. The low dosage reactor (GLYL) exhibited the highest denitrification rate of 11.55 mg NO x -N/g MLVSS•h and the lowest yield of 0.21 mg VSS/mg COD, while the high dosage reactor (GLYH) had the lowest denitrification rate of 8.56 mg NO x -N/g MLVSS•h and the highest yield of 0.55 mg VSS/mg COD. The results of this study showed that the industrial byproduct can be used to effect efficient nitrogen removal, but excess dosage can cause poor performance.

  15. Integrating sustainable biofuels and byproducts into forest industry supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Hensen; Maureen Essen; Nathaniel Anderson; Larry Peters; April Kimmerly

    2016-01-01

    Forest biomass is a promising feedstock for the production of bioenergy, biofuels, and bioproducts because it is renewable and widely available as a byproduct of forest management. Its harvest and use also has the potential to positively impact rural communities, especially those negatively impacted by upheaval in the forest sector.

  16. 78 FR 31821 - Physical Protection of Byproduct Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 20, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 51, 71, and 73 [NRC-2008-0120; NRC-2010-0194] RIN 3150-AI12 Physical Protection of Byproduct Material Correction In rule document 2013-5895 appearing on pages 16922-17022 in the issue of March 19, 2013, make the following...

  17. Non-protein and agro-industrial by-products utilization by ruminants in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tareque, A.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experiments were designed to (1) investigate mixtures of locally available feedstuffs, particularly agro-industrial by-products with or without non-protein nitrogen supplementation as production rations for local and imported breeds of ruminants, (2) formulate rations based on locally available feedstuffs which can be compounded either on a large scale or at the village level for local animals, (3) determine the nutritive value of some non-conventional feedstuffs in terms of their digestibility and their ability to promote microbial synthesis. Rice straw, constituting about 85% of the total available feed dry matter in Bangladesh, is considered a basal, or sometimes the sole, feed for ruminant animals. The efficiency of utilization of rice straw could be improved by adding non-conventional feed resources, such as azolla, banana plant, sweet potato leaves and other legumes and grasses. Rates of growth and feed efficiency by local animals were found to be higher in those fed with urea treated rice straw or bagasse, with or without the addition of concentrates, than in animals fed untreated straw. Rations were also found to be satisfactory when rice straw was fed in combination with urea, legumes such as cowpea hay, azolla and sweet potato leaves or concentrates. It is concluded that the utilization of rice straw by ruminants can be improved by suitable supplementation with non-conventional feed resources. Research is needed to evaluate the use of molasses as a feed ingredient for ruminants in Bangladesh. (author)

  18. Using of Babassu and its By-products in Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing costs of conventional feedstuffs like corn, soybean meal and fish meal for poultry diets increased the need for cheaper alternatives. Babassu is a tall palm tree species found in Brazil. Babassu meal is high in protein (19.49-20.19%, minerals (1.20% Ca, 0.41% available P and gross energy, 4553 kcal/kg. The amino acid profile of babassu meal indicates that it is a good source of amino acids especially arginine (2.34%, glycine+serine (1.75% and phenylalanine+tyrosine (1.32%. In this review, the studies focused on possibilities of using babassu meal in poultry and ruminant rations were discussed.

  19. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  20. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  1. Animal Bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  2. Effect and key factors of byproducts valorization: the case of dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaszewska, A.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Production of many consumer products results in byproducts that contain a considerably large part of nutrients originating from input materials. High production volumes, environmental impact, and nutritional content of byproducts make them an important subject for careful valorization. Valorization

  3. Production of highly unsaturated fatty acids using agro-processing by-products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African agro-processing industry generates millions of tons of cereal derived by-products annually. The by-products from biofuel production are expected to increase these volumes dramatically. Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA...

  4. Roadmap for Interdisciplinary Research on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation on interdisciplinary research on drinking water disinfection by-products which summarized important issues with drinking water disinfection by-products and focused on emerging, unregulated DBPs.

  5. Wild Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  6. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    In What do pictures want? The lives and loves of images (2005) J. W. T. Mitchell writes about pictures as “vital signs”, not signs for living things, but signs as living things (Mitchell 6). With a notion from the German art historian and media theorist Hans Belting this symbolic act can be called...... “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  7. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  8. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  9. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  10. A by-product of swine slaughtering as a protein source in broiler diets: effects on performance, composition of excreta, litter quality and on foot pad health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölln, M; Loi-Brügger, A; Kamphues, J

    2017-06-01

    Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is of great concern in poultry industry, and dietary strategies are needed to improve foot pad health because of animal welfare and economic reasons. As the main factor for the development of FPD is the DM content of litter (consisting mainly of excreta; Kamphues et al., 2011), there are different dietary approaches to influence this disease pattern. In two consecutive trials, a total of 200 broilers were kept from day 7 until the 35th day of life. They were divided into four groups at each trial and fed with one of four experimental diets, based on wheat and corn mainly, but differing in the protein source: Group 1 was fed a diet with soya bean meal (SBM) as the main protein source, whereas Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were assigned to diets with 4, 8 and 12% of a protein-rich (66.7% CP in DM) by-product of swine slaughtering [Swine Protein Meal (SPM); in exchange for SBM]. The inclusion of 12% SPM resulted in a decreased dietary potassium content of about 3 g/kg diet (Group 1 vs. 4). Increasing dietary levels of the by-product (8 and 12%) led to lowered feed intake (Group 1 vs. 4: ~10%) and weight gain (Group 1 vs. Group 4: ~8.5%). Although highest DM contents of excreta and litter were determined in Group 4, foot pad health was not influenced positively as hypothesized. Remarkable was the observed 'stickiness' of excreta when the by-product was included in the diet at increasing levels, presumably due to the high proportion of bones in the by-product. In conclusion, substituting SBM by 4% of the by-product of swine slaughtering in broiler diets did not impair performance parameters, but led to the most favourable foot pad scores in this study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  12. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.14 Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry...

  13. [Continuing investigation of effect of toner and its by-product on human health and occupational health management of toner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Ogami, Akira; Kochi, Isamu; Uchiyama, Tetsuro; Ide, Reiko; Myojo, Toshihiko; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    As there are reports that ultrafine particles are generated by thermal printer toner, and that mucosal irritation symptoms were observed in users. When printers were operated, we have been examining the effects of not only toner but its by-products on human health. We conducted a review of epidemiological and animal data on toner and its by-products such as ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC). This was the second survey and it confirmed the results of the first survey. We reviewed the data, and summarized the results as follows. 1) Four cross-sectional studies reported no definite harmful effects of toner. 2) Ultrafine particles were generated in greater numbers at higher fuser heating and higher toner coverages. Ultrafine particles were also observed at lower rates in idle mode. 3) High-sensitive c-reactive protein in serum and heart rate variability (HRV) were useful biomarkers of not only exposure to ultrafine particles but disorder of cardiovascular disease, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in urine is a biomarker of acute lung injury by welder fume, and VEGF and CA15-3 are highly sensitive and specific biomarkers of pulmonary fibrosis. 4) Physico-chemical properties of ultrafine particles were examined, and specific parameters related to pulmonary responses were not observed. Taken together, we found that there are some biomarkers which are related to not only exposure and but disorders induced by ultrafine particles, and that the generation of ultrafine particles with the operation of printers was associated with other factors than the fixing process. Until now there has been insufficient data for estimation of the hazards of toner and its by-products. However, continuing examinations are useful for complementing and correcting the information and data on toners and for revising the measures of occupational health. We will continue these examinations of toner and its by-products in the future.

  14. Cell wall bound anionic peroxidases from asparagus byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; López, Sergio; Vazquez-Castilla, Sara; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Guillen-Bejarano, Rafael

    2014-10-08

    Asparagus byproducts are a good source of cationic soluble peroxidases (CAP) useful for the bioremediation of phenol-contaminated wastewaters. In this study, cell wall bound peroxidases (POD) from the same byproducts have been purified and characterized. The covalent forms of POD represent >90% of the total cell wall bound POD. Isoelectric focusing showed that whereas the covalent fraction is constituted primarily by anionic isoenzymes, the ionic fraction is a mixture of anionic, neutral, and cationic isoenzymes. Covalently bound peroxidases were purified by means of ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. In vitro detoxification studies showed that although CAP are more effective for the removal of 4-CP and 2,4-DCP, anionic asparagus peroxidase (AAP) is a better option for the removal of hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main phenol present in olive mill wastewaters.

  15. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from first generation ethanol derived from wheat and sugar beet in Germany – Analysis and comparison of advanced by-product utilization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, Jana; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ethanol production from sugar beet and wheat is investigated. ► Instead of feed production from residues by-products are used for energy production. ► Ethanol from sugar beet with biogas co-production shows lowest GHG emissions. ► For wheat pathways bran and gluten separation generates lowest GHG emissions. ► An allocation method is recommended involving co-produced fertilizer. -- Abstract: In state of the art ethanol production, by-products like vinasse from sugar beet or distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGSs) from wheat grains are usually used as animal feed. The drying process consumes a significant amount of energy that could be reduced by producing other valuable materials or energy carriers from these by-products. Besides resulting higher overall conversion rates and improved process efficiencies, by-products, which can be extracted or are automatically created during the various conversion steps, should be used to reduce environmental impacts as well. In this analysis, advanced pathways for the recovery and use of by-products from bio-chemical ethanol production like gluten separation from wheat starch, biogas production from stillage or vinasse and combustion of bran for electricity generation are analyzed with regard to their contribution to the greenhouse effect. Therefore, different methodological approaches are applied and compared. The analysis shows among others that ethanol from sugar beet generates less greenhouse gases (GHGs) compared to the ethanol production from wheat. The biogas production from residues and especially the use of bran for heat and electricity generation shows significant GHG reduction compared to the state of the art application. However, the methodological approach for the treatment of by-products highly influences the results. For the reproducibility of the results an energy equivalent allocation method involving the specific application of the respective co-product is recommended.

  17. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  18. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  19. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  20. Irradiated fuel by-product separation research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burston, M.

    1984-01-01

    Although no decision has been made to reprocess irradiated CANDU fuel, by-product separation research has recently been initiated in Canada because of its potential importance to Canadian research programs in advanced fuel cycles (especially U/Pu cycle development in the near term) and nuclear waste management. In addition, separated by-products could have a significant commercial potential. Demonstrated applications include: heat sources, gamma radiation sources, light sources, new materials for productions of other useful isotopes, etc. For illustrative purposes the calculated market value of by-products currently stored in irradiated CANDU fuel is approximately $210/kgU. Ontario Hydro has initiated a program to study the application of new separation technolgies, such as laser-based techniques and the plasma ion cyclotron resonance separation technique, to either augment and/or supplant the chemical extraction methods. The main goal is to develop new, more economical extraction methods in order to increase the magnitude of the advantages resulting from this approach to reprocessing. (author)

  1. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  2. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  3. Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Larissa Morais; Teixeira de Figueiredo, Evania Altina; Silva Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes; Pinto Vieira, Icaro Gusmao; Wilane de Figueiredo, Raimundo; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

    2014-01-15

    This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, β-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (Pfruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper

  5. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  6. Methane emission of Santa Inês sheep fed cottonseed by-products containing different levels of gossypol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Oliveira, Pedro Batelli; Campeche, Aline; Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Paim, Tiago do Prado; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Dantas, Angela Maria Morais; de Souza, Jurandir Rodrigues; Louvandini, Helder

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the methane (CH4) emission of Santa Inês sheep fed cottonseed by-products, verifying if the gossypol content of these feedstuffs affects CH4 emission. Twelve late-lactating Santa Inês sheep (44.8 ± 7.5 kg body weight (BW)) were allocated in metabolic cages for an experimental period of 19 days, 14 days for adaptation and 5 days for measuring CH4 emission and dry matter intake (DMI). The animals were divided into four treatments, established in accordance with the cottonseed by-product used in concentrate formulation: Control (CON - no cottonseed by-product), Whole cottonseed (WCS), Cottonseed cake (CSC), and Cottonseed meal (CSM). The free gossypol level of the concentrates were 0, 1,276, 350, and 190 ppm for CON, WCS, CSC, and CSM, respectively. Also, the animals received Cynodon dactylon cv. Coast Cross hay, water, and mineral salt ad libitum. The ether extract content of the diets was balanced between treatments by including soybean oil in concentrates. The technique used to measure the CH4 emission was the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique, and the gas samples collected were quantified by analysis in gas chromatography system. The CH4 emission was evaluated considering the daily emission (g CH4/day); DMI (g CH4/kg DMI); and BW (g CH4/kg BW). No statistical difference was found (P > 0.05) between treatments for DMI and CH4 parameters. In the regression analysis, no significant relation (P > 0.05) between gossypol content and CH4 emission was observed. These results suggest that gossypol does not affect rumen methanogenesis.

  7. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  8. 10 CFR 35.2075 - Records of the release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of the release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct material. 35.2075 Section 35.2075 Energy NUCLEAR... individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct material. (a) A licensee...

  9. [New investigation of the effect of toner and its by-products on human health and occupational health management of toner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Kitamura, Hiroko; Kuga, Hiroaki; Ide, Reiko; Myojo, Toshihiko; Higashi, Toshiaki; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    We need a new investigation of the effect of not only toner but also of its by-products on human health, because of the generation of fine particles and the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the process of photocopy. Therefore, we gathered epidemiological and animal data on toner and its by-products, and examined the occupational health management of toner. We examined the effect of carbonblack as the main component of toner, and titanium dioxide and amorphous silica as surface-adhesive nanomaterials, and VOC on human health, and reviewed them. We summarize the results as follows. 1) High sensitive c-reactive protein in serum, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in urine, and heart rate variability (HRV) are useful for biological monitoring of exposure to toner and its by-products. 2) Particle number concentrations have been often measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) compared with other apparatus, although this is not measurement gold standard. Taken together, we have examined whole occupational health management of toner and its by-products.

  10. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Permeability prediction of compacted coal combustion byproducts based on grain size characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Craig Kenton

    Coal combustion byproducts are produced in great quantity. Currently, only about one-quarter of the byproducts are used in secondary applications. The remaining byproducts require disposal. Current practice includes placing byproducts in landfills or lagoons at or near the power plant sites, or transporting the byproducts back to the sources of the original coal where they are buried in inactive mines. Costs of disposal increase as suitable disposal locations become scarce. Since many power plants operate landfills for the disposal of byproducts and since these landfills will require relatively impermeable liners and final caps upon closure, incorporating coal combustion byproducts into liners and final caps provides a beneficial use for byproducts as well as reducing disposal costs. The objective of this study was to measure permeability and other properties of various blends of essentially spherical shaped coal combustion byproducts, and develop a means to predict order of magnitude permeability using particle size characteristics. The results of this research indicate that, for essentially spherically shaped coal combustion byproducts, application of Hazen's equation (k = C D102) provides a reasonable estimate of permeability. More complex equations involving particle size characteristics did not significantly improve permeability prediction.

  12. Integration of the first and second generation bioethanol processes and the importance of by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Patrik R; Erlandsson, Per; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has obstacles in the investment costs and uncertainties in the process. One solution is to integrate it with the running dry mills of ethanol from grains. However, the economy of these mills, which dominate the world market, are dependent on their by-products DDGS (Distiller's Dried Grains and Solubles), sold as animal feed. The quality of DDGS therefore must not be negatively influenced by the integration. This puts restraints on the choice of pretreatment of lignocelluloses and utilizing the pentose sugars by food-grade microorganisms. The proposed solution is to use food related filamentous Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and to produce fungal biomass as a high-grade animal feed from the residues after the distillation (stillage). This also has the potential to improve the first generation process by increasing the amount of the thin stillage directly sent back into the process, and by decreasing the evaporator based problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of byproducts originating from hemp oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojić, Milica; Mišan, Aleksandra; Sakač, Marijana; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara; Šarić, Bojana; Milovanović, Ivan; Hadnađev, Miroslav

    2014-12-24

    Valorization of hemp seed meal, a byproduct of hemp oil processing, was performed by measuring the distribution of nutritional and antinutritional compounds in different hemp seed meal fractions. According to chemical composition, two cotyledon-containing fractions (>180 and 350 and >250 μm), which were significantly richer in crude fiber content (29.5% ± 0.04% and 21.3% ± 0.03%, respectively). The free radical scavenging capacity (IC50) of fraction extracts increased (p hemp seed meal into different fractions could be used to concentrate valuable target compounds and consequently facilitate their recovery.

  14. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    OpenAIRE

    A R Alimon

    2009-01-01

    The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large ...

  15. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment.

  16. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    , and even whole genomes, has brought a new stability to the field. The book brings together the information from these varied fields, and demonstrates that it is indeed now possible to build a phylogenetic tree from a combination of both morphology and gene sequences. This thoroughly revised third edition......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  17. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  18. Chloramination of wastewater effluent: Toxicity and formation of disinfection byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Julien; Plewa, Michael J; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Nihemaiti, Maolida; Dad, Azra; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-01

    The reclamation and disinfection of waters impacted by human activities (e.g., wastewater effluent discharges) are of growing interest for various applications but has been associated with the formation of toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). Monochloramine used as an alternative disinfectant to chlorine can be an additional source of nitrogen in the formation of N-DBPs. Individual toxicity assays have been performed on many DBPs, but few studies have been conducted with complex mixtures such as wastewater effluents. In this work, we compared the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) before and after chloramination. The toxicity of chloraminated EfOM was significantly higher than the toxicity of raw EfOM, and the more hydrophobic fraction (HPO) isolated on XAD-8 resin was more toxic than the fraction isolated on XAD-4 resin. More DBPs were also isolated on the XAD-8 resin. N-DBPs (i.e., haloacetonitriles or haloacetamides) were responsible for the majority of the cytotoxicity estimated from DBP concentrations measured in the XAD-8 and XAD-4 fractions (99.4% and 78.5%, respectively). Measured DBPs accounted for minor proportions of total brominated and chlorinated products, which means that many unknown halogenated compounds were formed and can be responsible for a significant part of the toxicity. Other non-halogenated byproducts (e.g., nitrosamines) may contribute to the toxicity of chloraminated effluents as well. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Hydrocarbon and by-product reserves in British Columbia, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Statistical data on oil, gas and by-product reserves in British Columbia as of 31 December 2000, as estimated by the Oil and Gas Commission was presented along with a summary of year-end remaining established reserves, estimates of the reserves of oil, gas and by-products, and detailed reserve and pool parameters. British Columbia set a record in 2000 with 753 wells drilled, of which 59 were classed as oil. Most of the oil drilling took place in the Hay River area. 449 gas wells were drilled in 2000, mostly in the Fort St. John area. An additional 120 wells were cased. Raw gas reserves in 2000 increased to 294.8 10 9 m 3 , up slightly from the previous year. Remaining oil reserves at December 31, 2000 were 27,357 10 3 m 3 , an increase of about 4 per cent over 1999. This report also included a historical review of oil and raw gas reserves by geological period and unconnected gas reserves by plant area. Established hydrocarbon reserves, summaries and a project/unit cross-reference listing was included. Oil pools under waterflood or gas injection were also highlighted. Four appendices were also included, one each for reserve and pool parameter listings for crude oil reserves, gas reserves, raw gas analysis, and remaining hydrocarbon products. tabs

  20. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Kris

    2017-05-07

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a sufficiently adverse environment. In an evolutionary game where two defenders can cooperate to defend a common resource, this paper analyzes the common-enemy hypothesis when adversity is endogenous, in that an attacker sets the number of attacks. As a benchmark, we first consider exogenous adversity, where adversity is not subject to evolution. In this case, the common-enemy hypothesis is predicted when the degree of complementarity between defenders' defensive efforts is sufficiently low. When the degree of complementarity is high, the hypothesis is predicted only when cooperation costs are high; when cooperation costs are instead low, a competing hypothesis is predicted, where adversity discourages cooperation. Second, we consider the case of endogenous adversity. In this case, we continue to predict the competing hypothesis for a high degree of complementarity and low cooperation costs. The common-enemy hypothesis, however, only continues to be predicted for the lowest degrees of complementarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito F. García

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compounds and complex mixtures. The bioactivities and interactions were evaluated in wheat coleoptile bioassays and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the al DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl radical radical scavenging assay. The extracts, fractions and most of the isolated compounds (mainly polymethoxyflavones showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay. However, the antioxidant activity was not consistently high, except in the acetone extract fractions. Moreover, a study of the interactions with binary mixtures of polymethoxyflavones showed the occurrence of synergistic effects. The complex mixtures of fractions composed mainly of polymethoxyflavones caused a synergistic effect when it was added to a bioactive compound such as anethole. The results reported here highlight a new application for the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in compounds or mixtures.

