WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal behavior

  1. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  2. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  3. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  4. ANIMAL BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF TINNITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Qiuju; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood and treatments are often unsuccessful. A number of animal models have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of tinnitus. A great deal has been learned from these models re-garding the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus following exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs. Re-liable behavioral data is important for determining whether such electrophysiological or neuroanatomical changes are indeed related to tinnitus. Of the many documented tinnitus animal behavioral paradigms, the acoustic startle reflex had been pro-posed as a simple method to identify the presence or absence of tinnitus. Several behavioral models based on conditioned re-sponse suppression paradigms have also been developed. In addition to determining the presence or absence of tinnitus, some of the behavioral paradigms have provided signs of the onset, frequency, and intensity of tinnitus in animals. Although none of these behavioral models have been proved to be a perfect model, these studies provide useful information on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying tinnitus.

  5. All about Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Why do animals do what they do? What is the difference between instinct and learned behavior? How do animals communicate? These questions are answered as children examine animal behaviors that help them find food, protect themselves, and care for their young. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life…

  6. The human side of animal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2001-01-01

    An important element of behavioral research with nonhuman animals is that insights are drawn from it about human behavior, what is called here the human side of animal behavior. This article examines the origins of comparing human behavior to that of other animals, the ways in which such comparisons are described, and considerations that arise in evaluating the validity of those comparisons. The rationale for such an approach originated in the reductionism of experimental physiology and the u...

  7. Behavior analysis and farm animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William; Poling, Alan

    1997-01-01

    This article demonstrates that there is a role for behavior-analytic techniques in the area of farm animal welfare and provides examples of the kinds of work that can be done. Behavior-analytic procedures, specifically those used in the study of psychophysics, preference, and demand, can provide answers to three questions people concerned with the welfare of farm animals are likely to ask: What can the animals detect? What do they like and dislike? What will they work to attain or preserve? S...

  8. Quantifying animal behavior: Why methods are important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific publications should contain enough information and detail to allow for replication of studies. A review of research articles published in Applied Animal Behavior Science (AABS) was conducted to identify the presence of such details. Three major topic areas; general methodology, behavioral...

  9. Investigating Crickets: Observing Animal Exploratory Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    For curriculum content-related reasons, inquiry activities can be difficult in classrooms unless the activities are approached in a manner that makes variations among student group findings understandable in the context of the study. Studies of individual animals and plant reactions to stimuli, such as insect exploratory behavior, allow the…

  10. Testing Alternative Hypotheses about Animal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Lang, Michael; Lawson, Anton E.

    Research indicates that the effectiveness of instruction in the elementary classroom is enhanced when it incorporates materials that actively engage students in the generation of scientific explanations. To this end, this document describes an exercise that allows Kindergarten students to explore the basic principles of animal behavior in an…

  11. Two Programs Educating the Public in Animal Learning and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Estep, Daniel Q.

    2002-01-01

    Two educational programs have been developed that teach basic principles of animal learning and behavior and how they can be used in day to day interactions with companion animals. The first program educates violators of animal control laws about animal learning and cat and dog behavior to help them resolve their problems with their animals and avoid future animal control violations. The second educates home service providers concerning basic principles of animal communication, dog behavior, ...

  12. Ecology, Evolution, and Animal Behavior (EBB)

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    As discussed in Chapter 2 of Kendall’s thesis, there is a subfield of biology called Ecology, Evolution, and Animal Behavior that is sometimes called Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior with both abbreviated as EEB. Some universities have Departments with this name and it is a well establish field of research. “Ecology is ‘the study of the interrelationships between organisms and their natural environment, both living and nonliving.’ .... Evolution is ‘the gradual process by which th...

  13. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Di Segni; Enrico Patrono; Loris Patella; Stefano Puglisi-Allegra; Rossella Ventura

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medica...

  14. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di Segni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies.

  15. Animal models of compulsive eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-10-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating "comfort foods" in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, "food addiction" has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

  16. Queering animal sexual behavior in biology textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biology is instrumental in establishing and perpetuating societal norms of gender and sexuality, owing to its afforded authoritative role in formulating beliefs about what is "natural". However, philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science have shown how conceptions of gender and sexuality pervade the supposedly objective knowledge produced by the natural sciences. For example, in describing animal relationships, biologists sometimes use the metaphor of marriage, which brings with it conceptions of both cuckoldry and male ownership of female partners. These conceptions have often led researchers to overlook female behavior and adaptations, such as female initiation of mating. Such social norms and ideologies influence both theories and research in biology. Social norms of gender and sexuality also influence school cultures. Although awareness of gender issues has had a major impact in Sweden during recent years, the interventions conducted have been based on a heteronormative understanding of sex; this has rendered sexual norms a non-prioritized issue and thereby rendered non-heterosexuals invisible in teaching and textbooks. Since this research was published in 2007 and 2009, norm critical pedagogics have been included in the Swedish National Agency for Education's guidelines for teaching. This inclusion represents one way to tackle the recurring problem of heterosexuality being described as a naturalized "normal" behavior and homosexuals, bisexuals and transsexuals being described from a heteronormative perspective. In this paper, I employ gender and queer perspectives to scrutinize how animal sexual behavior is described and explained in Swedish biology textbooks. The analysis is based in gender and queer theory, feminist science studies, and evolutionary biology. The article begins with an outline a discussion of my theoretical framework, relating gender and queer perspectives on evolutionary biology to a discussion of queer

  17. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hopster, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare assessment. Natural behavior may be defined as behavior that animals have a tendency to exhibit under natural conditions, because these behaviors are pleasurable and promote biological functioning. A...

  18. Compression as a universal principle of animal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Cancho, Ramon; Hernández Fernández, Antonio; Lusseau, David; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Minna J. Hsu; Semple, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A key aim in biology and psychology is to identify fundamental principles underpinning the behavior of animals, including humans. Analyses of human language and the behavior of a range of non-human animal species have provided evidence for a common pattern underlying diverse behavioral phenomena: words follow Zipf's law of brevity (the tendency of more frequently used words to be shorter), and conformity to this general pattern has been seen in the behavior of a number of other animals. It ha...

  19. Celebrated expert in autism and animal behavior visits veterinary college

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 150 faculty, staff, and students recently gathered to hear Dr. Temple Grandin, an expert in autism and animal behavior, present a seminar entitled, "Animals in Translation: Understanding animal behavior through the mind of a visual thinker," at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech.

  20. Compression as a Universal Principle of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni; Lusseau, David; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Hsu, Minna J.; Semple, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A key aim in biology and psychology is to identify fundamental principles underpinning the behavior of animals, including humans. Analyses of human language and the behavior of a range of non-human animal species have provided evidence for a common pattern underlying diverse behavioral phenomena: Words follow Zipf's law of brevity (the…

  1. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi Hayakawa

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes. Abstract The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence hist...

  2. Quantitative characterization of animal behavior following blast exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Rapp, Paul Ernest

    2007-01-01

    The simplest approach to quantifying animal behavior begins by identifying a list of discrete behaviors and observing the animal’s behavior at regular intervals for a specified period of time. The behavioral distribution (the fraction of observations corresponding to each behavior) is then determined. This is an incomplete characterization of behavior, and in some instances, mild injury is not reflected by statistically significant changes in the distribution even though a human observer can ...

  3. ANIMAL RESEARCH IN THE JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say–do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by...

  4. An Algorithm for Global Optimization Inspired by Collective Animal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Cuevas; Mauricio González; Daniel Zaldivar; Marco Pérez-Cisneros; Guillermo García

    2012-01-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization called the collective animal behavior (CAB) is introduced. Animal groups, such as schools of fish, flocks of birds, swarms of locusts, and herds of wildebeest, exhibit a variety of behaviors including swarming about a food source, milling around a central locations, or migrating over large distances in aligned groups. These collective behaviors are often advantageous to groups, allowing them to increase their harvesting efficiency, to follow b...

  5. Hybrid pairwise likelihood analysis of animal behavior experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cattelan, Manuela; Varin, Cristiano

    2012-01-01

    The study of the determinants of contests between animals is an important issue in understanding animal behavior. Tournament experiments among a set of animals are used by zoologists for this purpose. From a statistical point of view, the results of these tournament experiments are naturally analyzed by paired comparison models such as the Bradley-Terry and the Thurstone models. A major complication is the presence of dependence between the outcomes of couples of contests with an animal in co...

  6. Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Mark H.; Tanimura, Yoko; Lee, Linda W.; Bodfish, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behavior, along with deficits in social reciprocity and communication, is diagnostic of autism. Animal models relevant to this domain generally fall into three classes: repetitive behavior associated with targeted insults to the CNS; repetitive behavior induced by pharmacological agents; and repetitive behavior associated with restricted environments and experience. The extant literature provides potential models of the repetitive behavioral phenotype in autism rather t...

  7. Behavior genetics and the domestication of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per

    2014-02-01

    Across species, a similar suite of traits tends to develop in response to domestication, including modifications in behavior. Reduced fear and increased stress tolerance were central in early domestication, and many domestication-related behaviors may have developed as traits correlated to reduced fear. Genetic mechanisms involved in domestication of behavior can be investigated by using top-down or bottom-up approaches, either starting from the behavior variation and searching for underlying genes or finding selected loci and then attempting to identify the associated phenotypes. Combinations of these approaches have proven powerful, and examples of results from such studies are presented and discussed. This includes loci associated with tameness in foxes and dogs, as well as loci correlated with reduced aggression and increased sociality in chickens. Finally, some examples are provided on epigenetic mechanisms in behavior, and it is suggested that selection of favorable epigenetic variants may have been an important mechanism in domestication.

  8. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  9. Applying animal behavior to arid rangeland mangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock production is one of many demands placed on today’s arid rangelands. Therefore, understanding plant and animal biology and their effects on biotic and abiotic landscape components is fundamental if rangelands are to remain ecologically sustainable. One limiting factor to accomplishing posi...

  10. Queering animal sexual behavior in biology textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Malin Ah-King

    2013-01-01

    Biology is instrumental in establishing and perpetuating societal norms of gender and sexuality, owing to its afforded authoritative role in formulating beliefs about what is "natural". However, philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science have shown how conceptions of gender and sexuality pervade the supposedly objective knowledge produced by the natural sciences. For example, in describing animal relationships, biologists sometimes use the metaphor of marriage, which brings with it...

  11. JAABA: interactive machine learning for automatic annotation of animal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kabra, Mayank; Robie, Alice A.; Rivera-Alba, Marta; Branson, Steven; Branson, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    We present a machine learning-based system for automatically computing interpretable, quantitative measures of animal behavior. Through our interactive system, users encode their intuition about behavior by annotating a small set of video frames. These manual labels are converted into classifiers that can automatically annotate behaviors in screen-scale data sets. Our general-purpose system can create a variety of accurate individual and social behavior classifiers for different organisms, in...

  12. Collective animal behavior from Bayesian estimation and probability matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pérez-Escudero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals living in groups make movement decisions that depend, among other factors, on social interactions with other group members. Our present understanding of social rules in animal collectives is mainly based on empirical fits to observations, with less emphasis in obtaining first-principles approaches that allow their derivation. Here we show that patterns of collective decisions can be derived from the basic ability of animals to make probabilistic estimations in the presence of uncertainty. We build a decision-making model with two stages: Bayesian estimation and probabilistic matching. In the first stage, each animal makes a Bayesian estimation of which behavior is best to perform taking into account personal information about the environment and social information collected by observing the behaviors of other animals. In the probability matching stage, each animal chooses a behavior with a probability equal to the Bayesian-estimated probability that this behavior is the most appropriate one. This model derives very simple rules of interaction in animal collectives that depend only on two types of reliability parameters, one that each animal assigns to the other animals and another given by the quality of the non-social information. We test our model by obtaining theoretically a rich set of observed collective patterns of decisions in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a shoaling fish species. The quantitative link shown between probabilistic estimation and collective rules of behavior allows a better contact with other fields such as foraging, mate selection, neurobiology and psychology, and gives predictions for experiments directly testing the relationship between estimation and collective behavior.

  13. Scaling and Intermittency in Animal Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Harnos, A; Lawrence, A B; Vattay, G

    1999-01-01

    Scale-invariant spatial or temporal patterns and Lévy flight motion have been observed in a large variety of biological systems. It has been argued that animals in general might perform Lévy flight motion with power law distribution of times between two changes of the direction of motion. Here we study the temporal behaviour of nesting gilts. The time spent by a gilt in a given form of activity has power law probability distribution without finite average. Further analysis reveals intermittent eruption of certain periodic behavioural sequences which are responsible for the scaling behaviour and indicates the existence of a critical state. We show that this behaviour is in close analogy with temporal sequences of velocity found in turbulent flows, where random and regular sequences alternate and form an intermittent sequence.

  14. Complex scaling behavior in animal foraging patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, Prabhavi Kaushalya

    This dissertation attempts to answer questions from two different areas of biology, ecology and neuroscience, using physics-based techniques. In Section 2, suitability of three competing random walk models is tested to describe the emergent movement patterns of two species of primates. The truncated power law (power law with exponential cut off) is the most suitable random walk model that characterizes the emergent movement patterns of these primates. In Section 3, an agent-based model is used to simulate search behavior in different environments (landscapes) to investigate the impact of the resource landscape on the optimal foraging movement patterns of deterministic foragers. It should be noted that this model goes beyond previous work in that it includes parameters such as spatial memory and satiation, which have received little consideration to date in the field of movement ecology. When the food availability is scarce in a tropical forest-like environment with feeding trees distributed in a clumped fashion and the size of those trees are distributed according to a lognormal distribution, the optimal foraging pattern of a generalist who can consume various and abundant food types indeed reaches the Levy range, and hence, show evidence for Levy-flight-like (power law distribution with exponent between 1 and 3) behavior. Section 4 of the dissertation presents an investigation of phase transition behavior in a network of locally coupled self-sustained oscillators as the system passes through various bursting states. The results suggest that a phase transition does not occur for this locally coupled neuronal network. The data analysis in the dissertation adopts a model selection approach and relies on methods based on information theory and maximum likelihood.

  15. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  16. Observing Animal Behavior at the Zoo: A Learning Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Debra B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate students in a learning laboratory course initially chose a species to study; researched that species' physical and behavioral characteristics; then learned skills necessary to select, operationalize, observe, and record animal behavior accurately. After their classroom preparation, students went to a local zoo to observe the behavior…

  17. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  18. A new method for discovering behavior patterns among animal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Takekawa, J.; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiong, Y.; Newman, S.; Xiao, X.; Batbayar, N.; Spragens, Kyle A; Balachandran, S.; Yan, B.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced satellite tracking technologies enable biologists to track animal movements at fine spatial and temporal scales. The resultant data present opportunities and challenges for understanding animal behavioral mechanisms. In this paper, we develop a new method to elucidate animal movement patterns from tracking data. Here, we propose the notion of continuous behavior patterns as a concise representation of popular migration routes and underlying sequential behaviors during migration. Each stage in the pattern is characterized in terms of space (i.e., the places traversed during movements) and time (i.e. the time spent in those places); that is, the behavioral state corresponding to a stage is inferred according to the spatiotemporal and sequential context. Hence, the pattern may be interpreted predictably. We develop a candidate generation and refinement framework to derive all continuous behavior patterns from raw trajectories. In the framework, we first define the representative spots to denote the underlying potential behavioral states that are extracted from individual trajectories according to the similarity of relaxed continuous locations in certain distinct time intervals. We determine the common behaviors of multiple individuals according to the spatiotemporal proximity of representative spots and apply a projection-based extension approach to generate candidate sequential behavior sequences as candidate patterns. Finally, the candidate generation procedure is combined with a refinement procedure to derive continuous behavior patterns. We apply an ordered processing strategy to accelerate candidate refinement. The proposed patterns and discovery framework are evaluated through conceptual experiments on both real GPS-tracking and large synthetic datasets.

  19. Remote controlled bio-stimulator and animal behavior analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiguo; Yuan, Kui; Han, Taizhen; Chai, Jie

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a surveillance and stimulation system to study the animal locomotion behavior under electrical micro-stimulations in the brain nerve, which provides a new platform and methodology for behavior experiment in neural science. The system consists of two parts: 1) micro-control based multi-channel stimulator backed by animal; 2) Computer vision based animal behavior tracking system; The performance of the micro-stimulator is validated for sciatic nerve of frog and the results show that it is reliable, stabile, compact (25×35×10 mm), light (20g with cell). The tracking speed and accuracy is improved with our new hybrid tracking algorithm based on color table looking and moving predication, and compared with the manual recording. The preliminary results of rat tracking show that it works accurately and robustly in real-time even under interference condition.

  20. An Algorithm for Global Optimization Inspired by Collective Animal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cuevas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization called the collective animal behavior (CAB is introduced. Animal groups, such as schools of fish, flocks of birds, swarms of locusts, and herds of wildebeest, exhibit a variety of behaviors including swarming about a food source, milling around a central locations, or migrating over large distances in aligned groups. These collective behaviors are often advantageous to groups, allowing them to increase their harvesting efficiency, to follow better migration routes, to improve their aerodynamic, and to avoid predation. In the proposed algorithm, the searcher agents emulate a group of animals which interact with each other based on the biological laws of collective motion. The proposed method has been compared to other well-known optimization algorithms. The results show good performance of the proposed method when searching for a global optimum of several benchmark functions.

  1. Wild Origins: The Evolving Nature of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ifigenia

    For billions of years, evolution has been the driving force behind the incredible range of biodiversity on our planet. Wild Origins is a concept plan for an exhibition at the National Zoo that uses case studies of animal behavior to explain the theory of evolution. Behaviors evolve, just as physical forms do. Understanding natural selection can help us interpret animal behavior and vice-versa. A living collection, digital media, interactives, fossils, and photographs will relay stories of social behavior, sex, navigation and migration, foraging, domestication, and relationships between different species. The informal learning opportunities visitors are offered at the zoo will create a connection with the exhibition's teaching points. Visitors will leave with an understanding and sense of wonder at the evolutionary view of life.

  2. Integration of animal behaviors under stresses with different time courses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun Zheng; Xigeng Zheng

    2014-01-01

    We used animal models of“forced swim stress”and“chronic unpredictable stress”, and tried to reveal whether a passive coping style of high lfotation behavior in forced swim stress predicts an-hedonia behavior after chronic unpredictable stress, and whether the dopamine system regulates lfoating and anhedonia behaviors. Our results conifrmed that depression-prone rats use“lfoating behavior”as a coping strategy in forced swim stress and more readily suffer from anhedonia during chronic unpredictable stress. Intraperitoneal injection or nucleus accumbens microin-jection of the dopamine 2/3 receptor subtype agonist ropinirole reduced lfoating behaviors in depression-prone animals, but increased sucrose preference in rats showing anhedonia. These data indicate that lfoating behavior is a defensive mode that is preferred by susceptible individ-uals under conditions of acute stress. Simultaneously, these animals more readily experienced anhedonia under long-term stress;that is, they were more readily affected by depression. Our results suggest that dopamine 2/3 receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens play an important role in lfoating behaviors and anhedonia.

  3. Exploring Ethograms in the Schoolyard: A Lesson on Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graszer, Christina L.; Gnau, Katie; Melber, Leah M.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights a core lesson that has been used in a number of Lincoln Park Zoo educational programs. The lesson teaches students to conduct an ethological, or animal behavior, study on a bird. This study can be implemented in a variety of outdoor settings, including a park, schoolyard, or zoo. Using an ethogram, students will practice…

  4. Serotonergic pharmacology in animal models: from behavioral disorders to dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Gobert, Maude; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique

    2014-06-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction has been involved in both movement and behavioral disorders. Serotonin pharmacology improves dyskinetic movements as well as depressive, anxious, aggressive and anorexic symptoms. Animal models have been useful to investigate more precisely to what extent 5-HT is involved and whether drugs targeting the 5-HT system can counteract the symptoms exhibited. We review existing rodent and non-human primate (NHP) animal models in which selective 5-HT or dual 5-HT-norepinephrine (NE) transporter inhibitors, as well as specific 5-HT receptors agonists and antagonists, monoamine oxidase A inhibitors (IMAO-A) and MDMA (Ecstasy) have been used. We review overlaps between the various drug classes involved. We confront behavioral paradigms and treatment regimen. Some but not all animal models and associated pharmacological treatments have been extensively studied in the litterature. In particular, the impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been extensively investigated using a variety of pharmacological or genetic rodent models of depression, anxiety, aggressiveness. But the validity of these rodent models is questioned. On the contrary, few studies did address the potential impact of targeting the 5-HT system on NHP models of behavioral disorders, despite the fact that those models may match more closely to human pathologies. Further investigations with carefull behavioral analysis will improve our understanding of neural bases underlying the pathophysiology of movement and behavioral disorders. PMID:24486710

  5. Survey of animal welfare, animal behavior, and animal ethics courses in the curricula of AVMA Council on Education-accredited veterinary colleges and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivley, Chelsey B; Garry, Franklyn B; Kogan, Lori R; Grandin, Temple

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To explore the extent to which veterinary colleges and schools accredited by the AVMA Council on Education (COE) have incorporated specific courses related to animal welfare, behavior, and ethics. DESIGN Survey and curriculum review. SAMPLE All 49 AVMA COE-accredited veterinary colleges and schools (institutions). PROCEDURES The study consisted of 2 parts. In part 1, a survey regarding animal welfare, behavior, and ethics was emailed to the associate dean of academic affairs at all 49 AVMA COE-accredited institutions. In part 2, the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited institutions in the United States were reviewed for courses on animal behavior, ethics, and welfare. RESULTS Seventeen of 49 (35%) institutions responded to the survey of part 1, of which 10 offered a formal animal welfare course, 9 offered a formal animal behavior course, 8 offered a formal animal ethics course, and 5 offered a combined animal welfare, behavior, and ethics course. The frequency with which courses on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics were offered differed between international and US institutions. Review of the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited US institutions revealed that 6 offered a formal course on animal welfare, 22 offered a formal course on animal behavior, and 18 offered a formal course on animal ethics. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that AVMA COE-accredited institutions need to provide more formal education on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics so veterinarians can be advocates for animals and assist with behavioral challenges.

  6. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The two major aims of our lab are as follows: First, to develop and field-test general mechanistic models that predict animal life history characteristics as influenced by climate and the physical, physiological behavioral characteristics of species. This involves: understanding how animal time and energy budgets are affected by climate and animal properties; predicting growth and reproductive potential from time and energy budgets; predicting mortality based on climate and time and energy budgets; and linking these individual based models to population dynamics. Second to conduct empirical studies of animal physiological ecology, particularly the effects of temperature on time and energy budgets. The physiological ecology of individual animals is the key link between the physical environment and population-level phenomena. We address the macroclimate to microclimate linkage on a broad spatial scale; address the links between individuals and population dynamics for lizard species; test the endotherm energetics and behavior model using beaver; address the spatial variation in climate and its effects on individual energetics, growth and reproduction; and address patchiness in the environment and constraints they may impose on individual energetics, growth and reproduction. These projects are described individually in the following section. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eHagmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.

  8. Some aspects of animal behavior and community dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Rai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We simulate the dynamical behavior of a few two - dimensional predator - prey systems in two - dimensional parameter spaces to gain insight into how functional responses affect community dynamics. The insight gained helps us design three dimensional systems. We construct models for a few ecosystems with three species and study them using computer simulations. The models have been developed by linking food chains which have both kinds of predators: specialist as well as generalist. The linking functions are weakly non-linear. The three dimensional model ecosystems have sexually reproducing top - predators. We perform extensive simulations to figure out dynamics of dynamical possibilities caused by changes in animal behavior. The animals change the foraging strategies and behave differently in different environments. At the end of the paper, we examine how diseases can govern transitions in meandering of dynamical models in bounded volume of their phase spaces.

  9. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  10. A New Model for the Collective Behavior of Animals

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, P The; Diep, H T

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new model in order to study behaviors of self-organized system such as a group of animals. We assume that the individuals have two degrees of freedom corresponding one to their internal state and the other to their external state. The external state is characterized by its moving orientation. The rule of the interaction between the individuals is determined by the internal state which can be either in the non-excited state or in the excited state. The system is put under a source of external perturbation called "noise". To study the behavior of the model with varying noise, we use the Monte-Carlo simulation technique. The result clearly shows two first-order transitions separating the system into three phases: with increasing noise, the system undergoes a phase transition from a frozen dilute phase to an ordered compact phase and then to the disordered dispersed phase. These phases correspond to behaviors of animals: uncollected state at low noise, flocking at medium noise and runaway at high noi...

  11. AN INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION TOOL FOR ANIMATING BEHAVIOR OF CRYPTOGRAPHIC PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabroka Maeref

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography and Network Security is a difficult subject to understand, mainly because of the complexity of security protocols and the mathematical rigour required to understand encryption algorithms. Realizing the need for an interactive visualization tool to facilitate the understanding of cryptographic concepts and protocols, several tools had been developed. However, these tools cannot be easily adapted to animate different protocols. The aim of this paper is to propose an interactive visualization tool, called the Cryptographic Protocol Animator (CPAnim. The tool enables a student to specify a protocol and gain knowledge about the impact of its behavior. The protocol is specified by using a scenario-based approach and it is demonstrated as a number of scenes displaying a complete scenario. The effectiveness of this tool was tested using an empirical evaluation method. The results show that this tool was effective in meeting its learning objectives.

  12. The science of animal behavior and welfare: challenges, opportunities and global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...

  13. Lead induced behavioral dysfunction: an animal model of hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergeld, E.K.; Goldberg, A.M.

    1974-01-01

    Although clinically lead poisoning is thought to cause several serious behavioral problems, a causal relationship between lead ingestion and behavioral dysfunction has not been shown. An animal model of lead poisoning was developed in which suckling mice were exposed to lead acetate from birth indirectly through their mothers and then directly after weaning. For the first 60 days, no deaths of offspring occurred due to lead but their growth and development were significantly retarded. Epidemiological evidence exists for the coincidence of lead exposure and hyperactivity syndromes in children. Activity of offspring was measured between 40 and 60 days of age. Treated mice were more than three times as active as agematched controls. Treated and control animals were given drugs used in the treatment and diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction hyperactivity in children: d- and l-amphetamine, methylphenidate, phenobarbital, and chloral hydrate. Lead-treated hyperactive mice responded paradoxically to all drugs except chloral hydrate: that is, d- and l-amphetamine and methylphenidate suppressed hyperactivity, while phenobarbital increased their levels of motor activity. Chloral hydrate was an effective sedative. Implications of these findings are discussed for the study of the central effects of lead poisoning and for the relationship between lead poisoning and minimal brain dysfunction hyperactivity.

  14. Cognitive Ethology and the Explanation of Nonhuman Animal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bekoff, Marc

    1995-01-01

    In each essay I discuss some aspects of the field of cognitive ethology and show how interdisciplinary research can inform evolutionary, comparative, and ecological studies of animal minds. I stress the importance of studying animals other than primates.

  15. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  16. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare. PMID:21216980

  17. Collective Animal Behavior from Bayesian Estimation and Probability Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Pérez-Escudero; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.

    2011-01-01

    Animals living in groups make movement decisions that depend, among other factors, on social interactions with other group members. Our present understanding of social rules in animal collectives is mainly based on empirical fits to observations, with less emphasis in obtaining first-principles approaches that allow their derivation. Here we show that patterns of collective decisions can be derived from the basic ability of animals to make probabilistic estimations in the presence of uncertai...

  18. Using Ants, Animal Behavior & the Learning Cycle to Investigate Scientific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Russell A.; Dolezal, Adam G.; Hicks, Michael R.; Butler, Michael W.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Ganesh, Tirupalavanam G.

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of animals is an intrinsically fascinating topic for students from a wide array of backgrounds. We describe a learning experience using animal behavior that we created for middle school students as part of a graduate-student outreach program, Graduate Partners in Science Education, at Arizona State University in collaboration with a…

  19. About Skinner and Time: Behavior-Analytic Contributions to Research on Animal Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Helga; Richelle, Marc; Wearden, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses two important influences of B. F. Skinner, and later workers in the behavior-analytic tradition, on the study of animal timing. The first influence is methodological, and is traced from the invention of schedules imposing temporal constraints or periodicities on animals in "The Behavior of Organisms," through the rate…

  20. About Skinner and Time: Behavior-Analytic Contributions to Research on Animal Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Lejeune, Helga; Richelle, Marc; Wearden, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses two important influences of B. F. Skinner, and later workers in the behavior-analytic tradition, on the study of animal timing. The first influence is methodological, and is traced from the invention of schedules imposing temporal constraints or periodicities on animals in The Behavior of Organisms, through the rate differentiation procedures of Schedules of Reinforcement, to modern temporal psychophysics in animals. The second influence has been the development of accou...

  1. A Comparison of Zoo Animal Behavior in the Presence of Familiar and Unfamiliar People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemary Anne; Melfi, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    As recorded in domestic nonhuman animals, regular interactions between animals in zoos and keepers and the resulting relationship formed (human-animal relationship [HAR]) are likely to influence the animals' behaviors with associated welfare consequences. HAR formation requires that zoo animals distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. This ability was tested by comparing zoo animal behavioral responses to familiar (routine) keepers and unfamiliar keepers (participants in the "Keeper for the Day" program). Study subjects included 1 African elephant (Loxodonta Africana), 3 Rothschild's giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi), 2 Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), and 2 slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Different behavior was evident and observed as decreased avoidance behavior toward familiar keepers (t7 = 6.00, p zoo animals have a lower level of fear toward familiar keepers. Keeper familiarity did not significantly affect any other behavioral measure. This finding suggests that in the current study, unfamiliar keeper presence did not appear to have detrimental effects. Furthermore, unfamiliar keeper-animal interactions could provide an increased number of positive human-animal interactions and potentially enhance animal welfare.

  2. A Comparison of Zoo Animal Behavior in the Presence of Familiar and Unfamiliar People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemary Anne; Melfi, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    As recorded in domestic nonhuman animals, regular interactions between animals in zoos and keepers and the resulting relationship formed (human-animal relationship [HAR]) are likely to influence the animals' behaviors with associated welfare consequences. HAR formation requires that zoo animals distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. This ability was tested by comparing zoo animal behavioral responses to familiar (routine) keepers and unfamiliar keepers (participants in the "Keeper for the Day" program). Study subjects included 1 African elephant (Loxodonta Africana), 3 Rothschild's giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi), 2 Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), and 2 slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Different behavior was evident and observed as decreased avoidance behavior toward familiar keepers (t7 = 6.00, p zoo animals have a lower level of fear toward familiar keepers. Keeper familiarity did not significantly affect any other behavioral measure. This finding suggests that in the current study, unfamiliar keeper presence did not appear to have detrimental effects. Furthermore, unfamiliar keeper-animal interactions could provide an increased number of positive human-animal interactions and potentially enhance animal welfare. PMID:26960022

  3. Robot-Animal Interaction: Perception and Behavior of Insbot

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Asadpour; Walter Karlen; Roland Siegwart; Gilles Caprari; Fabien Tache

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and behavior implementation of a miniature robot in size of a match box that simulates the behavior of cockroaches in order to establish a social interaction with them. The robot is equipped with two micro-processors dedicated to hardware processing and behavior generation. The robot can discriminate cockroaches, other robots, environment boundaries and shelters. It has also three means of communication for monitoring, logging, supervision of biological exper...

  4. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Tsuji, Osahiko [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hanyu, Aki [Division of Biochemistry, The Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okada, Seiji [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yasuda, Akimasa [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Fukano, Takashi [Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Akazawa, Chihiro [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakamura, Masaya [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Imamura, Takeshi [Department of Molecular Medicine for Pathogenesis, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, The Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Yumi [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Okano, Hirotaka James, E-mail: hjokano@jikei.ac.jp [Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Division of Regenerative Medicine Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 150-8461 (Japan); and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  5. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. ► ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. ► ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. ► ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  6. Effect of sepsis on behavioral changes on the ketamine-induced animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comim, Clarissa M; Silva, Napoleão C; Patrício, Janini J; Palmas, Daphne; Mendonça, Bruna P; Bittencourt, Mariana O; Cassol-Jr, Omar J; Barichello, Tatiana; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-04-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sepsis on behavioral changes on the ketamine-induced animal model of schizophrenia. Male Wistar rats underwent Cecal Ligation and Perporation (CLP) with "basic support" or were sham-operated. After 30 days, the animals were submitted to a model of schizophrenia by injection of Ketamine. The behavior tests were performed after 30 min of the injection of Ketamine or saline. Ketamine in doses of 15 and 25mg/kg increased locomotor activity, latency to first contact in the social interaction and stereotyped behavior. Some changes caused by sepsis may be associated with a predisposition to develop schizophrenia in the animal model.

