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Sample records for anhydroecgonine methyl ester

  1. M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors may play a role in the neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Caio Tamborelli Garcia; Livia Mendonça Munhoz Dati; Larissa Helena Torres; Mariana Aguilera Alencar da Silva; Mariana Sayuri Berto Udo; Fernando Maurício Francis Abdalla; José Luiz da Costa; Renata Gorjão; Solange Castro Afeche; Mauricio Yonamine; Niswender, Colleen M.; P. Jeffrey Conn; Rosana Camarini; Maria Regina Lopes Sandoval; Tania Marcourakis

    2015-01-01

    The smoke of crack cocaine contains cocaine and its pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME possesses greater neurotoxic potential than cocaine and an additive effect when they are combined. Since atropine prevented AEME-induced neurotoxicity, it has been suggested that its toxic effects may involve the muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). Our aim is to understand the interaction between AEME and mAChRs and how it can lead to neuronal death. Using a rat primary hipp...

  2. M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors may play a role in the neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raphael Caio Tamborelli; Dati, Livia Mendonça Munhoz; Torres, Larissa Helena; da Silva, Mariana Aguilera Alencar; Udo, Mariana Sayuri Berto; Abdalla, Fernando Maurício Francis; da Costa, José Luiz; Gorjão, Renata; Afeche, Solange Castro; Yonamine, Mauricio; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Camarini, Rosana; Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-01-01

    The smoke of crack cocaine contains cocaine and its pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME possesses greater neurotoxic potential than cocaine and an additive effect when they are combined. Since atropine prevented AEME-induced neurotoxicity, it has been suggested that its toxic effects may involve the muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). Our aim is to understand the interaction between AEME and mAChRs and how it can lead to neuronal death. Using a rat primary hippocampal cell culture, AEME was shown to cause a concentration-dependent increase on both total [(3)H]inositol phosphate and intracellular calcium, and to induce DNA fragmentation after 24 hours of exposure, in line with the activation of caspase-3 previously shown. Additionally, we assessed AEME activity at rat mAChR subtypes 1-5 heterologously expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. l-[N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine competition binding showed a preference of AEME for the M2 subtype; calcium mobilization tests revealed partial agonist effects at M1 and M3 and antagonist activity at the remaining subtypes. The selective M1 and M3 antagonists and the phospholipase C inhibitor, were able to prevent AEME-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that the toxicity is due to the partial agonist effect at M1 and M3 mAChRs, leading to DNA fragmentation and neuronal death by apoptosis. PMID:26626425

  3. A study on the stability of anhydroecgonine methyl ester (crack biomarker, benzoylecgonine, and cocaine in human urine Estudo da estabilidade do éster metilanidroecgonina, marcador de uso do crack, benzoilecgonina e cocaína em urina humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Martins Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typically, urine and other biological tissues have been analyzed for cocaine (COC and/or metabolites to detect COC usage. COC undergoes numerous biotransformation and degradation reactions. Crack smokers are exposed to anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AME, which can be used as an analytical marker for crack smoking. The stability of this analyte in human urine has not been studied. In the body, COC is rapidly converted to metabolites by enzymatic and chemical processes, the major urinary metabolite being benzoylecgonine (BE. OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out in order to determine the effects of time and temperature on the stability of cocaine/crack metabolites in human urine. METHODS : The stability of AME, BE and COC in urine was investigated using samples of urine stored in freezers and refrigerators. The analytes were extracted from urine using a solid-phase extraction technique and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection method. RESULTS: COC concentrations decreased while BE concentrations increased. AME concentrations remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: The temperature and the duration of storage are decisive in COC hydrolyzing. This study suggests that AME concentrations are not correlated to either storage duration or with storage temperature and AME is more stable than COC.CONTEXTO: Cocaína (COC e/ou metabólitos tem sido analisados em urina e outros fluidos biológicos para se determinar o uso de COC. A COC está sujeita a numerosas reações de biotransformação e degradação. Indivíduos que fumam crack estão expostos ao éster metilanidroecgonina (AME, que pode ser empregado como marcador de uso desta droga. Não há referências na literatura a respeito da estabilidade deste analito em urina humana. No organismo a COC é rapidamente biotransformada em outros metabólitos por meio de processos químicos e enzimáticos e o principal metabólito urinário é a benzoilecgonina (BE. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo

  4. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  5. Effects of high-melting methyl esters on crystallization properties of fatty acid methyl ester mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats. The most common form of biodiesel in the United States are fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from soybean, canola, and used cooking oils, waste greases, and tallow. Cold flow properties of biodiesel depend on th...

  6. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  7. Rape oil methyl ester (RME) and used cooking oil methyl ester (UOME) as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, G.H. [Military Technology Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria. As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self-made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organizations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels. The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.

  8. Crystallisation and Melting Behavior of Methyl Esters of Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng S. Foon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The methyl esters of palm oil, which consists of saturated and unsaturated esters (0.6 to 95.9% unsaturation of the C12 to C18 fatty acids, solidify at the two temperature ranges, -52 to -45°C and -24 to 21°C, when the esters are cooled. When the esters are heated, they melt at two distinct temperatures, -25 and -33°C and a broad peak at -9 to 28°C. The heating thermograms also showed an exothermic crystallisation peak in between two endothermic melting peaks, indicating the occurrence of re-crystallisation of low melting methyl esters into higher melting point crystal and then melt again at higher temperature.

  9. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, incl...

  10. Synthesis of 11C labelled methyl esters: transesterification of enol esters versus BF3 catalysed esterification-a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-11 labelled methyl esters have been synthesized via the transesterification of enol esters in the presence of C-11 methanol and 1,3 dichlorodibutylstannoxane as catalyst. This method leaves functional groups intact and allows access to a wider variety of C-11 labelled methyl esters compared to the BF3 catalysed ester formation, which uses carboxylic acids and C-11 methanol as starting materials

  11. Structure and Reactivity of the Cysteine Methyl Ester Radical Cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.; O' Hair, R. A. J.; Van Stipdonk, M.; Ryzhov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure and reactivity of the cysteine methyl ester radical cation, CysOMe(center dot+), have been examined in the gas phase using a combination of experiment and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. CysOMe(center dot+) undergoes rapid ion molecule reactions with dimethyl disulfide, a

  12. A Convenient Synthesis of Amino Acid Methyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowu Sha

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides were prepared in good toexcellent yields by the room temperature reaction of amino acids with methanol in thepresence of trimethylchlorosilane. This method is not only compatible with natural aminoacids, but also with other aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LINSEED AND NEEM METHYL ESTERS AS BIODIESEL ON CI ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    V.DHANA RAJU; P.RAVINDRA KUMAR

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigations were carried out on C.I.engine with Bio Diesel blends of Linseed Methyl Esters and Neem Oil Methyl Esters .The engine used for the experiments was single cylinder Four Stroke water cooled, constant speed diesel engine . Linseed Methyl ester (LSOME) and Neem oil methyl ester (NOME) are derived through transesterification process and parameters of transesterification were optimized. The blends of various proportions of the LSOME & NOME with diesel were prepared, a...

  14. Methyl Esters for Tumor Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Portilla-Arias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New copolyesters derived from poly(β,L-malic acid have been designed to serve as nanoconjugate platforms in drug delivery. 25% and 50% methylated derivatives (coPMLA-Me25H75 and coPMLA-Me50H50 with absolute molecular weights of 32 600 Da and 33 100 Da, hydrodynamic diameters of 3.0 nm and 5.2 nm and zeta potential of −15 mV and −8.25 mV, respectively, were found to destabilize membranes of liposomes at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5 at concentrations above 0.05 mg/mL. The copolymers were soluble in PBS (half life of 40 hours and in human plasma (half life of 15 hours but they showed tendency to aggregate at high levels of methylation. Fluorescence-labeled copolymers were internalized into MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with increased efficiency for the higher methylated copolymer. Viability of cultured brain and breast cancer cell lines indicated moderate toxicity that increased with methylation. The conclusion of the present work is that partially methylated poly(β,L-malic acid copolyesters are suitable as nanoconjugate platforms for drug delivery.

  15. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a...

  16. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  17. NF EN 14103. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the ester and methylic ester content of linoleic acid; NF EN 14103. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en ester et en ester methylique de l'acide linolenique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard aims at determining the ester and methylic ester content of fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) used as pure bio-fuels or as constituent of a heating or diesel fuel. This method allows also to determine the methylic ester content of linoleic acid. It allows to verify that the ester content of FAMEs is greater than 90% (m/m) and that the linoleic acid content is comprised between 1% (m/m) and 15% (m/m). The method is applicable to FAMEs with methylic ester contents comprised between C14 and C24. (J.S.)

  18. Sodium borohydride reduction of aromatic carboxylic acids via methyl esters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aamer Saeed; Zaman Ashraf

    2006-09-01

    A number of important aromatic carboxylic acids precursors, or intermediates in the syntheses of natural products, are converted into methyl esters and reduced to the corresponding primary alcohols using a sodium borohydride-THF-methanol system. The alcohols are obtained in 70-92% yields in 2-5 hours, in a pure state. This two-step procedure not only provides a better alternative to aluminum hydride reduction of acids but also allows the selective reduction of esters in presence of acids, amides, nitriles or nitro functions which are not affected under these conditions.

  19. Volumetric properties of sunflower methyl ester oil at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Cristina; Guignon, Bérengère; Rodríguez-Antón, Luis M; Sanz, Pedro D

    2007-09-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel oil (DO), because it is a fuel obtained from renewable resources that has lower emissions than DO. Biomass production should promote agricultural activity to obtain fuels for the transport sector. The study of the behavior of biodiesel at varying pressure and temperature is very interesting because diesel engines are mechanical systems that work with fuels submitted to high pressure. The specific volume, isothermal compressibility, and cubic expansion coefficients of refined sunflower methyl ester oil (SMEO) and unrefined sunflower methyl ester oil (URSMEO) were obtained and compared with those of DO from 0.1 to 350 MPa and 288.15 to 328.15 K. This work shows that oil refinement did not significantly modify any of the properties studied of the final biodiesel. Compared with DO, both SMEOs were about 6% denser, whereas isothermal compressibility and cubic expansion coefficients were bigger or smaller for DO depending on pressure and temperature.

  20. Production and Characterization of Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkateswara Rao, G. Srinivasa Rao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is emerging as a promising substitute of an alternative fuel and has gained significant attention due to the predicted depletion of conventional fuels availability in near future and environmental pollution concern. Utilization of biodiesel produced from Jatropha oil by transesterification process is one of the most promising options to replace conventional fossil diesel fuel. The physical properties such as density, Kinematic viscosity, flash point, carbon residue, Pour point and Cetane number were found out for diesel, Jatropha oil and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester (JOME produced in the laboratory. Properties obtained for the Jatropha oil methyl ester are very closely matched with the values of conventional diesel fuel and can be used without any modification in the existing diesel engine.

  1. Fatty acid methyl esters production: chemical process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of fatty acid methyl esters as basic oleochemicals over fatty acids, the seventies world energy crisis and the use of those oleochemicals as fuels, have increased research interest on fats and oils trans-esterification. In this document, a review about basic aspects, uses, process variables and problems associated to the production process of fatty acid methyl esters is presented. A global view of recent researches, most of them focused in finding a new catalyst with same activity as the alcohol-soluble hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, and suitable to be used in transforming fats and oils with high levels of free fatty acids and water avoiding separation problems and reducing process costs, is also discussed.

  2. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660 Section 573.660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut...

  3. A study on emission performance of a diesel engine fueled with five typical methyl ester biodiesels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fujia; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Wenmiao; Shuai, Shijin

    As an alternative and renewable fuel, biodiesel can effectively reduce diesel engine emissions, especially particulate matter and dry soot. However, the biodiesel effects on emissions may vary as the source fuel changes. In this paper, the performance of five methyl esters with different sources was studied: cottonseed methyl ester (CME), soybean methyl ester (SME), rapeseed methyl ester (RME), palm oil methyl ester (PME) and waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME). Total particulate matter (PM), dry soot (DS), non-soot fraction (NSF), nitrogen oxide (NO x), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) were investigated on a Cummins ISBe6 Euro III diesel engine and compared with a baseline diesel fuel. Results show that using different methyl esters results in large PM reductions ranging from 53% to 69%, which include the DS reduction ranging from 79% to 83%. Both oxygen content and viscosity could influence the DS emission. Higher oxygen content leads to less DS at high load while lower viscosity results in less DS at low load. NSF decreases consistently as cetane number increases except for PME. The cetane number could be responsible for the large NSF difference between different methyl esters.

  4. Reaction of gallocyanine methyl ester with uranyl ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoucek, M.; Hrbkova, M. (Palackeho Univ., Olomouc (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta)

    1984-09-01

    The reaction of gallocyanine methyl ester with uranyl ions was studied spectrophotometrically in slightly acid or neutral solutions of 40% (m/m) ethanol. A violet complex of UO/sub 2/L/sub 2/ is formed at pH>5. The conditional stability constants of the complex in the pH range 6-7.4 and the equilibrium constants of the coordination reaction were derived from the concentration curves and the continuous variations curves. The optimum conditions were sought for the spectrophotometric determination of uranium based on the occurrence of the UO/sub 2/L/sub 2/ complex. The relative standard deviation obtained for a uranium concentration of 106 ..mu..g.l/sup -1/ was ssub(r)=2.13%.