  2. Toxic combustion by-products: Generation, separation, cleansing, containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kephart, W.; Eger, K. [Foster-Wheeler Environmental Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelo, F. [Resource Energy Corp., Fort Smith, AR (United States); Clemens, M.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Focus of this paper is on diagnosis, control, and containment of potentially toxic combustion byproducts when mixed wastes are treated at elevated temperatures. Such byproducts fall into several categories: acid gases, particulates, metals, organics. Radionuclides are treated as a subset of metals, while organics are divided into two subclasses: products of incomplete combustion, and principal organic hazardous constituents. An extended flue gas cleaning system is described which can be used to contain potentially toxic organic emissions and recycle the hazrdous materials for further treatment; it uses oxygen rather than air to reduce total quantities of emissions, improve efficiency of oxidation, and minimize NOx emissions. Flue gas recycling is used for cooling and for containing all potentially toxic emissions. Three thermal treatment unit operations are used in series for more effective process control; three emission separation and containment unit operations are also used in series in the toxic emission containment system. Real time diagnostic hardware/software are used. Provision is made for automatic storage, separation of hazardous materials, commodity regeneration, and recycling of potentially harmful constituents. The greenhouse gas CO2 is recovered and not emitted to the atmosphere.

  3. Arsenic Removal from Water Using Industrial By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava M. Lekić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, removal of arsenic ions using two industrial by-products as adsorbents is represented. Removal of As(III and As(V from water was carried out with industrial by-products: residual from the groundwater treatment process, iron-manganese oxide coated sand (IMOCS, and blast furnace slag from steel production (BFS, both inexpensive and locally available. In addition, the BFS was modified in order to minimise its deteriorating impact on the initial water quality. Kinetic and equilibrium studies were carried out using batch and fixed-bed column adsorption techniques under the conditions that are likely to occur in real water treatment systems. To evaluate the application for real groundwater treatment, the capacities of the selected materials were further compared to those exhibited by commercial sorbents, which were examined under the same experimental conditions. IMOCS was found to be a good and inexpensive sorbent for arsenic, while BFS and modified slag showed the highest affinity towards arsenic. All examined waste materials exhibited better sorption performances for As(V. The maximum sorption capacity in the batch reactor was obtained for blast furnace slag, 4040 μgAs(V/g.

  4. Potential Biogas Production from Artichoke Byproducts in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Menna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at evaluating the potential biogas production, both in terms of CH4 and theoretical energy potential, from globe artichoke agricultural byproducts in Sardinia. Field data about the productivity of byproducts were collected on five artichoke varieties cultivated in Sardinia, to assess the biomethane production of their aboveground non-food parts (excluding the head. Moreover, secondary data from previous studies and surveys at regional scale were collected to evaluate the potential biogas production of the different districts. Fresh globe artichoke residues yielded, on average, 292.2 Nm3·tDOM−1, with dissimilarities among cultivars. Fresh samples were analyzed in two series: (a wet basis; and (b wet basis with catalytic enzymes application. Enzymes proved to have some beneficial effects in terms of anticipated biomethane availability. At the regional level, ab. 20 × 106 Nm3 CH4 could be produced, corresponding to the 60% of current installed capacity. However, districts potentials show some differences, depending on the specific biomass partitioning and on the productivity of cultivated varieties. Regional assessments should encompass the sensitiveness of results to agro-economic variables and the economic impacts of globe artichoke residue use in the current regional biogas sector.

  5. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  6. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  7. Nutritional evaluation of elephant-grass silages with byproduct of annato

    OpenAIRE

    Rêgo,Margareth Maria Teles; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Rêgo,Aníbal Coutinho do; Cândido,Magno José Duarte; Clementino,Rossana Herculano; Restle,João

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional value of elephant-grass silages containing annato byproduct. Twenty intact rams were distributed in a complete randomized block design with five diets (0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% annato byproduct in the silage) and four replications and used to estimate the intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, content of total digestible nutrients and nitrogen balance. The addition of annato byproduct raised the intakes of dry matter (DM), organi...

  8. Evaluation of pet food by-product as an alternative feedstuff in weanling pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, E A; Jones, R D; Azain, M J

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate pet food by-product (PFB) as a component of nursery starter diets and its effects on pig performance. The PFB used in these studies was a pelleted dog food that contained (as-fed basis) 21% CP, 1.25% total lysine, and 8.3% ether extract. In Exp. 1, 288 early-weaned pigs (5.2 kg at 14 d) were used to determine the effects of replacing animal protein and energy sources with PFB at 0, 10, 30, and 50% (as-fed basis) inclusion levels in phase I (d 0 to 7 after weaning) and phase II (d 7 to 21 after weaning) diets. Phase I diets contained 27.5% whey, 18.75% soybean meal, 1.50% lysine, 0.90% Ca, and 0.80% P, with PFB substituted for corn, fat, plasma protein, fish meal, limestone, and dicalcium phosphate. Phase II diets had a constant 10% whey, 1.35% lysine, and PFB was substituted for blood cells, a portion of the soybean meal, and other ingredients as in phase I diets. In phase I, growth performance by pigs fed PFB-containing diets was similar to that of the control diet. In phase II, ADG (linear; P PFB inclusion. In Exp. 2, 80 weaned pigs (6.7 kg at 21 d) were fed a common phase I diet for 1 wk and used to further evaluate the effect of PFB in phase II diets (same as Exp 1; initial BW = 8.1 kg) on growth performance and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. There were no differences in ADG, ADFI, or G:F across treatments. Dry matter and energy digestibility did not differ among diets; however, digestibilities of CP (P PFB was increased in the diet. In Exp. 3, the performance by pigs (n = 1 70; 5.5 kg; 21 d of age) fed diets with 0 or 30% PFB in both phases I and II was examined. Growth performance was similar in both diets. These studies demonstrate that pet food by-product can effectively be used as a partial replacement for animal protein sources and grain energy sources in the diets of young nursery pigs.

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation of Antimicrobial ...

  10. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  11. Ecotoxicological assessment of TiO{sub 2} byproducts on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Foucaud, Laurent [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Lapied, Emmanuel [Bioforsk, Soil and Environment, Fredrik A. Dahls vei 20, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Labille, Jerome; Botta, Celine [CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology iCEINT, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Sirguey, Catherine [Nancy Universite, INPL/INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, BP 172-2, Avenue de la foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Falla, Jairo [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Rose, Jerome [CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology iCEINT, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Joner, Erik J. [Nancy Universite, INPL/INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, BP 172-2, Avenue de la foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Rodius, Francois; Nahmani, Johanne [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France)

    2011-10-15

    The increasing production of nanomaterials will in turn increase the release of nanosized byproducts to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour, uptake and ecotoxicity of TiO{sub 2} byproducts in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Worms were exposed to suspensions containing 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/L of byproducts for 24 h. Size of TiO{sub 2} byproducts showed aggregation of particles up to 700 {mu}m with laser diffraction. Only worms exposed at 10 mg/L showed bioaccumulation of titanium (ICP-AES), increasing expression of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase mRNA (Real-time PCR) and induction of apoptotic activity (Apostain and TUNEL). TiO{sub 2} byproducts did not induce cytotoxicity on coelomocytes, but a significant decrease of phagocytosis was observed starting from 0.1 mg/L. In conclusion, bioaccumulation of byproducts and their production of reactive oxygen species could be responsible for the alteration of the antioxidant system in worms. - Highlights: > Aggregation of TiO{sub 2} byproducts up to 700 {mu}m in the medium of exposure. > Bioaccumulation of titanium in worms exposed at 10 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. > Increasing expression of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase mRNA. > Induction of apoptotic activity in worms exposed at 10 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. > Decrease of coelomocytes phagocytosis starting from 0.1 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. - A short time exposure to TiO{sub 2} byproducts can induce sublethal effects on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

  12. By-products from ethanol production - the forgotten part of the equation. Possibilities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinsted Jensen, H.; Bjoernsson, A.H.; Lind, K.M.

    2013-06-15

    Conventional bioethanol is produced from starch based feedstocks either via dry or wet milling, using typically maize or wheat. One by-product from bioethanol production is dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), which has proven to be a valuable feed commodity for animal husbandry. Particularly, DDGS replaces expensive protein feed at a competitive price for farmers, which has hitherto led to a rapidly increasing market for distiller's grain with solubles in the US, who is by far the largest producer of grain-based bioethanol in the world. The US also exports DDGS since it has a long shelf-life and can therefore be shipped overseas. Exports of DDGS from the US are increasingly taking place with Asia but also Europe and South-America as international destinations. Studies indicate that the price of DDGS in the US follows the corn price and is roughly at the same price level, even though protein contents in distiller's grain with solubles are higher than for cereals. With this price relationship, feed diets incorporating DDGS produce cost savings for farmers. An example for a Danish dairy farm shows that with this price relationship profits would increase by around 5 % per dairy cow if DDGS is included in the fodder plan, accounting for roughly 10 % of the energy content. Given that the US exports large amounts of DDGS it would be expected that the price level in Denmark would be highly influenced by US export prices, if Danish farmers adopt DDGS in their feed rations. One major barrier for increased acceptance of DDGS by potential buyers/farmers is the absence of a standard for the product. Pre-tested and pre-blended food diets with DDGS could lead to greater certainty of effects and acceptance by farmers. This could presumably increase the price of DDGS from current levels, which is lower than the feed value appears to suggest, due to uncertainty around the product as well as varying quality of DDGS. When DDGS replaces traditional animal feed

  13. Asparagus byproducts as a new source of peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Lopez, Sergio; Vazquez-Castilla, Sara; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Guillen-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-07-03

    Soluble peroxidase (POD) from asparagus byproducts was purified by ion exchange chromatographies, and its kinetic and catalytic properties were studied. The isoelectric point of the purified isoperoxidases was 9.1, and the optimum pH and temperature values were 4.0 and 25 °C, respectively. The cationic asparagus POD (CAP) midpoint inactivation temperature was 57 °C, which favors its use in industrial processes. The Km values of cationic asparagus POD for H₂O₂ and ABTS were 0.318 and 0.634 mM, respectively. The purified CAP is economically obtained from raw materials using a simple protocol and possesses features that make it advantageous for the potential use of this enzyme in a large number of processes with demonstrated requirements of thermostable POD. The results indicate that CAP can be used as a potential candidate for removing phenolic contaminants.

  14. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  15. Origin of disinfection by-products in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes; Prados, Francisco; Fernández-Salguero, José

    2017-06-01

    The disinfection of water, equipment and surfaces in a cheese factory is one of the factors that can originate disinfection by-products (DBPs) in cheese. This research has focused on studying cheese factories in order to evaluate the individual contribution of each step of the cheese-making process that can contribute to the presence of DBPs in cheese. Ten factories were selected according to their salting processes (brine or dry salting). Each factory was monitored by the collection of six representative samples (factory water supply, brine solution, milk, whey, curd and cheese) in which the concentrations of up to eight chemicals were detected. The study shows that contact with brine solutions containing significant levels of DBPs is the main source of these chemicals in cheese. A minor factor is the pasteurised milk used in their manufacture.

  16. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  17. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  18. Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the extent of fermentation of cassava and its by-products was made in order to highlight the role played by fermentation on the bio-conversion of cassava and cassava by-products for improved nutrient quality. The reasons for cassava products fermentation mentioned were synonymous with the reasons ...

  19. An assessment of surface properties and moisture uptake of nonwoven fabrics from ginning by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greige (raw) cotton by-products resulting from cotton ginning and mill processes have long been bleached for using them in absorbent nonwoven products. Other than that, the greige cotton by-products mostly had limited material applications, and used as an alternative feedstock for biomass and as a ...

  20. Ecotoxicity of ketoprofen, diclofenac, atenolol and their photolysis byproducts in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, M.S., E-mail: mesd@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Salgado, R., E-mail: r.salgado@campus.fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); ESTS-IPS, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal do Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Rua Vale de Chaves, Campus do IPS, Estefanilha, 2910-761 Setúbal (Portugal); Pereira, V.J., E-mail: vanessap@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (IBET), Av. da República (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB)—Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Estação Agronómica Nacional, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Carvalho, G., E-mail: gs.carvalho@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (IBET), Av. da República (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Oehmen, A., E-mail: a.oehmen@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Reis, M.A.M., E-mail: amr@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Noronha, J.P., E-mail: jpnoronha@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater treatment plants and surface waters has been detected worldwide, constituting a potential risk for aquatic ecosystems. Adult zebrafish, of both sexes, were exposed to three common pharmaceutical compounds (atenolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac) and their UV photolysis by-products over seven days. The results show that diclofenac was removed to concentrations < LOD after 5 min of UV irradiation. The oxidative stress response of zebrafish to pharmaceuticals and their photolysis by-products was evaluated through oxidative stress enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase) and lipid peroxidation. Results suggest that the photolysis by-products of diclofenac were more toxic than those from the other compounds tested, showing an increase in GST and CAT levels, which are also supported by higher MDA levels. Overall, the toxicity of waters containing atenolol and ketoprofen was reduced after the parent compounds were transformed by photolysis, whereas the toxicity increased significantly from the by-products generated through diclofenac photolysis. Therefore, diclofenac photolysis would possibly necessitate higher irradiation time to ensure that the associated by-products are completely degraded to harmless form(s). - Highlights: • Toxicity evaluated for 3 common pharmaceuticals (atenolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac). • Toxicity assessed for the pharmaceuticals and UV photolysis by-products in zebrafish. • Diclofenac photolysis by-products are more toxic than the parent compound. • Ketoprofen and atenolol show stronger oxidative stress response than by-products. • UV photolysis should ensure full removal of diclofenac metabolites to avoid toxicity.

  1. Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on composition and blood parameters of Holstein dairy cows. ... The goal of this research was to study about the effect of using pistachio hulls silage in cow's nutrition. The initial ... Key words: Dairy cattle's, milk production, pistachio by-product, silage, tannin.

  2. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Chicken By-products by Mean of Proximate and Nutritional Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Pil Nam; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Park, Beom Young; Moon, Sung Sil; Ba, Hoa Van

    2015-01-01

    Though a great amount of chicken by-products are consumed everyday in many countries worldwide, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of nutritional composition of these by-products. In the present work, the basic information regarding the aspects of nutritional composition of chicken by-products such as; liver, gizzard, heart, lung, crop, small intestines, cecum and duodenum was studied. Our results revealed that the approximate composition range (minimum to maximum) of these by-products was found as such: moisture 76.68-83.23%; fat 0.81-4.53%, protein 10.96-17.70% and calories 983.20-1,426.0 cal/g tissue, in which liver and gizzard had the highest protein content. Liver had higher (pacids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels ranged between the by-products from 31.82% to 43.96%, 56.04% to 68.19%, and 18.27% to 32.05%, respectively. Remarkably, all of by-products showed desirable PUFA/SFA ratios. Furthermore, all of chicken by-products, especially liver, contained higher levels of trace elements (e.g., Fe, Mn and Zn) in comparison with those from muscle tissues published in literature. Overall, the study indicated that most of chicken by-products examined are good sources of essential nutrients and these obtained results will be the useful information to consumers and meat processors.

  4. Nutritional diversity of agricultural and agro-industrial by-products for ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.G. Azevêdo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-seven by-products were collected from regions throughout Brazil. Chemical composition, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were determined with the objective of grouping by-products with similar nutritional characteristics. The by-products belonging to group one (G1 presented the highest content of neutral detergent fiber exclusive of ash and nitrogenous compounds [aNDFom(n] and lowest energy content, with 42.5% and 38.8% of IVNDFD and TDN, respectively. A new cluster analysis was carried in order to better characterize G2 by-products, six subgroups (SGs were established (SG1 to SG6. SG1 by-products had the highest and the lowest values for lignin and TDN, respectively. SG2 by-products had the highest aNDFom(n value, with TDN and IVNDFD values greater than 600 and 700g/kg, respectively, and crude protein (CP value below 200g/kg in dry matter (DM. Among all the subgroups, SG3 had the highest TDN (772g/kg and IVNDFD (934g/kg values and the lowest lignin (23g/kg in DM value. The ether extract was what most influenced the hierarchical establishment of residual grouping in SG4. SG5 by-products had the highest concentration of non-fibrous carbohydrate. Different from the other subgroups, SG6 by-products had the highest value of available CP.

  5. Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... A review of the extent of fermentation of cassava and its by-products was made in order to highlight the role played by fermentation on the bio-conversion of cassava and cassava by-products for improved nutrient quality. The reasons for cassava products fermentation mentioned were synonymous with the.

  6. In vitro degradation and total gas production of byproducts generated in the biodiesel production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Kiara oliveira de Morais

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro degradation and total gas production of different oil seed press cakes from a biodiesel production chain gas through the use of a semi-automatic technique of gas production in vitro. The treatments consisted of substituting elephant grass in increasing levels, 0%, 30, 50 and 70%, with the byproducts of Gossyypium hirsutum, Ricinus communis, Moringa oleifeira, Jatropha curcas and Helianthus annus. The oil seed press cakes of Moringa oleifeira had the highest rate of in vitro degradation of dry matter compared with other foods but did not result in a higher final volume of gases production. Gossyypium hirsutum, Pinhão manso curcas and Ricinus communis showed a higher in vitro degradability of similar dry matter. The highest total gas production was obtained by the oil seed press cakes of Helianthus annus. The oil seed press cakes of Moringa oleifeira can replace elephant grass up to 70% and therefore reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and energy loss for the animal.

  7. Production and spray drying of protein hydrolyzate obtained from tilapia processing by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Daniel De Paris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, the offer of by-products obtained from the processing of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus has increased, and the need for developing products with high biological and nutritional values for use in animal nutrition motivated this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis of carcass, head and skin of tilapia was performed, as well as the separation of oil, residual solids and soluble proteins by centrifugation at high temperature and the spray drying of the protein fraction. Factorial designs were employed in the assays to evaluate the operating conditions of the spray dryer (inlet and outlet temperatures and flow rate and the inclusion of drying aid agents (maltodextrin and calcium carbonate. The spray drying showed the best results with air inlet temperature of 190ºC, outlet temperature of 90ºC, flow rate of 30 L·h-1 including 10% maltodextrin (mass in the liquid feed as a drying aid. The final powder recovery was higher than 90% and the physical, chemical and microbiological analyses met the Brazilian legal standards.

