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Sample records for anillo anticonceptivo vaginal

  1. Valoración de las nuevas vías de administración de anticonceptivos hormonales por sus usuarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alén de la Torre MT

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años la disponibilidad de presentaciones de anticonceptivos hormonales se ha incrementado notablemente ya que la prevención de embarazos no deseados se valora como una de las principales medidas preventivas dentro de un sistema sanitario desarrollado. La eficacia de los anticonceptivos orales, usados adecuadamente, supera el 99%. En el uso habitual la efectividad se sitúa en torno al 92%, lo que parece indicar que el cumplimiento en muchas mujeres no es perfecto1. Nuevas vías de administración pretenden obtener, ante las formas orales tradicionales, mejoras farmacotécnicas y farmacodinámicas con el fin de facilitar la integración de su uso en el estilo de vida de la mujer y reducir la incidencia de efectos adversos. Entre estas nuevas vías de administración de anticonceptivos combinados destacan los parches transdérmicos con norelgestromina y etinilestradiol que, al evitar el efecto de primer paso consiguen una mayor biodisponibilidad lo que permite dosis menores y menos efectos secundarios2. Otra vía novedosa es el anillo vaginal con etinilestradiol y etonogestrel, con alta eficacia anticonceptiva y buen control del ciclo3. Ambas nuevas vías de administración de los anticonceptivos hormonales ofrecen alternativas que pueden resultar interesantes para las usuarias, basadas en una mayor facilidad de uso que mejoraría el cumplimiento. En la elección del método son tan importantes los criterios médicos como las preferencias de la mujer, por lo que se ha considerado interesante conocer las ventajas e inconvenientes que las usuarias encuentran en su uso frente a los anticonceptivos hormonales tradicionales por vía oral.

  2. Epilepsia y anticonceptivos

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos S., Nelson; Parra A., Manuel

    2004-01-01

    La epilepsia es una enfermedad neurológica que puede afectar a la mujer en edad fértil. Es conocido que las terapias anticonvulsivantes pueden disminuir la efectividad de los anticonceptivos hormonales. Los principales mecanismos son una mayor estimulación del sistema enzimático hepático de la citocromo P450 y el aumento de los niveles de la globulina transportadora de hormonas sexuales. Como consecuencia se produce una disminución de los niveles disponibles de los anticonceptivos hormonales,...

  3. Dispensacion de anticonceptivos hormonales orales

    OpenAIRE

    Molinero Crespo, Ana María; Diego Martinez , Cristina de; Méndez Mora-Figueroa, Pilar; Esteso, Pilar; García Valiente, Paloma; González, Ana; Peiró Martínez, Alicia; Pérez Martín, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    El 80% de las mujeres españolas en edad fértil utilizan métodos anticonceptivos. Los anticonceptivos orales hormonales son los que obtienen mayor grado de satisfacción entre las usuarias siendo el segundo método utilizado. Método Estudio observacional descriptivo en 7 farmacias de la Comunidad de Madrid. Durante seis meses (enero-junio de 2009) se realizó una entrevista en el mostrador a las usuarias de métodos anticonceptivos hormonales orales para conocer qué tipo de paciente los dema...

  4. Anticonceptivos orales combinados: Guías Latinoamericanas

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    David Vásquez-Awad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se han visto importantes avances en el desarrollo de nuevos anticonceptivos orales combinados (AOC incluyendo las transiciones de altas a bajas dosis de estrógenos y la introducción de nuevas progestinas; últimamente han salido al mercado AOC con estrógeno natural, estradiol, y en cuanto a las progestinas, su uso se enfoca al logro de efectos benéfi cos no contraceptivos específi camente en piel, cabello, peso corporal y síntomas relacionados al período menstrual. Por otra parte, también se han visto avances en cuanto a la introducción de píldoras de solo progestinas, inyectables de solo progestinas y combinados, implantes subdérmicos de progestinas y de largo lazo, parches transdérmicos combinados, anillos vaginales y dispositivos intrauterinos liberadores de levonorgestrel.

  5. Conocimientos previos acerca de métodos anticonceptivos y su relación con conocimientos adquiridos después de una intervención educativa con simulador

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    María Neyfeth Posada Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El objetivo de este trabajo es relacionar conocimientos previos (pre-saberes acerca de métodos anticonceptivos con los conocimientos adquiridos (saberes, después una intervención educativa con simulador.Método. Es un estudio realizado con 295 adolescentes escolarizados que cursan noveno, décimo y undécimo en una institución educativa pública. Es de tipo descriptivo. El proceso estuvo compuesto por tres fases; en la primera se midió conocimientos o saberes previos acerca de métodos anticonceptivos, mediante un cuestionario auto-informado; en la segunda se definió los contenidos y actividades de intervención para mejorar los conocimientos previos, y en la tercera fase de post-intervención educativa, se reevaluó los saberes adquiridos con el simulador. Resultados. Se detectó que los pre-saberes en métodos anticonceptivos son deficientes independientemente de la edad y la escolaridad, lo cual requiere planeación, desarrollo y evaluación de la estrategia de aprendizaje colectivo y cooperativo mediante talleres. En cuanto a los post-saberes, se obtuvo una calificación de deficientes a regulares, en el caso del condón masculino, mientras que el reconocimiento de métodos modernos como parche, anillo vaginal, dispositivo intrauterino, entre otros, se dio gracias al contacto directo con el simulador.Conclusiones. Se recalca que a pesar de las  diferencias de edad y escolaridad, no hubo hallazgos relevantes que demostraran diferencias de conocimiento. En los pre-saberes, se encontró niveles de conocimiento deficientes sobre métodos anticonceptivos. El uso de simuladores como herramienta de aprendizaje demostró eficacia en los talleres; en cuanto a los simuladores posibilitan la ruptura de la barrera cognitiva, dado que el adolescente, en este caso, puede explorar y adquirir conocimiento al interaccionar con el objeto de aprendizaje.

  6. Vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... change in discharge. What treatments are available for vaginal yeast infection? Yeast infections can be treated either by placing ... of organisms that are normally found in the vagina. Candidiasis: Also called yeast infection or moniliasis, a type ...

  7. Un paseo por los anillos de bucles

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    Carmen Rosa Giraldo Vergara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de anillos de bucles no es solamente una generalización de los anillos de grupos: es una teoría en sí misma, con origen y aún en movimiento. El concepto de anillo de bucles surge en 1944 en los trabajos de R.H. Bruck con la construcción de anillos no asociativos. En los últimos años esta teoría se desarrolló ampliamente. Como ejemplo de esto tenemos la descripción completa del bucle de los elementos invertibles del Álgebra de Zorn. En este trabajo se hace un recorrido a lo largo del desarrollo de esta teoría que ha intrigado a matemáticos de diversas áreas. Abstract. The loop ring theory is more that a generalization of group rings; in fact, it is a theory with its own spirit, with origin and still in development. The loop rings borns in 1944 with the works of R. H. Bruck about construction of non-associative rings. In recent years, this theory was developed largely, and as an example of this we know now the complete description of the loop of invertible elements of the Zorn algebra. In this paper we travel through the development of this theory that has intrigued mathematicians from different areas.

  8. El anillo verde de Vitoria-Gasteiz

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    Marañón, Blanca

    2001-10-01

    de la periferia de la ciudad, donde coexistían zonas de alto valor ecológico sometidas a agresiones de todo tipo, con otros espacios degradados y marginales, fruto de la expansión urbana e industrial. La restauración ecológico-paisajística de estos espacios y su acondicionamiento para el uso público han permitido configurar un "anillo verde multifunción" en torno a la ciudad que está proporcionando importantes beneficios ambientales, sociales y económicos. El anillo verde ha jugado un papel importante en la integración naturaleza-ciudad, equilibrando la oferta de zonas verdes entre todos los barrios y favoreciendo la conexión entre los espacios verdes urbanos y los espacios naturales del entorno agrícola. Ha propiciado, asimismo, el desarrollo de nuevas actividades relacionadas con el ocio y el esparcimiento y con la formación, educación y sensibilización ambiental; actividades que, por un lado, están suponiendo un revulsivo para el sector empresarial ambiental y la integración socio-laboral de determinados colectivos sociales y, por otro, contribuyen a la conservación de estos espacios, al convertirse los usuarios en sus mayores defensores y guardianes. La utilización de algunos de estos espacios como superficies de laminación de agua en épocas de avenidas para solventar problemas de inundación en las zonas industriales es otro ejemplo del valor añadido obtenido al plantear soluciones integrales. Los excelentes resultados obtenidos tras nueve años de trabajo demuestran la viabilidad técnica y económica y la rentabilidad social de este proyecto, que representa una prueba evidente de la decidida voluntad municipal de avanzar hacia un modelo de ciudad sostenible en armonía con el medio natural que la rodea.

  9. Papel de enfermería en el asesoramiento anticonceptivo

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado Rodríguez, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    La anticoncepción es cualquier método o dispositivo que se utiliza para prevenir el embarazo. Existen gran variedad de métodos anticonceptivos con propiedades diferentes para que se adecuen a cada mujer o pareja. El personal sanitario tiene una gran influencia en la elección del método anticonceptivo, por lo que debe de conocer las características y la eficacia de los diferentes métodos. Además, se deben de tener en cuenta criterios personales y los propios del método, con el f...

  10. El anillo de los números duales

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Haydee; Luque, Carlos Julio

    2007-01-01

    Se inicia con una presentación de la estructura de * - Álgebra de los números duales; se muestran diferentes representaciones que permiten la definición de potencias racionales de números duales, lo que exige una extensión de su estructura a un anillo de números duales con coeficientes complejos. Seguidamente se estudian la función exponencial dual y la función logaritmo dual que permiten la definición de potencias duales de un número dual; luego se estudian ecuaciones en los números duales h...

  11. Conocimiento métodos anticonceptivos en estudiantes de pregrado

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    William Atehortua-Puerta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación que se presenta en el siguiente artículo se realizó bajo un estudio de naturaleza cuantitativa, descriptivo de corte transversal, en donde se pretende determinar los conocimientos de los métodos anticonceptivos en los estudiantes de un programa de salud en pregrado. El colectivo en estudio correspondió a 72 estudiantes de enfermería del primer al octavo semestre del primer periodo académico del año en curso, de ambos sexos y en edades comprendidas desde los 16 años hasta 30 años de edad. Los resultados obtenidos correspondieron a un 58% de conocimientos que tienen los estudiantes en formación sobre métodos naturales, 42% métodos hormonales, 65,30% métodos de barrera, 40,30% métodos quirúrgicos, con predominio de nociones en el octavo semestre. Finalmente, se determina que los métodos anticonceptivos del cual tienen más conocimientos los estudiantes resultaron ser: los preservativos, coito interrumpido, y los anticonceptivos hormonales y el dispositivo intrauterino.

  12. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home Body Your reproductive health Vaginal infections Vaginal infections Help for infections If you have pain, ... infections and how to prevent them. Types of vaginal infections top Two common vaginal infections are bacterial ...

  13. Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Vaginal Atrophy October 2017 Download PDFs English Editors Christine ... during this time, including vaginal dryness. What is vaginal atrophy? Vaginal atrophy (also referred to as vulvovaginal ...

  14. Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urinary signs and symptoms: Vaginal dryness Vaginal burning Vaginal discharge Genital itching Burning with urination Urgency with urination ... others). Also make an appointment if you have vaginal symptoms, such as unusual ... burning or soreness. Causes Genitourinary syndrome of menopause ( ...

  15. Vaginal Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normally occurring vaginal bacteria — is the most common vaginal infection that causes a vaginal odor. Trichomoniasis — a sexually transmitted infection — also can lead to vaginal odor. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections usually don't cause vaginal odors. Neither do ...

  16. Vaginal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, S F

    1986-05-01

    Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous

  17. Monografía sobre métodos anticonceptivos en la mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez García, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    En las últimas décadas, el uso de algún método anticonceptivo ha ido en aumento entre la población mundial, siendo clave tanto para la salud reproductiva de la mujer como para la planificación familiar. En la actualidad encontramos una gran variedad de técnicas y métodos anticonceptivos, que difieren en sus características, eficacia, seguridad, reversibilidad, efectos secundarios o incluso en su precio. Por otro lado, cada paciente debe decidir la opción más adecuada a su situación, en base a...

  18. Vaginal cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001509.htm Vaginal cysts To use the sharing features on this ... with air, fluid, pus, or other material. A vaginal cyst occurs on or under the lining of ...

  19. Vaginal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have ... common problem is vaginitis, an inflammation of the vagina. Other problems that affect the vagina include sexually ...

  20. Anticonceptivo en la consulta de planificación familiar

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    Vivian Herrera Gómez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio descriptivo en la Consulta de Planificación Familiar del Policlínico Docente "Nguyen Van Troi" en el período comprendido de enero de 1995 hasta abril de 1996, con el objetivo de contribuir a la optimización del Programa de Atención a la mujer durante la vida sexual activa. Se confeccionó una encuesta que se aplicó a 173 mujeres que acudieron trimestralmente a las consultas planificadas. Se midieron las variables: edad, escolaridad, partos, ocupación, estado civil, conocimiento acerca de los métodos anticonceptivos, así como los que usan actualmente, la fuente de obtención de información y las complicaciones. Predominó la edad entre 20 y 24 años, el nivel medio superior representó el mayor porcentaje, 60,60 %; la mujer trabajadora representó el 57,22 %; los dispositivos intrauterinos (DIU y las tabletas son los métodos más conocidos por nuestras pacientes 87,3 y 78 %, respectivamente; las tabletas anticonceptivas fue el método de mayor preferencia y a la vez el más utilizado en la población encuestada, 78,19 %. La principal fuente de información fue el médico de la familia.A descriptive study is conducted at the family planning consultation of the "Nguyen Van Troi" Teaching Polyclinic from January, 1995, to April, 1996, with the aim of contributing to the optimization of the Program of Attention to Women during the active sexual life. A survery was done and applied to 173 women who attended the planned consultations quarterly. The following variables were measured: age, school level, deliveries, occupation, marital status, knowledge about the contraceptive methods, what they use at present, the source of information, and the complications. There was a predominance of those aged 20-24; the higher middle level was the greatest with 60.60 %; and working women accounted for 57.22 %. The intrauterine devices (IUD and pills are the methods the patients know best, 87.3 % and 78 %, respectively. The

  1. Conocimiento y uso de metodos anticonceptivos por la poblacion femenina de una zona de salud

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    Maroto de Agustín Alicia

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: El uso de métodos anticonceptivos está en relación, entre otros, con factores demográficos, sociales, económicos, educativos e ideológicos. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer qué métodos anticonceptivos conocen las mujeres en edad fértil, así como la prevalencia de su uso. MÉTODOS: A partir del listado de tarjeta sanitaria se seleccionaron mediante muestreo sistemático 389 de las 5800 mujeres en edad fértil (15-45 años asignadas a un centro de salud. Previo envío de una carta, comunicando el motivo del estudio, se contactó telefónicamente con ellas para la realización de una encuesta, la cual incluía preguntas acerca del conocimiento y uso de métodos anticonceptivos, características socioculturales y actividad sexual. Las mujeres que no tenían teléfono fueron citadas en el centro de salud. RESULTADOS: Se contactó con 178 mujeres, de las que participaron 166 (tasa de respuesta de 42,7%. De ellas utilizaban algún método anticonceptivo 86 (51,8%; IC:44,2-59,4%. Sin embargo, entre mujeres con riesgo de embarazo no deseado, la prevalencia de uso era del 70,5% (IC: 62,4-78,6%, destacando el hecho de que en el grupo de mujeres de 40 a 45 años sólo utilizaran anticonceptivos el 45,4%, con una frecuencia significativamente inferior a los otros grupos de edad. Los métodos más conocidos eran el preservativo (90,4%, los contraceptivos orales (89,2% y el dispositivo intrauterino (78,3%, siendo escaso el conocimiento de otros métodos. CONCLUSIONES: La tasa de utilización de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres con riesgo de embarazo no deseado es aceptable, si bien entre 40 y 45 años es llamativamente baja. Los métodos más conocidos son el preservativo, los contraceptivos orales y el dispositivo intrauterino.

  2. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  3. Vaginal Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal fistula Overview A vaginal fistula is an abnormal opening that connects your vagina to another organ, such as your bladder, colon or rectum. Your ... describe the condition as a hole in your vagina that allows stool or urine to pass through ...

  4. Hepatocarcinoma gigante unifocal en mujer con ingesta prolongada de anticonceptivos hormonales: ¿casualidad o causalidad?

    OpenAIRE

    VICTOR MANUEL LOPEZ MOURIÑO; JOSÉ LOPEZ CASTRO; BENIGNO MONTEAGUDO SANCHEZ; ENRIQUE JESÚS ALVAREZ ASENSIO

    2016-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de una paciente de mediana edad con ingesta mantenida de anticonceptivos hormonales (AH) que desarrolla múltiples adenomas hepáticos (asociación bien documentada) y un carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) unifocal gigante sin encontrar otros factores de riesgo para el mismo (enolismo, tabaquismo, cirrosis, hemocromatosis,....). Si bien en la literatura no hay unanimidad respecto a la asociación del consumo de AH con el CHC, algunos autores ya contemplaron esa posibilidad, excluye...

  5. Contraceptive use among Jamaican teenage mothers Uso de anticonceptivos por madres adolescentes jamaiquinas

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    Vonna Lou Caleb Drayton

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the prevalence of contraceptive use among teenage mothers who were participating, and teenage mothers who were not participating, in a program in Jamaica that had been established to deal with the country's serious problem of repeat pregnancies among adolescents. Methods. A historical cohort design was used to assess the impact that the Women's Centre of Jamaica Foundation (WCJF Programme for Adolescent Mothers had on contraceptive use among the target population of adolescents 16 years and under who had experienced a first live birth in 1994. Results. Contraceptive use at first intercourse was found to be higher among WCJF program participants (44% than among nonparticipants (37%, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.35. Contraceptive use after first live birth was also higher among WCJF program participants (94% than among nonparticipants (86%, and this difference was significant (P = 0.04. Contraceptive prevalence at last intercourse (in 1998 did not differ between participants and nonparticipants (both 69%. Conclusions. Contraceptive use among this population in Jamaica was highest when the respondents' perception of vulnerability to pregnancy was most acute, that is, after the first live birth. All adolescents, both males and females, need to be educated about the importance of sustained and effective use of contraception in order to reduce the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.Objetivos. Comparar la prevalencia del uso de anticonceptivos entre madres adolescentes que estaban participando o no en un programa instaurado en Jamaica para abordar el grave problema que en este país representan los embarazos repetidos en adolescentes. Métodos. Se usó un diseño de cohorte histórica para evaluar el impacto del Programa para Madres Adolescentes del Centro de Mujeres de la Fundación Jamaica (The Women's Centre of Jamaica Foundation: WCJF sobre el uso de anticonceptivos en la poblaci

  6. Vaginal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or period, is a woman's monthly bleeding.Abnormal vaginal bleeding is different from normal menstrual periods. It ... therapy) Cancer of the cervix, ovaries, uterus or vagina Thyroid problems Bleeding during pregnancy can have several ...

  7. Estrogen Vaginal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menopause (change of life; the end of monthly menstrual periods). Femring® brand estradiol vaginal ring is also ... applicator. Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.

  8. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  9. Vaginal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients

  10. Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the normal and abnormal vaginal microbiome has changed over the last years. Culturing techniques are not suitable any more for determination of a normal or abnormal vaginal microbiota. Non culture-based modern technologies revealed a complex and dynamic system mainly dominated by lactobacilli.The normal and the abnormal vaginal microbiota are complex ecosystems of more than 200 bacterial species influenced by genes, ethnic background and environmental and behavioral factors. Several species of lactobacilli per individuum dominate the healthy vagina. They support a defense system together with antibacterial substances, cytokines, defensins and others against dysbiosis, infections and care for an normal pregnancy without preterm birth.The numbers of Lactobacillus (L.) iners increase in the case of dysbiosis.Bacterial vaginosis (BV) - associated bacteria (BVAB), Atopobium vaginae and Clostridiales and one or two of four Gardnerella vaginalis - strains develop in different mixtures and numbers polymicrobial biofilms on the vaginal epithelium, which are not dissolved by antibiotic therapies according to guidelines and, thus, provoke recurrences.Aerobic vaginitis seems to be an immunological disorder of the vagina with influence on the microbiota, which is here dominated by aerobic bacteria (Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli). Their role in AV is unknown.Vaginal or oral application of lactobacilli is obviously able to improve therapeutic results of BV and dysbiosis.

  11. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  12. Initiation of effective postpartum contraceptive use in public hospitals in Guatemala Inicio de un método anticonceptivo eficaz durante el puerperio en hospitales públicos de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Kestler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low frequency of effective contraceptive use remains a challenging problem. This article examines the frequency of effective postpartum contraception and the methods used before discharge in public hospitals in Guatemala. It also discusses the need to implement best practices in providing family-planning and contraceptive services. METHODS: In March 2006, a surveillance system was implemented to collect data on the initiation of effective contraceptive methods. Postpartum women were monitored in 34 public hospitals. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed, and a chi-square test for linear trends was used to compare female surgical sterilization rates after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. RESULTS: Between 1 March 2006 and 31 December 2008, of the 218 656 women who had a postpartum event, 31% received an effective contraceptive method before hospital discharge. The frequency of initiation of effective postpartum methods varied across hospitals. Hospital results were consistent with national data on women of reproductive age. Among women who underwent surgical sterilization, differences between those who had delivered vaginally and those who had a cesarean section were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The overall frequency of initiation of effective postpartum contraceptive use is low in public hospitals in Guatemala. It is higher, however, in hospitals at lower health care levels with strong community ties. Routine data collection revealed specific areas for improvement, particularly the need to enhance health providers' knowledge of medical eligibility criteria for effective contraceptive use postpartum. The priority is to promote the provision of highquality family-planning and contraceptive services in Guatemala's public health system.OBJETIVO: La baja frecuencia del uso de métodos anticonceptivos eficaces sigue siendo un arduo problema. En este artículo se analiza la frecuencia con que se adopta un m

  13. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Assisted Vaginal Delivery Home For Patients Search FAQs Assisted Vaginal ... Vaginal Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF Format Assisted Vaginal Delivery Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What is ...

  14. El método anticonceptivo de emergencia: un derecho constitucional

    OpenAIRE

    Valladares Tayupanta, Lola

    2006-01-01

    Los anticonceptivos de emergencia son métodos para evitar el embarazo después de haber tenido relaciones sexuales sin la protección adecuada. La anticoncepción de emergencia se utiliza generalmente cuando se rompe un condón, en caso de una violación sexual u otras relaciones sexuales no protegidas. La anticoncepción de emergencia actúa respecto de los espermatozoides impidiendo que éstos puedan migrar o alterando su capacidad de adherirse a las células de la trompa, inhibiendo así su capa...

  15. Fenotipo turneriano asociado al cromosoma Y en anillo TURNER'S PHENOTYPE ASSOCIATED WITH RING Y CHROMOSOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Morales Peralta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Turner es una enfermedad que típicamente afecta a las hembras. En nuestro trabajo describimos un paciente con los signos principales de esta. Su cariotipo fue 46, X r(Y /45, X. Este mosaicismo se explica por la inestabilidad del anillo cromosómico que conduce a su pérdida luego de la mitosis. Mediante pruebas moleculares, que incluyeron la identificación de los genes SRY y AM-XY, obtuvimos los resultados habituales encontrados en varones. De estos hallazgos podemos concluir que el material genético perdido, como parte del proceso de formación del anillo cromosómico, es distal a Y p11.3. Esto demuestra que los genes anti-Turner se encuentran localizados en esta región pseudoautosómica.Turner's syndrome is a disease typically affecting females. In our paper, we describe a patient with its main signs. His karyotype was 46, Xr(Y/45,X. This mosaicism is explained by the instability of the chromosomic ring leading to its loss after mitosis. By molecular tests, including the identification of SRY and AM-XY genes, we obtained the usual results found in males. According to these findings, we can conclude that the genetical material lost as part of the process of formation of the chromosomic ring is distal to Y p 11.3. This shows that the anti-Turner genes are located in this pseudoautosomal region.

  16. Conocimiento y uso de anticonceptivos entre los jóvenes mexicanos. El papel del género

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Casique

    2011-01-01

    Con base en datos provenientes de la Encuesta Nacional sobre Violencia en el Noviazgo, levantada en 2007 entre jóvenes mexicanos de 15 a 24 años de edad, se exPlora el.nivel de conocimiento y uso de anticonceptivos en el contexto de las relaciones de noviazgo. Con este análisis se pretende evidenciar el rol que desempeñan las diversas características sociodemográficas de los jóvenes en el conocimiento y uso de anticonceptivos, con partic cular atención en el papel que juega el género. En gene...

  17. ESTADOS ENERGÉTICOS DE UNA IMPUREZA BI-HIDROGENOIDE CONFINADA EN UN ANILLO CUÁNTICO SEMICONDUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeison Montes-Valencia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Un modelo simple basado en la aproximación adiabática, se ha implementado para estudiar el espectro energético de una molécula de hidrógeno confinada en un anillo cuántico muy estrecho. El sistema completo se encuentra bajo la influencia de campos externos: magnético y de presión hidrostática. Los resultados muestran la posibilidad de obtener moléculas artificiales cuyos parámetros característicos: longitud de equilibrio, energía de disociación y punto de retorno, pueden ser seleccionadas de antemano al cambiar los factores geométricos del anillo y las intensidades de los campos externos, hecho que contrasta con los valores que registra los valores inmodificables que impone la naturaleza a la molécula natural de hidrógeno.

  18. Consideraciones sobre planificación familiar: métodos anticonceptivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio González Labrador

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se realizó una revisión histórica sobre el desarrollo de cada uno de los métodos anticonceptivos que pueden ser usados como medios para evitar los embarazos no deseados y poder tener una adecuada planificación familiar. Se hace referencia a los efectos que los diferentes métodos anticoncepcionales pueden tener en la sexualidad humanaSummary A historical review on the development of each of the contraceptive methods that can be used to avoid unwanted pregnancies and to attain an adequate family planning was made. The effects that the different contraceptive methods may have on human sexuality were also approached.

  19. Hepatocarcinoma gigante unifocal en mujer con ingesta prolongada de anticonceptivos hormonales: ¿casualidad o causalidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR MANUEL LOPEZ MOURIÑO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de una paciente de mediana edad con ingesta mantenida de anticonceptivos hormonales (AH que desarrolla múltiples adenomas hepáticos (asociación bien documentada y un carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC unifocal gigante sin encontrar otros factores de riesgo para el mismo (enolismo, tabaquismo, cirrosis, hemocromatosis,..... Si bien en la literatura no hay unanimidad respecto a la asociación del consumo de AH con el CHC, algunos autores ya contemplaron esa posibilidad, excluyendo también otras etiologías reconocidas de CHC, por lo que debería reevaluarse si su asociación es aleatoria o por el contrario existe nexo causal.

  20. Longevidad y anillos de crecimiento en el Pino de la Virgen (El Paso, La Palma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Génova Fuester

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En el seno del proyecto de investigación que se está desarrollando en Canarias orientado a la reconstrucción de la variabilidad climática del Archipiélago a lo largo del último milenio a partir de la información climática contenida en los anillos de crecimiento de ejemplares de pino canario, uno de los árboles estudiados ha sido el célebre Pino de la Virgen de El Paso, La Palma. Su alto valor simbólico y cultural ha llevado a un análisis más detenido, centrado en la aplicación de técnicas específicas para la estimación de su edad.Within the framework of the investigation wich is being developed in the Canary Islans for the reconstruction of the last millennium climatic variability in the Archipelago from the climatic information recorded in canary pine tree-rings, one of the analized trees has been the renowed Pino de La VIrgen de El Paso, La Palma. Its high simbolic and cultural value deserved the application of specific techniques for the estimation of its age. 

  1. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... Spermicides and vaginal sponges do not work as well at preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide ...

  2. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - vaginal bleeding; Maternal blood loss - vaginal ... Up to 1 in 4 women have vaginal bleeding at some time during their pregnancy. Bleeding is more common in the first 3 months (first trimester), especially with twins.

  3. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts ...

  4. Relación entre el consumo de anticonceptivos orales y la endometriosis en pacientes sometidas a laparoscopia. Profamilia, Medellín, 1998-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Serna

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinar la relación entre el consumo de anticonceptivos orales y la prevalencia y severidad de la endometriosis en pacientes sometidas a laparoscopia por cualquier causa en Profamilia Medellín, entre julio de 1998 y abril de 1999. El 24.8% del grupo que recibió anticonceptivos tenía endometriosis comparado con el 44.5% del grupo que no los recibió. No hubo asociación entre el consumo de
    anticonceptivos y el grado, tipo o localización de las lesiones. Tampoco se encontró asociación entre tiempo de uso, dosis y tiempo de suspensión de los anticonceptivos con la prevalencia de endometriosis.

  5. Conocimiento y uso de anticonceptivos entre los jóvenes mexicanos. El papel del género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Casique

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en datos provenientes de la Encuesta Nacional sobre Violencia en el Noviazgo, levantada en 2007 entre jóvenes mexicanos de 15 a 24 años de edad, se exPlora el.nivel de conocimiento y uso de anticonceptivos en el contexto de las relaciones de noviazgo. Con este análisis se pretende evidenciar el rol que desempeñan las diversas características sociodemográficas de los jóvenes en el conocimiento y uso de anticonceptivos, con partic cular atención en el papel que juega el género. En general se observan diferencias importantes entre los factores relacionados con el uso de anticonceptivos alguna vez y los factores asociados al uso del condón en las relaciones con la pareja actual. El uso de anticonceptivos aparece asociado positivamente tanto entre los hombres como entre las mujeres con las condiciones socioeconómicas más favorables, con más conocimientos sobre los anticonceptivos, y con un mayor número de compañeros sexuales (sólo para los varones. Entre las mujeres también el hecho de ser estudiante favorece el uso de anticonceptivos. No obstante, cuando se incorporan al análisis elementos proPios de la relación de noviazgo y secircunscribe el análisis a la frecuencia de uso del condón en las relaciones sexuales con la pareja actual, pierden relevancia los factores objetivos y cobran significancia ciertos elementos más subjetivos propios de la relación: la diferencia de edad con la pareja (Para hombres y mujeres, la duración del noviazgo (Para las mujeres, quién decide cuándo y cómo tener sexo (Para los hombres, el apoyo que ofrece la pareja (sólo los hombres, la actitud hacia los roles de género (en el caso de los hombres, y la presen¬cia de violencia emocional (Para los hombres y de violencia física.

  6. MRI of vaginal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, C.; Balogun, M.; Ganesan, R.; Olliff, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the assessment of suspected vaginal pathology. This pictorial review demonstrates the MRI features and some of the histopathological findings of a variety of vaginal conditions. These may be congenital (total vaginal agenesis, partial vaginal agenesis, longitudinal vaginal septum, transverse vaginal septum), benign (Bartholin's cyst, diffuse vaginal inflammation, invasive endometriosis, ureterovaginal fistula, post-surgical appearances with the formation of a neovagina and adhesions) or malignant, usually due to extension or recurrence from another pelvic malignancy. In this paper, examples of the above are described and illustrated together with examples of the much rarer primary vaginal malignancies

  7. MRI of vaginal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, C. [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: carolina.lopez@bwhct.nhs.uk; Balogun, M. [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Ganesan, R. [Department of Histopathology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Olliff, J.F. [University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the assessment of suspected vaginal pathology. This pictorial review demonstrates the MRI features and some of the histopathological findings of a variety of vaginal conditions. These may be congenital (total vaginal agenesis, partial vaginal agenesis, longitudinal vaginal septum, transverse vaginal septum), benign (Bartholin's cyst, diffuse vaginal inflammation, invasive endometriosis, ureterovaginal fistula, post-surgical appearances with the formation of a neovagina and adhesions) or malignant, usually due to extension or recurrence from another pelvic malignancy. In this paper, examples of the above are described and illustrated together with examples of the much rarer primary vaginal malignancies.

  8. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Vaginal Cancer Vaginal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and ...

  9. El Señor de los Anillos. El retorno del Rey", soberbio final de la Trilogía

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The Lord of the Rings. The Return of the King (2003) culmina de forma magistral la trilogía que había iniciado apoteósicamente The Fellowship of the Ring (2001) y continuado con The Two Towers (2002). En ella podemos ver el desarrollo de las dos historias principales que se habían originado tras la división de La Compañía en el final de la primera entrega: por un lado, Sam y Frodo con la misión original de destruir el Anillo; por el otro, Aragorn, Legolas, Gimli, Pippin, Merry y Gandalf, que ...

  10. Validación del ritmo de formación de los anillos de crecimiento en otolitos del jurel Trachurus murphyiNichols 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Goicochea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados de la validación del crecimiento del jurel Trachurus murphyipor tres técnicas: 1 validación del primer anillo anual mediante lectura de microincrementos diarios; 2 análisis del crecimiento del radio del otolito entre el segundo y tercer anillo, siguiendo una cohorte; y, 3 lectura convencional de anillos anuales. Los resultados demostraron que la edad promedio de jureles T. murphyicon el primer anillo completamente formado fue de 364.8 días, con una talla media de 19.5 cm, y que el incremento promedio del segundo al tercer anillo fue de 0.62 mm. Se estimaron los parámetros de crecimiento L oo= 75.17 cm, k= 0.165/año, t o = -0.817año y se discuten estos resultados destacándose que estos parámetros indican que el jurelT. murphyiperuano crece más rápido que el jurel T. murphyichileno. Las mediciones del radio del primer anillo anual alcanzaron valores hasta 18% más altos que los reportados por otros autores para el jurel chileno, y las medidas del radio de otolitos de individuos de dos y tres años fueron hasta 20% más altas. La longitud promedio de ejemplares de jurel peruano de un año de edad es aproximadamente 35% mayor que la del jurel chileno obtenida por otros autores. El índice de crecimiento phi prima (Ø’de jurel peruano obtenido en este estudio y en otros, evidencia patrones de crecimiento similares, por el bajo valor del coeficiente de variación (1%, y que es menor al 7% obtenido por otros autores para el jurel T. murphyide más al sur.

  11. HISTORIA SOBRE EL PAPEL DE LAS HORMONAS Y LOS ANTICONCEPTIVOS EN EL LUPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Peñaranda-Parada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Tarea difícil y prolongada sería revisar la literatura para aquellos que quieran conocer el inicio de una serie de descubrimientos acerca de hormonas y lupus. Ante esto, nos hemos propuesto el objetivo de encontrar datos acerca de cómo las hormonas pueden tener una relación con la patogénesis del lupus. De esta manera hemos revisado los artículos publicados desde el inicio del siglo XX hasta su final, para poder recabar y poner en un orden esos descubrimientos y reconocer los méritos de los diferentes investigadores.

    Palabras clave: Anticonceptivos hormonales, lupus eritematoso sistémico.

    Historic View on the Role of Hormones and Hormonal Contraceptives in Pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus 

    Abstract

    Those interested in knowing a number of discoveries that link hormones and systemic lupus could face a long and troublesome search. This way, our objective in paper is to find data that shows an effect of hormones in lupus pathogenesis. Articles published on the subject since the beginning of the 20th Century until its end, were reviewed. Importance of discoveries and merits of different investigators were placed in perspective.

    Key words: oral contraceptives, systemic lupus.

  12. EL poder de la sabiduría, el heroismo y la humildad. Una interpretación de "El Señor de los anillos"

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Córdova, Genara; Zorroza, Idoya

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo es una reflexión acerca de la sabiduría, la fortaleza y la humildad en algunos personajes de la obra literaria «El señor de los anillos" This article is a reflection on the wisdom, strength, and humility in some characters of the literary work "The Lord of the rings"

  13. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  14. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAGINAL & VULVAR CANCER Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer There are five main types of cancer that affect a woman’s reproductive organs: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar. As a group, they are referred ...

  15. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Valoración de las nuevas vías de administración de anticonceptivos hormonales por sus usuarias

    OpenAIRE

    Alén de la Torre, Mª Teresa; Martínez Leirós, Marta; Pereiro Álvarez, Mª Dolores; Ferreira Meira, Manuela; García, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    En los últimos años la disponibilidad de presentaciones de anticonceptivos hormonales se ha incrementado notablemente ya que la prevención de embarazos no deseados se valora como una de las principales medidas preventivas dentro de un sistema sanitario desarrollado. La eficacia de los anticonceptivos orales, usados adecuadamente, supera el 99%. En el uso habitual la efectividad se sitúa en torno al 92%, lo que parece indicar que el cumplimiento en muchas mujeres no es perfecto1. Nuevas vías d...

  17. Factores incidentes en el uso de métodos anticonceptivos en la población adolescente y adulta joven en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sánchez-Retana; Rolando Leiva-Granados

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: analizar los factores que inciden en el uso de métodos anticonceptivos de la población adolescente y adulta joven de Costa Rica (entre 15 y 35 años de edad). Métodos: Por medio de los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Juventud 2007 y la metodología basada en el Modelo Probit binario con corrección de sesgos de selección mediante Heckman, se modela la decisión de uso de anticonceptivos con base en diferentes características personales y socioeconómicas. Resultados: se muestra que la...

  18. Embarazo no deseado en adolescentes, y utilización de métodos anticonceptivos posparto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez-Urquiza Rosa María

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la proporción de embarazo no deseado en adolescentes, su asociación con características sociodemográficas y la utilización de anticonceptivos posparto. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal con una muestra de 220 mujeres adolescentes entre 13 y 19 años de edad, de dos municipios semiurbanos del estado de Morelos, México, entrevistadas entre 1992 y 1994. Las mujeres fueron entrevistadas en su casa entre seis y 12 semanas después del parto. Se les preguntó si antes de embarazarse desearon el último embarazo. Además, se indagó sobre conocimientos y uso de métodos anticonceptivos posparto. RESULTADOS: Un 17% de todos los nacimientos registrados en la población total en ese periodo fueron producto de madres adolescentes. De éstas, 22.73% declararon que su embarazo no fue deseado. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre no tener derecho de acceso a los servicios de salud de las instituciones del sistema de seguridad social -Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE- y embarazo no deseado (RM ajustada=3.03, IC 95% 1.31, 7. Asimismo, las adolescentes de comunidades urbanas manifestaron no deseo del embarazo con mayor frecuencia que las mujeres de comunidades rurales (RM ajustada=2.16, IC 95% 1.08, 4.33. Un 91.3% de las madres adolescentes enunció la píldora anticonceptiva entre los métodos que conocía. Un 84.72% conocía el DIU y 63.68% el condón. Sin embargo, sólo 35% estaba utilizando algún método anticonceptivo efectivo después de las seis semanas posparto. No se encontró diferencia en la frecuencia de uso de anticonceptivos según deseo del último embarazo. Entre quienes se atendieron el parto en centros de salud u hospital sólo 43.39% estaba utilizando algún método efectivo de planificación familiar. CONCLUSIONES: Estos hallazgos sugieren que los programas de planificación familiar tienen un

  19. Vaginal microbiota in menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Martinus Tarina; Larisa Paramitha; Evita Halim Effendi; Shannaz Nadia Yusharyahya; Hanny Nilasari; Wresti Indriatmi

    2016-01-01

    The human vagina together with its resident, microbiota, comprise a dynamic ecosystem. Normal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus species, and pathogen microbiota such as Gardnerella species and Bacteroides species can occur due to decrease in Lactobacillus domination. Lactobacillus plays an essential role in keeping normal vaginal microbiota in balance. Vaginal microbiota adapts to pH change and hormonal value. Changes in the vaginal microbiota over a woman’s lifespan will influence the...

  20. Vaginitis: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, S

    1996-01-01

    The various conditions that give rise to vaginitis include specific and nonspecific entities, such as candidiasis, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, group B streptococcal vaginitis, purulent vaginitis, volvodynia, and vestibulitis. The patient with chronic vaginitis usually develops this condition because of a misdiagnosis. It is critical that patients who have chronic vaginitis be thoroughly evaluated to determine if there is a specific etiology and whether their condition is recurrent or persistent, or is a reinfection. This also must include obtaining a detailed history, beginning with the patient's best recollection of when she felt perfectly normal. The physician must have an understanding of a healthy vaginal ecosystem and what mechanisms are in place to maintain the equilibrium. The vaginal ecosystem is a complex system of micro-organisms interacting with host factors to maintain its equilibrium. The endogenous microflora consists of a variety of bacteria, which include aerobic, facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria. These organisms exist in a commensal, synergistic or antagonistic relationship. Therefore, it is important to understand what factors control the delicate equilibrium of the vaginal ecosystem, and which factors, both endogenous and exogenous, can disrupt this system. It is also important for the physician to understand that when a patient has symptoms of vaginitis it is not always due to an infectious etiology. There are situations in which an inflammatory reaction occurs but the specific etiology may not be determined. Thus, it is important that the physician not rush through the history or the examination.

  1. Factores incidentes en el uso de métodos anticonceptivos en la población adolescente y adulta joven en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez-Retana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analizar los factores que inciden en el uso de métodos anticonceptivos de la población adolescente y adulta joven de Costa Rica (entre 15 y 35 años de edad. Métodos: Por medio de los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Juventud 2007 y la metodología basada en el Modelo Probit binario con corrección de sesgos de selección mediante Heckman, se modela la decisión de uso de anticonceptivos con base en diferentes características personales y socioeconómicas. Resultados: se muestra que la edad de la persona y la de la pareja, la estabilidad de la relación y pertenecer a la zona urbana son factores que disminuyen la probabilidad de uso de anticonceptivos. Por otro lado, ser mujer, tener educación universitaria, haber recibido información sobre anticonceptivos e infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS, la frecuencia de las relaciones y contar con una relación familiar de apoyo son factores que incrementan la posibilidad de protección mediante el uso de métodos anticonceptivos. Conclusiones: Estos resultados pueden ayudar en el diseño de políticas para prevenir el embarazo adolescente y la transmisión de ITS. Además, se resalta la importancia de brindar educación sexual tanto a los jóvenes como a sus familias más allá de incentivar la abstinencia, de manera que se motive a tener una vida sexual responsable.

  2. Factores incidentes en el uso de métodos anticonceptivos en la población adolescente y adulta joven en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez-Retana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analizar los factores que inciden en el uso de métodos anticonceptivos de la población adolescente y adulta joven de Costa Rica (entre 15 y 35 años de edad. Métodos: Por medio de los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Juventud 2007 y la metodología basada en el Modelo Probit binario con corrección de sesgos de selección mediante Heckman, se modela la decisión de uso de anticonceptivos con base en diferentes características personales y socioeconómicas. Resultados: se muestra que la edad de la persona y la de la pareja, la estabilidad de la relación y pertenecer a la zona urbana son factores que disminuyen la probabilidad de uso de anticonceptivos. Por otro lado, ser mujer, tener educación universitaria, haber recibido información sobre anticonceptivos e infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS, la frecuencia de las relaciones y contar con una relación familiar de apoyo son factores que incrementan la posibilidad de protección mediante el uso de métodos anticonceptivos. Conclusiones: Estos resultados pueden ayudar en el diseño de políticas para prevenir el embarazo adolescente y la transmisión de ITS. Además, se resalta la importancia de brindar educación sexual tanto a los jóvenes como a sus familias más allá de incentivar la abstinencia, de manera que se motive a tener una vida sexual responsable.

  3. Vaginal or uterine bleeding - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other menstrual conditions; Abnormal menstrual periods; Abnormal vaginal bleeding ... There are many causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding. HORMONES ... Doctors call the problem abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) . AUB ...

  4. Vaginal toxic shock reaction triggering desquamative inflammatory vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D; Schlievert, Patrick M; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to report 2 cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Case report of 2 patients, 1 with an acute and 1 with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with desquamative inflammatory vaginitis on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pretreatment and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial culture results after oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction.

  5. Vaginal drug distribution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David F; Yuan, Andrew; Gao, Yajing

    2015-09-15

    This review presents and applies fundamental mass transport theory describing the diffusion and convection driven mass transport of drugs to the vaginal environment. It considers sources of variability in the predictions of the models. It illustrates use of model predictions of microbicide drug concentration distribution (pharmacokinetics) to gain insights about drug effectiveness in preventing HIV infection (pharmacodynamics). The modeling compares vaginal drug distributions after different gel dosage regimens, and it evaluates consequences of changes in gel viscosity due to aging. It compares vaginal mucosal concentration distributions of drugs delivered by gels vs. intravaginal rings. Finally, the modeling approach is used to compare vaginal drug distributions across species with differing vaginal dimensions. Deterministic models of drug mass transport into and throughout the vaginal environment can provide critical insights about the mechanisms and determinants of such transport. This knowledge, and the methodology that obtains it, can be applied and translated to multiple applications, involving the scientific underpinnings of vaginal drug distribution and the performance evaluation and design of products, and their dosage regimens, that achieve it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Vaginal Cell Populations during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Fidel, Paul L.; Luo, Wei; Steele, Chad; Chabain, Joseph; Baker, Marc; Wormley, Floyd

    1999-01-01

    Studies with an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is more important than systemic CMI for protection against vaginitis. The present study, however, showed that, compared to uninfected mice, little to no change in the percentage or types of vaginal T cells occurred during a primary vaginal infection or during a secondary vaginal infection where partial protection was observed. Furthermore, depletion of polymorphonuclear leuko...

  7. Vaginal Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-thirds of vaginal cancer cases are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Vaccines that protect against infection with HPV may reduce the risk of vaginal cancer. When found early, vaginal cancer can often be cured. Start here to find information on vaginal cancer treatment and research.

  8. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  9. Can Vaginitis Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examples of safe sex. 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Self-study STD module—vaginitis . ... Halvorson New Chief of Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, ...

  10. Contextualización del inicio sexual y barreras individuales del uso de anticonceptivos en adolescentes de Lima, Huamanga e Iquitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Carmona

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivos . Contextualizar el inicio sexual y las barreras individuales hacia el uso de anticonceptivos en adolescentes, con conocimiento adecuados sobre anticoncepción y enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Materiales y métodos. Se desarrolló un estudio cuanticualitativo en adolescentes procedentes de ciudades con altas tasas de embarazo: Iquitos, Huamanga y Lima. La convocatoria se realizó a través de Facebook, luego se aplicaron encuestas para seleccionar a los adolescentes que cumplían los criterios de inclusión y, finalmente, se realizaron entrevistas para abordar el tema en profundidad. Resultados . Participaron 33 mujeres y 23 varones adolescentes urbanos, con edades entre 18 y 19 años. La edad de inicio sexual osciló entre los 14 y 16 años; las principales razones de inicio sexual en los varones fue el deseo sexual; en las mujeres fue la presión de la pareja; la persona con la que se iniciaron fue, principalmente, una pareja ocasional en los varones, y en las mujeres fue "su enamorado". Se identificaron barreras individuales en relación al uso de anticonceptivos como la estabilidad de la pareja, la responsabilidad de la mujer al usar anticonceptivos, la limitada capacidad de negociación y temor al abandono del varón por exigir su uso, además de la reducción de la sensibilidad sexual generada por el uso del condón. Conclusiones. Estas barreras limitan el uso de anticonceptivos, sugiriendo la necesidad de desarrollar estrategias específicas para fortalecer las habilidades interpersonales del adolescente que se extienden más allá de ofrecer información acerca de los riesgos del sexo sin protección.

  11. Estudio de la evolución y técnica de regulación de la corriente persistente en anillos superconductores de YBCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quelle, I.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a study of the relation between the density of trapped vortices and the current evolution and a technique for controlling the current from its critical value in YBCO rings, are performed. To generate the persistent current in the rings, an inducting technique called field cooling is used. Combining the field cooling technique with magnetic fields in opposite direction to the inducting one, the density of trapped vortices decreases and the current decay also decreases. Then, a part of the sample is heated to decrease the current to the desired value, which is checked using a Hall sensor.

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio de la evolución de corriente en función de la densidad de vórtices atrapados y se presenta una técnica para regular la corriente partiendo del valor crítico, en anillos superconductores de YBCO. Para generar una corriente persistente en los anillos se utiliza un método de tipo inductivo, denominado field cooling, que combinado con campos magnéticos en sentido contrario al inductor permite disminuir la densidad de vórtices atrapados y se logra también disminuir el decaimiento de corriente. Una vez que se ha inducido la corriente crítica en los anillos una zona muy localizada de éstos se calienta hasta que el superconductor alcanza el valor deseado de corriente, lo cual se comprueba mediante la medida de campo magnético con una sonda Hall.