  5. Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

  6. Reaction of gallocyanine methyl ester with uranyl ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of gallocyanine methyl ester with uranyl ions was studied spectrophotometrically in slightly acid or neutral solutions of 40% (m/m) ethanol. A violet complex of UO2L2 is formed at pH>5. The conditional stability constants of the complex in the pH range 6-7.4 and the equilibrium constants of the coordination reaction were derived from the concentration curves and the continuous variations curves. The optimum conditions were sought for the spectrophotometric determination of uranium based on the occurrence of the UO2L2 complex. The relative standard deviation obtained for a uranium concentration of 106 μg.l-1 was ssub(r)=2.13%. (author)

  7. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    OpenAIRE

    D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinashy

    2013-01-01

    In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME), neem oil methyl esters (NOME), and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three m...

  8. Application of Factorial Design of Experiments for the Continuous Hydrogenation of Enriched Castor Oil Methyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Tulasi Sri Venkata Ramana Neeharika; Karna Narayana Prasanna Rani; Kasturi Venkata Sesha Adinarayana Rao; Thella Prathap Kumar; Rachapudi Badari Narayana Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Castor oil methyl esters contains nearly 90% ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid). Hydrogen-ated castor oil methyl esters finds several applications in coating, lubricants formulations and pharmaceu-tical areas. The present study reports a fast, simple, efficient and continuous hydrogenation of enriched castor oil methyl ester (ECME) using 10% Pd/C catalyst at different pressures and temperatures. The range of process conditions for this study varied from 30-60 °C, 5-15 bar wi...

  9. Effect of internal nozzle flow and thermo-physical properties on spray characteristics of methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nozzle flow and spray characteristics of methyl esters have been studied. • A new hybrid spray model was implemented into KIVA4 CFD code. • Nozzle flow simulation shows methyl stearate has less cavitation. • Methyl linoleate atomization is comparable with diesel atomization. • Methyl stearate has poor atomization compared to other methyl esters. - Abstract: In compression ignition engines, the quality of the spray atomization significantly affects the performance and emissions of the engine. The differences in thermo-physical properties of biodiesel have significant effect on both the internal nozzle flow and spray characteristics. In this study, the internal nozzle flow and spray characteristics of three major methyl esters found in various biodiesels, namely methyl oleate, methyl stearate, and methyl linoleate were studied as a representative of different biodiesels. A new hybrid spray model developed by coupling cavitation induced spray model with KHRT model in KIVA4 CFD code was used in this study. The model was validated against diesel spray characteristics obtained from the experiments conducted in house using constant volume spray chamber and good agreement was found. The internal flow simulations shows that methyl stearate cavitates the least followed by methyl oleate and linoleate. The spray simulations shows that spray tip penetration of methyl stearate is higher than other methyl esters and diesel because of its high viscosity and large droplet diameter. Methyl linoleate was found to atomize better than other esters and comparable to diesel. However at high ambient temperature, liquid length is highly dominated by both latent heat of vaporization and viscosity

  10. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters as Biosolvents of Epoxy Resins: A Physicochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-González, Yaocihuatl; De Caro, Pascale; Thiebaud-Roux, Sophie; Lacaze-Dufaure, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The C8 to C18 fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) have been compared as solvents for two epoxy resin pre-polymers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA) and triglycidyl paminophenol ether (TGPA). It was found that the solubilization limits vary according to the ester and that methyl caprylate is the best solvent of both resins. To explain these solubility performances, physical and chemical properties of FAME were studied, such as the Hansen parameters, viscosity, binary diffusion coefficient and ...

  11. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION O F SODIUM METHYL ESTER SULFONATE FOR CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, K.; N. K. Maurya; Mandal, A.; Saxena, V. K.

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAttention has been given to reduce the cost of surfactant by using castor oil as an alternative natural source of feedstock. A new surfactant, sodium methyl ester sulfonate (SMES) was synthesised using ricinoleic acid methyl ester, which is obtained from castor oil, for enhanced oil recovery in petroleum industries. The performance of SMES was studied by measuring the surface tension with and without sodium chloride and its thermal stability at reservoir temperature. SMES exhibited go...

  12. Synthesis of a high-grade lubricant from sunflower oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillion Gérard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis of saturated branched fatty acid methyl esters by codimerization of ethylene with conjugated linoleic methyl esters from sunflower oil. The catalytic system used is composed of iron, diimine and a reducing agent. This four-step synthesis will be discussed. After a last step of transesterification with TMP (trimethylolpropane a lubricant with interesting characteristics (in particular a high thermal stability and a good cold behavior is obtained

  13. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LINSEED AND NEEM METHYL ESTERS AS BIODIESEL ON CI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.DHANA RAJU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigations were carried out on C.I.engine with Bio Diesel blends of Linseed Methyl Esters and Neem Oil Methyl Esters .The engine used for the experiments was single cylinder Four Stroke water cooled, constant speed diesel engine . Linseed Methyl ester (LSOME and Neem oil methyl ester (NOME are derived through transesterification process and parameters of transesterification were optimized. The blends of various proportions of the LSOME & NOME with diesel were prepared, analyzed and compared with diesel fuel,and comparison was made to suggest the better option among the bio diesel. Various Tests have been carried out to examine properties, performance of different blends (B05, B10, B15, and B20 of LSOME and NOME in comparison to diesel. From the experimental Results it is indicated that B20 have closer performance to diesel. However, its diesel blends showed reasonable efficiencies. From the experimental results it is observed that Linseed methyl ester gives better performance compared to Neem methyl esters and also the emissions and smoke for these diesel blends are less as compare to the pure diesel.

  14. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  15. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  16. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and first hyper polarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  17. Effect of reaction temperature and time on neem methyl ester yield in a batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fatty acid profile and molecular mass of neem oil were determined. • Main effects of the factors and interaction were successfully quantified and compared. • Six (6) regression models were developed for methyl ester yield using NLREG software. • Results showed that the models can predict the methyl ester yield within 7% of experimental values. - Abstract: Experimental investigation of neem methyl ester yield in a batch reactor at different process conditions of temperature and reaction duration was carried out using a 2-factor, 5-level full factorial experimental design. Reaction temperature was varied between 40 °C and 60 °C, while reaction time was studied in the range of 30–120 min. The study, which was carried out using 1% w/w catalyst amount and alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1, showed that reaction temperature had a highly significant effect (p < 0.01) in comparison with reaction time, which had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on methyl ester yield. Six (6) empirical models were developed for the response variable of methyl ester yield using a non-linear regression analysis method, facilitated by NLREG version 6.3 software. Results showed that the mean predicted ester yield values and mean experimental values were not statistically different at the 95% confidence level, whereas the maximum deviation observed was 6.9%

  18. The occurrence of 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester in Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen root bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lognay G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our ongoing search for natural fumigants from Senegalese plants, we have investigated Securicicidaca longepedunculata root barks and demonstrated that 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (methyl salicylate, I is responsible of their biocide effect against stored grain insects. A second unknown apparented product, II has been systematically observed in all analyzed samples. The present paper describes the identification of this molecule. The analytical investigations including GCMS, GLC and 1H-NMR. spectrometry led to the conclusion that II corresponds to the 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester.

  19. Potentiation of insulin release in response to amino acid methyl esters correlates to activation of islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans; Lernmark, A; Hedeskov, C J

    1986-01-01

    Column perifusion of mouse pancreatic islets was used to study the ability of amino acids and their methyl esters to influence insulin release and activate islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity. In the absence of L-glutamine, L-serine and the methyl ester of L-phenylalanine, but neither L-phenylalanine...... nor L-serine methyl ester, stimulate insulin secretion. In the presence of L-glutamine, however, the effect of L-serine was additive, while the methyl esters of L-serine and L-phenylalanine as well as native L-phenylalanine, potentiated the glucose-stimulated release of insulin. Measurements of islet...... glutamate dehydrogenase activity showed that only the two methyl esters of L-phenylalanine and L-serine activated the enzyme. It is concluded that the mechanism by which methyl esters of amino acids potentiate insulin release is most likely to be mediated by the activation of pancreatic beta-cell glutamate...

  20. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinashy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME, neem oil methyl esters (NOME, and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  1. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramaniam, D.; Avinash, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology –Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugesan, A. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology – Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME), neem oil methyl esters (NOME), and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel) a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  2. Synthesis and Characteristics of an Aspartame Analogue, L-Asparaginyl L-3-Phenyllactic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu TAO; Da-Fu CUI; You-Shang ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    An aspartame analogue,L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester was synthesized with aspartic acid replaced by asparagine and peptide bond replaced by ester bond.The aspartic acid of aspartame could be replaced by asparagine as reported in the literature.In this analogue,the hydrogen ofamide group could still form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of ester bond and the ester bond was isosteric with peptide bond.However,the product was not sweet,showing that the peptide bond could not be replaced by ester bond.The peptide C-N bond behaves as a double bond that is not free to rotate and the C,O,N and H atoms are in the same plane.The replacement of peptide bond by ester bond destroyed the unique conformation of peptide bond,resulting in the loss of sweet taste.

  3. Synthesis and characteristics of an aspartame analogue, L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hu; Cui, Da-Fu; Zhang, You-Shang

    2004-06-01

    An aspartame analogue, L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester was synthesized with aspartic acid replaced by asparagine and peptide bond replaced by ester bond. The aspartic acid of aspartame could be replaced by asparagine as reported in the literature. In this analogue, the hydrogen of amide group could still form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of ester bond and the ester bond was isosteric with peptide bond. However, the product was not sweet, showing that the peptide bond could not be replaced by ester bond. The peptide C-N bond behaves as a double bond that is not free to rotate and the C, O, N and H atoms are in the same plane. The replacement of peptide bond by ester bond destroyed the unique conformation of peptide bond, resulting in the loss of sweet taste.

  4. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  5. Combustion of Pure, Hydrolyzed and Methyl Ester Formed of Jatropha Curcas Lin oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhaji Muhaji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The density and viscosity of vegetable oil are higher than that of diesel oil. Thus its direct combustion in the diesel engine results many problems. This research was conducted to investigate the flame characteristics of combustion of jatropha curcas lin in pure, hydrolyzed and methyl ester form. The results indicated that the combustion of pure jatropha curcas lin occurs in three stages, hydrolyzed in two stages    and methyl ester in one stage. For pure jatropha curcas lin, in the first stage, unsaturated fatty acid burned for  0.265 s.  It is followed by saturated fatty acid, burned for 0.389 s in the second stage. And, in the last stage is the burned of glycerol for 0.560 s. Meanwhile for hydrolyzed one, in the first stage, unsaturated fatty acid burned for 0.736 s, followed by saturated fatty acid, burned  for 0.326 s in the second stage. And the last, for methyl ester is the burned for 0.712 s. The highest burning rate was for methyl ester which was 0.003931cc/s. The energy releasing rate of methyl ester, which was for 13,628.67 kcal/(kg.s resembled that of diesel oil the most, while the lowest rate was for pure jatropha curcas lin which was 8,200.94 kcal/(kg.s. In addition, massive explosion occurred in the fuel containing unsaturated fatty acid and glycerol

  6. Process optimization for methyl ester production from waste cooking oil using activated carbon supported potassium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, B.H.; Goh, C.S.; Chin, L.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents the transesterification of waste cooking palm oil (WCO) using activated carbon supported potassium fluoride catalyst. A central composite rotatable design was used to optimize the effect of molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction period, catalyst loading and reaction temperature on the transesterification process. The reactor was pressurized up to 10 bar using nitrogen gas. All the variables were found to affect significantly the methyl ester yield where the most effective factors being the amount of catalyst and reaction temperature, followed by methanol to oil ratio. A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for methyl ester yield by multiple regression analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum condition for transesterification of WCO to methyl ester was obtained at 3 wt.% amount of catalyst, 175 C temperature, 8.85 methanol to oil molar ratio and 1 h reaction time. At the optimum condition, the predicted methyl ester yield was 83.00 wt.%. The experimental value was well within the estimated value of the model. The catalyst showed good performance with a high yield of methyl ester and the separation of the catalyst from the liquid mixture is easy. (author)

  7. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  8. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucy, Harrison

    Microalgae is currently receiving strong consideration as a potential biofuel feedstock to help meet the advanced biofuels mandate of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act because of its theoretically high yield (gallons/acre/year) in comparison to current terrestrial feedstocks. Additionally, microalgae also do not compete with food and can be cultivated with wastewater on non-arable land. Microalgae lipids can be converted into a variety of biofuels including fatty acid methyl esters (e.g. FAME biodiesel), renewable diesel, renewable gasoline, or jet fuel. For microalgae derived FAME, the fuel properties will be directly related to the fatty acid composition of the lipids produced by the given microalgae strain. Several microalgae species under consideration for wide scale cultivation, such as Nannochloropsis, produce lipids with fatty acid compositions containing substantially higher quantities of long chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in comparison to terrestrial feedstocks. It is expected that increased levels of LC-PUFA will be problematic in terms of meeting all of the current ASTM specifications for biodiesel. For example, it is known that oxidative stability and cetane number decrease with increasing levels of LC-PUFA. However, these same LC-PUFA fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6) are known to have high nutritional value thereby making separation of these compounds economically attractive. Given the uncertainty in the future value of these LC-PUFA compounds and the economic viability of the separation process, the goal of this study was to examine the oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae-based FAME with varying levels of EPA and DHA removal. Oxidative stability tests were conducted at a temperature of 110°C and airflow of 10 L/h using a Metrohm 743 Rancimat with automatic induction period determination following the EN 14112 Method from the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214

  9. Density of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil and its Methyl Esters: Measurement and Estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veny, Harumi; Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Hasan, Masitah; Raman, Abdul Aziz; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik

    2009-04-01

    Density data as a function of temperature have been measured for Jatropha curcas seed oil, as well as biodiesel jatropha methyl esters at temperatures from above their melting points to 90 ° C. The data obtained were used to validate the method proposed by Spencer and Danner using a modified Rackett equation. The experimental and estimated density values using the modified Rackett equation gave almost identical values with average absolute percent deviations less than 0.03% for the jatropha oil and 0.04% for the jatropha methyl esters. The Janarthanan empirical equation was also employed to predict jatropha biodiesel densities. This equation performed equally well with average absolute percent deviations within 0.05%. Two simple linear equations for densities of jatropha oil and its methyl esters are also proposed in this study.