  8. Use of monosodium glutamate by-product in cow diet on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padunglerk, Achira; Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Kongmun, Phongthorn

    2017-01-01

    Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were monosodium glutamate by-product (MSGB) replacement for soybean meal in concentrate at four levels: MSGB replacement at 0, 20, 40 and 60%, respectively. Pangola hay was given on an ad libitum basis. It was found that total dry matter intake, concentrate intake, pangola hay intake and all apparent digestibilities were not different among treatments. Ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen at 4 h post-feeding was significantly different, in which the 0% treatment had the highest (P < 0.05) while the 20% treatment had the lowest. Milk fat percentage was the highest (P < 0.05) in the 0% treatment. MSGB replacement at 40% and 60% were shown to be the lowest (P < 0.05) feed cost for milk production, and profitability of milk production was the highest (P < 0.05) for the 60% treatment. Based on this experiment, it could be concluded that MSGB replacement for soybean meal at 20-60% in the feed for dairy cows presented no negative effects on their performances. In addition, it could decrease feed cost 2.9-17.3% and increase milk production profit up to 33.3% in the 60% treatment. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  10. Peptides from Fish By-product Protein Hydrolysates and Its Functional Properties: an Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Sillero, Juan; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Prentice, Carlos

    2018-03-13

    The inadequate management of fish processing waste or by-products is one of the major problems that fish industry has to face nowadays. The mismanagement of this raw material leads to economic loss and environmental problems. The demand for the use of these by-products has led to the development of several processes in order to recover biomolecules from fish by-products. An efficient way to add value to fish waste protein is protein hydrolysis. Protein hydrolysates improve the functional properties and allow the release of peptides of different sizes with several bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, or antihyperglycemic among others. This paper reviews different methods for the production of protein hydrolysates as well as current research about several fish by-products protein hydrolysates bioactive properties, aiming the dual objective: adding value to these underutilized by-products and minimizing their negative impact on the environment.

  11. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Liming efficacy and transport in soil of a dry PFBC by-product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The by-products of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems are mixtures of coal ash, anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), and unspent alkaline sorbent. Because PFBC by-products are alkaline and contain large concentrations of readily soluble bases (Ca and in some cases Mg) and other essential plant nutrients such as S and K, they have potential use as soil amendments, especially in acidic soils. PFBC by-products (particularly those with large Mg contents) may cause excessively high soluble salt concentrations when applied to soil. This could be detrimental to plant growth and might also impact the release of trace elements from the coal ash component of the by-product. In field experiments on three acidic soils, the liming effectiveness of a PFBC by-product, its effects on corn and alfalfa growth, and its impacts on crop, soil, and water quality were investigated

  13. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  17. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  18. 10 CFR 35.396 - Training for the parenteral administration of unsealed byproduct material requiring a written...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Unsealed Byproduct Material-Written Directive Required § 35.396 Training... radioactivity; (iv) Chemistry of byproduct material for medical use; and (v) Radiation biology; and (2) Has work..., and performing the related radiation surveys; (ii) Performing quality control procedures on...

  19. An Overview of the Utilisation of Brewery By-Products as Generated by British Craft Breweries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Kerby

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of information available on by-product disposal methods used by large national breweries. However, little information is available on the methods of by-product disposal used by craft breweries. An investigation was carried out in which 200+ British craft brewers were contacted, of which 90 craft brewers provided basic information about their brewery operations and by-product disposal. Representatives of eleven breweries were interviewed to provide an in-depth case study of their by-product disposal methods. The research found that urban craft brewers use a wider range of disposal methods compared to rural craft brewers; urban brewers dispose of more waste through sewage and landfill, as well as using external companies, such as bio-recycling and anaerobic digester plants, whereas rural brewers have relationships with farmers who dispose of the by-products in various ways. Craft brewers tend to have a direct relationship with the by-product users. Even though they do not have all disposal options available to them which the large industrial breweries have, due to their small scale of by-product production, craft brewers appear to find alternative means of sustainability.

  20. Multivariate study of Nile tilapia byproducts enriched with omega-3 and dried with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz ZANQUI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work aimed at studying the effect of different drying methods applied to tilapia byproducts (heads, viscera and carcasses fed with flaxseed, verifying the contents of omega-3 fatty acids. Two diets were given to the tilapia: a control and a flaxseed formulation, over the course of 60 days. After this period, they were slaughtered and their byproducts (heads, viscera and carcasses were collected. These fish parts were analyzed in natura, lyophilized and oven dried. Byproducts from tilapia fed with flaxseed presented docosapentaenoic, eicopentaenoic and docosahexanoic fatty acids as a result of the enzymatic metabolism of the fish. The byproducts from the oven drying process had lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the multivariate analysis, the byproducts from fish fed with flaxseed had a greater composition of fatty acids. The addition of flaxseed in fish diets, as well as the utilization of their byproducts, may become a good business strategy. Additionally, the byproducts may be dried to facilitate transport and storage.

  1. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Annatto byproduct is the residue from the extraction of powder dye that covers the seed pericarp; after processing, between 94% and 98% of the original product is considered a byproduct. The aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of annatto byproduct on the components of sheep body weight. Thirty-two male sheep, not castrated, with initial weight of 23.17 ± 1.45 kg, without a defined breed, were used in randomized blocks in all four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct in the diet dry matter. The increase to 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct had a negative linear effect (P < 0.05 for hot carcass weight (kg and cold carcass weight (kg. Increasing levels of annatto byproduct resulted in a linear reduction (P < 0.05 for palette weight (kg, leg weight (kg, carcass compactness index (kg cm?1, liver weight (kg and skin weight (kg. The inclusion of annatto byproduct up to 200 g kg?1 of dry matter in sheep diets did not affect the components of sheep body weight.

  2. [Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Lu; Zhang, Meng-lu; Wang, Chun-ming; Lin, Hui-rong; Yu, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA > CH > CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance might be related to DBPs in drinking water systems. Besides the genotoxicological risks, the epidemiological risks of DBPs should not be overlooked.

  3. Lycopersicon esculentum seeds: an industrial byproduct as an antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Marcos; Silva, Luís R; Vale-Silva, Luís A; Pinto, Eugénia; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-09-08

    Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) fruit is a widely studied matrix. However, only few works focus their attention on its seeds, which constitute a major byproduct of the tomato processing industry. In this study the antimicrobial potential of ten different tomato seed extracts from "Bull's heart" and "Cherry" varieties were analyzed against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum). Regarding antibacterial capacity, the different extracts were revealed to be active only against Gram-positive bacteria, E. faecalis being the most susceptible one (MIC: 2.5-10 mg/mL). Concerning antifungal activity, "Bull's heart" extracts were the most active. In a general way C. albicans was the most susceptible species (MIC: 5-10 mg/mL). The chemical composition of the extracts was also pursued, concerning organic acids, phenolics and fatty acids, in order to establish a possible relationship with the observed antimicrobial effect.

  4. Tracing disinfection byproducts in full-scale desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Le Roux, Julien

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the formation and the behavior of halogenated byproducts (regulated THMs and HAAs, as well as nitrogenous, brominated and iodinated DBPs including the emerging iodo-THMs) along the treatment train of full-scale desalination plants. One thermal multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) plant and two reverse osmosis (RO) plants located on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. DBPs formed during the prechlorination step were efficiently removed along the treatment processes (MSF or RO). Desalination plants fed with good seawater quality and using intermittent chlorine injection did not show high DBP formation and discharge. One RO plant with a lower raw water quality and using continuous chlorination at the intake formed more DBPs. In this plant, some non-regulated DBPs (e.g., dibromoacetonitrile and iodo-THMs) reached the product water in low concentrations (< 1.5 μg/L). Regulated THMs and HAAs were far below their maximum contamination levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Substantial amounts of DBPs are disposed to the sea; low concentrations of DBPs were indeed detected in the water on shore of the desalination plants.

  5. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazal Akyol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  6. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-05-27

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato's skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the "alternative" food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  7. Natural Radiation in byproducts of the production of phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli da; Cardoso, L.L.; Medina, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the largest source of radiation exposure to which man is subject. It is formed basically by cosmic radiation and the radionuclides present in the Earth crust, as 40 K and the elements of the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. Phosphate ores, which constitutes the raw material for the production of phosphoric acid, have a high rate of natural radiation from the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. Phosphogypsum, which is naturally radioactivity, is a by-product of the production of phosphoric acid by the wet method. For each ton of phosphoric acid it is produced about 4.5 tons of phosphogypsum. This work presents the analysis of samples collected in all stages of the manufacturing process of phosphoric acid, which generates the phosphogypsum. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of the elements of the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. All analyzed samples showed a high concentration of radionuclides, promoting the need for further steps in the process in order to reduce the presence of such radionuclides in the phosphogypsum. The results indicate the radionuclide 238 U has higher contribution in some samples of the intermediate stages of the process. All samples exceeded the international average range of human exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation, which is 0.3 to 1.0 mSv/year. (author)

  8. Antirotaviral Activity of Bovine and Ovine Dairy Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrón, José Antonio; Ripollés, Daniel; Pérez, María Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Rasmussen, Jan Trige; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2017-05-31

    Rotaviral gastroenteritis is associated with significant morbidity in developed countries and a high rate of infant mortality in developing countries. Diverse studies have demonstrated that a wide range of milk-derived fractions exhibit antirotaviral activity. The present study shows the antirotaviral activity of some bovine and ovine dairy byproducts, buttermilk, butter serum, and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), and evaluates the effect of cream washing and heat treatment on that activity. Furthermore, the rotavirus-neutralizing activity was evaluated for some MFGM proteins, such as xanthine oxidase and lactophorin. Ovine and bovine buttermilk reached rotavirus-neutralizing values of 51.3 and 32.2%, at 1 mg/mL, respectively. The cream washing process led to a significant decrease in the antirotaviral activity of fractions. This activity was also influenced by heat treatment. Treatment at 75 °C for 20 s caused 24.6 and 36.1% decreases of activity in bovine and ovine buttermilk, respectively, and 85 °C for 10 min caused decreases of 80.9 and 79.0% in both fractions, respectively.

  9. Predictive QSAR Models for the Toxicity of Disinfection Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Litang; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Yuhan; Mo, Lingyun; Zeng, Honghu; Liang, Yanpeng

    2017-10-09

    Several hundred disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water have been identified, and are known to have potentially adverse health effects. There are toxicological data gaps for most DBPs, and the predictive method may provide an effective way to address this. The development of an in-silico model of toxicology endpoints of DBPs is rarely studied. The main aim of the present study is to develop predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for the reactive toxicities of 50 DBPs in the five bioassays of X-Microtox, GSH+, GSH-, DNA+ and DNA-. All-subset regression was used to select the optimal descriptors, and multiple linear-regression models were built. The developed QSAR models for five endpoints satisfied the internal and external validation criteria: coefficient of determination ( R ²) > 0.7, explained variance in leave-one-out prediction ( Q ² LOO ) and in leave-many-out prediction ( Q ² LMO ) > 0.6, variance explained in external prediction ( Q ² F1 , Q ² F2 , and Q ² F3 ) > 0.7, and concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC ) > 0.85. The application domains and the meaning of the selective descriptors for the QSAR models were discussed. The obtained QSAR models can be used in predicting the toxicities of the 50 DBPs.

  10. Predictive QSAR Models for the Toxicity of Disinfection Byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litang Qin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several hundred disinfection byproducts (DBPs in drinking water have been identified, and are known to have potentially adverse health effects. There are toxicological data gaps for most DBPs, and the predictive method may provide an effective way to address this. The development of an in-silico model of toxicology endpoints of DBPs is rarely studied. The main aim of the present study is to develop predictive quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR models for the reactive toxicities of 50 DBPs in the five bioassays of X-Microtox, GSH+, GSH−, DNA+ and DNA−. All-subset regression was used to select the optimal descriptors, and multiple linear-regression models were built. The developed QSAR models for five endpoints satisfied the internal and external validation criteria: coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.7, explained variance in leave-one-out prediction (Q2LOO and in leave-many-out prediction (Q2LMO > 0.6, variance explained in external prediction (Q2F1, Q2F2, and Q2F3 > 0.7, and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC > 0.85. The application domains and the meaning of the selective descriptors for the QSAR models were discussed. The obtained QSAR models can be used in predicting the toxicities of the 50 DBPs.

  11. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  12. Disinfection by-product formation during seawater desalination: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daekyun; Amy, Gary L; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-09-15

    Due to increased freshwater demand across the globe, seawater desalination has become the technology of choice in augmenting water supplies in many parts of the world. The use of chemical disinfection is necessary in desalination plants for pre-treatment to control both biofouling as well as the post-disinfection of desalinated water. Although chlorine is the most commonly used disinfectant in desalination plants, its reaction with organic matter produces various disinfection by-products (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes [THMs], haloacetic acids [HAAs], and haloacetonitriles [HANs]), and some DBPs are regulated in many countries due to their potential risks to public health. To reduce the formation of chlorinated DBPs, alternative oxidants (disinfectants) such as chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and ozone can be considered, but they also produce other types of DBPs. In addition, due to high levels of bromide and iodide concentrations in seawater, highly cytotoxic and genotoxic DBP species (i.e., brominated and iodinated DBPs) may form in distribution systems, especially when desalinated water is blended with other source waters having higher levels of organic matter. This article reviews the knowledge accumulated in the last few decades on DBP formation during seawater desalination, and summarizes in detail, the occurrence of DBPs in various thermal and membrane plants involving different desalination processes. The review also identifies the current challenges and future research needs for controlling DBP formation in seawater desalination plants and to reduce the potential toxicity of desalinated water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Marcela L; Labuckas, Diana O; Lamarque, Alicia L; Maestri, Damián M

    2010-09-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  15. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  16. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  17. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  18. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids, were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

  19. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  20. Advanced Characterization of Rare Earth Elements in Coal Utilization Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verba, C.; Scott, M.; Dieterich, M.; Poston, J.; Collins, K.

    2016-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) in various forms (e.g., crystalline mineral phases; adsorbed/absorbed state on and into organic macerals, neoformed glass from flyash or bottom ash) from domestic feedstocks such as coal deposits to coal utilization byproducts (CUB) have the potential to reduce foreign REE dependence and increase domestic resource security. Characterization is critical for understanding environmental risks related to their fate and transport as well as determining the most practical and economical techniques for concentrating the REE and converting them into chemical stocks for manufacturing. Several complementary electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, EPMA-WDS, FIB-SEM, cathodoluminescence, and XRD) and post image processing techniques were used to understand REE transition from coal to CUB. Sites of interest were identified and imaged and respective elemental x-ray maps acquired and montaged. Pixel classification of SEM imagers was completed using image analysis techniques to quantify the distribution of REE associated features. Quantitative elemental analysis of phases were completed using EMPA-WDS followed by FIB-SEM. The FIB-SEM results were reconstructed into 3D volumes and features of interest (e.g. monazite) were analyzed to determine the structure and volumetric estimation of REEs and thus predict detrital REE phases to ICP-MS results. Trace minerals were identified as pyrite, zircon, REE-phosphates' (monazite, xenotime), and barite within the coal tailings. In CUB, amorphous aluminosilicates, iron oxide cenospheres, and calcium oxides were present; monazite appear to be unaltered and unaffected by the combustion process in these samples. Thermal decomposition may have occurred due to presence of detrital zircon and xenotime and subsequent thin Ca-oxide coating enriched in trace REEs.

  1. Disinfection byproduct regulatory compliance surrogates and bromide-associated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Chelsea; Francis, Royce A; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-08-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation. The regulated surrogate measures are intended to protect against not only the species they directly represent, but also against unregulated DBPs that are not routinely measured. Surrogates that do not incorporate effects of increasing bromide may not adequately capture human health risk associated with drinking water when source water bromide is elevated. The present study analyzes trihalomethanes (THMs), measured as TTHM, with varying source water bromide concentrations, and assesses its correlation with brominated THM, TTHM risk and species-specific THM concentrations and associated risk. Alternative potential surrogates are evaluated to assess their ability to capture THM risk under different source water bromide concentration conditions. The results of the present study indicate that TTHM does not adequately capture risk of the regulated species when source water bromide concentrations are elevated, and thus would also likely be an inadequate surrogate for many unregulated brominated species. Alternative surrogate measures, including THM 3 and the bromodichloromethane concentration, are more robust surrogates for species-specific THM risk at varying source water bromide concentrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Developing a byproduct materials information system for the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Kentucky has numerous coal-fired, electric generating facilities and, as a result, there are abundant byproduct materials being produced from these facilities that have environmental, engineering, and economic potential as materials for use in common...

  3. Incineration By-Products of AA2, NC Fines, and NG Slums

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cropek, Donald

    2001-01-01

    ...) and associated energetic wastes (EW). Knowledge of the by-products from incineration is invaluable for the proper design of emission control systems and selection of operating parameters to ensure maximum destruction efficiency...

  4. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  5. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  6. Efficient Removal of Ruthenium Byproducts from Olefin Metathesis Products by Simple Aqueous Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Simple aqueous extraction removed ruthenium byproducts efficiently from ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions catalyzed by a PEG-supported N-heterocyclic carbene-based ruthenium complex. PMID:17428062

  7. Biocide by-products in aquatic environments. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments Program is composed of analytical chemistry and biological phases with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objectives of the analytical studies are: to identify those chloroorganic chemical compounds that result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater; to develop methods for detecting chlorinated organics in the effluents discharged to receiving water bodies from nuclear stations; and to verify laboratory findings through analysis for chlorination by-products in water and biota samples from cooling water bodies of nuclear power stations. The objectives of the biological studies are: to investigate the immediate toxicity of specific chlorination by-products (chloroform in freshwater and bromoform in marine waters); to evaluate the chronic toxicity of chlorination by-products; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification of halogenated hydrocarbons on selected aquatic or marine biota

  8. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Byproducts Reporting for the Printed Circuit Board Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides information on existing Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to byproducts reporting by persons who manufacture printed circuit boards and may be subject to CDR.

  9. Characterization of Rare Earth Element Minerals in Coal Utilization Byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montross, Scott N. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Verba, Circe A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Research Innovation Center; Collins, Keith [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Research Innovation Center

    2017-07-17

    The United States currently produces over 100 million tons of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) per year in the form of fly ash, bottom ash, slag, and flue gas (American Coal Ash Association (ACCA), 2015). But this “waste material” also contains potentially useful levels of rare earth elements (REE). Rare earth elements are crucial for many existing and emerging technologies, but the U.S. lacks a domestic, sustainable REE source. Our project explored the possibility of developing a supply of REEs for U.S. technologies by extracting REEs from CUBs. This work offers the potential to reduce our dependence on other countries for supply of these critical elements (NETL, REE 2016 Project Portfolio). Geologic and diagenetic history, industrial preparation methods, and the specific combustion process all play major roles in the composition of CUB. During combustion, inorganic mineral phases of coal particles are fluidized at temperatures higher than 1400oC, so inorganic mineral materials are oxidized, fused, disintegrated, or agglomerated into larger spherical and amorphous (non-crystalline) particles. The original mineralogy of the coal-containing rock and heating/cooling of the material significantly affects the composition and morphology of the particles in the combustion byproduct (Kutchko and Kim, 2006). Thus, different types of coal/refuse/ash must be characterized to better understand mineral evolution during the combustion process. Our research focused on developing a working model to address how REE minerals behave during the combustion process: this research should help determine the most effective engineering methods for extracting REEs from CUBs. We used multimodal imaging and image processing techniques to characterize six rock and ash samples from different coal power plants with respect to morphology, grain size, presence of mineral phases, and elemental composition. The results of these characterization activities provided thresholds for realizing the

  10. Production of protein hydrolysates from fish byproduct prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Murna Muzaifa; Novi Safriani; Fahrizal Zakaria

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the production of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) from fish by-product prepared by enzymatichydrolysis. Fish by-product were prepared using Alcalase and Flavourzyme enzyme and properties of FPH were analyzed. The resultsshowed that FPH prepared using Alcalase enzyme had greater amount of protein (82.66%) than FPH prepared using Flavourzyme enzyme(73.51%). Solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of FPH prepared using Alcalase were also better t...

  11. Utilization of By-products of Acacia processing for Biogas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lehkonen, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Acacia is a widely used raw material in South America, South Africa and Australia. Acacia is processed for different purposes e.g.in manufacturing barbeque char and tannin extracts which are further refined as biopolymers. By-products generated in processing are poorly utilized. Processing residues are mostly landfilled instead of considering them as a value added raw material. Thus, utilization of these by-products is an important new research subject due to increasing use of acacia tree wor...