  12. Vaginal microbiota in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinus Tarina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human vagina together with its resident, microbiota, comprise a dynamic ecosystem. Normal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus species, and pathogen microbiota such as Gardnerella species and Bacteroides species can occur due to decrease in Lactobacillus domination. Lactobacillus plays an essential role in keeping normal vaginal microbiota in balance. Vaginal microbiota adapts to pH change and hormonal value. Changes in the vaginal microbiota over a woman’s lifespan will influence the colonization of pathogenic microbes. They include changes in child, puberty, reproductive state, menopause, and postmenopause. Estrogen levels change will affect the colonization of pathogenic microbium, leading to genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Vulvovaginal atrophy is often found in postmenopausal women, and dominated by L. iners, Anaerococcus sp, Peptoniphilus sp, Prevotella sp, and Streptococcus sp. The normal vaginal microbiota’s imbalance in menopause will cause diseases such as bacterial vaginosis, and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis due to hormonal therapies. Changes in the vaginal microbiota due to bacterial vaginosis are characterized by decrease in H2O2-producing Lactobacillus. They are also caused by the increase in numbers and concentration of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and other anaerob species such as Peptostreptococci, Prevotella spp, and Mobiluncus spp.

  13. After vaginal delivery - in the hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    After vaginal birth; Pregnancy - after vaginal delivery; Postpartum care - after vaginal delivery ... blood pressure, heart rate, and the amount of vaginal bleeding Check to make sure your uterus is ...

  14. Vaginal Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is often squamous cell carcinoma. Other types of vaginal cancer are adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and sarcoma. Infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) causes most vaginal cancer. Find evidence-based information on vaginal cancer treatment and research.

  15. Vaginal Microbiomes Associated With Aerobic Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Kaambo; Evelyn Kaambo; Evelyn Kaambo; Charlene Africa; Ramadhani Chambuso; Ramadhani Chambuso; Jo-Ann Shelley Passmore; Jo-Ann Shelley Passmore; Jo-Ann Shelley Passmore

    2018-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. However, certain vaginal bacterial commensal species serve an important first line of defense of the body. Any disruption of this microbial barrier might result in a number of urogenital conditions including aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The health of the vagina is closely associated with inhabitant microbiota. Furthermore, these microbes maintain a low...

  16. Aerobic vaginitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Ggg; Bellen, G; Rezeberga, D

    2011-09-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alteration in vaginal bacterial flora that differs from bacterial vaginosis (BV). AV is characterised by an abnormal vaginal microflora accompanied by an increased localised inflammatory reaction and immune response, as opposed to the suppressed immune response that is characteristic of BV. Given the increased local production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and IL-8 associated with AV during pregnancy, not surprisingly AV is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis and funisitis of the fetus. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment for AV in pregnant or non-pregnant women, but a broader spectrum drug such as clindamycin is preferred above metronidazole to prevent infection-related preterm birth. The exact role of AV in pregnancy, the potential benefit of screening, and the use of newer local antibiotics, disinfectants, probiotics and immune modulators need further study. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  17. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in detergents, fabric softeners, creams, ointments, ...

  18. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000627.htm Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy To use the sharing ... JavaScript. One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their 3rd trimester. At times, it ...

  19. Analysis of Vaginal Cell Populations during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, Paul L.; Luo, Wei; Steele, Chad; Chabain, Joseph; Baker, Marc; Wormley, Floyd

    1999-01-01

    Studies with an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is more important than systemic CMI for protection against vaginitis. The present study, however, showed that, compared to uninfected mice, little to no change in the percentage or types of vaginal T cells occurred during a primary vaginal infection or during a secondary vaginal infection where partial protection was observed. Furthermore, depletion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) had no effect on infection in the presence or absence of pseudoestrus. These results indicate a lack of demonstrable effects by systemic CMI or PMN against vaginitis and suggest that if local T cells are important, they are functioning without showing significant increases in numbers within the vaginal mucosa during infection. PMID:10338532

  20. Is vaginal hyaluronic acid as effective as vaginal estriol for vaginal dryness relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Petra

    2013-12-01

    In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel- group trial hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (Hyalofemme) was compared to estriol vaginal cream (Ovestin) in women with vaginal dryness due to various causes. A total of 144 supposedly postmenopausal women below age 70 years were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either receive hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (5 g per application) or estriol vaginal cream (0.5 g cream per application = 0.5 mg estriol) every 3 days for a total of ten applications, respectively. Exclusion criteria included vaginal infections, conventional contraindications to estrogens, use of vaginal products other than the investigational compounds, being unmarried, pregnant, or breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to test for non-inferiority of hyaluronic acid vaginal gel compared to estriol vaginal cream. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage (%) improvement in vaginal dryness, with the secondary end points being the percentage (%) improvements in vaginal itching, burning, and dyspareunia. Efficacy was assessed by using a visual analog scale (VAS) (0-10; 0 = absent, 10 = intolerable) at baseline (V0), during telephone contact after the third administration (V1), and at the final visit after the tenth administration (V2). Safety parameters included vaginal pH, endometrial thickness, and a vaginal smear for vaginal microecosystem assessment. Adverse events were recorded according to international guidelines. 133 women completed the study. At baseline, participants' characteristics did not differ significantly. Mean age was 54 years, time since menopause was 5 years on average, and cause of menopause was mostly natural. However, mean menstrual cycle days were also reported, although according to inclusion criteria only postmenopausal women were eligible for the study. At V1, an improvement in vaginal dryness was reported by about 49 % of women using hyaluronic acid vaginal gel, and by 53 % of women using estriol vaginal cream (p = 0

  1. El poder de la sabiduría, el heroísmo y la humildad. Una interpretación de "El Señor de los anillos"

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Córdova, Genara; Zorroza, Idoya

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo es una reflexión acerca de la sabiduría, la fortaleza y la humildad en algunos personajes de la obra literaria «El señor de los anillos" This article is a reflection on the wisdom, strength, and humility in some characters of the literary work "The Lord of the rings"

  2. 166. Anuloplastia con anillo Carpentier-McCarthy-Adams IMR ETlogix® en la insuficiencia mitral isquémica crónica. Resultados a medio plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Martín López

    2010-01-01

    Conclusiones: La anuloplastia con anillo Carpentier-Mc-Carthy-Adams IMR ETlogix® en la insuficiencia mitral isquémica crónica presenta unos aceptables resultados a medio plazo, con una corrección efectiva y durable de la insuficiencia mitral.

  3. Anillo mitral asimétrico en la corrección de la insuficiencia mitral isquémica crónica: resultados clínicos y predictores ecocardiográficos de recidiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Iglesias-Gil

    2017-07-01

    Conclusiones: La anuloplastia con anillo IMR ETlogix® es una técnica segura y eficaz para corregir la IM isquémica crónica, fundamentalmente en pacientes con una altura de tenting preoperatoria inferior a 10,65 mm.

  4. Cómo y cuando el levonorgestrel previene el embarazo cuando se administra como anticonceptivo de emergencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz, Maria Elena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La anticoncepción hormonal de emergencia (AHE es uno de los pocos recursos que la mujer puede usar para prevenir un embarazo no deseado después de haber tenido una relación sexual en la que no usó método anticonceptivo o el que usó presentó una falla. Actualmente, el método preferido para la AHE es la píldora que contiene solamente levonorgestrel (LNG. Según la OMS, puede prevenir embarazos si se usa hasta 120 horas después del acto sexual, pero su eficacia disminuye drásticamente desde 85% a 31% mientras más se posterga su administración. La introducción de la AHE ha generado controversia en muchos países latinoamericanos por la percepción errónea de que induce aborto y la oposición de los sectores más conservadores de la sociedad que temen que favorezca la promiscuidad. Con el propósito de dar a conocer la evidencia científica producida por las investigaciones diseñadas para dilucidar como el LNG previene el embarazo cuando se administra como AHE, y su correcta interpretación, este artículo analiza críticamente dichos estudios y explica además en que circunstancias este método no logra prevenir el embarazo. El conjunto de la evidencia indica que LNG previene el embarazo solamente cuando impide la fecundación y descarta que el prevenga el embarazo interfiriendo con la implantación del embrión, por lo que la creencia de que es abortivo no tiene sustento científico.

  5. Menopause and the vaginal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhleisen, Alicia L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2016-09-01

    For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded. The objective of this review is to compare the changes that have been identified in the vaginal microbiota of menopausal women, outline alterations in the microbiome associated with specific menopausal symptoms, and define how hormone replacement therapy impacts the vaginal microbiome and menopausal symptoms; it concludes by considering the potential of probiotics to reinstate vaginal homeostasis following menopause. This review details the studies that support the role of Lactobacillus species in maintaining vaginal homeostasis and how the vaginal microbiome structure in postmenopausal women changes with decreasing levels of circulating estrogen. In addition, the associated transformations in the microanatomical features of the vaginal epithelium that can lead to vaginal symptoms associated with menopause are described. Furthermore, hormone replacement therapy directly influences the dominance of Lactobacillus in the microbiota and can resolve vaginal symptoms. Oral and vaginal probiotics hold great promise and initial studies complement the findings of previous research efforts concerning menopause and the vaginal microbiome; however, additional trials are required to determine the efficacy of bacterial therapeutics to modulate or restore vaginal homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conocimientos sobre métodos anticonceptivos y conductas de salud sexual y reproductiva de las mujeres del Hospital Materno Provincial de Córdoba

    OpenAIRE

    Maiztegui, Laura Carolina

    2009-01-01

    Tesis (Doctor) -- Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Médica Introducción: Se estudio a las mujeres, multíparas, donde se indago el nivel de conocimiento que tienen sobre métodos anticonceptivos y la adopción de conductas de salud sexual y reproductiva investigando la realidad nos revela que existen obstáculos culturales y de género que debemos transformar socialmente para mantener la salud de este grupo específico Objetivos: Determinar el grado de conocimiento que poseen...

  7. Factores biosocioculturales y uso de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres que acuden al hospital Elpidio Berovidez Pérez, Otuzco 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Jara, Clara Luz

    2015-01-01

    La investigación tuvo como objetivo general, determinar la relación entre los factores biosocioculturales: edad, estado civil, religión, escolaridad, rol de género con el uso de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres que acuden al consultorio de obstetricia del Hospital Elpidio Berovidez Pérez, Otuzco 2014, fue de tipo cuantitativo–prospectivo, la muestra estuvo constituida por 115 mujeres de una población de 390, los datos se obtuvieron con la técnica de la entrevista. Obteniéndose los siguiente...

  8. Conocimiento y uso de métodos anticonceptivos en los adolescentes del distrito de Nueva Cajamarca en el año 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Núñez, María Candelaria

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue estudiar la relación existente entre el nivel de conocimiento y el uso de métodos anticonceptivos en los adolescentes del distrito de Nueva Cajamarca. La información que permitió arribar a las conclusiones procedió de la aplicación de dos cuestionarios mediante los cuales se recogió información de 175 adolescentes varones y mujeres entre 14 y 19 años, sexualmente activos. La Hipótesis alterna que se manejó establecía la existencia de una...

  9. Factores biosocioculturales y uso de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres que acuden al Hospital Elpidio Berovidez Pérez, Otuzco 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Jara, Clara Luz

    2016-01-01

    La investigación tuvo como objetivo general, determinar la relación entre los factores biosocioculturales: edad, estado civil, religión, escolaridad, rol de género con el uso de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres que acuden al consultorio de obstetricia del Hospital Elpidio Berovidez Pérez, Otuzco 2014, fue de tipo cuantitativo–prospectivo, la muestra estuvo constituida por 115 mujeres de una población de 390, los datos se obtuvieron con la técnica de la entrevista. Obteniéndose los siguiente...

  10. Tromboembolismo pulmonar e anticonceptivos orais – a propósito de um caso clínico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Matos

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A propósito de um caso de Tromboembolismo Pulmonar (TEP, em mulher jovem a fazer anticonceptivo oral (ACO, os AA fazem uma revisão sumária dos ACO como factor de risco no TEP. SUMMARY: In reference to a clinical case of Pulmonary Thromboembolism (PTE in a young woman taking oral contraceptives (OC, the authors review the role of OC as a risk factor in PTE. Palavras-chave: Contracepção oral, Tromboembolismo pulmonar, Factores de risco vascular, Key-words: Oral contraception, Pulmonary embolism, Vascular risk factors

  11. Vaginal health in contraceptive vaginal ring users - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Iñaki; Cuesta, María C; Marín, Juan M; Guerra, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    To provide an overview of the available data from clinical studies of vaginal conditions in women who use a vaginal ring as a contraceptive. A systematic review of the literature. Millions of women have already used the ethylene vinyl acetate vaginal ring that releases ethinylestradiol and etonogestrel for contraception. Because of its small size, more than four out of five women using the ring report that they do not feel it, even during sexual intercourse. No colposcopic or cytological changes have been observed in users, although approximately 10% have increased vaginal discharge. While in vitro studies have shown adhesion of Candida yeasts to the vaginal ring surface, clinical studies have not demonstrated a greater incidence of Candida infections compared to users of equivalent oral contraceptives. Some clinical studies suggest a lower incidence of bacterial vaginosis. No interaction exists between concomitant use of the vaginal ring and other drugs or products for vaginal use. The use of a contraceptive vaginal ring does not alter the vaginal ecosystem and therefore does not substantially affect vaginal health.

  12. Resultados del tratamiento con anillos de Ferrara en pacientes con diagnóstico de queratocono Results of the treatment of patients diagnosed with keratoconus using Ferrara rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Cuevas Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los resultados del tratamiento con anillos de Ferrara en pacientes con queratocono. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo descriptivo en 17 ojos de 12 pacientes de uno y otro sexos con diagnóstico de queratocono, operados con anillos intraestromales de Ferrara, y se evaluó la refracción dinámica y queratometría topográfica preoperatoria y a los 6 meses del posoperatorio de los pacientes, así como las complicaciones detectadas mediante biomicroscopia. Los datos fueron procesados con el uso del paquete profesional estadístico SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences versión 11.5. RESULTADOS: La agudeza visual sin y con corrección mejoró en 70,6 y 82,4 % respectivamente. El componente esférico y el astigmatismo evolucionaron favorablemente en 76,5 % de los pacientes. Las queratometrías en el meridiano fuerte mejoraron en 94,1 y el débil en 70,6 %. Las complicaciones no fueron significativas. Las opacidades perianulares fueron las más frecuentes en 29,4 % de los casos. CONCLUSIONES: El implante de anillos intraestromales de Ferrara constituye una alternativa quirúrgica y terapéutica eficaz para los pacientes portadores de queratocono.OBJECTIVES: This paper was aimed at evaluating the results of the treatment of patients with keratoconus using Ferrara rings. METHODS: A prospective and descriptive study of 17 eyes from 12 patients of both sexes, diagnosed with keratoconus and operated on with intrastromal Ferrara rigs was conducted. Dynamic refraction and topographic keratometry were assessed preoperatively and 6 months after the surgery as well as detected complications were analyzed using biomicroscopy. Data processing used SPSS package (Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 11.5. RESULTS: Visual acuity without and with correction improved in 70.6% and 82.4% of cases respectively. Spheral component and astigmatism positively evolved in 76,5% of patients

  13. Anatomía de anillos de crecimiento de 80 especies arbóreas potenciales para estudios dendrocronológicos en la Selva Central, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandro Adal Beltrán Gutiérrez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento acerca de la existencia de anillos anuales en árboles tropicales, se conoce desde principios del siglo pasado, pero fue ignorado por muchos científicos durante largo tiempo. La investigación fue realizada en el Laboratorio de Tecnología de la Madera e Industrias Forestales de la Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú, con la finalidad de caracterizar anatómicamente los anillos de crecimiento de 80 especies arbóreas potenciales para estudios dendrocronológicos; provenientes de las provincias de Satipo y Chanchamayo en la Selva Central del Perú. Para el estudio se consideraron las normas COPANT 30:1-019, Normas Técnicas Peruanas (NTP 251-008 y la Lista Estándar de la IAWA 1989. Entre los resultados más sobresalientes tenemos: el 30% de las ochenta especies estudiadas tienen buen potencial para estudios dendrocronológicos. La mayoría de estas especies, están delimitadas por una banda de fibras acortadas radialmente. Entre los problemas encontrados, se puede destacar la presencia de anillos con dificultad para ser visualizados, la presencia de anillos irregulares y la presencia de parénquima en bandas. Las características microscópicas, muestran que la variación significativa en dimensiones de fibras y vasos entre zonas de crecimiento (madera temprana y madera tardía, de las especies potenciales para dendrocronología, tienen una producción de células en forma periódica, lo que podría sugerir la formación anual de cada anillo.

  14. Características de la utilización de anticonceptivos hormonales orales a través del servicio de dispensación en la farmacia comunitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Molinero Crespo, Ana Mª; Martínez, Cristina de Diego; García Valiente, Paloma; González, Ana; Méndez Mora-Figueroa, Pilar; Peiró Martínez, Alicia; Pérez Martín, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    NTRODUCCIÓN El 80% de las mujeres españolas en edad fértil utiliza métodos anticonceptivos. Los anticonceptivos orales hormonales son los que obtienen mayor grado de satisfacción entre las usuarias, siendo el segundo método utilizado.OBJETIVO Conocer qué tipo de paciente los demanda, si existen factores de riesgo que desaconsejen su utilización y el cumplimiento de la legislación vigente en cuanto a dispensación.MÉTODO Estudio observacional descriptivo en siete farmacias de la Comunidad de Ma...

  15. Características de la utilización de anticonceptivos hormonales orales a través del servicio de dispensación en la farmacia comunitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Molinero Crespo AM; de Diego Martínez C; Esteso P; García Valiente P; González A; Méndez Mora Figueroa P; Peiró Martínez A; Pérez Martín V

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN El 80% de las mujeres españolas en edad fértil utiliza métodos anticonceptivos. Los anticonceptivos orales hormonales son los que obtienen mayor grado de satisfacción entre las usuarias, siendo el segundo método utilizado. OBJETIVO Conocer qué tipo de paciente los demanda, si existen factores de riesgo que desaconsejen su utilización y el cumplimiento de la legislación vigente en cuanto a dispensación. MÉTODO Estudio observacional descriptivo en siete farmacias de la Comuni...

  16. Análisis sociodemográfico del comportamiento de las mujeres en Haití, respecto al uso de métodos anticonceptivos y las necesidades no satisfechas de anticoncepción

    OpenAIRE

    Lachaud Toussaint, James

    2010-01-01

    En las últimas dos décadas, muchas son las instituciones, internacionales y nacionales, que trabajan en Haití en la planificación familiar, ofreciendo a la población haitiana, y específicamente las mujeres en edad de reproducción, diferentes servicios de salud reproductiva y servicios anticonceptivos. Sin embargo, el nivel de prevalencia de uso de método anticonceptivo sigue aún muy bajo y el nivel de necesidades no satisfechas de anticoncepción lo más alto de la región. Es así que se hace un...

  17. Vaginal Microbiomes Associated With Aerobic Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaambo, Evelyn; Africa, Charlene; Chambuso, Ramadhani; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley

    2018-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. However, certain vaginal bacterial commensal species serve an important first line of defense of the body. Any disruption of this microbial barrier might result in a number of urogenital conditions including aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The health of the vagina is closely associated with inhabitant microbiota. Furthermore, these microbes maintain a low vaginal pH, prevent the acquisition of pathogens, stimulate or moderate the local innate immune system, and further protect against complications during pregnancies. Therefore, this review will focus on vaginal microbial "health" in the lower reproductive tract of women and on the physiological characteristics that determine the well-being of reproductive health. In addition, we explore the distinct versus shared characteristics of BV and AV, which are commonly associated with increased risk for preterm delivery.

  18. Vaginal Microbiomes Associated With Aerobic Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Kaambo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. However, certain vaginal bacterial commensal species serve an important first line of defense of the body. Any disruption of this microbial barrier might result in a number of urogenital conditions including aerobic vaginitis (AV and bacterial vaginosis (BV. The health of the vagina is closely associated with inhabitant microbiota. Furthermore, these microbes maintain a low vaginal pH, prevent the acquisition of pathogens, stimulate or moderate the local innate immune system, and further protect against complications during pregnancies. Therefore, this review will focus on vaginal microbial “health” in the lower reproductive tract of women and on the physiological characteristics that determine the well-being of reproductive health. In addition, we explore the distinct versus shared characteristics of BV and AV, which are commonly associated with increased risk for preterm delivery.

  19. Pyomyositis after vaginal delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaughan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a purulent infection of skeletal muscle that arises from haematogenous spread, usually with abscess formation. It can develop after a transient bacteraemia of any cause. This type of infection has never been reported before in the literature after vaginal delivery. A 34-year-old woman had progressive severe pain in the left buttock and thigh and weakness in the left lower limb day 1 post spontaneous vaginal delivery. MRI showed severe oedema of the left gluteus, iliacus, piriformis and adductor muscles of the left thigh and a small fluid collection at the left hip joint. She was diagnosed with pyomyositis. She had fever of 37.9°C immediately postpartum and her risk factors for bacteraemia were a mild IV cannula-associated cellulitis and labour itself. She required prolonged treatment with antibiotics before significant clinical improvement was noted.

  20. Vaginal microbicides and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Richard E; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2003-10-01

    Sexually active teens are at significant risk from sexually transmitted infections and girls and women bear the greatest burden of these infections. New methods, such as vaginal microbicides, would provide female controlled options. Microbicides are currently in development and thus it is timely to discuss the progress made and factors that may influence acceptability for teens. Microbicide development presents many challenges, and several different potential mechanisms of action are being explored. There is interest in these products from women and men, and specific preferences are being investigated. Adolescents, due to reproductive system immaturity, developing cognitive abilities and the psychosocial context of their relationships, present a special set of challenges in efforts to foster microbicide use. Vaginal microbicides are on the horizon. Further study into teen issues is required to develop successful strategies for marketing and encouraging adolescent use of microbicides.

  1. Effects of vaginal prolapse surgery and ageing on vaginal vascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Ageing affects pelvic floor anatomy and function, resulting in several disorders like pelvic organ prolapse (POP), lower urinary tract symptoms and vaginal atrophy (VA). In this thesis we searched for methods to link the function of pelvic organs to physiological changes. The effects of POP and vaginal prolapse surgery on vaginal vascularization and the influence of ageing and topical oestrogens on pelvic floor disorders were examined. The lack of knowledge regarding the effects of ageing on ...

  2. Fragmentación dinámica de anillos metálicos dúctiles sometidos a expansión radial

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda Iglesias, Francisco Damián

    2014-01-01

    El presente proyecto busca desarrollar una visión integral del fenómeno de fragmentación dinámica unidimensional, abordando el ensayo de expansión de anillos desde tres ópticas diferentes. El punto de partida serán las teorías estadística y energética. Cada una de ellas permitiría obtener, de forma independiente, una expresión analítica que relaciona el número de fragmentos obtenidos en el ensayo con la velocidad del mismo. A continuación, comparando estas dos expresiones análogas, llegaremos...

  3. Un modelo para el análisis de la confiabilidad de Ethernet Industrial en topología de anillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo R. Friedrich

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Ethernet Industrial es cada vez más utilizada para aplicaciones de automatización, tanto en industrias de manufactura como de procesos. Además de los requerimientos de ancho de banda y manejo de tráfico en tiempo real, estos entornos también presentan requerimientos muy fuertes en cuanto a la confiabilidad, debido a los riesgos inherentes a tales actividades. La topología de anillo es de aplicación habitual en este tipo de redes, debido a que, por tener un enlace redundante, provee una cierta capacidad de tolerancia a fallas. En el presente trabajo se analiza la confiabilidad de Ethernet Industrial en topología de anillo, con el objetivo de obtener resultados que favorezcan al diseño y selección de componentes, como así también que permitan estimar los requerimientos de mantenimiento correctivo. El modelo planteado considera en primera instancia solamente a los enlaces, a fin de analizar la confiabilidad de la comunicación entre conmutadores. Posteriormente se incluyen los conmutadores y se analiza la confiabilidad de la comunicación entre dispositivos de campo a través de la red. El tiempo de respuesta para la solución de una falla es uno de los componentes básicos del modelo considerado. Palabras clave: confiabilidad de la red, topologías de red, análisis de confiabilidad, tiempo medio entre fallas (MTBF, tolerancia a fallas

  4. Uso de anticonceptivos en México: ¿qué diferencia hacen el poder de decisión y la autonomía femenina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Casique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las relaciones entre dos indicadores del empoderamiento femenino —el poder de decisión de las mujeres y su autonomía— y el uso de métodos anticonceptivos entre las mujeres mexicanas, usando información proveniente de la Encuesta Nacional de Planificación Familiar 1995. En general para las mujeres de esta muestra un mayor nivel de autonomía incrementa sus probabilidades de estar en necesidad de anticoncepción, y mayores niveles de poder de decisión y autonomía incrementan sus probabilidades de satisfacer, mediante el uso de anticonceptivos, tal necesidad. Por otra parte, entre las mujeres que se encuentran en necesidad potencial de anticoncepción pero que no usan ningún método, encontramos que razones como la ausencia de conocimiento y la oposición de los esposos al respecto, muestran una reducción significativa de su prevalencia entre mujeres con mayor nivel de empoderamiento.

  5. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / ... Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print What Is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from ...

  6. Vaginitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Vulvovaginitis - overview (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Vaginitis updates by ... Vaginitis test - wet mount Vulvovaginitis - overview Related Health Topics Trichomoniasis Vaginal Diseases Yeast Infections Other Languages Find ...

  7. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure vaginal pressure during various daily activities in patients before and after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, searching data for evidence-based activity guidelines. Vaginal pressure (VP) was studied in 23 patients during activities such as rest......, pelvic floor contraction (PFC), coughing, Valsalva, rising from sitting to standing and lifting 2 and 5 kg with four different lifting techniques. VP was measured before, 1-5 days and 4-6 weeks after vaginal repair. Mean VP was four to five times higher during coughing and Valsalva compared to PFC...... was not related to the type of vaginal repair. The results imply that post-operative counselling should concentrate more on treating chronic cough and constipation than restrictions of moderate physical activities....

  8. Citología vaginal no útil, causas y riesgos No-useful vaginal cytology causes and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimí García Trujillo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal en una muestra de 79 mujeres seleccionadas por muestreo sistemático en el área de salud del policlínico docente "Emilia de Córdoba", de San Nicolás, durante el año 2007, con el objetivo de analizar el comportamiento de la citología vaginal no útil y los factores que propiciaron su incidencia. Se apreció un elevado número de citologías no útiles, lo que constituyó el 23,1 %, y sus principales motivos están relacionados fundamentalmente con dificultades en la técnica y requisitos necesarios para la toma de la muestra. Predominó el grupo de edad de 40 a 44 años; las relaciones sexuales precoces, con 56 casos de 15 a 19 años, para un 70,9 %; y la edad al primer parto por debajo de los 20 años, así como las infecciones de transmisión sexual (la moniliasis y la trichomoniasis. Estuvieron presentes el hábito de fumar y el uso de anticonceptivos hormonales como cofactores.An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in a cohort of 79 women chosen by systemic sampling in health area of "Emilia de Córdoba" Teaching polyclinic, from San Nicolás de Bari municipality during 2007, to analyze behavior of no-useful vaginal cytology and factors causing its incidence. We noted a high figure of non-useful cytologies accounting for 23,1 % and its main causes are fundamentally related to early sexual intercourses in 56 cases aged from 15 to 19, to 70,9 % and age of first delivery was under 20 years, as well as the sexually transmitted infections (moniliasis and trichomoniasis. Smoking and excessive use of hormonal contraceptives were present as cofactors.

  9. Red herring vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

    2013-09-18

    Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics.

  10. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  11. 52. Anillo aórtico pequeño: aortotomía transanular en «T-invertida» para la ampliación anular en el recambio valvular aórtico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García Fuster

    2010-01-01

    Conclusiones: La técnica presentada permite una ampliación eficaz del anillo aórtico (sobredimensión protésica mínima de dos tamaños sin necesidad de incidir el velo mitral o el techo de la aurícula izquierda. Esto permite reducir la complejidad técnica y la posibilidad de complicaciones secundarias.

  12. The effect of vaginal cream containing ginger in users of clotrimazole vaginal cream on vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanian, Sheida; Khalili, Sima; Lorigooini, Zahra; Malekpour, Afsaneh; Heidari-Soureshjani, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections of the genital tract in women that causes many complications. Therefore, we examined the clinical effect of ginger cream along with clotrimazole compared to vaginal clotrimazole alone in this study. This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 67 women admitted to the Gynecology Clinic of Hajar Hospital with vaginal candidiasis. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 33 and 34 people. The diagnosis was made according to clinical symptoms, wet smear, and culture. Ginger-clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% and clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% were administered to groups 1 and 2, respectively, once a day for 7 days and therapeutic effects and symptoms were evaluated in readmission. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22, t -test and Chi-square. The mean value of variables itching ( P > 0.05), burning ( P > 0.05), and cheesy secretion ( P vaginal candidiasis.

  13. Episiotomy for vaginal birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroli, Guillermo; Mignini, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Background Episiotomy is done to prevent severe perineal tears, but its routine use has been questioned. The relative effects of midline compared with midlateral episiotomy are unclear. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of restrictive use of episiotomy compared with routine episiotomy during vaginal birth. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (March 2008). Selection criteria Randomized trials comparing restrictive use of episiotomy with routine use of episiotomy; restrictive use of mediolateral episiotomy versus routine mediolateral episiotomy; restrictive use of midline episiotomy versus routine midline episiotomy; and use of midline episiotomy versus mediolateral episiotomy. Data collection and analysis The two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Main results We included eight studies (5541 women). In the routine episiotomy group, 75.15% (2035/2708) of women had episiotomies, while the rate in the restrictive episiotomy group was 28.40% (776/2733). Compared with routine use, restrictive episiotomy resulted in less severe perineal trauma (relative risk (RR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 0.91), less suturing (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.81) and fewer healing complications (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.85). Restrictive episiotomy was associated with more anterior perineal trauma (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.10). There was no difference in severe vaginal/perineal trauma (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.18); dyspareunia (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.16); urinary incontinence (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.20) or several pain measures. Results for restrictive versus routine mediolateral versus midline episiotomy were similar to the overall comparison. Authors’ conclusions Restrictive episiotomy policies appear to have a number of benefits compared to policies based on routine episiotomy. There is less posterior perineal trauma, less suturing and

  14. Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

    1979-01-01

    Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

  15. Actinomyces associated with persistent vaginal granulation tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Clifford Y; Nihira, Mikio A; Drewes, Peter G; Chang, Joe S; Siddiqui, Momin T; Hemsell, David L

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report a case of symptomatic actinomycosis associated with vaginal suture erosion and granulation tissue refractory to conservative management, in an outpatient setting. CASE: Three months after total vaginal hysterectomy and uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension, a woman complained of painless, intermittent vaginal discharge and spotting. Despite cauterization of granulation tissue, vaginal spotting persisted for another month. On re-examination, braided polyester sutu...

  16. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007376.htm Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures To use the sharing features ... are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ...

  18. Vaginal rhinosporidiosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, S; Haque, M A; Nessa, F; Begum, A; Hasan, A H; Sen, S; Huq, M H

    2014-07-01

    The female genital tract is an extremely rare site for Rhinosporidiosis. Here we described a 13 year old girl who presented with a slow growing polypoid fleshy mass in the posterior vaginal wall near the orifice for 6 months with scanty bleeding from the mass. The girl was admitted to hospital with profuse watery vaginal discharge. Excision of the mass was followed by histopathological examination which confirmed the diagnosis Rhinosporidiosis.

  19. Laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielik, T.; Karovic, M.; Trska, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Radical trachelectomy is a fertility-sparing procedure with the aim to provide adequate oncological safety to patients with cervical cancer while preserving their fertility. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate, in a series of 3 patients, the feasibility, morbidity, and safety of laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy for early cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: Three non consecutive patients with FIGO stage IA1 and IB1 cervical cancer was evaluated in a period of years 2008 - 2011. The patients underwent a laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy and radical parametrectomy class II procedure according to the Piver classification. The section of vaginal cuff, trachelectomy, permanent cerclage and isthmo-vaginal anastomosis ware realised by vaginal approach. Results: The median operative time, the median blood loss and the mean number of resected pelvic nodes was comparable with published data. Major intraoperative complications did not occur and no patient required a blood transfusion. The median follow-up time was 33 (38-59) months. One vaginal recurrence occurred in 7 months after primary surgery. The patient was underwent a radicalisation procedure and adjuvant oncologic therapy and now is free of disease. Conclusions: Laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy (LAVRT)may be an alternative in fertility-preserving surgery for early cervical cancer. The procedure offers patients potential benefits of minimally invasive surgery with adequate oncological safety, but it should be reserved for oncologic surgeons trained in advanced laparoscopic procedures. (author)

  20. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Operative vaginal deliveries training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, O

    2008-12-01

    The appropriate use of forceps, vacuums or spatulas facilitates the rapid delivery of foetuses faced with life-threatening situations. It also makes possible the relief of certain cases of prolonged second-stage labor. In France, operative vaginal delivery (OVD) accounts for approximately 10% of all births. OVD training aims to optimize maternal, as well as neonatal safety. It should enable trainees to indicate or contraindicate an OVD safely, as well as to choose the appropriate instrument, use it correctly, and master quality control principles. Traditional OVD training is confronted with both spatial and time-related limitations. Spatial constraints involve both the teacher and trainee who only have limited visual access to the pelvic canal, and the head of the foetus; the time constraint occurs whenever the OVD occurs in an emergency setting. These limitations have been further aggravated by new constraints: decreasing time dedicated to training (European safety rules prohibit work the day after night duty), increasing litigation, and constraints imposed by society. Training by means of simulation removes such limitations making it possible to both avoid exposing pregnant women to the hazards of traditional training, and adapt the training to the skills of each trainee. OVD training should include forceps, vacuums and the use of spatulas. The OVD skills of obstetricians should be audited regularly on both a personal and a confidential level. Such audits could be based on a method using a simulator. Prospective studies comparing traditional and simulation-based training should be encouraged.

  2. Definition of a type of abnormal vaginal flora that is distinct from bacterial vaginosis: aerobic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Vereecken, Annie; Bosmans, Eugene; Dekeersmaecker, Alfons; Salembier, Geert; Spitz, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    To define an entity of abnormal vaginal flora: aerobic vaginitis. Observational study. University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. 631 women attending for routine prenatal care or attending vaginitis clinic. Samples were taken for fresh wet mount microscopy of vaginal fluid, vaginal cultures and measurement of lactate, succinate and cytokine levels in vaginal fluid. Smears deficient in lactobacilli and positive for clue cells were considered to indicate a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Aerobic vaginitis was diagnosed if smears were deficient in lactobacilli, positive for cocci or coarse bacilli, positive for parabasal epithelial cells, and/or positive for vaginal leucocytes (plus their granular aspect). Genital complaints include red inflammation, yellow discharge, vaginal dyspareunia. Group B streptococci, escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and trichomonas vaginalis are frequently cultured. Vaginal lactate concentration is severely depressed in women with aerobic vaginitis, as in bacterial vaginosis, but vaginal succinate is not produced. Also in contrast to bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis produces a host immune response that leads to high production of interleukin-6, interleukin-1-beta and leukaemia inhibitory factor in the vaginal fluid. Aerobic vaginitis is associated with aerobic micro-organisms, mainly group B streptococci and E. coli. Its characteristics are different from those of bacterial vaginosis and elicit an important host response. The most severe form of aerobic vaginitis equals desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. In theory, aerobic vaginitis may be a better candidate than bacterial vaginosis as the cause of pregnancy complications, such as ascending chorioamnionitis, preterm rupture of the membranes and preterm delivery.

  3. Clinical Characteristics of Aerobic Vaginitis and Its Association to Vaginal Candidiasis, Trichomonas Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of the work: Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Materials and methods: Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. Examinatio...

  4. Embarazo no deseado en adolescentes, y utilización de métodos anticonceptivos posparto Unwanted adolescent pregnancy and post-partum utilization of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Núñez-Urquiza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la proporción de embarazo no deseado en adolescentes, su asociación con características sociodemográficas y la utilización de anticonceptivos posparto. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal con una muestra de 220 mujeres adolescentes entre 13 y 19 años de edad, de dos municipios semiurbanos del estado de Morelos, México, entrevistadas entre 1992 y 1994. Las mujeres fueron entrevistadas en su casa entre seis y 12 semanas después del parto. Se les preguntó si antes de embarazarse desearon el último embarazo. Además, se indagó sobre conocimientos y uso de métodos anticonceptivos posparto. RESULTADOS: Un 17% de todos los nacimientos registrados en la población total en ese periodo fueron producto de madres adolescentes. De éstas, 22.73% declararon que su embarazo no fue deseado. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre no tener derecho de acceso a los servicios de salud de las instituciones del sistema de seguridad social -Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE- y embarazo no deseado (RM ajustada=3.03, IC 95% 1.31, 7. Asimismo, las adolescentes de comunidades urbanas manifestaron no deseo del embarazo con mayor frecuencia que las mujeres de comunidades rurales (RM ajustada=2.16, IC 95% 1.08, 4.33. Un 91.3% de las madres adolescentes enunció la píldora anticonceptiva entre los métodos que conocía. Un 84.72% conocía el DIU y 63.68% el condón. Sin embargo, sólo 35% estaba utilizando algún método anticonceptivo efectivo después de las seis semanas posparto. No se encontró diferencia en la frecuencia de uso de anticonceptivos según deseo del último embarazo. Entre quienes se atendieron el parto en centros de salud u hospital sólo 43.39% estaba utilizando algún método efectivo de planificación familiar. CONCLUSIONES: Estos hallazgos sugieren que los programas de planificación familiar tienen un

  5. Clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and its association to vaginal candidiasis, trichomonas vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

    2013-12-01

    Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from treatment of other vaginitis.

  6. Uso de métodos anticoncepcionais entre adolescentes universitários El uso de metodos anticonceptivos en adolescentes universitarios Use of contraceptive methods among university adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Salheb Alves

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar o uso de métodos anticoncepcionais entre adolescentes, ingressantes de uma universidade pública paulista e descrever o perfil desses universitários quanto a algumas características sócio-demográficas. Foi utilizado um questionário e a amostra foi composta por 295 adolescentes. Relataram ter iniciado atividade sexual 48,8%. A idade média para o início foi aos 17 anos, e a maioria relatou ter usado um método contraceptivo. O método mais utilizado foi o preservativo e este em combinação com a pílula, principalmente. Observou-se que os adolescentes buscam informações, seja através de profissionais da saúde, professores, ou através de livros, com destaque para a mídia. Conclui-se que os universitários iniciam atividade sexual mais tardiamente e buscam conhecimento sobre anticoncepção.El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar el uso de los métodos anticonceptivos entre adolescentes, alumnos de una universidad paulista, y describir su perfil basados en algunas características socio-demográficas. Se utilizó un cuestionario aplicado a 295 adolescentes. El 48,8% relataron haber iniciado actividad sexual. En media, la edad para el inicio son los 17 años y la mayoría afirma haber usado métodos anticonceptivos. El más utilizado fue, principalmente, el preservativo combinado con la píldora. Se observó que los adolescentes buscan información consultando a profesionales de la salud, profesores o a través de libros, y sobretodo por los medios de comunicación. Se concluye que los universitarios inician su actividad sexual más tarde y buscan conocimiento sobre métodos anticonceptivos.The objective of this study was to identify the use of contraceptive methods among teenagers at a public University in São Paulo, as well as to describe their profile concerning social and demographic characteristics. A questionnaire was used and the sample was composed by 295 teenagers. The initiation of sexual activity

  7. Streptococcus agalactiae: a vaginal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, A N; Palermos, J; Kantzanou, M; Maniatis, N A; Christodoulou, C; Legakis, N J

    1996-03-01

    The significance of Streptococcus agalactiae as an aetiological agent in vaginitis was evaluated. A total of 6226 samples from women who presented with vaginal symptoms was examined. The presence of >10 leucocytes/high-power field (h.p.f.) was taken to be the criterion of active infection. S. agalactiae was isolated from 10.1% of these samples. The isolation rates of other common pathogens such as Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas spp. were 54.1%, 27.2% and 4.2%, respectively, in the same group of patients. In contrast, the isolation rates of these micro-organisms in the group of patients who had no infection (S. agalactiae was isolated, it was the sole pathogen isolated (83%) and its presence was associated with an inflammatory response in 80% of patients. Furthermore, the relative risk of vaginal infection with S. agalactiae (2.38) in patients with purulent vaginal discharge was greater than that of Candida spp. infection (1.41) and lower than that of Trichomonas spp. infection (8.32). These data suggest that S. agalactiae in symptomatic women with microscopic evidence of inflammation should be considered a causative agent of vaginitis.

  8. Vaginal birth after C-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000589.htm Vaginal birth after C-section To use the sharing ... the same way again. Many women can have vaginal deliveries after having a C-section in the ...

  9. VBAC (Vaginal Birth After C-Section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC) Overview If you've delivered a baby by C-section and ... between scheduling a repeat C-section or attempting vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC). For many women, ...

  10. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007377.htm Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Placement of tension-free vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress urinary ...

  11. What is vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pinterest Email Print What is vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC)? VBAC refers to vaginal delivery of a baby after a previous pregnancy was delivered by cesarean delivery. In the past, pregnant women who had ...

  12. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  13. Premenarchal, recurrent vaginal discharge associated with an incomplete obstructing longitudinal vaginal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keith A; DeWitt, Jason

    2005-12-01

    To describe an unusual, premenarchal presentation of an obstructive vaginal anomaly. Case Report. University Medical Center. Premenarchal subject Vaginogram, vaginal septum resection. Vaginal septum resection with resolution of vaginal discharge. This case demonstrates some of the typical features of uterus didelphys bicollis with incomplete obstructing hemivagina, but had a unique presentation with premenarchal, recurrent vaginal discharge. Typically, patients with an obstructing mullerian anomaly present after menarche with pelvic pain and a mass. The vaginogram assists in the preoperative definition of abnormal anatomy which allows the surgeon to develop the most appropriate surgical approach. Resection of this incompletely obstructing vaginal septum resulted in resolution of the recurrent vaginal discharge.

  14. Evaluation of vaginal flora and antibiogram analysis in reproductive-age women with or without vaginitis in primary care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Alim, Ahmet; Çetin, Ali; Yıldız, Çağlar

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The treatment modalities of patients with vaginal discharge are generally related to their symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate vaginal flora and antibiogram analysis in reproductive-age women with or without vaginitis in primary care settings. Methods: Vaginal swabs were taken from 311 women who have vaginitis, and tested for the causative agents of vaginal discharge. The control group was 89 healthy women without vaginal discharge. Vaginal swaps were used in a commercial te...

  15. Effects of vaginal prolapse surgery and ageing on vaginal vascularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Ageing affects pelvic floor anatomy and function, resulting in several disorders like pelvic organ prolapse (POP), lower urinary tract symptoms and vaginal atrophy (VA). In this thesis we searched for methods to link the function of pelvic organs to physiological changes. The effects of POP and

  16. A New Method to Measure Vaginal Sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, M. M. E.; Laan, E.; Vaart, C. H.; Roovers, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Vaginal surgery may affect sexual function both positively and negatively. Possibly, negative consequences of surgical interventions on sexuality may be caused by reduced sensibility of the vaginal wall. Aims: To develop a new method to measure vaginal sensibility. Methods: We

  17. A new method to measure vaginal sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, M. M. E.; Laan, E.; Vaart, C. H.; Roovers, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginal surgery may affect sexual function both positively and negatively. Possibly, negative consequences of surgical interventions on sexuality may be caused by reduced sensibility of the vaginal wall. To develop a new method to measure vaginal sensibility. We developed a technique to measure the

  18. The Vaginal Microbiota of Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, L. M.; Rush, C. M.; Timms, P.

    2011-01-01

    The vaginae of four guinea pigs were swabbed and samples cultured aerobically on horse blood agar, in 5 per cent carbon dioxide on MRS agar or anaerobically on anaerobic horse blood agar. Vaginal microbiota consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive bacteria including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus species.Keywords: guinea pigs, vaginal microbiota, vaginal vaccines.

  19. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactobacilli predominate normal vaginal microflora and are important in maintenance of vaginal health. The current study set out to identify and compare culture isolates of vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) women at different phases during menstrual cycle ...

  20. Ethinyl Estradiol and Etonogestrel Vaginal Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or infection of the vagina white or yellow vaginal discharge vaginal bleeding or spotting when it is not time ... Follow your doctor's directions for examining your breasts; report any lumps ... and ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring.Do not let anyone else use your ...

  1. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teresa kiama

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... Lactobacilli predominate normal vaginal microflora and are important in maintenance of vaginal health. The current study set out to identify and compare culture isolates of vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) women at different phases during.

  2. Physiological measures of vaginal vasocongestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews reliability, specificity, and practical applicability of the two most promising and widely used methods for measuring blood flow within the vagina: the oxygenation-temperature method and vaginal photoplethysmography. It was concluded that the oxygenation-temperature method and

  3. MRI in distal vaginal atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Jorulf, H.; Bakri, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetric resonance imaging in two young females with abdominal pain revealed vaginal atresia with massive hematocolpos but a normal cervix and uterine body. Information obtained with MRI was superior to ultrasound and CT and is suggested as the examination of choice prior to surgical correction. (orig.)

  4. Vaginal leiomyoma: MRI features with pathologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avantika Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of vaginal leiomyoma presenting as prolapsed vaginal mass in a 45 years old woman. The leiomyoma was found to arise from the right lateral vaginal fornix with a vascular stalk. MRI showed homogenous hypointense signals on T1W1 and iso to hyperintense signals on T2W1 images with moderate heterogenous enhancement on post contrast images. It was enucleated via vaginal route and the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of vaginal leiomyoma.

  5. [Aerobic vaginitis--diagnostic problems and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Małgorzata; Wojciechowska-Wieja, Anna; Martirosian, Gayane

    2007-06-01

    The diagnostic criteria and treatment of aerobic vaginitis--AV--have been summarized in this review. An expansion of mixed aerobic microflora, especially Group B Streptococcus--GBS, Escherichia coli--E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and the development of inflammation of the vaginal mucous membrane due to a decreasing amount of Lactobacillus spp., have been observed in women with AV. Disruptions of the vaginal ecosystem during AV cause an increase in pH to >6, a decrease in lactates concentration and an increase in proinflammatory cytokines concentration in vaginal discharge. An optimal treatment scheme for AV, which includes antibacterial agents and simultaneously normalizes the vaginal ecosystem, has not been established until today.

  6. True vaginal prolapse in a bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, M; Cetin, Y; Sendag, S; Eski, F

    2007-08-01

    Frequently, vaginal fold prolapse is the protrusion of edematous vaginal tissue into and through the opening of the vulva occurring during proestrus and estrus stages of the sexual cycle. True vaginal prolapse may occur near parturition, as the concentration of serum progesterone declines and the concentration of serum oestrogen increases. In the bitch, this type of true vaginal prolapse is a very rare condition. This short communication describes a 5-year-old female, cross-breed dog in moderate condition, weighing 33 kg, with distocia and true vaginal prolapse. Abdominal palpation and transabdominal ultrasonography revealed live and dead foetuses in the uterine horns. One dead and four live fetuses were removed from uterus by cesarean section. The ovariohysterectomy was performed after repositioning the vaginal wall with a combination of traction from within the abdomen and external manipulation through the vulva. Re-occurrence of a vaginal prolapse was not observed and the bitch recovered completely after the surgical therapy. Compared to other vaginal disorders, vaginal prolapse is an uncommon condition in the bitch. In the present case, extreme tenesmus arising from distocia may have predisposed to the vaginal prolapse. The cause of dystocia was probably the disposition of the first foetus. We concluded that the vaginal prolapse was the result of dystocia in the present case.

  7. Desplazamiento del anillo tricuspídeo en niños normales determinado mediante extrapolación de programa ecocardiográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ozores Suárez

    Full Text Available Introducción: la excursión sistólica del plano lateral del anillo tricuspídeo (TAPSE es un parámetro útil en la evaluación de la función del ventrículo derecho en pacientes pediátricos. Objetivos: mostrar los valores normales del TAPSE en niños cubanos según grupos etarios, y describir su relación con la edad, gasto del ventrículo izquierdo, tiempo de aceleración pulmonar y la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo en el que se incluyeron 102 niños normales, a cuya medición del TAPSE se les realizó adaptando el programa para la mensuración de la distancia entre el punto E y el septum interventricular. Resultados: el TAPSE medio fue de 19,4 mm (DS±6 con valores medios en la primera semana de 9,5 mm hasta 21,2 a los 5 años y 24,1 en niños mayores. Se encontró correlación positiva significativa entre el TAPSE y la edad (r= 0,679 descrita por la ecuación TAPSE= 13,2787 + 5,2354 log (X. Se mostraron los valores del TAPSE en 5 grupos de edades. Se encontró también una correlación significativa entre el TAPSE, el tiempo de aceleración pulmonar y el gasto sistólico del ventrículo izquierdo. Conclusiones: existen 5 grupos etarios bien definidos, los mayores cambios del TAPSE se presentan antes de los 5 años de edad, y se encontró una relación logarítmica entre el TAPSE, la edad y el tiempo de aceleración pulmonar. Se recomienda el programa utilizado como alternativa en la medición del TAPSE.