  10. Studies on orange oil methyl ester in diesel engine with hemispherical and toroidal combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthickeyan Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been made to compare the emission characteristics of 20% orange oil methyl ester and 80% diesel in volumetric basis with Neat diesel in hemispherical combustion chamber and toroidal combustion chamber. Non-edible orange oil is selected and utilized to prepare alternative fuel to be utilized in Diesel engine. The traditional method of transestrification is employed for preparation orange oil methyl ester. The chemical properties of prepared methyl ester were determined using fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy method. Further its fuel properties were found based on American Society for Testing and Materials standards and compared with Neat diesel fuel properties. A compression ignition engine with electrical dynamometer test rig with gas analyzer has been used. It is observed that 1% of NOx and 4% of HC emission reduced in toroidal combustion chamber engine. However, smoke emission is found to be lower in hemispherical combustion chamber engine.

  11. Comparison of performance and emissions of diesel fuel, rapeseed and soybean oil methyl esters injected at different pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celikten, ismet; Koca, Atilla [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Gazi University, 06500, Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Ali Arslan, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Institute of Science and Technology, Gazi University, 06570, Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Fuel properties of rapeseed oil and soybean oil methyl esters (e.g. density, cetane number and viscosity etc.) are similar to those of the diesel fuel. These methyl esters can be used as diesel engine fuel by mixing with diesel fuel. In this study a comparison of diesel fuel, the rapeseed oil methyl ester and the soybean oil methyl ester was made from the engine performance and emissions point of view. The tests were carried out with a four-cylinder diesel engine for tree different injection pressures such as 250, 300 and 350 bar with each of these fuels. For the purpose of comparison, tests were also conducted at full load conditions with diesel fuel. As the result, the performance and emission values of rapeseed oil (R) and soybean oil (S) methyl esters were found to be nearly the same with those of diesel fuels (D) when injection pressure was increased to 300 bar. (author)

  12. Beyond fatty acid methyl esters: Expanding the renewable carbon profile with alkenones from Isochrysis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to characteristic fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), biodiesel produced from Isochrysis sp. contains a significant amount (14% dry weight) of predominantly C37 and C38 longchain alkenones. These compounds are members of a class of lipids known collectively as polyunsaturated long-chain al...

  13. Cold flow properties of fatty acid methyl esters: Additives versus diluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is typically composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) converted from agricultural lipids. Common feedstocks include soybean oil, canola oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and palm oil. Recent debate on the conversion of edible oils into non-food products has created opportunities to deve...

  14. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  15. Low-temperature phase behavior of fatty acid methyl esters by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) mixtures have many uses including biodiesel, lubricants, metal-working fluids, surfactants, polymers, coatings, green solvents and phase-change materials. The physical properties of a FAME mixture depends on the fatty acid concentration (FAC) profile. Some products hav...

  16. 4-[(2-Hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic Acid Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadada Naganagowda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new Schiff base, 4-[(2-hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester was synthesized and its UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data are presented.

  17. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters of Melon Seed Oil: Characterisation for Potential Diesel Fuel Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. EJIKEME

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, biodiesel, are alternative diesel fuels usually obtained from renewable sources, mainly, vegetable and animal oils through transesterification among other processes. Melon seed oil was extracted from melon seeds bought from a local market, degummed and alkali refined using standard methods. FAME of the oil was produced using methanol in the molar ration of 1:6, 1% sodium hydroxide catalyst at the reaction temperature of 60 deg C for the duration of 1h. Results obtained showed that the fatty acid methyl esters had a specific gravity of 0.8786, viscosity of 6.24 centistokes, pH of 7.23, heating value of 36.34 J/g and flash point of 148 deg C. The FAME yield was 87.35% under the reaction conditions that applied. The infrared spectra of both the refined oil and the methyl esters from it, showed peaks at 1721.3cm-1 and 1167.8cm-1 (C=O and C-O stretches large and medium absorbance's for oils and methyl esters. Generally, the fuel properties of the FAME compared with values obtained under the same conditions for conventional petroleum diesel that was sourced from a retail outlet; suggesting that biodiesel from MSO could be used alone or in blends with petrodiesel to power compression ignition (diesel engines.

  18. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil and evaluation as biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared in high yield by transesterification of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil. Extracted using supercritical CO2, the crude oil was initially treated with mineral acid and methanol to lower its content of free fatty acids, thus rendering it amenable to homogeneou...

  19. Direct aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to methyl esters catalyzed by a heterogeneous gold catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inger Staunstrup; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten;

    2007-01-01

    Methyl esters can be produced in high yield by oxidising methanolic solutions of primary alcohols with dioxygen over a heterogeneous gold catalyst. The versatility of this new methodology is demonstrated by the fact that alkylic, benzylic and allylic alcohols, as well as alcohols containing...

  20. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from and fatty acid profile of Gliricidia sepium seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing the supply of biodiesel by defining and developing additional feedstocks is important to overcome the still limited amounts available of this alternative fuel. In this connection, the methyl esters of the seed oil of Gliricidia sepium were synthesized and the significant fuel-related prop...

  1. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  2. Rheological behavior, chemical and physical characterization of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters submitted to thermal oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Sant' ana; Silva, Flavio Luiz Honorato da; Lima, Ezenildo Emanuel de; Carvalho, Maria Wilma N.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Dantas, Hemeval Jales; Farias, Paulo de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CTRN/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    In this study the effect of antioxidant terc-butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) on the oxidative stability of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters subjected to thermal degradation at 100 deg C was studied. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters specific mass, dynamic viscosity and rheological behavior were evaluated. According to results, antioxidant degraded samples specific mass and dynamic viscosity did not showed alterations, remaining statistically equal. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters showed a Newtonian rheological behavior and degraded samples without adding BHA showed rheological behavior alterations. (author)

  3. Levodopa methyl ester increases nerve growth factor expression in visual cortex area 17 in a feline model of strabismic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongwen Li; Xing Lin; Shijun Zhang; Rong Li; Weizhe Jiang; Renbin Huang

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a feline model of strabismic amblyopia was established during a sensitive developmental period, and the influence of levodopa methyl ester and levodopa on nerve growth factor expression in the visual cortex (area 17) was compared. Pattern visual-evoked potential and immunohistochemistry results showed that levodopa methyl ester and levodopa treatment shortened P100 wave latency, increased P100 amplitude, and increased the number of endogenous nerve growth factor-positive cells in visual cortex levels. In particular, the effects of levodopa methyl ester were superior to levodopa treatment.

  4. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  5. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  6. Efficient production of the Nylon 12 monomer ω-aminododecanoic acid methyl ester from renewable dodecanoic acid methyl ester with engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladkau, Nadine; Assmann, Miriam; Schrewe, Manfred; Julsing, Mattijs K; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    The expansion of microbial substrate and product scopes will be an important brick promoting future bioeconomy. In this study, an orthogonal pathway running in parallel to native metabolism and converting renewable dodecanoic acid methyl ester (DAME) via terminal alcohol and aldehyde to 12-aminododecanoic acid methyl ester (ADAME), a building block for the high-performance polymer Nylon 12, was engineered in Escherichia coli and optimized regarding substrate uptake, substrate requirements, host strain choice, flux, and product yield. Efficient DAME uptake was achieved by means of the hydrophobic outer membrane porin AlkL increasing maximum oxygenation and transamination activities 8.3 and 7.6-fold, respectively. An optimized coupling to the pyruvate node via a heterologous alanine dehydrogenase enabled efficient intracellular L-alanine supply, a prerequisite for self-sufficient whole-cell transaminase catalysis. Finally, the introduction of a respiratory chain-linked alcohol dehydrogenase enabled an increase in pathway flux, the minimization of undesired overoxidation to the respective carboxylic acid, and thus the efficient formation of ADAME as main product. The completely synthetic orthogonal pathway presented in this study sets the stage for Nylon 12 production from renewables. Its effective operation achieved via fine tuning the connectivity to native cell functionalities emphasizes the potential of this concept to expand microbial substrate and product scopes. PMID:26969251

  7. Combustion of jojoba methyl ester in an indirect injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, M.Y.E. [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Radwan, M.S.; Elfeky, S.M.S. [Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt). Mechanical Power Engineering Dept.

    2003-07-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to examine for the first time the performance and combustion noise of an indirect injection diesel engine running with new fuel derived from pure jojoba oil, jojoba methyl ester, and its blends with gas oil. A Ricardo E6 compression swirl diesel engine was fully instrumented for the measurement of combustion pressure and its rise rate and other operating parameters. Test parameters included the percentage of jojoba methyl ester in the blend, engine speed, load, injection timing and engine compression ratio. Results showed that the new fuel derived from jojoba is generally comparable and a good replacement to gas oil in diesel engine at most engine operating conditions, in terms of performance parameters and combustion noise produced. (author)

  8. Thermally reversible gels based on acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester as drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1999-06-01

    Thermally reversible hydrogels were synthesized by radiation-induced copolymerization of acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester with hydrophilic or hydrophobic monomers. The swelling behaviour was found to be affected by a proper balance of the latter. In particular, the transition temperature of the different hydrogels shifted to higher or lower values depending on the presence of hydrophilic or hydrophobic moieties in the polymer chain, respectively. Acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug, was entrapped into some hydrogels and a wide range of release rates was obtained according to the nature of the comonomers. A novel thermoresponsive hydrogel was also prepared by radiation polymerization of acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester in the presence of 4-acryloyloxy acetanilide, an acrylic derivative of acetaminophen. Again, the swelling curves showed an inverse function of temperature. It was shown that with this hydrogel bearing the drug covalently attached to the polymer backbone, the hydrolysis process was the rate-determining process of the drug release.

  9. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of pongamia oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haiter Lenin, K. Thyagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study pongamia methyl ester was prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH as catalyst and was used as fuel in a four stroke, water cooled, single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. Pongamia methyl ester fuel blends (75% and 100% were used for conducting the engine performance tests at varying loads (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%. Tests were carried out over entire range of engine operation at varying conditions of load. The performance, combustion and emission characteristics were determined. Based on these, the parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, emissions in exhaust such as CO, CO2, O2, HC and NOx were recorded. The results show that the blend of pongamia oil with diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification.

  10. Pseudo catalytic transformation of volatile fatty acids into fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-03-01

    Instead of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable wastes for producing methane, this work introduced the transformation of acidogenesis products (VFAs) into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to validate the feasible production of short-chained fatty alcohols via hydrogenation of FAMEs. In particular, among VFAs, this work mainly described the mechanistic explanations for transforming butyric acid into butyric acid methyl ester as a case study. Unlike the conventional esterification process (conversion efficiency of ∼94%), the newly introduced esterification under the presence of porous materials via the thermo-chemical process reached up to ∼99.5%. Furthermore, the newly introduced esterification via the thermo-chemical pathway in this work showed extremely high tolerance of impurities: the conversion efficiency under the presence of impurities reached up to ∼99±0.3%; thus, the inhibition behaviors attributed from the impurities used for the experimental work were negligible. PMID:26720136

  11. The Pharmacological Activities of the Metabolites of N-[(Trimethylamineboryl)-Carbonyl]-L-Phenylalanine Methyl Ester

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M. C.III; Sood, A.; Spielvogel, B. F.; Shrewsbury, R. P.; Hall, I. H.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolites of N-[(trimethylamineboryl)-carbonyl]-L-phenylalanine methyl ester 1 proved to be active in a number of pharmacological screens where the parent had previously demonstrated potent activity. The proposed metabolites demonstrated significant activity as cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, and anti-inflammatory agents. In cytotoxicity screens several of the proposed metabolites afforded better activity than the parent compound against the growth of suspended and solid tumor cell lines. Eva...

  12. Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection

    OpenAIRE

    Bambuleac Dumitru

    2012-01-01

    Fuels’ physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels’ characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In ...

  13. Experimental investigation on a diesel engine using neem oil and its methyl ester

    OpenAIRE

    Sivalakshmi S.; Balusamyb T.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel crisis and environmental concerns have led to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin sources such as vegetable oils, which can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops and oil bearing biomass materials. Vegetable oils have energy content comparable to diesel fuel. The effect of neem oil (NeO) and its methyl ester (NOME) on a direct injected four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine combustion, performance and emission is investigated in this paper. The results show that at ...