  12. Bromatological and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silages with the addition of annato by-product

    OpenAIRE

    Rêgo,Margareth Maria Teles; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Cavalcante,Maria Andréa Borges; Cândido,Magno José Duarte; Clementino,Rossana Herculano; Restle,João

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional value of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum.) silages with the addition of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of the by-product from SPU annato (Bixa orellana, L.) based on natural matter. A complete random design was used with four replications. The nutritional composition, pH, ammonical nitrogen and lactic, acetic, propyonic and butyric acids were determined. Levels of annato by-product had an increasingly linear effect on content...

  13. New perspectives on the cancer risks of trichloroethylene, its metabolites, and chlorination by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Slone, T.; Gold, L.S.; Manley, N.; Revzan, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-08

    Scientific developments in the 1990`s have important implications for the assessment of cancer risks posed by exposures to trichloroethylene (TCE). These new developments include: epidemiological studies; experimental studies of TCE carcinogenicity, metabolism and metabolite carcinogenicity; applications of new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for TCE; and new pharmacodynamic data obtained for TCE and its rhetabolites. Following a review of previous assessments of TCE carcinogenicity, each of these new sets of developments is summarized. The new epidemiological data do not provide evidence of TCE carcinogenicity in humans, and the new pharmacodynamic data support the hypothesis that TCE carcinogenicity is caused by TCE-induced cytotoxicity. Based on this information, PBPK-based estimates for likely no-adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for human exposures to TCE are calculated to be 16 ppb for TCE in air respired 24 hr/day, and 210 ppb for TCE in drinking water. Cancer risks of zero are predicted for TCE exposures below these calculated NOAELs. For comparison, hypothetical cancer risks posed by lifetime ingestive and multiroute household exposures to TCE in drinking water, at the currently enforced Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) concentration of 5 ppb are extrapolated from animal bioassay data using a conservative, linear dose-response model. These TCE-related risks are compared to corresponding ones associated with concentrations of chlorination by-products (CBP) in household water. It is shown that, from the standpoint of comparative hypothetical cancer risks, based on conservative linear dose-response extrapolations, there would likely be no health benefit, and more likely a possible health detriment, associated with any switch from a household water supply containing <375 ppb TCE to one containing CBP at levels corresponding to the currently proposed 80-ppb MCL for total trihalomethanes.

  14. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation ... Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  3. Running head: Ensiled catfish by-products for finishing pigs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-07-25

    Jul 25, 2016 ... delimiting the contour of the LD muscle, wrapped in plastic, with a special pen, and calculating the area using a planimeter. Fresh loin muscle samples were ..... Fish meal, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods. J. Anim. Sci. 84, 2752-2765. Folch, J., Lees, M.

  4. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques of Disinfection By-Products from Water Disinfected by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the fini...

  5. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  6. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  7. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  8. Nutritional evaluation of elephant-grass silages with different levels of by-products from the cashew juice industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility (AD, and degradability in situ of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silages containing 0, 35.0, 70.0, 105.0, and 140.0 g kg-1 by-product from dried cashew apple (DCBP (as fed basis. A completely randomized design with four replicates was adopted. For the study of degradability in situ, one adult male cattle was used in a completely randomized design with split plots. Intake and AD of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, and cellulose were evaluated, and the digestible energy (DE and nitrogen balance (NB of the silages were determined. The degradability in situ of DM, CP, and NDF was also determined. Addition of DCBP provided an increase in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF. No effects of the levels of addition of DCBP were observed on the coefficients of AD of the silages. Regarding NB, positive values were only detected in the treatment with 105.0 g kg-1 DCBP. In the analysis of the degradability in situ, the incubation periods increased the rates of disappearance of DM, CP, and NDF. However, no effect of the levels of DCBP were observed on the effective degradability of DM. The by-product from dried cashew apple can be included at up to 140.0 g kg-1 in silages of elephant grass, but the high contents of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen may compromise the use and availability of nitrogen to the animals.

  9. Neutron activation analysis for determining of inorganic trace elements in by-products of soybean, cotton, corn, wheat, sorghum and rice; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para determinacao de elementos inorganicos em subprodutos da soja, algodao, milho, trigo, sorgo e arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teruya, Carla M.; Armelin, Maria Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva Filho, Jose Cleto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Ciencias Animais; Silva, Aliomar G. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste

    1999-11-01

    In the present paper the instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine some essential and toxic elements in six agroindustrial by-products utilized to feed animal. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by means of reference material analysis. In general, the precision of the method was lower than 10% and the accuracy near to 5%. (author) 7 refs., 1 tab.

  10. The effect of feed composition on anaerobic co-digestion of animal-processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, D; Martín-Marroquín, J M; Corona, F

    2017-06-17

    Four streams and their mixtures have been considered for anaerobic co-digestion, all of them generated during pig carcasses processing or in related industrial activities: meat flour (MF), process water (PW), pig manure (PM) and glycerin (GL). Biochemical methane potential assays were conducted at 37 °C to evaluate the effects of the substrate mix ratio on methane generation and process behavior. The results show that the co-digestion of these products favors the anaerobic fermentation process when limiting the amount of meat flour in the mixture to co-digest, which should not exceed 10%. The ratio of other tested substrates is less critical, because different mixtures reach similar values of methane generation. The presence in the mixture of process water contributes to a quick start of the digester, something very interesting when operating an industrial reactor. The analysis of the fraction digested reveals that the four analyzed streams can be, a priori, suitable for agronomic valorization once digested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ol Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  14. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  15. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  16. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  17. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  18. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  19. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  20. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  2. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  3. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  4. Spatial and temporal evaluations of disinfection by-products in drinking water distribution systems in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianrong; Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi; Yang, Linsheng; Tao, Jing; Hang, Zhiyu

    2010-09-15

    Disinfection by-products were determined in 15 water treatment plants in Beijing City. The effects of different water sources (surface water source, mixture water source and ground water source), seasonal variation and spatial variation were examined. Trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were the major disinfection by-products found in all treated water samples, which accounted for 42.6% and 38.1% of all disinfection by-products respectively. Other disinfection by-products including haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, haloketones and chloropicrin were usually detected in treated water samples but at lower concentrations. The levels of disinfection by-products in drinking water varied with different water sources and followed the order: surface water source > mixture water source > ground water source. High spatial and seasonal variation of disinfection by-products in the drinking water of Beijing was shown as a result. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of by-products from fresh-cut products for reuse as bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, M P; Aguayo, E

    2013-10-01

    The fresh-cut industry is constantly growing and generating wastes. The major challenge for this industry consists in an environmentally sustainable production through re-utilization of by-products, for instance, in extraction of bioactive compounds. In this paper, the nutritional and functional compounds of apple, potato, cucumber, melon and watermelon by-products were investigated. The amount of by-product produced was of 10.10 to 30.80% of initial fresh weight depending on the product. By-products were characterized by low protein (product. In most cases, the nutritional and bioactive content was higher in the peel than in whole product. Apple peel was rich in carbohydrates, total dietary fibre, antioxidants and total polyphenols. Potato peel was high in iron. Melon was rich in magnesium. Watermelon peel was characterized by the level of potassium, and cucumber peel was rich in manganese, zinc, phosphorous, calcium and sodium. All these data demonstrate than natural by-product from fresh-cut industry could potentially be utilized as ingredients to design new functional foods with a future market.

  6. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  7. Effect and key factors of byproducts valorization: the case of dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, A; Cruijssen, F; Claassen, G D H; van der Vorst, J G A J

    2014-01-01

    Production of many consumer products results in byproducts that contain a considerably large part of nutrients originating from input materials. High production volumes, environmental impact, and nutritional content of byproducts make them an important subject for careful valorization. Valorization allows us to explore the possibility of reusing nutrients in the production of main products, and thus highlights the potential gains that can be achieved. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the added value of cheese whey valorization, and to determine the effect of integral valorization of main products and byproducts on the profit of a dairy producer. Several scenarios and cases were implemented and analyzed using a decision support tool, the integral dairy valorization model. Data originated from the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina (Amersfoort, the Netherlands). The outcomes of scenarios were analyzed with regard to profit and shifts in the production of nonwhey end products, and were validated by company experts. Modeling results showed that the valorization of byproducts is very profitable (24.3% more profit). Furthermore, additional profit can be achieved when 2 valorization processes (main products and byproducts) are integrated. This effect is, however, considerably affected by current capacity and market demand limitations. Significant benefits can be created if demand of whey-based products is increased by 25%. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  9. Mineral composition of fruit by-products evaluated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriela de Matuoka e Chiocchetti; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Macio Arruda Bacchi; Rogerio Augusto Pazim; Silvana Regina Vicino Sarries; Thais Melega Tome

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest producers of fruits cropping 40 million tons per year. In agro-food processing, approximately 50 % of raw material is discarded generating large amounts of by-products. The lack of information on the nutritional quality of agroindustrial by-products precludes their potential use in the manufacture of food products accessible to all. In this context, the objective of this work was to investigate the nutritional quality of by-products of the industrial processing of fruits. Samples of bagasse, peel and seeds of several fruits (banana, camu camu, coconut, cupuacu, guava, jackfruit, mango, orange, papaya, pineapple, and soursop) were analysed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. In general, higher levels of minerals were found in the by-products rather than in the pulps of fruits. This indicates that the use of the by-products should be encouraged, thereby reducing the economic and environmental impact of waste generated by agroindustrial processing. (author)

  10. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  11. Microwave assisted dehydration of broccoli by-products and simultaneous extraction of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sónia S; Passos, Cláudia P; Cardoso, Susana M; Wessel, Dulcineia F; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2018-04-25

    Broccoli by-products from frozen-food industry account for 45% of the initial broccoli heads. They consist on stalks, inflorescences, and leaves, blanched and non-blanched, sharing the nutritional value and bioactive compounds of commercial broccoli heads. However, their high perishability prevents further valorisation. Therefore, in this study microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) technology was used to dehydrate broccoli by-products and simultaneously recover the water-soluble diffused compounds for food ingredients use. The hydrodiffusion allowed to obtain a dried material with 12% moisture in 43 min when 550 g of broccoli by-products were used, preserving polysaccharides and proteins. Diffused water contained up to 317 µg/mL gallic acid equivalents of phenolic compounds, 11 mg/mL free sugars, 9 mg/mL amino acids, and 356 µg/mL glucosinolates, depending on the type of by-product used. These results show the potential of MHG technology for valorisation of broccoli by-products by its simultaneous stabilization by dehydration and extraction of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery potential of cold press byproducts obtained from the edible oil industry: physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Karasu, Salih; Tornuk, Fatih; Toker, Omer Said; Geçgel, Ümit; Sagdic, Osman; Ozcan, Nihat; Gül, Osman

    2015-03-04

    Physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties of different cold press edible oil byproducts (almond (AOB), walnut (WOB), pomegranate (POB), and grape (GOB)) were investigated. Oil, protein, and crude fiber content of the byproducts were found between 4.82 and 12.57%, between 9.38 and 49.05%, and between 5.87 and 45.83%, respectively. GOB had very high crude fiber content; therefore, it may have potential for use as a new dietary fiber source in the food industry. As GOB, POB, and WOB oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, AOB was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Oil byproducts were also found to be rich in dietary mineral contents, especially potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. WOB had highest total phenolic (802 ppm), flavonoid (216 ppm), and total hydrolyzed tannin (2185 ppm) contents among the other byproducts. Volatile compounds of all the byproducts are mainly composed of terpenes in concentration of approximately 95%. Limonene was the dominant volatile compound in all of the byproducts. Almond and pomegranate byproduct extracts showed antibacterial activity depending on their concentration, whereas those of walnut and grape byproducts showed no antibacterial activity against any pathogenic bacteria tested. According to the results of the present study, walnut, almond, pomegranate, and grape seed oil byproducts possess valuable properties that can be taken into consideration for improvement of nutritional and functional properties of many food products.

  13. By-products of fruits processing as a source of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Djilas

    Full Text Available The processing of fruits results in high amounts of waste materials such as peels, seeds, stones, and oilseed meals. A disposal of these materials usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Thus new aspects concerning the use of these wastes as by-products for further exploitation on the production of food additives or supplements with high nutritional value have gained increasing interest because these are high-value products and their recovery may be economically attractive. It is well known that by-products represent an important source of sugars, minerals, organic acid, dietary fibre and phenolics which have a wide range of action which includes antitumoral, antiviral, antibacterial, cardioprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review discusses the potential of the most important by-products of apple, grape and citrus fruits processing as a source of valuable compounds. The relevance of this topic is illustrated by a number of references.

  14. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta; Poulsen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    -glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene expression was upregulated but only in rats given the onion residue. The onion by-products as well as the soluble and insoluble fractions had prebiotic effects as evidenced by decreased pH, increased butyrate production and altered gut microbiota enzyme activities...... of this onion by-product were shared by either of two derived fractions, an extract containing the onion FOS and polyphenols and a residue fraction containing mainly cell wall materials. We report here on the effects of feeding these products on markers of potential toxicity, protective enzymes and gut......Onions are excellent sources of bioactive compounds including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polyphenols. An onion by-product was characterised in order to be developed as a potentially bioactive food ingredient. Our main aim was to investigate whether the potential health and safety effects...

  15. RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

    1998-03-01

    The goals of the project are two-fold: (1) to upgrade semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) methods presently used in analyzing complex coal combustion by-product (CCB) systems, with the quantitative Rietveld method, and (2) to apply this method to a set of by-product materials that have been disposed or utilized for a long period (5 years or more) in contact with the natural environment, to further study the nature of CCB diagenesis. The project is organized into three tasks to accomplish these two goals: (1) thorough characterization of a set of previously analyzed disposed by-product materials, (2) development of a set of CCB-specific protocols for Rietveld QXRD, and (3) characterization of an additional set of disposed CCB materials, including application of the protocols for Rietveld QXRD developed in Task 2.

  16. RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

    1998-09-01

    The goals of the project are two-fold: (1) to upgrade semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) methods presently used in analyzing complex coal combustion by-product (CCB) systems, with the quantitative Rietveld method, and (2) to apply this method to a set of by-product materials that have been disposed or utilized for a long period (5 years or more) in contact with the natural environment, to further study the nature of CCB diagenesis. The project is organized into three tasks to accomplish these two goals: (1) thorough characterization of a set of previously analyzed disposed by-product materials, (2) development of a set of CCB-specific protocols for Rietveld QXRD, and (3) characterization of an additional set of disposed CCB materials, including application of the protocols for Rietveld QXRD developed in Task 2.

  17. Formation and modeling of disinfection by-products in drinking water of six cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi; Yang, Linsheng; Wei, Jianrong; E, Xueli

    2011-05-01

    Water quality parameters including TOC, UV(254), pH, chlorine dosage, bromide concentration and disinfection by-products were measured in water samples from 41 water treatment plants of six selected cities in China. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the major disinfection by-products in the drinking water of China. Bromoform and dibromoacetic acid were also detected in many water samples. Higher concentrations of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were measured in summer compared to winter. The geographical variations in DBPs showed that TTHM levels were higher in Zhengzhou and Tianjin than other selected cities. And the HAA5 levels were highest in Changsha and Tianjin. The modeling procedure that predicts disinfection by-products formation was studied and developed using artificial neural networks. The performance of the artificial neural networks model was excellent (r > 0.84).

  18. IGCC and PFBC By-Products: Generation, Characteristics, and Management Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-09-01

    The following report is a compilation of data on by-products/wastes from clean coal technologies, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). DOE had two objectives in providing this information to EPA: (1) to familiarize EPA with the DOE CCT program, CCT by-products, and the associated efforts by DOE contractors in the area of CCT by-product management and (2) to provide information that will facilitate EPA's effort by complementing similar reports from industry groups, including CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners) and EEI USWAG (Edison Electric Institute Utility Solid Waste Activities Group). The EERC cooperated and coordinated with DOE CCT contractors and industry groups to provide the most accurate and complete data on IGCC and PFBC by-products, although these technologies are only now being demonstrated on the commercial scale through the DOE CCT program.

  19. Soluble dietary fiber from Canna edulis Ker by-product and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Wu

    2013-01-30

    Using Canna edulis Ker by-product as raw materials, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared using six different methods, including chemical, physical-chemical, enzymatic, physical-enzymatic, chemical-enzymatic and physical-chemical-enzymatic methods. As main component in the C. edulis by-product composed of cellulose, glucose converts to other single sugars, which form a series of compounds in the SDF. The treated methods have impact effects on single sugar composition, metal ion content, molecular size distribution, chemical bonds and groups in the structure, thermal property and color of the final product. In view of security, high yield and homogeneity as well as good thermal stability of final product, physical-enzymatic method will be a best choice for the production of SDF from C. edulis by-product. The SDF obtained can be used as dietary supplement and additive in the food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Persimmon Byproducts and Incorporation in Biodegradable Sodium Alginate Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Gnoc, Nguyen Trong Bao; Chin, Koo Bok

    2017-10-01

    Fruit industrial wastes such as persimmon seed, peel, and calyx were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their antioxidant activities were compared with byproduct powders having different granularities. The AgNPs were incorporated in sodium alginate thin films and transparency and mechanical properties of the films was analyzed. Persimmon byproduct AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The byproduct AgNPs displayed higher antioxidant activities than powders of different granularities (P silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which were incorporated in sodium alginate thin films. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities and mechanical properties of the films that could be useful in the manufacture of food packaging using biodegradable films. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  2. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

  7. Manufacture of phosphatic fertilisers and recovery of byproduct uranium - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, R.J.

    1975-11-01

    The processes used in the production of phosphatic fertilisers are reviewed and those in which uranium can be extracted as a byproduct are described in detail. The current status of the world and Australian phosphate rock and fertiliser industries is described and production figures and marketing information for these industries are also presented. Techniques for the recovery of byproduct uranium during the processing of phosphate rock to fertilisers are also examined in detail. Recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction is the most promising approach. (author)

  8. Regulation of activities producing uranium as a by-product: South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajane, E.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of radioactive material in the gold bearing ores of the Witwatersrand was first noted in 1915; in 1923 the material was identified as uraninite. The gold bearing reefs of the Witwatersrand Basin were extensively assayed for uranium in the mid 1940s and full scale of Uranium production in the Republic of South Africa commenced in 1952 as a by-product of the Witwatersrand gold mining industry which was established in the 1880s. Since the early 1970s uranium has also been produced as a by-product from an open cast copper mine • A total of 27 uranium plants were constructed during the period 1952 to 1990.

  9. By-product utilisation within the Jamaica Broilers Group and factors determining secondary processing options implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, V. [Jamaica Broilers Group (Jamaica)

    1996-10-01

    Waste disposal within the agro-industrial sector of Jamaica was discussed. Seven options for utilisation of processing by-products within the Jamaica Broilers Group, which is involved in the production and processing of poultry, beef and fish, were presented. These were: rendering, composting, biofermentation, dry extrusion lagoons, biodigesters, solar drying, engineered marshes, and dumping. The criteria to be considered for an option to be effective were: location, type of by-product produced, and re-use potential of the end product. 4 figs.

  10. Conversion of the biodiesel by-product glycerol by the non-conventional yeast Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying

    The focus on de veloping new renewable energy in the transportation sector by the EU has boosted the production of biodiesel from rapeseed and other vegetable oils in Europe. This has led to an immense increase in the production of glycerol, which is an inevitable byproduct from the biodiesel...... production process. Since the volume of the glycerol by-product has exceeded the current market need, biodiesel producers are looking for new methods for sustainable glycerol management and improving the competitiveness of the biodiesel industries. The EU Commission funded GLYFINERY project is one initiative...

  11. An Argument for Animalism

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, E.T.

    2003-01-01

    The view that we are human animals, "animalism", is deeply unpopular. This\\ud paper explains what that claim says and why it is so contentious. It then\\ud argues that those who deny it face an awkward choice. They must either\\ud deny that there are any human animals, deny that human animals can think,\\ud or deny that we are the thinking things located where we are.