  7. Timing Behavior and Development: Comments on Some Animal and Human Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lejeune, Helga; Richelle, Marc

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses timing behavior as measured by Fixed (FI), Differential Reinforcement of Low rate (DRL) or Differential Reinforcement Response Duration (DRRD) performances, in humans and animals at different develop stages. Infants and rats display similar behavior patterns in FI and childhood on, humans develop species-specific behavior patterns in FI, which differ from those of animal species. However, DRL patterns do follow similar trends in animals and humans. These discrepancies and...

  8. Learning childcare from animals I: The role of instinct among animals in childcare behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    中谷, 勝哉

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] In the gradation between instinct and learning, human child care is placed at the pole of learning. In this study, I compared childcare behaviors among birds, mammals, and primates. While instinct guarantees childcare and survival for birds, the same is unsure for primates. I discussed some problems regarding the functioning of instinctive behavior, which does not have one-to-one correspondence between stimulus and reaction. At the same time, I discussed some factors in the evoluti...

  9. Critical Behavior in a Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, P D; Chang, Julius

    2003-01-01

    Using a cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared on a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock on an infected premise (IP). Those farms that neighbor an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor iteractions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The non-local disease transport probability can be as low as .01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fissio...

  10. Critical Behavior in Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, P. D.; Chang, Julius

    Using cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared in a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock in an infected premise (IP). Those farms in the neighboring of an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor interactions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The nonlocal disease transport probability can be as low as 0.01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fission cascade. Finally, we calculate that the percentage of culled animals that are actually healthy is ≈30%.

  11. Animals' unusual behaviors just before the great earthquake; Jishin no maeni, dobutsu ga sawaida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsutani, Teruo

    1999-06-10

    For the purpose of disaster prevention based on the Earthquake in Southern Hyogo, precursory phenomina collected from the inhabitants was published. Change in fish catch of marine products, behaviors of animals such as rats, catfish, eels, hamstars, dogs, parakeets, snakes, alligators, and relation with crack of granite and with electromagnetic field are explained. In general, behaviors of animals had almost no relation to earthquake except change in electromagnetic field. (NEDO)

  12. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical iss...

  13. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  14. Collective Behavior of Animals: Swarming and Complex Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Cañizo, J. A.; Rosado, J.; J. A. CARRILLO

    2010-01-01

    In this short note we review some of the individual based models of the collective motion of agents, called swarming. These models based on ODEs (ordinary differential equations) exhibit a complex rich asymptotic behavior in terms of patterns, that we show numerically. Moreover, we comment on how these particle models are connected to partial differential equations to describe the evolution of densities of individuals in a continuum manner. The mathematical questions behind the stability issu...

  15. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  16. Optogenetic long-term manipulation of behavior and animal development

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schultheis; Jana Fiona Liewald; Ernst Bamberg; Georg Nagel; Alexander Gottschalk

    2011-01-01

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is widely used for rapid photodepolarization of neurons, yet, as it requires high-intensity blue light for activation, it is not suited for long-term in vivo applications, e.g. for manipulations of behavior, or photoactivation of neurons during development. We used "slow" ChR2 variants with mutations in the C128 residue, that exhibit delayed off-kinetics and increased light sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Following a 1 s light pulse, we could photodepolarize n...

  17. Pheromone application in prevention and therapy of domestic animal behavioral disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review-type paper presents the latest knowledge on pheromone therapy. Pheromone therapy does not imply merely the use of structural analogues of pheromones in therapy, but also in the prevention of behavioral disorders in domestic animals. Their application is induced in all cases in which the effects of stressors are expected and their negative effect on the health condition, welfare and production results of domestic animals. Structural analogues of pheromones can successfully be applied in the prevention and therapy of behavioral disorders in horses, swine, dogs, and cats. Recent investigations have confirmed that structural analogues of semiochemicals exert a positive effect also on the production results and meat quality of broilers. They realize their therapeutic and preventive effect on the behavior of domestic animals through the stabilization of the emotional state, relaxation, and calming the animals that are disturbed, or could become disturbed due to the effect of stressors.

  18. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior: parallels between mice and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; S. de Boer; Koolhaas, JM; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (men who persistently displayed antisocial behavior [Persisters] and men who never manifested antisocial behavior [Abstainers]). Groups were compared ...

  19. Effect of Saraswatarishta in animal models of behavior despair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma R Parekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saraswatarishta (SA is a herbo-mineral formulation consisting of 18 plants some of which are Medhyarasayanas. It has been claimed to be useful in treating central nervous system disorders. Objective: To evaluate antidepressant effect of ′Saraswatarishta′(SA alone and in combination with imipramine and fluoxetine in animal models of depression. Materials and Methods: After obtaining IAEC permission, 144 rats (n = 36/part were randomized into 6 groups- Group 1: Distilled water (1 mL, Group 2: Imipramine (30 mg/kg, Group 3: Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, Group 4: SA (1.8 mL/kg, Group 5: Imipramine + SA, Group 6: Fluoxetine + SA. Effects of study drugs were evaluated in forced swim test (FST with single exposure to FST (Part 1 and repeated exposure for 14 days (Part 2. In Part 3, reserpine was used with FST and effects of study drugs were evaluated against single exposure to FST. Same model was used with repeated exposures to FST (Part 4. In each part, rats were subjected to open field test (OFT for 5 min prior to final FST. The variables measured: Immobility time in FST; line crossing, rearing and defecation in the OFT. Results: In all four parts, individual drugs and combinations thereof produced significant decrease in immobility time as compared to control, and extent of decrease was comparable amongst these groups. However, values for combination of fluoxetine with SA group were found to be lesser than that for individual agents in Parts 2 and 3. Combination of SA with imipramine did not enhance its anti-depressant effect in any of the parts. OFT findings did not vary significantly amongst the study groups. Conclusion: Decreased immobility in FST and absence of generalized stimulation or depression of motor activity in OFT point towards potential antidepressant effect of Saraswatarishta. Its co-administration with fluoxetine showed more promising effects.

  20. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  1. A systematic survey of the integration of animal behavior into conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Carroll, Scott; Fisher, Robert N.; Mesnick, Sarah L.; Owen, Megan A.; Saltz, David; St. Claire, Colleen Cassady; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    The role of behavioral ecology in improving wildlife conservation and management has been the subject of much recent debate. We aim to answer two foundational questions about the current use of behavioral knowledge in conservation: 1. To what extent is behavioral knowledge used in wildlife conservation and management? 2. How does the use of behavior differ among conservation fields in both frequency and types of use? To answer these questions, we searched the literature for intersections between key fields of animal behavior and conservation biology and created a systematic ‘heat’ map to visualize relative efforts. Our analysis challenges previous suggestions that there is little association between the fields of behavioral ecology and conservation and reveals tremendous variation in the use of different behaviors in conservation. For instance, some behaviors, such as foraging and dispersal, are commonly considered, but other behaviors such as learning, social or anti-predatory behaviors are hardly considered. Our analysis suggests that in many cases awareness of the importance of behavior does not translate into applicable management tools. We recommend that researchers should focus on developing research in underutilized intersections of behavior and conservation themes for which preliminary work show a potential for improving conservation and management, on translating behavioral theory into applicable and testable predictions, and on creating systematic reviews to summarize the behavioral evidence within the behavior-conservation intersections for which many studies exist.

  2. Collective Behavior of Animals: Swarming and Complex Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañizo, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this short note we review some of the individual based models of the collective motion of agents, called swarming. These models based on ODEs (ordinary differential equations exhibit a complex rich asymptotic behavior in terms of patterns, that we show numerically. Moreover, we comment on how these particle models are connected to partial differential equations to describe the evolution of densities of individuals in a continuum manner. The mathematical questions behind the stability issues of these PDE (partial differential equations models are questions of actual interest in mathematical biology research.

    En esta nota repasamos algunos modelos basados en individuos para describir el movimiento colectivo de agentes, a lo que nos referimos usando la voz inglesa swarming. Estos modelos se basan en EDOs (ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias y muestran un comportamiento asintótico complejo y rico en patrones, que mostramos numéricamente. Además, comentamos cómo se conectan estos modelos de partículas con las ecuaciones en derivadas parciales para describir la evolución de densidades de individuos de forma continua. Las cuestiones matemáticas relacionadas con la estabilidad de de estos modelos de EDP's (ecuaciones en derivadas parciales despiertan gran interés en la investigación en biología matemática.

  3. The effect of dog-human interaction on cortisol and behavior in registered animal-assisted activity dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Zenithson Ying

    2013-01-01

    Background: The effect of animal-assisted activities (AAA) on the animal participants has been minimally investigated and the welfare of these animals has been questioned. Cortisol, in conjunction with stress-associated behavior, has been utilized as an objective assessment of animal welfare.Objective: Salivary cortisol and behavior in AAA dogs were measured to test the null hypothesis that salivary cortisol concentration and behavior are not different in an AAA environment compared to home o...

  4. Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite E O'Haire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs compared to toys. METHODS: Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers. Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining in the presence of animals compared to toys. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD.

  5. Identifying veterinary students' capacity for moral behavior concerning animal ethics issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians face unique animal ethics challenges as practitioners and policy advisors to government and industry. Changing societal attitudes, cultural diversity, and the often conflicting needs and interests of patients and clients contribute to moral distress. Yet little has been done to identify veterinarians' capacity to address these animal ethics issues. In this study, first-year and final-year veterinary students in an Australian university were surveyed to explore moral sensitivity, moral motivation, and moral character and their relationship with moral reasoning. The majority of students were concerned about animal ethics issues and had experienced moral distress in relation to the treatment of animals. Most believed that veterinarians should address the wider social issues of animal protection and that veterinary medicine should require a commitment to animals' interests over owners'/caregivers' interests. There was less agreement that the veterinary profession was sufficiently involved in addressing animal ethics issues. The principal motivators for studying veterinary medicine were, in declining importance, enjoyment in working with animals, helping sick and injured animals, and improving the way animals are treated. However, most students had taken little or no action to address animal ethics issues. These results suggest that both first- and fifth-year veterinary students are sensitive to animal ethics issues and are motivated to prioritize the interests of animals but have little experience in taking action to address these issues. Further research is needed to determine ways to identify and assess these moral behavior components in veterinary education to develop veterinarians' capacity to address animal ethics issues.

  6. A systematic survey of the integration of animal behavior into conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T; Carroll, Scott; Fisher, Robert N; Mesnick, Sarah L; Owen, Megan A; Saltz, David; St Claire, Colleen Cassady; Swaisgood, Ronald R

    2016-08-01

    The role of behavioral ecology in improving wildlife conservation and management has been the subject of much recent debate. We sought to answer 2 foundational questions about the current use of behavioral knowledge in conservation: To what extent is behavioral knowledge used in wildlife conservation and management, and how does the use of animal behavior differ among conservation fields in both frequency and types of use? We searched the literature for intersections between key fields of animal behavior and conservation and created a systematic heat map (i.e., graphical representation of data where values are represented as colors) to visualize relative efforts. Some behaviors, such as dispersal and foraging, were commonly considered (mean [SE] of 1147.38 [353.11] and 439.44 [108.85] papers per cell, respectively). In contrast, other behaviors, such as learning, social, and antipredatory behaviors were rarely considered (mean [SE] of 33.88 [7.62], 44.81 [10.65], and 22.69 [6.37] papers per cell, respectively). In many cases, awareness of the importance of behavior did not translate into applicable management tools. Our results challenge previous suggestions that there is little association between the fields of behavioral ecology and conservation and reveals tremendous variation in the use of different behaviors in conservation. We recommend that researchers focus on examining underutilized intersections of behavior and conservation themes for which preliminary work shows a potential for improving conservation and management, translating behavioral theory into applicable and testable predictions, and creating systematic reviews to summarize the behavioral evidence within the behavior-conservation intersections for which many studies exist. PMID:26548454

  7. A systematic survey of the integration of animal behavior into conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T; Carroll, Scott; Fisher, Robert N; Mesnick, Sarah L; Owen, Megan A; Saltz, David; St Claire, Colleen Cassady; Swaisgood, Ronald R

    2016-08-01

    The role of behavioral ecology in improving wildlife conservation and management has been the subject of much recent debate. We sought to answer 2 foundational questions about the current use of behavioral knowledge in conservation: To what extent is behavioral knowledge used in wildlife conservation and management, and how does the use of animal behavior differ among conservation fields in both frequency and types of use? We searched the literature for intersections between key fields of animal behavior and conservation and created a systematic heat map (i.e., graphical representation of data where values are represented as colors) to visualize relative efforts. Some behaviors, such as dispersal and foraging, were commonly considered (mean [SE] of 1147.38 [353.11] and 439.44 [108.85] papers per cell, respectively). In contrast, other behaviors, such as learning, social, and antipredatory behaviors were rarely considered (mean [SE] of 33.88 [7.62], 44.81 [10.65], and 22.69 [6.37] papers per cell, respectively). In many cases, awareness of the importance of behavior did not translate into applicable management tools. Our results challenge previous suggestions that there is little association between the fields of behavioral ecology and conservation and reveals tremendous variation in the use of different behaviors in conservation. We recommend that researchers focus on examining underutilized intersections of behavior and conservation themes for which preliminary work shows a potential for improving conservation and management, translating behavioral theory into applicable and testable predictions, and creating systematic reviews to summarize the behavioral evidence within the behavior-conservation intersections for which many studies exist.

  8. Abnormal animal behavior prior to the Vrancea (Romania) major subcrustal earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Angela; Pantea, Aurelian

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some observations about abnormal animal behavior prior and during of some Romanian subcrustal earthquakes. The major Vrancea earthquakes of 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.4, Imax = IX-X MSK), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.1, Io = VIII-IX MSK) and 30 May 1990 (Mw = 6.9, Io = VIII MSK), were preceded by extensive occurrences of anomalous animal behavior. These data were collected immediately after the earthquakes from the areas affected by these. Some species of animals became excited, nervous and panicked before and during the earthquakes, such as: dogs (barking and running in panic), cats, snakes, mice and rats (came into the houses and have lost their fear), birds (hens, geese, parrots), horses, fishes etc. These strange manifestations of the animals were observed on the entire territory of country, especially in the extra-Carpathian area. This unusual behavior was noticed within a few hours to days before the seismic events, but for the most of cases the time of occurrence was within two hours of the quakes. We can hope that maybe one day the abnormal animal behavior will be used as a reliable seismic precursor for the intermediate depth earthquakes.

  9. Behavioral plasticity, behavioral syndromes and animal personality in crustacean decapods: An imperfect map is better than no map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesca GHERARDI; Laura AQUILONI; Elena TRICARICO

    2012-01-01

    Despite their key role as model organisms in many behavioral studies,crustacean decapods have been only slightly touched upon by the recent surge of scientific interest in animal personality.Only seven articles investigated the issue in a handful of species among hermit crabs,crabs,and crayfish.Obviously,a limited number of publications does not mean that personality is rare in decapods.On the contrary,few studies might be the result of a form of reluctance by behavioral ecologists to deal with such a phenomenon in these and other invertebrates.This reluctance contrasts with the enthusiasm shown in tackling the behavioral plasticity issue.Here we discuss the possible theoretical and methodological difficulties raised by applying the animal personality perspective to decapods and analyze implications of personality studies for their ecology,conservation,and welfare.By highlighting gaps in knowledge and directions of future research,our intention is to increase scientific emphasis on the issue.

  10. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  11. Image analysis platforms for exploring genetic and neuronal mechanisms regulating animal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Asadulina, Albina

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of neuroscience is to understand how gene interactions and neuronal networks regulate animal behavior. The larvae of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii provide a convenient system for such integrative studies. These larvae exhibit a wide range of behaviors, including phototaxis, chemotaxis and gravitaxis and at the same time exhibit relatively simple nervous system organization. Due to its small size and transparent body, the Platynereis larva is compatible with whole-b...

  12. Analyzing animal behavior via classifying each video frame using convolutional neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Stern; Ruo He; Chung-Hui Yang

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of animal behavior requires software to analyze videos. Such software analyzes each frame individually, detecting animals’ body parts. But the image analysis rarely attempts to recognize “behavioral states”—e.g., actions or facial expressions—directly from the image instead of using the detected body parts. Here, we show that convolutional neural networks (CNNs)—a machine learning approach that recently became the leading technique for object recognition, human pose e...

  13. Automated tracking of animal posture and movement during exploration and sensory orientation behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gomez-Marin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nervous functions of an organism are primarily reflected in the behavior it is capable of. Measuring behavior quantitatively, at high-resolution and in an automated fashion provides valuable information about the underlying neural circuit computation. Accordingly, computer-vision applications for animal tracking are becoming a key complementary toolkit to genetic, molecular and electrophysiological characterization in systems neuroscience. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present Sensory Orientation Software (SOS to measure behavior and infer sensory experience correlates. SOS is a simple and versatile system to track body posture and motion of single animals in two-dimensional environments. In the presence of a sensory landscape, tracking the trajectory of the animal's sensors and its postural evolution provides a quantitative framework to study sensorimotor integration. To illustrate the utility of SOS, we examine the orientation behavior of fruit fly larvae in response to odor, temperature and light gradients. We show that SOS is suitable to carry out high-resolution behavioral tracking for a wide range of organisms including flatworms, fishes and mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work contributes to the growing repertoire of behavioral analysis tools for collecting rich and fine-grained data to draw and test hypothesis about the functioning of the nervous system. By providing open-access to our code and documenting the software design, we aim to encourage the adaptation of SOS by a wide community of non-specialists to their particular model organism and questions of interest.

  14. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  15. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior : parallels between mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; de Boer, S; Koolhaas, JM

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin

  16. [Effect of phenibut on the behavior of experimental animals under conditions of voluntary chronic alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Voronkov, A V; Borodkina, L E

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phenibut on the locomotor and orientation-research activity, as well as on the alcohol and food motivation, was studied on experimental animals under conditions of voluntary chronic alcoholism. Phenibut decreased the manifestations of alcohol-induced behavioral disorders and reduced alcohol motivation. PMID:16047680

  17. The gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyndt, Bettina Merete; Redrobe, Paul; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina;

    The gut microbiota has major impact on the individual. Here we show that the gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia. The gut microbiota were changed in the group treated subchronic with PCP, and restoration coincided with normalisation...... of memory performance in lister hooded rats. Furthermore the individual gut microbiota correlated to the individual behavior abserved in the tests conducted. In conclusion results show an influence of the gut microbiota on behavior in this model, and therefore it might be relavant to include the information...... from the gut in analyses of studies using this model in the future....

  18. Social and behavioral barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.S.

    1988-12-31

    Disease and pathogens have been studied as regulators of animal populations but not really as selective forces. The authors propose that pathogens can be major selective forces influencing social behaviors when these are successful at reducing disease transmission. The behaviors whose evolution could have been influenced by pathogen effects include group size, group isolation, mixed species flocking, migration, seasonal sociality, social avoidance, and dominance behaviors. Mate choice, mating system, and sexual selection are put in a new light when examined in terms of disease transmission. It is concluded that pathogen avoidance is a more powerful selective force than has heretofore been recognized.

  19. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities.

  20. Effect of a wildlife conservation camp experience in China on student knowledge of animals, care, propensity for environmental stewardship, and compassionate behavior toward animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexell, Sarah M.

    The goal of conservation education is positive behavior change toward animals and the environment. This study was conducted to determine whether participation in a wildlife conservation education camp was effective in positively changing 8-12 year old students': (a) knowledge of animals, (b) care about animals, (c) propensity for environmental and wildlife stewardship, and (d) compassionate behavior toward animals. During the summer of 2005, 2 five-day camps were conducted at 2 zoological institutions in Chengdu, China. The camp curriculum was influenced by theory and research on the following: conservation psychology, social learning theory, empathy and moral development theory, socio-biological theory, constructivist theory, and conservation science. Camp activities were sensitive to Chinese culture and included Chinese conservation issues. Activities were designed to help children form bonds with animals and care enough about them to positively change their behavior toward animals and the environment. This mixed methods study triangulated quantitative and qualitative data from six sources to answer the following: (1) Did camp increase student knowledge of animals? (2) Did camp increase student caring about animals? (3) Did camp increase student propensity for environmental and wildlife stewardship? (4) Did camp affect student compassionate behavior toward animals? A conservation stewards survey revealed significant increases on pre-post, self-report of knowledge, care, and propensity. Pre-post, rubric-scored responses to human-animal interaction vignettes indicated a significant increase in knowledge, and stable scores on care and propensity. Qualitative data from student journals, vignettes, and end-of-camp questionnaires demonstrated knowledge, caring, and propensity, and revealed the emergent theme empathy. To address question 4, instructors tallied campers' behavior toward animals using a student behavior ethogram. Occurrence of positive behaviors was

  1. Effects of HIV and Methamphetamine on Brain and Behavior: Evidence from Human Studies and Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soontornniyomkij, Virawudh; Kesby, James P; Morgan, Erin E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Minassian, Arpi; Brown, Gregory G; Grant, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) use is frequent among HIV-infected persons. Combined HIV and Meth insults may exacerbate neural injury in vulnerable neuroanatomic structures or circuitries in the brain, leading to increased behavioral disturbance and cognitive impairment. While acute and chronic effects of Meth in humans and animal models have been studied for decades, the neurobehavioral effects of Meth in the context of HIV infection are much less explored. In-depth understanding of the scope of neurobehavioral phenotypes and mechanisms in HIV/Meth intersection is needed. The present report summarizes published research findings, as well as unpublished data, in humans and animal models with regard to neurobehavioral disturbance, neuroimaging, and neuropathology, and in vitro experimental systems, with an emphasis on findings emerging from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC). Results from human studies and animal (primarily HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mouse) models thus far suggest that combined HIV and Meth insults increase the likelihood of neural injury in the brain. The neurobehavioral effects include cognitive impairment and increased tendencies toward impaired behavioral inhibition and social cognition. These impairments are relevant to behaviors that affect personal and social risks, e.g. worse medication adherence, riskier behaviors, and greater likelihood of HIV transmission. The underlying mechanisms may include electrochemical changes in neuronal circuitries, injury to white matter microstructures, synaptodendritic damage, and selective neuronal loss. Utilization of research methodologies that are valid across species is instrumental in generating new knowledge with clinical translational value. PMID:27484318

  2. The use of operant technology to measure behavioral priorities in captive animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J J; Mason, G J

    2001-08-01

    Addressing the behavioral priorities of captive animals and the development of practical, objective measures of the value of environmental resources is a principal objective of animal welfare science. In theory, consumer demand approaches derived from human microeconomics should provide valid measures of the value of environmental resources. In practice, however, a number of empirical and theoretical problems have rendered these measures difficult to interpret in studies with animals. A common approach has been to impose a cost on access to resources and to use time with each resource as a measure of consumption to construct demand curves. This can be recorded easily by automatic means, but in a number of studies, it has been found that animals compensate for increased cost of access with longer visit time. Furthermore, direct observation of the test animals' behavior has shown that resource interaction is more intense once the animals have overcome higher costs. As a consequence, measures based on time with the resource may underestimate resource consumption at higher access costs, and demand curves derived from these measures may not be a true reflection of the value of different resources. An alternative approach to demand curves is reservation price, which is the maximum price individual animals are prepared to pay to gain access to resources. In studies using this approach, farmed mink (Mustela vison) paid higher prices for food and swimming water than for resources such as tunnels, water bowls, pet toys, and empty compartments. This indicates that the mink placed a higher value on food and swimming water than on other resources. PMID:11591075

  3. The impact of zoo live animal presentations on students' propensity to engage in conservation behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, Mandy L.

    Zoos frequently deploy outreach programs, often called "Zoomobiles," to schools; these programs incorporate zoo resources, such as natural artifacts and live animals, in order to teach standardized content and in hopes of inspiring students to protect the environment. Educational research at zoos is relatively rare, and research on their outreach programs is non-existent. This leaves zoos vulnerable to criticisms as they have little to no evidence that their strategies support their missions, which target conservation outcomes. This study seeks to shed light on this gap by analyzing the impact that live animals have on offsite program participants' interests in animals and subsequent conservation outcomes. The theoretical lens is derived from the field of Conservation Psychology, which believes personal connections with nature serve as the motivational component to engagement with conservation efforts. Using pre, post, and delayed surveys combined with Zoomobile presentation observations, I analyzed the roles of sensory experiences in students' (N=197) development of animal interest and conservation behaviors. Results suggest that touching even one animal during presentations has a significant impact on conservation intents and sustainment of those intents. Although results on interest outcomes are conflicting, this study points to ways this kind of research can make significant contributions to zoo learning outcomes. Other significant variables, such as emotional predispositions and animal-related excitement, are discussed in light of future research directions.

  4. In Darwin's Footsteps: An On and Off-Campus Approach to Teaching Evolutionary Theory and Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillie, Lynn; Bizub, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    The study of evolutionary theory and fieldwork in animal behavior is enriched when students leave the classroom so they may test their abilities to think and act like scientists. This article describes a course on evolutionary theory and animal behavior that blended on campus learning with field experience in the United States and in Ecuador and…

  5. Modeling collective animal behavior with a cognitive perspective: a methodological framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weitz

    Full Text Available The last decades have seen an increasing interest in modeling collective animal behavior. Some studies try to reproduce as accurately as possible the collective dynamics and patterns observed in several animal groups with biologically plausible, individual behavioral rules. The objective is then essentially to demonstrate that the observed collective features may be the result of self-organizing processes involving quite simple individual behaviors. Other studies concentrate on the objective of establishing or enriching links between collective behavior researches and cognitive or physiological ones, which then requires that each individual rule be carefully validated. Here we discuss the methodological consequences of this additional requirement. Using the example of corpse clustering in ants, we first illustrate that it may be impossible to discriminate among alternative individual rules by considering only observational data collected at the group level. Six individual behavioral models are described: They are clearly distinct in terms of individual behaviors, they all reproduce satisfactorily the collective dynamics and distribution patterns observed in experiments, and we show theoretically that it is strictly impossible to discriminate two of these models even in the limit of an infinite amount of data whatever the accuracy level. A set of methodological steps are then listed and discussed as practical ways to partially overcome this problem. They involve complementary experimental protocols specifically designed to address the behavioral rules successively, conserving group-level data for the overall model validation. In this context, we highlight the importance of maintaining a sharp distinction between model enunciation, with explicit references to validated biological concepts, and formal translation of these concepts in terms of quantitative state variables and fittable functional dependences. Illustrative examples are provided of the

  6. Using accelerometers to remotely and automatically characterize behavior in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Talisin T; Springthorpe, Dwight; Walsh, Rachel E; Berg-Kirkpatrick, Taylor

    2016-06-01

    Activity budgets in wild animals are challenging to measure via direct observation because data collection is time consuming and observer effects are potentially confounding. Although tri-axial accelerometers are increasingly employed for this purpose, their application in small-bodied animals has been limited by weight restrictions. Additionally, accelerometers engender novel complications, as a system is needed to reliably map acceleration to behaviors. In this study, we describe newly developed, tiny acceleration-logging devices (1.5-2.5 g) and use them to characterize behavior in two chipmunk species. We collected paired accelerometer readings and behavioral observations from captive individuals. We then employed techniques from machine learning to develop an automatic system for coding accelerometer readings into behavioral categories. Finally, we deployed and recovered accelerometers from free-living, wild chipmunks. This is the first time to our knowledge that accelerometers have been used to generate behavioral data for small-bodied (<100 g), free-living mammals. PMID:26994177

  7. The Impact of Farmers' Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Hammitt, James K; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions. PMID:27300368

  8. The Impact of Farmers’ Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitt, James K.; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions. PMID:27300368

  9. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior. PMID:23562621

  10. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Tewelde G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows.Eight hundred three (99.4% respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals.Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  11. BEEtag: A Low-Cost, Image-Based Tracking System for the Study of Animal Behavior and Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Crall, James D.; Gravish, Nick; Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Stacey A Combes

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge common to studies of animal movement, behavior, and ecology is the collection of high-quality datasets on spatial positions of animals as they change through space and time. Recent innovations in tracking technology have allowed researchers to collect large and highly accurate datasets on animal spatiotemporal position while vastly decreasing the time and cost of collecting such data. One technique that is of particular relevance to the study of behavioral ecology invo...

  12. Teaching with the Macaulay Library: An Online Archive of Animal Behavior Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana Betancourt; McLinn, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Using video and audio recordings of animal behavior, students in a variety of courses can pose questions and gather data from diverse species and locations to test their hypotheses. Such recordings are freely available online in the Macaulay Library, the world’s largest scientifically curated archive of natural history media. Managed by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, the Macaulay Library currently houses about 50,000 video clips and 123,300 audio recordings (including the sounds of 75 ...

  13. Systems and algorithms for wireless sensor networks based on animal and natural behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Sendra; Lorena Parra; Jaime Lloret; Shafiullah Khan

    2015-01-01

    In last decade, there have been many research works about wireless sensor networks (WSNs) focused on improving the network performance as well as increasing the energy efficiency and communications effectiveness. Many of these new mechanisms have been implemented using the behaviors of certain animals, such as ants, bees, or schools of fish.These systems are called bioinspired systems and are used to improve aspects such as handling large-scale networks, provide dynamic nature, and a...

  14. THE NEURAL CIRCUITRY UNDERLYING REINSTATEMENT OF HEROIN-SEEKING BEHAVIOR IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF RELAPSE

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, J. L.; GHEE, S.; SEE, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking has been utilized in the study of the neural substrates of relapse to drugs of abuse, particularly cocaine. However, limited studies have examined the circuitry that drives the reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior in the presence of conditioned cues, or by heroin itself. In order to test the hypothesis that the circuitry underlying reinstatement in heroin-experienced animals would show overlapping, yet distinct differences from cocaine-experience...

  15. Chronic food administration of Salvia sclarea oil reduces animals' anxious and dominant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Moshe; Nesher, Elimelech; Tikhonov, Tatiana; Raz, Olga; Pinhasov, Albert

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that an oil extract from Salvia sclarea may provide clinical benefits in various pathological conditions. In comparison to extracts from other Salvia species, S. sclarea oil contains twice as much omega-3 fatty acids, which are involved in eicosanoid synthesis pathways, and has been found to contain significant levels of the psychoactive monoterpane linalool. In the present study, we examined the mood stabilizing and anxiolytic-like effects of chronic food administration of S. sclarea oil extract on behavioral and physiological parameters of mice with prominent dominant and submissive features in behavioral assays used to test mood stabilizing and antidepressant drugs. Experimental animals received oil supplemented food from the age of 4 weeks or from conception via their pregnant dams. Each age group received either S. sclarea oil- or sunflower oil-enriched feed. Dominant animals, whose pregnant mothers received S. sclarea oil-enriched feed from the date of conception, showed a significant reduction of dominant and anxiety-like behavior, in comparison to their sunflower oil-treated counterparts. S. sclarea oil-treated submissive animals exhibited a similar tendency, and showed a significant reduction in blood corticosterone levels. These findings enforce the hypothesis that S. sclarea oil possesses anxiolytic properties.

  16. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience. PMID:25023419

  17. Influences of Movement Behavior on Animal Distributions at Edges of Homogeneous Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary C. Young

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose that changes in movement behavior may be a proximate mechanism that influences the accumulation of animals at habitat edges. We tested this idea with a combination of empirical and simulation experiments in a resource-free landscape. The movements of individual flour beetles, Tribolium confusum, were tracked across a paper arena edged with invisible tape until beetles crossed the edge. Movement behavior (step lengths and turn angles and cumulative occupancy were analyzed according to distance from the edge. We found that beetles took smaller steps with larger turn angles near edges than in the center of the arena and that beetle distribution was highly biased towards the edge of the arena. We then tested two agent-based simulation models for each beetle: an edge-independent model and an edge-dependent model. Both models predicted less time spent at the edge than was observed. The proportion of time spent at edges depended on the propensity to cross the edge, which could not be explained by beetle body size or energetic condition. The distribution of animals with respect to habitat edges depends on many factors, but we suggest that proximate mechanisms such as movement behavior should be explicitly considered when interpreting animal distributions.

  18. Behavioral plasticity, behavioral syndromes and animal personality in crustacean decapods: An imperfect map is better than no map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca GHERARDI, Laura AQUILONI, Elena TRICARICO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite their key role as model organisms in many behavioral studies, crustacean decapods have been only slightly touched upon by the recent surge of scientific interest in animal personality. Only seven articles investigated the issue in a handful of species among hermit crabs, crabs, and crayfish. Obviously, a limited number of publications does not mean that personality is rare in decapods. On the contrary, few studies might be the result of a form of reluctance by behavioral ecologists to deal with such a phenomenon in these and other invertebrates. This reluctance contrasts with the enthusiasm shown in tackling the beha­vioral plasticity issue. Here we discuss the possible theoretical and methodological difficulties raised by applying the animal personality perspective to decapods and analyze implications of personality studies for their ecology, conservation, and welfare. By highlighting gaps in knowledge and directions of future research, our intention is to increase scientific emphasis on the issue [Current Zoology 58 (4: 567–579, 2012].