  14. τ-regioselective addition of (-)-Nα -tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-histidine methyl ester to diethyl fumarate

    OpenAIRE

    López-Larrubia, Pilar; García-Amo, María; Mayoral, Elena P.; Robert J. Gillies; Cerdán, Sebastián; Ballesteros, Paloma

    2004-01-01

    Addition of (-)-Nα-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-histidine methyl ester to diethyl fumarate regioselectively yielded diethyl 2-[4-(2-methoxycarbonyl-2-tert-butoxycarbonylaminoethyl) imidazol-1-yl] succinate as a 1:1 mixture of diastereomers. These compounds were identified by NMR using (Eu(fod)3 as a stereospecific shift reagent, but were impossible to separate and characterise independently. Neutral hydrolysis of the mixture yielded the corresponding deprotected diastereomeric N τ-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-...

  15. Lipase immobilization and production of fatty acid methyl esters from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae (EC 3.1.1.3) was immobilized onto a micro porous polymeric matrix which contains aldehyde functional groups and methyl esters of long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were synthesized by transesterification of crude canola oil using immobilized lipase. Micro porous polymeric matrix was synthesized from styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) copolymers by using high internal phase emulsion technique and two different lipases, Lipozyme TL-100L® and Novozym 388®, were used for immobilization by both physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Biodiesel production was carried out with semi-continuous operation. Methanol was added into the reactor by three successive additions of 1:4 M equivalent of methanol to avoid enzyme inhibition. The transesterification reaction conditions were as follows: oil/alcohol molar ratio 1:4; temperature 40 oC and total reaction time 6 h. Lipozyme TL-100L® lipase provided the highest yield of fatty acid methyl esters as 92%. Operational stability was determined with immobilized lipase and it indicated that a small enzyme deactivation occurred after used repeatedly for 10 consecutive batches with each of 24 h. Since the process is yet effective and enzyme does not leak out from the polymer, the method can be proposed for industrial applications. -- Research highlights: → Lipozyme TL-100L and Novozym 388 were immobilized onto micro porous polymeric matrix by both physical adsorption and covalent linking. → Immobilized enzymes were used for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters by transesterification of canola oil and methanol using semi-continuous operation system. → According to chromatographic analysis, Lipase Lipozyme TL-100L resulted in the highest yield of methyl ester as 92%.

  16. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Dragalin; Olga Morarescu; Maria Sedcenco; Radu Marin Rosca

    2015-01-01

    The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%), confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  17. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dragalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%, confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  18. Microwave-assisted methyl esters synthesis of Kapok (Ceiba pentandra seed oil: parametric and optimization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Bokhari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing environmental concerns have continued to stimulate research into biodiesel as a green fuel alternative produced from renewable resources. In this study, Kapok (Ceiba pentandra oil methyl ester was produced by using microwave-assisted technique. The optimum operating conditions for the microwave-assisted transesterification of Kapok seed oil including temperature, catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio, and irradiation time were investigated by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Design (CCD. A maximum conversion of 98.9 % was obtained under optimum conditions of 57.09 °C reaction temperature, 2.15 wt% catalyst (KOH loading, oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:9.85, and reaction time of 3.29 min. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR spectroscopy was performed to verify the conversion of the fatty acid into methyl esters. The properties of Kapok oil methyl ester produced under the optimum conditions were characterized and found in agreement with the international ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 standards.

  19. Study on the spray characteristics of methyl esters from waste cooking oil at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yung-Sung [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, No.11, Gongye Rd., Dali City, Taichung County 412-80 (China); Lin, Hai-Ping [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In Taiwan, millions of tons of waste cooking oil are produced each year, and less than 20% of it, about 150,000 ton/a, is reclaimed and reused. Most waste oil is flushed down the drain. Utilizing waste cooking oil to make biodiesel not only reduces engine exhaust gas pollution, but also replaces food-derived fuels, and reduces ecologic river pollution. This study employed two-stage transesterification to lower the high viscosity of waste oil, utilized emulsion to reduce the methyl ester NOx pollution, and used methanol to enhance the stability and viscosity of emulsified fuel. To further analyze spray characteristics of fuels, this experiment built a constant volume bomb under high temperature, used high speed photography to analyze spray tip penetration, spray angle, and the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of fuel droplets, and compared the results with fossil diesel. The experimental results suggested that, two-stage transesterification can significantly lower waste oil viscosity to that which is close to fossil diesel viscosity. At a temperature above 300 C, waste cooking oil methyl esters had a water content of 20%, spray droplet characteristics were significantly improved, and NOx emission dropped significantly. The optimal fuel ratio suggested in this experiment was waste cooking oil methyl ester 74.5%, methanol 5%, water 20%, and composite surfactant Span-Tween 0.5%. (author)

  20. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF METHYL ESTER OF COTTON SEED OIL BLEND WITH DIESEL ON CI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat cotton seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments were conducted using various blends of methyl ester of cotton seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The results showed higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake specific fuel consumption for B25 when compared to other blends . There is an appreciable decrease in HC emission while the decrease in CO emission is marginal. However, there is an increase in the emission of NOx. Reduction in smoke emission is observed for B25 at all loads, particularly there is a marked decrease of 5.4% at full load when compared to diesel. It was observed that the combustion characteristics of the blends of methyl ester of cotton seed oil with diesel followed closely with that of the base line diesel.

  1. Chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-UV and GC-FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Myller S.; Pinho, David M.M.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z., E-mail: psuarez@unb.br [Laboratorio de Materiais e Combustiveis, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Mendonca, Marcio A. [Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Resck, Ines S. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    An analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) (method A) was used for simultaneous determination of total amounts of triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides, monoacylglycerides and fatty acid methyl esters in alcoholysis of different oil (cotton, canola, sunflower, corn and soybean) samples. Analyses were carried out at 40 deg C for 20 min using a gradient of methanol (MeOH) and 2-propanol-hexane 5:4 (v/v) (PrHex): 100% of MeOH in 0 min, 50% of MeOH and 50% of PrHex in 10 min maintained with isocratic elution for 10 min. Another HPLC-UV method (method B) with acetonitrile isocratic elution for 34 min was used to determine the fatty acid composition of oils analyzing their methyl ester derivatives. Contents were determined with satisfactory repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD < 3%), linearity (r{sup 2} > 0.99) and sensitivity (limit of quantification). Method B was compared with an official gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) from American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) in the determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in biodiesel real samples. (author)

  2. Preparation and Evaluation of Jojoba Oil Methyl Ester as Biodiesel and as Blend Components in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis L.) produces seeds that contain around 50 to 60 weight percent of inedible long-chain wax esters that are suitable as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. A Jojoba oil methyl ester (JME) was prepared in effort to evaluate an important fuel propertie...

  3. Production of methyl ester from oil in the wastewater pond of a palm oil factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongurai, C.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the suitable technique for the production of methyl ester from waste palm oil in the water pond of a palm oil mill. The composition of the waste palm oil was 73.82% fatty acid, 5.07% triglyceride, 3.39% diglyceride and 17.76% unknown compounds. The unknown compounds were separated via simple distillation carried out at a temperature range of 300-350oC.First, the experiments were carried out in screw capped bottles using filtrated as-received waste oil as the reactant. The esterification and transesterification process were conducted using sulfuric acid catalyst in a methanol solution. The key parameters studied were mole ratio of waste oil to methanol (1:1 to 1:72, amount of catalyst from 0.1-20 v/w% of the reactant, temperature range of 60-98oC and reaction time range of 15-180 minutes. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC analysis showed 85-90% purity of methyl ester with 4-5% of mono-, di-, and triglycerides and fatty acids and about 5-10% of the unknown compounds for the best condition. The resulting yield of biodiesel was 84-88%. Eradication of contaminants by distillation gave about a 75% distillate yield. Distilled waste palm oil was esterified and transesterified using the previous optimum condition of as-received waste oil, but the reaction time and temperature were varied. The optimal result was obtained by using distilled waste palm oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:8, sulfuric acid of 1 v/w% of reactant, reaction temperature of 70oC and reaction time of 1 hour. TLC analysis indicated a biodiesel composition of methyl ester, free fatty acid, diglyceride and monoglyceride of 96.39%, 3.20%, 0.24% and 0.17%, respectively. The yield of biodiesel was 96-98% having physical fuel properties according to Thailand standard for methyl esterFinally, the distilled waste palm oil was esterified using a 3 liters continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. Using the suitable condition for the batch process and an hour retention time, the

  4. Novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Arti; Gupta, Rani

    2014-01-01

    One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5%) caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression. PMID:25170843

  5. Novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Kumari

    Full Text Available One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5% caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression.

  6. Preparation of sphingolipid fatty acid methyl esters for determination by gas-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGee, J; Williams, M G

    1981-01-30

    Sphingolipid fatty acids are first converted to a mixture of free acids and their n-butyl esters by heating the specimen at 85 degree C in aqueous butanolic hydrogen chloride; the butyl esters are then saponified with methanolic potassium hydroxide. After acidification and extraction into hexane, the fatty acids are extracted into a very small volume of aqueous trimethyl(m-trifluorotolyl)ammonium hydroxide (TMTFTH), injection of an aliquot of the TMTFTH extract into the gas chromatograph yields the fatty acid methyl esters by pyrolytic methylation of the quaternary ammonium salts of the fatty acids. The preparation of a specimen ready for the gas--liquid chromatographic (GLC) analysis with quantitative recovery of the sphingolipid fatty acids can be accomplished in less than 2 h. By comparison, none of a number of well-accepted techniques for the release of sphingomyelin fatty acids by hydrolysis or methanolysis released the fatty acids quantitatively in less than 3 h, and all required additional manipulations before GLC analysis. PMID:7217267

  7. Jojoba methyl ester as a diesel fuel substitute: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.S.; Ismail, M.A.; Elfeky, S.M.S.; Abu-Elyazeed, O.S.M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, University of Helwan, Masakin Elhelmia, Mattaria, Cairo 11718 (Egypt)

    2007-02-15

    The aim of the present work is to prepare jojoba methyl ester (JME) as a diesel fuel substitute. This was carried out experimentally and its chemical and physical properties were determined. Esterification method is used to produce methyl ester from raw jojoba oil. This method is optimized to produce the highest amount of fuel using a minimum amount of methyl alcohol. To achieve the above aim, a test rig for fuel production was developed. To measure the JME burning velocity a constant volume bomb was developed. The bomb was fully instrumented with a piezoelectric pressure transducer, charge amplifier, digital storage oscilloscope, A/D converter and a personal computer. Several grades of fuel were produced but, two grades only were selected and tested as an economical alternative fuel. The chemical and physical properties of these grades of fuel are measured as well as the laminar burning velocity. It is found that JME liquid fuel exhibited lower burning velocities than iso-octane. The new fuel is found to be suitable for compression ignition engine particularly in the indirect-injection ones, while for direct-injection, and high-speed engines fuel modifications are required. The new fuel is safe, has no sulphur content and reduces the engine wear as well as lengthens the lifetime of lubricating oil. (author)

  8. Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica seed oil) methyl ester as biodiesel-preparation and emission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing interest in many countries to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. Although straight vegetable oils can be used in diesel engines, their high viscosities, low volatilities and poor cold flow properties have led to the investigation of various derivatives. Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester, which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification. Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. In this study, Mahua oil (Madhuca indica seed oil) was trans esterified with methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain mahua oil methyl ester. This biodiesel was tested in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, constant speed, compression ignition diesel engine (Kirloskar) to evaluate the performance and emissions. (Author)

  9. Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica seed oil) methyl ester as biodiesel-preparation and emission characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhan, Sukumar; Vedaraman, N.; Ram, Boppana V.B. [Central Leather Research Inst., Chemical Engineering Div., Chennai (India); Sankarnarayanan, G.; Jeychandran, K. [Anna Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chennai (India)

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in many countries to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. Although straight vegetable oils can be used in diesel engines, their high viscosities, low volatilities and poor cold flow properties have led to the investigation of various derivatives. Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester, which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification. Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. In this study, Mahua oil (Madhuca indica seed oil) was trans esterified with methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain mahua oil methyl ester. This biodiesel was tested in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, constant speed, compression ignition diesel engine (Kirloskar) to evaluate the performance and emissions. (Author)

  10. Use of hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends as alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, M.; Atmaca, M. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Department

    2008-09-30

    Interest in vegetable oil as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines has increased during the last few decades because reserves of petroleum fuel and its derivatives are diminishing rapidly, and because they have harmful effects on the environment. Numerous vegetable oil esters have been tried as alternatives to diesel fuel. Many researchers have reported that with the use of vegetable oil ester as a fuel in diesel engiens there is a decrease in harmful exhaust emissions and engine performance that is the equivalent of diesel fuel. Several studies have found that biodiesel emits far less of the most regulated pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by using biodiesel contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, diminishing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and smoke density improves air quality. Essential oils that have been tested in diesel engines are soybean, sunflower, corn, safflower, cottonseed, and rapeseed, which are categorized as edible oils; however, some edible oils, such as neat hazelnut kernel oil, have not been comprehensively tested as alternative fuel in diesel engines. In this study, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was evaluated as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. Firstly, the optimum transesteri.cation reaction conditions for hazelnut kernel oil, with respect to reaction temperature, volumetric ratio of reactants, and catalyst, were investigated. Secondly, an experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running on hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel. Results showed that hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel, according to engine performance and emissions.