  8. Electromagnetic modeling of the rings of the squirrel cage of an induction motor; Modelado electromagnetico de los anillos de la jaula de ardilla de un motor de induccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limones Montoya, Juan Carlos

    2004-03-15

    An electromagnetic lineal model of a three-phase induction motor was developed in this thesis. The Finite element method in two dimensions was used. The model formulation takes into account the coupling with the stator wires and solid conductors of the rotor. In other words, the stator phases and squirrel-cage end-rings are considered in the model. The resulting set of electric-circuit and magnetic-field equations are solved simultaneously with the Incomplete Cholesky Bi-Conjugate Gradient Method using a matrix storage technique known as symmetric coordinate storage. The model was programmed in the C programming language. The magnetic field model is represented by the diffusion equation, which allows to compute the induced Eddy currents in the conducting material due to the sinusoidal stator excitation. The modelled induction motor has a rated power of 2.2 kW, 220 V, 9.6/11.0 A, 60 Hz and it can be operated at the speeds of 1750/1150 rpm. It is located in the Laboratorio de Propulsion at the Instituto Tecnologico de la Laguna. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se desarrollo un modelo electromagnetico lineal de un motor de induccion trifasico utilizando el Metodo de Elemento Finito en dos dimensiones, en el cual se incluye la formulacion de sistemas acoplados para los conductores delgados y gruesos presentes en el estator y rotor respectivamente. Es decir, se incluyen en el modelo las fases de alimentacion y los anillos de cortocircuito del rotor de jaula de ardilla. Las ecuaciones electricas y magneticas derivadas del modelo se resuelven de manera acoplada con el Metodo del Gradiente BiConjugado con Precondicionamiento de Cholesky Incompleto empleando el sistema de Empaquetamiento de Coordenadas, cuyo codigo se desarrollo en el lenguaje de programacion C. En este modelo se resuelve la ecuacion de difusion, mediante la cual se determinan las corrientes de Eddy que se inducen en el material conductor debido a la presencia de fuentes de alimentacion senoidales. El

  9. The effects of hyaluronic acid vaginal gel on the vaginal epithelium of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai-Bin; Liu, Shao-Li; Gan, Xiao-Ling; Zhou, Qin; Hu, Li-Na

    2015-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid is one of the best materials of water retention which can be used in vaginal atrophy. This study is to evaluate the role and mechanism of the hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (Hyalofemme) in the vaginal epithelium of ovariectomized rats. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control group (Sham ovariectomy, Sham-OVX), tendency group (ovariectomy, OVX), and experiment group (ovariectomy+Hyalofemme, OVX+Hyalofemme). The hyaluronic acid vaginal gel was administered local vaginal therapy to the experiment group with cytologicaly confirmed vaginal atrophy. The doses were adjusted by animal weight according to human dosage. After daily treatment for 14 days, VEGF and P-AKT activations were detected by Western blot in the experiment group. The hyaluronic acid vaginal gel proved to be very effective in the cytological reversal of vaginal atrophy but did not increase uterine weight. Vaginal microecosystem indicators were negative in the control group and the experiment group. By contrast, the indicators were positive in the tendency group. Hyaluronic acid vaginal gel is effective in the reversal of vaginal atrophy and is beneficial for improving vaginal microecosystem in the postmenopausal rat model. The hyaluronic acid vaginal gel can also improve the repair capacity of the vaginal epithelium.

  10. Características de la educación sexual escolar recibida y su asociación con la edad de inicio sexual y uso de anticonceptivos en adolescentes chilenas sexualmente activas

    OpenAIRE

    González A,Electra; Molina G,Temístocles; Luttges D,Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: La educación sexual integral en el contexto escolar es uno de los pilares fundamentales para prevenir embarazos e infecciones de transmisión sexual en adolescentes. Objetivo: Analizar las características de la educación sexual escolar recibida y su asociación con la edad de inicio sexual y uso de anticonceptivo en adolescentes consultantes en un centro de salud sexual y reproductiva. Método: Estudio analítico de corte transversal realizado en 1.232 adolescentes mujeres de nivel ...

  11. Características de la utilización de anticonceptivos hormonales orales a través del servicio de dispensación en la farmacia comunitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molinero Crespo AM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN El 80% de las mujeres españolas en edad fértil utiliza métodos anticonceptivos. Los anticonceptivos orales hormonales son los que obtienen mayor grado de satisfacción entre las usuarias, siendo el segundo método utilizado. OBJETIVO Conocer qué tipo de paciente los demanda, si existen factores de riesgo que desaconsejen su utilización y el cumplimiento de la legislación vigente en cuanto a dispensación. MÉTODO Estudio observacional descriptivo en siete farmacias de la Comunidad de Madrid. Durante seis meses (enero-junio de 2009 se administró en el mostrador un cuestionario ad hoc a las usuarias de métodos anticonceptivos hormonales orales. RESULTADOS/DISCUSIÓN Existe un alto número de usuarias (39,3% que creen que estos medicamentos pueden ser adquiridos sin receta médica en las farmacias comunitarias, por lo que habrá que realizar más educación sanitaria al respecto. El 97,1% de las recetas prescritas por los médicos no cumplen la legislación actual en lo que se refiere a la duración de tratamiento, ya que según el Real Decreto 1910/1984 la duración de un tratamiento prescrito por un médico no puede ser en ningún momento mayor de tres meses. Aunque existe un tercio de las pacientes que se hace revisiones ginecológicas periódicas, y otro tercio que se hace revisiones de vez en cuando, hay otro tercio que manifiesta que nunca se hace revisiones. En contra de las indicaciones autorizadas para los medicamentos del grupo G03HB, un alto número de pacientes (10,5% los utiliza solamente con fines anticonceptivos sin tener ningún tipo de enfermedad andrógeno- dependiente.

  12. Concurrent chemoradiation for vaginal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Miyamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy improves outcomes in primary vaginal cancer. Here, we review clinical outcomes in patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT. METHODS: Seventy-one patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with definitive RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution were identified and their records reviewed. A total of 51 patients were treated with RT alone; 20 patients were treated with CRT. Recurrences were analyzed. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 18-92 years and the median follow-up time among survivors was 3.0 years. Kaplan-Meier estimates for OS and DFS differed significantly between the RT and CRT groups (3-yr OS = 56% vs. 79%, log-rank p = 0.037; 3-yr DFS = 43% vs. 73%, log-rank p = 0.011. Twenty-three patients (45% in the RT group had a relapse at any site compared to 3 (15% in the CRT group (p = 0.027. With regard to the sites of first relapse, 10 patients (14% had local only, 4 (6% had local and regional, 9 (13% had regional only, 1 (1% had regional and distant, and 2 (3% had distant only relapse. On univariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy, FIGO stage, tumor size, and date of diagnosis were significant predictors of DFS. On multivariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy remained a significant predictor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10-0.97; p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal cancer results in poor outcomes. Adequate radiation dose is essential to ensure curative management. Concurrent chemotherapy should be considered for vaginal cancer patients.

  13. Lactobacillus for Vaginal Microflora Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Saduakhasova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the significant progress made in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, there is still a high rate of vaginal dysbiosis in Kazakh women. The use of antibiotics in the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis contributes to the elimination of pathogens as well as microflora, which can lead to a decrease in local immunity and more favorable conditions for infection spread. The most physiologically safe and promising method for the restoration of vaginal biocenosis is the use of probiotics administered by a vaginal route.Methods. We have allocated 64 of cultures of Lactobacillus from the vaginal epithelium of healthy women of reproductive age and women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis (BV. Identification of cultures was performed by PCR analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA.  Evaluation of biological significance was determined by the following criteria: high antagonistic activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella ozaenae, and Staphylococcus aureus; and production of hydrogen peroxide, resistance to antibiotics, adhesive activity. We studied the symbiotic relationship of selected biologically active of cultures to each other and received options for consortiums with  properties of  probiotics through co-cultivation.Results. Results of genotyping  showed that the isolated lactobacilli belong to the seven species: L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. plantarum, and L. delbrueskii. L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii occur in women with suspected BV. The highest percentage of occurrence in the vagina of healthy women was L. fermentum (28%. Most strains of lactobacilli possess high inhibitory activity for all test-strains, except Candida albicans (37.5%. 56% of studied cultures revealed high adhesion to human erythrocytes. All lactobacillus strains were resistant to metronidazole, 80% to kanamycin, 57%  to vancomycin, and

  14. Use of vaginal estrogen in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Goukasian, Irina; Lidegaard, Oejvind

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We know little about the use of vaginal estrogen in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. We aimed to assess the prevalence of vaginal estrogen use in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide cross-sectional study of all Danish women aged 40-79 years......, living in Denmark during the period 2007-2013. The Danish Prescription Register delivered data permitting us to assess the prevalence, age and regional geographical belonging of women purchasing prescribed vaginal estradiol. The number of women using over-the-counter vaginal estriol products...... was estimated from sale statistics from the same register. RESULTS: In 2013, 10.2% of all Danish women between 40 and 79 years of age used vaginal estradiol. The prevalence of women using this type of vaginal estrogen increased from 8.5% in year 2007 to 10.2% in 2013. The use peaked at 16.5% in women aged 60...

  15. Radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, b.L.; Kagan, A.R.; Chan, P.; Gilbert, H.A.; Nussbaum, H.; Rao, A.R.; Wollin, M.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen patients with cancer of the vagina that were controlled locally for a minimum of eighteen months after teletherpay (T) or brachytherapy (B) or both (T and B), were analyzed for radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa. The site of vaginal necrosis did not always coincide with the site of the tumor. The posterior wall appeared more vulnerable than the anterior or lateral walls. For the distal vaginal mucosa, necrosis requiring surgical intervention occurred following combined T and B, if summated rad exceeded9800. The upper vagina tolerated higher dosages. No patient surgery for upper vaginal necrosis even though summated (T and B) dosage up to 14,000 rad was applied. Placing radioactive needles on the surface of the vaginal cylinder with or without interstitial perincal needles should be avoided. Further accumulation of data is needed to define these vaginal mucosa tolerance limits more closely

  16. Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal yeast, but not vaginal cleansing, increase HIV-1 acquisition in African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Morrison, Charles S.; Cornelisse, Peter G. A.; Munjoma, Marshall; Moncada, Jeanne; Awio, Peter; Wang, Jing; van der Pol, Barbara; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert A.; Padian, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interrelationships between bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal yeast, vaginal practices (cleansing and drying/tightening), mucosal inflammation, and HIV acquisition. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted, enrolling 4531 HIV-negative women

  17. Vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, W.

    1975-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge were assessed clinically and had vaginal swabs taken in an effort to establish a definite diagnosis. A high incidence of fungous infection was found while there was a surprisingly low incidence of Trichomonal vaginitis. These findings vary markedly from recent surveys in other countries (Delaha et al. (1964); Gray and Barnes, 1965; Desai et al., 1966). PMID:1223281

  18. Vaginal Mucosal Flap as a Sling Preservation for the Treatment of Vaginal Exposure of Mesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sea Young; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Han Kwon; Park, Chang Hoo; Kim, Sung Jin; Sung, Gi Teck; Park, Chang Myon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures are used for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The procedures with synthetic materials can have a risk of vaginal erosion. We experienced transobturator suburethral sling (TOT) tape-induced vaginal erosion and report the efficacy of a vaginal mucosal covering technique. Materials and Methods A total of 560 female patients diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence underwent TOT procedures at our hospital between January 2...

  19. Vaginal rejuvenation using energy-based devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Karcher, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic changes in a woman’s life, such as childbirth, weight fluctuations, and hormonal changes due to aging and menopause, may alter the laxity of the vaginal canal, damage the pelvic floor, and devitalize the mucosal tone of the vaginal wall. These events often lead to the development of genitourinary conditions such as stress urinary incontinence; vaginal atrophy; dryness; and physiologic distress affecting a woman’s quality of life, self-confidence, and sexuality. Various treatment modalities are currently available to manage these indications, varying from invasive vaginal surgery to more benign treatments like topical vaginal hormonal gels or hormone-replacement therapy. A new trend gaining momentum is the advent of energy-based devices for vaginal rejuvenation that apply thermal or nonthermal energy to the various layers of the vaginal tissue, stimulating collagen regeneration contracture of elastin fibers, neovascularization, and improved vaginal lubrication. This review aims to present the available technologies offering vaginal rejuvenation and the scientific evidence that underlines their safety and efficacy for this indication.

  20. Evaluation of common organisms causing vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shazia A; Amir, Fauzia; Altaf, Shagufta; Tanveer, Raazia

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal discharge is very common problem among females. Alteration in balance of normal vaginal organisms can cause the overgrowth of the bacteria that creates vaginal discharge. It is common among sexually active women yet there still remain gaps in our knowledge of this infectious disorder. To evaluate the frequency of bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis (VC), vaginal trichomoniasis and Group B streptococcus in women complaining of vaginal discharge in our setup. A total of 100 women of reproductive age group with the complaint of vaginal discharge were included in the study. After filling proforma patients were examined by speculum examination and two high vaginal swabs (HVS) were collected aseptically from each patient. One swab was used for making wet mount for clue cells, pus cells and for motility of Trichomonas vaginalis. The other swab was used to check pH and Amine test. The growth was confirmed by Gram staining in each case. Gardnerrella vaginalis were isolated in 28%, Group B streptococcus in 5% and T. vaginolis in 4% of women. Gardnerella vaginalis causing BV is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in otherwise healthy women of reproductive age group in our setup.

  1. Dynamic Clinical Measurements of Voluntary Vaginal Contractions and Autonomic Vaginal Reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, Paul M. A.; Spoelstra, Symen K.; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C. M.

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThe vaginal canal is an active and responsive canal. It has pressure variations along its length and shows reflex activity. At present, the prevailing idea is that the vaginal canal does not have a sphincter mechanism. It is hypothesized that an active vaginal muscular mechanism exists

  2. The interaction between vaginal microbiota, cervical length, and vaginal progesterone treatment for preterm birth risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Lindsay M; Bennett, Phillip R; Lee, Yun S; Marchesi, Julian R; Smith, Ann; Cacciatore, Stefano; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Teoh, T G; MacIntyre, David A

    2017-01-19

    Preterm birth is the primary cause of infant death worldwide. A short cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm birth. In specific patient cohorts, vaginal progesterone reduces this risk. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we undertook a prospective study in women at risk of preterm birth (n = 161) to assess (1) the relationship between vaginal microbiota and cervical length in the second trimester and preterm birth risk and (2) the impact of vaginal progesterone on vaginal bacterial communities in women with a short cervix. Lactobacillus iners dominance at 16 weeks of gestation was significantly associated with both a short cervix vaginal dysbiosis. A longitudinal characterization of vaginal microbiota (vaginal progesterone (400 mg/OD, n = 25) versus controls (n = 42). Progesterone did not alter vaginal bacterial community structure nor reduce L. iners-associated preterm birth (vaginal microbiota at 16 weeks of gestation is a risk factor for preterm birth, whereas L. crispatus dominance is protective against preterm birth. Vaginal progesterone does not appear to impact the pregnancy vaginal microbiota. Patients and clinicians who may be concerned about "infection risk" associated with the use of a vaginal pessary during high-risk pregnancy can be reassured.

  3. Vaginal contraception--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, D A; Thompson, S

    1982-04-01

    A number of new and innovative methods of vaginal contraceptive have been developed in recent years and are currently being evaluated. Some of these methods are described briefly and the available data on their safety and efficacy are presented. 3 types of contraceptive sponges have been developed--collagen sponge, intravaginal insert, and Secure sponge--and are now being evaluated. The collagen sponge, a cylindrical-shaped disk, exerts its contraceptive effect by acting as a physical barrier to the sperm and through its ability to absorb semen much in excess of its own weight. Preliminary data confirm the effectiveness of the sponge obtained from post-coital tests. The intravaginal insert (IVI) is made of a polyester material incorporating the spermicide nonoxynol-9. In a small clinical evaluation of the IVI, 49 women were followed up for 1 month. No pregnancies or unexpected adverse reactions were reported. The Secure sponge is made of polyurethane and incorporates 1 g of the spermicide nonoxynol-9. Its primary mode of action in preventing pregnancy is through the release of nonoxynol-9. In a multiclinic phase 2 evaluation of the Secure, which included 382 women, the 6-month gross life-table pregnancy rate was 3.8 +or- 1.3/100 women; the 6-month gross discontinuation rate for all reasons was 26.2 +or- 3.4/100 women. Sufficient data from the comparative trials of the Secure and Neo Sampoon foaming suppository studies conducted in Yugoslavia, Taiwan, and Bangladesh have been reported to the International Fertility Research Program (IFRP). The 12-month life-table rates for reasons leading to discontinuation of the contraceptive methods were not significantly different except for the category of "other personal reasons." The advantages Secure provides over other vaginal contraceptives are identified. Foaming vaginal suppositories similar to Neo Sampoon but containing 100 mg nonoxynol-9 are being developed and evaluated in the U.S. Clinical data on these products are

  4. More frequent vaginal orgasm is associated with experiencing greater excitement from deep vaginal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Klapilova, Katerina; Krejčová, Lucie

    2013-07-01

    Research indicated that: (i) vaginal orgasm (induced by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent clitoral masturbation) consistency (vaginal orgasm consistency [VOC]; percentage of PVI occasions resulting in vaginal orgasm) is associated with mental attention to vaginal sensations during PVI, preference for a longer penis, and indices of psychological and physiological functioning, and (ii) clitoral, distal vaginal, and deep vaginal/cervical stimulation project via different peripheral nerves to different brain regions. The aim of this study is to examine the association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from deep vaginal stimulation (compared with middle and shallow vaginal stimulation and clitoral stimulation), and (ii) whether vaginal stimulation was present during the woman's first masturbation. A sample of 75 Czech women (aged 18-36), provided details of recent VOC, site of genital stimulation during first masturbation, and their recent sexual arousability from the four genital sites. The association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from the four genital sites and (ii) involvement of vaginal stimulation in first-ever masturbation. VOC was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation but not with sexual arousability from other genital sites. VOC was also associated with women's first masturbation incorporating (or being exclusively) vaginal stimulation. The findings suggest (i) stimulating the vagina during early life masturbation might indicate individual readiness for developing greater vaginal responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC, and (ii) current sensitivity of deep vaginal and cervical regions is associated with VOC, which might be due to some combination of different neurophysiological projections of the deep regions and their greater responsiveness to penile stimulation. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Vaginal hysterectomy, an outpatient procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Marie Ellström; Hauso, Wenche

    2012-11-01

    To report our experience of treating women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy in an outpatient setting and to identify risk factors for hospital admission and women dissatisfied with care. Prospective observational report. department of obstetrics and gynecology, university hospital in Norway. 150 women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy at the outpatient clinic from February 2009 to April 2010. Perioperative data were collected prospectively and case notes were searched for complications. On the first postoperative day all women were contacted by telephone by a nurse. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to monitor pain and nausea during the stay at the outpatient clinic and the day after surgery. VAS was also used to specify the women's degree of satisfaction with care the day after surgery. The number of women who could be discharged from the outpatient unit and had a satisfaction score of ≥7 the day after surgery. Of the 150 women, 84% could be discharged after a mean observation period of 276 min (SD ± 80 min). The mean satisfaction score was 9.0, SD ± 1.4, and 92.6% of the women reported ≥7 points in the satisfaction score. No women with serious complications were sent home. Using a multivariable logistic regression model only pain at discharge was found as significant (p= 0.009) for admittance to hospital. Vaginal hysterectomy is a feasible outpatient procedure and the majority of women were satisfied with the care they received. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. The effects of vaginal prolapse surgery using synthetic mesh on vaginal wall sensibility, vaginal vasocongestion, and sexual function: a prospective single-center study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Maaike A.; Lakeman, Marielle M. E.; Laan, Ellen; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal mesh surgery in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Implantation of synthetic mesh might damage vaginal innervation and vascularization, which could cause sexual dysfunction. We aim to evaluate the effects of vaginal mesh surgery on vaginal

  7. Association between contraceptive discontinuation and pregnancy intentions in Guatemala Asociación entre la suspensión en el uso de anticonceptivos y las intenciones de embarazo en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine L. Barden-O’Fallon

    2008-06-01

    uso de anticonceptivos (SUA está asociada con embarazos concebidos antes de lo deseado (inoportunos o no deseados. MÉTODOS: Se usaron los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materna e Infantil en Guatemala de 2002. Los embarazos registrados entre los tres años previos a la encuesta (desde abril de 1999 y el final de la misma (noviembre de 2002 se clasificaron como deseados, inoportunos o no deseados. La variable independiente principal fue si la mujer había usado algún anticonceptivo en los 12 meses previos al embarazo y, en ese caso, la razón de la SUA (para lograr un embarazo u otra razón. Mediante el análisis logístico polinominal se determinó el grado de asociación entre la SUA y el tipo de embarazo resultante. RESULTADOS: Uno de cada cinco embarazos inoportunos y uno de cada seis embarazos no deseados sucedieron a la SUA por razones ajenas al deseo de un embarazo (por ejemplo, fallas o efectos secundarios del anticonceptivo, o consideraciones de salud. Se encontró una asociación directa y significativa entre la SUA por razones ajenas al deseo de quedar embarazada y los embarazos clasificados como inoportunos (coeficiente = 2,15; error estándar = 0,27 o no deseados (2,68; 0,37, en contraste con los embarazos deseados. Las mujeres que suspendieron el uso de anticonceptivos por razones ajenas al deseo de un embarazo presentaron una mayor probabilidad de considerar sus embarazos inoportunos o no deseados que las mujeres que no emplearon medios anticonceptivos en el año previo a su embarazo. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario promover el uso continuado de los anticonceptivos. Los programas deben hacer un mayor esfuerzo para reducir las fallas de los anticonceptivos, informar mejor sobre los efectos secundarios y aclarar las preocupaciones sanitarias que puedan llevar a la SUE. A fin de reducir el número de embarazos no programados, se deben identificar y captar a las mujeres que no usan anticonceptivos y quieren demorar o evitar un embarazo.

  8. Efecto vasodilatador e inhibidor de vasoconstricción del extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de Olea europaea (olivo sobre anillos aórticos de ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Nexar-QH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto vasodilatador, la inhibición de la vasoconstricción, así como el mecanismo responsable, del extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de Olea europaea (olivo, sobre anillos aórticos en ratas. Diseño: Experimental. Lugar: Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Científico, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Material biológico: Hojas de Olea europea y anillos aórticos de Rattus norvegicus, variedad albina swiss. Intervenciones: Se obtuvo un extracto hidroalcohólico de las hojas de Olea europaea. Se usó anillos aórticos de rata en cámara de órganos aislados y se registró la actividad vasomotora con un transductor de tensión isométrica. Se produjo contracción basal máxima con CaCl2 6 mM y se determinó el efecto vasodilatador con dosis de 25, 50 y 100 mg/mL de extracto hidroalcohólico de las hojas de Olea europaea. Se usó 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3 alquinoxalin-1-one] (ODQ y nifedipino para determinar el mecanismo de acción. Se comparó la inhibición de la vasoconstricción tras la incubación durante 30 minutos con extracto 100 mg/mL y con captopril 10 µM. Principales medidas de resultados: Porcentaje de vasodilatación y de vasoconstricción. Resultados: Se obtuvo una vasodilatación de 7,20 ± 1,49%, 9,84 ± 1,42% y 12,31 ± 1,16% para las dosis de 25, 50 y 100 mg/mL, respectivamente, siendo significativa con la dosis de 100 mg/mL. La vasodilatación se incrementó tras la administración de ODQ 100 mM. La vasodilatación se inhibió tras la incubación con ODQ 100 mM más nifedipino 5 µM. No se encontró diferencia significativa entre la inhibición de la vasoconstricción con captopril 10µM y extracto a 100 mg/mL. Conclusiones: El extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de Olea europea, a una dosis de 100 mg/mL, tiene efecto vasodilatador sobre anillos aórticos de ratas, mediado por el bloqueo de canales de calcio; además, posee efecto inhibidor de la

  9. Arco aórtico derecho circunflejo retroesofágico con ligamento arterioso izquierdo: una variedad infrecuente de anillo vascular completo Presentación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo, Lina M.; Franco, Jaime; López, Carlos F.; Caicedo, Víctor; Núñez, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Los anillos vasculares pertenecen a un grupo de anomalías congénitas de los arcos aórticos en los que la tráquea y el esófago, o ambos, están completamente rodeados por estructuras vasculares. Con frecuencia pueden causar obstrucción y, en consecuencia, alteración de la deglución y dificultad respiratoria, por lo cual deben incluirse en el diagnóstico diferencial de obstrucción de la vía aérea superior. El diagnóstico temprano y la liberación quirúrgica oportuna de la obstrucción de la vía aé...

  10. Vaginal mucosal flap as a sling preservation for the treatment of vaginal exposure of mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sea Young; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Han Kwon; Park, Chang Hoo; Kim, Sung Jin; Sung, Gi Teck; Park, Chang Myon

    2010-06-01

    Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures are used for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The procedures with synthetic materials can have a risk of vaginal erosion. We experienced transobturator suburethral sling (TOT) tape-induced vaginal erosion and report the efficacy of a vaginal mucosal covering technique. A total of 560 female patients diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence underwent TOT procedures at our hospital between January 2005 and August 2009. All patients succeeded in follow-ups, among which 8 patients (mean age: 50.5 years) presented with vaginal exposure of the mesh. A vaginal mucosal covering technique was performed under local anesthesia after administration of antibiotics and vaginal wound dressings for 3-4 days. Seven of the 8 patients complained of persistent vaginal discharge postoperatively. Two of the 8 patients complained of dyspareunia of their male partners. The one remaining patient was otherwise asymptomatic, but mesh erosion was discovered at the routine follow-up visit. Six of the 8 patients showed complete mucosal covering of the mesh after the operation (mean follow-up period: 16 moths). Vaginal mucosal erosion recurred in 2 patients, and the mesh was then partially removed. One patient had recurrent stress urinary incontinence. Vaginal mucosal covering as a sling preservation with continued patient continence may be a feasible and effective option for the treatment of vaginal exposure of mesh after TOT tape procedures.

  11. Descriptiveness of vaginal secretions pH in the vaginal microbiota assessment in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Nagornaya

    2016-07-01

    2 KU maternity hospital №7, Odessa           Summary 143 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant women have been examined. The objective: to determine the information content of  the vaginal fluid pH.  Methods used: Cytological, standard microbiological,  real time PCR, the measurement of vaginal fluid pH. Results: five types  of vaginal microbiota have been revealed, as well as a clear link of pH and the quantitative characteristic of microflora, high inverse correlation with  estradiol content was shown,  and correspondence to the number of gestation complications and the number of inflammatory diseases of the somatic plan was proved. The authors recommend to use pH of the vaginal fluid as an indicator of the state of vaginal biotope in the course of pregnancy.       Keywords: pH of the vaginal secretion, vaginal biotope pregnancy.

  12. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Sys; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery.......To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery....

  13. Use of vaginal hysterectomy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Lykke; Daugbjerg, Signe B; Gimbel, Helga

    2011-01-01

    To describe the use of vaginal, abdominal and laparoscopic hysterectomy in Denmark from 1999 to 2008, the influence of national guidelines and the patient and procedure-related characteristics associated with the choice of vaginal hysterectomy. Design. Nationwide register-based cohort study....

  14. VULVO-VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS ASSOCIATED WITH ACITRETIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STURKENBOOM, MCJM; MIDDELBEEK, A; VANDENBERG, LTWD; VANDENBERG, PB; STRICKER, BHC; WESSELING, H

    The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis among the users of acitretin. The incidence rate ratio of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis was estimated in a cohort of acitretin users by using prescription sequence analysis. Study subjects were 196 women between 15 and 45 years

  15. Short convalescence after vaginal prolapse surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Marianne; Sørensen, Mette; Kehlet, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retrospectively to describe the recommended convalescence according to patients who had undergone vaginal prolapse surgery in 1996-98, and prospectively to describe the need for and limiting factors for convalescence after vaginal prolapse surgery in 1999-2000 at a Danish University Ho...

  16. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to...

  17. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić Dane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country’s everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM, vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. Methods. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. Results. In 36 (6% patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11% women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19% women had BV, 19 (4% vaginitis, and 72 (14% candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21% had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30% women - in 83 (54% of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal

  18. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Dane; Pavlović, Miloš D

    2015-06-01

    Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country's everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM), vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH) test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. In 36 (6%) patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11%) women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19%) women had BV, 19 (4%) vaginitis, and 72 (14%) candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21%) had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30%) women--in 83 (54%) of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal infections.

  19. [Severe vaginal discharge following rectal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, L C; Bremers, A J A; Heesakkers, J P F A; Kluivers, K B

    2018-01-01

    Almost 50% of women who have had rectal surgery subsequently develop vaginal discharge. Due to the recurrent and unexpected nature of this heavy discharge, they often experience it as very distressing. Many of these women undergo extensive diagnostic tests that are mainly focused on identifying fistula formation. If no fistula is found, in most cases no other cause for severe vaginal discharge can be demonstrated. In our practice, we saw three patients (49-, 54- and 74-years-old, respectively) with similar severe vaginal discharge after rectal surgery and in whom no explanation for the vaginal discharge could be found. For this reason we conducted a literature search into this condition. Anatomical changes appear to be responsible for heavy vaginal discharge following rectal surgery. Changes in pelvic floor muscles and compression of the distal part of the vagina may lead to pooling of fluid in the proximal part of the vagina, resulting in severe discharge. Symptomatic treatment may reduce the symptoms.

  20. Protection against rat vaginal candidiasis by adoptive transfer of vaginal B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Lucciarini, Roberta; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Amantini, Consuelo; Cassone, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a mucosal infection affecting many women, but the immune mechanisms operating against Candida albicans at the mucosal level remain unknown. A rat model was employed to further characterize the contribution of B and T cells to anti-Candida vaginal protection. Particularly, the protective role of vaginal B cells was studied by means of adoptive transfer of vaginal CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) cells from Candida-immunized rats to naïve animals. This passive transfer of B cells resulted into a number of vaginal C. albicans CFU approximately 50% lower than their controls. Sorted CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes from Candida-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with an immunodominant mannoprotein (MP) antigen of the fungus. Importantly, anti-MP antibodies and antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the supernatant and cell cultures, respectively, of vaginal B lymphocytes from infected rats incubated in vitro with vaginal T cells and stimulated with MP. No such specific antibodies were found when using vaginal B cells from uninfected rats. Furthermore, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6 and IL-10, were found in the supernatant of vaginal B cells from infected rats. These data are evidence of a partial anti-Candida protective role of CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes in our experimental model.

  1. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  2. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  3. Women's socioeconomic factors associated to the choice of contraceptive method in Spain Factores socioeconómicos de las mujeres asociados a la elección del método anticonceptivo en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Ruiz-Muñoz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on the choice of the contraceptive method used among women in Spain in 2006. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of women aged 15-49 who reported the contraceptive method used during the first sexual intercourse (n = 3352 and during the 4 weeks prior to the interview (n = 2672. Data were analyzed taking into account women's socioeconomic characteristics. Results: The mostly used method during the first sexual intercourse was the condom. Women from developing countries more frequently used the pill than native-born Spanish women. The condom was also the most commonly used method in the 4 weeks prior to the interview. The use of other contraceptive methods increased with age. Being older and having children were both associated with an increased use of permanent methods. Conclusions: The choice of a specific contraceptive method seems to be more strongly influenced by women's stage of life than by socioeconomic characteristics.Objetivos: Describir la influencia de las características socioeconómicas en la elección del método anticonceptivo utilizado por las mujeres en España en 2006. Métodos: Estudio transversal de las mujeres de 15-49 años de edad que declararon el método anticonceptivo utilizado en la primera relación sexual (n = 3352 y durante las cuatro últimas semanas (n = 2672, teniendo en cuenta sus características socioeconómicas. Resultados: El preservativo fue el método más utilizado durante la primera relación sexual. Las mujeres de países en vías de desarrollo usaron más frecuentemente la píldora que las autóctonas. El preservativo fue también el método más utilizado durante las cuatro últimas semanas. El uso del resto de los métodos aumenta con la edad. Tener una edad más alta e hijos se asoció con un mayor uso de métodos permanentes. Conclusiones: La elección de un método anticonceptivo concreto parece estar más influenciada por

  4. Información sobre anticoncepción y métodos anticonceptivos en adolecentes del municipio "La Lisa" Information about contraception and contraceptive methods in adolescents in "La Lisa" Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Fernández García

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el control de la natalidad en la adolescencia y la prevención de las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (ITS, han sido una preocupación de nuestro Sistema Nacional de Salud, que ha realizado numerosos esfuerzos en aras de lograrlo. Objetivo: caracterizar la información que tienen sobre anticoncepción y métodos anticonceptivos un grupo de adolescentes. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. El universo fue de 87 alumnos matriculados en la escuela y se trabajó con 78 de ellos, a los cuales se les aplicó una encuesta de manera anónima, con preguntas cerradas y validadas por criterios de expertos. Resultados: en ambos sexos se identificaron correctamente los métodos anticonceptivos. Los padres fueron la fuente de información más frecuente y predominaron aquellos que no reconocen la posibilidad de un embarazo con la práctica de algunos juegos sexuales. Conclusiones: el conocimiento por parte de los y las adolescentes de la importancia de la anticoncepción y los métodos anticonceptivos resulta aún insuficiente. Los programas de educación sexual para adolescentes deben reforzar estos aspectos. El protagonismo de los educadores debe ser mayor pues en estas edades se necesita que los transmisores de la información tengan una adecuada preparación que en ocasiones falta en los padres.Background: birth control in adolescence and the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI have been a great concern for our National Health System, which has made many efforts in the interest of achieving it. Objective: to characterize the information that a group of adolescents have about contraception and contraceptive methods. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The sample was composed of 87 students enrolled at school. To 78 of them, an anonymous inquiry was applied which included closed questions and was also validated by experts´ criteria. Results: in both sexes, the

  5. The Vaginal Microbiota and Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-12-01

    The vagina is a key anatomical site in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women, serving as a potential reservoir for infecting bacteria and a site at which interventions may decrease the risk of UTI. The vaginal microbiota is a dynamic and often critical factor in this pathogenic interplay, because changes in the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota resulting in the loss of normally protective Lactobacillus spp. increase the risk of UTI. These alterations may result from the influence of estrogen deficiency, antimicrobial therapy, contraceptives, or other causes. Interventions to reduce adverse effects on the vaginal microbiota and/or to restore protective lactobacilli may reduce the risks of UTI.

  6. Proinflammatory Cytokines as Regulators of Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremleva, E A; Sgibnev, A V

    2016-11-01

    It was shown that IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-6 in concentrations similar to those in the vagina of healthy women stimulated the growth of normal microflora (Lactobacillus spp.) and suppressed the growth and biofilm production by S. aureus and E. coli. On the contrary, these cytokines in higher concentrations typical of vaginal dysbiosis suppressed normal microflora and stimulated the growth of opportunistic microorganisms. TGF-β1 in both doses produced a stimulating effects on study vaginal microsymbionts. It is hypothesized that pro-inflammatory cytokines serve as the molecules of interspecies communication coordinating the interactions of all components of the vaginal symbiotic system.

  7. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, R Karl; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.

  8. Surgical removal of a large vaginal calculus formed after a tension-free vaginal tape procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Feiner, Benjamin; Haya, Nir; Auslender, Ron; Abramov, Yoram

    2016-11-01

    Vaginal calculus is a rare disorder which has been reported in association with urethral diverticulum, urogenital sinus anomaly, bladder exstrophy and the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. We report a 42-year-old woman who presented with persistent, intractable urinary tract infection (UTI) following a TVT procedure. Cystoscopy demonstrated an eroded tape with the formation of a bladder calculus, and the patient underwent laser cystolithotripsy and cystoscopic resection of the tape. Following this procedure, her UTI completely resolved and she remained asymptomatic for several years. Seven years later she presented with a solid vaginal mass. Pelvic examination followed by transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large vaginal calculus located at the lower third of the anterior vaginal wall adjacent to the bladder neck. This video presents the transvaginal excision and removal of the vaginal calculus.

  9. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus...

  10. Vaginal Calculus in a Woman With Mixed Urinary Incontinence and Vaginal Mesh Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, William D; Rabban, Joseph T; Korn, Abner P

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal calculi are extremely rare and are most commonly encountered in the setting of an urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula. We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with mixed urinary incontinence and vaginal mesh exposure incidentally found to have a large vaginal calculus. We removed the calculus surgically and analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of ammonium-magnesium phosphate hexahydrate and carbonate apatite.

  11. Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A.; Al-Charrakh, Alaa H.; AL-Greitty, Bara Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effec...

  12. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge in Maiduguri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, S M; Bukar, M; Mohammed, Y; Mohammed, B; Yahaya, M; Audu, B M; Ibrahim, H M; Ibrahim, H A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological characteristics were collected from 400 pregnant women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge at booking clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The data was analysed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnancy was 31.5%. The frequency of abnormal vaginal discharge was 183 (45.8%) among those aged 20-24 years, 291 (72.8%) in multipara, 223 (55.8%) in those with Primary education and 293 (73.2%) in unemployed. Vulval pruritus 300 (75.0%) was significantly related to abnormal vaginal discharge (P candidiasis were 151 (50.3%), 14 (56.0%) and 75 (75.0%) respectively (P vaginal discharge in pregnancy was high in this study and C. albicans was the commonest cause. It is recommended that a pregnant woman complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge be assessed and Laboratory diagnosis done in order to give appropriate treatment.

  13. Quantitative studies on the vaginal flora of asymptomatic women and patients with vaginitis and vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, R; Kronibus, A; Lang, N; Werner, H

    1987-07-01

    Vaginal washings of 22 patients with vaginitis, 11 with vaginosis, and 12 healthy subjects were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts. Gardnerella vaginalis was recovered from 9 of the vaginitis patients, 7 of the vaginosis patients, and 4 of the asymptomatic subjects. Obligate anaerobes were found in 11 of the vaginitis patients, 4 of the vaginosis patients, and none of the control subjects. Bacteroides bivius was the anaerobe most frequently isolated from symptomatic subjects. Anaerobic vibrios were recovered twice from symptomatic subjects. The counts for Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobes when present were generally very high. The most frequent aerobes were beta-hemolytic streptococci (group B) and staphylococci.

  14. Evaluation of vaginal flora and susceptibility test of microorganisms in reproductive-age women with or without vaginitis in primary care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Alim, Ahmet; Çetin, Ali; Yıldız, Çağlar

    2009-01-01

    AbstractAims. The treatment modalities of patients with vaginal discharge are generally related to their symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate vaginal flora and antibiogram analysis in reproductive-age women with or without vaginitis in primary care settings. Methods. Vaginal swabs were taken from 311 women who have vaginitis, and tested for the causative agents of vaginal discharge. The control group was 89 healthy women without vaginal discharge. Vaginal swaps were used in a comme...

  15. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues in cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Hardy, Luke A.; Peters, Michael G.; Bastawros, Dina A.; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2018-02-01

    A nonsurgical laser procedure is being developed for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Previous studies in porcine vaginal tissues, ex vivo, as well as computer simulations, showed the feasibility of using near-infrared laser energy delivered through a transvaginal contact cooling probe to thermally remodel endopelvic fascia, while preserving the vaginal wall from thermal damage. This study explores optical properties of vaginal tissue in cadavers as an intermediate step towards future pre-clinical and clinical studies. Optical clearing of tissue using glycerol resulted in a 15-17% increase in optical transmission after 11 min at room temperature (and a calculated 32.5% increase at body temperature). Subsurface thermal lesions were created using power of 4.6 - 6.4 W, 5.2-mm spot, and 30 s irradiation time, resulting in partial preservation of vaginal wall to 0.8 - 1.1 mm depth.

  16. Vaginal itching and discharge - Adult and adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 003158.htm Vaginal itching and discharge - adult and adolescent To use the sharing features on this page, ... fabric softeners, feminine sprays, ointments, creams, douches, and contraceptive foams or jellies or creams. This may irritate ...

  17. Vaginal neurofibroma in a hysterectomized poodle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontas, B H; Altun, E D; Güvenc, K; Arun, S S; Ekici, H

    2010-12-01

    A 15-year-old, spayed, female poodle dog was presented for evaluation of a mass of tissue prolapsed from the vulva. The dog had been hysterectomized when it was 5 years old. A vaginal mass had been removed approximately 10 months before presentation. Haematological and serum biochemistry analyses demonstrated mild leucocytosis and glycaemia. A vaginal smear was predominantly made up of parabasal cells and intermediate cells with no neoplastic cells. Thoracal and abdominal radiographic findings were unremarkable. The ovaries could not be identified using abdominal ultrasonography. A midline exploratory laparotomy identified both ovaries that were surgically excised. The vaginal mass was also removed following an episiotomy procedure. Histopathological examination of the mass demonstrated that it was a neurofibroma. Both ovaries had cystic changes. Four months after the surgery, the owner reported that the dog was clinically normal. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a vaginal neurofibroma after an incomplete ovariohysterectomy in the dog.

  18. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Vaginitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to diagnose vaginitis. 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Self-study STD ... Halvorson New Chief of Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, ...

  19. What Are the Symptoms of Vaginitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many women have no symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Self-study STD module—vaginitis . Retrieved ... New Chief of Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, ...

  20. Short convalescence after vaginal prolapse surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Marianne; Sørensen, Mette; Kehlet, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retrospectively to describe the recommended convalescence according to patients who had undergone vaginal prolapse surgery in 1996-98, and prospectively to describe the need for and limiting factors for convalescence after vaginal prolapse surgery in 1999-2000 at a Danish University...... Hospital. METHODS: The retrospective study included a validated, postal, questionnaire and review of patient files. In the prospective study, we followed consecutive women after vaginal surgery in a fast-track setting using a multimodal rehabilitation model with well-defined recommendations...... exceeding 10 kg. Limiting factors were fatigue and pain. The 1-year subjective recurrence rate was 17%. CONCLUSION: Traditionally, recommended convalescence has been median 6 weeks after vaginal prolapse surgery. Convalescence has been shortened to 1-3 weeks with a multimodal rehabilitation model...

  1. Uso de métodos anticonceptivos asociado a violencia basada en género en mujeres en edad fértil. Centro de Salud Grocio Prado, Ica. 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo Charaja, Aurea del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Determina la asociación entre la violencia basada en género con el uso de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres en edad fértil que acuden al Centro de Salud Grocio Prado en Ica, 2015. Materiales y método: El tipo de estudio fue analítico, prospectivo y transversal. Con un diseño de cohorte. La población estuvo constituida por 683 mujeres. Muestra constituida por 70 mujeres en edad fértil, 35 con violencia basada en género y 35 sin violencia basada en género en las que se evaluó el uso de mét...

  2. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  3. Ampliación de anillo aórtico para implantación de prótesis: Evolución en el tiempo Aortic ring widening for prosthesis implantation: Evaluation throughout time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Velásquez

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las características cardíacas de pacientes sometidos a cambio valvular aórtico con ampliación del anillo para implantación de una prótesis mayor, mediante seguimiento clínico y ecocardiográfico. Materiales y métodos: entre 1997 y 2001 se tomaron 26 pacientes, de los cuales 13 (50%, con edad promedio de 57 años, se sometieron a seguimiento. La ecocardiografía se practicó en el control, obteniéndose área valvular aórtica, masa ventricular y gradientes transprotésicos para luego establecer los índices respectivos. Resultados: hubo mejoría en la clase funcional de los 13 pacientes controlados, con 92.3% en clase I (p= 0.002. La evolución postoperatoria fue de 25 meses en promedio. El índice de masa ventricular y los gradientes valvulares (medio presentaron reducción de 149 a 113 g/m2 y de 67 a 12.2 mm Hg respectivamente (p= 0.001; también se evidenció aumento en el índice de área efectiva valvular protésica que varió de 0.37 a 1 cm/m2 (p= 0.001. Discusión: los resultados evidencian involución en los trastornos ventriculares y mejoría en la clase funcional de los pacientes sometidos a este procedimiento; sin embargo, no se logró establecer comparación con pacientes que presentaran una prótesis menor a 21 mm de diámetro, lo que permitiría confirmar las ventajas de una válvula mayor. Conclusión: la cirugía de cambio valvular aórtico con ampliación del anillo para la implantación de una prótesis mayor, parece ser una alternativa para los pacientes con anillo aórtico nativo pequeño, evidenciándose mejoría clínica y ecocardiográfica en su evolución.Objective: to describe the cardiac characteristics of patients submitted to aortic valvular change with ring widening for a bigger prosthesis implantation, through clinical and echocardiographic follow-up. Material and methods: 26 patients were chosen between 1997 and 2001. Follow-up was possible in 13 patients. Mean age was 57 years. A

  4. The vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bing; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others comprise a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal conditions and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the ‘normal’ vaginal microbiots. A better understanding of ‘normal’ and ‘healthy’ vaginal ecosystems that is based on its ‘true’ function and not simply on its composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases. PMID:22746335

  5. Vaginal microbial flora and outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Laura; Di Vico, Augusto; Nucci, Marta; Quagliozzi, Lorena; Spagnuolo, Terryann; Labianca, Antonietta; Bracaglia, Marina; Ianniello, Francesca; Caruso, Alessandro; Paradisi, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    The vaginal microflora of a healthy asymptomatic woman consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the facultative, microaerophilic, anaerobic genus Lactobacillus. The activity of Lactobacillus is essential to protect women from genital infections and to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal flora. Increasing evidence associates abnormalities in vaginal flora during pregnancy with preterm labor and delivery with potential neonatal sequelae due to prematurity and poor perinatal outcome. Although this phenomenon is relatively common, even in populations of women at low risk for adverse events, the pathogenetic mechanism that leads to complications in pregnancy is still poorly understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge and uncertainties in defining alterations of vaginal flora in non-pregnant adult women and during pregnancy, and, in particular, investigates the issue of bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis. This could help specialists to identify women amenable to treatment during pregnancy leading to the possibility to reduce the preterm birth rate, preterm premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, neonatal, puerperal and maternal-fetal infectious diseases. Vaginal ecosystem study with the detection of pathogens is a key instrument in the prevention of preterm delivery, pPROM, chorioamnionitis, neonatal, puerperal and maternal-fetal infections.

  6. Successful vaginal delivery at term after vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps in a patient with vaginal atresia: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Yi-Feng

    2017-07-01

    We report a case of successful vaginal delivery after vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps in a 23-year-old patient with congenital vaginal atresia. The patient primarily presented with amenorrhea and cyclic abdominal pain; transabdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged uterus due to hematometra and absence of the lower segment of the vagina. Eight years ago, she had undergone an unsuccessful attempt at canalization at a local hospital. Upon referral to our hospital, she underwent vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps. Four months after this procedure, she became pregnant and, subsequently, successfully and safely vaginally delivered a healthy female baby weighing 3250 g at 38 +1 weeks' gestation. The delivery did not involve perineal laceration by lateral episiotomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful vaginal delivery at term after vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps in a patient with vaginal atresia. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. The comparison of hyaluronic acid vaginal tablets with estradiol vaginal tablets in the treatment of atrophic vaginitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin, Murat; Yaşar, Levent; Savan, Kadir; Temur, Muzaffer; Uhri, Mehmet; Gencer, Işıl; Kıvanç, Esra

    2011-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of the vaginal tablets of hyaluronic acid and estrodiol for the treatment of atrophic vaginitis. Forty-two postmenopausal women with symptoms of atrophic vaginitis were randomized to take vaginal tablets of 25 μg estradiol (n = 21) (group I) or 5 mg hyaluronic acid sodium salt (n = 21) (group II) for 8 weeks. The symptoms of atrophic vaginitis were evaluated by a self-assessed 4-point scale of composite score and the degree of epithelial atrophy was determined as, none, mild, moderate and severe. Vaginal pH and maturation index were measured and compared in both the groups. The symptoms were relieved significantly in both the groups (P Hyaluronic acid vaginal tablets can be used in patients with atrophic vaginitis who do not want to or can not take local estrogen treatment.