  12. Animal Welfare Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L. Lusk; F. Bailey Norwood

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights some key areas where economics can contribute to the current debate about animal welfare. Production economics reveals that producers will not maximize animal welfare, even if animal well-being is highly correlated with output. Welfare economics raises thorny issues about the double-counting of benefits when humans exhibit altruism towards animals, while public economics uncovers potential market failures and possible solutions. Consumer economics provides a means of d...

  13. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  14. [Ethics and animal experiments.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Taylor Brandão; Souza, Cláudio de

    2003-04-01

    This is a major subject since the aim is to grant human beings physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being without forgetting the sacred rights of all animals. Most international codes dealing with health-related research practices state that research developed in human beings should be based on previous lab animal experiments or on other scientific data. This article aimed at explaining ethics in animal experiments. The concepts of dissertation and thesis, experimental thesis, experimental essay or pilot experiment and experimental animal facilities are reviewed. Then, a historical retrospective is drawn about the first attempt to develop experimental research policies during the mid 19th Century, in London. It is highlighted that some criteria defined by that time still persist. The first animal research ethical committee was created in Sweden in 1979, followed by the USA in1984. In Brazil, animal research ethical committees were created as late as in the 90s. The Federal Law 6638 was passed in May 1979 and provides for the didactic-scientific practice of animal vivisection. This law, however, is still waiting for regulation. In addition, there are some drafts being analyzed by the Congress, which provide for the use of animals for teaching and research purposes. Finally, the policies adopted by the Brazilian College of Animal Experiments and the Universal Declaration of Animal Rights are presented. Professors, postgraduates, residents and graduate students of a Medical School involved in animal research should be aware of the ethical principles aiming at protecting animals selected for scientific work.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  16. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  17. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...

  18. Full, Reactive Solubilization of Humin Byproducts by Alkaline Treatment and Characterization of the Alkali-Treated Humins Formed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zandvoort, Ilona; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; de Peinder, Peter; Heeres, Hero J.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    The valorization of the humin byproducts that are formed during hydrothermal, acid-catalyzed dehydration of carbohydrates is hampered by the insolubility of these byproducts. Here, we report on an alkaline pretreatment method that allows for the insolubility of this highly recalcitrant and

  19. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... THE UNITED STATES § 95.30 Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 exists. (a...

  20. 19 CFR 19.15 - Withdrawal for exportation of articles manufactured in bond; waste or byproducts for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufactured in bond; waste or byproducts for consumption. 19.15 Section 19.15 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... exportation of articles manufactured in bond; waste or byproducts for consumption. (a) Except cigars... may be withdrawn from the warehouse for consumption under Customs Form 7501 upon payment of the duties...

  1. 78 FR 51733 - Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for ortho-Toluidine and Pentachlorophenol and By-Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... and Pentachlorophenol and By-Products of Its Synthesis; Availability of Documents; Request for... Carcinogens (RoC) Monographs for ortho-Toluidine and Pentachlorophenol and By-products of its Synthesis... manufacture herbicides, dyes, pigments, and rubber chemicals. It is currently listed as reasonably anticipated...

  2. Characterization of composting mixtures and compost of rabbit by-products to obtain a quality product and plant proposal for industrial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Biagio; Papajova, Ingrid; Tamborrino, Rosanna; Ventrella, Domenico; Vitti, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    In this study we have observed the effects of using rabbit manure and slaughtering by-products in a composting process. Three piles of this material, 4700 kg each, with different amount and C/N ratio, have been investigated and experimental tests were carried out in an industrial horizontal axe reactor using a prototype of turning machine. The composting time lasted 85 days; 2 experimental cycles were conducted: one in Winter and one in Summer. In the Winter test, mesophilic reaction started only in the control mixture (animal manure + slaughtering by-products without straw). It is noteworthy that, the 3 investigated mixtures produced soil amendment by compost with good agronomical potential but with parameters close to the extreme limits of the law. In the Summer test, there was thermophilic fermentation in all mixtures and a better quality compost was obtained, meeting all the agronomic and legislative constraints. For each pile, we examined the progression of fermentation process and thus the plant limitations that did not allow a correct composting process. The results obtained in this study are useful for the development of appropriate mixtures, machines, and plants assuring continuance and reliability in the composting of the biomass coming from rabbit industry.

  3. Termite resistance of biobased composition boards made from cotton byproducts and guayule bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB), also known as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste, are being produced across the cotton belt of the United States annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production is expected to increase as this industry begins to expand. Use of thes...

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of recalcitrant, insoluble humin byproducts from C6 sugar biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, Shilpa; Es, van Daan; Heeres, Hero Jan

    2017-01-01

    Humins are solid by-products formed during the acid-catalysed conversions of C-6 sugars to platform chemicals like hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid. We here report an experimental study on the liquefaction/depolymerisation of humins using catalytic pyrolysis. Synthetic humins (SH) and

  5. Towards the Valorization of Humin By-products: Characterization, Solubilization and Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, I. van

    2015-01-01

    During the acid-catalyzed dehydration of carbohydrates for the production of renewable bulk chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid, large amounts of carbonaceous, insoluble by-products are typically formed by cross-polymerization reactions of HMF and several

  6. Catalytic pyrolysis of recalcitrant, insoluble humin byproducts from C6 sugar biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, Shilpa; van Es, Daan; Heeres, Hero Jan

    Humins are solid by-products formed during the acid-catalysed conversions of C-6 sugars to platform chemicals like hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid. We here report an experimental study on the liquefaction/depolymerisation of humins using catalytic pyrolysis. Synthetic humins (SH) and crude

  7. Valorization of Humin-Based Byproducts from Biomass Processing - A Route to Sustainable Hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Thi Minh Chau; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of biomass-based top value-added chemical platforms, for example, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, furfural, or levulinic acid from the acid-catalyzed dehydration of sugars results in high yields of insoluble by-products, referred to as humin. Valorization of humin by steam reforming for H2

  8. Bioenergy by-products as soil amendments? Implications for carbon sequestration and greenhuise gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, M.L.; Oenema, O.; Kuikman, P.J.; Bakker, R.R.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An important but little understood aspect of bioenergy production is its overall impact on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Increased energy production from biomass will inevitably lead to higher input of its by-products to the soil as amendments or fertilizers. However, it is still unclear

  9. Fish by-product meal in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ferreira Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the increasing levels (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4% of fish by-product meal in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and economic analysis. A total of 160 Dekalb White hens with 52-wk old were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days divided into four periods of 21 days. Estimates of fish by-product meal levels were determined by polynomial regression. Differences (p < 0.05 were detected for all variables of performance, in egg weight, yolk and albumen percentage, yolk and albumen height, feed cost and production cost, in which the inclusion of fish by-product meal in the diets showed better results. It can be concluded that fish by-product meal can be used in diets for hens as alternative feed, with better results in egg production, feed conversion, egg weight, yolk-albumen ratio and a reduction in feed cost and production cost.

  10. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was soil.

  11. CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and Menstrual Cycle FunctionGayle C. Windham1, Kirsten Waller2, Meredith Anderson2, Laura Fenster1, Pauline Mendola3, Shanna Swan41California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disea...

  12. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  13. MODIFICATION OLIGOMER DERIVED FROM BY-PRODUCTS OF POLYBUTADIENE USING WASTE OF PRODUCTION OF PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the oligomer synthesized from polybutadiene waste byproducts formed during the production of phthalic anhydride comprising as a main component maleic acid was studied. The influence of temperature, duration of the process and content of the waste on the properties of the resulting product was considered.

  14. Batch Test Screening of Industrial Product/Byproduct Filter Materials for Agricultural Drainage Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J. Allred

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Filter treatment may be a viable means for removing the nitrate (NO3−, phosphate (PO43−, and pesticides discharged with agricultural drainage waters that cause adverse environmental impacts within the U.S. on local, regional, and national scales. Laboratory batch test screening for agricultural drainage water treatment potential was conducted on 58 industrial product/byproduct filter materials grouped into six categories: (1 high carbon content media; (2 high iron content media; (3 high aluminum content media; (4 surfactant modified clay/zeolite; (5 coal combustion residuals; and (6 spent foundry sands. Based on a percent contaminant removal criteria of 75% or greater, seven industrial products/byproducts were found to meet this standard for NO3− alone, 44 met this standard for PO43−, and 25 met this standard for the chlorinated triazine herbicide, atrazine. Using a 50% or greater contaminant removal criteria, five of the industrial product/byproduct filter materials exhibited potential for removing NO3−, PO43−, and atrazine together; eight showed capability for combined NO3− and PO43− removal; 21 showed capability for combined PO43− and atrazine removal; and nine showed capability for combined NO3− and atrazine removal. The results of this study delineated some potential industrial product/byproduct filter materials for drainage water treatment; however, a complete feasibility evaluation for drainage water treatment of any of these filter materials will require much more extensive testing.

  15. Availability and estimation of crop by-product yields for small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in some Local Government Areas of Cross River State of Nigeria to identify and ascertain the availability, level of production and the yields of crop by-products derived from commonly cultivated crops that can serve as feed for small ruminants. The results show that the various staple crops commonly ...

  16. Assessing the Toxicities of Regulated and Unregulated Disinfection By-products in Normal Human Colon Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of over six hundred disinfection by-products (DBPs) and less than half of the total organic halides present in finished water has created a need for short-term in vitro assays to address toxicities that might be associated with human exposure. . We are using a normal...

  17. Testing the Carcinogenic Potential of Water Disinfectant Byproducts in a Human Colon Mucosal Culture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Approximately 600 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have been identified for a number of disinfectants currently in use. An in-depth mechanism-based structure...

  18. High value co-products from wine byproducts (II): polyphenols and antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-07-01

    The by-products of the grape/wine industry have recently attracted considerable interest as important sources of high-value antioxidants. these can be extracted from stems, such as resveratrol,and from grape pomace which contains polyphenols, procyanidin and antrocyanins. (Author)

  19. Aqueous chlorination of acebutolol: kinetics, transformation by-products, and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalit, Wan Nor Adira Wan; Tay, Kheng Soo

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the reaction kinetics and the transformation by-products of acebutolol during aqueous chlorination. Acebutolol is one of the commonly used β-blockers for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment. In the kinetics study, the second-order rate constant for the reaction between acebutolol and chlorine (k app) was determined at 25 ± 0.1 °C. The degradation of acebutolol by free available chlorine was highly pH dependence. When the pH increased from 6 to 8, it was found that the k app for the reaction between acebutolol and free available chlorine was increased from 1.68 to 11.2 M(-1) min(-1). By comparing with the reported k app values, the reactivity of acebutolol toward free available chlorine was found to be higher than atenolol and metoprolol but lower than nadolol and propranolol. Characterization of the transformation by-products formed during the chlorination of acebutolol was carried out using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry. Seven major transformation by-products were identified. These transformation by-products were mainly formed through dealkylation, hydroxylation, chlorination, and oxidation reactions.

  20. Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin CHEN

    Full Text Available Abstract Oyster drying processes have produced a large amount of cooking soup byproducts. In this study, oyster cooking soup byproduct was concentrated and spray-dried after enzymatic hydrolysis to produce seasoning powder. Response surface methodology (RSM was performed on the basis of single-factor studies to optimize the feeding temperature, hot air temperature, atomization pressure, and total solid content of oyster drying. Results revealed the following optimized parameters of this process: feeding temperature of 60 °C, total solid content of 30%, hot air temperature of 197 °C, and atomization pressure of 92 MPa. Under these conditions, the oyster powder yield was 63.7% ± 0.7% and the moisture content was 4.1% ± 0.1%. Our pilot trial also obtained 63.1% yield and 4.0% moisture content. The enzyme hydrolysis of cooking soup byproduct further enhanced the antioxidant activity of the produced oyster seasoning powder to some extent. Spray drying process optimized by RSM can provide a reference for high-valued applications of oyster cooking soup byproducts.

  1. Effect of Addition of Moringa Leaf By-Product (Leaf-Waste) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incorporation of Moringa leaf fibre (a by-product of leaf processing which contains 24% Crude Fibre by dry weight at 0, 5 and 10 % substitution of wheat flour in cookies was investigated. Three products containing wheat flour: Moringa leaf fibre ratios of 100:0, 95:5, and 90:10 respectively were prepared, and a ...

  2. Buffered flue gas scrubbing system using adipic acid by-product stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, J.H. Jr.; Danly, D.E.

    1983-12-27

    A by-product stream from the production of adipic acid from cyclohexane, containing glutaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid, is employed as a buffer in lime or limestone flue gas scrubbing for the removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

  3. OZONATION BYPRODUCTS: IDENTIFICATION OF BROMOHYDRINS FROM THE OZONATION OF NATURAL WATERS WITH ENHANCED BROMIDE LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When ozone is used in the treatment of drinking water, it reacts with both inorganic and organic compounds to form byproducts. f bromide is present, it may be oxidized to hydrobromous acid, which may than react with natural organic matter to form brominated organic compounds. he ...

  4. USING MEMBRANES TO CONCENTRATE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS FOR SUBSEQUENT HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical disinfection of water is a major public health advance that has decreased dramatically water-borne disease. Disinfecting agents react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water to produce a wide variety of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although mo...

  5. 10 CFR 150.15a - Continued Commission authority pertaining to byproduct material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., maintenance and emergency measures as are necessary to protect the public health and safety and other actions... REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Continued Commission Regulatory Authority in Agreement States § 150.15a Continued Commission authority pertaining to byproduct...

  6. The production and utilization of by-product agricultural fertilizer from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, N.W.; Hirano, S.

    1992-01-01

    The electron-beam process is one of the most effective methods for removing SO 2 and NO X from industrial flue gases and producing a usable by-product. This paper surveys the potential for production and consumption of alternative, usable, commercial by-products, in conjunction with major reductions in the inventory of emissions of SO 2 and NO X . An examination is made of the important limitations in the annual consumptive use or price of and/or net revenues from commonplace, electric utility, by-product types such as gypsum, sulfuric acid, etc. A principal focus of the work is an analysis and quantification of the major large-scale, growing and profitable markets for utility solid wastes that can be generated in agricultural fertilizer forms, including ammonium sulfate and other compounds that are available through stack-gas cleaning operations at large, coal-fired boilers. Cost study data is arranged to define the impact of commercial by-product yield and revenue on the economics of full scale SO 2 and NO X emission reduction activity. (author)

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of agricultural by-products with manure, for enhanced biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Marie M.; Fotidis, Ioannis; Kovalovszki, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Biogas is extensively promoted as a promising renewable energy. Therefore, the search of appropriate co-substrates has come into focus. In this study, we examined the potential of using agricultural byproducts as alternative co-substrates for increased biogas production. The biochemical methane...

  8. Effects of three agricultural by-products on cage culture growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In man-made Lake Ayame, a 180-day cage culture feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three agricultural byproducts — chicken droppings, wheat bran and corn bran — on the survival rates, mean daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio in juveniles of a landlocked population of Sarotherodon ...

  9. 10 CFR 30.62 - Right to cause the withholding or recall of byproduct material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to cause the withholding or recall of byproduct material. 30.62 Section 30.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO... be established by the Commission, or who uses such materials in violation of law or regulation of the...

  10. Hydrothermally treated xylan rich by-products yield different classes of xylo-oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Carvalheiro, F.; Garrote, G.; Avgerinos, E.; Koukios, E.; Parajo, J.C.; Girio, M.

    2002-01-01

    Four xylan rich by-products, namely wheat bran, brewery's spent grain, corn cobs and Eucalyptus wood, were characterised and subjected to a mild hydrothermal treatment in order to release and degrade the xylan from the starting materials. The chemical characterisation of the feedstock materials,

  11. Refining by-products as a source of compounds of high-added value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondioli, Paolo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a complete review of by-products coming from the olive oil refining process is reported. By-products from both chemical and physical refining are discussed, along with their compositional properties. Also the technological aspects of by-product valorisation are discussed in comparison with the competitors coming from other oils and fats. The only olive oil by-products having unique composition are the ones containing squalene in high concentration.El trabajo hace una revisión completa de los subproductos obtenidos de la refinación del aceite de oliva. Se comentan tanto los subproductos procedentes de la refinación química como de la física. Igualmente, se comparan los aspectos tecnológicos de la valorización de estos subproductos con respecto a los procedentes de otros aceites o grasas. Los únicos subproductos procedentes del aceite de oliva que tienen composición específica son aquellos que contienen alta concentración de escualeno.

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of by-products from sugar production with cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), sugar beet top (SBT), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and desugared molasses (DM) are by-products from the sugar production. In the present study we investigated the potential of SBL, SBT and SBP as feedstock for biogas production. The maximum methane potential of SBL, SBT and SBP...

  13. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... future banking needs during the useful life of the equipment; (3) Requirements for capacity fluctuate... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  14. The sixth international congress on toxic combustion byproducts. Technical program and abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Topics of this proceedings volume are: technical approaches - waste treatment; general toxicology of combustion byproducts; reaction mechanisms (e.g. formation and decomposition of hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides); thermal treatment - reactionas at low temperatures; heterogeneous reactions - heterogeneous systems. (SR)

  15. Compressive strength of a concrete mix for pavement blocks incorporating industrial by-product

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Refiloe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Concrete block paving for roads has been proposed as part of a concept on sustainable infrastructure. In an effort to respond to sustainability and environmental awareness, the use of industrial by-products has been employed in the mix design...

  16. Energy costs of feeding excess protein from corn-based byproducts to finishing cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased use of byproducts in finishing diets leads to diets that contain greater concentrations of CP and MP than required by cattle. The hypothesis was that excess dietary CP and MP would increase maintenance energy requirments due to the energy costs of removing excess N as urea in urine. ...

  17. Substitution value of a mixture of rice milling by-products for maize in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 - week feeding trial involving 64 weaner rabbits in a completely randomized design was carried out to determine the substitution value of a mixture of rice milling by-products (in the ratio of 1:1:1:2 respectively for straw, husk, hull, and bran) for maize in the diets of New Zealand white type weaner rabbits at four ...

  18. Glutamic acid production from wheat by-products using enzymatic and acid hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Alting, A.C.; Floris, R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamic acid (Glu) has potential as feedstock for bulk chemicals production. It has also been listed as one of the top twelve chemicals derived from biomass. Large amounts of cheaper Glu can be made available by enabling its production from biomass by-products, such as wheat dried distillers grains

  19. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in scalded Jalapeño pepper industrial byproduct (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Castro, Claudia Jaqueline; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Oomah, B Dave; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Medina-Godoy, Sergio; Espinosa-Alonso, L Gabriela

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated from industrial Jalapeño pepper byproducts and simulated non processed byproducts from two Mexican states (Chihuahua and Sinaloa) to determine their value added potential as commercial food ingredients. Aqueous 80% ethanol produced about 13% of dry extract of polar compounds. Total phenolic content increased and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin decreased on scalding samples (80 °C, 2 min) without affecting ascorbic acid. The major phenolic compounds, rutin, epicatechin and catechin comprised 90% of the total compounds detected by HPLC of each Jalapeño pepper byproducts. ORAC analysis showed that the origin and scalding process affected the antioxidant activity which correlated strongly with capsaicin content. Although scalding decreased capsaicinoids (up to 42%), phenolic content by (up to 16%), and the antioxidant activity (variable). Jalapeño pepper byproduct is a good source of compounds with antioxidant activity, and still an attractive ingredient to develop useful innovative products with potential food/non-food applications simultaneously reducing food loss and waste.

  20. Utilizing the phenol byproducts of coke production: 3. Phenols as coinhibitors of thermopolymerization during styrene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I.I. Batura; A.F. Gogotov; V.I. Cherepanov; O.I. Baranov; A.A. Levchuk; M.V. Parilova [Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-15

    A new oligomerization procedure for phenol byproducts from coke production is experimentally studied. This method, oxidative combination, is intended to produce an effective coinhibitor of styrene thermopolymerization. When combined with a Mannich base, the new oligomer exhibits excellent inhibiting properties in the heat treatment of styrene and matches the effectiveness of imported inhibitors based on nitroxyl radicals. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Radioactivity distribution in phosphate products, by-products, effluents, and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimond, R.J.; Windham, S.T.