  11. Experimental Analysis of Performance of Diesel Engine Using Kusum Methyl Ester With Diethyl Ether as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip S. Jawre,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The fossile fuels are widely used in diesel engine and continually depleting with increasing consumption and prices day by day. The fatty acid methyl ester has become an effective alternative to diesel. Various types of vegetable oil such as Jatropha, karanja, cottonseed, neem, sunflower, palm, mahuva, coconut etc. can be used as fuel in diesel engine. Kusum oil is one of the fuel used in present work. The viscosity of kusum oil is very high, so it was reduced by Transesterification process. This study presents effect of diethyl ether as additive to biodiesel of kusum (schliechera oleosa methyl ester on the performance and emission of diesel engine at different load and constant speed and two different injection pressure (170 and 190 bar. From literature it was observed that very few studies had been conducted on use of neat biodiesel and diethyl ether blends and use of kusum methyl ester (KME in diesel engine found to be very less as compared to different biodiesel. Hence this topic was taken under study. The fuels and its blends used are 100% diesel, B100 (100% KME, BD-1 (95% KME, 5% DEE, BD-2 (90% KME, 10% DEE, BD-3 (85% KME, 15% DEE respectively. It was observed that the performance of engine increases at high injection pres-sure. The results indicate that lower BSFC was observed with BD-3 as compared to B100, BD-1 and BD-2. Brake thermal efficiency of BD-3 decreased at 170 bar injection pressure but it increase at 190 bar. Drastic re-duction in smoke is observed with all blends at higher engine loads. DEE addition to biodiesel reflects better engine performance compared to neat biodiesel.

  12. The Effect of Prickly Poppy Methyl Ester Blends on Ci Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of using Prickly poppy methyl ester as a fuel blend on Diesel engine (CI engine performance and exhaust emission. Approach: Short-term engine performance tests were conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various diesel fuel supplements at blend rations of 60/40, 70/30, 80/20, 90/10, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, Direct Injection (DI, Kirlosker comet Diesel engine located at the authors’ laboratory. The prickly poppy oil with high free fatty acid is not used as edible oil, it can be considered as a potential source of non edible oil for utilization as a feed stock vegetable oil for bio diesel production. The prickly poppy oil was subjected to esterification and transesterification processes and the Prickly Poppy Methyl Ester (PPME obtained was tested as supplement. Results: The test showed that PPME blends with diesel could be conveniently used as a diesel substitute in a diesel engine. The test further showed increase in break thermal efficiency, brake power and reduction of specific fuel consumption for PPME and its blends with diesel generally, but the most significant conclusion from the study is that the 80% Diesel/20% PPME blend produced maximum values of the brake power, brake thermal efficiency and minimum values of the specific fuel consumption and also yielded minimum values of NOx, CO and HC emission. Conclusion: Using Prickly Poppy Methyl Ester (PPME as a bio fuel blend with Diesel shows an improvement in performance and significant reduction in exhaust emission for the generation of cleaner environment.

  13. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON JATROPHA OIL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddayaraganalu Amasegoda Dhananjaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as jatropha oil, linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, karanji oil, etc., are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have reasonable energy content. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has combustion characteristics similar to petroleum diesel. The current paper reports a study carried out to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester and its blend B20 (80% petroleum diesel and 20% jatropha oil methyl ester and diesel fuel on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injections, water cooled diesel engine. This study gives the comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, smoke opacity, HC, NOx, ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, and peak heat release rates. The engine performance in terms of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of blend B20 fuel operation was observed and compared with jatropha oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel fuel for injection timing of 20° bTDC, 23° bTDC and 26° bTDC at injection opening pressure of 220 bar.

  14. Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambuleac, Dumitru

    2012-04-01

    Fuels' physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels' characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

  15. Experimental Autoignition of C4-C6 Saturated and Unsaturated Methyl and Ethyl Esters

    CERN Document Server

    Bennadji, Hayet; Coniglio-Jaubert, Lucie; Billaud, Francis; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    Autoignition delay times, ?, of methyl crotonate, methyl acrylate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl crotonate, and ethyl acrylate were studied in shock tube experiments. A series of mixtures diluted with argon, of varying fuel/oxygen equivalence ratios (?=0.25, 0.4, 1.0, and 2.0), were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1280-1930 K, pressure range of 7-9.65 atm, during which the logarithm of ? varies linearly as a function of the inverse temperature for all equivalence ratios. The ignition delay time decreases as temperature rises. The dependence of ? on temperature, and reactant concentrations is given in an empirical correlation. The results provide a database for the validation of small saturated and unsaturated esters kinetic mechanisms at elevated temperatures and pressure combustion.

  16. L-leucine methyl ester stimulates insulin secretion and islet glutamate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, P; Kofod, Hans; Lernmark, A;

    1983-01-01

    Column perifusion of collagenase-isolated mouse pancreatic islets was used to study the dynamics of insulin release in experiments lasting for several hours. The methyl esters of L-leucine and L-arginine were synthesized. Whereas L-arginine methyl ester (L-arginine OMe) had no effect, L-leucine OMe......-leucine. L-Leucine OMe was also a potent stimulus of insulin release from the perfused mouse pancreas. In the presence of 10 mmol/liter L-glutamine, 1 mmol/liter L-leucine OMe induced a 50- to 75-fold increase in insulin release. A similar stimulatory effect was also observed in column-perifused RIN 5F cells......, a cloned rat islet tumor cell line. A twofold increase in islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity was induced by 5 mmol/liter L-leucine OMe, a larger effect than that of L-leucine (P less than 0.02), whereas L-arginine OMe had a small inhibitory effect. We conclude that L-leucine OMe is a potent stimulus...

  17. Epoxidation of methyl esters derived from Jatropha oil: An optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, M.; Tan, I. M.; Nadeem, M.; Devi, C.; Lee, S. Y. C.; Sagir, M.; Radhid, U.

    2013-05-01

    The optimization of the epoxidation reaction of methyl esters obtained from Jatropha oil was appraised. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the experimental design. Four reaction variables namely hydrogen peroxide/ C=C mole ratio, formic acid/C=C mole ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were evaluated. The optimum epoxidation conditions calculated by the quadratic model were 3.12 moles of hydrogen peroxide/C=C moles, 0.96 moles of formic acid/C=C moles, a reaction temperature of 70.0 degree centigrade and a reaction time of 277 minutes. A reaction optimized by the proposed process parameters provided a yield of 92.89 {+-} 1.29 wt.% with relatively improved reaction time. Hydrogen peroxide concentration and reaction temperature were found to be the most significant variables while reaction temperature and hydrogen peroxide showed strong interactions. The epoxidized methyl esters were analyzed using FT-IR, 1H NMR and {sup 1}3C NMR techniques. This study suggested relatively higher molar ratio of formic acid required than was proposed in the literature. (Author) 33 refs.

  18. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  19. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION O F SODIUM METHYL ESTER SULFONATE FOR CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Babu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAttention has been given to reduce the cost of surfactant by using castor oil as an alternative natural source of feedstock. A new surfactant, sodium methyl ester sulfonate (SMES was synthesised using ricinoleic acid methyl ester, which is obtained from castor oil, for enhanced oil recovery in petroleum industries. The performance of SMES was studied by measuring the surface tension with and without sodium chloride and its thermal stability at reservoir temperature. SMES exhibited good surface activity, reducing the surface tension of surfactant solution up to 38.4 mN/m and 27.6 mN/m without and with NaCl, respectively. During the thermal analysis of SMES, a 31.2% mass loss was observed from 70 ˚C to 500 ˚C. The phase behavior of the cosurfactant/SMES-oil-water system plays a key role in interpreting the performance of enhanced oil recovery by microemulsion techniques. Flooding experiments were performed using a 0.5 pore volume of synthesized SMES solutions at three different concentrations. In each case chase water was used to maintain the pressure gradient. The additional recoveries in surfactant flooding were found to be 24.53%, 26.04% and 27.31% for 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 mass% of surfactant solutions, respectively.

  20. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters

    KAUST Repository

    Urban, Jiří T.

    2011-09-26

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. RENEWABLE ENERGY CONTENT OF FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS (FAME AND GLYCEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Toscano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME and glycerol produced by transesterification reaction contain atoms that in the reagents belong to methanol and, therefore, are not renewable. A method to evaluate the content of the renewable and non-renewable energetic fraction, released during their combustion, was 52 Fig. 2 - Correlation between EFNR and NCM of FAME. Fig. 3 - Correlation between NCM and NS. Fig. 4 - Correlations between EFNR and NS. 07_Toscano(541_47 26-01-2010 9:35 Pagina 52 developed using a thermochemical criteria, based on bond dissociation energies and the knowledge of the molecular structure of the reagents and the products. Results show that the fraction of non-renewable energy in the most diffused FAME is lower than 1% depending on the lengths of the carbonaceous methyl esters. Meanwhile, the energetic supply for the GL of this fraction is about 1.6%. The data reported in this document can be used to develop a criteria that corrects the fiscal mechanism aspects of some renewable energy products.

  2. Combustion and Vibration Analysis of Idi- Diesel Engine Fuelled With Neat Preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Ashok Kumar Reddy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimentation is conducted on an IDI diesel engine and the results of combustion and vibration on IDI -Diesel engine fueled with the preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME are presented. The Present research trend is to replace conventional diesel by renewable alternative fuels in view of fast depletion of petroleum reserves and to reduce the exhaust emissions from the engines without altering the basic design of the engine. Due to moderately higher viscosity effects, the direct use of biodiesel in C.I. engines is limited to 20% and the limitation is based on the NO emission also. In this work, the biodiesel is preheated using on line electronically controlled electrical preheating system before it enters into the injector. Experiments are conducted on a four stroke single cylinder IDI engine to find combustion and vibration characteristics of the engine with the preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME heated to temperatures viz. 60,70,80,90 and 1000C. Normally thin oils due to heating may trigger fast burning leading to either detonation or knocking of the engine. This can be predicted by recording vibration on the cylinder head in different directions. The cylinder vibrations in the form of FFT and time waves have been analyzed to estimate the combustion propensity. Experiments are done using diesel, biodiesel and biodiesel at different preheated temperatures and for different engine loading conditions keeping the speed constant at 1500 rpm. Biodiesel preheated to 600C proved encouraging in all respects.

  3. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NOx) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%. (Author)

  4. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NOX) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NOX and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%

  5. Enzymatic Acylation of Anthocyanin Isolated from Black Rice with Methyl Aromatic Acid Ester as Donor: Stability of the Acylated Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Lixia; Liu, Qin; Ou, Shiyi; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-02-10

    The enzymatic acylation of anthocyanin from black rice with aromatic acid methyl esters as acyl donors and Candida antarctica lipase B was carried out under reduced pressure. The highest conversion of 91% was obtained with benzoic acid methyl ester as acyl donor; cyanidin 3-(6″-benzoyl)-glucoside, cyanidin 3-(6″-salicyloyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6″-cinnamoyl)-glucoside were successfully synthesized. This is the first report on the enzymatic acylation of anthocyanin from black rice with methyl aromatic esters as acyl donors and lipase as biocatalyst. Furthermore, the acylation with aromatic carboxylic acids enhanced both the thermostability and light resistivity of anthocyanin. In particular, cyanidin 3-(6″-cinnamoyl)-glucoside was the most stable among the three acylated anthocyanins synthesized. PMID:26766135

  6. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)-producing Streptomyces sp. S161 from sheep (Ovis aries) faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Wang, J; Deng, Z; Wu, H; Deng, Q; Tan, H; Cao, L

    2013-09-01

    An actinomycete producing oil-like mixtures was isolated and characterized. The strain was isolated from sheep faeces and identified as Streptomyces sp. S161 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain showed cellulase and xylanase activities. The (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the mixtures showed that the mixtures were composed of fatty acid methyl esters (52·5), triglycerides (13·7) and monoglycerides (9·1) (mol.%). Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the fatty acid methyl esters were mainly composed of C14-C16 long-chain fatty acids. The results indicated that Streptomyces sp. S161 could produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from starch. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated strain that can produce biodiesel (FAME) directly from starch. PMID:23692633

  7. An experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobacco seeds are a by product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, unlike tobacco leaves, tobacco seeds are not collected from fields and are not commercial products. However, tobacco seeds contain significant amounts of oil. Although tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil, it can be utilized for biodiesel production as a new renewable alternative diesel engine fuel. In this study, an experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester was performed at full and partial loads. The results showed that the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester to the diesel fuel reduced CO and SO2 emissions while causing slightly higher NOx emissions. Meanwhile, it was found that the power and the efficiency increased slightly with the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester. (Author)

  8. Ternary Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for Systems of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester(Methyl Palmitate/Methyl Stearate)+Ethanol+Glycerol at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏淑倩; 罗慧娟; 马沛生

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data of two ternary systems methyl palmitate+ethanol+glycerol and methyl stearate+ethanol+glycerol at(318.2 and 333.2)K and atmospheric pressure were measured. The values of distri-bution coefficient and selectivity were calculated, which indicates that glycerol can be separated from fatty acid ester by using ethanol as an extraction solvent. The consistency of the isothermal tie-line data were checked by the Othmer-Tobias equation. The correlation coefficients R2 are higher than 0.993,9 for all the fitted curves. The NRTL activity coefficient model was applied to the correlation of the measured tie-line data. The root mean square devia-tion(RMSD)values are less than 0.007 for all the systems, which shows a good predictive capability of this model for such systems.