  8. Nonspecific aerobic vaginitis and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzik, D; Drazancić, A; Hrgović, Z

    2001-01-01

    During the period 1996-1998, cervical swabs of 50 pregnant women with subacute amniotic infection syndrome (AIS) and the semen of their consorts were bacteriologically analyzed. In the control group were 50 healthy pregnant women and their consorts too. Pathogenic bacteria (the most common were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum) were isolated from the cervical swab of 50 pregnant patients with AIS in 86.0% of them, while in the control group of healthy pregnant women in 28.0%. Pathogenic bacteria were present in 70.0% of semen of consorts pregnant women with AIS and only in 30.0% of semen of the control group. The congruity of pathogenic bacteria in the cervical swab and semen in the investigated group was 69.2%, while only 35.7% in the control group. Following erythromycin, cefuroxime and local tetracyclin treatment, the negativization of the cervical swab resulted in 30 pregnant patients with AIS, while the colonization persisted in 20 of them. The outcome of pregnancy was significantly better in cases with negativization of the cervical swab: perinatal loss was 6.7%, while in cases with persistent infection it was 55.0%. The authors presume the amniotic infection syndrome should be ascending manifestation of nonspecific vaginitis, which is maintained by the consort's urogenital infection. AIS should be classified as a 'sexually-transmitted disease'. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2010-08-01

    Evidence was recently provided for vaginal orgasm, orgasm triggered purely by penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), being associated with better psychological functioning. Common sex education and sexual medicine approaches might undermine vaginal orgasm benefits. To examine the extent to which women's vaginal orgasm consistency is associated with (i) being told in childhood or adolescence that the vagina was the important zone for inducing female orgasm; (ii) how well they focus mentally on vaginal sensations during PVI; (iii) greater PVI duration; and (iv) preference for above-average penis length.   In a representative sample of the Czech population, 1,000 women reported their vaginal orgasm consistency (from never to almost every time; only 21.9% never had a vaginal orgasm), estimates of their typical foreplay and PVI durations, what they were told in childhood and adolescence was the important zone for inducing female orgasm, their degree of focus on vaginal sensations during PVI, and whether they were more likely to orgasm with a longer than average penis. The association of vaginal orgasm consistency with the predictors noted above. Vaginal orgasm consistency was associated with all hypothesized correlates. Multivariate analysis indicated the most important predictors were being educated that the vagina is important for female orgasm, being mentally focused on vaginal sensations during PVI, and in some analyses duration of PVI (but not foreplay) and preferring a longer than average penis. Focusing attention on penile-vaginal sensation supports vaginal orgasm and the myriad benefits thereof. Brody S, and Weiss P. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Vaginal estrogen: a dual-edged sword in postoperative healing of the vaginal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripperda, Christopher M; Maldonado, Pedro Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F; Keller, Patrick W; Akgul, Yucel; Shelton, John M; Word, Ruth Ann

    2017-07-01

    Reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is plagued with high failure rates possibly due to impaired healing or regeneration of the vaginal wall. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postoperative administration of local estrogen, direct injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or both lead to improved wound healing of the injured vagina in a menopausal rat model. Ovariectomized rats underwent surgical injury to the posterior vaginal wall and were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 41), estrogen cream (n = 47), direct injection of MSCs (n = 39), or both (n = 43). MSCs did not survive after injection and had no appreciable effects on healing of the vaginal wall. Acute postoperative administration of vaginal estrogen altered the response of the vaginal wall to injury with decreased stiffness, decreased collagen content, and decreased expression of transcripts for matrix components in the stromal compartment. Conversely, vaginal estrogen resulted in marked proliferation of the epithelial layer and increased expression of genes related to epithelial barrier function and protease inhibition. Transcripts for genes involved in chronic inflammation and adaptive immunity were also down-regulated in the estrogenized epithelium. Collectively, these data indicate that, in contrast to the reported positive effects of preoperative estrogen on the uninjured vagina, acute administration of postoperative vaginal estrogen has adverse effects on the early phase of healing of the stromal layer. In contrast, postoperative estrogen plays a positive role in healing of the vaginal epithelium after injury.

  11. Patterns of Expression of Vaginal T-Cell Activation Markers during Estrogen-Maintained Vaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sadeq Ameera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunosuppressive activity of estrogen was further investigated by assessing the pattern of expression of CD25, CD28, CD69, and CD152 on vaginal T cells during estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis. A precipitous and significant decrease in vaginal fungal burden toward the end of week 3 postinfection was concurrent with a significant increase in vaginal lymphocyte numbers. During this period, the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD152+, and CD28+ vaginal T cells gradually and significantly increased. The percentage of CD3+ and CD3+CD4+ cells increased from 43% and 15% at day 0 to 77% and 40% at day 28 postinfection. Compared with 29% CD152+ vaginal T cells in naive mice, > 70% of vaginal T cells were CD152+ at day 28 postinfection. In conclusion, estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis results in postinfection time-dependent changes in the pattern of expression of CD152, CD28, and other T-cell markers, suggesting that T cells are subject to mixed suppression and activation signals.

  12. Management of vaginal extrusion after tension-free vaginal tape procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Subhasis K; Sil, Debasri; Narasimhulu, Girish; Flood, Hugh D; Skehan, Mark; Drumm, John

    2007-06-01

    To report our experience in the management of vaginal extrusion after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence. Five patients diagnosed with vaginal extrusion after a TVT procedure performed at our institution were identified. We reviewed the patients' records retrospectively. The interval from TVT placement to diagnosis, presenting symptoms and signs, duration of symptoms, diagnostic test findings, treatment, and postoperative results were recorded. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months. From January 2001 to June 2004, a total of 166 patients underwent the TVT procedure. Of these, 5 patients (3%) were diagnosed with isolated vaginal extrusion 4 to 40 months postoperatively. No cases of urethral or bladder erosion occurred in this series. The symptoms included vaginal discharge, pain, bleeding, and dyspareunia. The eroded margin of the vaginal mucosa was trimmed, mobilized, and closed over the tape with interrupted vertical mattress sutures in a single layer using 2-0 polyglactin 910 to avoid mucosal inversion. All patients remained symptom free without any evidence of defective healing or additional extrusion at a minimal follow-up of 12 months. Primary reclosure of the vaginal mucosa over the TVT tape is an effective first-line treatment option for vaginal extrusion without compromising continence. Patients undergoing the TVT procedure should be adequately counseled about the possibility of this complication and the available treatment options.

  13. Focal depth measurements of the vaginal wall: a new method to noninvasively quantify vaginal wall thickness in the diagnosis and treatment of vaginal atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Maaike A.; Diedrich, Chantal M.; Ince, Can; Roovers, Jan-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if vaginal focal depth measurement could be a noninvasive method to quantify vaginal wall thickness. Postmenopausal women undergoing topical estrogen therapy because of vaginal atrophy (VA) were recruited. VA was diagnosed based on the presence of symptoms and

  14. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ITO, TAKUJI; BAI, TAO; TANAKA, TETSUJI; YOSHIDA, KENJI; UEYAMA, TAKASHI; MIYAJIMA, MASAYASU; NEGISHI, TAKAYUKI; KAWASAKI, TAKAHIKO; TAKAMATSU, HYOTA; KIKUTANI, HITOSHI; KUMANOGOH, ATSUSHI; YUKAWA, KAZUNORI

    2015-01-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Administration of β-estradiol to infant Sema4D-deficient (Sema4D−/−) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β-estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin-B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five-week-old WT and Sema4D−/− mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin-B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase-3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five-week-old Sema4D−/− mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D−/− vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis-inducing activity of Sema4D. The experimental reduction of

  15. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2015-02-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild‑type (WT) mice. Administration of β‑estradiol to infant Sema4D‑deficient (Sema4D‑/‑) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β‑estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin‑B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five‑week‑old WT and Sema4D‑/‑ mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin‑B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase‑3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five‑week‑old Sema4D‑/‑ mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D‑/‑ vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis‑inducing activity of Sema4D. The

  16. Is vaginal microscopy an essential tool for the management of women presenting with vaginal discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascar, R M; Devakumar, H; Jungmann, E; Copas, A; Arthur, G; Mercey, D

    2008-12-01

    Point-of-care microscopy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of vaginal discharge in genitourinary (GU) medicine clinics but not used in primary care settings and reproductive health clinics to which many patients present. In our GU medicine clinic setting, we conducted an audit to assess the utility of microscopy of vaginal secretions versus clinical diagnosis alone for the differential diagnosis of uncomplicated lower vaginal infections. Clinical diagnosis (including pH) of bacterial vaginosis had a sensitivity between 85% and 88% at two clinic sites. Our results suggest that it may be safe and more cost-effective to restrict vaginal microscopy to a subgroup of women presenting with vaginal discharge.

  17. Aerobic vaginal pathogens and their sensitivity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Shamim; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Aftab, Irum; Akhtar, Naeem; ul Hassan, Masood; Hamid, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The vaginal flora is a complicated environment, containing dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and relative proportions. The frequent cause of vaginal discharge is an infection or colonization with different microorganisms. Some pathologic conditions causing vaginitis are well defined yet, 7-72% of women with vaginitis may remain undiagnosed and such forms of abnormal vaginal flora neither considered as normal, nor can be called bacterial vaginosis have been termed as 'intermediate flora' and its management probably differ from that of bacterial vaginosis. It is of crucial importance in pregnant females at risk of preterm delivery. The present study has been conducted especially to elucidate this type of aerobic vaginal isolates and their culture and sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. This study was conducted at the Microbiology Department of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi over a period of two years (April 2004-March 2006). One thousand, nine hundred and twenty three high vaginal swabs, both from indoor and outdoor patients were collected, cultured and their susceptibility to various antibiotics was determined. Significant growth was obtained in 731 samples. The highest frequency of infection (39.5%) was observed at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years (35.8%). About 76% were from outdoor and 24% were from indoor patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent vaginal pathogen at 11-60 yrs & with highest prevalence at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years. It was a predominant pathogen in both indoor (35%) as well as outdoor (41.6%) patients, followed by enteric gram-negative bacilli and other gram-positive cocci. There were very few antibiotics among the conventionally available aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, penicillin, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines possessing good sensitivity (> 80%) against any one the common aerobic vaginal pathogens. The effective chemotherapeutics agents belong to

  18. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  19. The vaginal microbiota and susceptibility to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buve, Anne; Jespers, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Fichorova, Raina N

    2014-10-23

    There is some evidence that the risk of HIV infection per heterosexual act is higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. We hypothesize that variations in per sex-act transmission probability of HIV may in part be attributed to differences in the composition and function of the vaginal microbiota between different populations. This paper presents data that are in support of this hypothesis. Experimental and clinical studies have provided evidence that the normal vaginal microbiota plays a protective role against acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that disturbances of the vaginal microbiome, namely intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis, increase the risk of acquisition of HIV infection. A review of the literature found large differences in prevalence of bacterial vaginosis between different populations, with the highest prevalence rates found in black populations. Possible explanations for these differences are presented including data suggesting that there are ethnic differences in the composition of the normal vaginal microbiota. Lastly, interventions are discussed to restore and maintain a healthy vaginal environment. 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  20. Group B Streptococcus and the Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Geoffrey H; Randis, Tara M; Desai, Purnahamsi V; Sapra, Katherine J; Ma, Bing; Gajer, Pawel; Humphrys, Michael S; Ravel, Jacques; Gelber, Shari E; Ratner, Adam J

    2017-09-15

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is an important neonatal pathogen and emerging cause of disease in adults. The major risk factor for neonatal disease is maternal vaginal colonization. However, little is known about the relationship between GBS and vaginal microbiota. Vaginal lavage samples from nonpregnant women were tested for GBS, and amplicon-based sequencing targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V3-V4 region was performed. Four hundred twenty-eight of 432 samples met the high-quality read threshold. There was no relationship between GBS carriage and demographic characteristics, α-diversity, or overall vaginal microbiota community state type (CST). Within the non-Lactobacillus-dominant CST IV, GBS positive status was significantly more prevalent in CST IV-A than CST IV-B. Significant clustering by GBS status was noted on principal coordinates analysis, and 18 individual taxa were found to be significantly associated with GBS carriage by linear discriminant analysis. After adjusting for race/ethnicity, 4 taxa were positively associated with GBS, and 6 were negatively associated. Vaginal microbiota CST and α-diversity are not related to GBS status. However, specific microbial taxa are associated with colonization of this important human pathogen, highlighting a potential role for the microbiota in promotion or inhibition of GBS colonization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Diagnostic and therapeutic advancements for aerobic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cha; Wu, Wenjuan; Fan, Aiping; Wang, Yingmei; Zhang, Huiying; Chu, Zanjun; Wang, Chen; Xue, Fengxia

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a newly defined clinical entity that is distinct from candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Because of the poor recognition of AV, this condition can lead to treatment failures and is associated with severe complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, preterm birth and foetal infections. This review describes the diagnosis and treatment of AV and the relationship between AV and pregnancy. The characteristics of AV include severely depressed levels of lactobacilli, increased levels of aerobic bacteria and an inflamed vagina. The diagnosis is made by microscopy on wet mounts of fresh vaginal fluid, and some distinct clinical features are recognized. Vaginal suppositories that contain kanamycin or clindamycin have shown curative effects in nonpregnant women. Additionally, the application of topical probiotics can restore the vaginal flora and reduce the recurrence of AV. Clindamycin vaginal suppositories and probiotics may be a better choice for gravida with AV than metronidazole. AV requires prompt attention, and the early diagnosis and treatment of AV during pregnancy significantly improves perinatal outcomes. Further research is needed to define the pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and standard treatment guidelines for AV.

  2. [Vaginitis and vaginosis. Comparison of two periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruti, M; Canestrelli, M; Piantelli, G; Amone, F; Condemi, V; De Paolis, P; Ludovici, G; Somenzi, P

    1993-10-01

    Vaginitis is the most frequent gynecological disease. It is characterized by objective and subjective signs of inflammation and differs from bacterial vaginosis (BV) which is an abnormal condition of the vaginal ecosystem caused by the excessive growth of aerobic and anaerobic flora normally present in the vagina with an increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The authors report the results of a study carried out at the Centre for Gynecological Infections at the Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Parma. 828 patients were enrolled in the study during the period 1985-86 and 1559 patients during the two-year period 1991-92. The aim of the study was to evaluate variations in epidemiological data for vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis in the two periods examined. No significant changes were observed (p > 0.05) with regard to the prevalence of Ca, Tv and BV forms. On the other hand, there was a significant reduction (p vaginitis and BV showed a reduction of other microorganisms and an increase in negative vaginal swabs in adults (> 20 years old).

  3. Reviewing the options for local estrogen treatment of vaginal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl SH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarah H Lindahl Sutter East Bay Medical Foundation, SEBMF – Diablo Division, Castro Valley, CA, USA Background: Vaginal atrophy is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, pain during sex, itching, irritation, burning, and discharge, as well as various urinary problems. Up to 45% of postmenopausal women may be affected, but it often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the current recommendations for treatment of vaginal atrophy, and current data on the effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies. Methods: Literature regarding vaginal atrophy (2007–2012 was retrieved from PubMed and summarized, with emphasis on data related to the treatment of vaginal atrophy with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Results: Published data support the effectiveness and endometrial safety of low-dose local estrogen therapies. These results further support the general recommendation by the North American Menopause Society that a progestogen is not needed for endometrial protection in patients using low-dose local vaginal estrogen. Benefits of long-term therapy for vaginal atrophy include sustained relief of symptoms as well as physiological improvements (eg, decreased vaginal pH and increased blood flow, epithelial thickness, secretions. Conclusion: Currently available local vaginal estrogen therapies are well tolerated and effective in relieving symptoms of vaginal atrophy. Recent data support the endometrial safety of low-dose regimens for up to 1 year. Keywords: menopause, estrogen, local estrogen therapy, vaginal atrophy

  4. [Clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and its mixed infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ai-Ping; Xue, Feng-Xia

    2010-12-01

    To investigate clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis (AV) and its mixed infections for diagnosis efficiently. From April 2008 to December 2008, 516 patients with vaginitis treated in Tianjin Medical University General Hospital were enrolled in this study. AV, bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), trichomonal vaginitis (TV), and cytolytic vaginosis (CV) were diagnosed based on symptoms, sign and vaginal discharge examination. Among 516 cases, AV cases were found in 14.7% (76/516), and AV was common vaginal infection. AV mixed infections was diagnosed in 58% (44/76), including mixed with BV (45%, 20/44), mixed with VVC (30%, 13/44), and mixed with TV (25%, 11/44). Those common symptom of AV were yellow vaginal discharge (63%, 20/32), more vaginal discharge (44%, 14/32). Vaginal pH value was usually more than 4.5 (84%, 27/32). Vaginal cleanliness mainly was grade III - IV (88%, 28/32). Six cases with enterococcus faecium and 4 cases with streptococci were frequently isolated. The symptom and sign of mixed AV infection was atypical. Aerobic vaginitis is a common lower vaginal infection and easily mixed with other pathogens, especially with BV, VVC or TV. When patients were diagnosed with AV or other vaginal infection, it should be mentioned whether those patients have mixed vaginal infection or AV.

  5. Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal yeast, but not vaginal cleansing, increase HIV-1 acquisition in African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Morrison, Charles S; Cornelisse, Peter G A; Munjoma, Marshall; Moncada, Jeanne; Awio, Peter; Wang, Jing; Van der Pol, Barbara; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert A; Padian, Nancy S

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate interrelationships between bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal yeast, vaginal practices (cleansing and drying/tightening), mucosal inflammation, and HIV acquisition. A multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted, enrolling 4531 HIV-negative women aged 18 to 35 years attending family planning clinics in Zimbabwe and Uganda. Participants were tested for HIV and reproductive tract infections and were interviewed about vaginal practices every 3 months for 15 to 24 months. BV was measured by Gram stain Nugent scoring, vaginal yeast by wet mount, and mucosal inflammation by white blood cells on Gram stain. HIV incidence was 4.12 and 1.53 per 100 woman-years of follow-up in Zimbabwe and Uganda, respectively (a total of 213 incident infections). Women with BV or vaginal yeast were more likely to acquire HIV, especially if the condition was present at the same visit as the new HIV infection and the visit preceding it (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 3.72 and HR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.67 to 5.28 for BV and yeast, respectively). These relationships did not seem to be mediated by mucosal inflammation. Vaginal drying/tightening was associated with HIV acquisition in univariate (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.15) but not multivariate models. Vaginal cleansing was not associated with HIV acquisition. BV and yeast may contribute more to the HIV epidemic than previously thought.

  6. The Comparison of vaginal cream of mixing yogurt, honey and clotrimazole on symptoms of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Maryam; Jahdi, Fereshteh; Hamzegardeshi, Zeinab; Goodarzi, Saied; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-04-03

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is known as one of the most common fungal infection among women of reproductive age and considered as an important public health problem. In recent years, due to resistance to common antifungal medication, the use of traditional medicine of anti-fungal and herbal treatment increased. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the effects of vaginal cream, mixture of yogurt and honey and comparing it with clotrimazole vaginal cream on symptoms of Vulvovaginal candidiasis in patients. In this randomized, triple blind clinical trial of 70 non-pregnant women infected with Candidal vulvovaginitis were placed in two groups of Vaginal cream mixed of yogurt and honey recipients (N=35) and clotrimazole vaginal cream (N=35). Both groups were treated for 7 days. At the beginning of study, Clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms were registered 7 and 14 days after treatment by questionnaire, observation form and secretions culture results. Data by chi-square test, t test, McNemar tests were analyzed by SPSS version 21. Significance level of 0.05 was considered. The result of present study reveals the significant differences in symptom improvement of ' yogurt and honey, than clotrimazole group (P0.05) CONCLUSION: This study indicated that he therapeutic effects of vaginal cream, yogurt and honey is not only similar with clotrimazole vaginal cream but more effective in relieving some symptoms of vaginal candidiasis. Therefore, the use of this product can be suggested as an herbal remedy for candida infection treatment.

  7. Vaginal lactobacilli profile in pregnant women with normal & abnormal vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Thirupathaiah; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Donugama, Vasundhara

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacilli species that are better adapted to vaginal environment of women may colonize better and offer protection against vaginal pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the distribution of common Lactobacillus species was investigated in pregnant women. Sixty seven pregnant women were included in the study and vaginal samples were collected for Gram staining. Women were classified as normal vaginal flora, intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV) based on Nugent's score. Vaginal samples were also collected for the identification of Lactobacillus spp. by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) profiling of 16S rDNA amplification method. Lactobacillus crispatus (100%) was the most predominant Lactobacillus spp. present in pregnant women with normal flora, followed by L. iners (77%), L. jensenii (74%) and L. helveticus (60%). While, L. iners was commonly present across groups in women with normal, intermediate or BV flora, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. helveticus decreased significantly as the vaginal flora changed to intermediate and BV. In women with BV, except L. iners other species of lactobacilli was less frequently prevalent. Species such as L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum, L. paracasei and L. casei were not detected in any vaginal sample. L. crispatus, L. jensinii and L. helveticus were predominant species in women with normal flora. L. crispatus alone or in combination with L. jensinii and L. helveticus may be evaluated for probiotic properties for the prevention and treatment of BV.

  8. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoy CF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available R Karl Malcolm, Susan M Fetherston, Clare F McCoy, Peter Boyd, Ian MajorSchool of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UKAbstract: Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.Keywords: controlled release, sustained release, antiretroviral, dapivirine, SILCS diaphragm, silicone elastomer, thermoplastic

  9. Protective activity of geranium oil and its component, geraniol, in combination with vaginal washing against vaginal candidiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Inouye, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2008-08-01

    In order to evaluate an effective administration method of essential oils for vaginal candidiasis, efficacy of vaginal application of essential oils against murine experimental candidiasis was investigated. The effect on vaginal inflammation and Candida growth form was also studied. Vaginal candidiasis was established by intravaginal infection of C. albicans to estradiol-treated mice. These mice intravaginally received essential oils such as geranium and tea tree singly or in combination with vaginal washing. Vaginal administration of clotrimazole significantly decreased the number of viable C. albicans cells in the vaginal cavity by itself. In contrast, these essential oils did not lower the cell number. When application of geranium oil or geraniol was combined with vaginal washing, the cell number was decreased significantly. The myeloperoxidase activity assay exhibited the possibility that essential oils worked not only to reduce the viable cell number of C. albicans, but also to improve vaginal inflammation. The smear of vaginal washing suspension suggested that more yeast-form cells appeared in vaginal smears of these oil-treated mice than in control mice. In vitro study showed that a very low concentration (25 microg/ml) of geranium oil and geraniol inhibited mycelial growth, but not yeast growth. Based on these findings, it is estimated that vaginal application of geranium oil or its main component, geraniol, suppressed Candida cell growth in the vagina and its local inflammation when combined with vaginal washing.

  10. Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100110.htm Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - series— ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The vaginal opening lies just below the urethral opening, and ...

  11. Preliminary findings on vaginal epithelial cells and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    sahelian zone of. Cameroon, in order to assess vaginal cytology and body temperature variations during oestrous cycle. Swabbing was done daily in the vagina, and vaginal smears were stained according to Romanowski method.

  12. prevalence and risk factors for vaginal candidiasis among women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-01

    Mar 1, 2005 ... Conculsion: The high prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among women with genital infections ... complaints of either abnormal vaginal discharge, lower abdominal or pelvic ..... is in keeping with the reports in literature (8). The.

  13. Pregnancy's stronghold on the vaginal microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R S Walther-António

    Full Text Available To assess the vaginal microbiome throughout full-term uncomplicated pregnancy.Vaginal swabs were obtained from twelve pregnant women at 8-week intervals throughout their uncomplicated pregnancies. Patients with symptoms of vaginal infection or with recent antibiotic use were excluded. Swabs were obtained from the posterior fornix and cervix at 8-12, 17-21, 27-31, and 36-38 weeks of gestation. The microbial community was profiled using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, producing approximately 8 million reads on the Illumina MiSeq.Samples were dominated by a single genus, Lactobacillus, and exhibited low species diversity. For a majority of the patients (n = 8, the vaginal microbiome was dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus throughout pregnancy. Two patients showed Lactobacillus iners dominance during the course of pregnancy, and two showed a shift between the first and second trimester from L. crispatus to L. iners dominance. In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study. Comparative analyses also showed that the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy is characterized by a marked dominance of Lactobacillus species in both Caucasian and African-American subjects. In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor.Our analyses indicate normal pregnancy is characterized by a microbiome that has low diversity and high stability. While Lactobacillus species strongly dominate the vaginal environment during pregnancy across the two studied ethnicities, observed differences between the longitudinal dynamics of the analyzed populations may contribute to divergent risk for pregnancy complications. This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in

  14. Vesicovaginal fistula repair through vaginal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, S.; Rahim, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of trans-vaginal repair of vesico-vaginal fistula through vaginal approach. Study Design: Prospective study. Material and Methods: This study was carried out in Department of Urology, Shaikh Zayed Postgraduate Medical Institute and National institute of Kidney Diseases, Lahore for the period extending from April 2009 to April 2014. Total 17 patients were included in the study. History, physical examination and findings on investigations were reviewed. In all patients cystoscopy and vaginal examination was performed to see fistula site and ureteral orfices. Then trans-vaginal repair was done in all cases. Results: VVF repair was performed on 17 patients aging 25 to 45 years (mean 35.83 ± 7.37 years). The symptoms preceded for a period of 3 months to 8 years. The cause was gynecological hysterectomy 8 (47.05%), obstetric C-section 7 (41.17%) and obstructed labor 2(11.76%). In three of our patients VVF was previously repaired trans-abdominally. On cystoscopy no patients had more than one fistula. In two (11.76%) patients fistula was supratrigonal. The average size of fistula was 2.05 em, detail of fistula site and size is given in table. One patient had leakage on second postop day that was managed with change of Foleys catheter. Successful repair was achieved in all patients and no patient required second attempt. No ureteric injury and other complications were observed. Conclusion: Trans-vaginal repair of VVF avoid laparotomy and bladder bisection. It has reduced hospital stay and morbidity. (author)

  15. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus macaques after topical use of sucrose gel to reveal more precisely the bacterial population shift after the topical application of sucrose gel. Sixteen rhesus macaques were treated with 0.5 g sucrose gel vaginally and three with 0.5 g of placebo gel. Vaginal swabs were collected daily following treatment. Vaginal pH levels and Nugent scores were recorded. The composition of the vaginal micotbiota was tested by V3∼V4 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing. Dynamic changes in the Lactobacillus genus were analyzed by qPCR. The vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques are dominated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, with few lactobacilli and high pH levels above 4.6. After five days' treatment with topical sucrose gel, the component percentage of Lactobacillus in vaginal microbiota increased from 1.31% to 81.59%, while the component percentage of Porphyromonas decreased from 18.60% to 0.43%, Sneathia decreased from 15.09% to 0.89%, Mobiluncus decreased from 8.23% to 0.12%, etc.. The average vaginal pH values of 16 rhesus macaques of the sucrose gel group decreased from 5.4 to 3.89. There were no significant changes in microbiota and vaginal pH observed in the placebo group. Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  16. The interaction between vaginal microbiota, cervical length, and vaginal progesterone treatment for preterm birth risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kindinger, Lindsay M.; Bennett, Phillip R.; Lee, Yun S; Marchesi, Julian R.; Smith, Ann; Cacciatore, Stefano; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Teoh, T. G.; MacIntyre, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is the primary cause of infant death worldwide. A short cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm birth. In specific patient cohorts, vaginal progesterone reduces this risk. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we undertook a prospective study in women at risk of preterm birth (n?=?161) to assess (1) the relationship between vaginal microbiota and cervical length in the second trimester and preterm birth risk and (2) the impact of vaginal pro...

  17. Parto vaginal tras cesárea

    OpenAIRE

    San Martín Bragado, María

    2016-01-01

    Cuando una mujer ha sido sometida a una cesárea previa existen dos opciones para ella en el caso de que se quede embarazada: repetir cesárea o intentar un parto vaginal. A pesar de los riesgos, el parto vaginal después de una cesárea es una situación atractiva para muchas pacientes y dará lugar a un resultado exitoso en un alto porcentaje de casos. Se ha de tener en cuenta que la realización de una cesárea electiva no está exenta de riesgos Grado en Medicina

  18. Fanconi anemia and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Paula Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosome instability, cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, and increased predisposition to malignancies. We describe here a 28 year-old female with FA and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy alone. The patient developed arm phlebitis, pulmonary fungal infection, and severe rectal bleeding, followed by hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia, vaginal bacterial and fungal infection, with subsequent leg and arm phlebitis, perineal abscess, and sepsis. The patient died 12 weeks later.

  19. [Bacteriological aspects of trichomonal vaginitis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, J; Höhne, C

    1979-01-01

    An analysis was made of the vaginal flora of 25 gynaecological patients with acute trichomomal vaginitis, with the view to elucidating the bacteriological situation. Eighty-four isolates, an average of 3.4 per patient, were taken and included a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. - Obligate anaerobic species, such as bacteriodes and peptostreptococci, with susceptibility to metronidazole were among the predominant pathogens. - The differentiated susceptibility of the most common bacteria to antibiotics may yield information useful to therapy in the case of aggravated infection.

  20. a case report of premenarchial transverse vaginal septum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premenarchial Transverse vaginal septum is a benign condition. The septum may be ... She had surgical resection of the vaginal septum and a vaginal stent was left in-situ to ... suggested to prevent stenosis described the use of high pressure ...

  1. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. METHODS: High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological ...

  2. Prepubertal vaginal discharge: Vaginoscopy to rule out foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Saniye; Karnak, İbrahim; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Çiftçi, Arbay Özden

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of all prepubertal patients who underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated by pediatricians prior to surgical consultation. Vaginoscopy is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. During the study period, 20 girls with persistent vaginal discharge with a mean age of 6.8 years (1-13 years) underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body. Six patients had bloody vaginal discharge and 4 had recurrent vaginal bleeding lasting for more than one month. Ten patients had purulent vaginal discharge lasting for 1-7 months. None of vaginal cultures revealed pathological bacteria or candida species. Preoperative imaging techniques revealed vaginal foreign body in one patient only. Vaginoscopy demonstrated vaginal foreign bodies in four patients. Foreign bodies were grass inflorescence, safety pin and undefined brownish particles (n=2), which may be pieces of toilet paper or feces. There was no complication related to vaginoscopy and removal of foreign body. Hymen integrity was preserved in all patients. Persistent or recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal girls should raise the suspect of vaginal foreign body. Continuous flow vaginoscopy is mandatory to detect and remove any vaginal foreign body. Early diagnosis would prevent complications secondary to long-standing foreign bodies.

  3. Efectos secundarios de los anticonceptivos hormonales en usuarias del método asistentes a las consultas de planificación familiar Side effects of hormonal contraceptives methods in women attending family planning departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Arrate Negret

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de las 375 mujeres en edad fértil (de 15 a 49 años que acudieron a la consulta de Planificación Familiar del Policlínico Docente Municipal de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2010 hasta febrero del 2011, a fin de identificar los efectos secundarios más frecuentes producidos por los anticonceptivos hormonales ofertados en este servicio, para lo cual se midieron las variables: edad, hábitos tóxicos, factor de riesgo preconcepcional, anticoncepción hormonal, aparición de efectos colaterales o no y modo en que fueron solucionados. En la casuística predominaron el grupo etario de 20-34 años, el cafeísmo, el déficit nutricional como causa de visita a la consulta y el uso del contraceptivo Triquilar®. La mayoría de las pacientes presentó reacciones adversas, fundamentalmente trastornos gastrointestinales y ganancia de peso, no obstante, gran parte de las afectaciones clínicas se resolvieron espontáneamente. Se recomendó implementar un programa de educación en salud reproductiva para médicos y enfermeros de la familia, con vistas a mejorar la calidad en dicha atención preconceptiva y desarrollar una campaña de divulgación en la población sobre los diferentes métodos anticonceptivos, su uso y complicaciones.A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was carried out in 375 women in reproductive age (15 to 49 years, who attended the family planning department of the Municipal Teaching Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, from September 2010 to February 2011, in order to identify the most common side effects caused by hormonal contraceptives offered in this service, for which variables such as age, toxic habits, preconception risk factors, hormonal contraception, occurrence of side effects and ways to solve them were measured. Age group of 20-34 years, coffeeholism, nutritional deficiency as a cause of visit and use of the contraceptive Triquilar® prevailed in

  4. Efecto del levonorgestrel como anticonceptivo oral de emergencia en la ovulación, el endometrio y los espermatozoides Effect of levonorgestrel in the ovulation, endometrium, and spermatozoa for emergency oral contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor J. Suárez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Existe amplia controversia acerca del mecanismo de acción del levonorgestrel como anticonceptivo oral de emergencia; numerosas organizaciones, tanto científicas como de la sociedad civil, muestran su disconformidad con su uso, debido a su posible acción como inductor de aborto. Con el objetivo de evaluar la evidencia científica disponible sobre los mecanismos de acción del levonorgestrel utilizado como anticonceptivo oral de emergencia (AOE, se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases de datos Medline y Cochrane Library donde se encontró 444 artículos; después de revisar los resúmenes, se seleccionó 22 artículos, los cuales fueron evaluados a texto completo. Se encontró que el principal mecanismo de acción del levonorgestrel, a las dosis recomendadas como AOE, es la inhibición o retraso de la ovulación; no afecta a los espermatozoides en su capacidad de migración ni de penetración al óvulo. No se ha demostrado alteraciones morfológicas ni moleculares en el endometrio que puedan interferir con la implantación del huevo fecundado. No existe evidencia científica actual disponible que sustente que el uso de levonorgestrel como AOE sea abortivo.There is wide controversy about the mechanism of action of the levonorgestrel used for emergency oral contraception, and many organizations, both scientific as well as from the civil society, show their discrepancy with its use, due to its possible action as an abortion- inducer. In order to evaluate the scientific evidence available on the mechanisms of action of the levonorgestrel used for emergency oral contraception (EOC, a systematic revision was performed in the Medline and Cochrane library databases. We found 444 articles. After reviewing the abstracts, we selected 22 articles, whose complete texts were evaluated. We found that the main mechanism of action of the levonorgestrel, given at the doses recommended for EOC, is the inhibition or retardation of the ovulation, it

  5. Vaginal vault drainage after complicated single-port access laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Lee

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Vaginal vault drainage could be a safe alternative that allows for the management of postoperative morbidity and retains the advantages of minimally invasive surgery after complicated SPA-LAVH.

  6. Lactobacilli Dominance and Vaginal pH: Why is the Human Vaginal Microbiome Unique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Miller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human vaginal microbiome is dominated by bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus, which create an acidic environment thought to protect women against sexually transmitted pathogens and opportunistic infections. Strikingly, lactobacilli dominance appears to be unique to humans; while the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the human vagina is typically >70%, in other mammals lactobacilli rarely comprise more than 1% of vaginal microbiota. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain humans' unique vaginal microbiota, including humans' distinct reproductive physiology, high risk of STDs, and high risk of microbial complications linked to pregnancy and birth. Here, we test these hypotheses using comparative data on vaginal pH and the relative abundance of lactobacilli in 26 mammalian species and 50 studies (N=21 mammals for pH and 14 mammals for lactobacilli abundance. We found that non-human mammals, like humans, exhibit the lowest vaginal pH during the period of highest estrogen. However, the vaginal pH of non-human mammals is never as low as is typical for humans (median vaginal pH in humans = 4.5; range of pH across all 21 non-human mammals = 5.4 to 7.8. Contrary to disease and obstetric risk hypotheses, we found no significant relationship between vaginal pH or lactobacilli abundance and multiple metrics of STD or birth injury risk (P-values ranged from 0.13 to 0.99. Given the lack of evidence for these hypotheses, we discuss two alternative explanations: the common function hypothesis and a novel hypothesis related to the diet of agricultural humans. Specifically, with regard to diet we propose that high levels of starch in human diets have led to increased levels of glycogen in the vaginal tract, which, in turn, promotes the proliferation of lactobacilli. If true, human diet may have paved the way for a novel, protective microbiome in human vaginal tracts. Overall, our results highlight the need for continuing research on non

  7. Dynamic clinical measurements of voluntary vaginal contractions and autonomic vaginal reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broens, Paul M A; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M

    2014-12-01

    The vaginal canal is an active and responsive canal. It has pressure variations along its length and shows reflex activity. At present, the prevailing idea is that the vaginal canal does not have a sphincter mechanism. It is hypothesized that an active vaginal muscular mechanism exists and might be involved in the pathophysiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of a canalicular vaginal "sphincter mechanism" by measuring intravaginal pressure at different levels of the vaginal canal during voluntary pelvic floor contractions and during induced reflexive contractions. Sixteen nulliparous women, without sexual dysfunction and pelvic floor trauma, were included in the study. High-resolution solid-state circumferential catheters were used to measure intravaginal pressures and vaginal contractions at different levels in the vaginal canal. Voluntary intravaginal pressure measurements were performed in the left lateral recumbent position only, while reflexive intravaginal pressure measurements during slow inflation of a vaginal balloon were performed in the left lateral recumbent position and in the sitting position. Intravaginal pressures and vaginal contractions were the main outcome measures. In addition, a general demographic and medical history questionnaire was administered to gain insight into the characteristics of the study population. Fifteen out of the sixteen women had deep and superficial vaginal high-pressure zones. In one woman, no superficial high-pressure zone was found. The basal and maximum pressures, as well as the duration of the autonomic reflexive contractions significantly exceeded the pressures and the duration of the voluntary contractions. There were no significant differences between the reflexive measurements obtained in the left lateral recumbent and the sitting position. The two high-pressure zones found in this study, as a result of voluntary contractions and, even more pronounced

  8. assisted vaginal hysterectomy versus abdominal hysterectomy on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    minimal postoperative discomfort and less need for ... the feasibility of registrar training in laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH), and to investigate the impact of laparoscopy in changing the route of hysterectomy in women assessed as being unsuitable for ... All patients received prophylactic antibiotics during.

  9. Assessment of vaginal atrophy: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M. A.; Limpens, J.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an evidence-based definition of vaginal atrophy (VA) and present an overview of subjective and objective measurements of VA applicable in clinical practice and research. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies

  10. Vaginal Lacerations from Consensual Intercourse in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frioux, Sarah M.; Blinman, Thane; Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: (1) To describe lacerations of the vaginal fornices, an injury known to be associated with consensual sexual intercourse, including known complications and treatment course, (2) to contrast these injuries with injuries sustained during sexual assault, and (3) to discuss the assessment of adolescent patients for sexual injuries. Methods:…

  11. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic infectious susceptibilty. Methods Vaginal samples were collected from 180 women (mean age 29.4 years, SD ± 6.8, range: 18 to 46), and at least six months after delivery, and assessed by semi-quantitative DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization assay (74 bacterial species). BV was defined by Gram stain (Nugent criteria). Gingivitis was defined as bleeding on probing at ≥ 20% of tooth sites. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 (normal vaginal microflora) was found in 83 women (46.1%), and a score of > 7 (BV) in 49 women (27.2%). Gingivitis was diagnosed in 114 women (63.3%). Women with a diagnosis of BV were more likely to have gingivitis (p = 0.01). Independent of gingival conditions, vaginal bacterial counts were higher (p gingivitis had higher counts of Prevotella bivia (p 1.0 × 104 cells) and a diagnosis of gingivitis was 3.9 for P. bivia (95% CI 1.5–5.7, p gingivitis in comparison to women with BV but not gingivitis. P. bivia and P. disiens may be of specific significance in a relationship between vaginal and gingival infections. PMID:19161595

  12. [Severe vaginal discharge following rectal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, L.C.; Bremers, A.J.A.; Heesakkers, J.P.; Kluivers, K.B.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Almost 50% of women who have had rectal surgery subsequently develop vaginal discharge. Due to the recurrent and unexpected nature of this heavy discharge, they often experience it as very distressing. Many of these women undergo extensive diagnostic tests that are mainly focused on

  13. An isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer

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    Ai Sadatomo

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: We should keep the vagina within the field of view of pelvic MRI, which is one of the preoperative diagnostic tools for colorectal cancer. If female patients show gynecological symptoms, gynecological examination should be recommended. Isolated vaginal metastases are an indication for surgical resection, and adjuvant chemotherapy is also recommended.

  14. Predictors of vaginal delivery in nulliparous mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical characteristics such as height and weight, events in labor and mode of ... maternal BMI, fetal head engagement and normal range of fetal birth weight were .... gestational age at booking, height, weight, fetal ... study due to: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy ... vaginal delivery compared with overweight or obese.

  15. Bioadhesive Controlled Release Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablets | Bhat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study indicates the possible use of suitable mixtures of natural and semi-synthetic cellulosic polymers for the preparation of clotrimazole mucoadhesive tablets for application as a vaginal controlled delivery system. Keywords: Clotrimazole, Swelling, Cellulosic polymers, Guar gum, Bioadhesion, Release ...

  16. Vaginal foreign body causing recurrent discharge and vaginal stenosis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Geeta; Rana, Ashma; Amatya, Archana

    2007-06-01

    Chronic vaginal discharge in children and adolescents is a common gynaecological complaint which is often resistant to antibiotic treatment. We present a 14 years old, premenarcheal girl who presented to us with the complaints of recurrent, foul smelling purulent occasionally blood stained vaginal discharge for eight years, where a foreign body in the upper vagina was found after releasing a dense adhesion of the lower vagina which was unable to detect by pelvic ultrasound.

  17. In Vitro Activity of Tea Tree Oil Vaginal Suppositories against Candida spp. and Probiotic Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Maura; Mattarelli, Paola; Modesto, Monica; Girolamo, Antonietta; Ballardini, Milva; Tamburro, Annunziata; Meledandri, Marcello; Mondello, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the in vitro microbicidal activity of vaginal suppositories (VS) containing tea tree oil (TTO-VS) towards Candida spp. and vaginal probiotics. A total of 20 Candida spp. strains, taken from patients with vaginitis and from an established type collection, including reference strains, were analysed by using the CLSI microdilution method. To study the action of VS towards the beneficial vaginal microbiota, the sensitivity of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (DSM 10140) and Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus casei R-215 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R-52) was tested. Both TTO-VS and TTO showed fungicidal activity against all strains of Candida spp. whereas placebo-VS or the Aloe gel used as controls were ineffective. The study of fractional fungicidal concentrations (FFC) showed synergistic interaction with the association between Amphotericin B and TTO (0.25 to 0.08 µg/ml, respectively) against Candida albicans. Instead, the probiotics were only affected by TTO concentration ≥ 4% v/v, while, at concentrations vaginal microbiota. In vivo studies are needed to confirm the efficacy to prevent acute or recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Vaginally-Assisted Laparoscopic Hysterosacropexy for Advanced Utero-Vaginal Prolapse: A Series of 32 Cases

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    Elvira Brătilă V.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Advanced utero-vaginal prolapse is a frequent condition in the aging female population and several strategies aimed at its treatment have been developed. In order to demonstrate the importance of using the vaginal route in assistance to laparoscopic hysterosacropexy, a retrospective case series was designed, comparing thirty-two patients diagnosed with stage III-IV uterovaginal prolapse according to the POP-Q system. The patients were treated between 2006-2011 using one of two methods of hysterosacropexy: vaginally assisted laparoscopic hysterosacropexy (VALHS in 18 cases and total laparoscopic hysterosacropexy (LHS in 14 cases. The choice of method was based on the primary mechanism of central compartment prolapse. The total operative time, the time required for mesh fixation at the cervix and sacrum, the cure rate of prolapse and the rate of re-operation for prolapse were statistically analyzed for both LHS and VALHS and compared between these two procedures by Student T-Test. The main outcome parameters were related to the operative method. The total operative time proved to be equal for both procedures, although the time necessary to attach the mesh to the cervical ring was shorter in VALHS. Therefore, the combination of the vaginal and laparoscopic routes yields a minimally invasive variant of sacropexy with as short an operative time as possible. The vaginal route offers a safe alternative for suturing the mesh and treating concurrent vaginal wall prolapse, while laparoscopy reduces the inherent risks of open abdominal surgery.

  19. Correlação entre ansiedade e anéis de tensão Correlación entre ansiedad y anillos nerviosos Anxiety and contraction furrows correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leia Fortes Salles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A ansiedade vem sendo muito estudada pelas áreas de psicossomática e psiconeuroimunologia e tem sido apontada como fator predisponente em inúmeras doenças. Isso sugere que a minimização de comportamentos ansiosos traria benefícios à saúde. A análise da íris permite determinar as características de personalidade do indivíduo. Dentre os diversos sinais estudados pela iridologia, os anéis de tensão são relacionados com a ansiedade. O objetivo deste estudo é comparar os resultados do Inventário de Diagnóstico da Ansiedade Traço (IDATE com a análise da íris (quantidade de anéis de tensão. A pesquisa foi realizada nos meses de setembro e outubro de 2008, com todos os integrantes do Grupo de Estudos em Práticas Alternativas e Complementares em Saúde da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo. Houve correspondência entre a íris e o inventário em 75% da população e o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman apontou uma correlação positiva e significativa entre o escore do Inventário de ansiedade (IDATE e a quantidade e classificação dos anéis de tensão. Este resultado sugere que a presença destes sinais na íris indica maior predisposição para a ansiedade.La ansiedad ha sido muy estudiada en las áreas de la psicosomática y de la psico-neuroinmunología y ha sido señalada como siendo un factor predisponente de innúmeras enfermedades. Esto sugiere que la minimización de comportamientos ansiosos podría traer beneficios para la salud. El análisis del iris permite determinar las características de personalidad del individuo. Dentro de las diversas señales estudiadas por la iridología, los anillos nerviosos están relacionados con la ansiedad. El objetivo de este estudio es comparar los resultados del Inventario de la Ansiedad Rasgo-Estado (IDARE con el análisis del iris (cantidad de anillos nerviosos. La investigación fue realizada en los meses de septiembre a octubre de 2008, con todos los

  20. Group B streptococcus exploits vaginal epithelial exfoliation for ascending infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornhagen, Jay; Armistead, Blair; Santana-Ufret, Verónica; Gendrin, Claire; Merillat, Sean; Coleman, Michelle; Quach, Phoenicia; Boldenow, Erica; Alishetti, Varchita; Leonhard-Melief, Christina; Ngo, Lisa Y; Whidbey, Christopher; Doran, Kelly S; Curtis, Chad; Waldorf, Kristina M Adams; Nance, Elizabeth; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2018-04-09

    Thirteen percent of pregnancies result in preterm birth or stillbirth, accounting for fifteen million preterm births and three and a half million deaths annually. A significant cause of these adverse pregnancy outcomes is in utero infection by vaginal microorganisms. To establish an in utero infection, vaginal microbes enter the uterus by ascending infection; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Using both in vitro and murine models of vaginal colonization and ascending infection, we demonstrate how a vaginal microbe, group B streptococcus (GBS), which is frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, uses vaginal exfoliation for ascending infection. GBS induces vaginal epithelial exfoliation by activation of integrin and β-catenin signaling. However, exfoliation did not diminish GBS vaginal colonization as reported for other vaginal microbes. Rather, vaginal exfoliation increased bacterial dissemination and ascending GBS infection, and abrogation of exfoliation reduced ascending infection and improved pregnancy outcomes. Thus, for some vaginal bacteria, exfoliation promotes ascending infection rather than preventing colonization. Our study provides insight into mechanisms of ascending infection by vaginal microbes.

  1. Atrophic Vaginitis in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Difficult Survivorship Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Lester

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors.

  2. Vaginal Masses: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features with Pathologic Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayes, K.M.; Narra, V.R.; Dillman, J.R.; Velcheti, V.; Hameed, O.; Tongdee, R.; Menias, C.O.

    2007-01-01

    The detection of vaginal lesions has increased with the expanding use of cross-sectional imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - with its high-contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities - is often useful for characterizing vaginal masses. Vaginal masses can be classified as congenital, inflammatory, cystic (benign), and neoplastic (benign or malignant) in etiology. Recognition of the typical MR imaging features of such lesions is important because it often determines the treatment approach and may obviate surgery. Finally, vaginal MR imaging can be used to evaluate post-treatment changes related to previous surgery and radiation therapy. In this article, we will review pertinent vaginal anatomy, vaginal and pelvic MRI technique, and the MRI features of a variety of vaginal lesions with pathological correlation

  3. Dinámicas de ocupación urbana del Anillo Verde metropolitano, desde sus orígenes en el Plan General del Área Metropolitana de Madrid de 1963 hasta el Plan General de Ordenación Urbana de 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Garcinuño, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    El Anillo Verde metropolitano, definido por el Plan General de Ordenación Urbana del Área Metropolitana de Madrid en 1963 siguiendo los modelos planteados por la cultura urbanística internacional, como armadura de la estructura urbana del AMM, espacio protagonista dentro del sistema de espacios libres, lugar de uso público destinado al recreo y contacto con la naturaleza de la población madrileña, se convierte en realidad en una reserva de suelo que va entrando en juego motivado por las alian...