    1975-08-01

    Phosphate rock throughout the world contains uranium in concentrations ranging from a few ppM to a few hundred ppM. In the United States, phosphate rock normally contains between 100 to 150 ppM uranium. Mining and processing of these ores redistributes much of the uranium daughters among the various products, by-products, and wastes. These materials are then widely dispersed throughout the environment. This redistribution may lead to increased exposure of the public to these naturally-occurring radionuclides. In determining the magnitude of the population exposure caused by this redistribution and in developing environmental standards and controls to prevent contamination of the biosphere from these naturally-occurring radionuclides it is necessary to determine the concentrations and total quantities of these radionuclides in the products, by-products, effluents and wastes of phosphate mining and manufacturing. Samples of phosphate ores, products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were obtained and analyzed for their radioactivity content. Quantities of radioactivity entering the environment through various products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were estimated

  2. New by-products rich in bioactive substances from the olive oil mill processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Medina, Eduardo; Mateo, Maria Antonia; Brenes, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Olive oil extraction generates a large amount of residue consisting mainly of the pomace and leaves when using a two-phase centrifugation system. The aim of this study was to assess the content of phenolic and triterpene compounds in the by-products produced in Spanish olive oil mills. Olive pomace had concentrations of phenolic and triterpene substances lower than 2 and 3 g kg -1 , respectively. The leaves contained a high concentration of these substances, although those collected from ground-picked olives had lost most of their phenolic compounds. Moreover, the sediment from the bottom of the olive oil storage tanks did not have a significant amount of these substances. By contrast, a new by-product called olive pomace skin has been revealed as a very rich source of triterpenic acids, the content of which can reach up to 120 g kg -1 in this waste product, maslinic acid comprising around 70% of total triterpenics. Among the by-products generated during extraction of olive oil, olive pomace skin has been discovered to be a very rich source of triterpenic acids, which can reach up to 120 g kg -1 of the waste. These results will contribute to the valorization of olive oil by-products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN FOODS AND BEVERAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The determination of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) requires an understanding of how drinking water comes in contact with humans through multiple pathways. In order to facilitate the investigation of human exposure to DBPs via foods and beverages, analy...

  4. Chemical and Nutritional Characteristics of long nose skate (Raja rhina) byproducts from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skates have recently become a small commercial fishery in Alaska and along the western United States coast, but have long been associated with bycatch. The fins are marketed as "skate wings" and mainly sold fresh, frozen, and dried or salted and dehydrated for Asian markets. Byproducts generated inc...

  5. Formation of Toxic Iodinated Disinfection By-Products from Compounds Used in Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical cen...

  6. Effect of three types of composts of olive oil by-products on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extraction of olive oil generates colossal by-products quantities; generally unexploited and causes serious environmental problems in Algeria. In tackling this problem, we performed three types of composts (C1: 50% cows manure, 50% olive husks and olive mill wastewaters; C2: 50% olive husks treated by the lime, ...

  7. Cyanide Detoxifition in Cassava by-products by Fungal Solid State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated microbial detoxification of cyanide in cassava peels and leaves in solid state fermentation. Three microorganisms, Mucor Strictus, Rhizomucor miehei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used to inoculate the cassava by-products. The levels of cyanide in the substrates after 4, 8 and 12 days on ...

  8. By-Product Formation in Repetitive PCR Amplification of DNA Libraries during SELEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolle, Fabian; Wilke, Julian; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target-recogniz...

  9. Literature mining supports a next-generation modeling approach to predict cellular byproduct secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; O'Brien, Edward J.; Feist, Adam M.

    2017-01-01

    metabolic byproduct secretion with bottom-up reconstructions of metabolic networks. However, owing to a lack of data, it has not been possible to validate these predictions across a wide range of strains and conditions. Through literature mining, we were able to generate a database of Escherichia coli...

  10. Method to assess component contribution to toxicity of complex mixtures: Assessment of puberty acquisition in rats exposed to disinfection byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Shahid; Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Speth, Thomas F; Richardson, Susan D; Miltner, Richard J; Hunter, E Sidney; Pressman, Jonathan G; Strader, Lillian F; Klinefelter, Gary R; Goldman, Jerome M; Narotsky, Michael G

    2017-08-01

    A method based on regression modeling was developed to discern the contribution of component chemicals to the toxicity of highly complex, environmentally realistic mixtures of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Chemical disinfection of drinking water forms DBP mixtures. Because of concerns about possible reproductive and developmental toxicity, a whole mixture (WM) of DBPs produced by chlorination of a water concentrate was administered as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats in a multigenerational study. Age of puberty acquisition, i.e., preputial separation (PPS) and vaginal opening (VO), was examined in male and female offspring, respectively. When compared to controls, a slight, but statistically significant delay in puberty acquisition was observed in females but not in males. WM-induced differences in the age at puberty acquisition were compared to those reported in S-D rats administered either a defined mixture (DM) of nine regulated DBPs or individual DBPs. Regression models were developed using individual animal data on age at PPS or VO from the DM study. Puberty acquisition data reported in the WM and individual DBP studies were then compared with the DM models. The delay in puberty acquisition observed in the WM-treated female rats could not be distinguished from delays predicted by the DM regression model, suggesting that the nine regulated DBPs in the DM might account for much of the delay observed in the WM. This method is applicable to mixtures of other types of chemicals and other endpoints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Total Content of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Crispbreads with Plant By-product addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade Daiga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable processing in food industry results in significant amount of by-products – peel, mark, bark, seeds still rich in bioactive compounds. Apple, carrot and pumpkin peel and mark may be used for production of crispbreads as functional ingredients. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity after high temperature and short time (HTST extrusion cooking of a wheat and rice-based crispbreads with addition of apple, carrot and pumpkin by-products obtained after juice extraxtion and dried. Raw materials for crispbread production were wheat flour, rice flour, wheat bran (72%, 24% and 4% respectively with addition of microwave–vacuum dried by-product powder in different amount (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Extrusion process was performed by using a laboratory singlescrew extruder GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series (Germany. Total phenolic content (TPC was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH antioxidant scavenging activity using a modified colorimetric method. Comparing different raw formulations, it was observed that the TPC of the apple by-product flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than in carrot and pumpkin flour. TPC in cereal-based crispbread was 36.06±1.15 before extrusion and 13.90±1.01 mg GAEg-1 DW (milligram Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry weight (mg GAE 100 g−1 DW after extrusion. Addition of apple BPF increased TPC in crispbreads to 106.25±2.08, carrot BPF 84.73±3.45 and pumpkin BPF to 108.82±1.04 mg GAEg−1 DW. Antioxidant activity of control sample was 1.07±0.01mg TE (Trolox equivalents g−1 DW but in samples with addition of 20% apple by-products, it reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW for samples wih 20% carrot by-products reached 2.52±0.03TE g−1 DW and for samples wih 20% pumpkin by-products reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW.

  12. improving citric acid production from some carbohydrates by-products using irradiated aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty strains of A. niger were isolated from different sources, screened for their capacity to produce citric acid. All the isolated strains were able to produce citric acid in different quantities at different time intervals i.e. 4, 8 and 12 days on indicator medium. The best incubation period for production for all isolates was 12 days. The most potent strains for production were A 1 , A 4 and A 5 , while A 8 , A 1 6, A 18 and A 19 recorded weak production on that medium. Citric acid productivity were obtained by all strains when using different concentrations of four carbohydrate by-products (maize straw, potato peel wastes, sugar beet pulp and molasses) when each used alone without any additions after 12 days incubation and the production enhanced when the fermentation medium amended with the same concentrations of the mentioned substrates. Type and concentration of carbohydrate by-product affect the production of citric acid by A. niger strains under the study. Increasing substrate concentration led to increase in production, the best concentration for production was 25% for all carbohydrate by-products. As recorded with indicator medium, A 1 , A 4 and A 5 are also the most potent strains for production when growing on the four carbohydrate by-products supplemented to the basal medium, while A 8 , A 6 , A 18 and A 19 recorded the weak production with the carbohydrate by-products used.production of the parental isolates A 1 , A 4 and A 5 on indicator medium were: 0.96, 0.95 and 0.99 (mg/ml) respectively after 12 days incubation, while maximum production by the obtaining resulting isolates (Treated by UV irradiation) were: 1.78, 1.70 and 1.73 (mg/ml) from A 4 T 2 (5 min.), A 4 T 1 (10 min.) and A 1 T 1 (5 min.), respectively.

  13. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  14. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (cha...

  15. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  16. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  17. God, Christ and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Fergusson, David

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant contributions to the field in recent times, David Clough's work On Animals: Volume 1, Systematic Theology, should ensure that theologies of creation, redemption, and eschatological fulfillment give proper attention to animals. In a landmark study, he draws upon resources in Scripture and tradition to present a systematic theology that is alert to the place of animals in the divine economy. Amidst his relentless criticism of all forms of anthropocentrism, however, i...

  18. ANIMALS IN RESOCIALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Czerw, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of relations between humans and animals have encouraged both scientists and members of other communities to popularize the knowledge in the field of animal-assisted therapy. Currently, animal-assisted therapy has been used not only in therapy, but also in resocialization. The increasing popularity of this form of supporting maladjusted people who are isolated from society or people with disabilities encouraged both practitioners and researchers to organize knowledge, thus reducin...

  19. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  20. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  1. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  2. Removal of the precursors of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), an emerging disinfection byproduct, in drinking water treatment process and its toxicity to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Lin, Tao; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is one of the emerging nitrogenous disinfection byproducts with probable cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. Its potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention but remain to be poorly understood. In this study, changes in NDEA precursors in drinking water treatment process were studied using the trial of its formation potential (FP), and the toxicity induced by NDEA to adult zebrafish was investigated. NDEA FP in the raw water of Taihu Lake ranged from 46.9 to 68.3 ng/L. The NDEA precursors were removed effectively by O 3 /BAC process. Hydrophilic fraction and low-molecular-weight fraction (water treatment process and its toxicity effect on zebrafish as a model animal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Archives: Animal Research International

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: Animal Research International. Journal Home > Archives: Animal Research International. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of 40 ...

  4. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  5. Inuit-Style Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  6. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  7. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  8. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  9. Control of pet animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, T F

    1976-06-26

    Pet animals play an important and valuable role in human society, but irresponsible ownership has created problems of surplus animals, threats to health, pollution, nuisance, cruelty and neglect. Urgent and drastic action is required to deal with the situation, and the measures proposed include the appointment of dog wardens, limitation of numbers, enclosure and leash laws, and subsidised spay clinics.

  10. Animating Preservice Teachers' Noticing

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Zandra; Amador, Julie; Estapa, Anne; Weston, Tracy; Aming-Attai, Rachael; Kosko, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of animation in mathematics teacher education courses is one method for transforming practices and promoting practice-based education. Animation can be used as an approximation of practice that engages preservice teachers (PSTs) in creating classroom scenes in which they select characters, regulate movement, and construct…

  11. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches are ...

  12. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  13. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  14. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...

  15. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure...

  16. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  17. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  18. Pesticide residue levels in strawberry processing by-products that are rich in ellagitannins and an assessment of their dietary risk to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sójka

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the pesticide residue contents in strawberry by-products are higher than in fresh fruits, the suggested doses of the by-products are lower. Therefore, the dietary risk to consumers from strawberry by-products is comparable to that from fresh fruits.

  19. STONES SAWING SLUDGE AS BY-PRODUCT: characterization for a future recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, Lorena; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The European Commission, as part of its Thematic Strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste, committed itself to tackle one of the issues around the waste definition, namely the distinction between waste and by-products. This definition has been outlined through the Communication on waste and by-product of the European Court of Justice (Brussels, 21.2.2007 COM(2007) 59 final COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT). By-product is a substance or object, resulting from a production process, the primary aim of which is not the production of that item. By-products can come from a wide range of business sectors, and can have very different environmental impacts. If there is a possibility that the material is in fact not useable, because it does not meet the technical specifications that would be required for its use, then it should continue to be considered as a waste. The status of waste protects the environment from the potential consequences of this uncertainty. If it subsequently happens that a use is found for the waste in question then it will lose its status of waste and it will be considered a by-product. An incorrect classification could be the cause of environmental damage or unnecessary costs for business. For this purpose a characterization of sludge coming from different plants of stone processing was carried out for a better classification of the materials in view of a future recovery. The different stones cutting processes considered for this study are: gangsaw, diamond blade and diamond wire. The cut materials are granites, gneisses, and other stones mainly of silicatic nature. The tests performed on the sawing sludge are the following: particle size analysis, chemical analysis, wet magnetic separation, diffraction and SEM analysis. The study performed is useful for evaluating the possible reuses of the products coming from the magnetic separation: the metal fraction, and the mineral one. In order to avoid a

  20. UN-ECE task force: 'by-product utilization from stationary installations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, A. E.; Zehetner, G.

    1996-09-01

    The task force has concluded as followed: Major sources of by-products considered in this report from stationary installations are large scale firing installations, waste incineration, upgrading processes and utilization in iron and steel, aluminium and copper industry, and the pulp and paper industry. The share of each sector source to the total amount of by-products generated differs significantly in the participating countries. State of the art processes as described in the report take account of the need for integrated pollution prevention and control. In particular the requirements set out in the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution can still be satisfied when applying these state of the art processes. The report shows that a number of techniques for avoidance, reduction and/or utilization of by-products are in commercial operation in the branches discussed. They can therefore be considered to be best available. For some special by-products technical processes for the treatment are still in development and are not yet state-of-the-art. The implementation of the already proven techniques varies considerably in the different ECE-countries. This is mainly due to the following circumstances: differences in the design and stringency of legal regulations, availability of landfilling sites, costs of disposal, differences in industrial structure. Problems with by-product utilization originate mainly from: a) from a loss of international competitiveness of the respective industrial sector, if the reduction of the amount of by-products or their utilization leads to higher costs than conventional processes; b) from quality standards for materials which are inadequate for secondary raw materials thus creating acceptance problems of these materials. C) In some cases incineration and/or thermal recycling processes generate PCDD/F. quantities produces may be capable of reduction by means of process modification. If, however PCDD/F is released to the

  1. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from water using mining and metallurgical by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2012-05-15

    Excess nutrient input to water bodies frequently results in algal blooms and development of oxygen deficient conditions. Mining or metallurgical by-products can potentially be utilised as filtration media within water treatment systems such as constructed wetlands, permeable reactive barriers, or drain liners. These materials may offer a cost-effective solution for the removal of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters. This study investigated steel-making, alumina refining (red mud and red sand) and heavy mineral processing by-products, as well as the low-cost mineral-based material calcined magnesia, in laboratory column trials. Influent water and column effluents were analysed for pH and flow rate, alkalinity, nutrient species and DOC, and a range of major cations and anions. In general, by-products with high Ca or Mg, and to a lesser extent those with high Fe content, were well-suited to nutrient and DOC removal from water. Of the individual materials examined, the heavy mineral processing residue neutralised used acid (NUA) exhibited the highest sorption capacity for P, and removed the greatest proportions of all N species and DOC from influent water. In general, NUA and mixtures containing NUA, particularly those with calcined magnesia or red mud/red sand were the most effective in removing nutrients and DOC from influent water. Post-treatment effluents from columns containing NUA and NUA/steel-making by-product, NUA/red sand and NUA/calcined magnesia mixtures exhibited large reductions in DOC, P and N concentrations and exhibited a shift in nutrient ratios away from potential N- and Si-limitation and towards potential P-limitation. If employed as part of a large-scale water treatment scheme, use of these mining and metallurgical by-products for nutrient removal could result in reduced algal biomass and improved water quality. Identification and effective implementation of mining by-products or blends thereof in constructed wetlands

  2. Effect Of Dried Olive Oil By-Product Supplementation To Ration On The Performance Of Local Ewes And Their Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dried olive oil by-products (0, 15 and 30% replacement) on the performance of lactating local ewes and their lambs are the main object of this study. Biochemical, physiological and toxicological aspects, and the safety environmental clearance and fed supplementation of olive oil by-products in ewes feeding are also studied. Moreover, the economic value of olive oil by-products replacement in addition may participate partially in ruminant feeding in Egypt. In the present study, twenty four local dairy ewes at the end of pregnancy (1 weeks before parturition) were used in the 3 experimental diets with 0, 15 and 30% olive oil by-products supplementation and prolonged after weaning and during suckling period (8 weeks after lambing). The 1st lactating lambs of ewes was supplemented with 15% olive oil by-products, the 2nd lactating lambs of ewes supplemented with 30% olive oil by-products and the 3rd lactating lambs of ewes served as control. The results showed that the performance of both ewes and their lambs during the experimental period was improved. It can be concluded that olive oil by-products can partially replace sugar beet pulp in diets of growing and lactating ruminants

  3. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry of potential by-products from homemade nitrate ester explosive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Edward; Forbes, Thomas P

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates the coupling of direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) in an off-axis configuration for the trace detection and analysis of potential partially nitrated and dimerized by-products of homemade nitrate ester explosive synthesis. Five compounds relating to the synthesis of nitroglycerin (NG) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were examined. Deprotonated ions and adducts with molecular oxygen, nitrite, and nitrate were observed in the mass spectral responses of these compounds. A global optimum temperature of 350 °C for the by-products investigated here enabled single nanogram to sub nanogram trace detection. Matrix effects were examined through a series of mixtures containing one or more compounds (sugar alcohol precursors, by-products, and/or explosives) across a range of mass loadings. The explosives MS responses experienced competitive ionization in the presence of all by-products. The magnitude of this influence corresponded to both the degree of by-product nitration and the relative mass loading of the by-product to the explosive. This work provides a characterization of potential by-products from homemade nitrate ester synthesis, including matrix effects and potential challenges that might arise from the trace detection of homemade explosives (HMEs) containing impurities. Detection and understanding of HME impurities and complex mixtures may provide valuable information for the screening and sourcing of homemade nitrate ester explosives. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The impact of fruit and soybean by-products and amaranth on the growth of probiotic and starter microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Bedani, Raquel; Albuquerque, M A C; Biscola, Vanessa; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2017-07-01

    The ability of different fruit by-products, okara, and amaranth flour, to support the growth of probiotic and non-probiotic strains was evaluated. The tests were conducted with three commercial starter cultures (Streptococcus thermophilus), ten probiotic strains (seven Lactobacillus spp. and three Bifidobacterium spp. strains), and two harmful bacteria representative of the intestinal microbiota (Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens). In vitro fermentability assays were performed using a modified MRS broth supplemented with different fruits (acerola, orange, passion fruit, and mango), and soy (okara) by-products or amaranth flour. Orange and passion-fruit by-products were the substrates that most promoted the growth of bacterial populations, including pathogenic strains. On the other hand, the acerola by-product was the substrate that showed the highest selectivity for beneficial bacteria, since the E. coli and Cl. perfringens populations were lower in the presence of this fruit by-product. Although the passion fruit by-product, okara, and amaranth stimulated the probiotic strains, the growth of the pathogenic strains studied was higher compared to other substrates. Different growth profiles were verified for each substrate when the different strains were compared. Although pure culture models do not reflect bacterial interaction in the host, this study reinforces the fact that the ability to metabolize different substrates is strain-dependent, and acerola, mango, and orange by-products are the substrates with the greatest potential to be used as prebiotic ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  6. Animation-based Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    of contributions. In the produced work, I expand upon animation as a sketching approach to communicate, and explore interaction and user experience design concepts that are hard to grasp via traditional means of sketching. I propose that the sequential, temporal, material and narrative qualities of animation may...... experiments has been carried out, applying animation-based sketching in various contexts and at varying points in the design process. In the studies, I evaluate the viability of the approach, the practical integration into the design process, and map how consensus between stakeholders in design can...... be established through animation -based sketches. Thus, the scope of this project is practice-inclined, towards qualifying animation as an approach for design sketching in practice....