  19. Applying stereotactic injection technique to study genetic effects on animal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Colleen; Mao, Yingwei

    2015-05-10

    Stereotactic injection is a useful technique to deliver high titer lentiviruses to targeted brain areas in mice. Lentiviruses can either overexpress or knockdown gene expression in a relatively focused region without significant damage to the brain tissue. After recovery, the injected mouse can be tested on various behavioral tasks such as the Open Field Test (OFT) and the Forced Swim Test (FST). The OFT is designed to assess locomotion and the anxious phenotype in mice by measuring the amount of time that a mouse spends in the center of a novel open field. A more anxious mouse will spend significantly less time in the center of the novel field compared to controls. The FST assesses the anti-depressive phenotype by quantifying the amount of time that mice spend immobile when placed into a bucket of water. A mouse with an anti-depressive phenotype will spend significantly less time immobile compared to control animals. The goal of this protocol is to use the stereotactic injection of a lentivirus in conjunction with behavioral tests to assess how genetic factors modulate animal behaviors.

  20. New animal model of emotional stress: Behavioral, neuroendocrine and immunological consequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wenjuan; WANG Weiwen; SHAO Feng

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a new model of emotional stress, which was induced by randomly giving an empty water bottle to rats during watering periods per day for 14 consecutive days. The behavioral, endocrinological and immunological consequences were investigated. The data showed that the emotional stress activated both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, leading to the increased blood levels of corticosterone and catecholamine. It also elicited attacking and exploring behavior, suppressed the immune function of the rats, including leukocyte counts, weight of the spleen, and the level of specific anti-ovalbumin IgG antibody production. Presenting no water and no empty bottle to rats only evoked the exploring behavior, increased the corticosterone level and decreased the leukocyte counts. These findings demonstrate a role of psychological factors on behavioral, endocrinological and immunological functioning. The animal model described in the present study may serve as an analogue mimicking emotional stress experienced in humans (e.g. anger and/or anxiety), and may be useful for further studying the complex relationships among emotional stress, behavior, and immune function.

  1. Depressive-like behavioral response of adult male rhesus monkeys during routine animal husbandry procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; McCowan, Brenda; Jiang, Jing; Capitanio, John P

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors-lying on the substrate and day time sleeping-that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7-14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood. PMID:25249954

  2. [Empathy for pain: A novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral laboratory animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Zhen; Lv, Yun-Fei; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Yan; Wang, Rui-Rui; Geng, Kai-Wen; He, Ting

    2015-12-25

    Empathy, a basic prosocial behavior, is referred to as an ability to understand and share others' emotional state. Generally, empathy is also a social-behavioral basis of altruism. In contrast, impairment of empathy development may be associated with autism, narcissism, alexithymia, personality disorder, schizophrenia and depression. Thus, study of the brain mechanisms of empathy has great importance to not only scientific and clinical advances but also social harmony. However, research on empathy has long been avoided due to the fact that it has been considered as a distinct feature of human beings from animals, leading to paucity of knowledge in the field. In 2006, a Canadian group from McGill University found that a mouse in pain could be shared by its paired cagemate, but not a paired stranger, showing decreased pain threshold and increased pain responses through emotional contagion while they were socially interacting. In 2014, we further found that a rat in pain could also be shared by its paired cagemate 30 min after social interaction, showing long-term decreased pain threshold and increased pain responses, suggesting persistence of empathy for pain (empathic memory). We also mapped out that the medial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex, prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex, is involved in empathy for pain in rats, suggesting that a neural network may be associated with development of pain empathy in the CNS. In the present brief review, we give a brief outline of the advances and challenges in study of empathy for pain in humans and animals, and try to provide a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral model for study of pain and its emotional comorbidity using laboratory animals.

  3. [Empathy for pain: A novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral laboratory animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Zhen; Lv, Yun-Fei; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Yan; Wang, Rui-Rui; Geng, Kai-Wen; He, Ting

    2015-12-25

    Empathy, a basic prosocial behavior, is referred to as an ability to understand and share others' emotional state. Generally, empathy is also a social-behavioral basis of altruism. In contrast, impairment of empathy development may be associated with autism, narcissism, alexithymia, personality disorder, schizophrenia and depression. Thus, study of the brain mechanisms of empathy has great importance to not only scientific and clinical advances but also social harmony. However, research on empathy has long been avoided due to the fact that it has been considered as a distinct feature of human beings from animals, leading to paucity of knowledge in the field. In 2006, a Canadian group from McGill University found that a mouse in pain could be shared by its paired cagemate, but not a paired stranger, showing decreased pain threshold and increased pain responses through emotional contagion while they were socially interacting. In 2014, we further found that a rat in pain could also be shared by its paired cagemate 30 min after social interaction, showing long-term decreased pain threshold and increased pain responses, suggesting persistence of empathy for pain (empathic memory). We also mapped out that the medial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex, prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex, is involved in empathy for pain in rats, suggesting that a neural network may be associated with development of pain empathy in the CNS. In the present brief review, we give a brief outline of the advances and challenges in study of empathy for pain in humans and animals, and try to provide a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral model for study of pain and its emotional comorbidity using laboratory animals. PMID:26701631

  4. Mapping behavioral landscapes for animal movement: a finite mixture modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Zhu, Jun; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its role in many ecological processes, movement of animals in response to landscape features is an important subject in ecology and conservation biology. In this paper, we develop models of animal movement in relation to objects or fields in a landscape. We take a finite mixture modeling approach in which the component densities are conceptually related to different choices for movement in response to a landscape feature, and the mixing proportions are related to the probability of selecting each response as a function of one or more covariates. We combine particle swarm optimization and an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters. We use this approach to analyze data for movement of three bobcats in relation to urban areas in southern California, USA. A behavioral interpretation of the models revealed similarities and differences in bobcat movement response to urbanization. All three bobcats avoided urbanization by moving either parallel to urban boundaries or toward less urban areas as the proportion of urban land cover in the surrounding area increased. However, one bobcat, a male with a dispersal-like large-scale movement pattern, avoided urbanization at lower densities and responded strictly by moving parallel to the urban edge. The other two bobcats, which were both residents and occupied similar geographic areas, avoided urban areas using a combination of movements parallel to the urban edge and movement toward areas of less urbanization. However, the resident female appeared to exhibit greater repulsion at lower levels of urbanization than the resident male, consistent with empirical observations of bobcats in southern California. Using the parameterized finite mixture models, we mapped behavioral states to geographic space, creating a representation of a behavioral landscape. This approach can provide guidance for conservation planning based on analysis of animal movement data using

  5. Anxiolytic effects of GLYX-13 in animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zeng-Liang; Liu, Jin-Xu; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Li-Ming; Ran, Yu-Hua; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan; Tang, Yu; Li, Yun-Feng; Xiong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of GLYX-13, an NMDA receptor glycine site functional partial agonist, to alleviate the enhanced anxiety and fear response in both a mouse and rat model of stress-induced behavioral changes that might be relevant to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies over the last decades have suggested that the hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most consistent findings in stress-related disease. Herein, we used these animal models to further investigate the effect of GLYX-13 on the stress hormone levels and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. We found that exposure to foot shock induced long-lasting behavioral deficiencies in mice, including freezing and anxiety-like behaviors, that were significantly ameliorated by the long-term administration of GLYX-13 (5 or 10 mg/kg). Our enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that long-term administration of GLYX-13 at behaviorally effective doses (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the elevated serum levels of both corticosterone and its upstream stress hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone in rats subjected to the TDS procedure. These results suggest that GLYX-13 exerts a therapeutic effect on PTSD-like stress responding that is accompanied by (or associated with) modulation of the HPA axis, including inhibition of stress hormone levels and upregulation of hippocampal GR expression. PMID:27147594

  6. Depressive-Like Behavioral Response of Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys during Routine Animal Husbandry Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Hennessy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors—lying on the substrate and day time sleeping—that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7 to 14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood.

  7. [Experimental justification of possible mechanisms of action of low intensity electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on animals' behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, L N; Dubrovik, B V; Zhavoronkov, l P; Glushakova, V S

    2012-01-01

    Effects of EMR on the behavior of Wistar rats (196 males, 180-240 g of mass) under the conflict of opposed motivations: strong positive, drinking, motivation, and strong negative, pain, motivation were studied. The animals were exposed to low intensity EMR (40 microW/cm2) produced by two independent sources, 475 MHz (Albatross) with two orthogonal E vectors, and synchronization of rhythm modulation in the range of electroencephalography (EEG) frequency. The effect on behavior was observed during 10 min: 1) following the 5-minute exposure to EMR and 2) during the 10-minute exposure. Low intensity EMR of the above mentioned parameters and pulse modulation of 4, 8, 10 and 13 Hz was found to inhibit development of phobia to pain, increase the number of punishable contacts. It testifies to the existence of a weak anxiolytic effect which is similar to the effect of tranquilizers. If animals were exposed to EMR following administration of phenazepam, the radiation was shown to produce potentiation of the anxiolytic effect ofphenazepam. Effect of phenazepam is associated with activation ofbenzdiazipine receptors in the structure ofGABA-ergic receptor complex, which regulates neural membrane chloride channel conductance. We can suggest that anxiolytic and neurodepressive effects of EMR are realized to some extent at the level of ionophore and regulatory receptor complexes.

  8. Effect of Vision Angle on the Phase Transition in a Flocking Behavior of Animal Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, P The; Ngo, V Thanh

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the phase transition in a system of self-propelling particles has been extensively studied during the last few decades. A theoretical model was proposed by T. Vicsek, et. al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995)] with a simple rule for updating the direction of motion of each particle. Based on the Vicsek's model (VM) [1], in this work, we consider a group of animals as particles moving freely on a two-dimensional space. Due to the fact that the viewable area of animals depends on the species, we consider the motion of each individual within an angle $\\varphi=\\Phi/2$ ($\\Phi$ is called angle of view) of a circle centered at its position, of radius $R$. We obtained a phase diagram in the space ($\\varphi$, $\\eta_c$) with $\\eta_c$ being the critical noise. We show that, the phase transition exists only in the case of a wide view's angle $\\varphi \\geq 0.5\\pi$. The flocking of animals is perhaps a behavior of the species of prey only, but not the one of the predator. Our simulation results are in good ag...

  9. Effect of vision angle on the phase transition in flocking behavior of animal groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P. The; Lee, Sang-Hee; Ngo, V. Thanh

    2015-09-01

    The nature of the phase transition in a system of self-propelling particles has been extensively studied during the past few decades. A theoretical model was proposed by [T. Vicsek et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1226] with a simple rule for updating the direction of motion of each particle. Based on the model of Vicsek et al., in this paper, we consider a group of animals as particles moving freely in a two-dimensional space. Due to the fact that the viewable area of animals depends on the species, we consider the motion of each individual within an angle φ =ϕ /2 (ϕ is called the angle of view) of a circle centered at its position of radius R . We obtained a phase diagram in the space (φ ,ηc ) with ηc being the critical noise. We show that the phase transition exists only in the case of a wide view's angle φ ≥0.5 π . The flocking of animals is a universal behavior of the species of prey but not the one of the predator. Our simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observation [C. Beccoa et al., Physica A 367, 487 (2006), 10.1016/j.physa.2005.11.041].

  10. BEEtag: A Low-Cost, Image-Based Tracking System for the Study of Animal Behavior and Locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Crall

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge common to studies of animal movement, behavior, and ecology is the collection of high-quality datasets on spatial positions of animals as they change through space and time. Recent innovations in tracking technology have allowed researchers to collect large and highly accurate datasets on animal spatiotemporal position while vastly decreasing the time and cost of collecting such data. One technique that is of particular relevance to the study of behavioral ecology involves tracking visual tags that can be uniquely identified in separate images or movie frames. These tags can be located within images that are visually complex, making them particularly well suited for longitudinal studies of animal behavior and movement in naturalistic environments. While several software packages have been developed that use computer vision to identify visual tags, these software packages are either (a not optimized for identification of single tags, which is generally of the most interest for biologists, or (b suffer from licensing issues, and therefore their use in the study of animal behavior has been limited. Here, we present BEEtag, an open-source, image-based tracking system in Matlab that allows for unique identification of individual animals or anatomical markers. The primary advantages of this system are that it (a independently identifies animals or marked points in each frame of a video, limiting error propagation, (b performs well in images with complex backgrounds, and (c is low-cost. To validate the use of this tracking system in animal behavior, we mark and track individual bumblebees (Bombus impatiens and recover individual patterns of space use and activity within the nest. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of this software package and its application to the study of animal movement, behavior, and ecology.

  11. T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal and human behavior: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S

    2015-01-15

    A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior.

  12. Teaching with the Macaulay Library: An Online Archive of Animal Behavior Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Betancourt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using video and audio recordings of animal behavior, students in a variety of courses can pose questions and gather data from diverse species and locations to test their hypotheses. Such recordings are freely available online in the Macaulay Library, the world’s largest scientifically curated archive of natural history media. Managed by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, the Macaulay Library currently houses about 50,000 video clips and 123,300 audio recordings (including the sounds of 75 percent of the world’s bird species, and recordings dating back to 1929. This article, aimed at faculty teaching biology and environmental science courses, summarizes how to search the online archive and visualize streaming sound files with Raven Viewer. It also describes how instructors have used these tools in introductory and upper-level laboratory and lecture classes as part of the NSF-funded Online Research in Biology project.

  13. Stress and affective disorders: animal models elucidating the molecular basis of neuroendocrine-behavior interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, C

    2011-05-01

    Profound dysfunctions in several neuroendocrine systems have been described in patients suffering from affective disorders such as major depression. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these functional alterations, animal models including mice genetically modified by either direct gene-targeting or by selective breeding approaches have been used exceedingly, revealing valuable insights into neuroendocrine pathways conserved between rodents and men. This review focuses on altered function and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, including its involvement in emotionality and stress responsiveness. In this context, the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and disturbances in glucocorticoid receptor signaling seem to be of central importance. However, changes in the expression and release patterns of vasopressin, dopamine and serotonin have also been shown to contribute to variation in emotionality, stress coping, cognitive functions and social behaviors. Affective disorders show a high degree of complexity, involving a multitude of molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral alterations as well as an intense gene-environment interaction, making it difficult to dissociate the primary causes from secondary consequences of the disease. Thus, interdisciplinary research, as applied in the emerging field of systems biology, involving adequate animal models and combined methodologies can significantly contribute to our understanding regarding the transmission of genetic predispositions into clinically relevant endophenotypes. It is only with deep insight into the mechanisms by which the stress hormone systems are regulated that novel treatment strategies and promising targets for therapeutic interventions can be developed in the future. Such in-depth understanding is ultimately essential to realizing our goal of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. PMID:21544741

  14. The neural circuitry underlying reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior in an animal model of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J L; Ghee, S; See, R E

    2008-01-24

    Reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking has been utilized in the study of the neural substrates of relapse to drugs of abuse, particularly cocaine. However, limited studies have examined the circuitry that drives the reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior in the presence of conditioned cues, or by heroin itself. In order to test the hypothesis that the circuitry underlying reinstatement in heroin-experienced animals would show overlapping, yet distinct differences from cocaine-experienced animals, we used transient inhibition of several cortical, striatal, and limbic brain regions during reinstatement of heroin-seeking produced by heroin-paired cues, or by a single priming dose of heroin. Rats lever pressed for i.v. heroin discretely paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) during daily 3-h sessions for a period of 2 weeks, followed by daily extinction of lever responding. Subsequent reinstatement of heroin-seeking was measured as lever responding in the absence of heroin reinforcement. The first set of reinstatement tests involved response-contingent CS presentations following bilateral intracranial infusion of either a combination of GABA receptor agonists (baclofen-muscimol, B/M) or vehicle (saline) into one of 13 different brain regions. The second set of reinstatement tests involved a single heroin injection (0.25 mg/kg, s.c.) following either B/M or vehicle infusions. Our results showed that vehicle-infused animals reinstated to both CS presentations and a priming injection of heroin, while B/M inactivation of several areas known to be important for the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking also attenuated heroin-seeking in response to CS presentations and/or a priming dose of heroin. However, as predicted, inactivation of areas previously shown to not affect cocaine-seeking significantly attenuated heroin-seeking, supporting the hypothesis that the circuitry underlying the reinstatement of heroin-seeking is more diffusely distributed than that for cocaine

  15. Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal's history, current environment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Capitanio, John P; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center. Data were analyzed using model selection, with the best fitting models evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. Results confirmed previous research that males exhibit more MSB and self-biting than females, MSB decreases with age, and indoor reared animals exhibit more MSB and self-biting than outdoor reared animals. Additionally, results indicated that animals exhibited less MSB and self-biting for each year spent outdoors; frequency of room moves and number of projects positively predicted MSB; pair separations positively predicted MSB and self-biting; pair housed animals expressed less MSB than single housed and grate paired animals; and that animals expressed more MSB and self-biting when in bottom rack cages, or cages near the room entrance. Based on these results we recommend limiting exposure to these risk factors when possible. Our results also demonstrated a relationship between personality and MSB expression, with animals low on gentle temperament, active in response to a human intruder, and high on novel object contact expressing more MSB. From these results we propose that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

  16. The fiber-optic imaging and manipulation of neural activity during animal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Murayama, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress with optogenetic probes for imaging and manipulating neural activity has further increased the relevance of fiber-optic systems for neural circuitry research. Optical fibers, which bi-directionally transmit light between separate sites (even at a distance of several meters), can be used for either optical imaging or manipulating neural activity relevant to behavioral circuitry mechanisms. The method's flexibility and the specifications of the light structure are well suited for following the behavior of freely moving animals. Furthermore, thin optical fibers allow researchers to monitor neural activity from not only the cortical surface but also deep brain regions, including the hippocampus and amygdala. Such regions are difficult to target with two-photon microscopes. Optogenetic manipulation of neural activity with an optical fiber has the advantage of being selective for both cell-types and projections as compared to conventional electrophysiological brain tissue stimulation. It is difficult to extract any data regarding changes in neural activity solely from a fiber-optic manipulation device; however, the readout of data is made possible by combining manipulation with electrophysiological recording, or the simultaneous application of optical imaging and manipulation using a bundle-fiber. The present review introduces recent progress in fiber-optic imaging and manipulation methods, while also discussing fiber-optic system designs that are suitable for a given experimental protocol. PMID:26427958

  17. Gambling Disorder Due to Brazilian Animal Game ("Jogo do bicho"): Gambling Behavior and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Gustavo; Grant, Jon; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-03-01

    Gambling is currently widespread across the globe and despite legally restricted, it is significantly common in Brazil. A traditional and common form of gambling in Brazil is the Brazilian animal game (BAG)--"Jogo do bicho" in Portuguese. In 2013, BAG activities collected approximately 19 billion Brazilian reais--equivalent to more than 8 billon American dollars, a figure almost 60 % higher than legal lotteries. Although a common form of gambling, the gambling behavior and psychopathology of gambling disorder (GD) associated with BAG has never been systematically studied. The aim of this study is to conduct, the first research approaching GD due to BAG. We assessed 897 participants of whom 63 subjects (7.0 %) presented with GD due to BAG and 834 with GD associated with other forms of gambling. After comparing these two groups, major differences were found in demographics, gambling behavior elements and psychopathological variables. This research reinforces the need for further research on BAG and the need for specific approaches in GD. The particularities of BAG may affect treatment strategies as, for example, suggest some adaptations in social and psychotherapeutic approaches. We also highlight the need to acknowledge the "hidden" BAG as a potential addictive game. PMID:25680739

  18. Conceptualization of Man's Behavioral and Physical Characteristics as Animal Metaphors in the Spoken Discourse of Khezel People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory of metaphor has changed our understanding of metaphor as a figurative device to a matter of thought. It holds that metaphors are cognitively as well as culturally motivated. Despite having similar images in some languages, the culture-specific aspect of animal metaphors inspired the researchers to explore this area of metaphoric system in a local Kurdish variety to investigate how animal metaphors are reflected in spoken discourse. To achieve this objective, the authors collected and analyzed animal expressions adopted for praise and degradation of physical and behavioral characteristics in Khezeli dialect in Ilam, Iran. To create a representative corpus, the authors scrutinized spoken language and oral poetry of the dialect. The collected data indicate that more wild than domestic and more degrading than praising animal expressions are used for man's physical and behavioral characteristics. It is also confirmed that aspects of appearance, size, physical characteristics as well as body parts of animals are transferred to humans. Further, users' attitudes toward animals reflected themselves in their metaphors. Users were also found to have three categories of positive, positive/negative, and negative connotations for animal names. Despite the existence of similarities in the underlying patterns of metaphoric use in different languages, the research came to the conclusion that the types of animals used, their connotations and interpretations may be worlds apart and taking the meaning of one for another may lead to misunderstanding.

  19. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R P Elmore

    Full Text Available Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg or phosphate buffered saline (PBS was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function

  20. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Monica R P; Lee, Rafael J; West, Brian L; Green, Kim N

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS) resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function similarly to the

  1. Meta-Heuristics Algorithms based on the Grouping of Animals by Social Behavior for the Traveling Salesman Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye; Ocotlán Díaz-Parra; Felipe Cocón; Andrés Soto; Ma. De los Ángeles Buenabad Arias; Gustavo Verduzco-Reyes; Roberto Alberto-Lira

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show a survey of meta-heuristics algorithms based on grouping of animals by social behavior for the Traveling Salesman Problem, and propose a new classification of meta-heuristics algorithms (not based on swarm intelligence theory) based on grouping of animals: swarm algorithms, schools algorithms, flocks algorithms and herds algorithms: a) The swarm algorithms (inspired by the insect swarms and zooplankton swarms): Ant Colony Optimization algorithm – ACO (inspired by the re...

  2. Subchronic Treatment of Donepezil Rescues Impaired Social, Hyperactive, and Stereotypic Behavior in Valproic Acid-Induced Animal Model of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Woon Kim; Hana Seung; Kyung Ja Kwon; Mee Jung Ko; Eun Joo Lee; Hyun Ah Oh; Chang Soon Choi; Ki Chan Kim; Edson Luck Gonzales; Jueng Soo You; Dong-Hee Choi; Jongmin Lee; Seol-Heui Han; Sung Min Yang; Jae Hoon Cheong

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model). W...

  3. Taking it Out on the Dog: Psychological and Behavioral Correlates of Animal Abuse Proclivity

    OpenAIRE

    Parfitt, C.; Alleyne, Emma

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of research examining the criminogenic factors related to animal abuse perpetrated by adults, despite the high prevalence of this type of offending. This paper presents a correlational study examining the factors related to two types of animal abuse proclivity. We found that childhood animal abuse, empathetic concern, and a proneness for human-directed aggression were significant correlates of direct forms of animal abuse (i.e., the animal was perceived to be the provocateur)....

  4. Asparagus racemosus attenuates anxiety-like behavior in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2014-05-01

    Asparagus racemosus Linn. (AR) is used worldwide as a medicinal plant. In the present study, the anxiolytic activity of standardized methanolic extract of root of AR (MAR) was evaluated in open-field test (OFT), hole-board, and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Rats received oral pretreatment of MAR in the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg daily for 7 days and then were evaluated for the anxiolytic activity in different animal models. Both MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the grooming behavior, number of central squares crossed, and time spent in the central area during OFT. Further, MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the head-dip and head-dip/sniffing behavior, and decreased sniffing activity in hole-board test. Furthermore, MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the percentage entries and time spent to open arm in EPM test paradigm. The anxiolytic activity in the experimental models was similar to that of diazepam. MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) enhanced the level of amygdalar serotonin and norepinephrine. It also increased the expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the amygdala. In another set of experiment, flumazenil attenuated the anxiolytic effect of minimum effective dose of MAR (100 mg/kg) in OFT, hole-board, and EPM tests, indicating GABAA-mediated mechanism. Moreover, the anxiolytic dose of MAR did not show sedative-like effect in OFT and EPM tests compared to diazepam (6 mg/kg, p.o.). Thus, the anxiolytic response of MAR may involve GABA and serotonergic mechanisms. These preclinical data show that AR can be a potential agent for treatment of anxiety disorders.

  5. Regulation of brain reward by the endocannabinoid system: a critical review of behavioral studies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, S; Panagis, G

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes, including a crucial involvement in brain reward systems and the regulation of motivational processes. Behavioral studies have shown that cannabinoid reward may involve the same brain circuits and similar brain mechanisms with other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, alcohol and heroin, as well as natural rewards, such as food, water and sucrose, although the conditions under which cannabinoids exert their rewarding effects may be more limited. The purpose of the present review is to briefly describe and evaluate the behavioral and pharmacological research concerning the major components of the endocannabinoid system and reward processes. Special emphasis is placed on data received from four procedures used to test the effects of the endocannabinoid system on brain reward in animals; namely, the intracranial self-stimulation paradigm, the self-administration procedure, the conditioned place preference procedure and the drug-discrimination procedure. The effects of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor agonists, antagonists and endocannabinoid modulators in these procedures are examined. Further, the involvement of CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well the fatty acid amid hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme in reward processes is investigated through presentation of respective genetic ablation studies in mice. We suggest that the endocannabinoid system plays a major role in modulating motivation and reward processes. Further research will provide us with a better understanding of these processes and, thus, could lead to the development of potential therapeutic compounds for the treatment of reward-related disorders. PMID:23829366

  6. Sex, stress, and epigenetics: regulation of behavior in animal models of mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodes Georgia E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women have a higher incidence of stress related disorders including depression and generalized anxiety disorder, and epigenetic mechanisms likely contribute to this sex difference. Evidence from preclinical research suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for both sexual dimorphism of brain regions and sensitivity of the stress response. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications can occur transgenerationally, developmentally, or in response to environmental stimuli such as stress exposure. This review will provide an overview of the various forms of epigenetic modifications observed in the central nervous system and will explain how these mechanisms contribute to a sexually dimorphic brain. It will also discuss the ways in which epigenetic alterations coincide with, and functionally contribute to, the behavioral response to stress across the lifespan. Ultimately, this review will focus on novel research utilizing animal models to investigate sex differences in epigenetic mechanisms that influence susceptibility to stress. Exploration of this relationship reveals epigenetic mechanisms with the potential to explain sexual dimorphism in the occurrence of stress related disorders.

  7. Three dimensional reconstruction of starling flocks: an empirical investigation of collective animal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, Irene

    2009-03-01

    Bird flocking is a striking example of animal collective behaviour: thousands of birds gather above the roosting site, forming sharp-bordered flocks, which wheel and turn with remarkable coherence and synchronization. Despite an increasing theoretical interest, empirical investigations of collective motion have been limited so far by the difficulties of getting data on large systems. By means of stereoscopic photography and using statistical mechanics, optimization theory and computer vision techniques, we have measured for the first time the three-dimensional positions and trajectories of individual birds in groups of up to three thousands elements. This allowed us to analyze global morphological properties of the flocks, as well as structural and dynamical properties. Most notably, we investigated the nature of the inter-individual interaction. We found that the interaction between birds does not depend on their mutual metric distance, as most current models and theories assume, but rather on the topological distance (number of intermediate neighbors). In fact, we discovered that each individual interacts on average with a fixed number of neighbors (six-seven), rather than with all neighbors within a fixed metric distance. We argue that a topological interaction of this kind is indispensable to maintain flock's cohesion against the large density changes caused by external perturbations, typically predation. More recently, we characterized the velocity field, and computed dynamical observables. We showed that flocks exhibit long range correlations, which are a signature of their remarkable collective behavior.

  8. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  9. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, an

  10. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD.

  11. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD. PMID:24116285

  12. Personification as the social emotional behaviors in human and animal interactions

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 弘司

    2012-01-01

    This study surveys dairy farmers' ways of raising, sense of animal welfare, and emotional impressions on their cows, and discusses their personification to livestock in contrast with that to companion animals. The farmers have professional knowledge and skills to feed and handle the cows. They get a living from keeping cows, considering the cost and benefit. This economy-based view sometimes leads to the desertion of treatment on disordered livestock. Companion animal owners usually keep thei...

  13. Detection of Locomotive Behavior in Aquatic Animals by the Use of Infra-red Light

    OpenAIRE

    YONEMORI, Tooru; ヨネモリ, トオル; 米盛, 亨

    1987-01-01

    To promote catching efficiency of shrimp pots, infra-red light was applied to the detection of animal movements. A sensing unit was composed of a LED (light emittingdiode) and a photo-transister. At two sections in the entrance funnel of the pot, one each unit was fixed as a check point. By reading the time lag between transit signalsfrom each gate, the direction of animal locomotion was recognized, furthermore, thenumber of individuals both entering and escaping animal was counted.

  14. Animal-Assisted Therapy for persons with disabilities based on canine tail language interpretation via fuzzy emotional behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanwanich, Warangkhana; Kumdee, Orrawan; Ritthipravat, Panrasee; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2011-01-01

    Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is the science that employs the merit of human-animal interaction to alleviate mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities. However, to achieve the goal of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is needed. Since canine behaviors can be visually distinguished from its tail, this paper proposes the automatic real-time interpretation of canine tail language for human-canine interaction in the case of persons with severe disabilities. Canine tail language is captured via two 3-axis accelerometers. Directions and frequency are selected as our features of interests. New fuzzy rules and center of gravity (COG)-based defuzzification method are proposed in order to interpret the features into three canine emotional behaviors, i.e., agitate, happy, and scare as well as its blended emotional behaviors. The emotional behavior model is performed in the simulated dog. The average recognition rate in real dog is 93.75% accuracy.

  15. Recent advances in the automatic collection of animal behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The true assessment of an animal's state of being depends on the collection of refined, repeatable data, free from influence of the collection method or observer bias. The last few years have seen significant technical advances in automatic data collection pertaining to the animal and its environmen...

  16. Applications of Animal Research in the Behavioral Sciences: Effects of Chronic Exercise on Emotionality in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Gerald D.

    The psychological effects of exercise training are difficult to study in humans, but analogous emotionality changes in animals can be studied using simple measurements employed in emergence and open-field tests. The basis of these tests is that animals that are more emotional are more fearful when placed in a novel situation and will exhibit less…

  17. Animal Research on Effects of Experience on Brain and Behavior: Implications for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This article first considers how plasticity of the brain in response to differential experience was discovered in research with laboratory rats around 1960. Animal research soon followed on effects of enriched experience as therapy for brain dysfunction. Relations between animal research and some human therapies are considered. (Contains…

  18. A Simple Behavioral Paradigm to Measure Impulsive Behavior in an Animal Model of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new b...

  19. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects.

  20. Instrumentation for fast-scan cyclic voltammetry combined with electrophysiology for behavioral experiments in freely moving animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takmakov, Pavel; McKinney, Collin J.; Carelli, Regina M.; Wightman, R Mark

    2011-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a unique technique for sampling dopamine concentration in the brain of rodents in vivo in real time. The combination of in vivo voltammetry with single-unit electrophysiological recording from the same microelectrode has proved to be useful in studying the relationship between animal behavior, dopamine release and unit activity. The instrumentation for these experiments described here has two unique features. First, a 2-electrode arrangement implemented for vol...

  1. Deciphering behavioral changes in animal movement with a ‘multiple change point algorithm- classification tree’ framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte eMadon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of tracking tools has improved our nascent knowledge on animal movement. Because of model complexity, unrealistic a priori hypotheses and heavy computational resources, behavioral changes along an animal path are still often assessed visually. A new avenue has recently been opened with change point algorithms because tracking data can be organized as time series with potential periodic change points segregating the movement in segments of different statistical properties. So far this approach was restricted to single change point detection and we propose a straightforward analytical framework based on a recent multiple change point algorithm: the PELT algorithm, a dynamic programming pruning search method to find, within time series, the optimal combination of number and locations of change points. Data segments found by the algorithm are then sorted out with a supervised classification tree procedure to organize segments by movement classes. We apply this framework to investigate changes in variance in daily distances of a migratory bird, the Macqueen’s Bustard, Chlamydotis macqueenii, and describe its movements in three classes: staging, non-migratory and migratory movements. Using simulation experiments, we show that the algorithm is robust to identify exact behavioral shift (on average more than 80% of the time but that positive autocorrelation when present is likely to lead to the detection of false change points (in 36% of the iterations with an average of 1.97 (se = 0.06 additional change points. A case study is provided to illustrate the biases associated with visual analysis of movement patterns compared to the reliability of our analytical framework. Technological improvement will provide new opportunities for the study of animal behavior, bringing along huge and various data sets, a growing challenge for biologists, and this straightforward and standardized framework could be an asset in the attempt to

  2. Influence of Immobilization and X-rays on the Animal Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that four-hour immobilization of the normal rats, in 70% of the animals induced elevated aggressiveness; it diminishes at twelfth day, while in a case of 7 Gy X-ray irradiation, aggressiveness disappears at second day. The X-rays decreased the number of the immobilized animals with retained fear reactions, and abolished the already acquired active avoidance responses. It was determined that the immobilized animals in the ''Open field'' test differed from the normal ones with lesser ambulation, orienting-exploratory activity, and emotionality, which reversed to the contrary values after the X-rays. (authors)

  3. Detection of Locomotive Behavior in Aquatic Animals by the Use of Infra-red Light

    OpenAIRE

    YONEMORI, Tooru; ヨネモリ, トオル; 米盛, 亨

    1987-01-01

    To promote catching efficiency of shrimp pots, infra-red light was applied to the detection of animal movements. A sensing unit was composed of a LED (light emitting diode) and a photo-transister. At two sections in the entrance funnel of the pot, one each unit was fixed as a check point. By reading the time lag between transit signals from each gate, the direction of animal locomotion was recognized, furthermore, the number of individuals both entering and escaping animal was counted.