  4. To Pack or Not to Pack? A Randomized Trial of Vaginal Packing After Vaginal Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Lauren B; Crisp, Catrina C; Oakley, Susan H; Mazloomdoost, Donna; Kleeman, Steven D; Benbouajili, Janine M; Ghodsi, Vivian; Pauls, Rachel N

    2016-01-01

    Placement of vaginal packing after pelvic reconstructive surgery is common; however, little evidence exists to support the practice. Furthermore, patients have reported discomfort from the packs. We describe pain and satisfaction in women treated with and without vaginal packing. This institutional review board-approved randomized-controlled trial enrolled patients undergoing vaginal hysterectomy with prolapse repairs. The primary outcome was visual analog scales (VASs) for pain on postoperative day 1. Allocation to "packing" ("P") or "no-packing" ("NP") arms occurred intraoperatively at the end of surgery. Visual analog scales regarding pain and satisfaction were completed early on postoperative day 1 before packing removal. Visual analog scale scores for pain, satisfaction, and bother attributable to packing were recorded before discharge. All packing and perineal pads were weighed to calculate a "postoperative vaginal blood loss." Perioperative data were collected from the hospital record. Our sample size estimation required 74 subjects. Ninety-three women were enrolled. After exclusions, 77 were randomized (P, 37; NP, 40). No differences were found in surgical information, hemoglobin levels, or narcotic use between groups. However, "postoperative vaginal blood loss" was greater in packed subjects (P discharge (P, 35.0 vs NP, 40.0; P = 0.43] were not significantly different between treatment arms. Likewise, VAS scores for satisfaction before removal of packing (P, 81.0 vs NP, 90.0; P = 0.08] and before discharge (P, 90.0 vs NP, 90.5; P = 0.60] were not significantly different. Packed patients noted lower nursing verbal pain scores (P = 0.04) and used less ketorolac (P = 0.01). Bother from packing was low overall. Although there was no difference based on VAS, women receiving vaginal packing had lower nursing documented pain and used less ketorolac than packed women. Vaginal packing may provide benefit and can remain part of the surgical practice.

  5. [Morphogenesis of vaginal aplasia. Therapeutic deductions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, H N; Smadja, A; Belaisch, J

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the studies of the embryogenesis of the vagina, the authors consider that malformations classically described as being partial aplasia should not be separated from the total absence of the vagina. The important feature is the association of a functioning or non functioning uterus with the absence of the vagina. They believe that it is incorrect to describe the pouch of menstrual retention associated with a functioning uterus as "haematocolpos" and that is not justified to describe the cup-shaped vestibular depression as "hemi-vagina". According to the authors, although vaginal aplasia with a functioning uterus forming a pouch of menstrual retention constitutes an absolute indication for surgery, surgery is not justified in cases of vaginal aplasia with a non functioning uterus. If Frank's method fails in these cases, the patient or the couple should be referred to a sexologist, as women with this anomaly retain a perfect femininity, although unable to conceive.

  6. No. 148-Guidelines for Operative Vaginal Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Yvonne M; MacKinnon, Catherine Jane

    2018-02-01

    To provide guidelines for operative vaginal birth in the management of the second stage of labour. Non-operative techniques, episiotomy, and Caesarean section are compared to operative vaginal birth. Reduced fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched using the key words ''vacuum" and "birth" as well as "forceps" and "birth" for literature published in English from january 1970 to June 2004. The level of evidence and quality of rec-ommendations made are described using the Evaluation of Evidence from the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. VALIDATION: The Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee and Executive and Council of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada approved these guidelines. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Broad Ligament Haematoma Following Normal Vaginal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrar, Faiza; Awan, Azra Saeed; Fatima, Touseef; Tabassum, Hina

    2017-01-01

    A 37-year-old, patient presented in emergency with history of normal vaginal delivery followed by development of abdominal distention, vomiting, constipation for last 3 days. She was para 4 and had normal vaginal delivery by traditional birth attendant at peripheral hospital 3 days back. Imaging study revealed a heterogeneous complex mass, ascites, pleural effusion, air fluid levels with dilatation gut loops. Based upon pelvic examination by senior gynaecologist in combination with ultrasound; a clinical diagnosis of broad ligament haematoma was made. However, vomiting and abdominal distention raised suspicion of intestinal obstruction. Due to worsening abdominal distention exploratory laparotomy was carried out. It was pseudo colonic obstruction and caecostomy was done. Timely intervention by multidisciplinary approach saved patient life with minimal morbidity.

  8. Biofilms of vaginal Lactobacillus in vitro test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, Bing-Bing; Liao, Qin-Ping

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on biofilms of Lactobacillus spp. - a type of normal flora isolated from healthy human vaginas of women of childbearing age; thereupon, it broadens the research scope of investigation of vaginal normal flora. The static slide culture method was adopted to foster biofilms, marked by specific fluorescence staining. Laser scanning confocal and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the microstructure of the biofilms. Photographs taken from the microstructure were analysed to calculate the density of the biofilms. The body of Lactobacillus spp., though red, turned yellow when interacting with the green extracellular polysaccharides. The structure of the biofilm and aquaporin within the biofilm were imaged. Lactobacillus density increases over time. This study provides convincing evidence that Lactobacillus can form biofilms and grow over time in vitro. This finding establishes an important and necessary condition for selecting proper strains for the pharmaceutics of vaginal ecology.

  9. Spectrum of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaranjini, R; Jaisankar, Tj; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Kumari, Rashmi; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Malathi, M; Parija, Sc; Habeebullah, S

    2013-07-01

    Vaginal discharge is one of the common reasons for gynecological consultation. Many of the causes of vaginitis have a disturbed vaginal microbial ecosystem associated with them. Effective treatment of vaginal discharge requires that the etiologic diagnosis be established and identifying the same offers a precious input to syndromic management and provides an additional strategy for human immunodeficiency virus prevention. The present study was thus carried out to determine the various causes of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting. A total of 400 women presenting with vaginal discharge of age between 20 and 50 years, irrespective of marital status were included in this study and women who had used antibiotics or vaginal medication in the previous 14 days and pregnant women were excluded. Of the 400 women with vaginal discharge studied, a diagnosis was established in 303 women. Infectious causes of vaginal discharge were observed in 207 (51.75%) women. Among them, bacterial vaginosis was the most common cause seen in 105 (26.25%) women. The other infections observed were candidiasis alone (61, 15.25%), trichomoniasis alone (12, 3%), mixed infections (22, 5.5%) and mucopurulent cervicitis (7 of the 130 cases looked for, 8.46%). Among the non-infectious causes, 72 (18%) women had physiological vaginal discharge and 13 (3.3%) women had cervical in situ cancers/carcinoma cervix. The pattern of infectious causes of vaginal discharge observed in our study was comparable with the other studies in India. Our study emphasizes the need for including Papanicolaou smear in the algorithm for evaluation of vaginal discharge, as it helps establish the etiology of vaginal discharge reliably and provides a valuable opportunity to screen for cervical malignancies.

  10. Effects of intrauterine contraception on the vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassis, Christine M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Wahl, Heather N; Sack, Daniel E; Young, Vincent B; Bell, Jason D

    2017-09-01

    There have been conflicting reports of altered vaginal microbiota and infection susceptibility associated with contraception use. The objectives of this study were to determine if intrauterine contraception altered the vaginal microbiota and to compare the effects of a copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) and a levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on the vaginal microbiota. DNA was isolated from the vaginal swab samples of 76 women using Cu-IUD (n=36) or LNG-IUS (n=40) collected prior to insertion of intrauterine contraception (baseline) and at 6 months. A third swab from approximately 12 months following insertion was available for 69 (Cu-IUD, n=33; LNG-IUS, n=36) of these women. The V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene was amplified from the vaginal swab DNA and sequenced. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were processed and analyzed using the software package mothur to compare the structure and dynamics of the vaginal bacterial communities. The vaginal microbiota from individuals in this study clustered into 3 major vaginal bacterial community types: one dominated by Lactobacillus iners, one dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus and one community type that was not dominated by a single Lactobacillus species. Changes in the vaginal bacterial community composition were not associated with the use of Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS. Additionally, we did not observe a clear difference in vaginal microbiota stability with Cu-IUD versus LNG-IUS use. Although the vaginal microbiota can be highly dynamic, alterations in the community associated with the use of intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) were not detected over 12 months. We found no evidence that intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) altered the vaginal microbiota composition. Therefore, the use of intrauterine contraception is unlikely to shift the composition of the vaginal microbiota such that infection susceptibility is altered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaginal Microbiota in Pregnancy: Evaluation Based on Vaginal Flora, Birth Outcome, and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Akila; Kumar, Ranjit; Cliver, Suzanne P; Zhi, Degui; Szychowski, Jeff M; Abramovici, Adi; Biggio, Joseph R; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Morrow, Casey; Edwards, Rodney K

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate vaginal microbiota differences by bacterial vaginosis (BV), birth timing, and race, and to estimate parameters to power future vaginal microbiome studies. Previously, vaginal swabs were collected at 21 to 25 weeks (stored at -80°C), and vaginal smears evaluated for BV (Nugent criteria). In a blinded fashion, 40 samples were selected, creating 8 equal-sized groups stratified by race (black/white), BV (present/absent), and birth timing (preterm/term). Samples were thawed, DNA extracted, and prepared. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers targeting the 16S rDNA V4 region was used to prepare an amplicon library. PCR products were sequenced and analyzed using quantitative insight into microbial ecology; taxonomy was assigned using ribosomal database program classifier (threshold 0.8) against the modified Greengenes database. After quality control, 97,720 sequences (mean) per sample, single-end 250 base-reads, were analyzed. BV samples had greater microbiota diversity (p Microbiota did not differ by race or birth timing, but there was an association between certain microbial clusters and preterm birth (p = 0.07). To evaluate this difference, 159 patients per group are needed. There are differences in the vaginal microbiota between patients with and without BV. Larger studies should assess the relationship between microbiota composition and preterm birth. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. Objective: To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. Method: This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05. Results: There was a strong positive correlation between PFM function and PFM contraction pressure (0.90. In addition, there was a moderate positive correlation between these two variables and PFM electromyographic activity (0.59 and 0.63, respectively and movement of the bladder neck in relation to the pubic symphysis (0.51 and 0.60, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that there was a correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment.

  13. Vaginitis. Reducing the number of refractory cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josey, W E

    1977-09-01

    Therapeutic failure in vaginitis can be minimized if all cases are properly diagnosed and specific therapy is given. Use of wet mounts combined with liberal use of cultures, especially for Corynebacterium vaginale, should result in an accurate diagnosis in over 90% of cases. Treatment of choice for candidiasis is nystatin or miconazole nitrate applied topically. For trichomoniasis, metronidazole should be given orally to both sexual partners. Ampicillin, cephalexin, or cephradine are recommended for C vaginale infection.

  14. Pregnancy and Vaginal Delivery after Sacrohysteropexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Balsak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and birth after a Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP surgery is a rare condition and less is known about the method for delivery. A 31-year-old women with gravida 3 para 3 underwent abdominal sacrohysteropexy and transobturatuar tape (TOT procedures for stage III prolapse who delivered via vaginal birth and showed no relapse. Sacrohysteropexy is a good option for women with POP who desire fertility with a long term follow-up period.

  15. Efficacy of oral moxifloxacin for aerobic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Han, C; Geng, N; Fan, A; Wang, Y; Yue, Y; Zhang, H; Xue, F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of oral moxifloxacin for aerobic vaginitis (AV). We also identified factors that are associated with therapeutic efficacy. This prospective study enrolled general gynecological outpatients at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital between September 2012 and May 2014. Women diagnosed with AV (n = 102) were recruited. All enrolled women were treated with oral moxifloxacin, 400 mg once daily for 6 days (one course). Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated based on microscopic criteria, and cure rates were calculated. Women who were microscopically improved (but not cured) received a second course of therapy. Women classified with microscopic failure were treated using other strategies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that may be associated with a cure after one course of therapy. After one course of therapy, 65.7 % (67/102) of women were cured, 29.4 % (30/102) of women were improved (but not cured), 4.9 % (5/102) of women failed to respond to the therapy. After two courses of therapy, 85.3 % (87/102) of women were cured, 9.8 % (10/102) of women were improved, 4.9 % (5/102) of women failed to respond to the therapy, and clinical improvement was achieved in additional women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, women with a baseline vaginal pH value of vaginal pH value of ≥5.0 (OR, 3.503; 95 % CI, 1.278-9.601). Moxifloxacin is an effective therapeutic option for patients with AV. Most women with AV were cured with one course of moxifloxacin. For those with a higher vaginal pH value of ≥5.0 before treatment, two courses of therapy should be considered.

  16. [Saforelle - a new approach to treat vaginitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamisheva, V; Nachev, A

    2015-01-01

    Infections of the vulva and vagina are one of the most common gynecological diseases. They can be determined by a variety of physical, chemical and biological factors. The main risk factors contributing to vaginitis are aerobic and anaerobic bacterias, fungal and viral infections, and irritants. Subjective complaints are pruritus, vulvar and/or perivulvar erytema and different in volume and characterization discharge. Excepting etiological treatment in most cases it is necessary to use additional agents, for example Saforelle.

  17. Vaginal rupture and evisceration in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Nikitas N; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Ververidis, Haralabos N; Anagnostou, Tilemachos L; Kladakis, Stefanos E

    2010-09-01

    A 1.5-year-old German Shepherd mixed breed dog was admitted with mild haemorrhage from the vulva and a perineal mass of 24-hour duration, which had been first observed immediately after parturition. Parturition had occurred at low ambient temperature, and only one puppy survived out of the seven oversized fetuses. The dog was in poor body condition, dehydrated, hypothermic, depressed, non-ambulatory and in a state of shock. Intestinal loops, the urinary bladder and the uterine horns and body were protruding from the vulva. A true vaginal prolapse was also observed. The abdominal viscera were flushed with warm sterile saline solution, protected and maintained wet. The laboratory findings included moderate anaemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminaemia, azotaemia and elevated liver enzyme activities. Stabilisation of the dog's general condition was attempted before surgery. Antimicrobial and analgesic drugs were also administered. After exploratory laparotomy the protruding organs, which were in good condition, were reduced. A recent rupture in the vaginal wall, approximately 6 cm long, was observed. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy were performed. The preoperative course of therapy was continued, but the bitch died 12 hours later. The probable cause of vaginal rupture and evisceration in this bitch was tenesmus and/or trauma due to the oversized fetuses.

  18. Vernix caseosa peritonitis after vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadath, Shameema A; Abo Diba, Fathiya I; Nayak, Surendra; Shamali, Iman Al; Diejomaoh, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vernix caseosa peritonitis (VCP) is a very unusual complication caused by inflammatory response to amniotic fluid spilled into the maternal peritoneal cavity. Twenty-seven cases have been reported, and all occurred after cesarean section. We present a case of VCP following vaginal delivery; this may be the first case reported after vaginal delivery. Mrs. A, 28 years old, gravida 3, para 2, with one previous cesarean section, was admitted at 41 weeks gestation in active labor. Vacuum extraction was performed to deliver a healthy male baby, 4.410 kg, Apgar scores 7, 8. She developed fever, acute abdominal pain, and distension about 3 hours after delivery. A diagnosis of acute abdomen was made. Laparotomy was performed and it revealed neither uterine scar rupture nor other surgical emergencies, but 500 mL of turbid fluid and some cheesy material on the serosal surface of all viscera. Biopsies were taken. She had a course of antibiotics and her recovery was complete. Histology of the peritoneal fluid and tissue biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of VCP. Clinical diagnosis of peritonitis due to vernix caseosa should be considered in patients presenting postpartum with an acute abdomen after vaginal delivery.

  19. Vaginal agenesis: Experience with sigmoid colon neovaginoplasty

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    Rawat Jiledar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of this study is to report our experience with sigmoid vaginoplasty in adolescents. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children with vaginal atresia and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. The sigmoid segment was used for vaginoplasty in all the cases. Results: Eight children were studied over a period of 7 years. The postoperative complications were ileus in 2, mucosal prolapse of the neovagina in 1, and minor wound infection in 1 patient. Seven patients are on regular follow-up. All the neovaginas were patent and functional. One patient had unacceptable perineal appearance, that is, badly scarred perineum as a late complication. None of the patients had vaginal stenosis or excessive mucus discharge, during follow-up visits. Out of the 7 patients, 2 patients are sexually active and satisfied. Conclusions: Sigmoid vaginoplasty is a safe and acceptable procedure for vaginal agenesis with good cosmetic results and acceptable complications rate. Sigmoid colon vaginoplasty is the treatment of choice because of its large lumen, thick walls resistant to trauma, adequate secretion allowing lubrication, not necessitating prolonged dilatation, and short recovery time.

  20. Effect of Vaginal or Systemic Estrogen on Dynamics of Collagen Assembly in the Rat Vaginal Wall1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, T. Ignacio; Maldonado, P. Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F.; Word, R. Ann

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare the effects of systemic and local estrogen treatment on collagen assembly and biomechanical properties of the vaginal wall. Ovariectomized nulliparous rats were treated with estradiol or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs) either systemically, vaginal CEE, or vaginal placebo cream for 4 wk. Low-dose local CEE treatment resulted in increased vaginal epithelial thickness and significant vaginal growth without uterine hyperplasia. Furthermore, vaginal wall distensibility increased without compromise of maximal force at failure. Systemic estradiol resulted in modest increases in collagen type I with no change in collagen type III mRNA. Low-dose vaginal treatment, however, resulted in dramatic increases in both collagen subtypes whereas moderate and high dose local therapies were less effective. Consistent with the mRNA results, low-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in increased total and cross-linked collagen content. The inverse relationship between vaginal dose and collagen expression may be explained in part by progressive downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha mRNA with increasing estrogen dose. We conclude that, in this menopausal rat model, local estrogen treatment increased total and cross-linked collagen content and markedly stimulated collagen mRNA expression in an inverse dose-effect relationship. High-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha and loss of estrogen-induced increases in vaginal collagen. These results may have important clinical implications regarding the use of local vaginal estrogen therapy and its role as an adjunctive treatment in women with loss of vaginal support. PMID:25537371

  1. Recurrent, purulent vaginal discharge associated with longstanding presence of a foreign body and vaginal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Deborah A; Berry, Scott; Brannian, John; Hansen, Keith

    2003-12-01

    A 13-year-old presented with malodorous, purulent, vaginal discharge following each menses for the last three months since menarche. This discharge resolved following antibiotic therapy but recurred with each menses. On exam, the patient was found to have a blind ending vagina with a small, midline perforation. Ultrasound and MRI examinations done prior to surgery did not identify the vaginal foreign body. She was taken to the operating room for examination under anesthesia and vaginoscopy. During surgery this area was found to be comprised of dense adhesions which nearly obliterated the distal vagina. The vaginal adhesions were lysed and a plastic foreign body was discovered in the upper vagina. After removing the foreign body the superior vagina was undermined, pulled down, and sutured to normal inferior vagina. A Mentor mold was placed in the vagina to maintain patency.

  2. An unusual cause of vaginal discharge following gender reassignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, S; Moran, P A; Makar, A

    2009-02-01

    Neovaginal reconstruction is an important part of gender reassignment surgery. We report a case of stone formation at the apex of vaginal vault constructed with sigmoid colon segment. A 48-year-old woman presented with profuse vaginal discharge for 1 year. She had a history of gender reassignment surgery (male to female) in 1994, and the neovagina had been constructed with an isolated sigmoid colon. Vaginoscopy performed using a cystoscope revealed multiple calculi at the vaginal vault on the endoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis staples that had been used to close the vault. Colon-vaginoplasty has the advantages of providing adequate lubrication, but excessive vaginal discharge could be a problem, as colon is a mucous membrane. Stone formation in the vaginal vault should be considered in cases of gender reassignment with persistent vaginal discharge. This case also highlights the use of cystoscope in visualising the upper vagina in difficult circumstances.

  3. Providers' Experiences with Vaginal Dilator Training for Patients with Vaginal Agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrunda; Hakim, Julie; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica; Amies Oelschlager, Anne-Marie

    2018-02-01

    To examine providers' experiences with vaginal dilator training for patients with vaginal agenesis. Anonymous electronic survey. Members of the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. How providers learn about vaginal dilator training, common techniques, and methods used for patient training, assessment of patient readiness, common patient complaints, issues leading to early discontinuation. There were a total of 55 completed survey responses of which 31 respondents (56%) had been in practice for more than 10 years. Forty-nine were gynecologists (89%), 20 had completed a fellowship in pediatric and adolescent gynecology (36%), and 6 were reproductive endocrinologists (11%). Thirty-one respondents had first learned about vaginal dilator training through lectures (56%) whereas only 9 through mentorship and fellowship (16%). According to respondents, the most common issue leading to early discontinuation was lack of patient motivation and readiness (n = 42; 76%). The most common complication was pain or discomfort (n = 45; 82%). More than half of respondents determined dilator therapy was successful when patients reported comfortable sexual intercourse (n = 30; 55%) and 65% (n = 35) did not delineate any restrictions to initiation of sexual intercourse. Most respondents (87%) requested further vaginal dilator training at either a clinical meeting (n = 26; 47%) or with a training video (n = 22; 40%). Our study in an experienced cohort of pediatric gynecology providers highlights the need for further research and training on vaginal dilation education. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Desarrollo de cronologías de ancho de anillos para alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides en Contao y Mirador, Chile Development of tree-ring chronologies for alerce (Fitzroya Cupressoides in Contao and Mirador, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO NEIRA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrollaron dos cronologías de ancho de anillos de crecimiento a partir de muestras de alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina Johnston, colectadas en dos sitios: Contao, Cordillera de los Andes (41º 33'S, 72º 38'W, y Mirador, en la Cordillera de la Costa (40º 10'S, 73º 42'W. En la elaboración de las cronologías se utilizó el programa COFECHA para verificar el cofechado y se desarrolló para cada sitio una cronología utilizando el programa computacional ARSTAN. Se compararon las cronologías Contao y Mirador, con otras existentes para alerce encontrándose una alta similitud de la cronología Contao con la desarrollada para Lenca (41º 33'S, 72º 36' W. Contao presentó los valores más altos en los estadígrafos analizados con relación a las demás cronologías. Se observaron diferencias entre las cronologías provenientes de la Cordillera de la Costa y de los Andes en los últimos 150 años, probablemente producto de explotaciones humanas e incendios ocurridos en la cordillera de la Costa. La correlación con variables climáticas fue similar en su tendencia a la de otros estudios previos, documentando una correlación negativa con las temperaturas y positiva con las precipitaciones del verano anterior al período de crecimientoTwo ring-width chronologies were developed using samples from alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides (Molina Johnston. These were collected from two different sites; Contao, in the Andean Range and Mirador, in the Coastal Range. The series from the each site were cross-dated and COFECHA program was used to verify this process. Once correctly cross-dated, ARSTAN program was used to build up a chronology for each site (Contao and Mirador. These chronologies were compared with other existing chronologies. Contao presented the best statistics when compared to the other chronologies. Differences between chronologies from the Coastal and Andes Ranges were detected mainly during the last 150 years. Before this period

  5. Effects of a One Year Reusable Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Vaginal Microflora and the Risk of Vaginal Infection: An Open-Label Prospective Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongmei; Merkatz, Ruth B; Hillier, Sharon L; Roberts, Kevin; Blithe, Diana L; Sitruk-Ware, Régine; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2015-01-01

    A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) containing Nestorone® (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles) is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora. There were 120 women enrolled into a NES/EE CVR Phase III trial and a microbiology sub-study for up to 1- year of cyclic product use. Gynecological examinations were conducted at baseline, the first week of cycle 6 and last week of cycle 13 (or during early discontinuation visits). Vaginal swabs were obtained for wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and culture. The CVR was removed from the vagina at the last study visit and cultured. Semi-quantitative cultures for Lactobacillus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, anaerobic gram negative rods (GNRs), Candida albicans and other yeasts were performed on vaginal and CVR samples. Vaginal infections were documented throughout the study. Over 1- year of use, 3.3% of subjects were clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 15.0% with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.8% with trichomoniasis. The detection rate of these three infections did not change significantly from baseline to either Cycle 6 or 13. Nugent scores remained stable. H2O2-positive Lactobacillus dominated vaginal flora with a non-significant prevalence increase from 76.7% at baseline to 82.7% at cycle 6 and 90.2% at cycle 13, and a median concentration of 107 colony forming units (cfu) per gram. Although anaerobic GNRs prevalence increased significantly, the median concentration decreased slightly (104 to 103cfu per gram). There were no significant changes in frequency or concentrations of other pathogens. High levels of agreement between vaginal and ring surface microbiota were observed. Sustained use of the NES/EE CVR did not increase the risk of vaginal infection and was not disruptive to the vaginal ecosystem. Clinical

  6. The treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with ovestin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kicovic, P.M.; Cortesprieto, J.; Milojevic, S.; Haspels, A.A.; Aljinovic, A.

    1980-01-01

    Seventy-four postmenopausal women presenting with vaginal atrophy were treated with either Ovestin® vaginal cream (Group A, 23 women: 1 mg/day E3; Group B, 30 women: 0.5 mg/day E3) or vaginal suppositories (Group C, 21 women: 0.5 mg/day E3), applied daily for 3 wk (A and B) or 2 wk (C) before

  7. Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A; Al-Charrakh, Alaa H; Al-Greitty, Bara Hamid

    2011-04-01

    Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effects of some antibiotics on Lactobacilli isolates. In this study (110) vaginal swabs were obtained from women suffering from vaginitis who admitted to Babylon Hospital of Maternity and Paediatrics in Babylon province, Iraq. The study involved the role of intrauterine device among married women with vaginitis and also involved isolation of opportunistic bacterial isolates among pregnant and non pregnant women. This study also involved studying probiotic role of Lactobacilli by production of some defense factors like hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin, and lactic acid. Results revealed that a total of 130 bacterial isolates were obtained. Intrauterine device was a predisposing factor for vaginitis. The most common opportunistic bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All Lactobacilli were hydrogen peroxide producers while some isolates were bacteriocin producers that inhibited some of opportunistic pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli). Lactobacilli were sensitive to erythromycin while 93.3% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin and (40%, 53.3%) of them were resistant to amoxicillin and gentamycin respectively. Results revealed that there was an inverse relationship between Lactobacilli presence and organisms causing vaginitis. This may be attributed to the production of defense factors by Lactobacilli. The types of antibiotics used to treat vaginitis must be very selective in order not to kill the beneficial bacteria

  8. Vaginal Approaches Using Synthetic Mesh to Treat Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Jei Won; Chae, Hee Dong

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a very common condition in elderly women. In women with POP, a sacrocolpopexy or a vaginal hysterectomy with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy has long been considered as the gold standard of treatment. However, in recent decades, the tendency to use a vaginal approach with mesh for POP surgery has been increasing. A vaginal approach using mesh has many advantages, such as its being less invasive than an abdominal approach and easier to do than a laparoscopic ...

  9. Parturition pit: the bony imprint of vaginal birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, Tatum A.; Meyer, Isuzu; Jackson, Bradford; Pitt, Michael J.; Larrison, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate for pits along the dorsum of the pubic body in females and compare the presence/absence of these pits to vaginal birth data. We retrospectively reviewed females with vaginal birth data who underwent pelvic CT. The presence of pits along the dorsum of the pubic body, pit grade (0 = not present; 1 = faintly imperceptible; 2 = present; 3 = prominent), and the presence of osteitis condensans ilii, preauricular sulcus, and sacroiliac joint vacuum phenomenon were assessed on imaging. Musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the birth data evaluated the CTs. 48 males were also evaluated for the presence of pits. 482 female patients underwent CT pelvis and 171 were excluded due to lack of vaginal birth data. Of the 311 study patients, 262 had prior vaginal birth(s) and 194 had pits on CT. Only 7 of the 49 patients without prior vaginal birth had pits. There was a statistically significant association between vaginal birth and presence of pits (p < 0.0001). Patients with more prominent pits (grades 2/3) had a greater number of vaginal births. As vaginal deliveries increased, the odds of having parturition pits greatly increased, adjusting for age and race at CT (p < 0.0001). No males had pits. Our study indicates that parturition pits are associated with prior vaginal birth and should be considered a characteristic of the female pelvis. The lytic appearance of prominent pits on imaging can simulate disease and create a diagnostic dilemma for interpreting radiologists. (orig.)

  10. Human vaginal pH and microbiota: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godha, Keshav; Tucker, Kelly M; Biehl, Colton; Archer, David F; Mirkin, Sebastian

    2018-06-01

    A woman's vaginal pH has many implications on her health and it can be a useful tool in disease diagnosis and prevention. For that reason, the further examination of the relationship between the human vaginal pH and microbiota is imperative. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the physiological mechanisms modulating the vaginal pH, and exogenous/genetic factors that may influence it. A unified, coherent understanding of these concepts is presented to comprehend their interrelationships and their cumulative effect on a woman's health. In this review, we explore research on vaginal pH and microbiota throughout a woman's life, vaginal intermediate cell anaerobic metabolism and net proton secretion by the vaginal epithelial, and the way these factors interact to acidify the vaginal pH. This review provides foundational information about what a microbiota is and its relationship with human physiology and vaginal pH. We then evaluate the influence of physiological mechanisms, demographic factors, and propose ideas for the mechanisms behind their action on the vaginal pH.

  11. [Vaginal disbacteriosis--social and sexual risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal microbe equilibrium could be impaired by different agents. Many of the risk factors can change the preventive mechanisms of the vagina and can lead to inflammation and disease. We even do not suppose about the role of most of them in impairing of vaginal microbe equilibrium. The exact understanding of those risk factors and mechanisms by which they disturb the vaginal microbe balance could reduce female morbidity of vaginal disbacteriosis and vaginal inflammations. The aim of this literature synopsis is to review some of the most frequent risk factors for vaginal disbacteriosis and about how they change vaginal micro-flora with dominant lactobacillus within it. The most informative and detailed articles on the theme which were found in the resent literature as well as in Medline for the period between 1990 and 2012 were selected. The risk agents for vaginal disbacteriosis are: endogenetic, social, sexual, infectious and iatrogenic. The social and sexual factors are the most frequent in our daily round. The intensity and the kind of sexual life, smoking, homosexual connections, vaginal douching and contraception methods are included in them. All these factors depend on us. Thus we hope that through their popularization and discussion will help to prevent the females' health.

  12. [Vaginal metastasis revealing an adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, D; Delotte, J; Bongain, A; François, E; Bereder, J-M; Bernard, J-L

    2014-09-01

    Secondary localization to vagina had a severe prognosis, suggesting a disseminated metatastic disease. We report the case of prevalent vaginal metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon. A 65 years old patient has consulted for vaginal mass. After delayed diagnosis, she presented with disseminated metastatic disease with peritoneal carcinomatosis. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the following treatment consisted of complete cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and vaginal adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence occurred after one year. Vaginal metastasis of colon cancer are rare. The dark prognosis might justify a systematic gynecological examination of women presenting colorectal neoplasy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Ureterovaginal fistula: A complication of a vaginal foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsia-Shu Lo

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Ureterovaginal fistula following neglected vaginal foreign body is a serious condition. Early diagnosis, treatment of infection and proper surgical management can improve the outcome and decrease complications.

  14. Effects of vaginal discharge on female sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ayse N C; Uludag, Aysegul; Sahin, Melih; Gencer, Meryem; Uysal, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effects of vaginal discharge on female sexual dysfunction (FSD) by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). In a study at a university hospital in Canakkale, Turkey, women affected by vaginal discharge and age-matched healthy control women were recruited between January and December 2012. Women were grouped in accordance with their vaginal discharge complaints and each participant completed the FSFI questionnaire. A total of 114 women were included in the study. Women in the first group (n=58) had no vaginal discharge or had physiologic vaginal discharge, those in the second group (n=29) had abnormal vaginal discharge with itching, and those in the third group (n=27) had abnormal vaginal discharge without itching. Compared with the first group, women in the second and third groups had higher FSFI scores for desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain, in addition to higher overall FSFI scores. Women with genital malodor had significantly higher FSFI scores than patients without genital malodor (23.83 ± 5.07 vs 21.15 ± 4.78; P=0.008). Women with abnormal vaginal discharges were found to have better FSFI scores for some domains. This finding may be attributed to the adverse effects of sexual intercourse on vaginal infections. © 2013.

  15. A longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microbiota and vaginal immune mediators in women from sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jespers, V.; Kyongo, J.; Joseph, S.; Hardy, L.; Cools, P.; Crucitti, T.; Mwaura, M.; Ndayisaba, G.; Delany-Moretlwe, S.; Buyze, J.; Vanham, G.; van de Wijgert, JHHM

    2017-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies increased vaginal bacterial diversity has been associated with vaginal inflammation which can be detrimental for health. We describe longitudinal changes at 5 visits over 8 weeks in vaginal microbiota and immune mediators in African women. Women (N = 40) with a normal Nugent score at all visits had a stable lactobacilli dominated microbiota with prevailing Lactobacillus iners. Presence of prostate-specific antigen (proxy for recent sex) and being amenorrhoeic (due t...

  16. A case of laparoscopy-assisted vaginal cuff suturing for vaginal cuff dehiscence after total laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoatsu Jimi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vaginal cuff dehiscence after hysterectomy is a rare complication and occurs in less than 1% of patients. It can present with serious complications, such as bowel evisceration and peritonitis. Presentation of case: A 51-year-old multigravida Korean woman underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy for leiomyoma. Six months later, she reported lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Physical examination revealed rebound tenderness in the lower abdomen, and pelvic examination showed a small amount of vaginal bleeding with an evisceration of the small intestine through the vagina that exhibited healthy peristalsis. The eviscerated bowel, which seemed to be a part of the ileum, was carefully manually reduced transvaginally into the abdominal cavity. Laparoscopic observation revealed adhesions between the omentum, small intestine, and the peritoneum. Specifically, the small intestine was adhered around the vaginal cuff. An abdominal abscess was found in the left lower abdominal cavity. An adhesiotomy was performed and the abdominal abscess was removed and irrigated. Complete separation of the anterior and posterior vaginal cuff edges was obtained. The vaginal cuff was closed with interrupted 0-polydioxanone absorbable sutures without bowel injury. A 6-month follow-up examination revealed complete healing of the vaginal cuff. Discussion: In this case, we were able to make use of both laparoscopic and transvaginal methods to perform a successful repair with a minimally invasive and safe technique. Conclusion: Laparoscopically assisted vaginal cuff suturing for vaginal cuff dehiscence after total laparoscopic hysterectomy was found to be effective, safe, and minimally invasive. Keywords: Vaginal cuff dehiscence, Vaginal cuff repair, Vaginal cuff evisceration, Laparoscopic hysterectomy, Complication

  17. Vaginal seeding or vaginal microbial transfer from the mother to the cesarean born neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Thor; Glavind, Julie; Axelsson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests cesarean delivery (CD) to be a risk factor for inflammatory and metabolic diseases such as asthma, allergies and other chronic immune disorders in the child. One hypothetical pathogenesis of these associations has been proposed to be a disruption of the neonatal colonizat...... to children delivered vaginally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  18. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-tao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora.

  19. Endovascular Management of Intractable Postpartum Hemorrhage Caused by Vaginal Laceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koganemaru, Masamichi; Nonoshita, Masaaki; Iwamoto, Ryoji; Kuhara, Asako; Nabeta, Masakazu; Kusumoto, Masashi; Kugiyama, Tomoko; Kozuma, Yutaka; Nagata, Shuji; Abe, Toshi

    2016-01-01

    PurposeWe evaluated the management of transcatheter arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage caused by vaginal laceration.Materials and MethodsWe reviewed seven cases of patients (mean age 30.9 years; range 27–35) with intractable hemorrhages and pelvic hematomas caused by vaginal lacerations, who underwent superselective transcatheter arterial embolization from January 2008 to July 2014. Postpartum hemorrhage was evaluated by angiographic vascular mapping to determine the vaginal artery’s architecture, technical and clinical success rates, and complications.ResultsThe vaginal artery was confirmed as the source of bleeding in all cases. The artery was found to originate from the uterine artery in three cases, the uterine and obturator arteries in two, or the internal pudendal artery in two. After vaginal artery embolization, persistent contrast extravasation from the inferior mesenteric artery as an anastomotic branch was noted in one patient. Nontarget vessels (the inferior vesical artery and nonbleeding vaginal arterial branches) were embolized in one patient. Effective control of hemostasis and no post-procedural complications were confirmed for all cases.ConclusionPostpartum hemorrhages caused by vaginal lacerations involve the vaginal artery arising from the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery with various branching patterns. Superselective vaginal artery embolization is clinically acceptable for the successful treatment of vaginal laceration hemorrhages, with no complications. After vaginal artery embolization, it is suggested to check for the presence of other possible bleeding vessels by pelvic aortography with a catheter tip at the L3 vertebral level, and to perform a follow-up assessment.

  20. Endovascular Management of Intractable Postpartum Hemorrhage Caused by Vaginal Laceration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koganemaru, Masamichi, E-mail: mkoganemaru@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Nonoshita, Masaaki, E-mail: z2rs-1973@yahoo.co.jp; Iwamoto, Ryoji, E-mail: iwamoto-ryouji@kurume-u.ac.jp; Kuhara, Asako, E-mail: kuhara-asako@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Nabeta, Masakazu, E-mail: nabeta-masakazu@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Kusumoto, Masashi, E-mail: kusumoto-masashi@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Kugiyama, Tomoko, E-mail: kugiyama-tomoko@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kozuma, Yutaka, E-mail: kouduma-yutaka@kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Japan); Nagata, Shuji, E-mail: sn4735@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Abe, Toshi, E-mail: toshiabe@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeWe evaluated the management of transcatheter arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage caused by vaginal laceration.Materials and MethodsWe reviewed seven cases of patients (mean age 30.9 years; range 27–35) with intractable hemorrhages and pelvic hematomas caused by vaginal lacerations, who underwent superselective transcatheter arterial embolization from January 2008 to July 2014. Postpartum hemorrhage was evaluated by angiographic vascular mapping to determine the vaginal artery’s architecture, technical and clinical success rates, and complications.ResultsThe vaginal artery was confirmed as the source of bleeding in all cases. The artery was found to originate from the uterine artery in three cases, the uterine and obturator arteries in two, or the internal pudendal artery in two. After vaginal artery embolization, persistent contrast extravasation from the inferior mesenteric artery as an anastomotic branch was noted in one patient. Nontarget vessels (the inferior vesical artery and nonbleeding vaginal arterial branches) were embolized in one patient. Effective control of hemostasis and no post-procedural complications were confirmed for all cases.ConclusionPostpartum hemorrhages caused by vaginal lacerations involve the vaginal artery arising from the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery with various branching patterns. Superselective vaginal artery embolization is clinically acceptable for the successful treatment of vaginal laceration hemorrhages, with no complications. After vaginal artery embolization, it is suggested to check for the presence of other possible bleeding vessels by pelvic aortography with a catheter tip at the L3 vertebral level, and to perform a follow-up assessment.

  1. Unusual clinical presentation of rare case of vaginal leiomyoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ishrat Zuber; Purnima K. Nadkarni; Aditi A. Nadkarni; Akshay Nadkarni

    2016-01-01

    Primary vaginal leiomyoma are rare and usually arise from anterior vaginal wall, approximately 330 cases of vaginal fibroid reported in world literature. Vaginal myoma usually presented as discharge per vaginum, abnormal bleeding, pain lower abdomen, dyspareunia etc. We report a case of primary vaginal leiomyoma arising from lateral vaginal wall which is presented clinically as pain in hip joint and radiating to ipsilateral leg which is unusual clinical presentation creating diagnostic dilemm...

  2. Normal ovarian cycle in endo vaginal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, F.; Dualde, D.; Labrador, T.; Morales, F.J.; Vidal, P.; Gordo, G.

    1995-01-01

    The changing morphology of the endometrium and ovaries during the menstrual cycle can be viewed with great richness of image using high frequency (5-6-7.5 Mhz) probes in endo vaginal ultrasound. The radiological findings associated with the menstrual cycle are reviewed in terms of four phases (follicular, preovulatory, ovulatory and luteal) and a study is made of the changes that can lead to different morphologies, some of which, especially those of the corpus luteus, are peculiar. The need to be familiar with these changes in order to avoid confusing them with pathological signs is pointed out. (Author)

  3. Vaginal Lactobacillus isolates inhibit uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Atassi , Fabrice; Brassart , Dominique; Grob , Philipp; Graf , Federico; Servin , Alain ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activities of Lactobacillus jensenii KS119.1 and KS121.1, and Lactobacillus gasserii KS120.1 and KS124.3 strains isolated from the vaginal microflora of healthy women, against uropathogenic, diffusely adhering Afa/Dr Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains IH11128 and 7372 involved in recurrent cystitis. We observed that some of the Lactobacillus isolates inhibited the growth and decreased the viability of E. coli IH11128 and 7372....

  4. Vaginal contraceptive film gains wider acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    In US health departments and family planning clinics, women are beginning to accept vaginal contraceptive film more widely. Further, direct sales of this method, which is also distributed over the counter, has increased. In fact, in 1991, vaginal contraceptive film was the top selling contraceptive in pharmacies. This 2.5 sq. inch water-soluble film is impregnated with nonoxynol-9. The woman uses her finger to insert the folded square as close as possible to the cervix 5-60 minutes before intercourse. If the time between acts of intercourse is greater than 1 hour, she must insert another square. After it dissolves, it is a firm gel removed by vaginal and cervical fluids. The company realizes that its relatively high cost (about $3.59 for 3 films) prevents some family planning providers from offering the film. It has tried to cut costs by not using extra packaging material and by manufacturing it in the US instead of ain England. A manager of the family planning clinic at R.E. Thomason County Hospital in El Paso, Texas, notes that user compliance is higher with the vaginal contraceptive film than foam. In fact, patients at the Planned Parenthood League of Middlesex County, New Jersey, favor the film because it is less messy than foam. Teenagers in El Paso prefer the film because of the privacy issue and gives them more control to protect themselves from pregnancy. A worker at the New Jersey clinic recommends the film as a backup method for women beginning to use oral contraceptives. She also suggests to patients requesting condoms to also use the film. The company makes the same recommendation. Yet, family planning workers note that some women cannot convince partners to use the condom. 90% of patients at the El Paso clinic are Hispanic, and they tend to not accept condom use. Some providers suggest using 2 applications of the film to defend against sexually transmitted diseases, but there is no evidence that double application actually does so.

  5. Radiation therapy of primary vaginal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtoli, L; Santoni, R [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1980-01-01

    In a series of 22 patients with primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina (stage I through IVa), a radical irradiation was planned in 18 and a palliative in the remaining 4 patients. The 5-year survival rate, in the radically irradiated patients, was 10/18 for all stages, and 8/13 for patients of stage I. A vaginal boost irradiation did not seem to improve the results of external irradiation in patients of stage I. Severe adverse effects did not occur.

  6. Large and small cells non-keratinizing epidermoid vaginal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maso Anaya, Ofelia; Morales Larramendi, Maria Elena; Diaz Perez, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Five case reports of patients who were assisted at the cervix Pathology Department from 'Mariana Grajales Coello' Provincial Gynecological Obstetrical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba due to vaginal bleeding, low abdominal pain, leukorrhea and vaginal injuries are presented. The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of squamous or epidermoid cells carcinoma

  7. Vaginal drug delivery systems: A Review of Current Status | Dobaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the various routes of drug delivery, the vaginal route offers many advantages due to its large permeation area, rich vascularization, avoidance of first pass metabolism and relatively low enzymatic activity. Several studies have shown that the vaginal cavity is an effective route for drug administration intended mainly ...

  8. Evaluation of vaginal implant transmitters in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce K. Johnson; Terrance McCoy; Christopher O. Kochanny; Rachel C. Cook

    2006-01-01

    The effects of vaginal implant transmitters for tissue damage after 11 wk in 13 captive adult elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and subsequent reproductive performance in 38 free-ranging elk were evaluated. Vaginal implant transmitters are designed to be shed at parturition and are used to locate birth sites of wild ungulates; however, potential adverse...

  9. Prevalence of Vaginal Trichomoniasis: An Assessment of Sensitivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study which was conducted on 400 females patients aged 15 to 60 years who complained of vaginal discharge and itching in some selected health centers in Yola between 2003 and March 2005, is a comparative study of the relative accuracies of three techniques for diagnosing vaginal trichomoniasis. Three sterile ...

  10. The stimulation of the vaginal immune system with short-term administration of a vaginal gel containing fraction of Propionibacterium acnes, hyaluronic acid and polycarbophil is efficacious in vaginal infections dependent on disorders in the vaginal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Gian Benedetto; Piras, Bruno; Marotto, Maria Francesca; Neri, Manuela; Corda, Valentina; Vallerino, Valerio; Saba, Alessandra; Lello, Stefano; Pilloni, Monica; Zedda, Pierina; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Mais, Valerio

    2018-04-12

    The vaginal immune system (VIS) is the first defense against antigens recognized as foreign. Substances capable of locally activating the VIS could be a valid strategy to treat vulvo-vaginal infections (VVI), caused by changes in the vaginal ecosystem, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (CA), and mixed vaginitis (MV). Bacterial lysates, obtained by crushing bacterial cultures, exert immuno-modulatory activities. The parietal fraction from Propionibacterium acnes is a patent of Depofarma (MoglianoVeneto, Italy). The preparation that associates such fraction to hyaluronic acid and polycarbophil is a registered trademark, commercially available in Italy as vaginal gel, Immunovag ® . The study aimed to evaluate whether a 5-day-treatment with Immunovag ® improves the symptoms and signs of VVI, in 60 women with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV), 154 with CA, 95 with MV, diagnosed with vulvar vaginal swab (VVS), and in 283 with BV, diagnosed with the Amsel criteria. At the end of the treatment (visit 2), the symptoms and signs of VVI disappeared in a significant number of subjects (χ 2 p < .02 vs pre-treatment) in all VVI groups, and their intensity was significantly (p < .0002) reduced in the subjects in which they were still present. Immunovag ® represents a valid treatment of VVI induced by changes in the vaginal ecosystem.

  11. [Physicopharmaceutical characteristics of ulinastatin vaginal suppositories prepared in a hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Takanori; Iwata, Masanori; Fujikake, Yoshio; Kimura, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    We studied a locally applied vaginal preparation (vaginal suppositories) of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI), designed to threatened premature delivery and maintain pregnancy. Witepsol S55 was chosen as the basic component of the vaginal suppositories based on the physical pharmaceutical characteristics of three kinds of hard fats. The average particle size of the UTI aqueous injection was approximately 70% as compared with that of the UTI lyophilized product, used as the base material for the preparation of UTI vaginal suppositories. We compared the physical pharmaceutical properties of UTI vaginal suppositories with water contents of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%, respectively. Preparation strength negatively correlated with the water content. The coefficient of viscosity positively correlated with the water content of the preparation. UTI vaginal suppositories with a water content of 5.0% had the highest average drug release rate on moment analysis. A comprehensive evaluation of the properties of UTI vaginal suppositories, including high strength due to disintegration resistance, the coefficient of viscosity and its influence on local retention, and drug release and its influence on the duration of effect, indicated that a 5.0% UTI aqueous solution for injection combined with Witepsol S55 as the base was the optimal formulation for the hospital preparation of vaginal suppositories.

  12. Evaluation of vaginal pessary use by South African gynaecologists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. The use of vaginal pessaries for conservative management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is well established. However, there are limited data on current clinical practice among gynaecologists, and the aim of this survey was therefore to evaluate vaginal pessary use among South African gynaecologists.

  13. Obstetric and gynecological diseases and complications resulting from vaginal dysbacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, Stefan Miladinov

    2014-08-01

    Accurate knowledge of the composition and ecology of vaginal microbial environment of a healthy woman is necessary for the understanding of normal flora and how to reduce the risk for diseases. Vagina and its microflora form a balanced ecosystem in which dominated bacteria are vaginal lactobacilli. There are dynamic changes in this ecosystem having structure and composition depending on many factors. The term dysbacteriosis defines any movement outside the normal range for the given biotope of obligate and/or facultative microflora. Such a change in the quantity and quality of the respective microbial balance is fraught with danger and requires correction and recovery. The purpose of this overview is to examine obstetric and gynecological diseases that can cause vaginal impaired microbial balance. Vaginal dysbacteriosis is a cause, predecessor, and often also consequence of vaginal infections. In essence, any vaginal infection can be seen as dysbacteriosis, developed to the most severe extent. Here, there is a dominant microorganism other than lactic acid bacteria in the vagina (clinically manifested or not, respectively), depletion of defense mechanisms of the vagina associated with the shift of lactobacilli from their dominant role in the vaginal balance, decrease in their number and species diversity, and a resulting change in the healthy status of the vagina. Vaginal dysbacteriosis can be found in pathogenetic mechanism, whereby many obstetric and gynecological diseases develop. Most of these diseases lead directly to increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, so it is important to understand the reasons for them and the arrangements for their prevention.