  7. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  8. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    -acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric...... reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of subjectivity and materiality.The “Becoming Sheep” project produced a variety of visual...... practice.Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at Roskilde...

  9. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead......, the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching....

  10. Constructing nonhuman animal emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2017-10-01

    Scientists and lay-people alike have long been fascinated with the emotional lives of nonhuman animals. To date, scientific approaches to the study of 'animal' emotion have assumed that emotions are biologically evolutionarily conserved, hardwired and have discrete behavioral and physiological outputs. According to this view, emotions and their outputs are homologous across species, allowing humans to accurately perceive (or 'read') animal emotion using our own concepts of what emotions are. In this paper, I discuss the challenges to that perspective and propose using an alternative theoretical approach to understand animal emotion. Adopting this alternative approach, which represents a collection of similar theories (referred to as 'Theories of Constructed Emotion'), changes the questions that we ask about animal emotion, how we study emotion across phylogeny and advance translational science, and how we understand the evolution of emotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  12. Food by-products as potential antioxidant and antimicrobial additives in chill stored raw lamb patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, A I; Petrón, M J; Adámez, J D; López, M; Timón, M L

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extracts obtained from tomato (TOM), red grape (GRA), olive (OLI) and pomegranate (POM) by-products as well as to evaluate the effect of their addition into lamb meat patties (1000mg/kg) in order to improve shelf life. A negative (CON) and a positive control (sodium ascorbate, ASC) were also included in the experiment. Results for radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and reducing power indicated that GRA and OLI extracts could inhibit oxidation more efficiently than POM and TOM extracts (Paddition of by-products extracts. These results suggest that the extracts obtained from grape and olive pomaces could be effectively used to replace sodium ascorbate in lamb meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis Using a Byproduct Obtained from Palm Oil Refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nascentes dos Santos Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative route to produce biodiesel is based on esterification of free fatty acids present in byproducts obtained from vegetable oil refining, such as palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD. PFAD is a byproduct of the production of edible palm oil, which contains 96 wt.% of free fatty acids. The purpose of this work was to study biodiesel synthesis via esterification of PFAD with methanol and ethanol, catalyzed by commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM, in a solvent-free system. The effects of reaction parameters such as type of lipase, enzyme amount, type of alcohol, alcohol amount, and enzyme reuse were studied. Fatty acid conversion of 93% was obtained after 2.5 h of esterification reaction between PFAD and ethanol using 1.0 wt.% of Novozym 435 at 60°C.

  14. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Expanding the Role of Systems Modeling: Considering Byproduct Generation from Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt A. Rosentrater

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol industry has been experiencing rapid growth over the past several years, and is expected to continue to increase production for the foreseeable future. A vital component to the success of this industry is the sales and marketing of processing residues, which are primarily sold as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS. Systems modeling, a technique that has been used to predict future demand for bioethanol, can also be used to determine potential byproduct generation rates. This paper discusses the development of one such model, and presents predicted generation of DDGS as well as carbon dioxide emissions from this industry through 2100. These simulation results underscore the growing need to actively pursue research focused on value-added alternatives for the use of bioethanol byproduct streams.

  16. Biological activities of Agave by-products and their possible applications in food and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Romero, Julio Cesar; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo; Peña-Ramos, Etna Aida; González-Ríos, Humberto

    2017-10-11

    Agave leaves are considered a by-product of alcoholic beverage production (tequila, mezcal and bacanora) because they are discarded during the production process, despite accounting for approximately 50% of the total plant weight. These by-products constitute a potential source of Agave extracts rich in bioactive compounds, such as saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenes, and possess different biological effects, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo tests (e.g. antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, antiparasitic and anticancer activity). Despite their positive results in biological assays, Agave extracts have not been widely evaluated in food systems and pharmaceutical areas, and these fields represent a potential route to improve the usage of Agave plants as food additives and agents for treating medical diseases. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  18. Cogeneration of heat and power in Crete - Greece from olive tree byproducts and residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourdoubas, J. (TEI of Crete, Chania (Greece), Dept. of Natural Resources and Environment), e-mail: gboyrd@tee.gr

    2010-07-01

    Olive tree byproducts and residues are used mainly in Crete for heat production, but not for power generation. The most of Olive Kernel wood is currently used for heat generation without any standardization, but the most of olive tree brushes are not used for energy production. Therefore, a lot of solid biomass in Crete, which is not used at the moment, can be exploited in the future for generation of heat and power or for cogeneration of them. Olive tree byproducts and residues can be used with burning, but, because of the mild climate of the island, the cogenerated heat can be efficiently used only during the winter. Also, the possibility of tri-generation exists since the produced heat can be used for cooling generation with absorption chillers. The availability of Olive Kernel wood in Crete is estimated at the moment at 110,000 tn / year and of Olive tree brushes at 380,000 tn / year. (orig.)

  19. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-11-21

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc.

  20. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  1. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  2. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  3. Digital by-product data in web 2.0 exploring mass collaboration of Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zeyi

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), every action on the Internet nowadays is recorded by digital by-product data: online purchases, tagging friends' photos, browsing webpages, etc. This unprecedented technological revolution has empowered us with unique abilities to understand not only people's behaviours, but also online platforms. Business corporates and academic researchers alike have both embarked on actively mining such information to stay ahead of the game in th...

  4. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management.

  5. Utilization of agro-based industrial by-products for biogas production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoc, U.N.; Schnitzer, H. [Graz Univ. of Technology, (Austria). Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems; Berghold, H. [Joanneum Research Inst. for Sustainable Techniques and Systems (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid rates of urbanization occurring in many countries in the world, the importance of an efficient and effective solid waste management system and the utilization/reuse of waste are more critical than ever before, especially for agricultural residues and agro-based industrial by-products. Over the past decade, the amount of solid waste generated in Vietnam has been increasing steadily. Numbers are predicted to continue to increase as well. There is significant potential to use the large amount of wastes for biogas conversion processes and for further production of commercial energy. This paper presented starts with estimation and analysis of the amounts of organic waste, agricultural residues, and agro-based industrial by-products generated from food industrial processes using general data sources for Vietnam. A laboratory study examined the use of agro-based industrial by-products and agricultural residues from cassava, sweet potato, pineapple residues, organic wastes, manures as input materials for biogas production in the anaerobic process. This paper provided an overview of Vietnam as a country, as well as a general overview of the amount of organic waste generated in the country. It also discussed the fermentation tests that were conducted to find out the potential of biogas production from some residues. It was concluded that a significant portion of waste could be reused as an environmentally sound source of energy. The utilization of agricultural residues and industrial byproducts as input materials for biogas production will not only reduce the quantity of organic waste thrown into landfills, but also reduce the negative impact on the environment. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Hybrid cement based on the alkali activation of by-products of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera,Jhonathan F; Mejia,Johanna M; Mejia de Gutierrez,Ruby; Gordillo,Marisol

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the production of an alternative cementitious material with low environmental impact through the evaluation of two-coal combustion by-products. Hybrid cements based on the alkali activation of fly ash, (FA) and boiler slag (BS) blend with a proportion of Portland cement (OPC) up to 30% were produced. FA and BS contain an unburned material up to 16%. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the compressive strength. BS geopolymer achieved high compressive s...

  7. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of agricultural by-products from wine production

    OpenAIRE

    Cataneo, Ciriele Boeira; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Caliari, Vinícius; Epagri; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Kuskoski, Eugênia Marta; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Fett, Roseane; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

    2008-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties of byproducts derived from wine production. The varieties of PINOT GRIS and COUDERC 13 grapes, collected in Videira-SC, were analyzed as natural sources of polyphenols and other prophylactic agents (antioxidants) for application in food and phytochemical industries. The biomass used for extracts was ground and dried in different temperatures (45oC, 60oC e 80oC), using acetone 80% as solvent. The phenolic compounds were quantitat...

  8. [Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong

    2014-05-01

    Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates.

  9. Grape marc, wine lees and deposit of the must: How to manage oenological by-products?

    OpenAIRE

    Lempereur Valérie; Penavayre Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Winemaking produces solid (grape marc) and liquid (wine lees and deposit of the must) wastes named “oenological by-products”, which, according to European regulations, must be eliminated following the environmental regulatory requirement [1]. In France, these European regulations forced wine growers, until the 2013/2014 campaign, to deliver all by-products to wine distilleries. This French obligation is known as the “prestation vinique” [2, 3]. Following the Common Market Organisation wine re...

  10. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management

  11. Sensory and aromatic characteristics of tongue sole by-products hydrolysates (Cynoglossus senegalensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, K. S. B.; Berge, Jean-pascal; Prost, Carole; Musabyemariya, B.; Seydi, Mg

    2009-01-01

    Tongue sole by-products coming from fish-filleting plant were hydrolyzed by Protamex® protease. To identify the future application of hydrolysates, a sensory analysis was carried out.The sensory profile was performed with a jury of 14 specialized judges.11 profiles were found by this panel of tasting. In addition, the aromatic characterization revealed that 57 molecules are responsible for these odours described in sensory analysis.The description of these aromatic compounds opens potentia...

  12. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  13. The Use of Seashell by-Products in Pervious Concrete Pavers

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Hanh Nguyen; Nassim Sebaibi; Mohamed Boutouil; Lydia Leleyter; Fabienne Baraud

    2013-01-01

    Pervious concrete is a green alternative to conventional pavements with minimal fine aggregate and a high void content. Pervious concrete allows water to infiltrate through the pavement, thereby reducing the runoff and the requirement for stormwater management systems. Seashell By-Products (SBP) are produced in an important quantity in France and are considered as waste. This work investigated to use SBP in pervious concrete and produce an even more environmentally friendly product, Pervi...

  14. Digestibility of agro-industrial byproducts in 200 and 300-g Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Souza Ramos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and gross energy (GE of the following agro-industrial byproducts: cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta, mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora, cotton (Gossypium species, cocoa (Theobroma cacao, soursop (Annona squamata and African oil palm cake (Elaeis guineensis for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish from two weight classes (200±11 and 300±32 g were stocked in tanks and fed a reference diet plus 30% of one tested byproduct with the addition of 0.1% chromic oxide. The fish were routinely moved to digestibility aquariums for feces collection, in a completely randomized design (n=3. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC values between the two weight classes were similar, but differed between the byproducts for DM, CP and GE. The highest ADC DM, ADC CP and ADC GE for 200-g and 300-g tilapias were, respectively, 0.58 and 0.53; 0.77 and 0.78; 0.66 and 0.62 for the soursop bran and 0.52 and 0.51; 0.77 and 0.80; 0.66 and 0.60 for the palm cake, respectively. The cotton and cocoa bran had the worst results of ADC of DM in two weight ranges (means of 0.34 and 0.37 g/100 g, respectively while the mesquite bean had the lowest ADC of CP and GE, with means of 0.28 and 0.14 g/100 g for 200-g and 300-g tilapias, respectively. The byproducts analyzed may be used in formulating diets for Nile tilapia adults, observing their contributions to the digestibility of nutrients and energy for the species.

  15. Valorisation of the Cider and Brewing Industry By-products as Nutraceutical Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    By-products from the cider and brewing industries, including apple pomace (AP) and brewer’s spent grain (BSG) respectively, constitute major environmental problems due to the large quantities produced every year. They are sources of valuable compounds such as protein, fibre, essential fatty acids, phenolic compounds and minerals, some of them with antioxidant and prebiotic properties. Their high nutritional value leads to their potential use as human food products and several applications hav...

  16. Optimization of the liquid biofertilizer production in batch fermentation with by-product from MSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namfon, Panjanapongchai; Ratchanok, Sahaworarak; Chalida, Daengbussade

    2017-03-01

    The long term use of chemical fertilizers destroyed the friability of soil which obviously decreased quantity and quality of crops and especially affect microorganisms living in soils. The bio-fertilizer with microbial consortium is an environmental friendly alternative to solve this bottleneck due to harboring soil microorganisms such as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Deinococcus sp. produced with natural by-product or waste from industries that is alternative and sustainable such as nutrient-rich (by-product) from Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) for producing liquid biofertilizer by batch fermentation. In this work, the concentration of reducing sugar from substrate as main carbon source was evaluated in shake flask with mixed cultures. The optimal conditions were studied comparing with two levels of reducing sugar concentration (10, 20 g/L) and inoculums concentration (10, 20 %v/v) with using (2×2) full factorial design. The results indicated that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for fermentation and inoculums concentration is mainly influenced the batch fermentation process. Moreover, the combined 20 g/L and 10%v/v were considerably concluded as an optimal condition, of which the concentration of vegetative cells and spores attained at 8.29×109 CFU/mL and 1.97×105 CFU/mL, respectively. Their spores cell yields from reducing sugar (Yx/s) were obtained at 1.22×106 and 3.34×105 CFU/g were markedly different. In conclusion, the liquid Biofertilizer was produced satisfactorily at 20 g/L reducing sugar and 10% v/v inoculums in shake flask culture. Moreover, these results suggested that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for low-cost substrate in economical scale and environmental-friendly.

  17. Research and Development on Animal Feed in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wan Zahari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the non-ruminant sector to self–sufficiency in meat and eggs has been matched by massive importation of feed. Thus, a major thrust to reduce the burden of feed imports is to increase the use of indigenous feed resources and intensify research to look for alternatives and substitutes. Over the past 3 decades, local researchers have reported on the availability nutritive content, optimal inclusion levels and treatment methods to enhance nutrient value of many locally available feed ingredients in practical poultry rations. The list includes evaluation and utilization of feed rice, palm kernel cake (PKC, broken rice, bran, sorghum, cassava, sago, fishmeal and commercial grain corn production; but the goal of import substitution and self- sufficiency is still unfulfilled. Although PKC, feed rice, local maize and specialty fats has potential to be viable energy feed sources and local fish meal is a promising protein feed source, more large scale Research and Development (R & D is needed. In the ruminant sub-sector, emphasis is towards maximizing use of locally available agro-industrial byproducts and crop residues for the production of cost-effective feeds. The utilization of local feed resources is highly dependent on the supply of agro- industrial byproducts or crop residues from the oil palm and rice industries. In order to encourage a sustainable ruminant industry in Malaysia, local feed production has to be maximized and strengthened. Current emphasis is towards the development of practical and low-cost feeds for various classes of livestock species, particularly by utilizing local forages, tree fodders, crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts. This paper highlights the research and development on animal feed in Malaysia over the last three decades and discusses various aspects of livestock feeding.

  18. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco; Lepp, Nicholas W.; Madejon, Engracia

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: → By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. → Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. → The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. → Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  19. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo, E-mail: perezdemora@gmail.com [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Madejon, Engracia [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: > By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. > Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. > The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. > Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  20. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmad, Bouchra; Talou, Thierry; Straumite, Evita; Sabovics, Martins; Kruma, Zanda; Saad, Zeinab; Hijazi, Akram

    2018-01-01

    Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6%) of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread. PMID:29495324

  1. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO(4), which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1)) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3) ha(-1)). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1) and water was supplied at 1200 m(3)·ha(-1). Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  2. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD is CaSO(4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1 and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3 ha(-1. The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, pH and total dissolved salts (TDS in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1 and water was supplied at 1200 m(3·ha(-1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  3. Investigation of grass carp by-products from a fish farm in Vojvodina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanović, Đ.; Tasić, T.; Kormanjoš, Š.; Ikonić, P.; Šojić, B.; Pelić, M.; Ristić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The quantity of by-products obtained during grass carp primary processing and chemical characteristics of internal organs were investigated. The total average weight of byproducts was 783.69 g (36.99%) in relation to live body weight which was cca 2118.5 g. The by-product contributing the largest quantity to total live body weight was the head with 458.22 g (21.63% of live body weight), followed by complete internal organs and tail and fins, with weights of 198.03 g or 9.35% and 57.93 g or 2.73%, respectively. The chemical composition of internal organs from the grass carp was mostly water (65.55%), following by crude fats and crude proteins (17.47% and 13.35%, respectively). The low collagen content (13.43% of total crude protein) indicates the high nutritional quality of the protein content from internal organs. Nitrogenous complexes from the internal organs were predominantly proteins. Digestible nitrogen was approximately equal to total nitrogen (89.38%), indicating that all proteins of the internal organs had high biological value. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that carp internal organs could be important sources of proteins and fats, and thus, could be used in Serbia as a raw material for feed and technical fat production.

  4. Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, S; Taghizadeh, A

    2013-08-01

    The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by-products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three-step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP), lime pulp (LP), lemon pulp (LEP), grapefruit pulp (GP), sweet lemon pulp (SLP), bitter lemon pulp (BLP), bergamot orange pulp (BP) and tangerine pulp (TP). The rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fractions of the feedstuffs were obtained by ruminal incubation in three cannulated wethers and incubation in protease solution (protease type xiv, Streptomyces griseus). The data were analysed using completely randomized design. There were significant differences between the tested feeds in protein fractions and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; C fraction) was highest in GP (14.56%) (pdigestibility (IVDMD) was found for TP (80.44%) followed by that estimated for BP (78.38%) (pdigestibility (TRD) (p<0.001). According to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by-products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by-products. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Grape marc, wine lees and deposit of the must: How to manage oenological by-products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Winemaking produces solid (grape marc and liquid (wine lees and deposit of the must wastes named “oenological by-products”, which, according to European regulations, must be eliminated following the environmental regulatory requirement [1]. In France, these European regulations forced wine growers, until the 2013/2014 campaign, to deliver all by-products to wine distilleries. This French obligation is known as the “prestation vinique” [2, 3]. Following the Common Market Organisation wine reform, a consultation was initiated by FranceAgriMer on the potential value of oenological by-products. The French Institute of Vine and Wine (IFV coordinated a national experimentation from 2010 to 2013 about recovery of by-products, with the support of members of the Technical Group: Association des Viticulteurs d'Alsace (AVA, Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne (CIVC, Institut Technique des Corps Gras (ITERG, et Union Nationale des Groupements de Distillateurs d'Alcool (UNGDA. Distillation of grape marc and wine lees spreading and composting, and anaerobic digestion of grape marc were studied in order to answer the following questions: What technical feasibility? What environmental impact? What cost for winegrowers? What conformity with the regulations, including environmental regulatory obligations? [4].

  6. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  7. Optimal pH in chlorinated swimming pools - balancing formation of by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    -products. The chlorine-to-precursor ratio used in the batch experiments influenced the amounts of by-products formed, but regardless of the ratio the same trends in the effect of pH were observed. Trihalomethane formation was reduced by decreasing pH but haloacetonitrile and trichloramine formation increased......In order to identify the optimal pH range for chlorinated swimming pools the formation of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and trichloramine was investigated in the pH-range 6.5–7.5 in batch experiments. An artificial body fluid analogue was used to simulate bather load as the precursor for by.......7 or lower. An optimal pH range for by-products formation in swimming pools was identified at pH 7.0–7.2. In the wider pH range (pH 6.8–7.5) the effect on by-product formation was negligible. Swimming pools should never be maintained at lower pH than 6.8 since formation of both haloacetonitriles...

  8. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampuse Solvita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease at higher amounts. Sensory evaluation (appearance; surface, crust; porosity; texture, crumb; taste, and flavour of wheat bread with pumpkin revealed very high consumer acceptance except sample with 50% pomace addition. Total carotene content and colour b* value in wheat bread increased by adding pumpkin by-products. It is recommended to add 5% and 10% of pumpkin powder and no more than 30% of pumpkin pomace (calculated per 100 kg of flour to dough for production of wheat bread with pumpkin by-product additions.