  4. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of basic learning processes in sexual behavior, research on classical conditioning of the sexual response in humans is scarce. In the present paper, animal studies and studies in humans on the role of pavlovian conditioning on sexual responses are reviewed. Animal research shows robust, direct effects of conditioning processes on partner- and place preference. On the contrast, the empirical research with humans in this area is limited and earlier studies within this field are plagued by methodological confounds. Although recent experimental demonstrations of human sexual conditioning are neither numerous nor robust, sexual arousal showed to be conditionable in both men and women. The present paper serves to highlight the major empirical findings and to renew the insight in how stimuli can acquire sexually arousing value. Hereby also related neurobiological processes in reward learning are discussed. Finally, the connections between animal and human research on the conditionability of sexual responses are discussed, and suggestions for future directions in human research are given.

  5. Managing livestock using animal behavior: Mixed-species stocking and flerds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed-species stocking can foster sound landscape management while offering economic and ecological advantages compared to mono-species stocking. Producers contemplating a mixed-species enterprise should reflect on several considerations before implementing this animal management strategy. Factors...

  6. Orientational behavior of animals with the geomagnetic field and mechanisms of magnetoreception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V. V.; Osipova, E. A.; Izyumov, Yu. G.

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary data on the orientation and navigation of animals from different taxa with the geomagnetic field are considered in the review. The mechanisms of magnetoreception in animals are described. In this regard, several taxa of fishes are able to perceive the magnetic field via electroreceptors. Some animals can sense changes in the magnetic field polarity via sensory cells containing iron compounds. In addition, animals from different taxa are able to perceive the inclination of the magnetic field via a change in singlet and triplet yields of radical-pair reactions under the influence of the magnetic field. In the latter case, the molecules of cryptochrome can play a crucial role. It is considered that the cryptochrome excited by shortwave light can produce long-living radical pairs affected by the geomagnetic field.

  7. The Roles of Dopamine and Related Compounds in Reward-Seeking Behavior Across Animal Phyla

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, Andrew B.; Eirik Søvik; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Motile animals actively seek out and gather resources they find rewarding, and this is an extremely powerful organiser and motivator of animal behaviour. Mammalian studies have revealed interconnected neurobiological systems for reward learning, reward assessment, reinforcement and reward seeking; all involving the biogenic amine dopamine. The neurobiology of reward-seeking behavioural systems is less well understood in invertebrates, but in many diverse invertebrate groups, reward learning ...

  8. A comparison of the different animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and their use in studying complex behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Patten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE has been linked to widespread impairments in brain structure and function. There are a number of animal models that are used to study the structural and functional deficits caused by prenatal ethanol exposure, including, but not limited to: invertebrates, fish, rodents and non-human primates. Animal models enable a researcher to control important variables such as the route of ethanol administration, as well as the timing, frequency and amount of ethanol exposure. Each animal model and system of exposure has its place, depending on the research question being undertaken. In this review we will examine the different routes of ethanol administration and the various animal models of FASD that are commonly used in research, emphasizing their strengths and limitations. We will also present an up-to-date summary on the effects of prenatal/neonatal ethanol exposure on behavior across the lifespan, focusing on learning and memory, olfaction, social, executive and motor functions. Special emphasis will be placed where the various animal models best represent deficits observed in the human condition and offer a viable test bed to examine potential therapeutics for humans with FASD.

  9. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-07-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  10. Interplay between depressive-like behavior and the immune system in an animal model of prenatal dexamethasone administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eRoque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids, namely dexamethasone, are prescribed during late gestation in pregnancies at risk of originating premature newborns, to promote fetal lung maturation. However, adverse early life events have been reported to induce long-lasting changes in the immune and central nervous systems. The accumulating evidence on bidirectional interactions between both systems in psychiatric disorders like depression, prompted us to further investigate the long term impact of prenatal dexamethasone in depressive-like behavior, the immune system and in the ability to mount an immune response to acute infection. The adult male offspring of pregnant dams treated with dexamethasone, present depressive-like behavior concomitant with a decrease in CD8+ T lymphocytes and an increase in B and CD4+ regulatory T cells. This is accompanied by lower levels of serum interleukine-6 (IL-6 and IL-10. Despite of these differences, when spleen cells are stimulated, in vitro, with lipopolysaccharide, those from adult rats prenatally treated with dexamethasone display a stronger pro-inflammatory cytokine response. However, this immune system profile does not hamper the ability of rats prenatally treated with dexamethasone to respond to acute infection by Listeria monocytogenes. Of notice, L. monocytogenes infection triggers depressive-like behavior in control animals but does not worsen that already present in dexamethasone-treated animals. In summary, prenatal administration of dexamethasone has long lasting effects on the immune system and on behavior, which is not further aggravated by acute infection with L. monocytogenes.

  11. My Brother's Keeper: A Case Study in Evolutionary Biology and Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Kari E.

    2004-01-01

    In this interrupted case, students read about the alarm-calling behavior of a certain type of ground squirrel and then work in groups to develop hypotheses to explain the behavior and describe data that might be used to test their hypotheses. Students are then given real data and asked to interpret the evolutionary relevance of the results.…

  12. Effects of FGF receptor peptide agonists on animal behavior under normal and pathological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudenko, Olga; Tkach, Vadym; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2010-01-01

    , respectively) on social memory, exploratory activity, and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats. Treatment with hexafin1 and hexafin2 resulted in prolonged retention of social memory. Furthermore, rats treated with hexafin2 exhibited decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Employing an R6...

  13. Chromogenic behaviors of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) studied in situ with an animal-borne video package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Hannah; Gilly, William; Bell, Lauren; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg

    2015-01-15

    Dosidicus gigas (Humboldt or jumbo flying squid) is an economically and ecologically influential species, yet little is known about its natural behaviors because of difficulties in studying this active predator in its oceanic environment. By using an animal-borne video package, National Geographic's Crittercam, we were able to observe natural behaviors in free-swimming D. gigas in the Gulf of California with a focus on color-generating (chromogenic) behaviors. We documented two dynamic displays without artificial lighting at depths of up to 70 m. One dynamic pattern, termed 'flashing' is characterized by a global oscillation (2-4 Hz) of body color between white and red. Flashing was almost always observed when other squid were visible in the video frame, and this behavior presumably represents intraspecific signaling. Amplitude and frequency of flashing can be modulated, and the phase relationship with another squid can also be rapidly altered. Another dynamic display termed 'flickering' was observed whenever flashing was not occurring. This behavior is characterized by irregular wave-like activity in neighboring patches of chromatophores, and the resulting patterns mimic reflections of down-welled light in the water column, suggesting that this behavior may provide a dynamic type of camouflage. Rapid and global pauses in flickering, often before a flashing episode, indicate that flickering is under inhibitory neural control. Although flashing and flickering have not been described in other squid, functional similarities are evident with other species. PMID:25609785

  14. Developing a new methodology to characterize in vivo the passive mechanical behavior of abdominal wall on an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Allué, R; Montiel, J M M; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B

    2015-11-01

    The most common surgical repair of abdominal wall hernia goes through implanting a mesh that substitutes the abdominal muscle/fascia while it is healing. To reduce the risk of relapse or possible complications, this mesh needs to mimic the mechanical behavior of the muscle/fascia, which nowadays is not fully determined. The aim of this work is to develop a methodology to characterize in vivo the passive mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall. For that, New Zealand rabbits were subjected to pneumoperitoneum tests, taking the inner pressure from 0 mmHg to 12 mmHg, values similar to those used in human laparoscopies. Animals treated were divided into two groups: healthy and herniated animals with a surgical mesh (polypropylene Surgipro(TM) Covidien) previously implanted. All experiments were recorded by a stereo rig composed of two synchronized cameras. During the postprocessing of the images, several points over the abdominal surface were tracked and their coordinates extracted for different levels of internal pressure. Starting from that, a three dimensional model of the abdominal wall was reconstructed. Pressure-displacement curves, radii of curvature and strain fields were also analysed. During the experiments, animals tissue mostly deformed during the first levels of pressure, showing the noticeable hyperelastic passive behavior of abdominal muscles. Comparison between healthy and herniated specimen displayed a strong stiffening for herniated animals in the zone where the high density mesh was situated. Cameras were able to discern this change, so this method can be used to measure the possible effect of other meshes.

  15. Subchronic treatment of donepezil rescues impaired social, hyperactive, and stereotypic behavior in valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woon Kim

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model. We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance.

  16. Applying behavioral theories to invasive animal management: Towards an integrated framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Please, Patricia M; Driver, Aaron B

    2015-09-15

    Invasive species wreak an estimated $1.4 trillion in damages globally, each year. To have any hope of reducing this damage, best-practice control strategies must incorporate behavior change interventions. Traditional interventions, based on the knowledge-transfer model, assume that if land managers are properly educated about risks and strategies, they will develop supportive attitudes and implement appropriate control strategies. However, the social sciences have produced a large number of behavioral models and frameworks that demonstrate that knowledge transfer, by itself, fails to change behavior. The challenge then lies in knowing which behavioral model to choose, and when, from a potentially overwhelming 'universe'. In this paper, we review nine behavior theories relevant to invasive species management. We then introduce the Behavior Change Wheel as a tool for integrating these theories into a single practical framework. This framework links drivers of and barriers to behavior change with intervention strategies and policies, in what we consider, from an applied perspective, to be an important advance. PMID:26151198

  17. Applying behavioral theories to invasive animal management: Towards an integrated framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Please, Patricia M; Driver, Aaron B

    2015-09-15

    Invasive species wreak an estimated $1.4 trillion in damages globally, each year. To have any hope of reducing this damage, best-practice control strategies must incorporate behavior change interventions. Traditional interventions, based on the knowledge-transfer model, assume that if land managers are properly educated about risks and strategies, they will develop supportive attitudes and implement appropriate control strategies. However, the social sciences have produced a large number of behavioral models and frameworks that demonstrate that knowledge transfer, by itself, fails to change behavior. The challenge then lies in knowing which behavioral model to choose, and when, from a potentially overwhelming 'universe'. In this paper, we review nine behavior theories relevant to invasive species management. We then introduce the Behavior Change Wheel as a tool for integrating these theories into a single practical framework. This framework links drivers of and barriers to behavior change with intervention strategies and policies, in what we consider, from an applied perspective, to be an important advance.

  18. BRAIN MICRODIALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATION FOR THE STUDY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    Microdialysis is a sampling method that is used to determine the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain. The method can be applied to conscious and unrestrained animals and is very suitable for the study of the chemistry of endogenous behaviour. This article reviews the contri

  19. [Influence of pineal hormone melatonin on behavioral disturbances and neurological status of animals after hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arushanian, E B; Naumov, S S

    2011-01-01

    Experimental hemorrhagic stroke causes behavior and locomotor activity with memory impairment and neurological disturbances in rats. These shifts are weaker in the evening hours than after morning testing. The repeated administration of the pineal gland hormone melatonin (melaxen) during one week significantly decreases behavior and neurological deficits as well as pathomorphological signs in the lesion focus. The normalizing effect of the hormone is more distinct in the evening.

  20. The Effect of Toxoplasma gondii on Animal Behavior: Playing Cat and Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Joanne P

    2007-01-01

    A convincing body of evidence now exists to indicate that the ubiquitous protozoan Toxoplasma gondii can cause permanent behavioral changes in its host, even as a consequence of adult-acquired latent infection. Such behavioral alterations appear to be the product of strong selective pressures for the parasite to enhance transmission from its intermediate host reservoir, primarily rodent, to its feline definitive host, wherein sexual reproduction can occur and the life cycle completed. This ar...

  1. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S.; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH; Zepf, FD

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals wit...

  2. Perception and Behavior of InsBot : Robot-Animal Interaction Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Tâche, Fabien; Asadpour, Masoud; Caprari, Gilles; Karlen, Walter; Siegwart, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and behavior implementation of a miniature robot, in size of a match box, that is able to interact with cockroaches. The robot is equipped with two micro-processors dedicated to hardware processing and behavior generation. It is also equipped with 12 infra-red proximity sensors, 2 light sensors, a linear camera and a battery that allows 3 hours autonomy. The robot can discriminate cockroaches, other robots, environment boundaries and shelters. It has also thr...

  3. Meta-Heuristics Algorithms based on the Grouping of Animals by Social Behavior for the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show a survey of meta-heuristics algorithms based on grouping of animals by social behavior for the Traveling Salesman Problem, and propose a new classification of meta-heuristics algorithms (not based on swarm intelligence theory based on grouping of animals: swarm algorithms, schools algorithms, flocks algorithms and herds algorithms: a The swarm algorithms (inspired by the insect swarms and zooplankton swarms: Ant Colony Optimization algorithm – ACO (inspired by the research on the behavior of ant colonies, Firefly Algorithm (based on fireflies, Marriage in Honey Bees Optimization Algorithm - MBO algorithm (inspired by the Honey Bee, Wasp Swarm Algorithm (inspired on the Parasitic wasps, Termite Algorithm (inspired by the termites, Mosquito swarms Algorithm – MSA (inspired by mosquito swarms, zooplankton swarms Algorithm - ZSA (inspired by the Zooplankton and Bumblebees Swarms Algorithm – BSA (inspired by Bumblebees. b The school algorithms (inspired by the fish schools: The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm – PSO (inspired by social behavior and movement dynamics of fish or schooling. c The flock algorithms (inspired by the bird flocks: the flocking algorithm, and the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (inspired on the dynamics of the birds, d The herd and pack Algorithms (inspired by the mammal herds and packs: bat algorithm (inspired by bat, wolf pack search algorithm - WPS (inspired by wolfs, Rats herds algorithm - RATHA (inspired by Rats, Dolphins Herds Algorithm - DHA (inspired by Dolphins and the feral-dogs herd algorithm - FDHA (inspired by feral-dogs herd.

  4. Neonatal bilateral lidocaine administration into the ventral hippocampus caused postpubertal behavioral changes: An animal model of neurodevelopmental psychopathological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Blas-Valdivia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Edgar Cano-Europa, Adelaida Hernández-García, Rocio Ortiz-ButrónDepartamento de Fisiología “Mauricio Russek Berman”, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, I.P.N., Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: Our aim was to investigate if neonatal bilateral administration of lidocaine into the ventral hippocampus would cause behavioral changes related to schizophrenia. A neonatal ventral-hippocampal lesion (nVH lesion was made with lidocaine in Wistar male pups. Two groups were formed, the first received lidocaine (4 μg/0.3 μL and the second an equal volume of vehicle. At day 35 and 56, both groups were tested for social contact, immobility caused by clamping the neck and dorsal immobility, locomotor activity in an open field, and tail flick (TF latency after a painful heat stimulus. All animals were then killed. Coronal cuts (7 μm of the brain were obtained and each brain section was stained with cresyl violet-eosin. The animals which received the nVH lesion with lidocaine had decreased social interaction at both ages. The rats with lesions, only at day 58 postnatal, increased their distance traveled and ambulatory time, with a decrease in their nonambulatory and reset time. The rats with lesions had a longer duration of immobility caused by clamping the neck and a longer dorsal immobility at both days 34 and 57 compared to control rats. The lidocaine-treated group spent less time to deflect the tail compared to the control group at postpubertal age. The neonatal bilateral administration of lidocaine into the ventral hippocampus caused some alterations, such as chromatin condensation, nucleolus loss, and cell shrinkage, but glial proliferation was not seen. Neonatal bilateral lidocaine administration into the ventral hippocampus caused postpubertal behavioral changes.Keywords: lidocaine, hippocampus, neonatal lesion, behavior, animal model, psychopathological disorders

  5. The neuropeptide Y (NPY)-ergic system is associated with behavioral resilience to stress exposure in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Liu, Tianmin; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Mathé, Aleksander A

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence implicates the regulatory neuropeptide Y (NPY) in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. The present study sought to assess whether there is an association between the magnitude of behavioral responses to stress and patterns of NPY in selected brain areas, and subsequently, whether pharmacological manipulations of NPY levels affect behavior in an animal model of PTSD. Animals were exposed to predator-scent stress for 15 min. Behaviors were assessed with the elevated plus maze and acoustic startle response tests 7 days later. Preset cutoff criteria classified exposed animals according to their individual behavioral responses. NPY protein levels were assessed in specific brain regions 8 days after the exposure. The behavioral effects of NPY agonist, NPY-Y1-receptor antagonist, or placebo administered centrally 1 h post-exposure were evaluated in the same manner. Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of the NPY, NPY-Y1 receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and GR 1 day after the behavioral tests. Animals whose behavior was extremely disrupted (EBR) selectively displayed significant downregulation of NPY in the hippocampus, periaqueductal gray, and amygdala, compared with animals whose behavior was minimally (MBR) or partially (PBR) disrupted, and with unexposed controls. One-hour post-exposure treatment with NPY significantly reduced prevalence rates of EBR and reduced trauma-cue freezing responses, compared with vehicle controls. The distinctive pattern of NPY downregulation that correlated with EBR as well as the resounding behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation of NPY indicates an intimate association between NPY and behavioral responses to stress, and potentially between molecular and psychopathological processes, which underlie the observed changes in behavior. The protective qualities attributed to NPY are supported by the extreme reduction of its expression in animals severely affected by

  6. Supplementation of Korean Red Ginseng improves behavior deviations in animal models of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luck T. Gonzales

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that primarily display social and communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence has increased in recent years, yet very limited therapeutic targets and treatments are available to counteract the incapacitating disorder. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a popular herbal plant in South Korea known for its wide range of therapeutic effects and nutritional benefits and has recently been gaining great scientific attention, particularly for its positive effects in the central nervous system. Objectives: Thus, in this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of KRG in alleviating the neurobehavioral deficits found in the valproic acid (VPA-exposed mice models of ASD. Design: Starting at 21 days old (P21, VPA-exposed mice were given daily oral administrations of KRG solution (100 or 200 mg/kg until the termination of all experiments. From P28, mice behaviors were assessed in terms of social interaction capacity (P28–29, locomotor activity (P30, repetitive behaviors (P32, short-term spatial working memory (P34, motor coordination (P36, and seizure susceptibility (P38. Results: VPA-exposed mice showed sociability and social novelty preference deficits, hyperactivity, increased repetitive behavior, impaired spatial working memory, slightly affected motor coordination, and high seizure susceptibility. Remarkably, long-term KRG treatment in both dosages normalized all the ASD-related behaviors in VPA-exposed mice, except motor coordination ability. Conclusion: As a food and herbal supplement with various known benefits, KRG demonstrated its therapeutic potential in rescuing abnormal behaviors related to autism caused by prenatal environmental exposure to VPA.

  7. Mephedrone and Nicotine: Oxidative Stress and Behavioral Interactions in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynska, Barbara; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Kurzepa, Jacek; Biala, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our experiment was to examine the influence of co-administration of nicotine and mephedrone on anxiety-like behaviors, cognitive processes and the nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization as well as processes connected with induction of oxidative stress in the brain of male Swiss mice. The results revealed that co-administration of subthreshold doses of mephedrone and nicotine (0.05 mg/kg each) exerted marked anxiogenic profile in the elevated plus maze and displayed pro-cogni...

  8. Health Benefits of Animal Research: Medical and Behavioral Benefits from Primate Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Frederick A.; Yarbrough, Cathy J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a sampling of the contributions of primate research to human health and welfare through discussions of: atherosclerosis; aging; endocrine and seasonality influences on reproductive behavior; emotional expression; communication; infectious diseases (viruses, polio, acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS; and others); cancer; the brain;…

  9. Environmental enrichment induces behavioral recovery and enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation in an antidepressant-resistant animal model for PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrikus Hendriksen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD can be considered the result of a failure to recover after a traumatic experience. Here we studied possible protective and therapeutic aspects of environmental enrichment (with and without a running wheel in Sprague Dawley rats exposed to an inescapable foot shock procedure (IFS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IFS induced long-lasting contextual and non-contextual anxiety, modeling some aspects of PTSD. Even 10 weeks after IFS the rats showed reduced locomotion in an open field. The antidepressants imipramine and escitalopram did not improve anxiogenic behavior following IFS. Also the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate did not alleviate the IFS induced immobility. While environmental enrichment (EE starting two weeks before IFS did not protect the animals from the behavioral effects of the shocks, exposure to EE either immediately after the shock or one week later induced complete recovery three weeks after IFS. In the next set of experiments a running wheel was added to the EE to enable voluntary exercise (EE/VE. This also led to reduced anxiety. Importantly, this behavioral recovery was not due to a loss of memory for the traumatic experience. The behavioral recovery correlated with an increase in cell proliferation in hippocampus, a decrease in the tissue levels of noradrenalin and increased turnover of 5-HT in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This animal study shows the importance of (physical exercise in the treatment of psychiatric diseases, including post-traumatic stress disorder and points out the possible role of EE in studying the mechanism of recovery from anxiety disorders.

  10. [Animal Models of Depression: Behavior as the Basis for Methodology, Assessment Criteria and Classifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, G A; Gulyaeva, N V

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the current state modeling of depression in animals is presented. Criteria and classification systems of the existing models are considered as well as approaches to the assessment of model validity. Though numerous approaches to modeling of depressive states based on disturbances of both motivational and emotional brain mechanisms have been elaborated, no satisfactory model of stable depression state has been developed yet. However, the diversity of existing models is quite positive since it allows performing targeted studies of selected neurobiological mechanisms and laws of depressive state development, as well as to investigate mechanisms of action and predict pharmacological profiles of potential antidepressants. PMID:26841653

  11. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  12. Behavioral sequelae of astrocyte dysfunction: focus on animal models of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Meng; Abazyan, Sofya; Jouroukhin, Yan; Pletnikov, Mikhail

    2016-09-01

    Astrocytes regulate multiple processes in the brain ranging from trophic support of developing neurons to modulation of synaptic neurotransmission and neuroinflammation in adulthood. It is, therefore, understandable that pathogenesis and pathophysiology of major psychiatric disorders involve astrocyte dysfunctions. Until recently, there has been the paucity of experimental approaches to studying the roles of astrocytes in behavioral disease. A new generation of in vivo models allows us to advance our understanding of the roles of astrocytes in psychiatric disorders. This review will evaluate the recent studies that focus on the contribution of astrocyte dysfunction to behavioral alterations pertinent to schizophrenia and will propose the possible solutions of the limitations of the existing approaches. PMID:25468180

  13. REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep disturbances in Disney animated films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Schenck, Carlos H; Fonte, Jorge

    2007-08-01

    During a viewing of Disney's animated film Cinderella (1950), one author (AI) noticed a dog having nightmares with dream-enactment that strongly resembled RBD. This prompted a study in which all Disney classic full-length animated films and shorts were analyzed for other examples of RBD. Three additional dogs were found with presumed RBD in the classic films Lady and the Tramp (1955) and The Fox and the Hound (1981), and in the short Pluto's Judgment Day (1935). These dogs were elderly males who would pant, whine, snuffle, howl, laugh, paddle, kick, and propel themselves while dreaming that they were chasing someone or running away. In Lady and the Tramp the dog was also losing both his sense of smell and his memory, two associated features of human RBD. These four films were released before RBD was first formally described in humans and dogs. In addition, systematic viewing of the Disney films identified a broad range of sleep disorders, including nightmares, sleepwalking, sleep related seizures, disruptive snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorder. These sleep disorders were inserted as comic elements. The inclusion of a broad range of accurately depicted sleep disorders in these films indicates that the Disney screenwriters were astute observers of sleep and its disorders. PMID:17512793

  14. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc in animals. The most recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system undergoes substantial plastic changes in response to both daily fluctuations (such as food intake and sleep-wake regulation and long-term changes (such as cocaine seeking in neuronal activity in the brain. The understanding of these changes in the hypocretin system is essential in addressing the role of the hypocretin system in normal physiological functions and pathological conditions in animals and humans. In this review, the evidence demonstrating that neural plasticity occurs in hypocretin-containing neurons in the Pf/LH will be presented and possible physiological behavioral, and mental health implications of these findings will be discussed.

  15. Automated, quantitative cognitive/behavioral screening of mice: for genetics, pharmacology, animal cognition and undergraduate instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

    2014-02-26

    We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be

  16. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  17. Effect of Tskaltubo radon mineral waters on aggressive behavior of animals and distribution of free amino acids in structures of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of experimental results allow claiming that desamination of the amino acids by radon after treatment with Tskaltubo radon mineral water, decreases and normalizes free amino acids, which is reflected in behavior of animals - aggressive behavior is decreasing and they became more tame. (author)

  18. Mephedrone and nicotine: oxidative stress and behavioral interactions in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynska, Barbara; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Kurzepa, Jacek; Biala, Grazyna

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of our experiment was to examine the influence of co-administration of nicotine and mephedrone on anxiety-like behaviors, cognitive processes and the nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization as well as processes connected with induction of oxidative stress in the brain of male Swiss mice. The results revealed that co-administration of subthreshold doses of mephedrone and nicotine (0.05 mg/kg each) exerted marked anxiogenic profile in the elevated plus maze and displayed pro-cognitive action in the passive avoidance paradigm (nicotine 0.05 mg/kg and mephedrone 2.5 mg/kg). Furthermore, one of the main findings of the present study was that mephedrone, administered alone at the dose not affecting locomotor activity of mice (1 mg/kg), enhanced the expression of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization. Moreover, mephedrone administered with nicotine decreased general antioxidant status and catalase activity as well as antioxidant enzymes activity in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and increased concentration of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation processes. Considering the likelihood that mephedrone is taken as a part of polydrug combination with nicotine, the effects of this combination on mammalian organisms have been confirmed in our study. Understanding the consequences of co-administration of psychoactive substances on the central nervous system and oxidative processes in the brain provide the important toxicological significance, and may be useful in polydrug intoxication treatment. PMID:25862193

  19. Mephedrone and nicotine: oxidative stress and behavioral interactions in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynska, Barbara; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Kurzepa, Jacek; Biala, Grazyna

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of our experiment was to examine the influence of co-administration of nicotine and mephedrone on anxiety-like behaviors, cognitive processes and the nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization as well as processes connected with induction of oxidative stress in the brain of male Swiss mice. The results revealed that co-administration of subthreshold doses of mephedrone and nicotine (0.05 mg/kg each) exerted marked anxiogenic profile in the elevated plus maze and displayed pro-cognitive action in the passive avoidance paradigm (nicotine 0.05 mg/kg and mephedrone 2.5 mg/kg). Furthermore, one of the main findings of the present study was that mephedrone, administered alone at the dose not affecting locomotor activity of mice (1 mg/kg), enhanced the expression of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization. Moreover, mephedrone administered with nicotine decreased general antioxidant status and catalase activity as well as antioxidant enzymes activity in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and increased concentration of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation processes. Considering the likelihood that mephedrone is taken as a part of polydrug combination with nicotine, the effects of this combination on mammalian organisms have been confirmed in our study. Understanding the consequences of co-administration of psychoactive substances on the central nervous system and oxidative processes in the brain provide the important toxicological significance, and may be useful in polydrug intoxication treatment.

  20. Novelty Seeking and Drug Addiction in Humans and Animals: From Behavior to Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Taylor; Nesil, Tanseli; Choi, Jung-Seok; Li, Ming D

    2016-09-01

    Global treatment of drug addiction costs society billions of dollars annually, but current psychopharmacological therapies have not been successful at desired rates. The increasing number of individuals suffering from substance abuse has turned attention to what makes some people more vulnerable to drug addiction than others. One personality trait that stands out as a contributing factor is novelty seeking. Novelty seeking, affected by both genetic and environmental factors, is defined as the tendency to desire novel stimuli and environments. It can be measured in humans through questionnaires and in rodents using behavioral tasks. On the behavioral level, both human and rodent studies demonstrate that high novelty seeking can predict the initiation of drug use and a transition to compulsive drug use and create a propensity to relapse. These predictions are valid for several drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, and opiates. On the molecular level, both novelty seeking and addiction are modulated by the central reward system in the brain. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter involved in the overlapping neural substrates of both parameters. In sum, the novelty-seeking trait can be valuable for predicting individual vulnerability to drug addiction and for generating successful treatment for patients with substance abuse disorders. PMID:26481371

  1. Sterilization of companion animals: exploring the attitudes and behaviors of Latino students in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faver, Catherine A

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 131 Latino students attending a university in south Texas near the United States-Mexico border completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their companion animals (pets). Compared with dog caregivers (owners) (n = 106), cat caregivers (n = 25) were significantly more likely to favor early spay/neuter of pets and to report that the primary benefit received from their own pet was relational (for example, companionship) rather than functional (for example, sense of safety). The rate of sterilization was significantly higher for cats (60%) than for dogs (26.4%). Sterilization rates were significantly higher for cats whose owners favored early spay/neuter and had accurate knowledge about sterilization of female cats and dogs. Sterilization rates were significantly higher for dogs whose owners had a veterinarian, favored early spay/neuter, and valued relational benefits of guardianship more than functional benefits. Approximately 41% of owners whose pets were not sterilized reported that they wanted puppies or kittens, and 25% reported that the cost of the procedure was the primary barrier. Sterilization programs must include both education about the benefits of sterilization and low-cost spay/neuter services.

  2. The implications of embodiment for behavior and cognition: animal and robotic case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Matej

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will argue that if we want to understand the function of the brain (or the control in the case of robots), we must understand how the brain is embedded into the physical system, and how the organism interacts with the real world. While embodiment has often been used in its trivial meaning, i.e. 'intelligence requires a body', the concept has deeper and more important implications, concerned with the relation between physical and information (neural, control) processes. A number of case studies are presented to illustrate the concept. These involve animals and robots and are concentrated around locomotion, grasping, and visual perception. A theoretical scheme that can be used to embed the diverse case studies will be presented. Finally, we will establish a link between the low-level sensory-motor processes and cognition. We will present an embodied view on categorization, and propose the concepts of 'body schema' and 'forward models' as a natural extension of the embodied approach toward firs...

  3. Behavioral and genetic evidence for a novel animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-James Y

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to DSM-IV there are three subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, namely: ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-PI, ADHD predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (ADHD-HI, and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C. These subtypes may represent distinct neurobehavioral disorders of childhood onset with separate etiologies. The diagnosis of ADHD is behaviorally based; therefore, investigations into its possible etiologies should be based in behavior. Animal models of ADHD demonstrate construct validity when they accurately reproduce elements of the etiology, biochemistry, symptoms, and treatment of the disorder. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fulfill many of the validation criteria and compare well with clinical cases of ADHD-C. The present study describes a novel rat model of the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-PI. Methods ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Several strains with varied genetic background were needed to determine what constitutes a normal comparison. Five groups of rats were used: SHR/NCrl spontaneously hypertensive and WKY/NCrl Wistar/Kyoto rats from Charles River; SD/NTac Sprague Dawley and WH/HanTac Wistar rats from Taconic Europe; and WKY/NHsd Wistar/Kyoto rats from Harlan. DNA was analyzed to determine background differences in the strains by PCR genotyping of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and 2625 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results Compared to appropriate comparison strains (WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats, SHR/NCrl showed ADHD-C-like behavior: striking overactivity and poor sustained attention. Compared to WKY/NHsd rats, WKY/NCrl rats showed inattention, but no overactivity or impulsiveness. WH/HanTac rats deviated significantly from the other control groups by being more active and less attentive than the WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats. We also found substantial

  4. Sex-specific alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions in a "three hit" animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, G; Petrovszki, Z; Benedek, G; Horvath, G

    2015-05-01

    Whereas schizophrenia affects both human sexes, there are known sex-dependent disparities. We developed a chronic animal model that shows some schizophrenia-related deficits in rats by applying selective breeding after subchronic ketamine administration connected with postweaning social isolation (complex treatment). Our aim was to determine the sex-specific effects of these interventions on several processes. Sensory gating to acoustic stimulation, pain sensitivity, motor behavior, spatial learning and memory deficits on the hole-board test were assessed in the 17th generation of selectively bred Wistar rats compared to their naive counterparts with or without complex treatment. We found differences between the sexes: selectively bred males with complex treatment showed the lowest pain sensitivity; however, the results of the prepulse inhibition test indicated that female rats showed enhanced impairment of sensory gating and increased acoustic startle reaction. The cognitive performance, working and reference memory ratios were significantly decreased by selective breeding and showed sex-specific alterations, with the smallest value in male rats of the new substrain. Based on these results, the animals of the new substrain could be classified into the high-risk for schizophreniform phenotype with the highest sensitivity of males with complex treatment. Decreased cognitive performance highlighted spatial learning deficits in the selectively bred and treated rats that escalate the validity of our new and complex rat model of schizophrenia. The results indicate the same sex selectivity as observed in humans, with increased incidence of risk ratios for men to develop schizophrenia relative to women.