  14. Vaginal pH: Home-Use Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doesn't always mean that you have a vaginal infection. pH changes also do not help or differentiate ... of infection from another. Your doctor diagnoses a vaginal infection by using a combination of: pH, microscopic examination ...

  15. Sore throat · vaginal discharge · labial ulcer · Dx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravelli, Ashley; Bhatnagar, Rupal; Ashaye, Adelola

    2016-06-01

    The patient complained of worsening vaginal pain and increased vaginal discharge, but reported resolution of her back and chest pain. She also said that a week earlier, she'd had a fever that reached 104° F and a sore throat. She denied urinary frequency/urgency, sexual activity, or sexual abuse.

  16. The threat of aerobic vaginitis to pregnancy and neonatal morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an endogenous opportunistic infection brought about by the disruption of the normal vaginal microbiota. Its early diagnosis and treatment during pregnancy may reduce the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this review was to report on the aerobic bacteria most prevalent in AV and to ...

  17. Vaginal metastasis of pancreatic cancer | Benhayoune | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal metastasis from pancreatic cancer is an extreme case and often indicates a poor prognosis. We present a case of pancreatic carcinoma with metastasis to the vagina that was discovered by vaginal bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the third case in the world of a primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma discovered of ...

  18. huge abdominal mass secondary to a transverse vaginal septum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... A diagnosis of Transverse Vaginal septum with prob- able vaginal atresia was made. A two-stage surgery was planned: laparotomy to drain the haemorrhagic ... through a low vertical uterine incision. A probe passed through the uterine incision towards the cervix ended blindly. The tubes were distended ...

  19. Paediatric vaginal discharge | Makwela | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in the prepubertal patient is a common symptom, and can be a source of distress for the caregiver and concern for the healthcare worker. Several factors predispose these patients to the development of recurrent vaginal discharge. Unless noticed by the caregiver, this problem can persist for long periods ...

  20. Life threatening vaginal haemorrhage from coital laceration in a post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: A 55-year-old woman who presented as an emergency with haemorrhagic shock following vaginal bleeding from consensual coitus is presented. She was resuscitated with intravenous fluids and blood transfusions. The vaginal laceration of about 5 cm on the right side of the posterior fornix was sutured ...

  1. The use of supersaturation for the vaginal application of microbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grammen, Carolien; Plum, Jakob; Van Den Brande, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of supersaturation for the formulation of the poorly water-soluble microbicide dapivirine (DPV) in an aqueous vaginal gel in order to enhance its vaginal tissue uptake. Different excipients such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, polyethylene glycol 1000....... The best performing supersaturated gel containing 500 μM DPV (supersaturation degree of 4) in the presence of sulfobutyl ether-beta-cyclodextrin (2.5%) appeared to be stable for at least 3 months. In addition, the gel generated a significant increase in vaginal drug uptake in rabbits as compared...... with suspension gels. We conclude that supersaturation is a possible strategy to enhance the vaginal concentration of hydrophobic microbicides, thereby increasing permeation into the vaginal submucosa....

  2. [Vaginal birth after cesarean section in light of international opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Gábor; Molnár, András

    2017-07-01

    The tendency of increasing cesarean section rate has drawn worldwide attention. The vaginal birth after cesarean section is a useful method to decrease cesarean section rate at defined cases. Retrospective overview of factors resulting successful vaginal birth, labor/induction's condition, criterias, short and long term benefits and consequences. Overview recommendations of international guidelines and publications' results concerned vaginal birth after cesarean section in "PubMed", "MEDLINE", "Cochrane" databases from 1996 to 2016. Reviewing results of recommendations and publications we can declare that statements are inconsistent, however the option of vaginal birth after cesarean section is appropriate for decrease complications and trend of increasing cesarean section rate. It would be important in our country to define a uniform recommendation regarding vaginal birth after cesarean section, with supporting evidence in obstetrical and gynecological practice. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(30): 1168-1174.

  3. Aerobic vaginitis: no longer a stranger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Bellen, Gert; Grinceviciene, Svitrigaile; Ruban, Kateryna; Vieira-Baptista, Pedro

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is the name given in 2002 to a vaginal infectious entity which was not recognized as such before. It is characterized by abnormal (dysbiotic) vaginal microflora containing aerobic, enteric bacteria, variable levels of vaginal inflammation and deficient epithelial maturation. Although AV and bacterial vaginosis (BV) share some characteristics, such as a diminished number or absence of lactobacilli, increased discharge (fishy smelling in BV, while in severe forms of AV, a foul, rather rotten smell may be present) and increased pH (often more pronounced in AV), there are also striking differences between the two. There is no inflammation in women with BV, whereas the vagina of women with AV often appears red and edematous, and may even display small erosions or ulcerations. The color of the discharge in BV is usually whitish or gray and of a watery consistency, whereas in AV it is yellow to green and rather thick and mucoid. Women with BV do not have dyspareunia, while some women with severe AV do. Finally, the microscopic appearance differs in various aspects, such as the presence of leucocytes and parabasal or immature epithelial cells in AV and the absence of the granular aspect of the microflora, typical of BV. Despite all these differences, the distinction between AV and BV was not recognized in many former studies, leading to incomplete and imprecise diagnostic workouts and erroneous management of patients in both clinical and research settings. The prevalence of AV ranges between 7 and 12%, and is therefore less prevalent than BV. Although still largely undiagnosed, many researchers and clinicians increasingly take it into account as a cause of symptomatic vaginitis. AV can co-occur with other entities, such as BV and candidiasis. It can be associated with dyspareunia, sexually transmitted infections (such as human papilloma virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis), chorioamnionitis, fetal

  4. Acceptability of the vaginal contraceptive ring among adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Lekeisha R; Tanner, Amanda E; Hensel, Devon J; Blythe, Margaret J; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Although underutilized, the vaginal contraceptive ring has several advantages over other contraceptive methods that could benefit adolescents. We examined factors that may influence willingness to try the vaginal ring including: sexual and contraceptive history, genital comfort, and vaginal ring characteristics. Cross sectional Midwestern adolescent health clinics Adolescent women (N = 200; 14-18 years; 89% African-American) INTERVENTIONS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All participants received education about the vaginal ring and viewed pictures demonstrating insertion; they then completed a visual/audio computer-assisted self interview. The primary outcome variable, willingness to try the vaginal ring, was a single Likert-scale item. Over half the participants reported knowledge of the vaginal ring with healthcare providers identified as the most important source of contraceptive information. Comfort with one's genitals, insertion and removal, using alternative methods of insertion, and knowing positive method characteristics were significantly associated with willingness to try the vaginal ring. A decreased willingness to try the vaginal ring was related to concerns of the ring getting lost inside or falling out of the vagina. Willingness to try the ring was associated with positive feelings about genitals (e.g., comfort with appearance, hygiene, function). Thus, to increase willingness to try the vaginal ring among adolescents, providers should make it common practice to discuss basic female reproductive anatomy, raise awareness about female genital health and address concerns about their genitals. Providers can offer alternative insertion techniques (e.g., gloves) to make use more accessible. These strategies may increase vaginal ring use among adolescents. 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Beneficial effects of a Coriolus versicolor-based vaginal gel on cervical epithelization, vaginal microbiota and vaginal health: a pilot study in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Santiago; Losa, Fernando; Dexeus, Damián; Cortés, Javier

    2017-03-16

    To assess the effect of a 12-day treatment using a vaginal gel based on niosomes containing hyaluronic acid, ß-glucan, alpha-glucan oligosaccharide, Coriolus versicolor, Asian centella, Azadirachta indica and Aloe vera on vaginal microbiota, cervical epithelization and vaginal health. Open-label, prospective pilot study conducted in asymptomatic women in daily practice. Cervical epithelization was evaluated by colposcopy using an ectopy epithelization score (from 5: no ectopy to 1: severe ectopy and bleeding), vaginal microbiota using the VaginaStatus-Diagnostic test (Instiüt für Mikroökologie, Herborn, Germany) and further rated by the investigator using a 5-point Liker scale (from 5: normal to 1: very severe deterioration in which all evaluated species were altered), and vaginal health using the Vaginal Health Index. In 21 women, a positive effect to improve epithelization of the cervical mucosa, with a mean score of 4.42 at the final visit as compared to 3.09 at baseline (P vaginal microbiota status, with a mean score of 4.0 at the final visit vs. 3.3 at baseline (P = NS) (21.2% improvement). In 11 women, the Vaginal Health Index increased from 19.0 at baseline to 22.3 at the final visit (P = 0.007). The concentration of Lactobacillus spp. increased 54.5% of women and pH decreased from 4.32 to 4.09. These encouraging preliminary results provide the basis for designing a randomized controlled study, and for potential use in human papilloma virus infection. ISRCTN77955077 . Registration date: February 15, 2017. Retrospectively registered.

  6. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Serviço de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%. O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequência (72%. As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possuíam idade superior a quatro anos (64%, eram sem raça definida (44% ou da raça Ile de France (40%. As manifestações clínicas observadas durante a maioria dos atendimentos foram: taquipnéia, taquicardia, mucosas oculares avermelhadas indicando estado de toxemia, decúbito esternal ou lateral, apatia e anorexia. O tratamento instituído para todos os casos foi a limpeza, desinfecção e reintrodução do órgão prolapsado. A sutura de Bühner foi feita em 84% dos casos e a histeropexia em um caso (4%. A evolução foi satisfatória em 80% dos casos atendidos, nos demais casos (20% observou-se óbito da fêmea acometida. Do total de óbitos, os prolapsos vaginais foram responsáveis por 60% (3/5 e os prolapsos uterinos por 40% (2/5. A etiologia dos prolapsos não foi definida nos casos atendidos, sendo esses associados com o período pós-parto em sua maioria (56%, provavelmente associados com quadros de hipocalcemia, altas concentrações séricas de estrógeno e hipertonia uterina. Além disso, a predisposição genética não pode ser descartada.

  7. Locus de Controle e escolha do método anticoncepcional Locus de Control y método anticonceptivo elegido Locus of Control and choice of contraceptive method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Salheb Alves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre o Locus de Controle e o tipo de método contraceptivo escolhido. Foi utilizada a Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Controle de Levenson e entrevistadas 191 mulheres. As usuárias de preservativo masculino apresentaram maior Internalidade do que as usuárias de injetável mensal. Quanto ao locus Externalidade Outros Poderosos, as usuárias de implante apresentavam menor externalidade do que as usuárias de preservativo masculino, laqueadura, injetável trimestral e DIU. Considerando-se o locus Externalidade Acaso, as usuárias de implante apresentaram menores escores do que as mulheres que optaram pela laqueadura, injetável trimestral e DIU. Observou-se ainda, menor Externalidade Acaso entre as usuárias de injetável mensal em relação às mulheres que fizeram opção pelo injetável trimestral.El objetivo es validar la relación entre el Locus de Control y el tipo de método anticonceptivo elegido. Fue usada la Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Control de Levenson. Fueron entrevistadas 191 mujeres. Las usuarias de condón masculino presentaron Internalidad más grande que las usuarias de inyectable mensual. Considerado el Locus Externalidad - Otro poderoso, las usuarias de implante presentaron menor externalidad de que las usuarias de condón masculino, laqueadura, inyectable trimestral y DIU. Considerado el Locus Externalidad - Quizá, las usuarias del implante presentaron menores resultados que las mujeres que eligieron por la laqueadura, inyectable trimestral y DIU. Se observo que las mujeres usuarias de inyectable mensual presentaron menor Externalidad - Quizá que las mujeres usuarias de inyectable trimestral.The purpose was to assess the relationship between locus of control and the contraceptive method chosen. It was used the Levenson's Multidimensional Locus of Control Scale and 191 women was interviewed. Users of male condoms presented greater Internality than the monthly contraceptive

  8. Creation of an acellular vaginal matrix for potential vaginal augmentation and cloacal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, K V; Jones, L G; Obiri-Yeboa, I; Ansari, T

    2018-05-21

    our aim was to use porcine vagina to create a vaginal matrix and test its cellular biocompatibility. vagina was harvested from pigs and de-cellularised (DC) using a combination of detergents (Triton x-100 and sodium deoxycholate) and enzymes (DNAse/RNAse). the presence of cellular material, collagen structural integrity and basement membrane proteins were assessed histologically. To address cytocompatibility, porcine adipose derived-mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) were harvested from abdominal fat together with vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) and seeded onto the mucosal aspect of the vaginal scaffold. Both cells populations were seeded individually and assessed histologically at days 3 and 10. MAIN OUTCOMES/RESULTS: the combination of enzymes and detergents resulted in a totally acellular matrix with very low DNA amount (control= 97.5ng/μl ± 10.8 vs DC= 40.1 ng/μl ±0.33 p=0.02). The extra cellular matrix (ECM) showed retention of collagen fibres and elastin and a 50% retention in glycosaminoglycan content; (control= 1.18μg/mg ± 0.28 DC = 1.35μg/mg ± 0.1 p=0.03) and an intact basement membrane (positive for both laminin and collagen IV). Seeded scaffolds showed cell attachment with both AD-MSC and VEC at days 3 and 10. it is possible to generate an acellular porcine vaginal matrix capable of supporting cells to reconstruct the vagina for future pre-clinical testing, and holds promise for creating clinically relevant sized tissue for human application. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Treating dyspareunia caused by vaginal atrophy: a review of treatment options using vaginal estrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Kingsberg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available SA Kingsberg¹, S Kellogg², M Krychman³1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland OH, USA; 2The Pelvic and Sexual Health Institute of Philadelphia, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA; 3Southern California Center for Sexual Health and Survivorship Medicine, Newport Beach, CA, USAAbstract: Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms.Keywords: dyspareunia, postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal estrogen therapy

  10. Uterus didelphys with partial vaginal septum and distal vaginal agenesis: an unusual anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, S.R.; Lakra, P.; Bishnoi, P.; Rohilla, S.; Dahiya, P.

    2013-01-01

    Complex malformations of female genital tract are not so common. Their correct identification is of paramount importance for appropriate management. A thorough knowledge of embryology, pre-operative imaging with MRI and examination under anaesthesia is essential to identify accurately the constellation of anomalies and to plan appropriate management. This case reports the coexistence of Mullerian abnormality with vaginal agenesis in an 18 years old girl which was managed by dissecting the lower half of vagina and pull-through vaginoplasty. (author)

  11. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture‐independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive‐aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic‐acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non‐Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine‐tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. PMID:27373840

  12. Transverse Vaginal Septum With Secondary Infertility: A Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hafeez; Trehan, Nikita; Singh, Shuchita; Goyal, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the technique of laparoscopic vaginal reconstruction in a rare case of mid-vaginal septum with secondary infertility. A step-by-step explanation of the technique using videos and pictures (Canadian Task Force classification IV). Transverse vaginal septum is a rare condition, with an incidence of only 1 in 30,000 women. It is usually a congenital mullerian fusion defect; few cases of acquired septum have been reported. Roughly 40% of cases occur in the mid-vagina. Transverse vaginal septum typically presents with primary amenorrhea and hematocolpos. The goal of surgery is to create a patent vagina with restoration of fertility. The laparoscopic approach has proven superiority over the open technique. Laproscopic vaginal reconstruction was performed in a 24 year female with transverse vaginal septum. Dissection was done laproscopically up to mid vagina. Incision was given on vagina excising the septum followed by reconstruction. The laparoscopic approach to vaginal reconstruction avoids the abdominal incision, with its associated pain and possible adhesion formation. It also provides a better view for dissection. In this patient, a patent vagina was created in a single operation, with no postoperative dyspareunia, and fertility was restored. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics of the Vaginal Ecosystem—Hormonal Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda A. Farage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The vagina is a dynamic and finely tuned ecosystem in which homeostasis depends on mutually beneficial interactions between a human female and her resident microorganisms, an ecosystem that can be thrown off balance by a wide variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Although a functional equilibrium provides stability to the ecosystem considered crucial to maintaining vaginal health, “normal flora” is a concept currently being redefined. New methodologies enable molecular analyses of the vaginal microbiota which have widened the definition of “normal” from a single specific microbiological profile to a range of functional microbial equilibria dependent upon pertinent host and microbial factors. One of the strongest influences on the vaginal microbiota is the hormonal changes that define the reproductive phases of a woman's life. The vaginal environment is particularly responsive to estrogen, a hormone that creates distinctive changes in the vaginal microbiota. This review summarizes the components of a healthy vaginal ecosystem during the reproductive years, including the characteristics of a healthy equilibrium and factors that can disturb a functional balance. It also summarizes what is known about the vaginal microbiota in childhood and after menopause. Healthful ecosystems at any stage of a female's reproductive life will be characterized by a microbiota that both maintains physiological function and though changeable, adapts to normal perturbation without succumbing to disease.

  14. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven B; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-01-15

    The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture-independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive-aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic-acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine-tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  15. Characterisation of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota associated with preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Ljubomir; Domig, Konrad J; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Sandhofer, Michael J; Fidesser, Maria; Krondorfer, Iris; Husslein, Peter; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

    2014-05-30

    The presence of an abnormal vaginal microflora in early pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery. There is no investigation on vaginal flora dominated by lactic acid bacteria and possible association with preterm delivery. We assessed the dominant vaginal Lactobacillus species in healthy pregnant women in early pregnancy in relation to pregnancy outcome. We observed 111 low risk pregnant women with a normal vaginal microflora 11 + 0 to 14 + 0 weeks of pregnancy without subjective complaints. Vaginal smears were taken for the identification of lactobacilli using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Pregnancy outcome was recorded as term or preterm delivery (limit 36 + 6 weeks of gestation). The diversity of Lactobacillus species in term vs. preterm was the main outcome measure. L. iners alone was detected in 11 from 13 (85%) women who delivered preterm. By contrast, L. iners alone was detected in only 16 from 98 (16%) women who delivered at term (p vaginal Lactobacillus spp. at the same time. This study suggests that dominating L. iners alone detected in vaginal smears of healthy women in early pregnancy might be associated with preterm delivery.

  16. [Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95%) or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  17. The effect of pessaries on the vaginal microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah; Beigi, Richard; Mellen, Colleen; O'Sullivan, David; Tulikangas, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the differences in vaginal culture, microscopy, and Gram stain between postmenopausal women who wear pessaries and those who do not to explain pessary-related, bothersome vaginal discharge. Postmenopausal women not using exogenous estrogen who had either been wearing a pessary for at least 3 months or who were undergoing their first pessary fittings were approached for enrollment. Symptoms were assessed, and vaginal fluid was collected for culture, microscopy, and Gram stain. A cross-sectional analysis was performed, comparing the new and return pessary wearers. The new pessary users were also sampled at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after fitting. Women who wore pessaries were more likely to be bothered by discharge (30.0% vs 2.1%, P vaginal inflammation and vaginitis. Prospective data showed that these changes developed during the first 2 weeks of pessary use. Aerobic and anaerobic organisms were nearly identical in women with and without bothersome vaginal discharge in the cross-sectional analysis and at all time points in the prospective analysis. Pessary-related, bothersome vaginal discharge develops early and may be due to an inflammatory process in the vagina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a One Year Reusable Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Vaginal Microflora and the Risk of Vaginal Infection: An Open-Label Prospective Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Huang

    Full Text Available A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR containing Nestorone® (NES and ethinyl estradiol (EE that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora.There were 120 women enrolled into a NES/EE CVR Phase III trial and a microbiology sub-study for up to 1- year of cyclic product use. Gynecological examinations were conducted at baseline, the first week of cycle 6 and last week of cycle 13 (or during early discontinuation visits. Vaginal swabs were obtained for wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and culture. The CVR was removed from the vagina at the last study visit and cultured. Semi-quantitative cultures for Lactobacillus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, anaerobic gram negative rods (GNRs, Candida albicans and other yeasts were performed on vaginal and CVR samples. Vaginal infections were documented throughout the study.Over 1- year of use, 3.3% of subjects were clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 15.0% with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.8% with trichomoniasis. The detection rate of these three infections did not change significantly from baseline to either Cycle 6 or 13. Nugent scores remained stable. H2O2-positive Lactobacillus dominated vaginal flora with a non-significant prevalence increase from 76.7% at baseline to 82.7% at cycle 6 and 90.2% at cycle 13, and a median concentration of 107 colony forming units (cfu per gram. Although anaerobic GNRs prevalence increased significantly, the median concentration decreased slightly (104 to 103cfu per gram. There were no significant changes in frequency or concentrations of other pathogens. High levels of agreement between vaginal and ring surface microbiota were observed.Sustained use of the NES/EE CVR did not increase the risk of vaginal infection and was not disruptive to the vaginal ecosystem

  19. Effects of a One Year Reusable Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Vaginal Microflora and the Risk of Vaginal Infection: An Open-Label Prospective Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongmei; Merkatz, Ruth B.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Roberts, Kevin; Blithe, Diana L.; Sitruk-Ware, Régine; Creinin, Mitchell D.

    2015-01-01

    Background A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) containing Nestorone® (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles) is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora. Methods There were 120 women enrolled into a NES/EE CVR Phase III trial and a microbiology sub-study for up to 1- year of cyclic product use. Gynecological examinations were conducted at baseline, the first week of cycle 6 and last week of cycle 13 (or during early discontinuation visits). Vaginal swabs were obtained for wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and culture. The CVR was removed from the vagina at the last study visit and cultured. Semi-quantitative cultures for Lactobacillus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, anaerobic gram negative rods (GNRs), Candida albicans and other yeasts were performed on vaginal and CVR samples. Vaginal infections were documented throughout the study. Results Over 1- year of use, 3.3% of subjects were clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 15.0% with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.8% with trichomoniasis. The detection rate of these three infections did not change significantly from baseline to either Cycle 6 or 13. Nugent scores remained stable. H2O2-positive Lactobacillus dominated vaginal flora with a non-significant prevalence increase from 76.7% at baseline to 82.7% at cycle 6 and 90.2% at cycle 13, and a median concentration of 107 colony forming units (cfu) per gram. Although anaerobic GNRs prevalence increased significantly, the median concentration decreased slightly (104 to 103cfu per gram). There were no significant changes in frequency or concentrations of other pathogens. High levels of agreement between vaginal and ring surface microbiota were observed. Conclusion Sustained use of the NES/EE CVR did not increase the risk of vaginal infection and was not disruptive to

  20. Vaginal hysterectomy in patients with uterus prolapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, Miguel Emilio; Romero Sanchez, Ramon Ezequiel.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. In the medical literature is quoted the nulliparity, the existence of previous operations and the uterus size as exclusion factors to choice the hysterectomy technique. The aim of present research was to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of vaginal hysterectomy by Heaney's technique, carried out in patients without uterus prolapse even in presence of the above mentioned factors. METHODS. A multivariate, descriptive and observational study was conducted in a sample including 1 000 patients operated on in the General Surgery service of the 'Martin Chang Puga' University Hospital in Nuevitas municipality (Camaguey province, between May, 1994 and December, 2006. A database was designed in Excel transferred to SPSS professional statistical package to carry out univaried, bivaried and multivariate analyses, which finally were represented in frequency and percentages tables. A significance of p= 0.05 was used. RESULTS. The 6 % of patients were nulliparous and the 23,5 % had previous surgeries of pelvis. A 82,6 % of patients had uteri with no more than an approximate value of 12 weeks of pregnancy and the uterine fibroma was the leading cause (88,5 %) of intervention. Only a 4,1 % of patients need blood transfusion. The perioperative and postoperative complications accounted for the 1,7 % and the 19,3 %, respectively. The 97,2 % of patients stayed less than 48 hours in the hospital and the 99,4 % go back to normal life. CONCLUSIONS. The nulliparity, the uterus size and the previous operations were not considered like isolated and excluding factors for the vaginal route. However, the type of hysterectomy will depends of the decision of the attending physician and the patient, according the costs and benefits involved in each case. (author)

  1. Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Daniel J.; Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha; Goddu, S. Murty; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose–volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average (± standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 ± 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 ± 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 ± 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

  2. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose Vagifem 10 microg in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, L S G; Naessen, T; Elia, D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.......The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women....

  3. Primary Adenocarcinoma of Intestinal Type Arising From a Vaginal Mass: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Lindsay H; Matthews, Kirk J; Chafe, Weldon E

    2015-07-01

    A patient with a history of a severe vaginal laceration during vaginal birth, unknown degree, presented with recurrent vaginal discharge and was found to have a vaginal mass. Pathologic analysis showed squamous mucosa transitioning into colonic type of mucosa with adenocarcinoma developed from colonic type of mucosa, reminiscent of anorectal junction.

  4. Oral microflora in infants delivered vaginally and by caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelun Barfod, Mette; Magnusson, Kerstin; Lexner, Michala Oron

    2011-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011 Background. Early in life, vaginally delivered infants exhibit a different composition of the gut flora compared with infants delivered by caesarean section (C-section); however, it is unclear whether this also applies to the oral cavity. Aim....... To investigate and compare the oral microbial profile between infants delivered vaginally and by C-section. Design. This is a cross-sectional case-control study. Eighty-four infants delivered either vaginally (n = 42) or by C-section (n = 42) were randomly selected from the 2009 birth cohort at the County...

  5. Pelviscopic Compared to Laparotomic and Vaginal Intrafascial Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mettler

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1993 and 1994, 368 women underwent hysterectomies for benign disorders at the University of Kiel. Of these, 58.7% were performed either by pelviscopic or by laparotomy Classic Intrafascial Supracervical Hysterectomy (CISH. Of the remaining, 14.8% were performed by abdominal hysterectomy, 13.6% by Intrafascial Vaginal Hysterectomy (IVH, 12.2% by Vaginal Hysterectomy (VH, and only 0.05% by Laparoscopic Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH. Comparative data of these six surgical techniques concerning patients characteristics, indications for operation, histological features, blood loss, operating time, hospital stay, uterine weights and postoperatively used analgesics are described.

  6. [Vaginism - a surgical or consultative problem? (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderlein, J M

    1982-04-01

    For the last one hundred years or so doctors have been confronted with the phenomenon of vaginism as a functional sexual disturbance. 70 years ago the psychogenetic nature of this disturbance was recognized, and yet gynaecologists and surgeons are still suggesting and practising surgical and mechanical interventions at the vaginal orifice. This is indeed regrettable - and not only because such attempts remain unsuccessful: in this manner doctors are fixed on the idea of an organic cause of the disturbance instead of motivating the patients to undergo consultative treatment. Vaginism may even entail psychosocial advantages for the women in some cases.

  7. Elevated vaginal pH in the absence of current vaginal infection, still a challenging obstetrical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Javadian, Pouya; Shariat, Mamak; Amini, Elaheh; Abdollahi, Alireza; Kashanian, Maryam

    2014-04-01

    To assess the association of vaginal pH ≥ 5 in the absence of vaginal infection with systemic inflammation and adverse pregnancy outcome. Four-hundred sixty pregnant women completed the study, upon enrollment Vaginal pH was measured for all women, maternal and umbilical sera were obtained for determining C-reactive protein (CRP) and uric acid levels. Umbilical blood was tested for gas parameters, 1 and 5 min Apgar scores, the need for neonatal resuscitation and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were recorded. Elevated vaginal pH was significantly associated with preterm birth (odds ratio (OR), 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-4.76), emergency cesarean section (OR 2.57; 95% CI 1.32-5), neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room (OR 2.85; 95% CI 1.1-7.38), elevated cord base deficit (OR 8.01; 95% CI 1.61-39.81), low cord bicarbonate (OR 4.16, 95% CI 1.33-12.92) and NICU admission (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.12-3.66). Increased vaginal pH was also significantly associated with maternal leukocytosis, hyperuricemia and elevated CRP levels in maternal and umbilical sera. Elevated vaginal pH in the absence of current vaginal infection still constitutes a risk for adverse pregnancy outcome which is mediated by systemic inflammatory response.

  8. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas Uterine and vaginal prolapse in ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Serviço de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%. O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequência (72%. As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possuíam idade superior a quatro anos (64%, eram sem raça definida (44% ou da raça Ile de France (40%. As manifestações clínicas observadas durante a maioria dos atendimentos foram: taquipnéia, taquicardia, mucosas oculares avermelhadas indicando estado de toxemia, decúbito esternal ou lateral, apatia e anorexia. O tratamento instituído para todos os casos foi a limpeza, desinfecção e reintrodução do órgão prolapsado. A sutura de Bühner foi feita em 84% dos casos e a histeropexia em um caso (4%. A evolução foi satisfatória em 80% dos casos atendidos, nos demais casos (20% observou-se óbito da fêmea acometida. Do total de óbitos, os prolapsos vaginais foram responsáveis por 60% (3/5 e os prolapsos uterinos por 40% (2/5. A etiologia dos prolapsos não foi definida nos casos atendidos, sendo esses associados com o período pós-parto em sua maioria (56%, provavelmente associados com quadros de hipocalcemia, altas concentrações séricas de estrógeno e hipertonia uterina. Além disso, a predisposição genética não pode ser descartada.This study aimed to conduct a retrospective study on vaginal and uterine prolapse in sheep seen at the Clinic and Surgery on Cattle and Small Ruminants (CBPR at University of São Paulo, from 2000 to 2010. During this period, 56 sheep were treated with problems of the reproductive system. Of these, 25 ewes had vaginal or uterine prolapse (44.6%. The total vaginal prolapse was the most frequently (72%. The majority of

  9. A Rare Case of Foreign Body Causing Recurrent Vaginal Discharge in Prepubertal Child

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbur, Vijayalakshmi.R.; Gobbur, Raghavendra.H.; Patil, Ashwini.G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -...

  10. Martius flap and anterior vaginal wall sling for correction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UVF) associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after vaginal delivery. ... Follow-up included history, physical examination, urine analysis and pelvic ultrasonography for the assessment of residual urine. Urodynamic evaluation was ...

  11. Vaginal myomectomy of a prolapsed gangrenous cervical leiomyoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-05

    Jul 5, 2011 ... months duration of heavy menses, and symptoms of a urinary tract infection. We performed a vaginal ... has been on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) ... The abdomen showed a subumbilical midline scar. There.

  12. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Unlike hot flushes and night sweats which resolve spontaneously in time, atrophic symptoms affecting the vagina and lower urinary tract are often progressive and frequently require treatment. The prevalence of vaginal dryness increases as a woman advances through the postmenopausal years, causing...... for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons...... for the continued suffering in silence may be cultural and an understandable reluctance to discuss such matters, particularly with a male doctor, but the medical profession must also take much of the blame for failing to enquire of all postmenopausal women about the possibility of vaginal atrophic symptoms. Vaginal...

  13. Women's Intention to prevent Vesico Vaginal Fistula recurrence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    positive intentions to prevent VesicoVaginal Fistula recurrence. More than ... consequences for women, showing a divorce rate of 36% to 67% ... esteem which impacts on receptiveness to preventive measures. .... no living children. This could ...

  14. Correlates of the molecular vaginal microbiota composition of African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautam, Raju; Borgdorff, Hanneke; Jespers, Vicky; Francis, Suzanna C.; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Ndayisaba, Gilles; Kyongo, Jordan K.; Hardy, Liselotte; Menten, Joris; Crucitti, Tania; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Schuren, Frank; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Mandaliya, Kishor; Dierick, Lou; Jaoko, Walter; Irungu, Eunice; Katingima, Christine; Maina, Mercy; Mazera, Jane Wanjiru; Gichuru, Josephine; Onuki, Grace Aketch; Kiambi, Mary; Thiong, Mary; Wanjiku, Salome; Nduku, Patricia; Njeru, Carol; Mbogho, Bernard; Wambua, Sammy; Baya, Rachel Sidi; Onduko, Emmanuel Moffat; Kombo, Patrick Katana; Masha, Simon Chengo; John, Mary Ndinda; Odeyo, Kevin; Ngala, Dora; Odero, Collins; Edward, Vinodh Aroon; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Von Knorring, Nina; Mahabeer, Ishania; Mashilo, Johannah Nkoleleng; Mnyandu, Ntombifuthi; Mokoatle, Keneuoe; Nani, Siyabulela; Tshabalala, Gugu; Mngwevu, Thembisile Hope; Mtabane, Noxolo

    2015-01-01

    Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli may cause inflammation, which may facilitate HIV acquisition and other adverse reproductive

  15. The Use of Isolated Sigmoid Colon Segment for Vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rokitansky-Kuster syndrome, or for gender confirmation may be achieved by several techniques. This report focuses on the efficacy of rectosigmoid neocolporrhaphy (RSNC) for primary vaginal replacement. Patients and Methods From 1990 to 2002 ...

  16. Embolization techniques in severe obstetrical and nonmalignant vaginal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sniderman, K.W.; Shewchun, J.; Colapinto, R.F.; Odurny, A.; Rosenthal, D.

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen of 16 patients with vaginal hemorrhage following vaginal delivery (n=2), cesarian section (n=2), vaginal hysterectomy (n=1), abdominal hysterctomy (n=10), or vaginal trachelectomy (n=1) were treated with transcatheter embolotherapy when conservative methods failed. Pelvic and/or hypogastric arteriography showed a bleeding point in 15 patients. Unilateral hypogastric embolization stopped the bleeding in 12 and was unsuccessful in one; recurrent bleeding in four patients was managed with contralateral embolization. Bilateral synchronous embolizations were performed in one patient. One of two patients with continued bleeding following hypogastric artery ligation was treated with collateral artery embolization. No serious complications occurred. In this patient population, the authors recommend therapeutic embolotherapy as the treatment of choice

  17. Anterior vaginal prolapse repair: A randomised trial of traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with symptomatic anterior vaginal prolapse ≥POPQ stage II were included. Those with concomitant stress urinary ... ation, erosion, bleeding and discharge, pain and dyspareunia.[9] The .... which is similar to reports in other studies.

  18. Sigmoid-vaginal fistula during bevacizumab treatment diagnosed by fistulography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, C; Takada, S; Kasuga, A; Shinya, K; Watanabe, M; Kano, H; Takayama, T

    2016-12-01

    There have been several reports describing rectovaginal fistula development after bevacizumab treatment, and these fistulas were diagnosed by CT scan or colonoscopy. We report a case of sigmoid-vaginal fistula diagnosed by fistulography. The case is a 53-year-old woman who was treated for chronic myelogenous leukaemia and gynaecological cancers 8 years previously. At 52 years of age, she was diagnosed with colon cancer and had a partial colectomy performed. One year after surgery, colon cancer recurred, and she was treated with anticancer agents, including bevacizumab. During chemotherapy, she complained of a foul smelling discharge from the vagina. Fistulography revealed a sigmoid-vaginal fistula. This is the first report of vaginal fistulography performed on a patient who was treated with bevacizumab. Fistulography may be useful for detecting sigmoid-vaginal fistula. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Management of Vaginal Atrophy: Implications from the REVIVE Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Susan; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Krychman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic and progressive medical condition common in postmenopausal women. Symptoms of VVA such as dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, irritation, and itching can negatively impact sexual function and quality of life. The REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey assessed knowledge about VVA and recorded attitudes about interactions with healthcare providers (HCPs) and available treatment options for VVA. The REVIVE survey identified unmet needs of women with VVA symptoms such as poor understanding of the condition, poor communication with HCPs despite the presence of vaginal symptoms, and concerns about the safety, convenience, and efficacy of available VVA treatments. HCPs can address these unmet needs by proactively identifying patients with VVA and educating them about the condition as well as discussing treatment preferences and available therapies for VVA.

  20. The role of lactobacilli and probiotics in maintaining vaginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sandra; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists typically of a diversity of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. Lactobacilli are the most prevalent and often numerically dominant microorganisms and are relevant as a barrier to infection. The capacity of lactobacilli to adhere and compete for adhesion sites in the vaginal epithelium and the capacity to produce antimicrobial compounds (hydrogen peroxide, lactic acid, bacteriocin-like substances), are important in the impairment of colonization by pathogens. This review summarizes the role of lactic acid bacteria in preventing illness of the host, including bacterial vaginosis, yeast vaginitis, urinary tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases. The administration of probiotics that colonize the vaginal tract can be important in maintaining a normal urogenital health and also to prevent or treat infections.

  1. [Etiology of bacterial vaginosis (non-specific vaginitis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J C; Jean, M; Averous, S; Viraben, R; Blanc, C; Bauriaud, R; Lareng, M B

    1985-01-01

    56 women who were diagnosed bioclinically as having a bacterial vaginal infection were studied, as were 35 women as a control group. The study was a semi-quantitative analysis of the vaginal bacterial flora, both aerobic and anaerobic. It shows that Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria such as Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroïdes, Veillonella and Mobiluncus were associated in a statistically significant way with bacterial vaginitis. On the other hand Lactobacilli were less frequently found (p less than 0.001) than in the control group of women. The way in which the microbial flora is changed has been observed during attacks of vaginitis and is discussed, as is the importance of making the diagnosis and of treating this syndrome.

  2. Abnormal vaginal microbiota may be associated with poor reproductive outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, T.

    2016-01-01

    primers were specific for four common Lactobacillus spp., G. vaginalis and A. vaginae. Results: The prevalence of BV defined by Nugent score was 21% (27/130), whereas the prevalence of an abnormal vaginal microbiota was 28% (36/130) defined by qPCR with high concentrations of G. vaginalis and/or A....... vaginae. The qPCR diagnostic approach had a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 93% for Nugent-defined BV. Eighty-four patients completed IVF treatment. The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 35% (29/84). Interestingly, only 9% (2/22) with qPCR defined abnormal vaginal microbiota obtained a clinical...... pregnancy (P = 0.004). Wider implications: If a negative correlation between abnormal vaginal microbiota and the clinical pregnancy rate is corroborated, patients could be screened and subsequently treated for abnormal vaginal microbiota prior to fertility treatment....

  3. Large Vesico‑Vaginal Fistula Caused by a Foreign Body

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Vesico‑vaginal fistula is commonly caused by obstructed labor, gynecological surgery ... of a foreign body in the vagina have been reported mostly in developed countries. .... Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared.

  4. Vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma in a patient with Noonan syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, S; McDowell, H; Upadhyaya, M; Fryer, A

    1995-01-01

    This is the first report of a Noonan syndrome patient who has had a vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma. Recent reports of Noonan syndrome patients with leukaemia have prompted speculation that there may be a slightly increased malignancy risk associated with this syndrome.

  5. The Threat of Aerobic Vaginitis to Pregnancy and Neonatal Morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an endogenous opportunistic infection brought about by the disruption of the normal ..... GBS might develop infections of the urinary tract, .... Predictive value for preterm birth of abnormal .... Pediatrics 2001; 108(5):.

  6. Instrumental vaginal delivery - an assessment of use in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O'SHEHU

    Results: The incidence of instrumental vaginal delivery was 1.06% of all deliveries ... and the most common maternal complication was post-partum ... that in modern obstetric practice, the goal is ... expulsive efforts due to fatigue or exhaustion.

  7. Pregnancy outcome in asymptomatic women with abnormal vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hundred and forty-two women with abnormal vaginal flora were allocated randomly to receive ... Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India, at 12 - 24 weeks' gestation were .... consequences in terms of preventing the poor perinatal and long-.

  8. Optimized Dose Distribution of Gammamed Plus Vaginal Cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, Sanjay S.; Bijina, T.K.; Varatharaj, C.; Shwetha, B.; Arunkumar, T.; Sathiyan, S.; Ganesh, K.M.; Ravikumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in the female genital tract. Intracavitary vaginal cuff irradiation may be given alone or with external beam irradiation in patients determined to be at risk for locoregional recurrence. Vaginal cylinders are often used to deliver a brachytherapy dose to the vaginal apex and upper vagina or the entire vaginal surface in the management of postoperative endometrial cancer or cervical cancer. The dose distributions of HDR vaginal cylinders must be evaluated carefully, so that clinical experiences with LDR techniques can be used in guiding optimal use of HDR techniques. The aim of this study was to optimize dose distribution for Gammamed plus vaginal cylinders. Placement of dose optimization points was evaluated for its effect on optimized dose distributions. Two different dose optimization point models were used in this study, namely non-apex (dose optimization points only on periphery of cylinder) and apex (dose optimization points on periphery and along the curvature including the apex points). Thirteen dwell positions were used for the HDR dosimetry to obtain a 6-cm active length. Thus 13 optimization points were available at the periphery of the cylinder. The coordinates of the points along the curvature depended on the cylinder diameters and were chosen for each cylinder so that four points were distributed evenly in the curvature portion of the cylinder. Diameter of vaginal cylinders varied from 2.0 to 4.0 cm. Iterative optimization routine was utilized for all optimizations. The effects of various optimization routines (iterative, geometric, equal times) was studied for the 3.0-cm diameter vaginal cylinder. The effect of source travel step size on the optimized dose distributions for vaginal cylinders was also evaluated. All optimizations in this study were carried for dose of 6 Gy at dose optimization points. For both non-apex and apex models of vaginal cylinders, doses for apex point and three dome

  9. Towards rebuilding vaginal support utilizing an extracellular matrix bioscaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rui; Knight, Katrina; Easley, Deanna; Palcsey, Stacy; Abramowitch, Steven; Moalli, Pamela A

    2017-07-15

    As an alternative to polypropylene mesh, we explored an extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffold derived from urinary bladder matrix (MatriStem™) in the repair of vaginal prolapse. We aimed to restore disrupted vaginal support simulating application via transvaginal and transabdominal approaches in a macaque model focusing on the impact on vaginal structure, function, and the host immune response. In 16 macaques, after laparotomy, the uterosacral ligaments and paravaginal attachments to pelvic side wall were completely transected (IACUC# 13081928). 6-ply MatriStem was cut into posterior and anterior templates with a portion covering the vagina and arms simulating uterosacral ligaments and paravaginal attachments, respectively. After surgically exposing the correct anatomical sites, in 8 animals, a vaginal incision was made on the anterior and posterior vagina and the respective scaffolds were passed into the vagina via these incisions (transvaginal insertion) prior to placement. The remaining 8 animals underwent the same surgery without vaginal incisions (transabdominal insertion). Three months post implantation, firm tissue bands extending from vagina to pelvic side wall appeared in both MatriStem groups. Experimental endpoints examining impact of MatriStem on the vagina demonstrated that vaginal biochemical and biomechanical parameters, smooth muscle thickness and contractility, and immune responses were similar in the MatriStem no incision group and sham-operated controls. In the MatriStem incision group, a 41% decrease in vaginal stiffness (P=0.042), a 22% decrease in collagen content (P=0.008) and a 25% increase in collagen subtypes III/I was observed vs. Sham. Active MMP2 was increased in both Matristem groups vs. Sham (both P=0.002). This study presents a novel application of ECM bioscaffolds as a first step towards the rebuilding of vaginal support. Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition related to failure of the supportive soft tissues of the vagina

  10. Clinical Validation of a Test for the Diagnosis of Vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Beqaj, Sajo; Schwebke, Jane R; Lebed, Joel; Smith, Bonnie; Davis, Thomas E; Fife, Kenneth H; Nyirjesy, Paul; Spurrell, Timothy; Furgerson, Dorothy; Coleman, Jenell; Paradis, Sonia; Cooper, Charles K

    2017-07-01

    Vaginitis may be diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, or coinfection. A new molecular test assays the vaginal microbiome and organisms that cause three common infections. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of the investigational test for vaginal swabs collected by patients (self) or clinicians. The primary and secondary outcomes were to compare the investigational test with reference methods for the three most common causes of vaginitis and compare clinician-collected with self-collected swabs. We conducted a cross-sectional study in which women with symptoms of vaginitis were recruited at ten clinical centers and consented to the investigation between May and September 2015. The woman collected a vaginal swab, sheathed, and then handed it to the clinician. These swabs were to evaluate how self-collected swabs compared with clinician-collected swabs. The clinician collected an investigational test swab and reference test swabs. From 1,740 symptomatic patients, clinician-collected and self-collected vaginal swabs were evaluated by the molecular test and six tests. The reference methods for bacterial vaginosis were Nugent's score and Amsel's criteria for intermediate Nugent results. The reference methods for Candida infection were isolation of any potential Candida microorganisms from inoculation of two culture media: chromogenic and Sabouraud agar and sequencing. The reference methods for trichomoniasis were wet mount and culture. For clinician-collected swabs, by reference methods, bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 56.5%, vaginal candidiasis in 32.8%, trichomoniasis in 8%, and none of the three infections in 24% with a coinfection rate of 20%. The investigational test sensitivity was 90.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 88.3-92.2%) and specificity was 85.8% (95% CI 83.0-88.3%) for bacterial vaginosis. The investigational test sensitivity was 90.9% (95% CI 88.1-93.1%) and specificity was 94

  11. The performance of the vaginal discharge syndromic management in treating vaginal and cervical infection : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemouri, C.; Wi, T.E.; Kiarie, J.; Seuc, A.; Mogasale, V.; Latif, A.; Broutet, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background This review aimed to synthesize and analyze the diagnostic accuracy and the likelihood of providing correct treatment of the syndromic approach Vaginal Discharge Flowchart in managing cervical infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and vaginal

  12. Vaginal Gene Expression During Treatment With Aromatase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Baumgart, Juliane; Nilsson, Kerstin; Åkerud, Helena; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2015-12-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment suppresses estrogen biosynthesis and causes genitourinary symptoms of menopause such as vaginal symptoms, ultimately affecting the quality of life for many postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine vaginal gene expression in women during treatment with AIs compared with estrogen-treated women. The secondary aim was to study the presence and localization of vaginal aromatase. Vaginal biopsies were collected from postmenopausal women treated with AIs and from age-matched control women treated with vaginal estrogen therapy. Differential gene expression was studied with the Affymetrix Gene Chip Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix Inc, Santa Clara, CA) system, Ingenuity pathway analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The expression of 279 genes differed between the 2 groups; AI-treated women had low expression of genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell adhesion. Some differentially expressed genes were found to interact indirectly with the estrogen receptor alpha. In addition, aromatase protein staining was evident in the basal and the intermediate vaginal epithelium layers, and also in stromal cells with a slightly stronger staining intensity found in AI-treated women. In this study, we demonstrated that genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell adhesion are differentially expressed in AI-treated women. The expression of vaginal aromatase suggests that this could be the result of local and systemic inhibition of aromatase. Our results emphasize the role of estrogen for vaginal cell differentiation and proliferation and future drug candidates should be aimed at improving cell differentiation and proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Local Production of Chemokines during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Michael; Taylor, Brad; Lukacs, Nicholas; Fidel, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of childbearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms against C. albicans at the vaginal mucosa are poorly understood. Based on an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis, our data suggest that systemic CMI is ineffective against C. albicans vaginal infections. Thus, we have postulated that local immune mechanisms are critical for protection against infection. In the present study, the kinetic production of chemokines normally associated with the chemotaxis of T cells, macrophages (RANTES, MIP-1α, MCP-1), and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (MIP-2) was examined following intravaginal inoculation of C. albicans in estrogen-treated or untreated mice. Results showed significant increases in MCP-1 protein and mRNA in vaginal tissue of infected mice as early as 2 and 4 days postinoculation, respectively, that continued through a 21-day observation period, irrespective of estrogen status. No significant changes were observed with RANTES, MIP-1α, or MIP-2, although relatively high constitutive levels of RANTES mRNA and MIP-2 protein were observed. Furthermore, intravaginal immunoneutralization of MCP-1 with anti-MCP-1 antibodies resulted in a significant increase in vaginal fungal burden early during infection, suggesting that MCP-1 plays some role in reducing the fungal burden during vaginal infection. However, the lack of changes in leukocyte profiles in vaginal lavage fluids collected from infected versus uninfected mice suggests that MCP-1 functions to control vaginal C. albicans titers in a manner independent of cellular chemotactic activity. PMID:10531235

  14. Diagnosis of aerobic vaginitis by quantitative real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Rumyantseva, T. A.; Bellen, G.; Savochkina, Y. A.; Guschin, A. E.; Donders, G.G.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose To evaluate a real-time PCR-based technique to quantify bacteria associated with aerobic vaginitis (AV) as a potential test. Methods Vaginal samples from 100 women were tested by wet-mount microscopy, gram stain and quantitative real-time PCR targeting Enterobacteriacea, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. aureus; Lactobacillus spp. AV diagnosis obtained by wet-mount microscopy was used as reference. Resu...

  15. Vaginal microbiology of women with acute recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobel, J D; Chaim, W

    1996-01-01

    Alterations in the autochthonous vaginal microflora can predispose women to recurring attacks of Candida vaginitis. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were obtained from 24 premenopausal women with acute recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and from 21 healthy asymptomatic premenopausal women. Lactobacillus species constituted the predominant flora in both groups, with a mean log10 CFU/ml of 8.7, a total isolation rate of 96%, and a mean of 1.6 Lactobacillus species isolated per patien...