  9. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs); Sintese de novas amidas graxas a partir da aminolise de esteres metilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carolina R.; Montes D' Oca, Caroline da Ros; Duarte, Rodrigo da C.; Kurz, Marcia H.S.; Primel, Ednei G.; Clementin, Rosilene M.; Villarreyes, Joaquin Ariel M.; Montes D' Oca, Marcelo G., E-mail: dqmdoca@furg.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos

    2010-07-01

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  10. Theoretical and kinetic study of the hydrogen atom abstraction reactions of unsaturated C6 methyl esters with hydroxyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan-De; Ni, Zhong-Hai

    2016-04-01

    This work reports a systematic ab initio and chemical kinetic study of the rate constants for hydrogen atom abstraction reactions by hydroxyl radical (OH) on typical isomers of unsaturated C6 methyl esters at the CBS/QB3 level of theory. The high-pressure limit rate constants at different reaction sites for all the methyl esters in the temperature range from 500 to 2000 K are calculated via transition-state theory with the Wigner method for quantum tunneling effect and fitted to the modified three parameters Arrhenius expression using least-squares regression. Further, a branching ratio analysis for each reaction site has been performed.

  11. Phenylalanine and tyrosine methyl ester intramolecular interactions and conformational analysis by (1)H NMR and infrared spectroscopies and theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormanich, Rodrigo A; Ducati, Lucas C; Tormena, Cláudio F; Rittner, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Amino acid conformational analysis in solution are scarce, since these compounds present a bipolar zwitterionic structure ((+)H3NCHRCOO(-)) in these media. Also, intramolecular hydrogen bonds have been classified as the sole interactions governing amino acid conformational behavior in the literature. In the present work we propose phenylalanine and tyrosine methyl ester conformational studies in different solvents by (1)H NMR and infrared spectroscopies and theoretical calculations. Both experimental and theoretical results are in agreement and suggest that the conformational behavior of the phenylalanine and tyrosine methyl esters are similar and are dictated by the interplay between steric and hyperconjugative interactions.

  12. Gas chromatography determination of fatty acid alkyl esters (methyl and ethyl in the presence of mono., di- and triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters, in the presence of mono-, di- and tri glycerides, is very important when studying fatty compounds' methanolysis or ethanolysis, as well as for controlling the quality of petrochemical products. This work presents a useful technique for determining fatty acids methyl or ethyl esters by high temperature gas chromastography in the presence of mono-, di- and triglycerides. Samples were silylated with N, O-bis (trimethylsilyl trifluroacetamide (BSTFA and then passed throught a 12m HT5 column coated with a phenyl-polysiloxane-carborane film. Standard methyl and ethyl palmitate, methyl and ethyl oleate, DL-palmitin, dipalmitin, tripalmitin and triolein solutions were used for calibrating the technique, using tricaprin as internal standard. Retention times and response factors were also determined. The results were employed in following-up palm oil methanolysis and ethanolysis reactions.

  13. Effects of β-cyclodextrins on the enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral dichlorprop methyl ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yue-zhong; ZHOU Shan-shan; FANG Zhao-hua; LIU Wei-ping

    2005-01-01

    The effect of β-cyclodextrins(β-CDs) on the enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral dichlorprop methyl ester (DCPPM) was studied.Four kinds of β-cyclodextrins(β-cyclodextrin, Partly methylated-CD( PM-β-CD), hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrin(HP-β-CD) and carboxymethylcyclodextrin(CM-β-CD) ) were used. Compared with 100% DCPPM in the absence of β-cyclodextrins, the activity of lipase decreased with the increase of β-cyclodextrin and PM-β-cyclodextrin. However, CM-β-cyclodextrin stimulated the lipase activity. The inhibition effect of β-cyclodextrin and PM-β-cyclodextrin on the hydrolysis of DCPPM is affected by many factors other than degree of the methylation blocking the active site of lipase. UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy studies of the complexation of aqueous DCPPM with β-CDs provide fresh insight into the molecular structure of the complex and explain the effects of β-CDs on enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral DCPPM. Data showed that inclusion complexes had formed by complexation of the CM-β-CD with DCPPM and the solubility of DCPPM was increased in water, which leaded to the increased lipase activity.

  14. Effect of the Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester Component on Conventional Diesel Fuel Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbár V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME component in diesel fuel was assessed. Dynamic viscosity and density of blends were particularly observed. Measurements were performed at standard constant temperature. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In the case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and the blend of both, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Considerable temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was found out and demonstrated for all three samples. This finding is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data sources. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was modelled using the 3rd degree polynomial. Temperature dependence of density was modelled using the 2nd degree polynomial. The proposed models can be used for flow behaviour prediction of RME, diesel fuel, and their blends.

  15. Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambuleac Dumitru

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuels’ physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels’ characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

  16. Effects of Diary Scum Oil Methyl Ester on a DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Varghese Babu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is recognized as a clean alternative fuel or as a fuel additive to reduce pollutant emission from CI engine and minimum cost so there is need for producing biodiesel other than from seed oil. In this study the diary waste scum were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel. Scum oil methyl ester (SOME is produced in laboratory by tranestrification process. The properties of SOME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Experiments has been carried out to estimate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder; four stroke diesel engine fuelled with scum biodiesel and its blends with standard diesel. Tests has been conducted using the fuel blends of 10%, 20%, 30% and 100% biodiesel with standard diesel, with an engine speed of 1500 rpm, fixed compression ratio 17.5 and at different loading conditions. The performance parameters elucidated includes brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, and exhaust gas temperature.

  17. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIRAM V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

  18. Production of sunflower oil methyl esters by optimized alkali-catalyzed methanolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Samia [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Moser, Bryan R. [United States Department of Agriculture, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    We report the optimization of sunflower oil methyl esters (SOME/biodiesel) production via alkaline catalyzed transesterification of crude sunflower oil and subsequent physical and chemical characterization. The optimum conditions elucidated for the methanolysis of sunflower oil were found to be: methanol/sunflower oil molar ratio, 6:1; reaction temperature, 60 C; and NaOH catalyst concentration, 1.00% (w/w). An optimum SOME yield of 97.1% was achieved. SOME were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). A number of fuel properties of SOME as measured according to accepted methods were found to satisfy nearly all prescribed ASTM D 6751 specifications, where applicable. The results of the present study indicated that SOME could be a potential alternative to other common biodiesels and petrodiesel. (author)

  19. Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shrivastava

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast depletion of fossil fuel resources forces the extensive research on the alternative fuels. Vegetable oils edible or non edible can be a better substitute for the petroleum diesel. Karanja, a non edible oil can be a potential source to replace the diesel fuel. To investigate the feasibility of Karanja oil as an alternative diesel fuel, its biodiesel was prepared through the transesterification process. The Biodiesel was then subjected to performance and emission tests in order to assess its actual performance, when used as a diesel engine fuel. The data generated for the 20, 50 and 100 percent blended biodiesel were compared with base line data generated for neat diesel fuel. Result showed that the Biodiesel and its blend showed lower thermal efficiency. Emission of Carbon monoxide, unburned Hydrocarbon and smoke was found to be reduced where as oxides of nitrogen was higher with biodiesel and its blends. Keywords: alternate Diesel fuel; Biodiesel; Karanja oil methyl ester; performance and emission

  20. N-( p-Ethynylbenzoyl) derivatives of amino acid and dipeptide methyl esters - Synthesis and structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eißmann, Frank; Weber, Edwin

    2011-11-01

    A series of N-( p-ethynylbenzoyl) derivatives ( 1-4) of the amino acids glycine and L-alanine as well as the dipeptides glycylglycine and L-alanylglycine has been synthesized via a two-step reaction sequence including the reaction of an appropriate N-( p-bromobenzoyl) precursor with trimethylsilylacetylene followed by deprotection of the trimethylsilyl protecting group, respectively. X-ray crystal structures of the amino acid and dipeptide methyl esters 1-4 are reported. The amide and peptide bonds within each molecular structure are planar and adopt the trans-configuration. The packing structures are governed by N sbnd H⋯O interactions leading to the formation of characteristic strand motifs. Further stabilization results from weaker C sbnd H⋯O and C sbnd H⋯π contacts.

  1. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of karanja methyl ester (KME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke density and NOx to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on the above-mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in torque, brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of karanja esterified oil (B20 and B40) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution. (author)

  2. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from hazelnut, high-oleic peanut and walnut oils and evaluation as biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelnut, walnut and high-oleic peanut oils were converted into fatty acid methyl esters using catalytic sodium methoxide and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels. These feedstocks were of interest due to their adaptability to marginal lands and their lipid production potentials (780-1780 L ha-1 y...

  3. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid methyl esters to represent an accurate reflection of the potential of microalgal biofuels. Lipids are present in many forms and play various roles within an algal cell, from cell membrane phospholipids to energy stored as triacylglycerols.

  4. Influence of extended storage on fuel properties of methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils by homogenous base-catalyzed methanolysis were stored for 12 months at three constant temperatures (-15, 22, and 40 deg C) and properties such as oxidative stability, acid value, kinematic viscosity, low temperature ope...

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester by In-Situ Transesterification in Capparis Deciduas Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad E FUNDE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available (FAME Fatty acid methyl ester is made virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible and animal fats. Fatty acid methyl ester operates in compression ignition engines like petro-diesel. Fatty acid methyl ester can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel. Petrodiesel can be replaced by biodiesel due to its superiority. It has various advantages. The seeds of Capparis deciduas are found to contain non-edible oil in the range of about 63.75 %. The percentage of biodiesel yield increases with concentration of KOH as a catalyst. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the cost effective new source of energy by single step reaction i.e. production of oil by combining extraction and reaction of extract with the mixture of alcohols. In this article the effect of catalyst concentration, time, water content and temperature on in-situ transesterification is studied to obtain optimum yield and Fatty acid methyl ester (Biodiesel Fuel characterization tests show the striking similarity of various physical & chemical properties and campers to ASTM standards.

  6. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  7. Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Properties of Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Methyl Esters Blended with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Important fuel properties and emissions characteristics of blends (20 vol%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes in physical properties were noticed for B20...

  8. Comparative Studies on Performance Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Neem Methyl Ester and Mahua Methyl Ester and Its Respective Blends with Diesel Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragit, S S; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, K

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, neem and mahua methyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst and tested in 4-stroke single cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Tests were carried out at constant speed of 1500 rev/min at different brake mean effective pressures. A series of tests were conducted which worked at different brake mean effective pressures, OkPa, 1kPa, 2kPa, 3kPa, 4kPa, 5kPa, 6kPa and 6.5kPa. The performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the diesel engine were analyzed and compared with diesel fuel. Results showed that BTE of NME was comparable with diesel and it was noted that the BTE of N0100 is 63.11% higher than that of diesel at part load whereas it reduces 11.2% with diesel fuel at full load. In case of full load, NME showed decreasing trend with diesel fuel. BTE of diesel was 15.37% and 36.89% at part load and full load respectively. The observation indicated that BTE for MME 100 was slightly higher than diesel at part loads. The specific fuel consumption (SFC) was more for almost all blends at all loads, compared to diesel. At part load, the EGT of MME and its blends were showing similar trend to diesel fuel and at full load, the exhaust gas temperature of MME and blends were higher than diesel. Based on this study, NME could be a substitute for diesel fuel in diesel engine.

  9. Inhibition of cellular Shp2 activity by a methyl ester analog of SPI-112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwei; Pernazza, Daniele; Scott, Latanya M; Lawrence, Harshani R; Ren, Yuan; Luo, Yunting; Wu, Xin; Sung, Shen-Shu; Guida, Wayne C; Sebti, Said M; Lawrence, Nicholas J; Wu, Jie

    2010-09-15

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) Shp2 (PTPN11) is an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery because it mediates growth factor signaling and its gain-of-function mutants are causally linked to leukemias. We previously synthesized SPI-112 from a lead compound of Shp2 inhibitor, NSC-117199. In this study, we demonstrated that SPI-112 bound to Shp2 by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and displayed competitive inhibitor kinetics to Shp2. Like some other compounds in the PTP inhibitor discovery efforts, SPI-112 was not cell permeable, precluding its use in biological studies. To overcome the cell permeation issue, we prepared a methyl ester SPI-112 analog (SPI-112Me) that is predicted to be hydrolyzed to SPI-112 upon entry into cells. Fluorescence uptake assay and confocal imaging suggested that SPI-112Me was taken up by cells. Incubation of cells with SPI-112Me inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated Shp2 PTP activity and Shp2-mediated paxillin dephosphorylation, Erk1/2 activation, and cell migration. SPI-112Me treatment also inhibited Erk1/2 activation by a Gab1-Shp2 chimera. Treatment of Shp2(E76K) mutant-transformed TF-1 myeloid cells with SPI-112Me resulted in inhibition of Shp2(E76K)-dependent cell survival, which is associated with inhibition of Shp2(E76K) PTP activity, Shp2(E76K)-induced Erk1/2 activation, and Bcl-XL expression. Furthermore, SPI-112Me enhanced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation, ISRE-luciferase reporter activity, p21 expression, and the anti-proliferative effect. Thus, the SPI-112 methyl ester analog was able to inhibit cellular Shp2 PTP activity.