  5. anyFish 2.0: An open-source software platform to generate and share animated fish models to study behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingley, Spencer J.; Rahmani Asl, Mohammad; Wu, Chengde; Cui, Rongfeng; Gadelhak, Mahmoud; Li, Wen; Zhang, Ji; Simpson, Jon; Hash, Chelsea; Butkowski, Trisha; Veen, Thor; Johnson, Jerald B.; Yan, Wei; Rosenthal, Gil G.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental approaches to studying behaviors based on visual signals are ubiquitous, yet these studies are limited by the difficulty of combining realistic models with the manipulation of signals in isolation. Computer animations are a promising way to break this trade-off. However, animations are often prohibitively expensive and difficult to program, thus limiting their utility in behavioral research. We present anyFish 2.0, a user-friendly platform for creating realistic animated 3D fish. anyFish 2.0 dramatically expands anyFish's utility by allowing users to create animations of members of several groups of fish from model systems in ecology and evolution (e.g., sticklebacks, Poeciliids, and zebrafish). The visual appearance and behaviors of the model can easily be modified. We have added several features that facilitate more rapid creation of realistic behavioral sequences. anyFish 2.0 provides a powerful tool that will be of broad use in animal behavior and evolution and serves as a model for transparency, repeatability, and collaboration.

  6. Generation of human/rat xenograft animal model for the study of human donor stem cell behaviors in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Sun; Dong Xiao; Xing-Hua Pan; Ruo-Shuang Zhang; Guang-Hui Cui; Xi-Gu Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To accurately and realistically elucidate human stem cell behaviors In vivo and the fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in vivo, which is urgently required in regenerative medicine and treatments for some human diseases, a surrogate human-rat chimera model was developed.METHODS: Human-rat chimeras were achieved by in utero transplanting low-density mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood into the fetal rats at 9-11 d of gestation, and subsequently, a variety of methods, including flow cytometry, PCR as well as immunohistochemical assay, were used to test the human donor contribution in the recipients.RESULTS: Of 29 live-born recipients, 19 had the presence of human CD45+ cells in peripheral blood (PB) detected by flow cytometry, while PCR analysis on genomic DNA from 11 different adult tissues showed that 14 selected from flow cytometry-positive 19 animals possessed of donor-derived human cell engraftment in multiple tissues (i.e. liver, spleen, thymus, heart, kidney, blood, lung, muscle, gut and skin) examined at the time of tissue collection, as confirmed by detecting human β2-microglobulin expression using immunohistochemistry.In this xenogeneic system, the engrafted donor-derived human cells persisted in multiple tissues for at least 6 mo after birth. Moreover, transplanted human donor cells underwent site-specific differentiation into CK18-positive human cells in chimeric liver and CD45-positive human cells in chimeric spleen and thymus of recipients.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that we successfully developed human-rat chimeras, in which xenogeneic human cells exist up to 6 mo later. This humanized small animal model, which offers an in vivo environment more closely resembling to the situations in human, provides an invaluable and effective approach for in vivo investigating human stem cell behaviors, and further in vivo examining fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in the future

  7. Summation of subthreshold impulses in case of separate and combined effects of cadmium and immobilization stress, considering typology of behavior of experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Yu.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study dynamics of changes of summation-threshold index under the combined impact of cadmium and immobilization of animals depending on the typological characteristics of animal behavior. The studies were conducted on white rats, previously divided into groups of active and passive ones by terms of "horizontal activity" in the test "open field". In each group the experiments were planned according to the scheme of orthogonal design 22. Summation-threshold index was studied by Speransky S.V. method. It was found that the summation-threshold index increases on the day 10 of experiments under the action of a cadmium only in groups of "active" and "passive" animals; this testifies to inhibition processes in the CNS. The effect of cadmium, immobilization and their combined action on day 30 of experiments leads to the reduction in the of studying parameter in both groups of animals; this testifies to excitation of the CNS. The active animals are more susceptible to immobilization stress, the passive ones - to the action of cadmium. The combined action of stress factors on day 10 is characterized by desensitization, on day 30 – by unidirectional interdependent action and less than by additive effect. The processes of inhibition and excitation in the central nervous system depend on type of animal behavior, type and duration of exposure to the stress factor. The results may be taken into account when assessing adaptation process, correction, and adaptation depending on the type of behavior.

  8. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  9. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  10. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  11. Effects of delayed reinforcers on the behavior of an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje; Kvande, Grethe

    2005-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), affecting 3-5% of grade-school children, is a behavioral disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It has been suggested that the symptoms are caused by altered reinforcement and extinction processes, behaviorally described as an abnormally short and steep delay-of-reinforcement gradient in ADHD. The present study tested predictions from the suggested shortened and steepened delay gradient in ADHD in an animal model, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). It was predicted that SHR responding during baseline would mainly consist of responses with short inter-response times, and that responding would be more rapidly reduced in the SHR than in the controls by the introduction of a time interval between the response and reinforcer delivery. Effects of a resetting delay of reinforcement procedure with water as the reinforcer were tested on two baseline reinforcement schedules: variable interval 30 s (VI 30 s) and conjoint variable interval 60 s differential reinforcement of high rate 1s (VI 60 s DRH 1 s). The results showed a higher rate of responses in the SHR than in the controls during baseline, mainly consisting of responses with short inter-response times. The statistical analyses showed that response rates decreased more rapidly as a function of reinforcer delay in the SHR than in the controls. The analyses of the estimates of the reinforcer decay parameter showed no strain differences during the VI 30 s schedule but showed a significant strain difference at the end, but not at the start, of the sessions during the VI 60 s DRH 1 s schedule. In general, the results support predictions from the suggested steepened delay gradient in SHR. However, the predictions were only partly confirmed by the analyses of the decay parameter. PMID:15922066

  12. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  13. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  14. Behavioral effects of intra-cranial self-stimulation in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje

    2005-07-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by inappropriate levels of activity, attention, and impulsivity, has been suggested to be caused by changes in reinforcement and extinction processes possibly linked to dysfunctioning dopamine systems. The present study investigated reinforcement processes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD. Using intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS), behavioral effects of varying current intensity, reinforcer density, and reinforcer delay were tested. Current was varied in order to find the weakest current producing the maximal response rate (optimal current) in the SHR and the controls during high (120 reinforcers/min) and low reinforcer densities (1 reinforcer/min). The results showed that optimal current was significantly lower in the SHR than in the controls during high reinforcer density while maximal response rates were not significantly different. During low reinforcer density, optimal current was not significantly different in the two strains, but maximal response rate was significantly higher in the SHR than in the controls. The SHR produced more responses during the testing of reinforcer density, but changes in reinforcer density affected response rates similarly in the two strains. The decrease in response rate as a function of reinforcer delay was more pronounced in the SHR than in the controls. Overall, more responses with short inter-response times (IRT) were found in the SHR compared to the controls during intermittent reinforcement. The results are consistent with a steepened delay-of-reinforcement gradient in SHR. PMID:15922065

  15. 动物行为研究新进展(五):动物的文化传承%New Advances in Study of Animal Behavior ( Ⅴ ) :Cultural Transmission in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚玉昌

    2012-01-01

    Cultural transmission is one of three foundations of studying animal behavior. Cultural transmission can allow newly acquired traits to spread through populations at a very quick rate, as well as permit the rapid transmission of information across generations. We shall examine three different modes of cultural transmission; vertical, horizontal and oblique transmission. Researchers found that across more than 100 species of primates, there was a significant positive correlation between brain size and both innovation and tool-use frequency.

  16. Sex-dependent behavioral effects and morphological changes in the hippocampus after prenatal invasive interventions in rats: implications for animal models of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina von Wilmsdorff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although schizophrenia affects both human genders, there are gender-dependent differences with respect to age of onset, clinical characteristics, course and prognosis of the disease. METHODS: To investigate sex-dependent differences in motor coordination and activity as well as in cognitive and social behavior, we repeatedly tested female (n = 14 and male (n = 12 Fisher rats (postnatal days, PD 56-174 that had received intracerebroventricular injections of kainic acid as well as female (n = 15 and male (n = 16 control animals. The hippocampus was examined histologically. RESULTS: Compared to male controls, in the alcove test both female controls and female animals with prenatal intervention spent less time in a dark box before entering an unknown illuminated area. Again, animals that received prenatal injection (particularly females made more perseveration errors in the T-maze alternation task compared to controls. Female rats exhibited a higher degree of activity than males, suggesting these effects to be sex-dependent. Finally, animals that received prenatal intervention maintained longer lasting social contacts. Histological analyses showed pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area CA3 (in both hemispheres of control animals to be longer than those found in treated animals. Sex-dependent differences were found in the left hippocampi of control animals and animals after prenatal intervention. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate important differences between males and females in terms of weight gain, response to fear, working memory and social behavior. We also found sex-dependent differences in the lengths of hippocampal neurons. Further studies on larger sample sets with more detailed analyses of morphological changes are required to confirm our data.

  17. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Increases Resistance to Extinction: Clinical Demonstration, Animal Modeling, and Clinical Test of One Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J.; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R.; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2010-01-01

    Basic research with pigeons on behavioral momentum suggests that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) can increase the resistance of target behavior to change. This finding suggests that clinical applications of DRA may inadvertently increase the persistence of target behavior even as it decreases its frequency. We conducted…

  18. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Increases Resistance to Extinction: Clinical Demonstration, Animal Modeling, and Clinical Test of One Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N

    2010-01-01

    Basic research with pigeons on behavioral momentum suggests that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) can increase the resistance of target behavior to change. This finding suggests that clinical applications of DRA may inadvertently increase the persistence of target behavior even as it decreases its frequency. We conducted three coordinated experiments to test whether DRA has persistence-strengthening effects on clinically significant target behavior and then tested the ...

  19. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  20. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Alternating Magnetic Field on the Behavior of Animals in the Presence of the Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the geomagnetic field can influence animal migration and homing. The magnetic field detection by animals is known as magnetoreception and it is possible due to two different transduction mechanisms: the first one through magnetic nanoparticles able to respond to the geomagnetic field and the second one through chemical reactions influenced by magnetic fields. Another behavior is the magnetic alignment where animals align their bodies to the geomagnetic field. It has been observed that magnetic alignment of cattle can be disrupted near electric power lines around the world. Experimentally, it is known that alternating magnetic fields can influence living beings, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The parametric resonance model proposes a mechanism to explain that effect on living beings and establishes that, in the presence of a constant magnetic field, molecules associated with biochemical reactions inside cells can absorb resonantly alternating magnetic fields with specific frequencies. In the present paper, a review is made about animal magnetoreception and the effects of alternating magnetic fields in living beings. It is suggested how alternating magnetic fields can interfere in the magnetic alignment of animals and a general conclusion is obtained: alternating magnetic field pollution can affect the magnetic sensibility of animals.

  1. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Alternating Magnetic Field on the Behavior of Animals in the Presence of the Geomagnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Natalia A; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the geomagnetic field can influence animal migration and homing. The magnetic field detection by animals is known as magnetoreception and it is possible due to two different transduction mechanisms: the first one through magnetic nanoparticles able to respond to the geomagnetic field and the second one through chemical reactions influenced by magnetic fields. Another behavior is the magnetic alignment where animals align their bodies to the geomagnetic field. It has been observed that magnetic alignment of cattle can be disrupted near electric power lines around the world. Experimentally, it is known that alternating magnetic fields can influence living beings, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The parametric resonance model proposes a mechanism to explain that effect on living beings and establishes that, in the presence of a constant magnetic field, molecules associated with biochemical reactions inside cells can absorb resonantly alternating magnetic fields with specific frequencies. In the present paper, a review is made about animal magnetoreception and the effects of alternating magnetic fields in living beings. It is suggested how alternating magnetic fields can interfere in the magnetic alignment of animals and a general conclusion is obtained: alternating magnetic field pollution can affect the magnetic sensibility of animals. PMID:26823664

  2. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (char...

  3. Animal-borne imaging reveals novel insights into the foraging behaviors and Diel activity of a large-bodied apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Nifong

    Full Text Available Large-bodied, top- and apex predators (e.g., crocodilians, sharks, wolves, killer whales can exert strong top-down effects within ecological communities through their interactions with prey. Due to inherent difficulties while studying the behavior of these often dangerous predatory species, relatively little is known regarding their feeding behaviors and activity patterns, information that is essential to understanding their role in regulating food web dynamics and ecological processes. Here we use animal-borne imaging systems (Crittercam to study the foraging behavior and activity patterns of a cryptic, large-bodied predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis in two estuaries of coastal Florida, USA. Using retrieved video data we examine the variation in foraging behaviors and activity patterns due to abiotic factors. We found the frequency of prey-attacks (mean = 0.49 prey attacks/hour as well as the probability of prey-capture success (mean = 0.52 per attack were significantly affected by time of day. Alligators attempted to capture prey most frequently during the night. Probability of prey-capture success per attack was highest during morning hours and sequentially lower during day, night, and sunset, respectively. Position in the water column also significantly affected prey-capture success, as individuals' experienced two-fold greater success when attacking prey while submerged. These estimates are the first for wild adult American alligators and one of the few examples for any crocodilian species worldwide. More broadly, these results reveal that our understandings of crocodilian foraging behaviors are biased due to previous studies containing limited observations of cryptic and nocturnal foraging interactions. Our results can be used to inform greater understanding regarding the top-down effects of American alligators in estuarine food webs. Additionally, our results highlight the importance and power of using animal

  4. Animal-borne imaging reveals novel insights into the foraging behaviors and Diel activity of a large-bodied apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifong, James C; Nifong, Rachel L; Silliman, Brian R; Lowers, Russell H; Guillette, Louis J; Ferguson, Jake M; Welsh, Matthew; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Large-bodied, top- and apex predators (e.g., crocodilians, sharks, wolves, killer whales) can exert strong top-down effects within ecological communities through their interactions with prey. Due to inherent difficulties while studying the behavior of these often dangerous predatory species, relatively little is known regarding their feeding behaviors and activity patterns, information that is essential to understanding their role in regulating food web dynamics and ecological processes. Here we use animal-borne imaging systems (Crittercam) to study the foraging behavior and activity patterns of a cryptic, large-bodied predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) in two estuaries of coastal Florida, USA. Using retrieved video data we examine the variation in foraging behaviors and activity patterns due to abiotic factors. We found the frequency of prey-attacks (mean = 0.49 prey attacks/hour) as well as the probability of prey-capture success (mean = 0.52 per attack) were significantly affected by time of day. Alligators attempted to capture prey most frequently during the night. Probability of prey-capture success per attack was highest during morning hours and sequentially lower during day, night, and sunset, respectively. Position in the water column also significantly affected prey-capture success, as individuals' experienced two-fold greater success when attacking prey while submerged. These estimates are the first for wild adult American alligators and one of the few examples for any crocodilian species worldwide. More broadly, these results reveal that our understandings of crocodilian foraging behaviors are biased due to previous studies containing limited observations of cryptic and nocturnal foraging interactions. Our results can be used to inform greater understanding regarding the top-down effects of American alligators in estuarine food webs. Additionally, our results highlight the importance and power of using animal-borne imaging when

  5. Using tri-axial acceleration data to identify behavioral modes of free-ranging animals: general concepts and tools illustrated for griffon vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Spiegel, Orr; Fortmann-Roe, Scott; Harel, Roi; Wikelski, Martin; Getz, Wayne M

    2012-03-15

    Integrating biomechanics, behavior and ecology requires a mechanistic understanding of the processes producing the movement of animals. This calls for contemporaneous biomechanical, behavioral and environmental data along movement pathways. A recently formulated unifying movement ecology paradigm facilitates the integration of existing biomechanics, optimality, cognitive and random paradigms for studying movement. We focus on the use of tri-axial acceleration (ACC) data to identify behavioral modes of GPS-tracked free-ranging wild animals and demonstrate its application to study the movements of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus, Hablizl 1783). In particular, we explore a selection of nonlinear and decision tree methods that include support vector machines, classification and regression trees, random forest methods and artificial neural networks and compare them with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a baseline for classifying behavioral modes. Using a dataset of 1035 ground-truthed ACC segments, we found that all methods can accurately classify behavior (80-90%) and, as expected, all nonlinear methods outperformed LDA. We also illustrate how ACC-identified behavioral modes provide the means to examine how vulture flight is affected by environmental factors, hence facilitating the integration of behavioral, biomechanical and ecological data. Our analysis of just over three-quarters of a million GPS and ACC measurements obtained from 43 free-ranging vultures across 9783 vulture-days suggests that their annual breeding schedule might be selected primarily in response to seasonal conditions favoring rising-air columns (thermals) and that rare long-range forays of up to 1750 km from the home range are performed despite potentially heavy energetic costs and a low rate of food intake, presumably to explore new breeding, social and long-term resource location opportunities.

  6. Analysis on Influence Factors of Animal Aggressive Behavior%浅析影响动物攻击行为的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳芳; 李想; 李剑虹

    2011-01-01

    Under the natural enviroment, individuals often occur the aggressive behavior between the identical species animal, and it is significant in their lives.With the research of aggressive behavior,it indicate that aggressive behavior is a complex processes controlled many interactive factors.This includes both population density, food and other external factors, including internal factors such as genetic factors,individual differences.This article mainly makes a summary on influence factors of animal aggressive behavior.%在动物界,同一种群动物个体之间经常会发生互相争斗的行为,即攻击行为,此种行为在其生命中具有重要意义.随着人们对攻击行为的探究,发现攻击行为是一个受诸多因素影响、彼此相互作用的复杂过程.这既包括种群密度、食物等外部因素,也包括遗传因素、个体差异等内部因素.作者主要对影响动物攻击行为的诸因素作一综述.

  7. Neuropeptide s alters anxiety but not depression-like behaviors in the flinders sensitive line rats, a genetic animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, A.; Wegener, Gregers; Finger, B.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) have been implicated in the mediation of anxiolytic-like behavior in rodents. However, little knowledge is available to what extent the NPS system is involved in depression-related behaviors. The aim of the present work was to characterize...

  8. Effects of Phenibut and Citrocard on Non-Competitive and Competitive Behavior during Provoked Aggression in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaya, A N; Tyurenkov, I N

    2015-05-01

    Anti-aggressive effects of phenibut (25 mg/kg) and its structural analogue citrocard (50 mg/kg) were revealed in rats under condition of provoked intraspecific aggression. These substances significantly decreased manifestations of aggression in animals: they increased the latency of attacks and reduced their number. Anti-aggressive effects of citrocard were more pronounced than effects of phenibut under conditions of non-competitive aggression induced by fear of inescapable painful exposure or under conditions of competitive aggression reflecting the ability of animals to reveal adaptive social communicative skills in aversive situation.

  9. Effects of Phenibut and Citrocard on Non-Competitive and Competitive Behavior during Provoked Aggression in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaya, A N; Tyurenkov, I N

    2015-05-01

    Anti-aggressive effects of phenibut (25 mg/kg) and its structural analogue citrocard (50 mg/kg) were revealed in rats under condition of provoked intraspecific aggression. These substances significantly decreased manifestations of aggression in animals: they increased the latency of attacks and reduced their number. Anti-aggressive effects of citrocard were more pronounced than effects of phenibut under conditions of non-competitive aggression induced by fear of inescapable painful exposure or under conditions of competitive aggression reflecting the ability of animals to reveal adaptive social communicative skills in aversive situation. PMID:26033589

  10. The behavior of chloroquine (a synthesized anti-malaria drug) labeled with 14C in healthy and malarious animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 14C labeled chloroquine is identical in healthy and malarious animals. Fixation (by order of intensity) takes place in the liver, spleen, lungs, lacrimal glands, cerebrospinal fluid, bones, thyroid, and intestinal walls. This was confirmed from quantitative studies and demonstrates the traversing of the blood-brain barrier and the intestinal elimination after biliary excretion. Pharmaco-kinetic studies were undertaken with healthy animals and those afflicted with malaria. After a phase, in which the distribution of chloroquine is identical for both types of animal, a more rapid decrease in the blood level is observed with the malarious animals. The leucocytes contained distinctly more of the tracer than the normal or malarious red corpuscles or the blood plasma. Examination of the urinary elimination revealed a mono-exponential function; nevertheless, the urinary elimination was less regular with the malarious rats. This elimination corresponds to the excretion of unchanged chloroquine accompanied by two metabolites. A third metabolite appeared after a delay period. (author)

  11. “Bedside-to-Bench” Behavioral Outcomes in Animal Models of Pain: Beyond the Evaluation of Reflexes

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos, Enrique J.; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Despite the myriad promising new targets and candidate analgesics recently identified in preclinical pain studies, little translation to novel pain medications has been generated. The pain phenotype in humans involves complex behavioral alterations, including changes in daily living activities and psychological disturbances. These behavioral changes are not reflected by the outcome measures traditionally used in rodents for preclinical pain testing, which are based on reflexes evoked by senso...

  12. Compulsive checking behavior of quinpirole-sensitized rats as an animal model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder(OCD: form and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonura Carlo A

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous report showed that the open field behavior of rats sensitized to the dopamine agonist quinpirole satisfies 5 performance criteria for compulsive checking behavior. In an effort to extend the parallel between the drug-induced phenomenon and human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the present study investigated whether the checking behavior of quinpirole rats is subject to interruption, which is an attribute characteristic of OCD compulsions. For this purpose, the rat's home-cage was placed into the open field at the beginning or the middle of a 2-hr test. Results Introduction of the home-cage reduced checking behavior, as rats stayed inside the cage. After 40 min, checking resurfaced, as quinpirole rats exited the home-cage often. An unfamiliar cage had no such effects on quinpirole rats or saline controls. Conclusions Checking behavior induced by quinpirole is not irrepressible but can be suspended. Results strengthen the quinpirole preparation as an animal model of OCD compulsive checking.

  13. Stress-induced enhancement of fear conditioning and sensitization facilitates extinction-resistant and habituation-resistant fear behaviors in a novel animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Michael J; Caruso, Michael J; Takahashi, Lorey K

    2012-01-18

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by stress-induced symptoms including exaggerated fear memories, hypervigilance and hyperarousal. However, we are unaware of an animal model that investigates these hallmarks of PTSD especially in relation to fear extinction and habituation. Therefore, to develop a valid animal model of PTSD, we exposed rats to different intensities of footshock stress to determine their effects on either auditory predator odor fear extinction or habituation of fear sensitization. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to acute footshock stress (no shock control, 0.4 mA, or 0.8 mA) immediately prior to auditory fear conditioning training involving the pairing of auditory clicks with a cloth containing cat odor. When presented to the conditioned auditory clicks in the next 5 days of extinction testing conducted in a runway apparatus with a hide box, rats in the two shock groups engaged in higher levels of freezing and head out vigilance-like behavior from the hide box than the no shock control group. This increase in fear behavior during extinction testing was likely due to auditory activation of the conditioned fear state because Experiment 2 demonstrated that conditioned fear behavior was not broadly increased in the absence of the conditioned auditory stimulus. Experiment 3 was then conducted to determine whether acute exposure to stress induces a habituation resistant sensitized fear state. We found that rats exposed to 0.8 mA footshock stress and subsequently tested for 5 days in the runway hide box apparatus with presentations of nonassociative auditory clicks exhibited high initial levels of freezing, followed by head out behavior and culminating in the occurrence of locomotor hyperactivity. In addition, Experiment 4 indicated that without delivery of nonassociative auditory clicks, 0.8 mA footshock stressed rats did not exhibit robust increases in sensitized freezing and locomotor hyperactivity, albeit head out vigilance

  14. Behavioral effects of D3 receptor inhibition and 5-HT4 receptor activation on animals undergoing chronic cannabinoid exposure during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboussi, Oualid; Said, Nadia; Fifel, Karim; Lakehayli, Sara; Tazi, Abdelouahhab; El Ganouni, Soumaya

    2016-04-01

    Chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence results in long-lasting behavioral deficits that match some symptomatologic aspects of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the reversibility of the emotional and the cognitive effects of chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence, via subsequent modulation of the serotoninergic 5-HT4 and dopaminergic D3 receptors. RS67333 as a 5-HT4 agonist and U-99194A as a D3 antagonist were administered separately at 1 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, and in combination at 0.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg to adult animals undergoing chronic treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) during adolescence. Animals were tested for anxiety-like behavior and episodic-like memory in the open field and novel object recognition tests respectively 30 minutes after the last drug administration. Chronic WIN55,212-2 treated animals exhibited a lasting disruption of episodic memory and increased anxiety levels. The effect on episodic-like memory were partially restored by acute administration of RS67333 and U-99194A and completely by administration of both drugs in combination at lower doses. However, only RS67333 (20 mg/kg) improved the anxiogenic-like effect of WIN55,212-2. These findings give further support that chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence may be used as an animal model for schizophrenia, and highlight D3 and 5-HT4 receptors as potential targets for an enhanced treatment of the cognitive aspect of this disease. PMID:26497809

  15. Relationship of microbial processes to the fate and behavior of transuranic elements in soils, plants, and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review considers the influence of soil physicochemical and microbial processes on the long-term solubility, form, and bioavailability of plutonium and other transuranic elements important in the nuclear fuel cycle. Emphasis is placed on delineation of the relationships between soil chemical and microbial processes and the role of soil microorganisms in effecting solubilization, transformation and plant/animal uptake of elements considered largely insoluble in soils strictly on the basis of their inorganic chemical characteristics

  16. Generation of human/rat xenograft animal model for the study of human donor stem cell behaviors in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yan; Xiao, Dong; Pan, Xing-hua; Zhang, Ruo-Shuang; Cui, Guang-Hui; Chen, Xi-Gu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To accurately and realistically elucidate human stem cell behaviors in vivo and the fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in vivo, which is urgently required in regenerative medicine and treatments for some human diseases, a surrogate human-rat chimera model was developed.

  17. Effects of developmental bisphenol A exposure on reproductive-related behaviors in California mice (Peromyscus californicus: a monogamous animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Williams

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, a pervasive, endocrine disrupting compound (EDC, acts as a mixed agonist-antagonist with respect to estrogens and other steroid hormones. We hypothesized that sexually selected traits would be particularly sensitive to EDC. Consistent with this concept, developmental exposure of males from the polygynous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, to BPA resulted in compromised spatial navigational ability and exploratory behaviors, while there was little effect on females. Here, we have examined a related, monogamous species, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus, where we predicted that males would be less sensitive to BPA in terms of navigational and exploratory behaviors, while displaying other traits related to interactions with females and territorial marking that might be vulnerable to disruption. As in the deer mouse experiments, females were fed either a phytoestrogen-free CTL diet through pregnancy and lactation or the same diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight or ethinyl estradiol (EE (0.1 part per billion to provide a "pure" estrogen control. After weaning, pups were maintained on CTL diet until they had reached sexual maturity, at which time behaviors were evaluated. In addition, territorial marking was assessed in BPA-exposed males housed alone and when a control male was visible in the testing arena. In contrast to deer mice, BPA and EE exposure had no effect on spatial navigational skills in either male or female California mice. While CTL females exhibited greater exploratory behavior than CTL males, BPA exposure abolished this sex difference. BPA-exposed males, however, engaged in less territorial marking when CTL males were present. These studies demonstrate that developmental BPA exposure can disrupt adult behaviors in a sex- and species-dependent manner and are consistent with the hypothesis that sexually selected traits are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption and should be a

  18. ErbB inhibitors ameliorate behavioral impairments of an animal model for schizophrenia: implication of their dopamine-modulatory actions

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, M.; Sotoyama, H; Namba, H.; Shibuya, M.; Eda, T; R. Wang; Okubo, T.; Nagata, K.(Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan); Iwakura, Y; Nawa, H

    2013-01-01

    Ligands for ErbB receptors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuregulin-1, have a neurotrophic activity on midbrain dopaminergic neurons and are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Although ErbB kinase inhibitors ameliorate behavioral deficits of the schizophrenia model that was established by hippocampal lesioning of rat pups, the antipsychotic action of ErbB kinase inhibitors and its general applicability to other models are not fully characterized. Using a differ...

  19. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis preference and behavioral response to animated images of conspecifics altered in their color, aspect ratio, and swimming depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Polverino

    Full Text Available Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world's hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature. Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species.

  20. EFFECTS OF AMANTADINE ON BEHAVIOR, RESPIRATORY CHAIN ENZYMES AND CREATINE KINASE IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David de Lucena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glutamate dysregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and NMDA antagonists seem to be effective in its treatment. We evaluated the efficacy of amantadine (AMA in preventing ketamine (KET-induced effects in an animal model of schizophrenia. Methods: Adult Wistar rats received 10 mg/kg AMA for 10 days, followed by 7 days of 25 mg/kg KET ip. Thirty minutes after the last injection, rats were placed in an open-field apparatus for 60 minutes and killed by decapitation afterwards. Amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum were isolated and analyzed for creatine kinase (CK and respiratory chain enzyme activities. Results: KET increased crossings and reduced grooming, which was not prevented by AMA. KET also increased stereotypic movements, which was partially prevented by AMA. As for CK activity, KET increased it in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and amygdala, and AMA prevented it only in prefrontal cortex and striatum. The activity of complex I was not altered by KET, however, AMA+KET increased it in the striatum and amygdala. KET increased the activity of complex II in the striatum as well, whereas AMA+KET increased it in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum. KET did not alter complex I-III activity, whereas AMA+KET increased it in hippocampus and amygdala. AMA+KET also increased complex IV activity in hippocampus and striatum, whereas KET had no effect on this activity. Conclusion: AMA did not prevent most of KET-induced alterations. New animal models should be employed in the study of AMA as a potential novel drug for schizophrenia.

  1. Monitoring and classifying animal behavior using ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks and artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria;

    2012-01-01

    perceptron (MLP)-based artificial neural network (ANN). The best performance of the ANN in terms of the mean squared error (MSE) and the convergence speed was achieved when it was initialized and trained using the Nguyen–Widrow and Levenberg–Marquardt back-propagation algorithms, respectively. The success...... into their corresponding behavioral modes. However, network unreliability and high-energy consumption have limited the applicability of those systems. In this study, a 2.4-GHz ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor network (MANET) that is able to overcome those problems is presented. The designed MANET showed high...

  2. 动物行为研究的新进展(二):分子遗传学与动物行为%New Advances in Study of Animal Behavior (Ⅱ) :Molecular Genetics and Animal Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚玉昌

    2011-01-01

    分子遗传学与动物行为有着密切关系,它不仅可用于检验动物行为学中的各种假说,而且也可用基因直接解读动物行为的很多特征.有些行为是由单一基因决定的,有些行为是由两个基因决定的,而大多数行为是由3个或更多基因决定的.如果发现X基因的某个变体是与Y行为的一个变体相关联的,那么就可以确定这个基因与这一行为间存在着直接和近期的关系.目前在全球范围内的几百个实验室内正在进行大规模的基因鉴定工作,以确定是哪些基因在决定着动物行为的特征.在这一领域从事研究的科学家还不断探讨并试图搞清动物行为特征的分子遗传学基础.本文以两个研究实例详细说明在这一领域的研究方法、研究现状和研究进展.%In this paper, We will examine how molecular genetics can be used to test various ethological hypotheses. Genes can also be used in the proximate explanation of a trait in a very straightforward manner. If a study finds that some variant of gene X is associated with a variant of behavior Y, we are casting genes in a proximate, rather than an ultimate, light. Identifying the genes behind behavior traits is a large-scale endeavor going on in hundreds of labs around the world today. Researchers involved in this area examined the molecular genetic underpinning of traits such as foriging, mate choice, aggression, division of labor,and so on. We examine two case studies at the molecular genetic level: ultraviolet vision and song acquisition in birds.

  3. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  4. Effects of SR141716A on Cognitive and Depression-Related Behavior in an Animal Model of Premotor Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tadaiesky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A previous study from our laboratory revealed that moderate nigral dopaminergic degeneration caused emotional and cognitive deficits in rats, paralleling early signs of Parkinson's disease. Recent evidence suggests that the blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors might be beneficial to alleviate motor inhibition typical of Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigated whether antagonism of CB1 receptors would improve emotional and cognitive deficits in a rat model of premotor Parkinson's disease. Depression-like behavior and cognition were assessed with the forced swim test and the social recognition test, respectively. Confirming our previous study, rats injected with 6-hydroxydopamine in striatum presented emotional and cognitive alterations which were improved by acute injection of SR141716A. HPLC analysis of monoamine levels demonstrated alterations in the striatum and prefrontal cortex after SR141716A injection. These findings suggest a role for CB1 receptors in the early symptoms caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum, as observed in Parkinson's disease.