  16. Robotic removal of eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; O'Connor, Jeffrey; Mittal, Vijay K; Hurley, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Vaginal mesh erosion into the bladder after midurethral sling procedure or cystocele repair is uncommon, with only a few cases having been reported in the literature. The ideal surgical management is still controversial. Current options for removal of eroded mesh include: endoscopic, transvaginal or abdominal (either open or laparoscopic) approaches. We, herein, present the first case of robotic removal of a large eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder and discuss potential benefits and limitations of the technique. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  17. Multiparous Ewe as a Model for Teaching Vaginal Hysterectomy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbage, Yohan; Cosson, Michel; Hubert, Thomas; Giraudet, Géraldine

    2017-12-01

    Despite being linked to improving patient outcomes and limiting costs, the use of vaginal hysterectomy is on the wane. Although a combination of reasons might explain this trend, one cause is a lack of practical training. An appropriate teaching model must therefore be devised. Currently, only low-fidelity simulators exist. Ewes provide an appropriate model for pelvic anatomy and are well-suited for testing vaginal mesh properties. This article sets out a vaginal hysterectomy procedure for use as an education and training model. A multiparous ewe was the model. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. The ewe was in a lithotomy position resembling that assumed by women on the operating table. Two vaginal hysterectomies were performed on two ewes, following every step precisely as if the model were human. Each surgical step of vaginal hysterectomy performed on the ewe and on a woman were compared side by side. We identified that all surgical steps were particularly similar. The main limitations of this model are costs ($500/procedure), logistic problems (housing large animals), and public opposition to animal training models. The ewe appears to be an appropriate model for teaching and training of vaginal hysterectomy.

  18. Correlates of the molecular vaginal microbiota composition of African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Raju; Borgdorff, Hanneke; Jespers, Vicky; Francis, Suzanna C; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Ndayisaba, Gilles; Kyongo, Jordan K; Hardy, Liselotte; Menten, Joris; Crucitti, Tania; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Schuren, Frank; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M

    2015-02-21

    Sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical correlates of the vaginal microbiome (VMB) as characterized by molecular methods have not been adequately studied. VMB dominated by bacteria other than lactobacilli may cause inflammation, which may facilitate HIV acquisition and other adverse reproductive health outcomes. We characterized the VMB of women in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania (KRST) using a 16S rDNA phylogenetic microarray. Cytokines were quantified in cervicovaginal lavages. Potential sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates were also evaluated. Three hundred thirteen samples from 230 women were available for analysis. Five VMB clusters were identified: one cluster each dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus (KRST-I) and L. iners (KRST-II), and three clusters not dominated by a single species but containing multiple (facultative) anaerobes (KRST-III/IV/V). Women in clusters KRST-I and II had lower mean concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α (p vaginal candidiasis (ptrend = 0.09), but these associations did not reach statistical significance. Women who reported unusual vaginal discharge were more likely to belong to clusters KRST-III/IV/V (p = 0.05). Vaginal dysbiosis in African women was significantly associated with vaginal inflammation; the associations with increased prevalence of STIs and UTI, and decreased prevalence of vaginal candidiasis, should be confirmed in larger studies.

  19. The aetiology of vaginal symptoms in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Desgrottes, Tania; Cutler, Lauren; Cutler, David; Devarajan, Karthika; Ocheretina, Oksana; Pape, Jean William; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Vaginal symptoms are a common chief complaint amongst women visiting outpatient clinics in rural Haiti. A systematic sample of 206 consecutive women over age 18 with gynaecological symptoms underwent gynaecologic examination and laboratory testing for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV infection, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Among 206 women, 174 (84%) presented with vaginal discharge, 165 (80%) with vaginal itching, 123 (60%) with vaginal pain or dysuria, and 18 (9%) with non-traumatic vaginal sores or boils. Laboratory results were positive forChlamydia trachomatisin 5.4% (11/203), syphilis in 3.5% (7/202), HIV in 1.0% (2/200), andNeisseria gonorrhoeaein 1.0% (2/203). Among those that had microscopy, hyphae suggestive of candidiasis were visualized in 2.2% (1/45) and no cases of trichomoniasis were diagnosed 0% (0/45). Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 28.3% (13/46). The prevalence of chlamydia was 4.9 (95% CI: 1.3-17.7) times greater among those 25 years of age and under (10.8%) than those older (2.3%). Chlamydia and bacterial vaginosis were the most common sexually transmitted infection and vaginal condition, respectively, in this study of rural Haitian adult women. The higher risk of chlamydia in younger women suggests education and screening programmes in young women should be considered. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis in Polish women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnichowska-Polanowskai, Magdalena; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Klimowicz, Bogumia; Szymaniak, Ludmia; Krasnodebska-Szponder, Barbara; Szych, Zbigniew; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis is a common problem of clinical practice. Many studies have been conducted to explain its origin but only a few have included Polish women. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and similarity of oral, anal and vaginal Candida albicans strains isolated from Polish women with vaginal candidiasis. The study involved 20 from 37 recruited women. Swab samples were collected from their vagina, anus, and oral cavity at two-month intervals. All the women were treated with nystatin. Yeast were recovered and identified by the germ-tube test, API /Vitek system, typed by API ZYM and RAPD-PCR. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A total of 170 Candida albicans isolates were recovered from 180 samples collected 3 times from 3 sites of 20 women. Positive yeast vaginal cultures were found in all patients before administration of nystatin. Vaginal yeast recovery rate was decreased statistically significant in both follow-up visits (p= 0.001; p= 0.003). The same and different genotypes/biotypes were found concomitantly in a few body sites and/ or repeatedly at time interval from the same body site. The results support the concept of dynamic exchange of yeast within one woman and endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis.

  1. Impedance pattern of vaginal and vestibular mucosa in cyclic goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Křivánek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of vaginal and vestibular impedance during the oestrous cycle in goats were examined. The onset of oestrus was teased with a buck once a day during the experiment. Impedance was mea­sured by a four-terminal method. The vaginal impedance was recorded under slight pressure of electrodes to the vaginal dorsal wall at the cervix. The vestibular impedance was recorded under slight pressure of electrodes to the vestibular dorsal wall 5 cm from the vulva and at the vulva. The im­pe­dan­ce was measured once a day from 4 days before the expected oestrus to 6 days after onset of oestrus. The vaginal impedance at the cervix decreased during pro-oestrus (P < 0.01 and increased du­ring oestrus (P < 0.01. The vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva decreased during pro-oestrus (P < 0.01 and increased after oestrus (P < 0.01. The decrease of vaginal impedance during peri-oestrus was nearly twofold in comparison with the vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva. No sig­ni­fi­cant decrease of the vestibular impedance at the vulva was found during the oestrous cycle. The results indicate that the vaginal impedance at the cervix and vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva measured by means of a four-terminal method during the oestrous cycle display cyclic changes that are closely related to the oestrous behaviour of goats.

  2. Vaginal discharge: perceptions and health seeking behavior among Nepalese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Narjis; Luby, Stephen

    2004-12-01

    To understand women's perceptions and health seeking behavior and the association between vaginal discharge, clinical signs and laboratory findings as a presentation of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). We conducted five focus group discussions with women attending the outpatient department in a large public hospital in Katmandu, Nepal, during May-June 1997. We also interviewed seventy women presenting with vaginal discharge to the same hospital, through structured questionnaire. Women presenting with discharge were also examined and investigated for six common sexually transmitted diseases and reproductive tract infections. In the focus groups vaginal discharge was identified as a common disease distinct from STDs, for which women can seek treatment. STDs were considered as social diseases transmitted to women through multiple sexual partners and not from husband. Patients with vaginal discharge preferred traditional healers and pharmacist. Clinical signs were inconclusive for type of infection. Simple laboratory tests identified etiologic agent in 64 (91%) patients and the three commonest infections were Moniliasis (78%), Bacterial Vaginosis (25%) and Trichomoniasis (17%). Vaginal discharge may be used as a risk marker for identification of STDs by Primary Health Workers. Low cost investigations should be made available at the secondary care level for identification of most common Reproductive Tract Infections. Communication campaigns should target the misconceptions that exist in the communities local context related to the prevention, treatment and control of vaginal discharge and STDs.

  3. Analysis of the Oxidative Stress Status in Nonspecific Vaginitis and Its Role in Vaginal Epithelial Cells Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaojie; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Haiyan; Xie, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    Nonspecific vaginitis (NSV), also named bacterial vaginosis, is one of the most common genital system diseases in women during their reproductive years. The specific pathogenic mechanism of NSV is not clear yet. Upon the balance alteration, large amount of reactive oxidant species (ROS) is generated and accumulated in the genital tract, and thus resulting in oxidative stress, which has been reported to be an important trigger of mitochondrial pathway cell apoptosis. In this study, the antioxidant secretion level and antioxidant enzyme activity in the vaginal discharge were evaluated to analyze the oxidative status in the vaginal tract of NSV patients. The effect of oxidative stress on the vaginal mucosa epithelial cell apoptosis was then studied. The role of oxidative stress on NSV development was uncovered; thus open new direction for the prevention and treatment of NSV by providing antiradical agents was revealed. PMID:26558281

  4. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection.

  5. Sexual functioning and vaginal changes after radical vaginal trachelectomy in early stage cervical cancer patients: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froeding, LP; Ottesen, C; Rung-Hansen, H

    2014-01-01

    Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce.......Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce....

  6. Dysbiosis of the Vaginal Microbiota and Higher Vaginal Kynurenine/Tryptophan Ratio Reveals an Association with Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Ziklo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital tract infections varies between individuals. While protective immunity can occur, some women can become reinfected, contributing to the development of severe pathology. While the reasons for these differences are unknown, an individual's response to induced interferon-γ (IFN-γ is suggested to be critical. IFN-γ induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which depletes tryptophan, may be the key. One hypothesis suggests that indole-producing bacteria in the vaginal microbiota can provide a substrate for the Chlamydia to synthesize tryptophan, rescuing the Chlamydia from host IFN-γ attack. We studied a cohort of 25 women who were either, Chlamydia negative, Chlamydia positive with a single infection, or Chlamydia positive with repeated infection, to test our hypothesis. We characterized their vaginal microbiota, cytokine response, as well as their tryptophan, kynurenine and indole concentrations directly in vaginal secretions. We found that C. trachomatis urogenital tract infections either initial or repeat infections, were associated with elevated vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios, primarily as a result of elevated kynurenine levels. In addition, vaginal microbiota of community state type (CST IV showed significantly lower vaginal tryptophan levels compared to CST I and III, which might be related to a higher abundance of indole producers found within this group. Furthermore, we found a higher abundance of indole producers in women who cleared their Chlamydia infection post antibiotic treatment. This study demonstrates for the first time in vivo, the association between high vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios and C. trachomatis infections. In addition, tryptophan depletion was associated with vaginal microbiota of CST IV.

  7. Partial vaginal expulsion of a leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yokochi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Uterine sarcomas are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of tumors that account for 3-7% of the malignant neoplasms of the uterus and approximately 1% of all malignant tumors of the female genital system. The main clinical manifestations are abnormal uterine bleeding in pre- or postmenopausal women. Pelvic pain, abdominal distension, urinary urgency, and profuse and fetid leukorrhea are other frequent complaints. The authors present a case of a 48-year-old patient that was in amenorrhea for 2 years, who sought treatment for vaginal bleeding. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended, painful in the hypogastrium and upon examination of the external genitalia, it was observed the exteriorization of an amorphous “mass”. The patient was submitted to uterine curettage. The results of the histological examination revealed leiomyosarcoma. Staging workup showed an enlarged uterus with endometrial lesion, and non-calcified pulmonary nodules. The patient underwent a pan-hysterectomy and chemotherapy, and is under oncologic treatment. The authors call attention for the unusual form of presentation of this entity.

  8. Improving Vaginal Examinations Performed by Midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda S. Muliira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A vaginal examination (VE is an essential part of midwifery care, and is routinely performed when assessing the progress of labour. As evidence shows that during labour women may find VEs unpleasant,embarrassing and sometimes painful, the aim of this article is to review literature on the use of VEs during labour and to synthesise information from the available literature on how to provide an effective VE. The studies considered were retrieved from three databases (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], SCOPUS and MEDLINE using the following search terms: “VEs in labour”, “midwives and use of VEs” and “women experiences of VEs in labour”. The literature reviewed suggests that midwives are not careful about VEs. Therefore, a concerted effort is needed to pay attention to the frequency of VEs, the management ofpain and distress, information-giving and the preferences of the patient, so that the patient can feel in control during a VE.

  9. Bupivacaine compared with etidocaine for vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D C; Bridenbaugh, P O; Bridenbaugh, L D; Thompson, G E; Balfour, R I; Lysons, D F

    1975-01-01

    A comparison of 0.5 percent etidocaine with 0.25 and 0.5 percent bupivacaine, using continuous (intermittent) caudal block in 60 vaginal deliveries, showed the latter two solutions to be the agents of choice. All solutions contained a final concentration of 1:2000,000 epihephrine. In 40 parturients given either 0.25 or 0.5 percent bupivacaine, all had pain relief after the initial dose, while 5 of 20 given etidocaine required a refill dose within 30 to 50 minutes for complete pain relief. The duration of action of the initial dose with both concentrations of bupivacaine was longer than that of etidocaine. The degree of motor blockade with 0.5 percent etidocaine was greater than with 0.5 percent bupivacaine, and with 0.5 percent concentrations of either etidocaine or bupivacaine was greater than with 0.25 percent bupivacaine. The duration of motor blockade of 0.5 percent etidocaine and bupivacaine was comparable. The duration of motor blockade of the 0.25 percent concentration of bupivacaine was shorter than with the 0.5 percent concentration of both etidocaine and bupivacaine; and with both bupivacaine concentrations the duration of sensory anesthesia in the extremities was longer than motor blockade; with etidocaine, the opposite occurred.

  10. Early pregnancy vaginal microbiome trends and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Molly J; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wylie, Kristine M; Tarr, Phillip I; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of attempts to link infectious agents to preterm birth, an exact causative microbe or community of microbes remains elusive. Nonculture 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing suggests important racial differences and pregnancy specific changes in the vaginal microbial communities. A recent study examining the association of the vaginal microbiome and preterm birth documented important findings but was performed in a predominantly white cohort. Given the important racial differences in bacterial communities within the vagina as well as persistent racial disparities in preterm birth, it is important to examine cohorts with varied demographic compositions. To characterize vaginal microbial community characteristics in a large, predominantly African-American, longitudinal cohort of pregnant women and test whether particular vaginal microbial community characteristics are associated with the risk for subsequent preterm birth. This is a nested case-control study within a prospective cohort study of women with singleton pregnancies, not on supplemental progesterone, and without cervical cerclage in situ. Serial mid-vaginal swabs were obtained by speculum exam at their routine prenatal visits. Sequencing of the V1V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was performed on the Roche 454 platform. Alpha diversity community characteristics including richness, Shannon diversity, and evenness as well as beta diversity metrics including Bray Curtis Dissimilarity and specific taxon abundance were compared longitudinally in women who delivered preterm to those who delivered at term. A total of 77 subjects contributed 149 vaginal swabs longitudinally across pregnancy. Participants were predominantly African-American (69%) and had a preterm birth rate of 31%. In subjects with subsequent term delivery, the vaginal microbiome demonstrated stable community richness and Shannon diversity, whereas subjects with subsequent preterm delivery had significantly decreased vaginal richness

  11. Vaginal flora alterations and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Fausto; da Silva, Márcia G; Polettini, Jossimara; Tristao, Andréa da R; Peracoli, José C; Witkin, Steven S; Rudge, Marilza V C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%), vaginal candidosis (10.2%), intermediate vaginal flora (5.2%), aerobic vaginitis (2.9%), mixed flora (2.9%) and other abnormal findings (2.9%). The percentage of women with or without clinical signs or symptoms was not significantly different between these categories. The presence of vaginal odor or vaginal discharge characteristics was not diagnostic of any specific flora alteration; pruritus was highly associated with candidosis (p vaginal odor was associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of atypical vaginal flora is common in our low-risk pregnant population and is not always associated with pathology. The occurrence of specific signs or symptoms does not always discriminate between women with different types of atypical vaginal flora or between those with abnormal and normal vaginal flora. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. MTN-001: randomized pharmacokinetic cross-over study comparing tenofovir vaginal gel and oral tablets in vaginal tissue and other compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W Hendrix

    Full Text Available Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development.MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design.We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both. Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ≥90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ≥130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001. Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03.Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovir

  13. Free Glycogen in Vaginal Fluids Is Associated with Lactobacillus Colonization and Low Vaginal pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Hotton, Anna L.; Gilbert, Douglas; Burgad, Derick; Landay, Alan; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge; Ravel, Jacques; Spear, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lactobacillus dominates the lower genital tract microbiota of many women, producing a low vaginal pH, and is important for healthy pregnancy outcomes and protection against several sexually transmitted pathogens. Yet, factors that promote Lactobacillus remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that the amount of free glycogen in the lumen of the lower genital tract is an important determinant of Lactobacillus colonization and a low vaginal pH. Methods Free glycogen in lavage samples was quantified. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to identify microbiota from 21 African American women collected over 8–11 years. Results Free glycogen levels varied greatly between women and even in the same woman. Samples with the highest free glycogen had a corresponding median genital pH that was significantly lower (pH 4.4) than those with low glycogen (pH 5.8; pglycogen versus those with low glycogen (median = 0.97 vs. 0.05, pglycogen. High concentrations of glycogen corresponded to higher levels of L. crispatus and L. jensenii, but not L. iners. Conclusion These findings show that free glycogen in genital fluid is associated with a genital microbiota dominated by Lactobacillus, suggesting glycogen is important for maintaining genital health. Treatments aimed at increasing genital free glycogen might impact Lactobacillus colonization. PMID:25033265

  14. Vaginal semisolid products: Technological performance considering physiologic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rita Monteiro; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita

    2017-11-15

    Vaginal semisolid products are frequently used to treat vaginal infections and atrophy-related symptoms of menopause. Formulations composition and the methods for their characterization, especially those developed concerning the target epithelia, are key tools to predict in vivo results at early stages of product development. However, recent studies on this subject have been almost exclusively focused on anti-HIV preparations. The aim of this work consists on improving traditional characterization methods by using physiological parameters in order to construct predictive tools to characterize a new ideal vaginal semisolid formulation whatever target it may have. Ten vaginal antimicrobial and hormonal products already available in the market were studied (Gino-Canesten®, Sertopic®, Dermofix®, Gyno-pevaryl®, Lomexin®, Gino Travogen®, Dalacin V®, Ovestin®, Blissel®, Colpotrophine®). Furthermore, Universal Placebo gel and Replens® were used for comparison. Products were characterized in terms of: pH and buffering capacity in a vaginal fluid simulant (VFS); osmolality - directly and upon dilution in VFS; textural parameters (firmness, adhesiveness and bioadhesion) using vaginal ex vivo porcine epithelium; and viscosity (including VFS dilution at 37°C and after administration on an ex vivo model). Interestingly, the majority of the tested commercial vaginal formulations did not present technological characteristics close to the ideal ones when tested under target biological conditions. The inclusion of such methodologic adaptations is expected to optimize cost-efficiency of new formulations development by predicting efficacy and safety profiles at early stages of product development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy: evaluation of treatment with local estrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkin MJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mary Jane Minkin,1 Ricardo Maamari,2 Suzanne Reiter3 1Department of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Novo Nordisk Inc., Plainsboro, NJ, USA; 3Mid-County Health Center, Largo, FL, USA Abstract: Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy, resulting from decreased estrogen production, frequently requires treatment. Estrogen preparations provide the most effective treatment; local application is preferred to systemic drugs when treating only vaginal symptoms. As local estrogen therapies have comparable efficacy, this study aimed to understand treatment practices, assess experiences with different forms of local estrogen-delivering applicators, and evaluate satisfaction. Women who were US residents aged ≥18 years, menopausal (no spontaneous menstrual period for ≥1 year or with a double oophorectomy, and receiving local estrogen therapy for 1–6 months (vaginal cream [supplied with a reusable applicator] or vaginal tablets [supplied with a single-use/disposable applicator], completed an online questionnaire. Data from 200 women (100 cream users and 100 tablet users; mean therapy duration 3.48 months showed that most stored medication in the room in which it was applied (88% and applied it at bedtime (71%, a procedure for which cream users required, on average, more than twice the time of tablet users (5.08 minutes versus 2.48 minutes. Many cream users applied larger-than-prescribed amounts of cream, attempting to achieve greater efficacy (42%, or lower-than-recommended doses (45%, most frequently to avoid messiness (33% or leakage (30%. More tablet users (69% than cream users (14% were "extremely satisfied" with their applicator. Postmenopausal women using local estrogen therapy were generally more satisfied with the application of vaginal tablets than cream. Patient satisfaction may help to facilitate accurate dosing. Positive perceptions of medication will help to optimize treatment, which

  16. Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živaljević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95% or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Methods. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Results. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Conclusion. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  17. Effects of Reproductive Hormones on Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, Paul L.; Cutright, Jessica; Steele, Chad

    2000-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by Candida albicans that affects large numbers of otherwise healthy women of childbearing age. Acute episodes of VVC often occur during pregnancy and during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, when levels of progesterone and estrogen are elevated. Although estrogen-dependent experimental rodent models of C. albicans vaginal infection are used for many applications, the role of reproductive hormones and/or their limits in the acquisition of vaginal candidiasis remain unclear. This study examined the effects of estrogen and progesterone on several aspects of an experimental infection together with relative cell-mediated immune responses. Results showed that while decreasing estrogen concentrations eventually influenced infection-induced vaginal titers of C. albicans and rates of infection in inoculated animals, the experimental infection could not be achieved in mice treated with various concentrations of progesterone alone. Furthermore, progesterone had no effect on (i) the induction and persistence of the infection in the presence of estrogen, (ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity in primary-infected mice, or (iii) the partial protection from a secondary vaginal infection under pseudoestrus conditions. Other results with estrogen showed that a persistent infection could be established with a wide range of C. albicans inocula under supraphysiologic and near-physiologic (at estrus) concentrations of estrogen and that vaginal fungus titers or rates of infection were similar if pseudoestrus was initiated several days before or after inoculation. However, the pseudoestrus state had to be maintained for the infection to persist. Finally, estrogen was found to reduce the ability of vaginal epithelial cells to inhibit the growth of C. albicans. These results suggest that estrogen, but not progesterone, is an important factor in hormone-associated susceptibility to C. albicans vaginitis. PMID

  18. Vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus acidophilus: development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Maia, Maria João; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, Maria Helena; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize suppositories for vaginal delivery of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Formulations were performed in order to select suitable excipients based on suppository formation feasibility and cytotoxicity. Solid body and hollow-type suppositories were prepared by melting and molding using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 400 and 4000 or Witepsol (WIT) H12 as excipients. L. acidophilus was incorporated in the molten mass before molding solid body suppositories or added as suspension into the cavity of hollow-type suppositories and sealed molten excipients. Cytotoxicity of the selected excipients was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays against VK2/E6E7, HEC-1-A and HeLa cells. Suppositories were characterized regarding organoleptic characteristics, mass uniformity, disintegration, breaking strength and L. acidophilus in vitro release. PEG 400, PEG 4000 and WIT H12 showed the absence of toxicity when tested using three different vaginal cell lines. Obtained vaginal suppositories presented uniform and mild texture, a content of about 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units, completely disintegrated in simulated vaginal environment in less than 60 min and provided sustained in vitro release of L. acidophilus. Release studies further demonstrated that incorporation of freeze-dried bacteria did not result in significant loss of viable bacteria, thus supporting that vaginal suppositories may possess good properties to promote the replacement of the vaginal flora in situations of urinary tract infection. Hollow-type suppositories showed to be promising delivery vehicles for vaginal delivery of probiotics.

  19. Vaginal hysterectomy in a Nigerian tertiary health facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiechina, N J A; Ugboaja, J O; Onyegbule, O A; Eleje, G U

    2010-01-01

    Despite evidence that vaginal hysterectomy offers advantages in regard to operative time, complication rates and return to normal activities, gynaecologists remain reluctant to change their practice patterns because of concerns about safety and feasibility of the vaginal approach. We reviewed cases of vaginal hysterectomies done in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Nigeria over a ten year period. This is a retrospective analysis of cases of vaginal hysterectomy that were done in the hospital between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 2007. Data was analyzed with Epi info version 3.3.2. Outcome measures include duration of hospital stay, indication for the surgery, postoperative morbidity and mortality and the need for blood transfusion. Hysterectomy accounted for 224 of 1,370 gynaecological surgeries (16.4%). Vaginal hysterectomy was responsible for 47 (21.0%) of these 224 cases and accounted for 3.7% of all gynaecological surgeries. Majority of the patients were in the 7th decade of life with a mean age of 65.2 +/- 6.8. Most (87.5%) patients were retired farmers and grandmultiparous with a mean parity 6.5 +/- 2.4). Utero-vaginal prolapse was the only indication for the surgery. The only postoperative complication accounted was febrile morbidity which was reported in 5 (10.6%) of the patients had febrile morbidity. There were no cases of conversion to abdominal procedure. All the surgeries were done by the consultants. Vaginal hysterectomy was safe and associated with minimal morbidity to the patient. The only indication was uterovaginal prolapse and all the procedures were done by the consultants. There is need to transfer the skill to the Residents.

  20. Delayed vaginal reconstruction in the fibrotic pelvis following radiation or previous reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berek, J.S.; Hacker, N.F.; Lagasse, L.D.; Smith, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Vaginal reconstruction was performed in 14 patients who had developed vaginal stenosis secondary to extensive pelvic fibrosis after pelvic radiation therapy (12 patients) or prior vaginal reconstruction (2 patients). Sixteen procedures were performed using a split-thickness skin graft. All patients had satisfactory vaginal restoration, and 12 patients reported good vaginal function. No fistula developed as a result of the operative procedure, but one patient later developed a rectovaginal fistula resulting from tumor recurrence. Successful vaginal reconstruction can be achieved even years after initial therapy in patients who develop an obliterated vagina from previous radiation or surgery

  1. Douching With Water Works Device for Perceived Vaginal Odor With or Without Complaints of Discharge in Women With No Infectious Cause of Vaginitis: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwani, Ashwin J.; Hassan, Sarmina; Rahimi, Salma; Jeronis, Stacey; Dandolu, Vani

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To determine if douching with Water Works device for 1 month can (1) lower or eliminate perceived vaginal odor by subject; (2) have any effects on vaginal ecosystem. Methods. Ten women with perceived vaginal odor with or without discharge, douched every day for 4 weeks in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study. Primary outcome measures included perceived vaginal odor by subject, lactobacilli score from Nugent slide, and acceptance of the Water Works douching system. Secondary outcome included the safety of using this douching device. Results. At week 4, there was improvement in vaginal odor (P = .0006) and there was no significant change in lactobacilli score. Conclusion. Douching with Water Works device is associated with reduction or elimination of vaginal odor without adversely affecting the vaginal ecosystem. PMID:17485816

  2. Maternal and neonatal complications in term breech delivered vaginally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadoon, S.; Jadoon, S.M.K.; Shah, R.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the maternal and neonatal complications in terms of genital tract trauma to mother, perinatal mortality. Apgar score at 5 minutes and neonatal trauma in all singleton term breech cases delivered vaginally. A 100 consecutive patients with singleton breech presentation, whether booked or unbooked, were admitted and delivered vaginally in hospital during the study period. They were studied for maternal and neonatal complications. Maternal complication included any genital tract trauma during delivery while neonatal complications were perinatal mortality, low Apgar score (less than eight at 5 minutes) and birth trauma. There were a total 3977 deliveries during this study period, 145 breech presentation (incidence 3.6%). Out of those, 100 were included in the study. All were unbooked cases, 87% were multigravida while 13% were primigravida. An Apgar score of eight was recorded in 87% babies while 10% had an Apgar score of less than eight after 5 minutes. There were 3 still births and one neonatal death. Aggregated perinatal mortality rate was 40/1000 live births. Only one baby had birth trauma (Erbs paralysis) during vaginal breech delivery. Ninety seven (97%) mothers had no complications while only 3 (3%) had complications. Out of these, one had cervical tear and 2 had vaginal tears. Offering a trial of vaginal breech delivery to strictly selected and well-counselled patients remains an appropriate option without compromising perinatal and maternal outcome. It also decreases the rate of operative delivery for this malpresentation. (author)

  3. Vaginal biological and sexual health--the unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, A

    2015-01-01

    The vagina is a most neglected organ. It is usually clinically considered with a minimalistic view, as a 'connecting tube' for a number of physiologic functions: passage of menstrual blood, intercourse, natural conception and delivery. Unmet needs include, but are not limited to, respect of vaginal physiologic biofilms; diagnosis and care of the optimal tone of the levator ani, which surrounds and partly support it; care of its anatomic integrity at and after delivery and at pelvic/vaginal surgery; care of long-term consequences of pelvic radiotherapy; long-term care of the atrophic changes it will undergo after the menopause, unless appropriate, at least local, estrogen therapy is used; appreciation and respect of its erotic meaning, as a loving, receptive, 'bonding' organ for the couple. The vaginal erotic value is key as a non-visible powerful center of femininity and sexuality, deeply and secretly attractive in terms of taste, scent (together with the vulva), touch and proprioception. The most welcoming when lubrication, softness and vaginal orgasm award the woman and the partner with the best of pleasures. Prevention of sexual/vaginal abuse is a very neglected unmet need, as well. Who cares?

  4. Potential Use of Antimicrobial Peptides as Vaginal Spermicides/Microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongnuj Tanphaichitr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The concurrent increases in global population and sexually transmitted infection (STI demand a search for agents with dual spermicidal and microbicidal properties for topical vaginal application. Previous attempts to develop the surfactant spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (N-9, into a vaginal microbicide were unsuccessful largely due to its inefficiency to kill microbes. Furthermore, N-9 causes damage to the vaginal epithelium, thus accelerating microbes to enter the women’s body. For this reason, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, naturally secreted by all forms of life as part of innate immunity, deserve evaluation for their potential spermicidal effects. To date, twelve spermicidal AMPs have been described including LL-37, magainin 2 and nisin A. Human cathelicidin LL-37 is the most promising spermicidal AMP to be further developed for vaginal use for the following reasons. First, it is a human AMP naturally produced in the vagina after intercourse. Second, LL-37 exerts microbicidal effects to numerous microbes including those that cause STI. Third, its cytotoxicity is selective to sperm and not to the female reproductive tract. Furthermore, the spermicidal effects of LL-37 have been demonstrated in vivo in mice. Therefore, the availability of LL-37 as a vaginal spermicide/microbicide will empower women for self-protection against unwanted pregnancies and STI.

  5. Vaginal microbiota of women with frequent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Westman, Rachel; Hickey, Roxana; Hansmann, Melanie A; Kennedy, Colleen; Osborn, Thomas W; Forney, Larry J

    2009-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an insidious infection that afflicts a large proportion of women of all ages, and 5 to 8% of affected women experience recurrent VVC (RVVC). The aim of this study was to explore the possible importance of vaginal bacterial communities in reducing the risk of RVVC. The species composition and diversity of microbial communities were evaluated for 42 women with and without frequent VVC based on profiles of terminal restriction fragment polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences from the numerically dominant microbial populations. The data showed that there were no significant differences between the vaginal microbial communities of women in the two groups (likelihood score, 5.948; bootstrap P value, 0.26). Moreover, no novel bacteria were found in the communities of women with frequent VVC. The vaginal communities of most women in both groups (38/42; 90%) were dominated by species of Lactobacillus. The results of this study failed to provide evidence for the existence of altered or unusual vaginal bacterial communities in women who have frequent VVC compared to women who do not have frequent VVC. The findings suggest that commensal vaginal bacterial species may not be able to prevent VVC.

  6. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms.

  7. Topical kanamycin: an effective therapeutic option in aerobic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempera, G; Abbadessa, G; Bonfiglio, G; Cammarata, E; Cianci, A; Corsello, S; Raimondi, A; Ettore, G; Nicolosi, D; Furneri, P M

    2006-08-01

    Eighty-one patients with clinical diagnosis of aerobic vaginitis (AV) were included in the study. The patients were randomized for treatment, 45 with kanamycin (100 mg vaginal ovules for 6 days, consecutively) and 36 with meclocycline (35 mg vaginal ovules for 6 days, consecutively). The patients were examined before starting the study, 1-2 days after treatment and 30 days after the end of the study. At the first follow-up the patients showed different levels of symptom reduction. Reduction in the presence of leukocytes, vaginal mucosa burning and itching were statistically significant in the group treated with kanamycin with respect to the group treated with meclocycline. Moreover, there was also reduced isolation of Enterobacteriaeae (97%) in the group treated with kanamycin versus those treated with meclocycline (76%). At the second follow-up, vaginal homeostasis (normalization of pH and presence of lactobacilli) was more evident in the kanamycin-treated group. In conclusion, our data suggest that the topical use of kanamycin could be considered a specific antibiotic for the therapy of this new pathology.

  8. New strategies for local treatment of vaginal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José

    2015-09-15

    Vaginal infections are extremely prevalent, particularly among women of reproductive age. Although they do not result in high mortality rates, these infections are associated with high levels of anxiety and reduction of quality of life. In most cases, topical treatment of vaginal infections has been shown to be at least as effective as oral treatment, resulting in higher local drug concentrations, with fewer drug interactions and adverse effects. Furthermore, the emergence of microbial resistance to chemotherapeutics and the difficulties in managing infection recurrences sustain the need for more effective local treatments. However, conventional dosage forms have been associated with low retention in the vagina and discomfort. Formulation strategies such as the development of bioadhesive, thermogelling systems and microtechnological or nanotechnological approaches have been proposed to improve delivery of traditional drugs, and other treatment modalities such as new drugs, plant extracts, and probiotics are being studied. This article reviews the recent strategies studied to improve the treatment and prevention of the commonest vaginal infections-namely, vaginal bacteriosis, aerobic vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidosis, and trichomoniasis-through the intravaginal route. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Successful treatment of vaginal malakoplakia in a young cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Cattin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 3-year-old, female, spayed, domestic shorthair cat presented for dysuria and haematuria, unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. A small, fleshy, erythematous mass protruded from the vaginal vault. Ultrasound identified a vaginal mass effect with mixed echogenicity measuring in excess of 3 cm. Vaginoscopy confirmed an extensive, fleshy, irregular mass that was characterised histologically as pyogranulomatous vaginitis, with periodic acid–Schiff-positive macrophages containing gram-negative bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis demonstrated invasive intracellular Escherichia coli. Vaginal malakoplakia was diagnosed. Tissue culture and antimicrobial susceptibility of E coli was used to guide treatment. A 6 week course of enrofloxacin 5 mg/kg q24h resulted in complete resolution of the mass and clinical signs. Relevance and novel information Malakoplakia is a rare chronic inflammatory condition that has been previously reported in the bladder of two cats. The pathogenesis of malakoplakia is thought to involve ineffective killing of bacteria (eg. E coli , similar to granulomatous colitis in Boxers and French Bulldogs. The literature on malakoplakia in cats is sparse. This is the first reported feline case with vaginal involvement, intracellular E coli and successful treatment with a fluoroquinolone. Malakoplakia is an important, non-neoplastic differential diagnosis when a mass is identified in the urogenital system of a young cat.

  10. Accuracy of the cytopathology, bacterioscopy, and vaginal flora culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P Q; Pereira, M A P; Palomo, F S; Okazaki, C; Schimidt, M A; Speck, N M G; Ribalta, J C L

    2013-01-01

    An over-population of vaginal microorganisms causing inflammatory processes renders it difficult to properly assess the cytopathological exam that aims to screen precedent cervical lesions. On the contrary, the occurrence of the microbial flora saprophyte does not influence correct cythodiagnosis. To assess the composition of vaginal tract aerobic microorganisms of asymptomatic women in menacme and post-menopause, and to analyze the accuracy of cytopathologic, bacterioscopic exams, and culturing of the flora. The women were first submitted to a focused anamnestic interrogatory and then submitted to gynecological exam. A sample of the vaginal fluid was collected with a culture swab and a smear was made on two glass slides for stained bacterioscopic exam (GRAM). The collection of material was then compiled in a cytopathologic smear analysis. All women signed the free and informed consent letter and the project was approved by the Ethics Research Board of Hospital São Paulo - UNIFESP. Bacterioscopy and culture proved to be better than the cytopathologic exam in featuring the bacilli and cocci. The bacterioscopy provided a better detection of the presence of bacilli (p < 0.001); no statistical difference was seen between both exams with respect to the detected cocci. The beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group was of significance in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). In this study, the bacterioscopic and culture exams of the vaginal fluid were more effective in assessing the vaginal flora and in the detection of bacilli, compared to the cytopathological exam.

  11. Determinação de posicionamento ótimo de anel equalizador em Isoladores Poliméricos; Determinación del posicionamiento óptimo de los anillos ecualizadores en aisladores poliméricos; Determining optimal positioning ring Equalizer in Polymeric Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendonça Rocha Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento do campo elétrico nas proximidades do terminal de linha de um isolador polimérico foi estudado em função do posicionamento do anel equalizador, com o objetivo de determinar a posição ótima de instalação do mesmo, dado que o campo elétrico que incide nas primeiras aletas do isolador é afetado de maneira significativa pela posição em que o anel equalizador é instalado. Adicionalmente a utilização de isoladores de vidro como extensão em isoladores poliméricos também foi avaliada, esse tipo de associação é uma prática comum das concessionárias brasileiras, no entanto, sua influência no comportamento do campo elétrico ainda é pouco conhecida. A distribuição do campo elétrico foi determinada por meio de simulações computacionais baseadas no Método dos Elementos Finitos. Os resultados sugerem uma posição ótima para a instalação do anel equalizador e permitiram chegar a algumas conclusões sobre a utilização de isoladores de vidro como extensão em isoladores poliméricos.  El comportamiento del campo eléctrico en las proximidades del terminal de línea de un aislador polimérico fue estudiado en función de la ubicación del anillo ecualizador con el objetivo de determinar la posición optima de instalación del mismo, dado que el campo eléctrico que incide en las primeras aletas del aislador es afectado de manera significativa por la posición en que se instala el anillo ecualizador. Adicionalmente, la utilización de aisladores de vidrios como extensión de aisladores poliméricos también fue evaluada, ese tipo de asociación es una práctica común de las empresas eléctricas brasileñas; sin embargo su influencia en el comportamiento del campo eléctrico todavía es poco conocida. La distribución del campo eléctrico fue determinada por medio de simulaciones computacionales basadas en el método de los elementos finitos. Los resultados sugieren una posición optima para la instalaci

  12. Determinação de posicionamento ótimo de anel equalizador em Isoladores Poliméricos : Determinación del posicionamiento óptimo de los anillos ecualizadores en aisladores poliméricos; Determining optimal positioning ring Equalizer in Polymeric Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendonça - Rocha Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento do campo elétrico nas proximidades do terminal de linha de um isolador polimérico foi estudado em função do posicionamento do anel equalizador, com o objetivo de determinar a posição ótima de instalação do mesmo, dado que o campo elétrico que incide nas primeiras aletas do isolador é afetado de maneira significativa pela posição em que o anel equalizador é instalado. Adicionalmente a utilização de isoladores de vidro como extensão em isoladores poliméricos também foi avaliada, esse tipo de associação é uma prática comum das concessionárias brasileiras, no entanto, sua influência no comportamento do campo elétrico ainda é pouco conhecida. A distribuição do campo elétrico foi determinada por meio de simulações computacionais baseadas no Método dos Elementos Finitos. Os resultados sugerem uma posição ótima para a instalação do anel equalizador e permitiram chegar a algumas conclusões sobre a utilização de isoladores de vidro como extensão em isoladores poliméricos.El comportamiento del campo eléctrico en las proximidades del terminal de línea de un aislador polimérico fue estudiado en función de la ubicación del anillo ecualizador con el objetivo de determinar la posición optima de instalación del mismo, dado que el campo eléctrico que incide en las primeras aletas del aislador es afectado de manera significativa por la posición en que se instala el anillo ecualizador. Adicionalmente, la utilización de aisladores de vidrios como extensión de aisladores poliméricos también fue evaluada, ese tipo de asociación es una práctica común de las empresas eléctricas brasileñas; sin embargo su influencia en el comportamiento del campo eléctrico todavía es poco conocida. La distribución del campo eléctrico fue determinada por medio de simulaciones computacionales basadas en el método de los elementos finitos. Los resultados sugieren una posición optima para la instalación del

  13. Use of locally delivered dequalinium chloride in the treatment of vaginal infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Werner; Weissenbacher, Ernst Rainer; Gerber, Stefan; Prasauskas, Valdas; Grob, Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal infections are responsible for a large proportion of gynaecological outpatient visits. Those are bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC), aerobic vaginitis (AV) associated with aerobic bacteria, and mixed infections. Usual treatments show similar acceptable short-term efficacy, but frequent recurrences and increasing microbial resistance are unsolved issues. Furthermore, vaginal infections are associated with a variety of serious adverse outcomes in pregnancy and generally have a major impact on quality of life. Identifying the correct therapy can be challenging for the clinician, particularly in mixed infections. Dequalinium chloride (DQC) is an anti-microbial antiseptic agent with a broad bactericidal and fungicidal activity. Systemic absorption after vaginal application of DQC is very low and systemic effects negligible. Vaginal DQC (Fluomizin vaginal tablets) has been shown to have equal clinical efficacy as clindamycin in the treatment of BV. Its broad antimicrobial activity makes it appropriate for the treatment of mixed vaginal infections and in case of uncertain diagnosis. Moreover, resistance of pathogens is unlikely due to its multiple mode of action, and vaginal DQC provides also a reduced risk for post-treatment vaginal infections. Vaginal DQC (10 mg) as 6-day therapy offers a safe and effective option for empiric therapy of different vaginal infections in daily practice. This review summarizes the available and relevant pharmacological and clinical data for the therapy of vaginal infections with vaginal DQC and provides the rationale for its use in daily gynaecologic practice.

  14. Local expression of vaginal Th1 and Th2 cytokines in murine vaginal candidiasis under different immunity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanjuan; Li, Shaohua; Wu, Yan; Liu, Zhixiang; Li, Jiawen

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the expression of vaginal Th1 and Th2 cytokines in rats with experimental vaginal candidiasis under different immune conditions, ICR murine vaginal candidiasis model was established and immno-suppressed murine models of vaginal cadidiasis were established in estrogen-treated mice. Non-estrogen-treated mice were used as controls. The mRNA level of Th1 (IL-2)/Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, TGF-beta1) cytokines in murine vaginal tissues was determined by RT-PCR. The cykotine in local tissues was increased to different extent under normal immune condition. IL-2 mRNA was increased during early stage of infection, while IL-10 was increased transiently during late stage of infection. TGF-beta1 production was found to be increased persistently. At same time, the expression of IL-2 mRNA was suppressed in immno-suppressed group, and the level of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta1 were higher than the normal immunity group to different degree during infection. The high level of IL-2 mRNA during early stage of infection was associated with clearance of mucosal Candidia albicans (C. albicans), and its expression suppressed leading to decreased clearance of mucosal C. albican in immuno-suppression. The over-expression of IL-4 and IL-10 could significantly enhance the susceptibility to C. albicans infection in mice.

  15. Rectorrhagia and vaginal discharge caused by a vaginal foreign body--a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryazdi, S M; Heiranizadeh, N; Soltani, H R

    2013-06-01

    An 8-year-old girl was taken to an outpatient clinic of surgery suffering from rectorrhagia and purulent, smelly vaginal discharge. Colonoscopy and biopsy were done before referring and sulfasalazine regime was administrated for probable colitis. The surgeon performed a rigid rectosigmoidoscopy under general anesthesia and no positive evidence was found. Having examined the hymen, it was found to be intact but a purulent discharge was observed. After drying the discharge, a black foreign body was seen in the bottom of the vagina and brought out by a fine forceps. It was a toy's wheel. The patient and her mother both denied foreign body abusing history. It was recommended she go for a psychological consultation. Generally speaking, all young patients suffering from vaginal or rectal bleeding with or without discharge should have their vagina checked for a foreign body. What is recommended in such cases is to undergo sonography or plain radiography before considering invasive or non-invasive procedures for evaluating anal and sigmoid abnormalities. Last but not least, a vaginal irrigation, precise examination of hymen, and posterior fossa can prove very useful for detecting simple vaginal bodies that can lead to various vaginal, rectal and abdominal complications. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Herbal Medicine and Vaginal Candidiasis in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sheidaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is the second most common vaginal infection. Given the frequent recurrence of the disease, many women tend to use herbal remedies. Thus, the present study aimed to review the association between vaginal candidiasis and herbal medicines in Iran. In this review, we retrieved articles published from 2001 to 2016. Then, the results were expressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, nine articles were reviewed, which had investigated thyme, garlic, garlic-thyme, olive oil, propolis, myrtus, Nigella sativa (black cumin, and Bunium perscicum boiss (black zira. Subsequently, each of these plants was thoroughly dealt with. The studies on black cumin, garlic, and thyme reported positive effects for these herbs, and they were widely produced for therapeutic purposes. In addition, myrtus was found to have a salutary impact on vaginal candidiasis.

  17. Cervical Abscess with Vaginal Fistula After Extraperitoneal Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Chou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraperitoneal cesarean section was once used for the prevention of infection and postoperative adhesion. However, we report an unusual complication after this procedure. A 29-year-old woman had pus discharge from the anterior vaginal wall after extraperitoneal cesarean section. Broad-spectrum antibiotics failed to relieve her symptoms and vaginal culture yielded Morganella morganii. Magnetic resonance imaging, sagittal view, showed a cervical abscess measuring 5 × 5 cm with a tract extending to the anterior vagina. After performing dilation and abscess drainage via the cervical ostium, the symptoms gradually subsided with adequate antibiotic treatment. Cervical abscess may develop after extraperitoneal cesarean section and present initially as vaginal fistula. Detailed imaging study provides comprehensive anatomic information for effective management.

  18. Local oestrogen for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, J; Lethaby, A; Kennedy, R

    2006-10-18

    Vaginal atrophy is a frequent complaint of postmenopausal women; symptoms include vaginal dryness, itching, discomfort and painful intercourse. Systemic treatment for these symptoms in the form of oral hormone replacement therapy is not always necessary. An alternative choice is oestrogenic preparations administered vaginally (in the form of creams, pessaries, tablets and the oestradiol-releasing ring). The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of oestrogenic preparations for women who suffer from vaginal atrophy. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Register of trials (searched January 2006), The Cochrane Library (2006,Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2006), EMBASE (1980 to January 2006), Current Contents (1993 to January 2006, Biological Abstracts (1969 to 2006), Social Sciences Index (1980 to January 2006), PsycINFO (1972 to February 2006), CINAHL (1982 to January 2006) and reference list of articles. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. The inclusion criteria were randomised comparisons of oestrogenic preparations administered intravaginally in postmenopausal women for the treatment of symptoms resulting from vaginal atrophy or vaginitis. Thirty-seven trials were identified: of these 18 were excluded. Included trials were assessed for quality and two reviewer authors extracted data independently. The ratios for dichotomous outcomes and means for continuous outcomes were calculated. The outcomes analysed were categorised under the headings of: efficacy, safety and acceptability. Nineteen trials with 4162 women were included in this review. The overall quality of the studies was good, although not all trials measured the same outcomes. All trials measured efficacy, with various outcome measures. When comparing the efficacy of different oestrogenic preparations (in the form of creams, pessaries, tablets and the oestradiol-releasing vaginal ring) in relieving the

  19. Randomized comparison of total laparoscopic, laparoscopically assisted vaginal and vaginal hysterectomies for myomatous uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti, Francesco; Cosi, Veronica; Calonzi, Francesca; Ruggeri, Velia; Pietropolli, Adalgisa; Di Francesco, Lucia; Piccione, Emilio

    2014-09-01

    To compare the operative data and early postoperative outcomes of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH), laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) and vaginal hysterectomy (VH). One hundred and eight women requiring hysterectomy for enlarged myomatous uterus were randomly allocated into three treatment arms: TLH (n = 36); LAVH (n = 36); VH (n = 36). Randomization procedure was based on a computer-generated list. The primary outcome was the discharge time comparison. The secondary outcomes were operating time, blood loss, paralytic ileus time, intraoperative complications, postoperative pain, and early postoperative complications. The mean discharge time was shorter after VH than after LAVH and TLH (P = 0.001). Operating time significantly influenced the discharge time, considered as a dependent variable in general linear model analysis (P = 0.006). In contrast, blood loss did not influence the discharge time (P = 0.55).The mean operating time was significantly shorter in VH than in TLH and LAVH groups (P = 0.000).The intraoperative blood loss was greater during LAVH than during TLH and VH (P = 0.000).Paralytic ileus time was shorter after VH than after TLH and LAVH (P = 0.000). No intraoperative complications or conversion to laparotomy occurred. VH was the faster operative technique with smaller blood loss and shorter discharge time compared with the others two techniques. So, VH should be considered the preferred approach in patients with enlarged myomatous uteri. When VH is not feasible or salpingo-oophorectomy is required, LAVH or TLH should be considered as valid alternatives. It is necessary to continue prospective comparative studies between the various surgical options to identify the best approach for hysterectomy in each single woman.