  10. Experimental Investigations on the Engine Performance and Characteristics of Compression Ignition (CI Engine Using Dual Bio – Fuel Methyl Ester As Alternate Fuel With Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inturi Vamsi,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum products and resources are limited and their consumption is increasing very fast with globalization and high technology development since last decade. The emissions from the petroleum products polluting the environment considerably. Bio-fuels can be produced from diverse sources, which are subject to local geography, topology and climatology. Hence, every nation will have its own choice of a source. Duel bio-fuel represents an untapped resource of energy easily available in India. This study investigates the potential substitution of duel bio-fuel methyl ester blends for diesel as fuel for automobiles and other industrial purposes. This study is concerned with the analysis of the performance and emission characteristics of the duel bio-fuel methyl esters and comparing with petroleum diesel. The fuels used were neat methyl ester, diesel and different blends of the methyl ester with diesel. The tests were carried out on a 4.4 KW, single cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled diesel engine. The fuels used were neat duel bio-fuel methyl ester, diesel and different blends of the methyl ester with diesel. The experimental result shows that 20% of blend shows better performance with reduced pollution. This analysis shows that duel bio-fuel methyl ester and its blends are a potential substitute for diesel.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of a variable compression ratio diesel engine running with palm oil methyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Energy and exergy analysis of palm oil methyl ester (POME) run diesel engine. ► Engine was run at various compression ratios (CRs) and injection timings (ITs). ► POME can recover around 26% of the energy supplied by the fuel. ► CR rise and IT change cause shaft energy per unit fuel supply to increase. ► CR of 18 and IT of 20°BTDC reduce more entropy generation. - Abstract: The present work is set to explore the effect of compression ratio (CR) and injection timing (IT) on energy and exergy potential of a palm oil methyl ester (POME) run diesel engine. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder, direct injection, water cooled variable compression ratio diesel engine at a constant peed of 1500 rpm under a full load of 4.24 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The study involves four different CRs of 16, 17, 17.5 and 18; and three different ITs of 20°, 23° and 28°BTDC. Here, the CR of 17.5 and IT of 23°BTDC are the standard ones. The energy analysis performed for the experimental data includes shaft power, energy input through fuel, output by cooling water and exhaust, uncounted loss per unit time. Side by side, the effects of varying CR and IT on peak pressure, peak heat release rate, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature are also studied. The exergy analysis is carried out for availability input, shaft, cooling water and exhaust availability, availability destruction and entropy generation. It shows that higher values of CR increase the shaft availability and cooling water availability, however, they decrease the exhaust flow availability. The retardation and advancement of IT give similar results. The exergy analysis also shows that with the increase of CR, the injection retardation and advancement increase the shaft availability and exergy efficiency, while it reduces the exergy destruction. The entropy generation is also reduced for the similar CR and IT modifications.

  12. 15th International Sunflower Conference Synthesis of new derivatives from vegetable sunflower oil methyl esters via epoxydation and oxirane opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, epoxides have received increased attention because they are of interest both as end-products and as chemical intermediates; epoxidized oils, mainly High Oleic Sunflower Oil, and their ester derivatives have thus found important applications as plasticizers and additives for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Epoxidized esters have been produced classically from High Oleic Sunflower Methyl Esters (HOSME using H2O2 and formic acid. The epoxidation reaches 90% on pilot scale (5kg. Epoxidized esters produced from HOSME have respectively hydroxyl values of 0, oxirane values of 5.2/4.5 and iodine values of 1.7/1.5. Cleavage trials of the oxirane group of the epoxidized esters with different reactants have been undertaken in order to produce on pilot scale new derivatives to be characterized and tested in different fields of application (lubrication, detergency and as chemical intermediates. Reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with an excess of oleic acid was conducted under atmospheric pressure without any catalyst and solvent. The oxirane opening leads to complete estolide formation: after neutralization, analytical controls (chemical values, GC and HPLC analysis indicate that the estolides are composed of a mixture of C36 (oleate of methyl hydroxystearate and C54 (di-oleate of methyl dihydroxystearate. Oxirane opening with alcohols (ethanol and octanol was preferentially performed by acid catalysis at 100°C under atmospheric pressure. Analytical controls show the formation of different etheralcohols and secondary products resulting from dehydration, transesterification and dimerization side-reactions. Cleavage reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with a primary amine (butylamine was conducted under pressure, at high temperature (180/200°C. Both transesterification and opening of the oxirane group occur under these conditions. Reaction products are composed of amides formed by transesterification and a mixture of fatty amines/imines obtained by ring opening as established

  13. Self-assembled structure of alkyloxy substituted benzoic acid methyl ester on HOPG:An STM study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Qunhui; LU Jun; WAN Lijun; BAI Chunli

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembled structures of 3,4,5-tris-dodecy- loxy benzoic acid methyl ester (E12), 3,4,5-tris-tetradecy- loxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (E14) and their mixture (E12/E14) have been studied on HOPG by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Dimer-like patterns induced by dipole-dipole interaction are observed in E12 and E14 monolayers. The molecules form close-packed rows and interdigitate with the alkyl chains in adjacent molecules. The structural differences are proposed to be from the different length of substituted alkyl chains. Owing to similar adsorption energy, phase separation is observed in the E12 and E14 mixed adlayer with different domains.

  14. Sintesis Metil Ester Sulfonat Dari Asam Stearat Dan Metil Ester Sulfonat Dari Asam Oleat

    OpenAIRE

    Samosir, Yustina

    2011-01-01

    The Synthesis of Methyl Ester Sulfonate (MES) from stearic acid and from oleic acid through the stages of esterification reaction, that are esterification from stearic acid and oleic acid that forms methyl ester stearic acid and methyl ester oleic acid next stage was sulfonating the two of methyl esters to form a methyl ester sulfonate stearic acid and methyl ester oleic acid sulfonate. Furthermore, both fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate is neutralized with NaOH to obtain sulfonate salt. ...

  15. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  16. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  17. Energy- and exergy analysis of rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production under Swedish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovelius, K.; Hansson, P. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1999-10-01

    In this study the rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production chain was analysed with respect to its energy- and exergy efficiencies. The differences between results from an ordinary energy analysis and an exergy analysis of the production were also quantified and discussed. The sensitivity of the results to changes in some of the most important input parameters were then analysed in order to find production strategies that increase the exergy efficiency. The study was applied to rape seed cultivation situated in southern Sweden. The rape seed oil was hot pressed in a large-scale plant, and the RME was esterified in the same factory as that in which the rape seed oil was pressed. Both direct and indirect energy and exergy flows used for RME production were included. The analysis showed that a large part of the energy and exergy used to produce RME was related to nitrogen fertilizers and diesel fuels. Another important conclusion was that the exergy efficiency of the production in general is higher than the energy efficiency. A third conclusion was that it is possible, by using alternative production strategies, to improve the exergy efficiency without decreasing the energy efficiency.

  18. 脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐%Fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建英

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate(MES) is an anionic surfactant based on natural oils generated from plant and animal as raw materials. MES has good detergency, lime soap dispersing ability, hard water-resistance, emulsibility, water-solubility and biodegradability; besides, it can improve the solubility of soap in water. Because of the good performance of MES, it can be used in synthetic powder detergent, compound soap powder, composite soap, shampoo and personal care products. The present production situation, product forms, properties as well as applications of MES were related.%脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐简称(MES)是以天然动植物油脂为原料制得的脂肪酸系阴离子表面活性剂。它具有良好的去污性、钙皂分散性、抗硬水性、乳化性、增溶性和生物降解性,并能改进肥皂的溶解性。由于MES性能优良,主要用于合成洗衣粉、复合皂粉、复合肥皂、香波以及个人清洁用品中。对MES的生产现状、产品形式、性能以及应用进行了概述。

  19. Negative polarity of phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester adjacent to donor macromolecule domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interfacial fields within organic photovoltaics influence the movement of free charge carriers, including exciton dissociation and recombination. Open circuit voltage (Voc) can also be dependent on the interfacial fields, in the event that they modulate the energy gap between donor HOMO and acceptor LUMO. A rise in the vacuum level of the acceptor will increase the gap and the Voc, which can be beneficial for device efficiency. Here, we measure the interfacial potential differences at donor-acceptor junctions using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, and quantify how much of the potential difference originates from physical contact between the donor and acceptor. We see a statistically significant and pervasive negative polarity on the phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) side of PCBM/donor junctions, which should also be present at the complex interfaces in bulk heterojunctions. This potential difference may originate from molecular dipoles, interfacial interactions with donor materials, and/or equilibrium charge transfer due to the higher work function and electron affinity of PCBM. We show that the contact between PCBM and poly(3-hexylthiophene) doubles the interfacial potential difference, a statistically significant difference. Control experiments determined that this potential difference was not due to charges trapped in the underlying substrate. The direction of the observed potential difference would lead to increased Voc, but would also pose a barrier to electrons being injected into the PCBM and make recombination more favorable. Our method may allow unique information to be obtained in new donor-acceptor junctions

  20. Combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl esters derived from recycled cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yo-ping Greg Wu; Ya-fen Lin; Chang-Tang Chang [National Ilan University, Ilan (Taiwan). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2007-12-15

    The goal of this study is to find out the exhaust emissions differences produced by different kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from used cooking oils and animal fats, as well as the importance of the purification step in exhaust emissions production. A total of 120 L of waste vegetable oil and 30 L of waste frying oil were collected and converted into three batches of FAME. There were two batches of FAME produced from waste vegetable oil (B01 and B02), and one batch of FAME produced by mixing 2% of waste frying oil with waste vegetable oil (B03). The FAMEs used in this study had higher density, kinematic viscosity, and flash point, but a lower gross heating value, when compared to the premium diesel. The B01 engine produced higher CO formation and the diesel-fuelled engine produced higher CO than the B02 and B03 did for engine speeds higher than 1400 rpm. Most of the FAME fuels produced higher CO{sub 2} than the diesel fuel did. The FAME fuels emitted higher NOx and PM, but lower SO{sub 2}, than the diesel fuel. C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}, diphenyl sulfone (C{sub 12}H{sub 10}O{sub 2}S), and diethyl phthalate (C{sub 12}H{sub 14}O{sub 4}) can be selected as the character index for the combustion of FAME. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Electronic Structures and Optical Properties of Phenyl C71 Butyric Acid Methyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Rong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM has been adopted as electron acceptor materials in bulk heterojunction solar cells with relatively higher power conversion efficiency. The understanding of the mechanism and performance for the devices based upon PC71BM requires the information of conformations, electronic structures, optical properties, and so forth. Here, the geometries, IR and Raman, electronic structures, polarizabilities, and hyperpolarizabilities of PC71BM isomers are studied by using density functional theory (DFT; the absorption and excitation properties are investigated via time-dependent DFT with B3LYP, PBE0, and CAM-B3LYP functionals. The calculated results show that [6,6]PC71BM is more stable than [5,6]PC71BM due to the lower total energy. The vibrational modes of the isomers at IR and Raman peaks are quite similar. As to absorption properties, CAM-B3LYP functional is the suitable functional for describing the excitations of PC71BM because the calculated results with CAM-B3LYP functional agree well with that of the experiment. The analysis of transition configurations and molecular orbitals demonstrated that the transitions at the absorption maxima in UV/Vis region are localized π-π* transitions in fullerenes cages. Furthermore, the larger isotropic polarizability of PC71BM indicates that the response of PC71BM to applied external electric field is stronger than that of PC61BM, and therefore resulting into better nonlinear optical properties.

  2. A study on the fuel injection and atomization characteristics of soybean oil methyl ester (SME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spray atomization characteristics of an undiluted biodiesel fuel (soybean oil methyl ester, SME) in a diesel engine were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel (ultra low sulfur diesel, ULSD). The experimental results were compared with numerical results predicted by the KIVA-3V code. The spray characteristics of the spray tip penetration, spray area, spray centroid and injection delay were analyzed using images obtained from a visualization system. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was analyzed using a droplet analyzer system to investigate the atomization characteristics. It was found that the peak injection rate increases and advances when the injection pressure increases due to the increase of the initial injection momentum. The injection rate of the SME, which has a higher density than diesel fuel, is higher than that of diesel fuel despite its low injection velocity. The high ambient pressure induces the shortening of spray tip penetration of the SME. Moreover, the predicted spray tip penetration pattern is similar to the pattern observed experimentally. The SMD of the SME decreases along the axial distance. The predicted local and overall SMD distribution patterns of diesel and SME fuels illustrate similar tendencies when compared with the experimental droplet size distribution patterns

  3. The use of Koroch seed oil methyl ester blends as fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental investigation was carried out on a small direct injection (DI) diesel engine, fuelling the engine with 10% (B10), 20% (B20), 30% (B30) and 40% (B40) blending of Koroch seed oil methyl ester (KSOME) with diesel. The performance and combustion characteristics of the engine at various loads are compared and analyzed. The results showed higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for the KSOME blends. The engine indicated power (IP) was more for the blends up to B30, but found to be reduced for the blend B40 when compared to that of diesel. The engine combustion parameters such as pressure crank angle diagram, peak pressure, time of occurrence of peak pressure, net heat-release rate, cumulative heat release, ignition delay and combustion duration were computed. The KSOME blends exhibited similar combustion trend with diesel. However, the blends showed an early start of combustion with shorter ignition delay period. The study reveals the suitability of KSOME blends up to B30 as fuel for a diesel engine mainly used in generating sets and the agricultural applications in India without any significant drop in engine performance.