  5. Effects of SR141716A on Cognitive and Depression-Related Behavior in an Animal Model of Premotor Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadaiesky, M. T.; Dombrowski, P. A.; Da Cunha, C.; Takahashi, R. N.

    2010-01-01

    A previous study from our laboratory revealed that moderate nigral dopaminergic degeneration caused emotional and cognitive deficits in rats, paralleling early signs of Parkinson's disease. Recent evidence suggests that the blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors might be beneficial to alleviate motor inhibition typical of Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigated whether antagonism of CB1 receptors would improve emotional and cognitive deficits in a rat model of premotor Parkinson's disease. Depression-like behavior and cognition were assessed with the forced swim test and the social recognition test, respectively. Confirming our previous study, rats injected with 6-hydroxydopamine in striatum presented emotional and cognitive alterations which were improved by acute injection of SR141716A. HPLC analysis of monoamine levels demonstrated alterations in the striatum and prefrontal cortex after SR141716A injection. These findings suggest a role for CB1 receptors in the early symptoms caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum, as observed in Parkinson's disease. PMID:20976080

  6. An approximation of tribological behavior of Ti1-xAlxN coatings against animal bone in ringers solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their excellent properties, Ti-Al-N coatings have become attractive for biomedical applications. In this paper, friction and wear properties of Ti1-xAlxN films having various aluminum contents, x, have been studied. Adhesion was measured by the scratch test technique; friction was carried out by a pin-on-disk tribometer using an animal bone-pin as counterpart and Ringer solution as simulated body fluid; and wear mechanisms were identified by scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the coating with x = 0.41 exhibited the highest CO F, conserves its integrity as a coating, and causes the lowest wear on the bone in Ringers solution. EDS analysis was performed to determine the contents of Ti, Al and N. An X-ray diffraction study was carried out using and X pert High Score Plus diffractometer with Cu-Kα radiation (α = 1.5406 A) at grazing angle of 0.5 grades. (Author)

  7. 用于实验动物的旋转行为监测仪%Intelligent Rotational Behavior Monitor for Experiment Animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 吴右; 王妍; 沙洪

    2009-01-01

    Objective to develop a rotation monitoring device to monitor animal rotation during experiments.Methods Use serial port controls,USB and rotary encoder et al.modern computer cience,with the combination of traditionally experimental methods and the software designed in VC language.Results A mini animal rotation monitor was developed,which could continuously monitor animal rotation and intelligently display the rotaion.conclusion Statistic analysis of experimental data proofs the rationality and effectiveness of the apparatus.The rotational behavior monitor can play an importance role in research into the pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease(PD)and screening the anti-PD drugs.%目的 研制一种用于检测动物实验中动物旋转行为的旋转行为监测仪.方法 采用串口控件、USB技术和旋转编码器等现代计算机、控制技术,并与传统的动物实验测量方法相结合,并配备了自行开发的基于VC的软件系统.结果 研制出一台可连续性监测小型动物旋转行为仪器,智能显示记录动物的旋转行为.结论 通过对实验数据的统计学分析,验证了系统的合理性、有效性.由此方法研制的旋转行为监测仪可在研究帕金森氏疾病的发病机制,筛选抗帕金森氏疾病的药物等方面发挥重要作用.

  8. Everolimus improves memory and learning while worsening depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in an animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Emilio; Leo, Antonio; Crupi, Rosalia; Aiello, Rossana; Lippiello, Pellegrino; Spiga, Rosangela; Chimirri, Serafina; Citraro, Rita; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Constanti, Andrew; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2016-07-01

    Everolimus (EVR) is an orally-administered rapamycin analog that selectively inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase (mainly mTORC1 and likely mTORC2) and the related signaling pathway. mTOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase regulating multiple important cellular functions; dysfunction of mTOR signaling has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological, neurodegenerative, developmental and cognitive disorders. EVR is widely used as an anti-neoplastic therapy and more recently in children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). However, no clear correlation exists between EVR use and development of central side effects e.g. depression, anxiety or cognitive impairment. We studied the effects of a 3 weeks administration of EVR in mice chronically treated with betamethasone 21-phosphate disodium (BTM) as a model of depression and cognitive decline. EVR treatment had detrimental effects on depressive- and anxiety-like behavior while improving cognitive performance in both control (untreated) and BTM-treated mice. Such effects were accompanied by an increased hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Our results therefore might support the proposed pathological role of mTOR dysregulation in depressive disorders and confirm some previous data on the positive effects of mTOR inhibition in cognitive decline. We also show that EVR, possibly through mTOR inhibition, may be linked to the development of anxiety. The increased hippocampal neurogenesis by EVR might explain its ability to improve cognitive function or protect from cognitive decline. Our findings suggest some caution in the use of EVR, particularly in the developing brain; patients should be carefully monitored for their psychiatric/neurological profiles in any clinical situation where an mTOR inhibitor and in particular EVR is used e.g. cancer treatment, TSC or immunosuppression. PMID:27019134

  9. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  10. Effects of single caging and cage size on behavior and stress level of domestic neutered cats housed in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji; Goto, Akihiro; Koyama, Rumi; Kikuchi, Rieko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2013-03-01

    Cats need a minimum amount of space even in animal shelters. In this study the effects of single caging and cage size on the behavior and stress level of domestic cats were investigated. Six neutered cats (2-15 years old) that had been housed in a group for at least 7 months were moved to three kinds of single cages (small, medium and large) by rotation on a Latin square design. They experienced each cage size for 6 days. Cats could use vertical dimensions when housed in a group room and the large cage. Behavioral observation was conducted for 3 h in the evening, and stress levels were assessed by urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratios. The amounts (estimated proportions) of time spent in locomotion and social/solitary play were lower even in large cages than in group housing (both P < 0.05). Conversely, the amount of time spent resting tended to increase when housed singly (P = 0.104). The urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratios of singly housed cats tended to be higher than that of group-housed cats (P = 0.086). The results indicate that cats become less active when they are housed singly in cages regardless of the cage size. Cats seem to feel no undue stress even in small cages if the stay is short. PMID:23480709

  11. Growing up in a Bubble: Using Germ-Free Animals to Assess the Influence of the Gut Microbiota on Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Pauline; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Oriach, Clara Seira; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of the commensal intestinal microbiota in the development and later function of the central nervous system. Research using germ-free mice (mice raised without any exposure to microorganisms) has provided some of the most persuasive evidence for a role of these bacteria in gut-brain signalling. Key findings show that the microbiota is necessary for normal stress responsivity, anxiety-like behaviors, sociability, and cognition. Furthermore, the microbiota maintains central nervous system homeostasis by regulating immune function and blood brain barrier integrity. Studies have also found that the gut microbiota influences neurotransmitter, synaptic, and neurotrophic signalling systems and neurogenesis. The principle advantage of the germ-free mouse model is in proof-of-principle studies and that a complete microbiota or defined consortiums of bacteria can be introduced at various developmental time points. However, a germ-free upbringing can induce permanent neurodevelopmental deficits that may deem the model unsuitable for specific scientific queries that do not involve early-life microbial deficiency. As such, alternatives and complementary strategies to the germ-free model are warranted and include antibiotic treatment to create microbiota-deficient animals at distinct time points across the lifespan. Increasing our understanding of the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behavior has the potential to inform novel management strategies for stress-related gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. Growing up in a Bubble: Using Germ-Free Animals to Assess the Influence of the Gut Microbiota on Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Pauline; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Oriach, Clara Seira; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of the commensal intestinal microbiota in the development and later function of the central nervous system. Research using germ-free mice (mice raised without any exposure to microorganisms) has provided some of the most persuasive evidence for a role of these bacteria in gut-brain signalling. Key findings show that the microbiota is necessary for normal stress responsivity, anxiety-like behaviors, sociability, and cognition. Furthermore, the microbiota maintains central nervous system homeostasis by regulating immune function and blood brain barrier integrity. Studies have also found that the gut microbiota influences neurotransmitter, synaptic, and neurotrophic signalling systems and neurogenesis. The principle advantage of the germ-free mouse model is in proof-of-principle studies and that a complete microbiota or defined consortiums of bacteria can be introduced at various developmental time points. However, a germ-free upbringing can induce permanent neurodevelopmental deficits that may deem the model unsuitable for specific scientific queries that do not involve early-life microbial deficiency. As such, alternatives and complementary strategies to the germ-free model are warranted and include antibiotic treatment to create microbiota-deficient animals at distinct time points across the lifespan. Increasing our understanding of the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behavior has the potential to inform novel management strategies for stress-related gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26912607

  13. Anthropomorphism, Teleology, Animism, and Personification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin

    1973-01-01

    The question of attributing a purpose to animal's actions is still being debated by scientists. Consensus seems to be that animal behavior should be described in terms of function rather than purpose. (PS)

  14. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  15. 麻醉相关认知功能的动物行为学评估%Behavioral assessment of anesthesia-related cognition for animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美华; 王超; 王国林

    2014-01-01

    背景 目前,全麻是影响认知功能的重要潜在危险因素之一,多种行为学方法用于麻醉相关认知损伤的基础研究. 目的 探讨如何正确、合理选择用于评估认知功能的行为学方法的问题. 内容 就所检测的不同学习记忆类型和与学习记忆关联的脑功能区两个方面,以恐惧条件化、Morris水迷宫、放射状迷宫、Y迷宫等几种普遍应用的行为学方法为例来说明麻醉相关认知功能行为学方法的合理选择问题. 趋向 正确、合理地应用动物行为学方法,为进一步探讨麻醉相关的认知损伤机制及临床上如何避免或减少这种损伤提供理论依据.%Background General anesthesia is considered as a potentially significant risk to cognitive performance,many behavioral approaches have be used for the basic study of cognition.Objective To explore how to select an appropriate behavior method for assessing cognitive function.Content In this review,bout these two aspects,detection of different types of learning and memory and learning and memory-related brain region,several behavioral approaches,including fear conditioning,Morris water maze,radial arm maze and Y maze are introduced to illustrate the issues of how to select a rational behavioral approach for assessing anesthesia-associated cognition.Trend The correct and reasonable application of animal behavioral assessment approaches can provide a basis for further exploring the mechanism of anesthesia-related cognition impairment and how to develop clinical strategies for avoiding or limiting potential cognition injury.

  16. Psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD produces physiological and behavioral sequelae and a traumatic memory four months following stress onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Park, Collin R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2015-08-01

    We have a well-established animal model of PTSD composed of predator exposure administered in conjunction with social instability that produces PTSD-like behavioral and physiological abnormalities one month after stress initiation. Here, we assessed whether the PTSD-like effects would persist for at least 4months after the initiation of the psychosocial stress regimen. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 2 or 3 predator-based fear conditioning sessions. During each session, rats were placed in a chamber for a 3-min period that terminated with a 30-s tone, followed by 1h of immobilization of the rats during cat exposure (Day 1). All rats in the stress groups received a second fear conditioning session 10days later (Day 11). Half of the stress rats received a third fear conditioning session 3weeks later (Day 32). The two cat-exposed groups were also exposed to daily unstable housing conditions for the entire duration of the psychosocial stress regimen. The control group received stable (conventional) housing conditions and an equivalent amount of chamber exposure on Days 1, 11 and 32, without cat exposure. Behavioral testing commenced for all groups on Day 116. The stress groups demonstrated increased anxiety on the elevated plus maze, impaired object recognition memory and robust contextual and cued fear conditioned memory 3months after the last conditioning session. Combined data from the two stress groups revealed lower post-stress corticosterone levels and greater diastolic blood pressure relative to the control group. These findings indicate that predator-based psychosocial stress produces persistent PTSD-like physiological and behavioral abnormalities that may provide insight into the neurobiological and endocrine sequelae in traumatized people with PTSD.

  17. Psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD produces physiological and behavioral sequelae and a traumatic memory four months following stress onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Park, Collin R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2015-08-01

    We have a well-established animal model of PTSD composed of predator exposure administered in conjunction with social instability that produces PTSD-like behavioral and physiological abnormalities one month after stress initiation. Here, we assessed whether the PTSD-like effects would persist for at least 4months after the initiation of the psychosocial stress regimen. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 2 or 3 predator-based fear conditioning sessions. During each session, rats were placed in a chamber for a 3-min period that terminated with a 30-s tone, followed by 1h of immobilization of the rats during cat exposure (Day 1). All rats in the stress groups received a second fear conditioning session 10days later (Day 11). Half of the stress rats received a third fear conditioning session 3weeks later (Day 32). The two cat-exposed groups were also exposed to daily unstable housing conditions for the entire duration of the psychosocial stress regimen. The control group received stable (conventional) housing conditions and an equivalent amount of chamber exposure on Days 1, 11 and 32, without cat exposure. Behavioral testing commenced for all groups on Day 116. The stress groups demonstrated increased anxiety on the elevated plus maze, impaired object recognition memory and robust contextual and cued fear conditioned memory 3months after the last conditioning session. Combined data from the two stress groups revealed lower post-stress corticosterone levels and greater diastolic blood pressure relative to the control group. These findings indicate that predator-based psychosocial stress produces persistent PTSD-like physiological and behavioral abnormalities that may provide insight into the neurobiological and endocrine sequelae in traumatized people with PTSD. PMID:25911267

  18. Bionics of Animal Behavior in Daoyin Health Preservation Origin, Classification and Modern Value%导引养生中的动物行为仿生:缘起、分类及其现代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海涛; 王柏利

    2015-01-01

    This paper analysis the historical and cultural background of the Daoyin Health Preservation from the view of bionics of Animal Behavior by the methods of document and data to further tap principle of Animal Behavior and the realistic significance to the contemporary society and Bio-inspiration. The paper believes that the purpose of human imitation of animal behavior is for the sake of“longevity”. Traditional Culture provided the source for Life of Bio-inspiration from Animal Behavior. Life Bio-in-spiration from Animal Behavior include animals foraging behavior and sports behavior such as animal behavior. The modern value of life of bio-inspiration from animal behavior performance is to promote the value of health and longevity, to develop bionics re-search in the field of scientific value and to relieve social pressure,also to promote the harmonious development of society.%采用文献资料法,从动物行为仿生学的角度,对导引养生形成的历史和文化背景进行深入分析。进一步挖掘传统导引养生模仿动物行为的仿生学原理,以及在当代社会和仿生学的现实意义。研究认为:人类模仿动物行为的目的是为了寻求“长生”。传统文化为导引养生的动物行为仿生提供思想源泉。导引养生中的动物行为仿生行为包含有动物觅食行为、动物运动行为等仿生行为。导引养生的动物行为仿生的现代价值表现为:促进健康长寿的时代价值、拓展仿生学研究领域的科学价值和缓解社会压力促进社会和谐发展的社会价值。

  19. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...

  20. Evaluation of brain SERT occupancy by resveratrol against MDMA-induced neurobiological and behavioral changes in rats: A 4-[¹⁸F]-ADAM/small-animal PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jui-Hu; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Chen, Chien-Fu F; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Pao, Li-Heng; Weng, Shao-Ju; Huang, Yuahn-Sieh; Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Li, I-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has drawn a growing concern worldwide for its psychophysiological impacts on humans. MDMA abusers are often accompanied by long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity, which is associated with reduced density of cerebral serotonin transporters (SERT) and depressive disorders. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenolic phytoalexin that has been known for its antidepressant and neuroprotective effects. However, biological targets of RSV as well as its neuroprotective effects against MDMA remained largely unknown. In this study, we examined binding potency of RSV and MDMA to SERT using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) with the SERT radioligand, N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[(18)F]fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[(18)F]-ADAM) and investigated the protection of RSV against the acute and long-term adverse effects of MDMA. We found that RSV exhibit binding potentials to SERT in vivo in a dose-dependent manner with variation among brain regions. When the MDMA-treated rats (10mg/kg, s.c.) were co-injected with RSV (20mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily for 4 consecutive days, MDMA-induced acute elevation in plasma corticosterone was significantly reduced. Further, 4-[(18)F]-ADAM PET imaging revealed that RSV protected against the MDMA-induced decrease in SERT availability in the midbrain and the thalamus 2 weeks following the co-treatment. The PET data were comparable to the observation from the forced swim test that RSV sufficiently ameliorated the depressive-like behaviors of the MDMA-treated rats. Together, these findings suggest that RSV is a potential antidepressant and may confer protection against neurobiological and behavioral changes induced by MDMA. PMID:26612383

  1. The glucocorticoid/aggression relationship in animals and humans: an analysis sensitive to behavioral characteristics, glucocorticoid secretion patterns, and neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, József

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids control a wide array of biological processes from glucose homeostasis to neuronal function. The mechanisms mediating their effects are similarly varied and include rapid and transient nongenomic effects on calcium trafficking, various neurotransmitter receptors, and other membrane/cytoplasmic proteins, as well as slowly developing but durable genomic effects that are mediated by a large number of glucocorticoid-sensitive genes that are affected after variable lag-times. Given this complexity, we suggest that the aggression/glucocorticoid relationship cannot be reduced to the simple "stimulation/inhibition" question. Here, we review the effects of glucocorticoids on aggression by taking into account the complexities of glucocorticoid actions. Acute and chronic effects were differentiated because these are mediated by different mechanisms. The effects of chronic increases and decreases in glucocorticoid production were discussed separately, because the activation of mechanisms that are not normally activated and the loss of normal functions should not be confounded. Findings in healthy/normal subjects and those obtained in subjects that show abnormal forms of behavior or psychopathologies were also differentiated, because the effects of glucocorticoids are indirect, and largely depend on the properties of neurons they act upon, which are altered in subjects with psychopathologies. In addition, the conditions of glucocorticoid measurements were also thoroughly evaluated. Although the role of glucocorticoids in aggression is perceived as controversial by many investigators, a detailed analysis that is sensitive to glucocorticoid and behavioral measure as well as to the mediating mechanism suggests that this role is rather clear-cut; moreover, there is a marked similarity between animal and human findings.

  2. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  3. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  4. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  5. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  6. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  7. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  8. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  9. The Application of PSO Algorithm in the Behavior Control of Group Animation%微粒群优化算法在群体动画行为控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪娜

    2014-01-01

    为了提高群体动画行为规划的协调性和智能性,采用微粒群优化算法来实现群体动画的行为控制。首先对群体动画体系结构和群体控制行为策略做了简要说明,接着对微粒群算法进行详细阐述,最后进行实例仿真,实验证明,采用微粒群算法很好地实现了群体动画行为控制,且能避开障碍物,具有较强的智能性。%In order to improve the coordination and intelligence of group animation behavior planning, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is adopted to achieve the group animation behavior control. This paper firstly makes a brief introduc-tion of the system structure of group animation and group control strategy, then elaborates the particle swarm algorithm, and finally carries out the simulation experiments. Experiments show that the particle swarm algorithm achieves good behavior control of group animation, avoiding the obstacles with strong intelligence.

  10. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  11. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  12. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  13. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind.......This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  14. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  15. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  16. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  17. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  18. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  19. Compulsive checking behavior of quinpirole-sensitized rats as an animal model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder(OCD): form and control

    OpenAIRE

    Bonura Carlo A; Boersma Jonathan T; Tse Wai S; Eckert Michael J; Szechtman Henry; McClelland Jessica Z; Culver Kirsten E; Eilam David

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background A previous report showed that the open field behavior of rats sensitized to the dopamine agonist quinpirole satisfies 5 performance criteria for compulsive checking behavior. In an effort to extend the parallel between the drug-induced phenomenon and human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the present study investigated whether the checking behavior of quinpirole rats is subject to interruption, which is an attribute characteristic of OCD compulsions. For this purpose, ...

  20. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  1. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  2. A Study on Impact of Anime on Tourism in Japan : A Case of "Anime Pilgrimage"

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, some of anime fans make "Anime Pilgrimage" which is a kind of tourist behavior. People making an "Anime Pilgrimage" are called "Anime Pilgrims". Some cases of "Anime Pilgrimage" evolve into movement of regional development. In these cases "Anime Pilgrims" collaborate with local residents spontaneously, hold an event and make souvenir or goods. The objective of this paper is to clarify characteristics of "Anime Pilgrim" using questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews.

  3. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  4. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  5. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  6. New Advances in Study of Animal Behavior(Ⅲ): Neurobiological Underpinning of Behavior%动物行为研究新进展(三):动物行为的神经生物学基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚玉昌

    2012-01-01

    allow individuals to swim to the surface and breathe during sleep. Using electroencephalograms and brain temperature measurement, animal behaviorists are able to study brain dynamics during sleep. These analysis shed light not only on animal behavior per se (in itself), but they revealed completely new brain activities, one such activity being unihemispheric sleep.

  7. The Early Years: Animal Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science…

  8. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... history of the bite, including the type of animal and its health (behavior and rabies vaccine status), the time and location of the event, circumstances of the bite, whereabouts of the animal, and the pre-hospital treatment will be reviewed. ...

  9. [alpha]2A-Adrenoceptor Stimulation Improves Prefrontal Cortical Regulation of Behavior through Inhibition of cAMP Signaling in Aging Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, Luis; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Ramos, Brian P.; Stark, David

    2006-01-01

    The working-memory functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are improved by stimulation of postsynaptic, [alpha]2A-adrenoceptors, especially in aged animals with PFC cognitive deficits. Thus, the [alpha]2A-adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine, greatly improves working-memory performance in monkeys and rats following systemic administration or…

  10. Behavioral toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman, H L

    1995-01-01

    The new fields of behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology investigate the outcome of specific toxic exposures in humans and animals on learning, memory, and behavioral characteristics. Three important classes of behavioral neurotoxicants are metals, solvents, and pesticides. The clearest data on the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to toxicants comes from the study of two metals, lead and mercury, and from epidemiological investigations of the effects of alcohol taken during p...

  11. New advances in study of animal behavior (Ⅶ):mating systems in animals%动物行为研究的新进展(七):动物的婚配体制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚玉昌

    2013-01-01

    动物有4种不同类型的婚配体制:(1)一雄一雌制或单配制;(2)一雄多雌制;(3)一雌多雄制;(4)混交制。一雄一雌制是指在同一个生殖季节或同一个生殖周期内一只雄性个体只与一只雌性个体配对并生活在一起。一雄多雌制和一雌多雄制都属于多配制,它们是多配制的两种不同形式。混交制则是指包括多个雄性个体和多个雌性个体的一种婚配体制,这种婚配体制也有两种不同的亚型。笔者简要介绍近期关于动物婚配体制的研究动态和研究成果。%There are four mating systems in animals, i.e., monogamy (1 male, 1 female), polygyny (1 male, more than 1 female), polyandry (1 female, more than 1 male), and polygynandry (more than 1 male, more than 1 female). Monogamy is defined as a mating system in which a male and female mate with each other during a given breeding season. A polygamous mating system is defined as one in which either males or females have more than one mate during a given breeding season. Polygamy includes polygyny, wherein males mate with more than one female per breeding season, and polyandry in which females mate with more than one male per breeding season. When polyandry and polygyny are occurring in the same population of animals, the breeding system is said to be promiscuous. Yet, there are two very different kinds of promiscuity. In one form of promiscuity, both male and female mate with many partners and no pair bonds are formed. In the second type of promiscuous breeding system, several males form pair bond with several females simultaneously.

  12. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  13. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  14. Effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on anxiety-like extinction behavior in an animal model of post-traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky, Leslie A; Flint, Robert W; McNay, Ewan C

    2012-05-16

    The effect of cycloheximide (CXM), a protein synthesis inhibitor, on memory reconsolidation and extinction was explored in rats using a model of post-traumatic stress. Forty-two animals were exposed to predator stress followed by 1, 2, or 4 extinction trials. Saline or CXM (1 mg/kg) was administered following the last extinction trial and anxiety was measured in the elevated-plus maze (EPM) seventy-two hours later. Saline control animals exhibited elevated anxiety levels in comparison to a no stress control group. Cycloheximide appeared to maintain stress-induced anxiety responses, which otherwise declined with repeated extinction trials in the saline control groups. These findings suggest that cycloheximide may have induced amnesia for extinction, leaving the target memory of the predatory stress intact resulting in elevated levels of anxiety. The relationships between de novo protein synthesis and reconsolidation of anxiety-related memories following extinction trials may be more complex than originally thought. PMID:22465354

  15. Targeting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Lesions to a Predetermined Axonal Tract System Allows for Refined Behavioral Testing in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kerschensteiner, Martin; Stadelmann, Christine; Buddeberg, Bigna S.; Merkler, Doron; Bareyre, Florence M.; Anthony, Daniel C.; Linington, Christopher; Brück, Wolfgang; Schwab, Martin E.

    2004-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) the structural damage to axons determines the persistent clinical deficit patients acquire during the course of the disease. It is therefore important to test therapeutic strategies that can prevent or reverse this structural damage. The conventional animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), typically shows disseminated inflammation in the central nervous system, which leads to a clinical deficit that cannot be directly attributed to a def...

  16. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  17. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses the...

  18. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  19. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  20. Explaining the conversion to particularly animal-friendly stabling system of farmers of the Obwalden Canton, Switzerland - Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior within a Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Tutkun, Aysel; Lehmann, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Farmers' intentions about conversion to particularly animal-friendly stabling system (PAFS) are analyzed with a structural equation model. The Theory of Planned Behavior (ToPB, Ajzen 1985) is used as the theoretical basis of this study. Though ToPB is a well-defined theory, it is static rather than procedural and cannot model the individual decision-making as a process. Therefore, we first examine the general applicability of ToPB in an agricultural context and explain the variance in intenti...

  1. Companion animal adoption study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  2. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  3. Effects of Rearing Pattern and Density on Animal Behaviors in Green Shell Laying Hens%饲养方式及密度对绿壳蛋鸡行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰; 马子力; 徐嘉易; 苗晋锋

    2015-01-01

    采用单因素试验方法,研究了不同饲养方式及密度对产蛋期绿壳蛋鸡行为学的影响.试验选择生长发育正常的产蛋期绿壳蛋鸡7 500只,随机分成笼养高密度组、笼养低密度组和散养组.结果表明,散养组蛋鸡的啄羽现象、攻击行为、刻板行为都明显低于笼养低密度组和高密度组,而这些行为在高密度组非常严重;散养组蛋鸡的觅食行为、修饰行为都明显多于笼养低密度组和高密度组.结果显示:不同饲养方式及密度对于蛋鸡不同的行为参数有明显影响,过高密度的饲养会严重影响绿壳蛋鸡的行为表现.%Based on the single factor experiment method, it is studied the effects of different rearing patterns and densities on animal behaviors in laying hens. In this study, 7 500 green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned into a free range group and 2 caged groups with low-density or high-density housing. The results show that the dispersion phenomenon, aggressive behavior and stereotyped behavior of laying hens in free range group were significantly lower than low-density group and high-density group, and the high-density group was more serious, and the foraging behavior, behavior modification of laying hens in free range group were significantly higher than low-density group and high-density group. These results indicate that different rearing patterns and densities have obvious influences on the behavioral parameters, and the increase of rearing density will seriously affect the animal behavior in laying hens.

  4. Experimental Modification of Interpretation Bias about Animal Fear in Young Children: Effects on Cognition, Avoidance Behavior, Anxiety Vulnerability, and Physiological Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Field, Andy P.; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation…

  5. Using animal models to disentangle the role of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on behavioral outcomes associated with maternal anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Tarantino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of complex psychiatric disorders results from both genetics and the environment. No definitive environmental factor has been implicated, but studies suggest that deficits in maternal care and bonding may be an important contributing factor in the development of anxiety and depression. Perinatal mood disorders such as postpartum depression (PPD occur in approximately 10% of pregnant women and can result in detriments in infant care and bonding. The consequences of impaired maternal-infant attachment during critical early brain development may lead to adverse effects on socioemotional and neurocognitive development in infants resulting in long-term behavioral and emotional problems, including increased vulnerability for mental illness. The exact mechanisms by which environmental stressors such as poor maternal care increase the risk for psychiatric disorders are not known and studies in humans have proven challenging. Two inbred mouse strains may prove useful for studying the interaction between maternal care and mood disorders. BALB/c (BALB mice are considered an anxious strain in comparison to C57BL/6 (B6 mice in behavioral models of anxiety. These strain differences are most often attributed to genetics but may also be due to environment and gene by environment interactions. For example, BALB mice are described as poor mothers and B6 mice as good mothers and mothering behavior in rodents has been reported to affect both anxiety and stress behaviors in offspring. Changes in gene methylation patterns in response to maternal care have also been reported, providing evidence for epigenetic mechanisms. Characterization of these two mouse inbred strains over the course of pregnancy and in the postpartum period for behavioral and neuroendocrine changes may provide useful information by which to inform human studies, leading to advances in our understanding of the etiology of anxiety and depression and the role of genetics and the

  6. Development and validation of an animal model of prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain: evaluating from inflammation of the prostate to pain behavioral modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS is the most common type of prostatitis. Due to the lack of a suitable animal model partly, the pathogenesis for this condition is obscure. In the current study we developed and validated an animal model for nonbacterial prostatitis and prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain in rats with the use of intraprostatic injection of λ-carrageenan. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-350 g were used for the experiments. After intraprostatic injection of 3% λ-carrageenan, at different time points(after 24 h, 7 d, 14 d and 30 d of injection, radiant heat and von Frey filaments were applied to the scrotum of rats to measure the heat and mechanical thresholds respectively. Then the prostate was removed for histology, and cyclooxygenase (COX 2 protein expression was determined by Western-blot. Evans blue(50 mg/kg was also injected intravenously to assess for plasma protein extravasation at different time points after injection of λ-carrageenan. RESULTS: Compared to control group, inflamed animals showed a significant reduction in mechanical threshold (mechanical allodynia at 24 h and 7d(p = 0.022,0.046, respectively, and a significant reduction in heat threshold (thermal hyperalgesia at 24 h, 7d and 14 d(p = 0.014, 0.018, 0.002, respectively in the scrotal skin. Significant increase of inflammatory cell accumulation, COX2 expression and Evans blue extravasation were observed at 24 h, 7d and 14 d after injection. CONCLUSIONS: Intraprostatic λ-carrageenan injection induced neurogenic prostatitis and prostate inflammation pain, which lasted at least 2 weeks. The current model is expected to be a valuable preclinical tool to study the neurobiological mechanisms of male chronic pelvic pain.

  7. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  8. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  9. Colony formation of C57BL/6J mice in visible burrow system: Identification of eusocial behaviors in a background strain for genetic animal models of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in social interaction are primary characteristics of autism, which has strong genetic components. Genetically-manipulated mouse models may provide a useful research tool to advance the investigation of genes associated with autism. To identify these genes using mouse models, behavioral assays for social relationships in the background strains must be developed. The present study examined colony formation in groups of one male and three female mice (Experiment 1) and, groups of three ...