  20. Free glycogen in vaginal fluids is associated with Lactobacillus colonization and low vaginal pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Mirmonsef

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus dominates the lower genital tract microbiota of many women, producing a low vaginal pH, and is important for healthy pregnancy outcomes and protection against several sexually transmitted pathogens. Yet, factors that promote Lactobacillus remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that the amount of free glycogen in the lumen of the lower genital tract is an important determinant of Lactobacillus colonization and a low vaginal pH.Free glycogen in lavage samples was quantified. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to identify microbiota from 21 African American women collected over 8-11 years.Free glycogen levels varied greatly between women and even in the same woman. Samples with the highest free glycogen had a corresponding median genital pH that was significantly lower (pH 4.4 than those with low glycogen (pH 5.8; p<0.001. The fraction of the microbiota consisting of Lactobacillus was highest in samples with high glycogen versus those with low glycogen (median = 0.97 vs. 0.05, p<0.001. In multivariable analysis, having 1 vs. 0 male sexual partner in the past 6 months was negatively associated, while BMI ≥30 was positively associated with glycogen. High concentrations of glycogen corresponded to higher levels of L. crispatus and L. jensenii, but not L. iners.These findings show that free glycogen in genital fluid is associated with a genital microbiota dominated by Lactobacillus, suggesting glycogen is important for maintaining genital health. Treatments aimed at increasing genital free glycogen might impact Lactobacillus colonization.

  1. Foreign Body in Vagina: An Uncommon Cause of Vaginitis in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptoms secondary to a vaginal foreign body are responsible for approximately ... recurrent foul‑smelling, blood‑stained vaginal discharge and .... vaginography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI ... An unusual foreign body in the.

  2. The vaginal microbiome: Associations with sexually transmitted infections and the mucosal immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, H.

    2016-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by lactobacilli. Disturbance of the microbiological vaginal microbiota balance ("dysbiosis") is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and preterm birth in pregnant women. Since 2002, studies have

  3. Treatment of vaginal infections: effectiveness of the association of metronidazole and clotrimazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ferrero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The normal vagina of women of reproductive age is colonised by lactobacilli that produce lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins; these substances contribute to lowering the vaginal pH. A low vaginal pH creates an environment hostile to the growth of other microrganisms. When the number of lactobacilli is decreased, the resulting increase in the pH may favour vaginal infections. The three most common vaginal infections are bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vaginal candidosis. There are multiple clinical and laboratory tests for diagnosing vaginal infections; the most commonly used methods for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis are the Amsel’s criteria and the Nugent’s Gram stain scale. Infections caused by Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis can be diagnosed by microscopic examination of vaginal secretions. Clotrimazole and metronidazole, especially when administered topically, are highly effective in treating vaginal infections.

  4. Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin’s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Alade Adewole

    Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin's cyst: A case report ... 6 by 5 cm. The cervix, uterus, adnexa and Pouch of Douglas (POD) were normal. .... of vaginal cancer.2–4 Although, DES exposed daughters have an.

  5. Nitric oxide and HSV vaginal infection in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benencia, Fabian; Gamba, Gisela; Cavalieri, Hernan; Courreges, Maria Cecilia; Benedetti, Ruben; Villamil, Soledad Maria; Massouh, Ernesto Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Here we study the role of nitric oxide in the vaginal infection of Balb/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in vaginal tissue and inguinal lymph nodes early postinfection. iNOS was also found to be activated in cells recovered from vaginal washings of infected animals. Animals treated with aminoguanidine (AG), an iNOS inhibitor, showed a dose-dependent increase in vaginal pathology after viral infection compared to controls. Viral titers in vaginal washings and vaginas were higher in AG-treated mice. Treated animals presented higher PMN counts in vaginal washings compared to controls. Histopathology studies revealed a profound inflammatory exudate in vaginal tissue of treated animals. Finally, RT-PCR analysis showed increased expression of the chemokines MIP-2 and RANTES in vaginal tissue and inguinal lymph nodes of these animals

  6. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery: Deciding on a Trial of Labor After a Cesarean Delivery (TOLAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ070 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery • What is a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC)? • What is a trial of labor ...

  7. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested

  8. Vaginal Microbiome Characterization of Nellore Cattle Using Metagenomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Branco, Kelly Moreira Grillo Ribeiro; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; Giannattasio-Ferraz, Silvia; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Araujo, Flávio Marcos Gomes; Salim, Anna Christina de Matos; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; de Oliveira, Guilherme Corrêa; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of microbial communities inhabiting cattle vaginal tract may lead to a better comprehension of bovine physiology and reproductive health being of great economic interest. Up to date, studies involving cattle microbiota are focused on the gastrointestinal tract, and little is known about the vaginal microbiota. This study aimed to investigate the vaginal microbiome in Nellore cattle, heifers and cows, pregnant and non-pregnant, using a culture independent approach. The main bacterial phyla found were Firmicutes (~40-50%), Bacteroidetes (~15-25%) and Proteobacteria (~5-25%), in addition to ~10-20% of non-classified bacteria. 45-55% of the samples were represented by only ten OTUs: Aeribacillus, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Rikenella, Alistipes, Bacillus, Eubacterium, Prevotella and non-classified bacteria. Interestingly, microbiota from all 20 animals could be grouped according to the respiratory metabolism of the main OTUs found, creating three groups of vaginal microbiota in cattle. Archaeal samples were dominated by the Methanobrevibacter genus (Euryarchaeota, ~55-70%). Ascomycota was the main fungal phylum (~80-95%) and Mycosphaerella the most abundant genus (~70-85%). Hormonal influence was not clear, but a tendency for the reduction of bacterial and increase of archaeal populations in pregnant animals was observed. Eukaryotes did not vary significantly between pregnant and non-pregnant animals, but tended to be more abundant on cows than on heifers. The present work describes a great microbial variability in the vaginal community among the evaluated animals and groups (heifers and cows, pregnant and non-pregnant), which is significantly different from the findings previously reported using culture dependent methods, pointing out the need for further studies on this issue. The microbiome found also indicates that the vaginal colonization appears to be influenced by the gastrointestinal community.

  9. MRI in the assessment of congenital vaginal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, P.D.; Simpson, J.C.; Creighton, S.M.; Hall-Craggs, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the delineation of morphological abnormalities of the vagina in patients with congenital anomalies of the genito-urinary tract. Materials and methods: Fifty-one patients (median age 19 years; range 12-40 years) were studied. All were consecutively referred for MRI to assess genital tract anatomy, between 1996 and 2004, from a clinic specializing in congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tract. All patients were assessed clinically and underwent MRI. Images were reviewed retrospectively by an experienced radiologist. Where there was discordance between clinical and radiological findings a consensus diagnosis was achieved by the gynaecologists and radiologists reviewing all of the clinical and radiological evidence together, including assessment of vaginal length. Results: The clinical data were incomplete for five women and the images non-diagnostic in two cases; consequently, 44 of 51 women had complete datasets and could be evaluated. Vaginas were abnormal in 30 of the 44 patients. There was discordance between the clinical and imaging findings at the initial review in three of the 44 cases (6.8%). After consensus review, and with the inclusion of measurement of the vaginal length on MRI, the MRI and clinical findings were concordant in all cases. The initial discordance was due to two vaginal dimples not being appreciated on MRI and one case in which presence of vaginal tissue proximal to a mid-segment obstruction was not appreciated clinically. Conclusion: MRI is an accurate method of imaging vaginal anomalies. However, to achieve reliable results the radiologist requires details of previous surgery and the vaginal length must be measured

  10. MRI in the assessment of congenital vaginal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, P.D. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Simpson, J.C.; Creighton, S.M. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Hall-Craggs, M.A. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: margaret.hall-craggs@uclh.nhs.uk

    2008-04-15

    Aim: To assess accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the delineation of morphological abnormalities of the vagina in patients with congenital anomalies of the genito-urinary tract. Materials and methods: Fifty-one patients (median age 19 years; range 12-40 years) were studied. All were consecutively referred for MRI to assess genital tract anatomy, between 1996 and 2004, from a clinic specializing in congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tract. All patients were assessed clinically and underwent MRI. Images were reviewed retrospectively by an experienced radiologist. Where there was discordance between clinical and radiological findings a consensus diagnosis was achieved by the gynaecologists and radiologists reviewing all of the clinical and radiological evidence together, including assessment of vaginal length. Results: The clinical data were incomplete for five women and the images non-diagnostic in two cases; consequently, 44 of 51 women had complete datasets and could be evaluated. Vaginas were abnormal in 30 of the 44 patients. There was discordance between the clinical and imaging findings at the initial review in three of the 44 cases (6.8%). After consensus review, and with the inclusion of measurement of the vaginal length on MRI, the MRI and clinical findings were concordant in all cases. The initial discordance was due to two vaginal dimples not being appreciated on MRI and one case in which presence of vaginal tissue proximal to a mid-segment obstruction was not appreciated clinically. Conclusion: MRI is an accurate method of imaging vaginal anomalies. However, to achieve reliable results the radiologist requires details of previous surgery and the vaginal length must be measured.

  11. Failed manual removal of the placenta after vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurström, Johanna; Collins, Sally; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: A retained placenta after vaginal delivery where manual removal of placenta fails is a clinical challenge. We present six cases that illustrate the heterogeneity of the condition and discuss the etiology and terminology as well as the clinical management. METHODS: Members of the European...... and the UK provide examples of various treatment strategies such as ultrasound-guided vaginal removal, removal of the placenta through a hysterotomy and just leaving the placenta in situ. The placentas were all retained, but it was only possible to diagnose abnormal invasion in the one case, which had...

  12. Radiotherapy - an effective treatment for vaginal verrucous carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, L.; Thornley, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Vaginal carcinoma makes up 1%-2% of all gynaecological tumours. Verrucous carcinoma of the vagina is even more rare -only 16 cases are reported in the scientific literature. A case of a complete regression after 60 Gy fractionated radiotherapy by a tumour 12 cm 3 in size is reported. Most authors are of the opinion that radiotherapy causes anaplastic transformation of verrucous carcinoma. The minority view, that anaplastic transformation does not occur, is correct and is supported by our clinical and radiological data. The conflicting literature on vaginal verrucous carcinoma (VVC) is reviewed with reference to verrucous carcinoma at other sites. (Author)

  13. Patient goals after tension free vaginal tape operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Karin; Bjørk, Jonna; Kousgaard, Sabrina Just

    INTRODUCTION: This prospective study investigates sexual function in women after a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) operation and compares short-term and long-term effects. METHODS: Sixty-three women had a TVT operation performed at Aalborg University Hospital, Department of Gynecology and Obstetr......INTRODUCTION: This prospective study investigates sexual function in women after a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) operation and compares short-term and long-term effects. METHODS: Sixty-three women had a TVT operation performed at Aalborg University Hospital, Department of Gynecology...

  14. Principles of radiation therapy in the treatment of vaginal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, D.

    1987-01-01

    Vaginal tumors constitute about 1-1.5% of all gynecological cancers. However, there is a great variety of histological types of vaginal cancers that affect females of all ages. Characteristically embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) occurs in infants; diethylstilbestrol-induced clear cell adenocarcinomas in teenage girls; and squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, sarcoma, and adenocarcinoma in adult women. Because of the rarity of these tumors, few clinicians gain wide experience in their treatment. Treatment of these three clinical entities in three different age groups is presented in this chapter

  15. Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vallone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory.

  16. Diversity of vaginal microbiota increases by the time of labor onset

    OpenAIRE

    Avershina, Ekaterina; Slangsvold, Silje; Simpson, Melanie Rae; Storrø, Ola; Johnsen, Roar; Øien, Torbjørn; Rudi, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Vaginal microbiota is an important early source of bacterial colonization for newborns. However, only a few small studies have investigated the composition of vaginal microbiota during labor. In this work, we analyzed vaginal swabs collected at 36 weeks gestation and at the onset of labor from 256 women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled study of probiotic supplementation for the prevention of atopic dermatitis in offspring. Although individuals’ vaginal microbiota was stable ov...

  17. [The significance of vaginal fluid substances as growth media in genital mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G; Gartzke, J; Böhme, H; Spitzbart, H

    1984-01-01

    By means of thin layer chromatography amino acids, lipids and phospholipids were detected in the vaginal fluids of pregnant and nonpregnant women with and without vaginal yeast colonization. Though pregnancy and/or yeast colonization do not seem to alter qualitatively the spectrum of amino acids and lipids of the vaginal fluid, an influence is supposed of these substances - like that of glucose - on growth and metabolism of the yeasts and on the clinical manifestation of vaginal candidosis.

  18. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%),...

  19. Analysis of Lactobacillus Products for Phages and Bacteriocins That Inhibit Vaginal Lactobacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tao

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bacterial vaginosis is associated with an unexplained loss of vaginal lactobacilli. Previously, we have identified certain vaginal lactobacilli-released phages that can inhibit in vitro other vaginal lactobacilli. However, there is no apparent route for phages to be transmitted among women. The purpose of this study was to identify whether certain Lactobacillus products commonly used by women release phages or bacteriocins that can inhibit vaginal lactobacilli.

  20. The ring plus project: safety and acceptability of vaginal rings that protect women from unintended pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schurmans, C?line; De Baetselier, Irith; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Jespers, Vicky; Delvaux, Th?r?se; Agaba, Stephen K; van Loen, Harry; Menten, Joris; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Crucitti, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is ongoing to develop multipurpose vaginal rings to be used continuously for contraception and to prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) are available in a number of countries and are most of the time used intermittently i.e. three weeks out of a 4-week cycle. Efficacy trials with a dapivirine-containing vaginal ring for HIV prevention are ongoing and plans to develop multi-purpose vaginal rings for prevention of both HIV a...

  1. Regression of a vaginal leiomyoma after ovariohysterectomy in a dog: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Suresh; Linn, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    An 11 yr old female mixed-breed Siberian husky was presented with a history of sanguineous vaginal discharge, swelling of the perineal area, decreased appetite, and lethargy. A single, large vaginal leiomyoma and multiple mammary tumors were diagnosed. Mastectomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed. The vaginal leiomyoma regressed completely after ovariohysterectomy. This is the first reported case of spontaneous regression of a vaginal leiomyoma after ovariohysterectomy in a dog.

  2. Sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis is equal to levels during bacterial vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marconi, C.; Donders, G.G.G.; Bellen, G.; Brown, D.R.; Parada, C.M.G.L.; Silva, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate levels of proinflammatory cytokines and sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis (AV) in relation to normal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Study design: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 682 consecutive non-pregnant women attending the gynecology service were assessed and 408 women were included. Vaginal rinsing samples were collected from 223 women with microscopic finding of BV (n = 98), aerobic vaginitis (n = 25) and normal flora (n = 100). Sample...

  3. The vaginal microbiome, vaginal anti-microbial defence mechanisms and the clinical challenge of reducing infection-related preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, S S

    2015-01-01

    Ascending bacterial infection is implicated in about 40-50% of preterm births. The human vaginal microbiota in most women is dominated by lactobacilli. In women whose vaginal microbiota is not lactobacilli-dominated anti-bacterial defence mechanisms are reduced. The enhanced proliferation of pathogenic bacteria plus degradation of the cervical barrier increase bacterial passage into the endometrium and amniotic cavity and trigger preterm myometrial contractions. Evaluation of protocols to detect the absence of lactobaciili dominance in pregnant women by self-measuring vaginal pH, coupled with measures to promote growth of lactobacilli are novel prevention strategies that may reduce the occurrence of preterm birth in low-resource areas. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  5. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert sponge...

  6. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Candida, and Gardnerella). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. PMID:29354612

  7. Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Petrucca, Andrea; Cipriani, Paola; Sessa, Rosa; Teggi, Antonella; Pustorino, Rosalia; Santapaola, Daniela; Nicoletti, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a vaginal infection caused by a strain of Burkholderia cenocepacia. The strain was isolated from vaginal swab specimens from a 68-year-old woman with smoldering myeloma and chronic hepatitis C virus infection who was hospitalized for abdominal abscess. Treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam eliminated B. cenocepacia infection and vaginal symptoms.

  8. Foreign Body in Vagina: An Uncommon Cause of Vaginitis in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in children may result from a variety of causes. A long.standing intra.vaginal foreign body can pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in children. Treatment failure may occur because of alteration of the normal vaginal flora. A 6.year.old girl, who lived with her parents, presented with a ...

  9. A comparison between vaginal estrogen and vaginal hyaluronic for the treatment of dyspareunia in women using hormonal contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serati, Maurizio; Bogani, Giorgio; Di Dedda, Maria Carmela; Braghiroli, Alice; Uccella, Stefano; Cromi, Antonella; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical vaginal estrogens in comparison to hyaluronic acid for the treatment of de novo dyspareunia in women using hormonal oral contraceptive (COC). Consecutive sexually active women using COC and complaining of de novo dyspareunia were enrolled in the study. Two attending physicians were involved in the study: the first, prescribed a 12-week vaginal estrogenic therapy with estriol 50 μg/g gel twice a week (group 1) and the second a hyaluronic acid vaginal gel therapy once a day (group 2). We evaluated dyspareunia levels using visual analogic scale (VAS) and sexual function using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Vaginal atrophy was graded per the vaginal maturation index (VM). Overall, 31 women were enrolled. Seventeen and 14 patients were allocated in group 1 and 2, respectively. In both groups, after the topical therapy, dyspareunia, sexual function and VM were significantly improved. However, patients in group 1 experienced a significantly lower score of dyspareunia than patients in the group 2 (2 (1-7) vs. 4 (2-7); p=0.02). Additionally, women in the group 1 had higher FSFI (29.20 (24.60-34.50) vs. 28.10 (23.60-36.50); p=0.04) scores and VM (73.80 (±8.78) vs. 64.50 (±12.75); p=0.003) values in comparison to the patients in group 2. Our study showed that vaginal supplementation with estriol 50 μg/g gel or with hyaluronic acid could reduce the de novo dyspareunia related to COC. In this cluster of patients, both treatments improve sexuality. However, estriol 50 μg/g gel appears to be significantly more effective in comparison with hyaluronic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Women's experiences of planning a vaginal breech birth in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Caroline Se; Watts, Nicole P; Petrovska, Karolina; Sjostedt, Chauncey M; Bisits, Andrew

    2015-04-11

    In many countries, planned vaginal breech birth (VBB) is a rare event. After the Term Breech Trial in 2000, VBB reduced and caesarean section for breech presentation increased. Despite this, women still request VBB. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and decision-making processes of women who had sought a VBB. A qualitative study using descriptive exploratory design was undertaken. Twenty-two (n = 22) women who planned a VBB, regardless of eventual mode of birth were recruited. The women had given birth at one of two maternity hospitals in Australia that supported VBB. In-depth, semi-structured interviews using an interview guide were conducted. Interviews were analysed thematically. Twenty two women were interviewed; three quarters were primiparous (n = 16; 73%). Nine (41%) were already attending a hospital that supported VBB with the remaining women moving hospitals. All women actively sought a vaginal breech birth because the baby remained breech after an external cephalic version - 12 had a vaginal birth (55%) and 10 (45%) a caesarean section after labour commenced. There were four main themes: Reacting to a loss of choice and control, Wanting information that was trustworthy, Fighting the system and seeking support for VBB and The importance of 'having a go' at VBB. Women seeking a VBB value clear, consistent and relevant information in deciding about mode of birth. Women desire autonomy to choose vaginal breech birth and to be supported in their choice with high quality care.

  11. Haemorrhagic Vaginal Discharge Following Ovariectomy in a Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemorrhagic Vaginal Discharge Following Ovariectomy in a Three Year Old Domestic Short-haired Cat. RA Ajadi, OO Adebayo, TA Ajadi. Abstract. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, VOL:33 (1) 403-406. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Vaginal and uterine bacterial communities in postpartum lactating cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vaginal and uterine microbiome of cattle could provide important indicators of fertility pregnancy success; however, only recently has next-generation sequencing made it possible to deeply interrogate these microbial communities. The objective of this study was to determine the bacteriome of the...

  13. The Effect of Prolapse Surgery on Vaginal Sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, Marielle M. E.; van der Vaart, C. Huub; Laan, Ellen; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    Introduction. Prolapse surgery has been shown to have major impact on sexual function. Since prolapse surgery not only influences psychological factors but might also influence physiological conditions such as vaginal innervation, there is a need for objective outcome measurements to better

  14. The Effect of Prolapse Surgery on Vaginal Sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, Mariëlle M. E.; van der Vaart, C. Huub; Laan, Ellen; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Prolapse surgery has been shown to have major impact on sexual function. Since prolapse surgery not only influences psychological factors but might also influence physiological conditions such as vaginal innervation, there is a need for objective outcome measurements to better

  15. Validitet af kodning og indberetning ved vaginal prolapskirurgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To validate the coding and local registration of vaginal prolapse surgery in 1996-1998, and reporting of such data to the Danish National Patient registry (LPR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparison of different sets of data from the local data base (GS) and LPR, and retrospective study...... as a vaginal prolapse procedure the validity of this being true was 93.6%. 18 non-prolapse procedures were registered as vaginal procedures. The registration was incomplete in 12.5% due to typing or hearing errors or missing codes. The coding was misleading in 11.8%, due to lack of consensus on coding. 86.......6% of errors were passed through from the patient file to GS and LPR. Through simple guidelines misleading use of combination of codes was reduced from 7% to 0.5%. CONCLUSION: The validity of the two sets of GS data, and the reporting from GS to LPR of vaginal surgical procedures is satisfactory on the cpr...

  16. Optimized dose distribution of a high dose rate vaginal cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zuofeng; Liu, Chihray; Palta, Jatinder R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To present a comparison of optimized dose distributions for a set of high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cylinders calculated by a commercial treatment-planning system with benchmark calculations using Monte-Carlo-calculated dosimetry data. Methods and Materials: Optimized dose distributions using both an isotropic and an anisotropic dose calculation model were obtained for a set of HDR vaginal cylinders. Mathematical optimization techniques available in the computer treatment-planning system were used to calculate dwell times and positions. These dose distributions were compared with benchmark calculations with TG43 formalism and using Monte-Carlo-calculated data. The same dwell times and positions were used for a quantitative comparison of dose calculated with three dose models. Results: The isotropic dose calculation model can result in discrepancies as high as 50%. The anisotropic dose calculation model compared better with benchmark calculations. The differences were more significant at the apex of the vaginal cylinder, which is typically used as the prescription point. Conclusion: Dose calculation models available in a computer treatment-planning system must be evaluated carefully to ensure their correct application. It should also be noted that when optimized dose distribution at a distance from the cylinder surface is calculated using an accurate dose calculation model, the vaginal mucosa dose becomes significantly higher, and therefore should be carefully monitored

  17. Estudo comparativo entre histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Vânio Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas. Objetivo: Comparar a histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino.

  18. Deep sequencing of the vaginal microbiota of women with HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); A.D. Fernandes (Andrew); J.M. Macklaim (Jean); R.J. Dickson (Russell); J. Changalucha (John); G.B. Gloor (Gregory); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Women living with HIV and co-infected with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are at higher risk for transmitting HIV to a partner or newborn. It is poorly understood which bacterial communities constitute BV or the normal vaginal microbiota among this population and how the microbiota

  19. Effect of Bacteriocin-like Inhibitory Substances Produced by Vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduction of vaginal Lactobacillus population leads to overgrowth of opportunistic organisms such as Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), which causes life threatening neonatal infections. The activities of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by Lactobacillus species isolated from the ...

  20. Association between absence of vaginal lactobacilli PCR products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age is bacterial vaginosis (BV). This condition predisposes women to increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and preterm birth. The diagnostic methods ...

  1. fluconazole and boric acid for treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-01

    Apr 1, 2013 ... M. K. Khameneie, Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Imam Reza hospital, Tehran - Iran,. N. Arianpour ..... candidiasis. Am Fam Physician. 2000;1, 61:3306-12. 12. Donders GG, Bellen G, Mendling W. Management of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis as a chronic illness.

  2. Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Severo Gomes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256µg/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health.

  3. Successful Vaginal Delivery in Spite of a Large Pelvic Neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Levent Keskin

    2010-08-01

    If not otherwise fetally or maternally indicated, initiation of labor and the course of labor should be observed and vaginal delivery should be attempted for the pregnant has a pelvic neurofibroma, before a decision for cesarean section is made.

  4. Ethamsylate in vaginal surgery under lumbar epidural anaesthesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G. B.; Eltringham, R. J.; Nightingale, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty patients scheduled for vaginal surgery under lumbar epidural block were randomly allocated into two groups, one of which received ethamsylate intravenously prior to induction of anaesthesia. Ethamsylate did not reduce the blood loss at operation in these patients. The possible factors underlying this observation are discussed.

  5. Ethamsylate in vaginal surgery under lumbar epidural anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G B; Eltringham, R J; Nightingale, J J

    1983-03-01

    Sixty patients scheduled for vaginal surgery under lumbar epidural block were randomly allocated into two groups, one of which received ethamsylate intravenously prior to induction of anaesthesia. Ethamsylate did not reduce the blood loss at operation in these patients. The possible factors underlying this observation are discussed.

  6. Optimized Benzalkonium Chloride Gel: A Potential Vaginal Microbicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-cheng DING; Wei-hua LI; Jie-fei LI; Qiang-yi WANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop an optimized BZK gel with good pharmaceutical effect and less toxicity to vaginal mucosa.Methods Four methods as below were used to research the spermicidal activity of BZK gel: 1)in vitro spermicidal test; 2) in vivo spermicidal test in rabbits; 3) anti-fertility test in rabbits; 4)contraceptive test in rabbits. Mucosal irritation test was used in rats to evaluate the safety of optimized BZK gel. Microbiological assessments were used to research anti-STI pathogens (including treponema pallidum, neisseria gonorrhoeae, trichomona vaginalis, candida albicans,ureaplama urealyticum, herpes simplex virus type-2, chlamydiae trachomatis) effect of optimized BZK gel.Results In vitro spermicidal test, EC50 of BZK gel was 0.029 mg/ml, a little higher than that of N-9 (0.019 mg/ml). The MIC of BZK gel was 0.25 mg/ml, similar to that of N-9 (0.20 mg/ml).The vaginal mucosal irritation test in rats showed that 0.429% BZK gel showed only minimal vaginal irritation, and did not damage the vaginal epithelium or cause local inflammation in rats. Microbiological assessments showed that optimized BZK gel could inhibit or inactivate common STI pathogens even after 3-fold or 5-fold dilution.Conclusion Optimized BZK gel was an effective microbicides.

  7. Posterior vaginal wall Gartner′s duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripan Bala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyst of posterior vaginal wall is very rare. This case relates to a patient who presented with polypoidal mass protruding out from vagina which could have been easily mistaken as uterovaginal prolapse, but appropriate clinical evaluation supported with investigations clinched the diagnosis easily.

  8. Instrumental vaginal delivery - an assessment of use in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Majority of women in sub-Saharan Africa expect to achieve spontaneous vaginal delivery at the end of pregnancy. This is usually possible, but, a few women will receive one form of assistance or another (forceps or vacuum) to avert maternal or foetal morbidity or mortality. Training and research in instrumental ...

  9. Outcomes in women attempting vaginal birth after caesarean section ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A successful vaginal delivery was associated with lower NICU admissions and higher APGAR scores in the neonate than those delivered by caesarean section but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups for APGAR scores <7. There were 3 cases of uterine rupture discovered at caesarean section ...

  10. Porcine skin collagen implants for anterior vaginal wall prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Ulla; Hviid, Thomas; Rudnicki, Peter Martin

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The effect of a Pelvicol graft compared with a conventional anterior vaginal repair was evaluated in this randomised controlled study. METHODS: Only patients with a stage II or higher (Ba >or= -1) defect were included. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were allocated to a ...

  11. Noninvasive diagnosis of intraamniotic infection: proteomic biomarkers in vaginal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Jane; Lapidus, Jodi A; Lu, Xinfang; Reddy, Ashok P; Jacob, Thomas; Dasari, Surendra; Eschenbach, David A; Gravett, Michael G; Nagalla, Srinivasa R

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed the vaginal fluid proteome to identify biomarkers of intraamniotic infection among women in preterm labor. Proteome analysis was performed on vaginal fluid specimens from women with preterm labor, using multidimensional liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and label-free quantification. Enzyme immunoassays were used to quantify candidate proteins. Classification accuracy for intraamniotic infection (positive amniotic fluid bacterial culture and/or interleukin-6 >2 ng/mL) was evaluated using receiver-operator characteristic curves obtained by logistic regression. Of 170 subjects, 30 (18%) had intraamniotic infection. Vaginal fluid proteome analysis revealed 338 unique proteins. Label-free quantification identified 15 proteins differentially expressed in intraamniotic infection, including acute-phase reactants, immune modulators, high-abundance amniotic fluid proteins and extracellular matrix-signaling factors; these findings were confirmed by enzyme immunoassay. A multi-analyte algorithm showed accurate classification of intraamniotic infection. Vaginal fluid proteome analyses identified proteins capable of discriminating between patients with and without intraamniotic infection. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiotherapy for the treatment of primary vaginal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Rajiv; Tam, Tiffany; Dahrouge, Simon; E, Choan

    2005-01-01

    Disease control rates and toxicity were evaluated among 28 primary vaginal cancer patients treated with curative intent using radiotherapy. At 5 years, the majority (60%) of patients were disease-free and local control was 73% when a combination of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy were used. Serious late toxicity was seen in 11% of patients

  13. Do vaginal lactobacilli prevent preterm labour? | Kotze | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 87, No 8 (1997) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Do vaginal lactobacilli prevent preterm labour? I.R. Kotze ...

  14. Antifungal susceptibility profiles and risk factors of vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary young women often shift their preference from skirt to trousers and leggingswhich also coincides with a rise in auto-medication and over-the-counter drugs phenomena in our communities. These could result in increased occurrence of vaginal candidiasis infection and antifungal drug resistance. This was a ...

  15. Chylous vaginal discharge in a patient with lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Ichiro; Fujino, Toshinori; Douchi, Tsutomu

    2008-09-01

    We present the case of a patient having chylous vaginal discharge, which may be a symptom of the secondary to an established diagnosis of the systemic disorder, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, a disease predominantly affecting women during their reproductive years. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis causes dyspnea, pneumothorax, chylous pleural effusions, and eventually respiratory failure.

  16. Factors contributing to uterine rupture in women having vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their demographic characteristics, social class, booking status, place of attempted vaginal delivery and various reasons for seeking unorthodox care. Close relative of patients were interviewed in unconscious or moribund patients. Results: Some 24(96.0%) of the patient had no antenatal care in the index pregnancy and ...

  17. Vesico Vaginal Fistula Following Sexual Assault: Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had indwelling urethral catheter for 21 days with urinary antiseptic and the fistula healed. This approach is a treatment option in young girls with traumatic VVF particularly where limited tissue access will make surgical repair difficult. Key Words: Vesico-Vaginal Fistula, Sexual Assault. [ Trop J Obstet Gynaecol, 2004 ...

  18. Complete Utero Vaginal Prolapse in a Woman with Prolapsed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cleansing of the prolapsed tumor with antiseptic solution for. 3 weeks. This failed to produce significant improvement, and. Complete Utero Vaginal Prolapse in a Woman with. Prolapsed Submucous Fibroid. Aniebue UU, Nwankwo TO. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku, ...

  19. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Schjørring, S.; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from...

  20. Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta/Increta after Vaginal Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, S.; Reinhard, J.; Reitter, A.; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study was to show that conservative management with preservation of the uterus and of fertility is possible in patients with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery. Method: A retrospective analysis of patients with placental attachment disorders after vaginal delivery was done in a perinatal centre between November 2009 and April 2011. The patient collective was identified using the ICD-10 codes for placenta accreta/increta/percreta, and patient records were analysed for risk factors, maternal morbidity, preservation of the uterus and of fertility, and neonatal outcome. Results: Three cases of placenta increta were identified in the last 1.5 years out of a total of 1457 vaginal deliveries, and all 3 cases were treated conservatively. Mean maternal age was 35.3 years; gestational age ranged from 39 to 41 weeks, and mean duration between delivery of the child and delivery of the placenta was 44.67 days (range: 14–100 days). Two patients developed symptoms of endomyometritis, including fever, leukocytosis and increased CRP levels. All 3 women were successfully managed with preservation of the uterus. Conclusion: In selected cases with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery, it is possible to avoid surgical procedures, particularly hysterectomy procedures, and successfully manage these patients conservatively with preservation of the uterus. PMID:25308979

  1. Vaginal Histological Changes Of The Baboon During The Normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: The experiments were carried out at Institute of Primate Research (IPR), Karen, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Nine adult healthy female olive baboons were used in this study. These baboons were monitored over a period of one year and found to have regular menstrual cycles. The vaginal biopsies were taken at ...

  2. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzan, Daniela; Pǎiuşan, Lucian; Daşcǎu, Voicu; Furǎu, Gheorghe

    2011-08-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a one year period. The methods used for objectifying vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions were history taking, local clinical exam and PAP smear. From this group, 40 patients had vaginal atrophy with sexual dysfunctions. They have been treated differently, being included in four groups: patients treated with local estrogens, patients treated with intravaginal laser therapy, patients treated with both laser therapy and estrogens, patients treated with estrogens and placebo laser therapy. Therapeutic benefit, improvement of vaginal atrophy and quality of sexual life, were objectified by anamnesis (questionnaire), local and general clinical examination and PAP smear. The best results have been obtained, by far, in the 3rd group, followed by the women treated only with laser. In conclusion, we can say that laser therapy is the best way for solving the sexual inconveniences of menopause.

  3. Comparison of vaginal and oral misoprostol, for the induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of vaginal and oral misoprostol, for the induction of labour in women with intra-uterine foetal death. ... It is a tertiary institution serving predominantly black indigenous population. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was the induction to delivery time, and secondary outcome measures were ...

  4. 539 Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... highest prevalence (13.669; df = 5) which is statistically significant. (p<0.05). The women ... It is a common gynaecologic ailment, affecting three out of four women in their .... properly or not at all due to fatigue or the tummy size thereby encouraging vaginal infections. ... District Laboratory Practice in. Tropical ...

  5. Characteristics of women with continued use of vaginal pessaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Barbara J; Staley, Doug; Girouard, Lise; Maslow, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal pessaries have been shown to be a safe, effective treatment for pelvic organ prolapse, and in some cases, female urinary incontinence. There are limited data that predict long-term pessary use; therefore, the aim of this retrospective, exploratory study was to describe selected characteristics of women using a pessary for 12 months or longer in a nurse-run clinic.

  6. Vaginal Bleeding In 6 Years Old Young Female: Diagnostic Challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 6 year old young girl was referred to Mendefera (Zoba Debub Referral) Hospital with vaginal bleeding of 4 days duration. She had a history of swimming in a river prior to the incident. An aquatic leech bloated with blood detached from the vagina after 100 milliliters of normal saline flushing into the vagina. The patient was ...

  7. Bladder And Uterine Rupture At Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture of the uterus is still a major obstetric problem in developing countries. The urinary bladder is often affected especially when a lower segment Caesarean scar ruptures. We present a case of bladder rupture associated with uterine rupture in a patient who was attempting vaginal delivery after two previous Caesarean ...

  8. A rare case of foreign body causing recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbur, Vijayalakshmi R; Gobbur, Raghavendra H; Patil, Ashwini G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic.

  9. Vaginal para-urethral myxoid leiomyoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Elisabetta; Cochetti, Giovanni; Porena, Massimo

    2008-08-01

    Vaginal leiomyoma is a rare solid tumour of unknown aetiology, which usually develops in women between the ages of 35 and 50. As it presents with a wide range of symptoms, diagnosis is based on histological findings. Here we present the case of a 27-year-old white woman with a painless vaginal mass associated with dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea and foul-smelling vaginal discharge. She underwent surgery by vaginal route, and the histological findings confirmed a myxoid leiomyoma. After 17 months, the patient was disease-free, and symptoms disappeared. Vaginal leiomyomas are rare, local recurrence and transformation into sarcoma are rare, and complete surgical excision as soon as possible is recommended.

  10. A Rare Case of Foreign Body Causing Recurrent Vaginal Discharge in Prepubertal Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbur, Raghavendra.H.; Patil, Ashwini.G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic. PMID:25738041

  11. Comparison of storage conditions for human vaginal microbiome studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyun Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of storage conditions on the microbiome and metabolite composition of human biological samples has not been thoroughly investigated as a potential source of bias. We evaluated the effect of two common storage conditions used in clinical trials on the bacterial and metabolite composition of the vaginal microbiota using pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (1H-NMR analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight women were enrolled and four mid-vaginal swabs were collected by a physician from each woman. The samples were either processed immediately, stored at -80°C for 4 weeks or at -20°C for 1 week followed by transfer to -80°C for another 4 weeks prior to analysis. Statistical methods, including Kolmogorovo-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests, were performed to evaluate the differences in vaginal bacterial community composition and metabolites between samples stored under different conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences between samples processed immediately after collection or stored for varying durations. (1H-NMR analysis of the small molecule metabolites in vaginal secretions indicated that high levels of lactic acid were associated with Lactobacillus-dominated communities. Relative abundance of lactic acid did not appear to correlate with relative abundance of individual Lactobacillus sp. in this limited sample, although lower levels of lactic acid were observed when L. gasseri was dominant, indicating differences in metabolic output of seemingly similar communities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings benefit large-scale, field-based microbiome and metabolomic studies of the vaginal microbiota.

  12. VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS – GYNECOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Živadinović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common reasons for consultations with a gynecologist, with an increasing trend in occurrence in female patients. It is estimated that 75% of all women experience an episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis in their lifetime, 50% of them experience at least a second episode, and 5% have recurrent candidiasis. Cervical and vaginal secretions act as the last line of defense from ascendant infection pathway spreading. Factors that may disturb vaginal ecosystem are: endogenous factors, way of life, infectious factors and iatrogenic factors. The most common cause of VC in 85-90% of cases is C. albicans, but other Candida species tend to be more likely to cause VVC (Candida tropicalis , Candida glabrata , C particulary, C crusei and so on. These non-albicans species have been found to be fluconazole and antimycotics resistant in more than 70% of cases. This is especially true for C. glabrata. There are several predisposing factors that have been associated with VC recurrence and resistance, such as Candida genotypes, resistance and virulence, immunodeficiency, unregulated hyperglycemia, use of oral contraceptives, long-term use of antibiotics. Therapy approach should be individual, including local and oral antimycotics until the symptoms disappear. The maintenance dose can be continuous or intermittent. Due to hormone concentration increase, increase in local glycogen, alternations of vaginal flora, VC incidence in pregnancy is two times higher in comparison to other female population. The problem of vaginal candidiasis requires individual approach, taking into account all the risk factors and accompanying physiological conditions or diseases in female patients.

  13. Throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Vaginitis is among the most common conditions women are seeking medical care for. Although these infections can easily be treated, the relapse rate is high. This may be due to inadequate use of the diagnostic potential. Methods We evaluated the misjudgement rate of the aetiology of vaginal complaints. A total of 220 vaginal samples from women with a vaginal complaint were obtained and analysed for numbers of total lactobacilli, H2O2-producing lactobacilli, total aerobic cell counts and total anaerobic cell counts including bifidobacteria, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. Additionally, the presence of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis was evaluated by DNA-hybridisation using the PCR and Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test, respectively. Results The participating physicians diagnosed Bacterial vaginosis (BV as origin of discomfort in 80 cases, candidiasis in 109 cases and mixed infections in 8 cases. However, a present BV, defined as lack of H2O2-lactobacilli, presence of marker organisms, such as G. vaginalis, Bacteroides spp. or Atopobium vaginae, and an elevated pH were identified in only 45 cases of the women examined. Candida spp. were detected in 46 cases. Interestingly, an elevated pH corresponded solely to the presence of Atopobium vaginae, which was detected in 11 cases. Conclusion Errors in the diagnosis of BV and candida vulvovaginitis (CV were high. Interestingly, the cases of misjudgement of CV (77% were more numerous than that of BV (61%. The use of Amsel criteria or microscopy did not reduce the number of misinterpretations. The study reveals that the misdiagnosis of vaginal complaints is rather high.

  14. Throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Taras, David; Rusch, Kerstin; Rusch, Volker

    2006-02-17

    Vaginitis is among the most common conditions women are seeking medical care for. Although these infections can easily be treated, the relapse rate is high. This may be due to inadequate use of the diagnostic potential. We evaluated the misjudgement rate of the aetiology of vaginal complaints. A total of 220 vaginal samples from women with a vaginal complaint were obtained and analysed for numbers of total lactobacilli, H2O2-producing lactobacilli, total aerobic cell counts and total anaerobic cell counts including bifidobacteria, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. Additionally, the presence of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis was evaluated by DNA-hybridisation using the PCR and Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test, respectively. The participating physicians diagnosed Bacterial vaginosis (BV) as origin of discomfort in 80 cases, candidiasis in 109 cases and mixed infections in 8 cases. However, a present BV, defined as lack of H2O2-lactobacilli, presence of marker organisms, such as G. vaginalis, Bacteroides spp. or Atopobium vaginae, and an elevated pH were identified in only 45 cases of the women examined. Candida spp. were detected in 46 cases. Interestingly, an elevated pH corresponded solely to the presence of Atopobium vaginae, which was detected in 11 cases. Errors in the diagnosis of BV and candida vulvovaginitis (CV) were high. Interestingly, the cases of misjudgement of CV (77%) were more numerous than that of BV (61%). The use of Amsel criteria or microscopy did not reduce the number of misinterpretations. The study reveals that the misdiagnosis of vaginal complaints is rather high.

  15. Study comparing 3 hour and 24 hour post-operative removal of bladder catheter and vaginal pack following vaginal surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Priya; Soundara Raghavan, S; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-09-11

    Traditional practice after vaginal hysterectomy was to keep the vaginal pack and urinary catheter for 24 hours post operatively. But there were studies that prolonged cathterisation was associated with urinary infection. So this study was conducted to compare the post operative outcome when the urinary catheter and vaginal pack were removed after 3 hours and after 24 hours after surgery. The study was done in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in a tertiary teaching institute of South India from September 2008 to March 2010. It was a randomised controlled trial involving 200 women undergoing vaginal surgery, who were randomly assigned to 2 groups - catheter and vaginal pack were removed either in 3 h in study group or were removed in 24 h in control group. The outcome of the study were vaginal bleeding, urinary retention, febrile morbidity, and urinary infection. There was no significant difference between the study and control groups with respect to vaginal bleeding (0 and 1%, p = 1), urinary retention (9 and 4%, p = 0.15), febrile morbidity (7 and 4%, p = 0.35), and urinary infection (26% in each group, p = 1.0). Keeping the urinary catheter and vaginal pack for 24 h following vaginal surgery does not offer any additional benefit against removing them after 3 h.

  16. Effect of Vaginal Hygiene Module to Attitudes and Behavior of Pathological Vaginal Discharge Prevention Among Female Adolescents in Slemanregency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarah, Sumarah; Widyasih, Hesty

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of vaginal hygiene module to attitudes and behavior of pathological vaginal discharge prevention in adolescent girls in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Materials and methods: This present study is a quasi experiment with pretest and post-test control group design. A total of 80 female students was selected randomly from two secondary schools at the study site and then distributed equally to control and experimental group. Only participants in the experimental group were given self-learning vaginal hygiene module to maintain vaginal cleanliness. A questionnaire was used as an instrument to measure the attitudes and behavior of vaginal discharge prevention. Paired and independent sample t-tests with significance level (p value) at 0.05 and Confidence Interval (CI) of 95%were employed to compare the mean difference. Results: There is a significant difference in the students' attitude and practice of pathological vaginal discharge prevention between intervention and control group. The students who have been exposed to vaginal hygiene module for six months showed better attitudes and practice in pathological vaginal discharge prevention compared to their counterpart in control group who do not receive any module. Conclusion: The present study implied that vaginal hygiene module can be provided widely for female adolescents at their early puberty. District health officers may work closely with schools' health promoter to reach the students and create a supportive environment for reproductive health discussion and forum in order to achieve better adolescents' reproductive health status.

  17. [Itraconazole and secnidazole capsules vs. vaginal ovules of fluocinolone acetonide, nystatin and metronidazole in the symptomatic treatment of vaginitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado García, A; Gaviño Ambriz, S

    1998-04-01

    Evaluation of oral treatment in vaginitis and vaginosis using Itraconazol and sechidazol, in comparison to topic treatment using vaginal ovules of acetonido of fluocinolona 0.50 mg, nistatina 100,000 U and metronidazol 500 mg. Longitudinal, prospective and open comparative study. Servicio de Reproducción Humana(Human Reproduction Department), Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre". Forty female patients, without any relevant differences in their general characteristics, chose diagnosis was vaginitis and vaginosis, who were medically treated through external consultation, divided in two groups of twenty each one. Group 1 oral treatment with itraconazol and secnidazol. Group 2 had topic treatment with fluocinolona, nistatina and metronidazol. All of the patients were controlled in seven and fourteen days time, in order to evaluate the intensity of their clinical symptomatology, as well as the efficacy in both ways of treatment. Leukorrhea was the most important symptom in all the cases, going from minor to serious white discharge. After the treatment, we found a relevant difference statistically significative in patients treated with intraconazol and secnidazol. We did not find any differences in relation to ardor, pruritus, dispareunia and disuria at post-treatment evaluation. However, group 1 betterment was statistically significative between the first and the seventh days of treatment. Treating vaginitis or vaginosis (or both) with itraconazol and secnidazol takes less time for betterment in addition to comfort and easiness of oral administration; therefore, we consider them proper medicines in these specific cases.

  18. The effects of prolapse surgery on vaginal wall sensibility, vaginal vasocongestion, and sexual function: a prospective single centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, Marielle M. E.; Laan, Ellen; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2014-01-01

    Prolapse surgery has been shown to positively alter body image and decrease pelvic floor symptoms, hereby possibly improving sexual function. However, the surgical trauma itself may adversely affect sexual function, by damaging vaginal innervation and vascularization. The aim of this study is to

  19. Factors associated with successful vaginal birth after cesarean section and outcomes in rural area of Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Mehmet Baki; Cakmak, Yusuf; Atac, Halit; Budak, Mehmet Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Successful vaginal birth after cesarean section is more comfortable than repeat emergency or elective cesarean section. Antenatal examinations are important in selection for trial of labor, while birth management can be difficult when the patients present at emergency condition. But there is an increased chance of vaginal birth with advanced cervical dilation. This study attempts to evaluate factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section and to compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes between vaginal birth after cesarean section and intrapartum cesarean section in patients who were admitted to hospital during the active or second stage of labor. A retrospective evaluation was made from the results of 127 patients. Cesarean section was performed in 57 patients; 70 attempted trial of labor. The factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section were investigated. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Vaginal birth after cesarean section was successful in 55% of cases. Advanced cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were factors associated with successful vaginal birth. The vaginal birth group had more complications (P0.05). In this study, cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were important factors for successful vaginal birth after cesarean section. The patients’ requests influenced outcome. Trial of labor should take into consideration the patient’s preference, together with the proper setting. PMID:26203286

  20. [The change of vaginal lactobacillus in patients with high-risk human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D; Cui, Y; Wu, F L; Deng, W H

    2016-07-05

    To study the distribution characteristics of lactobacillus in the vaginal mucosa of patients with HPV infection. The planting density of lactobacillus in vaginal secretions of 95 cases with HPV16/18 infection and 90 cases of normal women of childbearing age were observed by oil microscope. And the strains of vaginal lactobacilli in two groups were analyzed using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (Species-specific PCR) and the distribution of vaginal lactobacilli in patients with HPV16/18 infection were investigated. In HPV16/18 infective groups, the planting density of lactobacillus in the vaginal mucosa was 104 (68-186)/HP. It was significantly lower than that of the normal group (234 (161-326)/HP, Pinfection group (Pinfection is associated with the decreased number of lactobacillus and the imbalance of vaginal flora; Lactobacillus iners, lactobacillus crispatus, and lactobacillus gasseri may play a key role in maintaining the vaginal micro ecological environment.