  9. Utilisation of metallurgical by-products in road construction in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresta, František

    2017-09-01

    Metallurgical by-products, primarily blast furnace slag and steel slag, have ranked among important alternative sources of fill as well as of material for the structural layers in highways. Main hazards of metallurgical by-products are closely connected to their chemical and mineralogical composition and they can be resulted in volume changes. Fears from possible deformations similar to the D47 motorway meant that metallurgical by-products were excluded from several public tenders of road construction. Comparison of blast furnace slag, steel slag and other metallurgical by products parameters allow us to define the most hazardous material as steelworks waste. Linear swelling of steelwork waste achieves more than 40% at 75°C and swelling pressure was higher than 1.5 MPa. Compositional heterogeneity of steelworks waste makes it difficult to establish the long-term behaviour of this material. At the present time we cannot ascertain which maximum values can be reached by deformation and what are the swelling pressures acting on the material while the volume changes are in progress.

  10. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g −1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg −1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g −1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

  11. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Sayed Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. and caraway (Carum carvi L. oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6% of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread.

  12. Bioactive compounds from flesh and by-product of fresh-cut watermelon cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Viegas, Joana; Moldao-Martins, Margarida; Aguayo, Encarna

    2011-03-30

    The fresh-cut industry produces thousands of tons of waste in non-edible portions that present an environmental and management problem. These by-products could be reused, in particular, to obtain bioactive compounds. In this study, five different fresh-cut watermelon cultivars were assessed for their flesh and by-product bioactive contents. The amount of by-product varied between 31.27 and 40.61% of initial fresh weight (f.w.) depending on the cultivar. Watermelon cultivars were poor sources of total antioxidant, and the content was similar between rind and flesh samples (46.96 vs 43.46 mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity kg(-1) f.w.). However, the rind had a moderate total phenolic content higher than that of the flesh (458 vs 389 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent kg(-1) f.w.) and a much higher content of the amino acid citrulline (3.34 vs 2.33 g kg(-1) f.w.), which has potential bioactive properties. Watermelon rind offers quantitative interest as a natural source of citrulline, particularly Fashion, a dark-skinned, seedless cultivar. More research is required on the efficient extraction of citrulline from watermelon rind and its suitability as an additive to drinks, juices or others products to produce new functional food products with valid health claims. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-11-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing (and now indispensable) component of their industry. Art students are keenly aware of these trends and understand that their future careers require them to have a broader exposure to science than in the past. Unfortunately, at present there is little overlap between art and science in the typical high school or college curriculum. This article describes our experience in bridging this gap at San Jose State University, with the hope that readers will find ideas that can be used in their own schools.

  14. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  15. Understanding philosophical animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Una

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the Predrag Krstić's book Philosophical Animal author is trying to find hers way through a broad and complex web of philosophies and roles that different animals play in them. The main question is how to understand philosophy itself in a present day context, which philosophy is supposed to think and rethink through. Animals as presented in concepts, more precisely philosophical contexts, open one interesting and innovative way to deal with this question, balancing between tradition of philosophy and its presence, structure of philosophical arguments and questioning of language of philosophy, abstract and individual. In this frame philosopher as the true philosophical animal is revealed as the main symbol that requires analysis in his philosophical strategies.

  16. Animal Telemetry Network (ATN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data (updated daily) are from the Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) program. Begun as one of the field projects in the international Census of Marine Life, the...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. ... concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All ...

  18. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minimization Action Plans (RiskMAPs) for Approved Products Steroid Hormone Implants Used for Growth in Food-Producing Animals Veterinary Medication Errors Veterinary Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs ( ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  20. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  2. Enzymes in animal nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition

    2011-01-01

    This report brings overview of endogenous as well as exogenous enzymes and their role and importance in animal nutrition. Enzymes for animal nutrition have been systematically developed since 1980´s. Phytase, xylanase and β-glucanase are used in poultry-rising, pig breeding, aquaculture and begin to push to the ruminant nutrition. Phytase increase availability of P, Ca, Zn, digestibility of proteins and fats. Its positive effect on the environment is well described – enzymes decrease the cont...

  3. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  4. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  5. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  6. E3 Success Story - Working Together: E3 Ohio and the Ohio By-Product Synergy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC) received funding to support the integration of the national E3 sustainability initiative with the Ohio By-Product Synergy (BPS) Network to create an efficient and replicable model for reducing GHGs.

  7. Milk Technological Properties as Affected by Including Artichoke By-Products Silages in the Diet of Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Muelas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices include the use of local agricultural by-products in the diet of ruminants. Artichoke harvesting and transformation yield high amounts of by-products that, if properly used, may reduce farming costs and the environmental impact of farming. The present study tests the inclusion of silages from artichoke by-products (plant and outer bracts in the diet of dairy goats (0%, 12.5% and 25% inclusion on the technological and sensory properties of milk during a five-month study. Milk composition, color, stability, coagulation and fermentation properties remained unaffected by diet changes. Panelists were not able to differentiate among yogurts obtained from those milks by discriminant triangular sensory tests. Silages of artichoke by-products can be included in isoproteic and isoenergetic diets for dairy goats, up to a 25% (feed dry matter, without negatively affecting milk technological and sensory properties whereas reducing feeding costs.

  8. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts Formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  9. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  10. Disinfection Byproduct Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated and Lyophilized Natural Organic Matter from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking wa...

  11. Minimizing Dissolved Silica to Reduce Ash Content in Reconstituted Waters Used in Disinfection Byproduct Health Effects Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous health effects research used chlorinated, concentrated natural organic matter (NOM) solutions to create whole mixtures of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Ohio River water was used as the source water to provide the background NOM matrix. Concentrated river water was coll...

  12. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  13. Impact of Ovine Whey Protein Concentrates and Clarification By-Products on the Yield and Quality of Whey Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos D. Pereira; Olga Díaz; Angel Cobos

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the addition of whey protein concentrates and clarification by-products obtained from ovine cheese whey and deproteinized whey (Sorelho) on the yield and quality of the whey cheese (Requeijão) have been evaluated. Whey protein concentrates were obtained by ultrafiltration of skimmed whey and Sorelho. The clarification by-products were obtained after the treatment of the skimmed whey and Sorelho by thermocalcic precipitation and microfiltration with two membranes (0.20 and 0.65 ...

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality impacts due to use of coal combustion byproducts to control subsidence from underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Paul, B C

    2001-06-01

    Coal combustion byproducts are to be placed in an underground coal mine to control subsidence. The materials were characterized to determine potential groundwater impacts. No problems were found with respect to heavy or toxic metals. Coal combustion byproduct leachates are high in dissolved solids and sulfates. Chloride and boron from fly ash may also leach in initially high concentrations. Because the demonstration site is located beneath deep tight brine-bearing aquifers, no problems are anticipated at the demonstration site.

  15. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of rabbits does fed a half-simplified diet based on cassava byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Fróes Galuci Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 70 five-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits were assigned in a completely randomized design, over three reproductive cycles, with two treatments: a reference diet and a half-simplified diet containing 79.83% cassava byproduct. The study evaluated body weight and feed intake of does, feed cost, number and total body weight of kits at kindling and weaning per female during three cycles, number and percentage of mortality/female/cycle, and weight gain of kits from birth to weaning. No interaction was observed between the diets and among the reproductive cycles for any evaluated characteristics. The body weight of does at the moment of weaning was similar in both groups for all three reproductive cycles. However, does fed the half-simplified diet had lower feed intake during the three reproductive cycles and, consequently, more reproductive flaws. The number of kits at weaning, body weight of kits at kindling and weaning, weight gain of kits from birth to weaning, and total body weight of kits at weaning were lower for the group of does fed the half-simplified diet and, consequently, there was a higher number and percentage of dead kits in this group. The total numbers of kits at kindling and weaning and total body weight of kits at birth during all three reproductive cycles were similar between the groups; however, total body weight of weaning rabbits was higher for the animals receiving the reference diet. It is possible to conclude that although the use of the half-simplified diet decreases the reproductive performance of does, it reduces feed cost per kg of body weight by 23.63% compared with the reference diet, proving to be a viable nutritional option for rabbit production.

  16. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m(3) of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m(3) ethanol/year.

  17. Drinking-water disinfection by-products and semen quality: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Yi-Xin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Li, Min; Yue, Jing; Li, Yu-Feng; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) has been demonstrated to impair male reproductive health in animals, but human evidence is limited and inconsistent. We examined the association between exposure to drinking-water DBPs and semen quality in a Chinese population. We recruited 2,009 men seeking semen analysis from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between April 2011 and May 2012. Each man provided a semen sample and a urine sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm count. As a biomarker of exposure to drinking-water DBPs, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was measured in the urine samples. The mean (median) urinary TCAA concentration was 9.58 (7.97) μg/L (interquartile range, 6.01-10.96 μg/L). Compared with men with urine TCAA in the lowest quartile, increased adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for below-reference sperm concentration in men with TCAA in the second and fourth quartiles (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.69 and OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.31, respectively), for below-reference sperm motility in men with TCAA in the second and third quartiles (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.90 and OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.70, respectively), and for below-reference sperm count in men with TCAA in the second quartile (OR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.55). Nonmonotonic associations with TCAA quartiles were also estimated for semen parameters modeled as continuous outcomes, although significant negative associations were estimated for all quartiles above the reference level for sperm motility. Our findings suggest that exposure to drinking-water DBPs may contribute to decreased semen quality in humans.

  18. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bátori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m3 of ethanol (22% improvement, around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year.

  19. Testing biological hypotheses with embodied robots: adaptations, accidents, and by-products in the evolution of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia F Roberts

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary robotics allows biologists to test hypotheses about extinct animals. We modeled some of the first vertebrates, jawless fishes, in order to study the evolution of the trait after which vertebrates are named: vertebrae. We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population of autonomous embodied robots, Preyro, in which the number of vertebrae, N, were free to evolve. In addition, two other traits, the span of the caudal fin, b, and the predator detection threshold, ζ, a proxy for the lateral line sensory system, were also allowed to evolve. These three traits were chosen because they evolved early in vertebrates, are all potentially important in feeding and fleeing, and vary in form among species. Preyro took on individual identities in a given generation as defined by the population’s six diploid genotypes, Gi. Each Gi was a 3-tuple, with each element an integer specifying N, b, and, ζ. The small size of the population allowed for genetic drift to operate in concert with random mutation and mating; the presence of these mechanisms of chance provided an opportunity for N to evolve by accident. The presence of three evolvable traits provided an opportunity for direct selection on b and/or ζ to evolve N as a by-product linked trait correlation. In selection trials, different Gi embodied in Preyro attempted to feed at a light source and then flee to avoid a predator robot in pursuit. The fitness of each Gi was calculated from five different types of performance: speed, acceleration, distance to the light, distance to the predator, and the number of predator escapes initiated. In each generation, we measured the selection differential, the selection gradient, the strength of chance, and the indirect correlation selection gradient. These metrics allowed us to understand the relative contributions of the three mechanisms: direct selection, chance, and indirect

  20. Ethology in animal quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, B J

    1986-01-01

    This contribution will be concerned with the interaction between environment, adaptability optimization and behaviour. Animal laboratory experiments demand repeated measurements under identical environmental conditions. This is a prerequisite for the conventional statistical methodology used in order to clarify causal relationships involved in various biological functions. The understanding of biological functions is a necessary fundament for knowledge to prevent illness and to achieve a palliative or specific therapy. It is reasonable to assume that the routines in the quarters are very artificial, considering an animal's normal living conditions. The experimental situation as well as animal maintenance involves a process of adaptation. Adaptability depends on type of animal, degree of domestification etc. However, even with respect to choice of suitable species, strain and genetic manipulation, the process of adaptation becomes an important variable for ethical and practical points of view. The more emphasis on constancy, the more do we run the risk of increasing the span between normal and laboratory conditions and subsequently increase the factor and problem of adaptation. This vicious circle should be broken rather by finding optimal conditions than by a middle course determined by experimental requirements, economical frames and general notions about what may be good for the animal. Optimization must involve an understanding of how the experiment and the way of maintenance of the animal in the animal quarters influence adaptability. This understanding requires a systematic exploring of what physio-chemical and psychological factors are of importance. We will probably never be able to control the variability in the degree of adaptation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  2. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  4. ANIMAL ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786

  5. Animal models of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijie; Yibrehu, Betel; Zabini, Diana; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2017-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a debilitating, inflammatory, multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown cause, commonly affecting the lung. In contrast to other chronic lung diseases such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary arterial hypertension, there is so far no widely accepted or implemented animal model for this disease. This has hampered our insights into the etiology of sarcoidosis, the mechanisms of its pathogenesis, the identification of new biomarkers and diagnostic tools and, last not least, the development and implementation of novel treatment strategies. Over past years, however, a number of new animal models have been described that may provide useful tools to fill these critical knowledge gaps. In this review, we therefore outline the present status quo for animal models of sarcoidosis, comparing their pros and cons with respect to their ability to mimic the etiological, clinical and histological hallmarks of human disease and discuss their applicability for future research. Overall, the recent surge in animal models has markedly expanded our options for translational research; however, given the relative early stage of most animal models for sarcoidosis, appropriate replication of etiological and histological features of clinical disease, reproducibility and usefulness in terms of identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, and testing of new treatments should be prioritized when considering the refinement of existing or the development of new models.

  6. Finnish expert report on best available techniques in slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, E.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide information about Finnish slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste. The Finnish slaughterhouses slaughter mainly pigs, cattle, and poultry. Rendering plants and fur animal feed production plants treat animal derived waste generated in Finland. The slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste consume a lot of electricity and heat, whereas they can save energy by recovering residual heat in-situ. Slaughtering consumes a lot of water and produces a high amount of wastewater. Wastewater has a high biological oxygen demand (BOD) because it contains a lot of proteins and fat. To minimize the pollution load it is important to avoid blood and fat entering the drainage. All the slaughterhouses and most of the installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste discharge their wastewater to the municipal sewer after pre-treatment. The use of boilers to produce hot water and industrial steam is the main source of air emissions. The storage, handling and treatment of by-products and wastes as well as wastewater treatment and singeing are potential sources of foul odours. (orig.)

  7. Animal Poetry and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Brüggemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.

  8. Animals, images, anthropocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Creed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropocentrism is central to the nature of discourse across all disciplines, from science to philosophy and the arts. We argue that anthropocentrism has become particularly marked in modernity despite the avowal by some theorists that modernity signified a radical break with traditional approaches. A powerful strategy, invoked by such discourses, and designed to cement the anthropocentric perspective, is that of contradiction. Media theorists and scholars working in the broader field of (human animal studies have begun to unravel and demystify such discourses, questioning the nature of these contradictory perspectives and the anthropocentric point of view at work in visual texts. This is particularly evident in the current work of contemporary theorists who are researching the representation of animals in media texts. For it is the figure of the animal, as represented in visual discourses, from film to photography and new media, that offers a powerful challenge to the dominant anthropocentric worldview.

  9. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  10. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  11. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...... control for private good attributes such as food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that altruistic motives may play an important role in the demand for agricultural products....

  12. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  13. Animal violence demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and

  14. God, animals and zombies

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Argumentos neo-cartesianos recientes intentan reducir los animales a zombis filosóficos, seres sin estados de conciencia fenoménica. Si tales argumentos fuesen correctos, los animales verdaderamente no sufrirían, y, por tanto, no existiría el problema de Dios y el sufrimiento animal. En mi opinión, la afirmación de que los animales son zombis no es suficientemente plausible para proporcionar una teodicea adecuada acerca del problema de Dios y el dolor animal.

  15. Animal models of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  16. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  17. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare. PMID:1949772

  18. Effects of Agricultural Byproducts in Ration on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Saidi Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Megahed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of selected agricultural byproducts supplementation to feed rations on the ram's body gain, reproductive performance, and subsequent fertility were investigated. Forty Saidi rams were divided into 4 groups (n = 10. Group 1 (control was fed 500 g/head/day concentrate feed mixtures (CFM plus wheat straw ad libitum. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed 500 g/head/day CFM plus corn cobs or sugar cane tops or sugar cane bagasse (these roughages were treated with 1% urea, respectively. Serum testosterone, glucose and total cholesterol levels were determined and semen evaluations were carried out every 15 days. Testicular size, scrotal circumference and body weight were recorded each month. At the end of the experiment, 12 rams were allowed to mount 114 healthy ewes to evaluate the pregnancy rate for each group. The results have shown that the body weight, daily body gain, testicular size and scrotal circumference increased (p p p < 0.01 as compared with group 1 (1.76 ± 0.09 ng/ml. Moreover, supplementation of treated agricultural byproducts had a significant improving effects on the semen quality. The semen volume increased, along with individual motility and live sperm percentages. Pregnancy rate in this study indicated that rams of groups 2, 3 and 4 yielded a higher pregnancy rate (83.33%, 86.67% and 81.48%, respectively than group 1 (74.07%. Agricultural byproducts such as corn cobs, sugar cane tops and sugar cane bagasse treated with 1% urea had a beneficial effect on the daily body gain and improved the reproductive performance and subsequent fertility of Saidi rams, compared to wheat straw.

  19. A Management State of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) and the Measuring Direction - Centered By-Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Gyu; Lee, Hee Seon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The chemical materials, DDT and Dioxin, threaten the human health and take the high toxicity on ecosystem and a living thing. Because the chemical materials remain in environment for a long time due to a slow natural decomposition, they are biologically concentrated through the food cycle in ecosystem and have a characteristic to move a long distance. Owing to such toxicity and the characteristics of chemical materials, the world organization named them as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and has been actively progressing the international movement to strictly restrict them since the middle of 1990s. POPs regulation agreement, which is on progress centered in UNEP, is facing to the conclusion of the agreement of 2001 year. An agricultural chemical of organic chlorine among 12 POPs indicated by UNEP has been already prohibited in the domestic use and manufacturing or not registered, so the basic research, including search and monitoring if POPs remain or not, is required afterward. Because Dioxin, Puran, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) among POPs, which are produced as by-products from all kinds of industrial processes, are not raw materials dislike other POPs, their use and manufacturing cannot be only prohibited by the related law but also they have few substitutes. Therefore, they should be applied by the different regulation from the existing toxic chemicals in order to manage the toxicity of the materials. However, the regulation on by-products among POPs is just in the beginning stage, and even the producing source has not been yet confirmed. This study suggests the necessity of the management on Dioxin, Puran, HCB, by-products among POPs, and presents the measuring direction with grasping the domestic and foreign trend of the regulation on the materials. 70 refs., 2 figs., 56 tabs.

  20. Radiolysis by-products on the surface of Kuiper Belt Object (20000) Varuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Bryan J.; Young, Leslie; Protopapa, Silvia; Bus, Schelte J.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of an investigation into the presence of radiolysis by-products on the surface of the intermediate-sized Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) (20000) Varuna. Interaction of extreme-UV photons and cosmic rays with volatile methane (CH4) ice results in the formation of other hydrocarbons such as ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), and ethylene (C2H4). Ethane is the most common by-product, and all by-products are non-volatile at Kuiper Belt temperatures. Near-infrared spectra of Varuna were obtained with the SpeX instrument in Prism mode (0.7-2.52 microns, R=100) at NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on the nights of February 20-23, 2017. A handful of absorption features in the spectrum of Varuna between 2.2 and 2.5 μm are not consistent with absorption from the non-volatile species H2O and CH3OH (methanol). The features are also inconsistent with absorption due to CH4 ice, which was presented as a possible component of Varuna’s surface by Lorenzi et al. (2014). Preliminary analysis suggests these features are consistent with absorption from ethane and ethylene (Hudson et al., 2014). Volatile retention theories (e.g., Schaller and Brown, 2007) favor the retention of ethane and ethylene and the loss of methane on Varuna due its diameter (˜700 km; Lellouch et al., 2013) and estimated equilibrium temperature (˜41 K). Portions of this work were funded by NASA Solar Systems Observations grant NNX17AG16G.