  10. GBR 12909 administration as an animal model of bipolar mania: time course of behavioral, brain oxidative alterations and effect of mood stabilizing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Isabelle G; de Araújo, Maíra Moraes; da Silva Araújo, Tatiane; de Souza, Greicy Coelho; Cavalcante, Lígia Menezes; de Jesus Souza Machado, Michel; de Lucena, David Freitas; Quevedo, João; Macêdo, Danielle

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms in the human dopamine transporter (DAT) are associated with bipolar endophenotype. Based on this, the acute inhibition of DAT using GBR12909 causes behavioral alterations that are prevented by valproate (VAL), being related to a mania-like model. Herein our first aim was to analyze behavioral and brain oxidative alterations during a 24 h period post-GBR12909 to better characterize this model. Our second aim was to determine the preventive effects of lithium (Li) or VAL 2 h post-GBR12909. For this, adult male mice received GBR12909 or saline being evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 12 or 24 h post-administration. Hyperlocomotion, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation in brain areas were assessed at all these time-points. GBR12909 caused hyperlocomotion at 2 and 24 h. Rearing behavior increased only at 2 h. GSH levels decreased in the hippocampus and striatum at the time points of 2, 4, 8 and 12 h. Increased lipid peroxidation was detected at the time-points of 2 and 12 h in all brain areas studied. At the time-point of 2 h post-GBR12909 Li prevented the hyperlocomotion and rearing alterations, while VAL prevented only rearing alterations. Both drugs prevented pro-oxidative changes. In conclusion, we observed that the main behavioral and oxidative alterations took place at the time-period of 2 h post-GBR12909, what points to this time-period as the best for the assessment of alterations in this model. Furthermore, the present study expands the predictive validity of the model by the determination of the preventive effects of Li. PMID:26073232

  11. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  12. Animal models of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  13. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  14. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  15. Acute Administration of MK-801 in an Animal Model of Psychosis in Rats Interferes with Cognitively Demanding Forms of Behavioral Flexibility on a Rotating Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eSvoboda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often manifest deficits in behavioral flexibility. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive functions. Despite work exploring flexibility has been done employing behavioral paradigms with simple stimuli, much less is known about what kinds of flexibility are affected in an MK-801 model of schizophrenia-like behavior in the spatial domain. We used a rotating arena-based apparatus (Carousel requiring rats to avoid an unmarked sector defined in either the reference frame of the rotating arena (arena frame task, AF or the stationary room (room frame task, RF. We investigated behavioral flexibility in four conditions involving different cognitive loads. Each condition encompassed an initial (five sessions and a test phase (five sessions in which some aspects of the task were changed to test flexibility in which rats were given saline, 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 thirty minutes prior to a session. In the first condition, rats acquired avoidance in RF with clockwise rotation of the arena while in the test phase the arena rotated counterclockwise. In the second condition, rats initially acquired avoidance in RF with the sector on the north and then it was reversed to south (spatial reversal. In the third and fourth conditions, rats initially performed an AF (RF, respectively task, followed by an RF (AF, respectively task, testing the ability of cognitive set-shifting. We found no effect of MK-801 either on simple motor adjustment after reversal of arena rotation or on spatial reversal within the RF. In contrast, administration of MK-801 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg interfered with set-shifting in both conditions. Furthermore, we observed MK-801 0.1 mg/kg elevated locomotion in all cases. These data suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors by acute system administration of MK-801 preferentially affects set-shifting in the cognitive domain rather

  16. The inulin-type oligosaccharides extract from morinda officinalis, a traditional Chinese herb, ameliorated behavioral deficits in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Kun; Liu, Chun-Hui; Gao, Zhuo-Wei; He, Jia-Li; Liu, Xu; Wei, Qing-Lan; Chen, Ji-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric condition. The allopregnanolone biosynthesis has been implicated as one of the possible contributors to PTSD. Inulin-type oligosaccharides of morinda officinalis (IOMO) had been shown to be effective in the therapy of depression. However, few studies concern the anti-PTSD-like effects of IOMO. To evaluate this, the single prolonged stress (SPS) model was used in the present study. It had been shown that the behavioral deficits of SPS-treated rats were reversed by IOMO (25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg, i.p.), which reversed the increased freezing time in contextual fear paradigm (CFP) and the decreased time and entries in open arms in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test without affecting the locomotor activity in the open field (OF) test. In addition, the decreased allopregnanolone in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala was reversed by IOMO (25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. In summary, the present study indicated that the IOMO exert anti-PTSD-like behaviors, which maybe associated with the brain allopregnanolone biosynthesis.

  17. Canopy characteristics, animal behavior and forage intake by goats grazing on Tanzania-grass pasture with different heights - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i4.14544

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurílio Souza dos Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of Tanzania-grass sward height (30, 50, 70 and 90 cm on the morphological characteristics of the canopy, grazing behavior and forage intake by adult Anglo Nubian female goats. A completely randomized experimental design was employed, with two replicates in space and two replicates in time. Six animals were used to assess the grazing behavior, and four, the ingestion process. The rise in sward height increased the forage and leaf mass, the percentages of stem and dead material, and reduced the leaf stem-1 ratio. Above 50 cm there was an increase in grazing time and a decrease in leisure time. A positive linear correlation was detected between sward height and bite depth. The consumed forage mass, ingestion rate and daily intake were higher at 50 cm, indicating that the other heights reduced the intake process. The sward height was negatively correlated to the bite rate and positively to the bite time. The sward height of 50 cm presents the best combination of features, favoring the grazing and ingestive behavior of female adult goats.

  18. An approximation of tribological behavior of Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings against animal bone in ringers solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esguerra A, A.; Arteaga, N. A.; Ipaz, L.; Aguilar, Y. [Universidad del Valle, TPMR, Grupo de Investigacion en Tribologia, Polimeros, Metalurgia de Polvos y Residuos Solidos, Calle 13 No. 100-00, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Amaya, C. [Centro Nacional de Asistencia Tecnica a la Industria ASTIN, SENA, Calle 52 No. 2 Bis-15, Salomia Cali (Colombia); Alba de Sanchez, N., E-mail: adriana.esguerra.arce@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Occidente, Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales, Calle 25 No. 115-85, A. A. 2790 Cali (Colombia)

    2014-07-01

    Due to their excellent properties, Ti-Al-N coatings have become attractive for biomedical applications. In this paper, friction and wear properties of Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N films having various aluminum contents, x, have been studied. Adhesion was measured by the scratch test technique; friction was carried out by a pin-on-disk tribometer using an animal bone-pin as counterpart and Ringer solution as simulated body fluid; and wear mechanisms were identified by scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the coating with x = 0.41 exhibited the highest CO F, conserves its integrity as a coating, and causes the lowest wear on the bone in Ringers solution. EDS analysis was performed to determine the contents of Ti, Al and N. An X-ray diffraction study was carried out using and X pert High Score Plus diffractometer with Cu-Kα radiation (α = 1.5406 A) at grazing angle of 0.5 grades. (Author)

  19. A Brief History of Animal Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Aaron C.; Crim, Marcus J; Franklin, Craig L.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative medicine is founded on the concept that other animal species share physiological, behavioral, or other characteristics with humans. Over 2,400 years ago it was recognized that by studying animals, we could learn much about ourselves. This technique has now developed to the point that animal models are employed in virtually all fields of biomedical research including, but not limited to, basic biology, immunology and infectious disease, oncology, and behavior.

  20. Synergistic effects of ceftriaxone and erythropoietin on neuronal and behavioral deficits in an MPTP-induced animal model of Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Ku; Chang, Yen-Ting; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Tikhonova, Maria A; Lin, Chih-Li; Hung, Ching-Sui; Lai, Te-Jen; Ho, Ying-Jui

    2015-11-01

    Both ceftriaxone (CEF) and erythropoietin (EPO) show neuroprotection and cognitive improvement in neurodegenerative disease. The present study was aimed at clarifying whether combined treatment with CEF and EPO (CEF+EPO) had superior neuroprotective and behavioral effects than treatment with CEF or EPO alone in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model. The rats were injected with CEF (5 mg/kg/day), EPO (100 IU/kg/day), or CEF+EPO after MPTP lesioning and underwent the bar-test, T-maze test, and object recognition test, then the brains were taken for histological evaluation. MPTP lesioning resulted in deficits in working memory and in object recognition, but the cognitive deficits were markedly reduced or eliminated in rats treated with CEF or CEF+EPO, with the combination having a greater effect. Lesioning also caused neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and the hippocampal CA1 area and these changes were reduced or eliminated by treatment with CEF, EPO, or CEF+EPO, with the combination having a greater effect than single treatment in the densities of DAergic terminals in the striatum and neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area. Thus, compared to treatment with CEF or EPO alone, combined treatment with CEF+EPO had a greater inhibitory effect on the lesion-induced behavioral and neuronal deficits. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a synergistic effect of CEF and EPO on neuroprotection and improvement in cognition in a PD rat model. Combined CEF and EPO treatment may have clinical potential for the treatment of the dementia associated with PD. PMID:26296668

  1. Topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid-encapsulated ethosomes in a hyperproliferative skin animal model using the CLSM technique to evaluate the penetration behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Ping; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2009-11-01

    Psoriasis, an inflammatory skin disease, exhibits recurring itching, soreness, and cracked and bleeding skin. Currently, the topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an optional treatment for psoriasis which provides long-term therapeutic effects, is non-toxic and enjoys better compliance with patients. However, the precursor of ALA is hydrophilic, and thus its ability to penetrate the skin is limited. Also, little research has provided a platform to investigate the penetration behavior in disordered skin. We employed a highly potent ethosomal carrier (phosphatidylethanolamine; PE) to investigate the penetration behavior of ALA and the recovery of skin in a hyperproliferative murine model. We found that the application of ethosomes produced a significant increase in cumulative amounts of 5-26-fold in normal and hyperproliferative murine skin samples when compared to an ALA aqueous solution; and the ALA aqueous solution appeared less precise in terms of the penetration mode in hyperproliferative murine skin. After the ethosomes had been applied, the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) intensity increased about 3.64-fold compared with that of the ALA aqueous solution, and the penetration depth reached 30-80 microm. The results demonstrated that the ethosomal carrier significantly improved the delivery of ALA and the formation of PpIX in both normal and hyperproliferative murine skin samples, and the expression level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was reduced after the ALA-ethosomes were applied to treat hyperproliferative murine skin. Furthermore, the results of present study encourage more investigations on the mechanism of the interaction with ethosomes and hyperproliferative murine skin.

  2. Preventative treatment in an animal model of ADHD: Behavioral and biochemical effects of methylphenidate and its interactions with ovarian hormones in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Freund, Nadja; Thompson, Britta S; Meda, Shirisha; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-09-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that juvenile males that are exposed to methylphenidate (MPH) show reduced risk for substance use later in life. In contrast, little is known about whether females have the same enduring treatment response to stimulants and how gonadal hormones influence their behavior later in life. Females received either a sham or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) microinjection in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at postnatal day (P)10. Subjects were then treated with Vehicle or MPH (2mg/kg, p.o.) between P20-35 and tested during late adolescence/young adulthood (P60); half of these subjects underwent ovariectomy at P55 to determine hormonal influences. Females with 6-OHDA were depleted of PFC dopamine by 61% and demonstrated increased impulsive choice (delayed discounting) and preferences for cocaine-associated environments relative to control females. Both MPH and ovariectomy reduced impulsive choice and cocaine preferences in 6-OHDA females, but had no enduring effect in Sham females. Ovariectomy itself did not significantly affect impulsivity. Juvenile MPH interacted strongly with 6-OHDA to increase D4, D5, Alpha-1A, Alpha-2A, and 5-HT-1A mRNA receptor expression in the PFC. MPH alone effected D1 mRNA, while 6-OHDA increased BDNF; all markers were decreased by ovariectomy. Together, these data suggest that 6-OHDA changes in dopamine are not only relevant for ADHD-like behaviors, but their long-term modulation by treatment and the influence of cyclical differences in menstrual cycle. PMID:27397110

  3. Topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid-encapsulated ethosomes in a hyperproliferative skin animal model using the CLSM technique to evaluate the penetration behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Ping; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2009-11-01

    Psoriasis, an inflammatory skin disease, exhibits recurring itching, soreness, and cracked and bleeding skin. Currently, the topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an optional treatment for psoriasis which provides long-term therapeutic effects, is non-toxic and enjoys better compliance with patients. However, the precursor of ALA is hydrophilic, and thus its ability to penetrate the skin is limited. Also, little research has provided a platform to investigate the penetration behavior in disordered skin. We employed a highly potent ethosomal carrier (phosphatidylethanolamine; PE) to investigate the penetration behavior of ALA and the recovery of skin in a hyperproliferative murine model. We found that the application of ethosomes produced a significant increase in cumulative amounts of 5-26-fold in normal and hyperproliferative murine skin samples when compared to an ALA aqueous solution; and the ALA aqueous solution appeared less precise in terms of the penetration mode in hyperproliferative murine skin. After the ethosomes had been applied, the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) intensity increased about 3.64-fold compared with that of the ALA aqueous solution, and the penetration depth reached 30-80 microm. The results demonstrated that the ethosomal carrier significantly improved the delivery of ALA and the formation of PpIX in both normal and hyperproliferative murine skin samples, and the expression level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was reduced after the ALA-ethosomes were applied to treat hyperproliferative murine skin. Furthermore, the results of present study encourage more investigations on the mechanism of the interaction with ethosomes and hyperproliferative murine skin. PMID:19660544

  4. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  5. Companion Animals Symposium: Environmental enrichment for companion, exotic, and laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C L; Grandin, T; Irlbeck, N A

    2011-12-01

    Animal scientists have an extraordinary burden to promote the health and well-being of all animals in their care. Promoting species- or breed-appropriate behaviors through proper training and enrichment, regardless of animal housing, should be a paramount concern for all animal scientists working with exotic animals, laboratory animals, shelter animals, or privately owned pet animals. Developing ideal training and enrichment programs for any species begins with understanding basic behavior patterns and emotional systems of animals. The basic emotional systems in mammals have been extensively mapped; however, most of these studies are in the neuroscience literature and seldom read by animal science professionals. The emotional circuits for fear have been well documented through studies demonstrating that lesions to the amygdala will block both conditioned and unconditioned fear behaviors. Additionally, other core emotional systems including seeking (i.e., approaching a novel stimulus), rage, panic (e.g., separation stress), play, lust (i.e., sex drive), and care (e.g., mother-young nurturing behavior) have been identified. More recent neuroscience research has discovered the subcortical brain regions that drive different types of seeking behaviors. Research to increase the understanding of the emotional systems that drive both abnormal and normal animal behaviors could greatly improve animal welfare by making it possible to provide more effective environmental enrichment programs. Enrichment devices and methods could be specifically designed to enable the expression of highly motivated behaviors that are driven by emotional circuits in the brain. The objective of this paper is to increase awareness of animal scientists to the field of neuroscience studying animal emotions and the application of that science to improve the welfare of captive exotic animals, laboratory animals, and pets with environmental enrichment. PMID:22110089

  6. Evaluation of animal models of neurobehavioral disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nordquist Rebecca E; Arndt Saskia S; van der Staay F Josef

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Animal models play a central role in all areas of biomedical research. The process of animal model building, development and evaluation has rarely been addressed systematically, despite the long history of using animal models in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral dysfunctions. An iterative, multi-stage trajectory for developing animal models and assessing their quality is proposed. The process starts with defining the purpose(s) of the model, preferentiall...

  7. Anesthetizing animals: Similar to humans yet, peculiar?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdi, Madhuri S.; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H.

    2015-01-01

    From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit differ...

  8. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  9. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  10. Animal models of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet develop...

  11. Using robots to understand animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnwieser, Anna; Murray, John C; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, robotic animals and humans have been used to answer a variety of questions related to behavior. In the case of animal behavior, these efforts have largely been in the field of behavioral ecology. They have proved to be a useful tool for this enterprise as they allow the presentation of naturalistic social stimuli whilst providing the experimenter with full control of the stimulus. In interactive experiments, the behavior of robots can be controlled in a manner that is impossible with real animals, making them ideal instruments for the study of social stimuli in animals. This paper provides an overview of the current state of the field and considers the impact that the use of robots could have on fundamental questions related to comparative psychology: namely, perception, spatial cognition, social cognition, and early cognitive development. We make the case that the use of robots to investigate these key areas could have an important impact on the field of animal cognition.

  12. Reversal of ethanol-seeking behavior by D1 and D2 antagonists in an animal model of relapse: differences in antagonist potency in previously ethanol-dependent versus nondependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu; Weiss, Friedbert

    2002-03-01

    Mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission has been implicated in the consummatory and, more recently, the incentive-motivational aspect of ethanol's actions. The purpose of this study was to test whether ethanol-seeking behavior induced by an ethanol-associated contextual stimulus is sensitive to antagonism of DA transmission. Male Wistar rats were trained to orally self-administer 10% ethanol and to associate olfactory discriminative stimuli with the availability of ethanol (S(+)) versus nonreward (S(-)). Ethanol-reinforced operant responding then was extinguished by withholding ethanol and the associated S(+). After reaching a predetermined extinction criterion, reinstatement tests were conducted in which the animals were presented noncontingently with only the S(+) or S(-). Exposure to the S(+) but not the S(-) reinstated responding at the previously active lever. The D1 antagonist R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH23390; 5, 10, 50 microg/kg s.c.) and the D2 antagonist eticlopride (5, 10, 50 microg/kg s.c.) dose dependently decreased the number of S(+)-induced responses and increased response latency. During a second test, conducted in the same rats, 3 weeks after withdrawal from a 12-day ethanol vapor inhalation procedure, the response-reinstating efficacy of the S(+) remained unaltered. However, the potency of both DA antagonists to inhibit the S(+)-induced drug-seeking response was significantly increased. The results confirm that ethanol-related contextual stimuli reliably elicit drug-seeking behavior and suggest that this effect requires activation of DA neurotransmission. The results also indicate that chronic ethanol exposure produces changes in D1 and D2 receptor function that lead to enhanced sensitivity to the behavioral effects of antagonists for these receptors. PMID:11861794

  13. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  17. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with.

  18. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with. PMID:27090952

  19. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  20. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichm...

  1. Potency of Animal Models in KANSEI Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shigeru; Hisano, Setsuji; Iwamoto, Yoshiki

    Various species of animals have been used as animal models for neuroscience and provided critical information about the brain functions. Although it seems difficult to elucidate a highly advanced function of the human brain, animal models have potency to clarify the fundamental mechanisms of emotion, decision-making and social behavior. In this review, we will pick up common animal models and point to both the merits and demerits caused by the characteristics. We will also mention that wide-ranging approaches from animal models are advantageous to understand KANSEI as well as mind in humans.

  2. Animal models of recurrent or bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Kasahara, T; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Kato, T M; Nakajima, K

    2016-05-01

    Animal models of mental disorders should ideally have construct, face, and predictive validity, but current animal models do not always satisfy these validity criteria. Additionally, animal models of depression rely mainly on stress-induced behavioral changes. These stress-induced models have limited validity, because stress is not a risk factor specific to depression, and the models do not recapitulate the recurrent and spontaneous nature of depressive episodes. Although animal models exhibiting recurrent depressive episodes or bipolar depression have not yet been established, several researchers are trying to generate such animals by modeling clinical risk factors as well as by manipulating a specific neural circuit using emerging techniques. PMID:26265551

  3. Animal innovation defined and operationalized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Grant; Bastian, Meredith L; van Schaik, Carel

    2007-08-01

    Innovation is a key component of most definitions of culture and intelligence. Additionally, innovations may affect a species' ecology and evolution. Nonetheless, conceptual and empirical work on innovation has only recently begun. In particular, largely because the existing operational definition (first occurrence in a population) requires long-term studies of populations, there has been no systematic study of innovation in wild animals. To facilitate such study, we have produced a new definition of innovation: Innovation is the process that generates in an individual a novel learned behavior that is not simply a consequence of social learning or environmental induction. Using this definition, we propose a new operational approach for distinguishing innovations in the field. The operational criteria employ information from the following sources: (1) the behavior's geographic and local prevalence and individual frequency; (2) properties of the behavior, such as the social role of the behavior, the context in which the behavior is exhibited, and its similarity to other behaviors; (3) changes in the occurrence of the behavior over time; and (4) knowledge of spontaneous or experimentally induced behavior in captivity. These criteria do not require long-term studies at a single site, but information from multiple populations of a species will generally be needed. These criteria are systematized into a dichotomous key that can be used to assess whether a behavior observed in the field is likely to be an innovation.

  4. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  5. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  6. 社会失败应激致抑郁样行为动物模型的研究%Animal models of social defeat stress-induced depression-like behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞龙; 徐志伟; 范礼斌; 张成岗

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the validity and reliability of the social defeat stress model of depression. Methods C57BL/6 mice were subject to psychological stress of social defeat for 21 days. Behavior of depression was evaluated through the social interaction experiment, open field test and sucrose preference test at 24 hours after stress. Results Mice of social defeat stress group showed more anxiety-like behaviors than the control group. However, only about 50 -60% of the mice in the social defeat stress group were considered stress-susceptible, which had depressive behaviors of social avoidance and anhedonia. The rest showed stress resistance. Conclusion The depression model through social defeat stress is successfully developed in this study, providing evidence for a new animal model for depression study.%目的 探讨社会失败应激抑郁模型建立的可行性及有效性.方法 连续给予C57BL/6小鼠社会失败心理应激21 d,应激结束24 h后依次通过社会交互实验、开场实验、糖水偏爱实验等评价手段,对小鼠进行抑郁行为评价.结果 与对照组相比,社会失败应激导致C57BL/6小鼠出现显著焦虑样行为,而仅有50%~60%的社会失败应激小鼠出现社会逃避及兴趣缺失的抑郁样行为,表现为应激易感.其他应激小鼠评价结果与对照组无差异,未出现抑郁样行为,表现出应激抗性.结论 通过社会失败应激,为建立一种新的抑郁动物模型提供了实验依据.

  7. Collective motion in animal groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin, Iain

    2004-03-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the relationship between individual behavior and population-level properties in animal groups. One of the fundamental problems is related to spatial scale; how do interactions over a local range result in population properties at larger, averaged, scales, and how can we integrate the properties of aggregates over these scales? Many group-living animals exhibit complex, and coordinated, spatio-temporal patterns which despite their ubiquity and ecological importance are very poorly understood. This is largely due to the difficulties associated with quantifying the motion of, and interactions among, many animals simultaneously. It is on how these behaviors scale to collective behaviors that I will focus here. Using a combined empirical approach (using novel computer vision techniques) and individual-based computer models, I investigate pattern formation in both invertebrate and vertebrate systems, including - Collective memory and self-organized group structure in vertebrate groups (Couzin, I.D., Krause, J., James, R., Ruxton, G.D. & Franks, N.R. (2002) Journal of Theoretical Biology 218, 1-11. (2) Couzin, I.D. & Krause, J. (2003) Advances in the Study of Behavior 32, 1-75. (3) Hoare, D.J., Couzin, I.D. Godin, J.-G. & Krause, J. (2003) Animal Behaviour, in press.) - Self-organized lane formation and optimized traffic flow in army ants (Couzin, I.D. & Franks, N.R. (2003) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 270, 139-146) - Leadership and information transfer in flocks, schools and swarms. - Why do hoppers hop? Hopping and the generation of long-range order in some of the largest animal groups in nature, locust hopper bands.

  8. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  9. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-01-01

    Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a ...

  10. Visualization and animation of RBFS search algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Lipovec, Darko

    2011-01-01

    We created a web application for better comprehension of the RBFS algorithm. We present RBFS algorithm and its properties and describe the Adobe Flash development platform, which we used for the development together with the tools for Flash animation and Flash Builder development environment. We present a graphical user interface and three animated examples where RBFS searches for an optimal solution. The behavior of the algorithm is illustrated using an animation of the pseudo-code and anima...

  11. Child's Modes of Communication with the Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Anne; Comeau, Judith

    The paper reviews ways in which animals have been used in a therapeutic way with disturbed persons and suggests that animals may help to reduce anxiety and reestablish the socialization process with autistic children and their parents. An etiological study is described of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of four disturbed children (9-11 years…

  12. Animal Experimentation: Issues for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, Judith C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the extent to which issues related to animal experimentation are in conflict and proposes choices that might least comprise them. These issues include animal well-being, human well-being, self-interest of science, scientific validity and responsibility, progress in biomedical and behavioral science, and the future quality of medical care.…

  13. Updating freeze: Aligning animal and human research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Oitzl, M.S.; Roelofs, K.

    2014-01-01

    Freezing is widely used as the main outcome measure for fear in animal studies. Freezing is also getting attention more frequently in human stress research, as it is considered to play an important role in the development of psychopathology. Human models on defense behavior are largely based on anim

  14. SEARCH: Spatially Explicit Animal Response to Composition of Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Pauli, Benjamin P.; McCann, Nicholas P; Zollner, Patrick A.; Robert Cummings; Gilbert, Jonathan H.; Gustafson, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Complex decisions dramatically affect animal dispersal and space use. Dispersing individuals respond to a combination of fine-scale environmental stimuli and internal attributes. Individual-based modeling offers a valuable approach for the investigation of such interactions because it combines the heterogeneity of animal behaviors with spatial detail. Most individual-based models (IBMs), however, vastly oversimplify animal behavior and such behavioral minimalism diminishes the value of these ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  18. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  19. The Spatial Behaviour of Animals and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, T. S.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some common patterns of animal spatial behavior, and discusses spatial relationships that can be observed as an important component of human social behavior. Reports the results of a study relating to the interpersonal distances of people in bus queues in Britain. (JR)

  20. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  1. Auditory sensitivity in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Klaus; Popper, Arthur N; Hawkins, Anthony D; Akamatsu, Tomonari; André, Michel; Branstetter, Brian K; Lammers, Marc; Radford, Craig A; Stansbury, Amanda L; Aran Mooney, T

    2016-06-01

    A critical concern with respect to marine animal acoustics is the issue of hearing "sensitivity," as it is widely used as a criterion for the onset of noise-induced effects. Important aspects of research on sensitivity to sound by marine animals include: uncertainties regarding how well these species detect and respond to different sounds; the masking effects of man-made sounds on the detection of biologically important sounds; the question how internal state, motivation, context, and previous experience affect their behavioral responses; and the long-term and cumulative effects of sound exposure. If we are to better understand the sensitivity of marine animals to sound we must concentrate research on these questions. In order to assess population level and ecological community impacts new approaches can possibly be adopted from other disciplines and applied to marine fauna.

  2. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  3. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  4. Animal Spirits Through Creative Destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Francois; Huw Lloyd-Ellis

    2003-01-01

    We show how a Schumpeterian process of creative destruction can induce rational, herd behavior by entrepreneurs across diverse sectors as if fueled by "animal spirits." Consequently, a multisector economy, in which productivity improvements are made by independent, profit-seeking entrepreneurs, exhibits regular booms, slowdowns, and downturns as part of the long-run growth process. Our cyclical equilibrium has higher average growth, but lower welfare than the corresponding acyclical one. We s...

  5. Animal spirits and business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Bidder, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    Animal spirits are often suggested as a cause of business cycles, but they are very difficult to define. Recent research proposes a novel explanation based on the changing level of risk over time and people’s uncertainty about how the world works. The interaction of these two can lead to significant business cycle fluctuations in response to spikes in volatility. This finding gives researchers an alternative to irrational behavior as an explanation for why swings in consumer sentiment appear ...

  6. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Sun

    2015-01-01

    In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified ani...

  7. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  8. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  10. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  11. C57BL/6J及NIH Swiss小鼠在抑郁模型中的行为学表现%Behavioral manifestations in animal models with depression between C57BL/6J and NIH Swiss mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮萍; 王倩; 潘彦伶; 张怡慧; 魏佳优; 陈翌华; 高天明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate behavioral differences in models with depression between C57BL/6J and NIH Swiss mice with different genetic backgrounds,to provide references for selection of examination animals in anti- depression drug researches,and to provide the useful animal models for invcstigating the effects of genetic factors on occurrence of depression.Methods Behavioral manifestations of depression in C57BI/6J and NIH Swiss mice (n=14 each) were detected under stress conditions using forced swimming test and tail suspension test.Open field test was used to detect the spontaneous motility of two kinds of mice.Results The immobility time of C57BL/6J mice was significantly longer than that of NIH Swiss mice [ (133.198 ± 5.749) s vs (80.265± 10.939) s,P=0.000] in forced swimming test,which was contrast to that in tail suspension test [ (151.315±12.161)s vs (95.107±14.649)s,P=0.007].Howevcr in open field test,no diffcrcncc was found in total distance,standing number,movement time,total distance in fringe area,movement time in fringe area,total distance in central area and movement time in central area between the two kinds of mice.Conclusion C57BL/6J mice are easier to show the depressive-like behavior under stress conditions,while NIH Swiss mice show a certain of depression resistance.These different behavioral manifestations in two different kinds of mice may be caused by genetic factors.%目的 探讨两种不同遗传背景的小鼠C57BL/6J及NIH Swiss在抑郁模型中的行为学差异,为抗抑郁药物研究的实验动物选择提供参考,为研究遗传学因素在抑郁症发病过程中的作用提供有用的动物模型.方法 C57BL/6J、NIH Swiss小鼠各14只,利用强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验检测两种小鼠在应激条件下的抑郁样行为表现;利用旷场实验检测两种小鼠的自主运动能力.结果 强迫游泳实验中,C57BL/6J小鼠的不动时间明显长于NIH Swiss小鼠[(133.198±5.749)s比(80.265±10.939)s,P=0

  12. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  13. Comportamento ingestivo de equinos e a relação com o aproveitamento das forragens e bem-estar dos animais Equine feeding behavior and its relation with forage use and animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Dittrich

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade está em novo direcionamento no qual se busca maior respeito nas relações com os animais, tanto na criação e utilização como alimento quanto para outras finalidades, como companhia, esportes, trabalho, entre outros. A domesticação e utilização dos equinos pelo homem proporcionaram a esta espécie inadequado manejo alimentar, principalmente pelo restrito conhecimento do comportamento ingestivo. As pastagens são, reconhecidamente, o ambiente adequado para a alimentação dos cavalos, mas é um sistema complexo que influencia as decisões dos animais em pastejo. O entendimento dos padrões comportamentais dos eqüinos é uma importante ferramenta para o manejo alimentar adequado. O dossel forrageiro é heterogêneo e a estrutura das plantas, como altura, densidade e componentes como folha, colmo e inflorescência, é explorada pelos cavalos por meio da seletividade, a qual permite ao cavalo a ingestão de nutrientes necessários à manutenção e desenvolvimento. Os dois principais fatores limitantes à seletividade são, na maioria das vezes, a oferta de forragem e o tempo de pastejo, resultantes do modelo utilizado na criação e manutenção dos equinos para diversas finalidades. As forragens, além de fontes de nutrientes, são importantes também na prevenção dos problemas clínicos e de desvios comportamentais. O incremento das pesquisas na utilização das pastagens, certamente, mostrará a importante relação entre os cavalos e o meio ambiente e direcionará para práticas de manejo mais adequadas à utilização e melhor qualidade de vida dos cavalos.The society has taken a new direction towards a respectable relationship with the animals and a more conscious breeding, use for food, sports and company. The domestication and the use of horses by people have caused wrong feeding management, which is mainly due to reduced knowledge on feeding behavior. The pastures are the appropriate environment to horses feeding

  14. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  15. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  16. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  17. Factors Influencing Consumers Decision-making Behavior under the Major Animal Epidemic-Based on the Survey of Beijing Consumers%重大动物疫情下消费者决策行为影响因素研究--基于北京市消费者的调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海琪; 刘芳; 罗丽; 何忠伟

    2015-01-01

    This paper combined surveys of risk perception and response behavior of Beijing consumers to major animal epidemic, used Ordinal Logistic Regression, through analyzing related indicators, the consumer's personal characteristics, consumer's awareness of major animal diseases, consumer's family members, influence of external information and consumer risk-averse behavior, and explored factors that influenced consumers decision-making behavior when the consumers faced a major animal disease. The results showed that personal characteristics, risk-averse behavior, cognition of the major animal diseases and other impacted on consumer decision-making behavior. Finally, the authors put forward relevant recommendations.%结合北京市消费者对重大动物疫情的风险认知及应对行为的调查,使用有序多分类Logistic回归,通过对消费者的个人特征、消费者对重大动物疫病的认知、消费者家庭成员、外界信息影响以及消费者对风险的规避行为相关指标的分析,探讨消费者面对重大动物疫病时影响其决策行为的因素,结果表明,个人特征、规避风险行为、重大动物疫病认知等对消费者决策行为有影响,并据此提出了相关建议。

  18. Factors Influencing Consumers Decision-making Behavior under the Major Animal Epidemic-Based on the Survey of Beijing Consumers%重大动物疫情下消费者决策行为影响因素研究--基于北京市消费者的调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海琪; 刘芳; 罗丽; 何忠伟

    2015-01-01

    结合北京市消费者对重大动物疫情的风险认知及应对行为的调查,使用有序多分类Logistic回归,通过对消费者的个人特征、消费者对重大动物疫病的认知、消费者家庭成员、外界信息影响以及消费者对风险的规避行为相关指标的分析,探讨消费者面对重大动物疫病时影响其决策行为的因素,结果表明,个人特征、规避风险行为、重大动物疫病认知等对消费者决策行为有影响,并据此提出了相关建议。%This paper combined surveys of risk perception and response behavior of Beijing consumers to major animal epidemic, used Ordinal Logistic Regression, through analyzing related indicators, the consumer's personal characteristics, consumer's awareness of major animal diseases, consumer's family members, influence of external information and consumer risk-averse behavior, and explored factors that influenced consumers decision-making behavior when the consumers faced a major animal disease. The results showed that personal characteristics, risk-averse behavior, cognition of the major animal diseases and other impacted on consumer decision-making behavior. Finally, the authors put forward relevant recommendations.

  19. An animal model of fetishism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Falih; Domjan, Michael; Kurt, Adnan; Sertel, Ozlem; Orüng, Sabiha; Bowers, Rob; Kumru, Gulsen

    2004-12-01

    An animal model of sexual fetishism was developed with male Japanese quail based on persistence of conditioned sexual responding during extinction to an inanimate object made of terrycloth (Experiments 1 and 3). This persistent responding occurred only in subjects that came to copulate with the terrycloth object, suggesting that the copulatory behavior served to maintain the fetishistic behavior. Sexual conditioning was carried out by pairing a conditioned stimulus (CS) with the opportunity to copulate with a female (the unconditioned stimulus or US). Copulation with the CS object and persistent responding did not develop if the CS was a light (Experiment 1) or if conditioning was carried out with a food US (Experiment 2). In addition, subjects that showed persistence in responding to the terrycloth CS did not persist in their responding to a light CS (Experiment 3). The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned copulatory behavior creates a form of self-maintenance that leads to persistent responding to an inanimate object. The development of an animal model of such fetishistic behavior should facilitate experimental analysis of the phenomenon. PMID:15500813

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis inhibitor 3,6′-dithiothalidomide attenuates markers of inflammation, Alzheimer pathology and behavioral deficits in animal models of neuroinflammation and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tweedie David

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation is associated with virtually all major neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Although it remains unclear whether neuroinflammation is the driving force behind these disorders, compelling evidence implicates its role in exacerbating disease progression, with a key player being the potent proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Elevated TNF-α levels are commonly detected in the clinic and animal models of AD. Methods The potential benefits of a novel TNF-α-lowering agent, 3,6′-dithiothalidomide, were investigated in cellular and rodent models of neuroinflammation with a specific focus on AD. These included central and systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS and Aβ1–42 challenge, and biochemical and behavioral assessment of 3xTg-AD mice following chronic 3,6′-dithiothaliodmide. Results 3,6′-Dithiothaliodmide lowered TNF-α, nitrite (an indicator of oxidative damage and secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPP levels in LPS-activated macrophage-like cells (RAW 264.7 cells. This translated into reduced central and systemic TNF-α production in acute LPS-challenged rats, and to a reduction of neuroinflammatory markers and restoration of neuronal plasticity following chronic central challenge of LPS. In mice centrally challenged with Aβ1–42 peptide, prior systemic 3,6′-dithiothalidomide suppressed Aβ-induced memory dysfunction, microglial activation and neuronal degeneration. Chronic 3,6′-dithiothalidomide administration to an elderly symptomatic cohort of 3xTg-AD mice reduced multiple hallmark features of AD, including phosphorylated tau protein, APP, Aβ peptide and Aβ-plaque number along with deficits in memory function to levels present in younger adult cognitively unimpaired 3xTg-AD mice. Levels of the synaptic proteins, SNAP25 and synaptophysin, were found to be elevated in older symptomatic drug-treated 3xTg-AD mice compared to vehicle-treated ones

  1. Animal learning and motivation and addictive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, F A

    1993-08-01

    Highlights of a systematic analysis of the abstracts of over 1700 publications dealing with addictive drugs (primarily alcohol) in the context of animal learning and motivation are summarized under two main headings. The behavioral effects of drugs vary with the nature of the drug, the dosage, and the behavioral baseline; behavioral tolerance frequently results from continued practice in the drug state. The paradigmatic effects show that drugs can function effectively as conditional stimuli, unconditional stimuli, responses, and reinforcers. As a result, drug habits develop their own motivational support, leading to conditioned tolerance and conditioned addiction. It is contended that principles of animal behavior can provide a basis for a theory of human drug use and abuse, but that voluntary control of addictive behavior requires uniquely human cognitive processes.

  2. 动物行为研究的新进展(九):亲代抚育行为%New advance on study of animal behavior (IX):parental care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚玉昌

    2014-01-01

    以红切叶蜂、埋葬甲、白鹭和鲣鸟为实例,简要地介绍了近年来动物双亲抚育行为的一些研究进展和研究成果,包括双亲抚育行为的利弊分析、双亲偏爱和同胞互残三个方面。亲鸟喂养幼鸟可增加后代的存活机会,但也会遭遇一定的风险,这其中就存在着利弊分析的问题,应当如何进行权衡呢?即使是双亲把抚育完全给自己的幼鸟,也不能做到在子女之间完全均等地分配资源,甚至在父母与子女之间的亲缘系数是0.5的情况下也是如此。白鹭双亲不仅对同胞互残行为不加制止,反而会促使它的发生,这是因为在一窝幼鸟中借助互残行为可自行淘汰那些不太可能存活到生育年龄的个体,这有助于双亲把它们的关爱只传递给那些最有可能发育到生殖年龄传下后代的个体,并使双亲的食物传递损耗降到最低。这是进化和自然选择导致行为最优的又一实例。%Take red mason bee, Nicrophorus vespilloide, egret, booby as examples, the research in the field of animal parental care in recent years was briefly introduced, which comprises the advantages and disadvantages of parental care, parental favoritism, siblicide. By feeding their youngs, adult birds increase the survival chances of their nestlings. But there are risks attendant upon the parents’feeding trips. How does a parental bird balance the pluses and minuses of its activities? The key to explain the diversity in parental behavior lies to the cost-benefit analysis. Even when parents invest only in their own progeny, they rarely distribute their care in a completely equitable fashion, even when the coefficient of relatedness between parents and all their genetic offspring is the same (0.5 as a result of sexually reproducing parents placing 50 percent of their genes on each egg or sperm). Sibling rivalry and siblicide help parents deliver their care only to offspring that have a good

  3. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  4. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for…

  5. ANIMAL MODELS: A REVIEW FROM THREE TESTS USED IN ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Eduardo Góngora; Cristina Vargas-Irwin; Lady Andrea Polanco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review of commonly used animal models tostudy anxiety, looking to make a presentation of three instruments used in thelaboratory. It describes the importance of using animal models for understandinghuman behavior; there are two groups of animal models and the most representativetests for each of these.

  6. Associative concept learning in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R; Wasserman, Edward A; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing associative concepts in nonhuman animals and evaluate data documenting the development of associative classes of stimuli. We also examine the nature of the common within-class representation of samples that have been associated with the same reinforced comparison response (i.e., many-to-one matching) by describing manipulations for distinguishing possible representations. Associative concepts provide one foundation for human language such that spoken and written words and the objects they represent become members of a class of interchangeable stimuli. The mechanisms of associative concept learning and the behavioral flexibility it allows, however, are also evident in the adaptive behaviors of animals lacking language.

  7. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-01-01

    The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted...

  8. Animals in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  10. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  11. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the transmission of serious illnesses. Read more » Morris Animal Foundation Receives $750,000 Grant for Cancer Studies. ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ...

  12. Generic Face Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Renato; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Terissi, Lucas; Gomez, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In computer vision, the animation of objects has attracted a lot attention, specially the animations of 3D face models. The animation of face models requires in general to manually adapt each generic movement (open/close mouth) to each specific head geometry. In this work we propose a technique for the animation of any face model avoiding most of the manual intervention. In order to achieve this we assume that: (1) faces, despite obvious differences are quite similar...

  13. Biopolitics: Animals, meat, food

    OpenAIRE

    Janović Nikola

    2009-01-01

    The general idea of this text is to reflect biopolitical constitution of the society and its implications related to the issues of animal welfare. Since animal in biopolitical formation is technically reduced to an object - commodity for contentment of the industry and of the people needs - critical public advisories are calling from moral, ethical and legal standpoint for attention to the fact that is necessary to protect animals from the unnecessary exploitation. It is obvious that animal p...

  14. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare problems

  15. Epidemiologia de problemas comportamentais em cães no Brasil: inquérito entre médicos veterinários de pequenos animais Epidemiology of dogs behavioral problems in Brazil: a survey between small animals veterinary practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Marques Soares

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Problemas de comportamento afetam diretamente a qualidade de vida dos animais e das pessoas que com eles convivem. Em alguns países, os problemas de comportamento são as principais causas de abandono e eutanásia de animais de companhia. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a prevalência dos problemas de comportamento dos cães na rotina clínica dos médicos veterinários brasileiros por meio do envio de questionários às faculdades de Medicina Veterinária do Brasil, para serem respondidos pelos profissionais responsáveis pelo atendimento clínico a cães e gatos. No total de 101 questionários respondidos, 91,1% dos participantes afirmaram ser consultados sobre problemas de comportamento e 82,2% afirmaram que a maior frequência das queixas comportamentais foi relacionada à espécie canina. Os respondentes, em sua maioria (56,7%, relataram que tentaram resolver sozinhos alguns casos ou encaminharam o caso para um veterinário especializado. Dentre os respondentes, 89,1% afirmaram não realizar eutanásia em razão de problemas de comportamento. O problema de comportamento citado como o mais frequente foi a destrutividade e, em seguida, as agressões. O tratamento mais recomendado, tanto para agressões quanto para eliminações inapropriadas de urina, foi a terapia comportamental.Behavior issues directly affect animal and human welfare. In some countries, behavior problems are the main reasons for abandonment and euthanasia of companion animals. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavior problems among dogs seem by Brazilian veterinarians, by sending questionnaires to be responded by veterinarians at university referral animal hospitals in Brazil. Among 101 responses, 91.1% of participants affirmed to be consulted about behavior issues, and 82.2% said that they mostly concern dogs. Most veterinarians (56.7% try to solve some behavior cases by themselves and refer others to a specialized colleague. Most affirmed to

  16. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  17. Animal Models for imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Barbara Y.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  18. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  19. Categorization: The View from Animal Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    J. David Smith; Alexandria C. Zakrzewski; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Valleau, Jeanette C.; Church, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Exemplar, prototype, and rule theory have organized much of the enormous literature on categorization. From this theoretical foundation have arisen the two primary debates in the literature—the prototype-exemplar debate and the single system-multiple systems debate. We review these theories and debates. Then, we examine the contribution that animal-cognition studies have made to them. Animals have been crucial behavioral ambassadors to the literature on categorization. They reveal the roots o...

  20. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Potashkin; Blume, S. R.; Runkle, N. K.

    2011-01-01

    Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of t...

  1. The Genetic Architecture of Domestication in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Wright

    2015-01-01

    Domestication has been essential to the progress of human civilization, and the process itself has fascinated biologists for hundreds of years. Domestication has led to a series of remarkable changes in a variety of plants and animals, in what is termed the "domestication phenotype." In domesticated animals, this general phenotype typically consists of similar changes in tameness, behavior, size/morphology, color, brain composition, and adrenal gland size. This domestication phenotype is seen...

  2. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  3. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichment. They need to be evaluated for use by taking into account the following: the species of an animal, its needs, habits and capabilities, the type of an enrichment device, the device's ability to stimulate the animal's interest and the safety of the device. Enrichment programmes should always include two forms of enrichment: behavioral enrichment and environmental enrichment. Enrichment comes in many forms such as structural or physical enrichment, sensory enrichment (auditory and olfactory stimulation, dietary enrichment, manipulatable enrichment and social enrichment.

  4. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  5. ZOOPHARMACOGNOSY (ANIMAL SELF MEDICATION): A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava Rounak; Khare Apoorva; Agrawal Shweta

    2011-01-01

    Self-medication is a specific therapeutic behavioral change in response to disease or parasitism. The empirical literature on self-medication has so far focused entirely on identifying cases of self-medication in which particular behaviors are linked to therapeutic outcomes. The term “zoopharmacognosy” is relatively new to the pharmacy field. This term is introduced in 1987. And it means animal self medication. It is the self medication process by an animal for any disease or wound by any pla...

  6. Religious slaughter and animal welfare: data from an online consultation

    OpenAIRE

    C. Baldinelli; P. Sechi; V. Cambiotti; S. Parmegiani; B.T. Cenci Goga

    2012-01-01

    Two are the main results of the online survey, which was conducted with the purpose to examine the purchase behavior of a group of consumers and their views on animal welfare and religious slaughter. First result is the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens about this issue. Second is the demand for a more transparent labeling of animal products, which would be also concerning animal welfar...

  7. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Potashkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of the disease and provide a means for testing new treatments. However, the current animal models often fall short in replicating the true pathophysiology occurring in idiopathic PD, and thus results from animal models often do not translate to the clinic. In this paper we will explain the limitations of animal models of PD and why their use is inappropriate for the study of some aspects of PD.

  8. Mechanics of the animate.

    OpenAIRE

    Killeen, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    Behavior is treated as basic physics. Dimensions are identified and their transformations from physical specification to axes in behavioral space are suggested. Responses are treated as action patterns arrayed along a continuum of activation energy. Behavior is seen as movement along a trajectory through this behavior space. Incentives or reinforcers are attractors in behavior space, at the centers of basins of lowered potential. Trajectories impinging on such basins may be captured; repeated...

  9. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  10. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  11. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  12. Are ticks venomous animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; James J Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many...

  13. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  14. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  15. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  16. Thinking with animals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    they also enlist them to symbolize, dramatize, and illuminate aspects of humans' experience and fantasy. Humans merge with animals in stories, films, philosophical speculations, and scientific treatises. In their performance on many stages and in different ways, animals move us to think." "Essays in the book investigate the changing patterns of anthropomorphism across different time periods and settings, as well as their transformative effects, both figuratively and literally, upon animals, h...

  17. Ethological concepts enhance the translational value of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Suzanne M; Pothuizen, Helen H J; Spruijt, Berry M

    2015-07-15

    The translational value of animal models is an issue of ongoing discussion. We argue that 'Refinement' of animal experiments is needed and this can be achieved by exploiting an ethological approach when setting up and conducting experiments. Ethology aims to assess the functional meaning of behavioral changes, due to experimental manipulation or treatment, in animal models. Although the use of ethological concepts is particularly important for studies involving the measurement of animal behavior (as is the case for most studies on neuro-psychiatric conditions), it will also substantially benefit other disciplines, such as those investigating the immune system or inflammatory response. Using an ethological approach also involves using more optimal testing conditions are employed that have a biological relevance to the animal. Moreover, using a more biological relevant analysis of the data will help to clarify the functional meaning of the modeled readout (e.g. whether it is psychopathological or adaptive in nature). We advocate for instance that more behavioral studies should use animals in group-housed conditions, including the recording of their ultrasonic vocalizations, because (1) social behavior is an essential feature of animal models for human 'social' psychopathologies, such as autism and schizophrenia, and (2) social conditions are indispensable conditions for appropriate behavioral studies in social species, such as the rat. Only when taking these elements into account, the validity of animal experiments and, thus, the translation value of animal models can be enhanced. PMID:25823814

  18. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  19. Political Communication with Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, E

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka present in Zoopolis (2011). I will argue their political theory is an important step forward in the debate about animal rights, because it proposes to see animals as po...

  20. Towards an animal model of food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could

  1. 3-D Rat Brain Phantom for High-Resolution Molecular Imaging: Experimental studies aimed at advancing understanding of human brain disease and malfunction, and of behavior problems, may be aided by computer models of small laboratory animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Vastenhouw, B.; Van der Wilt, G.; Vervloet, M.; Visscher, R.; Booij, J.; Gerrits, M.; Ji, C.; Ramakers, R.; Van der Have, F.

    2009-01-01

    With the steadily improving resolution of novel small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography devices, highly detailed phantoms are required for testing and optimizing these systems. We present a three-dimensional (3-D) digital and physical phantom

  2. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  3. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  4. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  7. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  8. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  9. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  10. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  11. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  12. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  13. Ode to an Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    People know little about the non-domesticated animals that live around them. Somehow, they seem remote. In stories they hear about them, animals are often acting, speaking, and dressing like people. This article presents a lesson where students learn about the native species of their area while exploring the concept of interdependence through…

  14. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  15. 42 CFR 9.8 - Animal records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (9 CFR 2.35). The records may be created and retained in electronic form. (2) The animal records... Welfare Regulations section 2.35(f) (9 CFR 2.35(f)). Original records or a copy must be transferred if the... medical and behavioral history, the sire's identification number (if available), the dam's...

  16. The “animalized humans” – the reformulated body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    The paper will discuss the phenomenon of Japanese Catgirls who practice cat behavior as a counterpart to Disney's cartoon in which animals have a human character. Furthermore, the role of this Japanese phenomenon in a Danish pedagogical context is addressed. The discussion's theoretical approaches...... draw on performativity, social aesthetics and visual culture. In the final discussion the humanized animal is related to symmetrical anthropology, brought about by the contradictory position between the humanized animal character and a non-humanized social practice in which humans’ attribute themselves...... with animal behaviors....

  17. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  18. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted for differences in cognitive abilities. Here, we argue that personality is an important source of variation that may affect cognitive performance and we hypothesise mutual influences between personality and cognition across an individual’s lifespan. In particular, we suggest that: 1 personality profiles may be markers of different cognitive styles; 2 success or failure in cognitive tasks could affect different personalities differently; 3 ontogenetic changes of personality profiles could be reflected in changes in cognitive performance. The study of such interplay has implications in animal welfare as well as in neuroscience and in translational medicine [Current Zoology 57 (4: 491–498, 2011].

  19. Cupper in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Huerta Bravo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  20. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Proposal for Performance Research, in response to the call Turning Animal: As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a week......, for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site......-specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement...

  1. Workshop on molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  2. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    -acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric...... reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of subjectivity and materiality.The “Becoming Sheep” project produced a variety of visual...... practice.Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at Roskilde...

  3. Animal Health in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal health service policy in Albania represents an integral component of overall governmental, social and economic policy in the field of agricultural and rural development, public health, food processing and import/export of animal products. In order to obtain the necessary political, economic and public support, the animal health service attempts to contribute effectively to the overall development of the country which aims at improving the standards of living of its inhabitants. Practical means of contributing to national development include reducing food loses due to animal morbidity and mortality, increasing the productivity of the livestock population, protecting human health against zoonotic diseases and ensuring humane treatment of animals. An animal health strategy contributes to the creation of conditions necessary for uninterrupted animal disease surveillance and control in the country. The main animal health problem in Albania is brucellosis in ruminants, caused by B. melitensis. This infection currently affects the entire country, reaching a prevalence of 10% in several districts. The latest and most severe outbreaks of classical swine fever were identified on 1996 when 5 515 animals were infected and 3 683 animals died. The circulation of bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected for the first time in Albania in 2002 with a seroprevalence of 15%. The evidence of BTV circulation in Albania and the absence of the main vector C. imicola suggest that other Culicoides species could be implicated in virus transmission. H5N1 avian influenza in Albania was confirmed in March 2006 in backyard flocks in the villages of Cuke and Peze-Helmes. In both villages there were no human cases. Rabies was of concern in Albania from 1928 until 1976. The disease re-emerged in March 2001 in the village of Morine in Kukes district affecting a domestic dog and three persons were bitten. Other cases have been reported in northern Albania. (author)

  4. 畜禽粪便中四环类抗生素的残留和环境行为%Residues and Environmental Behaviors of Tetracyclines in Animal Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成贤; 周丽

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated operations of livestock and poultry were highly developed in China, its residues of tetracyclines in animal manure may pose great threat potential to environment. Residues of tetracyclines in animal manure, the ways entered into the environment and its mobility and degradation in the soil environment were summarized.%我国畜禽养殖业很发达,畜禽粪便中残留的四环素类抗生素的污染对生态环境构成了巨大的潜在威胁。针对这种状况,本文总结了我国四环素类抗生素在畜禽粪便中的残留状况及其进入环境的途径,并概述了其在环境中的迁移和降解状况。

  5. New Advances in Study of Animal Behavior ( Ⅳ ) :Food Caching and Planning for Future%动物行为研究的新进展(四):食物贮藏与计划未来

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚玉昌

    2012-01-01

    While the studies described so far often involve animals learning something about foraging environment, they were not de signed as studies on foraging and learning perse (in itself). To even touch on the tip of the iceberg of studies done on learning and animal foraging would require a series of books. After all,these sorts of studies have been a mainstay in psychology over the last fifty years, and there have been thousands of studies examining learning in the context of foraging . Here we shall look at a tiny but impor tant subsection of the work on the foraging and learning by focusing on:①brain size effects on the foraging and learning;②learning and planning for the future;③hippocampal size and caching ability;④evolution and phylogeny of food caching.

  6. A Behavior Animation Developing Tool for Emotion Driven 3D Virtual Character%一个情感驱动的3D虚拟角色行为动画创作工具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱剑

    2011-01-01

    Emotion is an important aspect of human intelligence and has been playing a significant role in creating virtual agent.Taken into account the influence of cognition to the emotion, an improved computing emotional model and a new form of behavior model are proposed. The paper designs the idiographic environment of emotion, and manages the behaviors through the form of behavior-tree to create the material and realistic virtual character emotion behavior, and brings forward the three-level structure of emotion formed as “personality-emotion-mood", then at last achieves an experimental system which proves the emotion model and behavior organizing model to be effective in creating intelligent emotion behavior in the virtual environment.%情感作为人类具有智能的一个重要体现,是创建丰富细腻的虚拟智能体的不可或缺的环节.本文结合认知对情感的影响,提出一个改进的情感建模方法和一种新的行为建模方法,设计具体的情感情境,并通过行为树的行为组织形式时虚拟环境中的行为进行管理,以产生具体、真实的虚拟角色情感行为.提出"个性-情感-情绪"的三层情感层次结构,并最后完成了一个实验系统.实验结果证明,该情感模型和行为组织模型能有效地反映虚拟角色在虚拟环境中的智能情感行为.

  7. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  8. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  9. Animal health and welfare--pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämeenoja, P

    2001-01-01

    Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  10. Kinect driven facial animation

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda Noda, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Kinect es un dispositivo que se presenta en el ámbito de la industria de la animación como una alternativa económica. Haciendo uso de él, este proyecto desarrolla una aplicación de animación facial que aplique las expresiones faciales del usuario a un modelo 3D. Nowadays, facial animation is a core part of the character animation industry. From movies to video games, facial animation is done by most companies with the help of expensive equipment that capture real people's facial expression...

  11. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  12. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  13. Women Protecting Endangered Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ON the Yongding River, 40 kilometers south of Beijing lies the Beijing Center for Breeding Endangered Animals.Built more than 10 years ago it is the only rare and endangered animal base in China, incorporating such functions as Scientific research, raising, breeding and medical treatment. There are more than 30 national and international rare species, with a total of more than 1,000 animals. Among them, the snub-nosed golden monkey, Chinese monal pheasant and eared pheasant account for the largest number of man-bred species in the world.

  14. Standing for Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    1999-01-01

    From the legal point of view, there is nothing at all new or unfamiliar in the idea of "animal rights;" on the contrary, it is entirely clear that animals have legal rights. Indeed, the rise of legal rights for animals has been one of the most distinctive features of the last thirty years of federal statutory law. An investigation of the question of standing helps show that the real issues involve problems of enforcement and scope. Human beings often do and should have standing to protect ani...

  15. Precision animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, A.P.F.; WOOLLIAMS, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...

  16. Animals eponyms in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF, and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD.

  17. Moving GIS research indoors: spatiotemporal analysis of agricultural animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Courtney L; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

  18. Moving GIS research indoors: spatiotemporal analysis of agricultural animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney L Daigle

    Full Text Available A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location. Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare.

  19. Moving GIS research indoors: spatiotemporal analysis of agricultural animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Courtney L; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare.

  20. Mechanics of the animate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, P R

    1992-05-01

    Behavior is treated as basic physics. Dimensions are identified and their transformations from physical specification to axes in behavioral space are suggested. Responses are treated as action patterns arrayed along a continuum of activation energy. Behavior is seen as movement along a trajectory through this behavior space. Incentives or reinforcers are attractors in behavior space, at the centers of basins of lowered potential. Trajectories impinging on such basins may be captured; repeated capture will warp the trajectory toward a geodesic, a process called conditioning. Conditioning is enhanced by contiguity, the proximity between the measured behavior and the incentive at the end of the trajectory, and by contingency, the depth of the trajectory below the average level of the potential energy landscape. Motivation is seen as the potential of an organism for motion under the forces impinging on it. Degree of motivation is characterized by the depth of the potential field, with low motivation corresponding to a flat field and a flat gradient of activation energy. Drives are the forces of incentives propagated through behavior space. Different laws for the attenuation of drive with behavioral distance are discussed, as is the dynamics of action. The basic postulate of behavior mechanics is incentive-tracking in behavior space, the energy for which is provided by decreases in potential. The relation of temporal gradients to response differentiation and temporal discrimination is analyzed. Various two-body problems are sketched to illustrate the application of these ideas to association, choice, scalar timing, self-control, and freedom. PMID:1602272

  1. Aspects of animal models for major neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefter Radu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will review the main animal models for the major neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, anxiety and autism. Although these mental disorders are specifically human pathologies and therefore impossible to perfectly replicate in animals, the use of experimental animals is based on the physiological and anatomical similarities between humans and animals such as the rat, and mouse, and on the fact that 99% of human and murine genomes are shared. Pathological conditions in animals can be assessed by manipulating the metabolism of neurotransmitters, through various behavioral tests, and by determining biochemical parameters that can serve as important markers of disorders.

  2. Animal transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  4. Retrospectives: Animal Spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Koppl

    1991-01-01

    John Maynard Keynes argued that when the conditions for rational action are not present, people are driven by "animal spirits." This article briefly considers Keynes' argument, and the history of the term.

  5. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  7. Animal models of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  8. A northern animal kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RainerThomm

    2005-01-01

    I began photographing wild animals at Baiquan in 2002,what is really propelling me to go back time and time again,though,is the unforgettable experience of tracking down and getting shots of red foxes and shika.

  9. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  10. Experimental Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-01-01

    It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals...

  11. Animal models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rod...

  12. On Animal Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡凡

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays it is common to talk about metaphor. In fact, metaphor is a kind of comparison. Because of comparison and association,familiar objects become strange and glamorous. Animal metaphors can involve either nominal form or verb forms. A person's crying may be called barking. A woman may be called a cat, or a goose, etc. Animal metaphor is connected tightly with our life and helps language development. We can utilize them to make our life and languages more colorful.

  13. Whole animal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be us...

  14. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  15. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  16. Animal Models of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagakura, Yukinori; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of disease states are valuable tools for developing new treatments and investigating underlying mechanisms. They should mimic the symptoms and pathology of the disease and importantly be predictive of effective treatments. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain with associated co-morbid symptoms that include fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleep dysfunction. In this review, we present different animal models that mimic the signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia. T...

  17. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Laboratory animal allergy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, A

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers at 8 laboratory animal facilities. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing with common and occupational allergens. Total and specific IgE measures were obtained....

  19. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to cougars, lions, bears, bobcats, wolves, and snakes), or any pets or animals displaying vicious or aggressive behavior or otherwise posing a threat to public safety or deemed a public nuisance, are...

  20. Effect of Xanthone Derivatives on Animal Models of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Within certain dose ranges, xanthone derivatives 1101 and 1105 have similar effects to venlafaxine hydrochloride in the treatment of depression as suggested by behavioral despair animal models using rats and mice.

  1. Studying Behavioral Ecology on High School & College Campuses: A Practical Guide to Measuring Foraging Behavior Using Urban Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mohammad A. Abu; Emerson, Sara E.; Brown, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a practical field exercise for ecology and animal behavior classes that can be carried out on campus, using urban wildlife. Students document an animal's feeding behavior to study its interactions with the surrounding environment. In this approach, an animal's feeding behavior is quantified at experimental food patches placed within its…

  2. Fluoxetine normalizes disrupted light-induced entrainment, fragmented ultradian rhythms and altered hippocampal clock gene expression in an animal model of high trait anxiety- and depression-related behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schaufler, Jörg; Ronovsky, Marianne; Savalli, Giorgia; Cabatic, Maureen; Sartori, Simone B.; Singewald, Nicolas; Pollak, Daniela D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Disturbances of circadian rhythms are a key symptom of mood and anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - commonly used antidepressant drugs – also modulate aspects of circadian rhythmicity. However, their potential to restore circadian disturbances in depression remains to be investigated. Materials and methods The effects of the SSRI fluoxetine on genetically based, depression-related circadian disruptions at the behavioral and molecular leve...

  3. Animal, animalité, devenir-animal

    OpenAIRE

    Viennet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Question de regard Nous regardons les animaux et les animaux nous regardent. Nous faisons signe à un chat, par la voix, par le geste, le chat nous regarde et cligne des yeux. Il n’a pas la capacité d’exprimer des paroles selon le modèle humain, mais à sa manière il nous répond, par un clin d’œil. Que se passe-t-il dans ce clin d’œil ? Une communication s’établit, un échange a lieu. Nous regardons l’animal qui nous regarde. Que voyons-nous alors ? Le clin d’œil énigmatique nous pousse à regard...

  4. Robot Animals Based on Brain-Computer Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xia; Lei Lei; Tie-Jun Liu; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    The study of robot animals based on brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is an important field in robots and neuroscience at present.In this paper,the development status at home and abroad of the motion control of robot based on BCI and principle of robot animals are introduced,then a new animals' behavior control method by photostimulation is presented.At last,the application prospect is provided.

  5. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Gullone

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence a...

  6. Role of veterinarians in recognition and prevention of animal abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub; Merćep Drinka

    2011-01-01

    Since the Criminal law of the Republic of Serbia in 2005 as well as the Law on veterinary medicine, there has been an increasing number of cases that deal with raising criminal charges due to animal killing or torturing. There is also a significant number of forensic cases that are aimed at discovering criminal acts. Animal abuse is a social issue, which includes a range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect...

  7. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live-animal official test, an official genotype test, the culling and postmortem examination and testing of genetically susceptible animals in the flock that cannot be evaluated by a live animal test... designation from an animal that tested positive on a live-animal screening test based on an...

  8. Phenotyping animal models of diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biessels, G J; Bril, V; Calcutt, N A;

    2014-01-01

    NIDDK, JDRF, and the Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of EASD sponsored a meeting to explore the current status of animal models of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The goal of the workshop was to develop a set of consensus criteria for the phenotyping of rodent models of diabetic neuropathy...... of statistically different values between diabetic and control animals in 2 of 3 assessments (nocifensive behavior, nerve conduction velocities, or nerve structure). The participants propose that this framework would allow different research groups to compare and share data, with an emphasis on data targeted...... toward the therapeutic efficacy of drug interventions....

  9. Optogenetics in animal model of alcohol addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalberczak, Maria; Radwanska, Kasia

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the neuronal and molecular basis of alcohol addiction is still not satisfactory. As a consequence we still miss successful therapy of alcoholism. One of the reasons for such state is the lack of appropriate animal models which would allow in-depth analysis of biological basis of addiction. Here we will present our efforts to create the animal model of alcohol addiction in the automated learning device, the IntelliCage setup. Applying this model to optogenetically modified mice with remotely controlled regulation of selected neuronal populations by light may lead to very precise identification of neuronal circuits involved in coding addiction-related behaviors.

  10. Animal Tracking ARGOS vs GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. W.; Costa, D.; Arnould, J.; Weise, M.; Kuhn, C.; Simmons, S. E.; Villegas, S.; Tremblay, Y.

    2006-12-01

    ARGOS satellite tracking technology has enabled a tremendous increase in our understanding of the movement patterns of a diverse array of marine vertebrates from Sharks to marine mammals. Our current understanding has moved from simple descriptions of large scale migratory patterns to much more sophisticated comparisons of animal movements and behavior relative to oceanic features. Further, animals are increasingly used to carry sensors that can acquire water column temperature and salinity profiles. However, a major limitation of this work is the spatial precision of ARGOS locations. ARGOS provides 7 location qualities that range from 3,2,1,0,A,B,Z and correspond to locations with a precision of 150m to tens of kilometers. Until recently, GPS technology could not be effectively used with marine mammals because they did not spend sufficient time at the surface to allow complete acquisition of satellite information. The recent development of Fastloc technology has allowed the development of GPS tags that can be deployed on marine mammals. Here we compare the location quality and frequency derived from standard ARGOS PTTs to Fastloc GPS locations acquired from 11 northern elephant seals, 5 California and 5 Galapagos sea lions and 1 Cape and 3 Australian fur seals. Our results indicate that GPS technology will greatly enhance our ability to understand the movement patterns of marine vertebrates and the in-situ oceanographic data they collect.

  11. Animal models of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  12. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  13. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user......This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... makes the life manifestations of the users in context visible. We present and discuss how animation- based sketching can support the elaboration and examination of different ethical stances towards the user in the product and service development process. Finally we present a framework for creating...

  15. Gene expression during zombie ant biting behavior reflects the complexity underlying fungal parasitic behavioral manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Ohm, Robin A; Loreto, Raquel G; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Merrow, Martha; Brachmann, Andreas; Hughes, David P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior observ

  16. A role of advanced image data logger systems in marine animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Naito, Yasuhiko

    2006-01-01

    To fulfill information gaps of underwater animal behavior, variety of animal-borne observation systems have been developed in last several decades, which revealed diving behavior, foraging behavior of many endotherms, particularly seals and penguins by providing information on many dive parameters, such as dive depth, dive angles, dive profiles, swim speed, body motion, body postures, ambient temperatures, 3D dive paths and so on. Above advanced animal-borne systems supported us to obtain rel...

  17. The experiments on healthy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author describes the experiments on leukotitin influence on hematosis which was held on :1. healthy animals received the preparation; 2. irradiated animals received the preparation; 3. irradiated animals didn't receive the preparation

  18. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure...

  19. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. COMPAIXÃO ANIMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Seligmann Silva

    2011-01-01

    O trabalho estuda a questão da compaixão, que na história do pensamento foi ora tratada como uma marca da humanidade, ora pensada como uma marca de nossa origem natural e animal. Para Lactâncio, por exemplo, sem piedade o homem é um animal. O texto parte de uma discussão de Buffon, que falava de uma compaixão como uma de nossas “affections naturelles”. Para ele, “a alma tem menos a ver do que o corpo nesse sentimento de piedade natural e os animais, assim como o homem, sã...