  4. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of castor seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.DURGA DEVI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are widely used as power sources in medium and heavy-duty applications because of their lower fuel consumption and lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC compared with gasoline engines. Rudolf Diesel, the inventor ofthe diesel engine, ran an engine on groundnut oil at the Paris Exposition of 1900. Since then, vegetable oils have been used as fuels when petroleum supplies were expensive or difficult to obtain. With the increased availability of petroleum in the 1940s, research into vegetable oils decreased. Since the oil crisis of the 1970s research interest has expanded in the area of alternative fuels. The difficulties associated with using raw vegetable oils in diesel engines identified in the literature are injector coking, severe engine deposits, filter gumming problems, piston ring sticking, and injector coking and thickening of the lubricating oil. The highviscosity and low volatility of raw vegetable oils are generally considered to be the major drawbacks for their utilization as fuels in diesel engines. Castor methyl ester (CME blends showed performance characteristics close to diesel. Therefore castor methylester blends can be used in CI engines in rural area for meeting energy requirement in various agricultural operations such as irrigation, threshing, indistries etc.

  5. Evaluation of engine performance and emission with methyl ester of Karanja oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Gangil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been considered as potential alternative to petroleum diesel with the renewable origin for the existing compression ignition engine. The main objective of the present work is evaluating performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine for various blends (B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 of Karanja biodiesel and commercial diesel. The experimental investigation was carried out in IC (internal combustion at variable loads and compared with conventional diesel fuel with respect to engine performance parameters i.e. brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake specific power consumption (BSEC, brake thermal efficiency (η-B.Th, for varying load conditions. The results obtained indicated the better fuel properties and engine performance at B40. For all cases, BSFC reduced with increase in load. It can be observed that the BSEC for various blends is lower as compared with that of diesel fuel. The availability of oxygen in the Karanja oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blend may be the reason for the lower BSEC. Brake thermal efficiency is increased due reduced heat loss with increased in load. It was found that the emission level of CO and HC level decreased with increased in blend proportion in diesel fuel. NOx emission increased with increase in blend proportion in diesel fuel.

  6. INFLUENCE OF PALM METHYL ESTER (PME AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL IN MULTICYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizil M. Yasin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the vegetable oil, which is converted to biodiesel through a transesterification process using methanol as the catalyst. Palm oil biodiesel or palm methyl ester (PME can be used in diesel engines without any modification, and can be blended with conventional diesel to produce different proportions of PME-diesel blend fuels. The physical properties of PME were evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The effect of using neat PME as fuel on engine performance and emissions was evaluated using a commercial four-cylinder four-stroke IDI diesel engine. The experimental results on an engine operated with PME exhibited higher brake specific fuel consumption in comparison with the conventional fuel. With respect to the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate, these increased features by over 8.11% and 9.3% with PME compared to conventional diesel. The overall results show that PME surpassed the diesel combustion quality due to its psychochemical properties and higher oxygen content.

  7. Exhaust gas assisted reforming of rapeseed methyl ester for reduced exhaust emissions of CI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions of compression ignition (CI) engines fueled with biodiesel are generally higher compared to conventional diesel fuelling. Previous research work in CI engines has shown that the partial replacement of hydrocarbon fuels by hydrogen combined with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can reduce NOx and smoke emissions without significant changes to the engine efficiency. In the present study, the production of hydrogen-rich gas by catalytic exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) has been investigated experimentally as a way to provide the required hydrogen for the reduction of biodiesel emissions. For comparison, tests with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) were also performed. The reforming experiments were carried out in a mini reactor supplied with exhaust gas from a single cylinder CI engine. In all cases, the reactor inlet temperature was kept at 290-bar C which was chosen as a typical low exhaust gas temperature of diesel engines operating at part load. The engine operating condition (speed, load) was the same in all the tests and the reactor product gas was examined as a function of the reactor fuel flow rate and the composition of fuel and engine exhaust gas. Up to 17% hydrogen content of the reformer product was achieved and the results indicated that the main reactions in the reformer were the exothermic complete oxidation of part of the fuel and the endothermic steam reforming reaction. Reforming of RME produced more hydrogen with higher fuel conversion efficiency compared to ULSD reforming

  8. Synergistic antiviral effect in vitro of azidothymidine and amphotericin B methyl ester in combination on HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Svenningsen, A;

    1992-01-01

    The nucleoside analogue azidothymidine (AZT) and the methyl ester of amphotericin B (AME) were assayed for antiviral effect on HIV infection singly and in combination. Both compounds were effective in inhibiting HIV infection of MT-4 cells. At concentrations where either compound alone had no sig...... synergistic antiviral properties. Amphotericin B itself significantly reduced HIV infectivity in vitro and should not be used as an antifungal agent in cultures intended to propagate HIV....

  9. S-(−)-10,11-Dihydroxyfarnesoic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits Melanin Synthesis in Murine Melanocyte Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Hwa Baek; Jun-Won Ahn; Sung-Hee Nam; Cheol-Sik Yoon; Jae-Cheon Shin; Sang-Han Lee

    2014-01-01

    The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasmas, freckles, age spots, and chloasmas. In the course of screening for melanin synthesis inhibitors, we found that the culture broth from an insect morphopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana CS1029, exhibits potent antimelanogenic activity. We isolated and purified an active metabolite and identified it as S-(−)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesoic acid methyl ester (dhFAME), an insect j...

  10. Regiospecific synthesis of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Paulo; Santos, Juliane M. dos; D' Oca, Marcelo G. M.; Piovesan, Luciana A., E-mail: lpiovesan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (UFRS), RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos; Kuhn, Bruna L.; Moreira, Dayse N.; Flores, Alex F.C.; Martins, Marcos A.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-11-15

    A series of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters was synthesized by the cyclo condensation of respective fatty hydrazides with 4-alkoxy- 1,1,1-trial omethyl-3-alquen-2-ones. Efficient and regiospecific cyclizations catalyzed by BF{sub 3}-MeOH gave the desired products in good to excellent yields and at high purity. (author)

  11. Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat Testis Following Exposure to Haloxyfop-p-methyl Ester, an Aryloxyphenoxypropionate Herbicide

    OpenAIRE

    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka; Ayokanmi Ore

    2015-01-01

    Haloxyfop-p-methyl ester (HPME) ((R)-2-{4-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]phenoxy}propionic acid), is a selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) herbicide. It exerts phytotoxicity through inhibition of lipid metabolism and induction of oxidative stress in susceptible plants. This study investigated the toxicological potentials of HPME in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (170–210 g) were randomized into four groups (I–IV). Group I (control) received 1 mL of distilled water, whil...

  12. Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to answer the following central question: Is the environmental pollution burden resulting from the cultivation of rape and the use of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester to be rated less severe than that of the manufacture and use of diesel fuel, and should, therefore, farmland be used in Germany to grow rape for rape seed oil or rape methyl ester production as a substitute for diesel fuel? Firstly, the extent is investigated to which rape seed oil or rape methyl ester can contribute to cuts in emissions of climate-relevant trace gases as compared to diesel fuel from crude oil. Secondly, the environmental impact and hazards associated with the cultivation, transport and manufacture of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester (again as compared to diesel fuel) are investigated. The data analysed relate to the entire life cycle. (orig./UWA)

  13. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohibbe Azam, M.; Waris, Amtul; Nahar, N.M. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342003 (India)

    2005-10-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel. (author)

  14. THE EFFECT OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER ON KIRLOSKAR HA394DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa K Godiganur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources. The primary problem associated with using straight vegetable oil as fuel in a compression ignition engine is caused by viscosity. The process of transesterifiction of vegetable oil with methyl alcohol provides a significant reduction in viscosity, thereby enhancing the physical properties of vegetable oil. The Kirloskar HA394 compression ignition, multi cylinder diesel engine does not require any modification to replace diesel by karanja methyl ester. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of karanja oil methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power of the mixture is closed to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that the blend of karanja ester and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and in terms of emission parameters; it is an environmental friendly fuel

  15. Performance and emission of generator Diesel engine using methyl esters of palm oil and diesel blends at different compression ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaidhawi, M.; Chiriac, R.; Bădescu, V.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Dobrovicescu, A.; Prisecaru, M.; Alfaryjat, A. A.; Ghilvacs, M.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes engine model to predicate the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a single cylinder four stroke direct injection engine which was fuelled with diesel and palm oil methyl ester of B7 (blends 7% palm oil methyl ester with 93% diesel by volume) and B10. The experiment was conducted at constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and different engine loads operations with compression ratios of 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1. The influence of the compression ratio and fuel typeson specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency has been investigated and presented. The optimum compression ratio which yields better performance has been identified. The result from the present work confirms that biodiesel resulting from palm oil methyl ester could represent a superior alternative to diesel fuel when the engine operates with variable compression ratios. The blends, when used as fuel, result in a reduction of the brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while NOx emissions was increased when the engine is operated with biodiesel blends.

  16. Accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of fatty acid methyl ester profiles of model bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Haack S.; Garchow, H.; Odelson, D.A.; Forney, L.J.; Klug, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    We determined the accuracy and reproducibility of whole-community fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis with two model bacterial communities differing in composition by using the Microbial ID, Inc. (MIDI), system. The biomass, taxonomic structure, and expected MIDI-FAME profiles under a variety of environmental conditions were known for these model communities a priori. Not all members of each community could be detected in the composite profile because of lack of fatty acid 'signatures' in some isolates or because of variations (approximately fivefold) in fatty acid yield across taxa. MIDI- FAME profiles of replicate subsamples of a given community were similar in terms of fatty acid yield per unit of community dry weight and relative proportions of specific fatty acids. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of MIDI-FAME profiles resulted in a clear separation of the two different communities and a clustering of replicates of each community from two separate experiments on the first PCA axis. The first PCA axis accounted for 57.1% of the variance in the data and was correlated with fatty acids that varied significantly between communities and reflected the underlying community taxonomic structure. On the basis of our data, community fatty acid profiles can be used to assess the relative similarities and differences of microbial communities that differ in taxonomic composition. However, detailed interpretation of community fatty acid profiles in terms of biomass or community taxonomic composition must be viewed with caution until our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of fatty acids over a wide variety of taxa and the effects of growth conditions on fatty acid profiles is more extensive.

  17. Simultaneous microwave extraction and synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial lipids have the potential to substantially reduce the use of liquid fossil fuels, though one obstacle is the energy costs associated with the extraction and subsequent conversion into a biofuel. Here we report a one-step method to produce FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) from Rhodotorula glutinis by combining lipid extraction in a microwave reactor with acid-catalysed transesterification. The microwave did not alter the FAME profile and over 99% of the lipid was esterified when using 25 wt% H2SO4 over 20 min at 120 °C. On using higher loadings of catalyst, similar yields were achieved over 30 s. Equivalent amounts of FAME were recovered in 30 s using this method as with a 4 h Soxhlet extraction, run with the same solvent system. When water was present at less than a 1:1 ratio with methanol, the main product was FAME, above this the major products were FFA (free fatty acids). Under the best conditions, the energy required for the microwave was less than 20% of the energy content of the biodiesel produced. Increasing the temperature did not change the EROI (energy return on investment) substantially; however, longer reaction times used an equivalent amount of energy to the total energy content of the biodiesel. - Highlights: • The extraction and transesterification of yeast lipid were achieved using a microwave reactor. • The lipid was extracted from Rhodotorula glutinis within 30 s under all conditions. • Addition of 25 wt% H2SO4 catalyst converted 95% glycerides to FAME over 5 min. • Water could be tolerated up to 25 wt% without high FFA production. • The temperature of the microwave had less impact on EROI than the length of extraction

  18. Improvement of Kidney Apelin and Apelin Receptor in Nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl Ester Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali Akbar Mahmoody

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have investigated the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training (AT and Ferula gummosis supplement (FG on apelin and apelin receptor (APJ, nitric oxide (NO and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE of hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: In a experimental study, 50 adult male wistar rats were classified into five groups; 1- AT, 2- FG, 3- combination of aerobic training + Ferula Gummosa supplement (TFG, 4- nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 5- shame (control groups (SH. The rats in the 1 to 4 groups received L-NAME (10 mg/kg, 6 times a week for 8 weeks. Also, the 1 and 3 groups experienced the training of 15 to 22 m/min for 25 to 64 minutes, 5 times a week for 8 weeks, whereas, the 2 and 3 groups received Ferula gummosis supplement (90 mg/kg, 6 times a week for 8 weeks. However, rats in 5 groups received NaCl solution. Results: At protocols resulted in a significant increase in apelin and APJ as compared to control and L-NAME groups. The TFG protocols resulted in a markedly increase in apelin, APJ and significantly decrease of ACE levels as compared to L-NAME group. Chronically administration of L-NAME resulted increased, ACE, and reduced the levels of apelin, APJ and NO, as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results in this study show that physical regular activity with and without herbal treatment induce amplification in apelin/APJ system and down-regulation blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertension in the rat kidney tissue.

  19. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions.  Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  20. Investigations of engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with an oxidation catalyst. Use of rape seed oil methyl ester (RME); Untersuchung des Betriebs- und Abgasemissionsverhaltens eines Dieselmotors mit Oxidationskatalysator. Verwendung von Rapsoel-Methyl-Ester (RME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, H.; Hattingen, U.; Theobald, J. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany); Weidmann, K.; Koenig, A. [Volkswagen AG, (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    Investigations were carried out on a 1.9 ltr. turbocharged swirl-chamber diesel engine fuelled with three different qualities of Rape Seed Oil Methyl Ester (RME) at the University of Kaiserslautern. The RME fuels were supplied by different manufacturers. In comparison with the RME fuels a conventional, low sulphur (S<0.05 wt.%) diesel fuel was studied. (orig.) [Deutsch] An der Universitaet Kaiserslautern wurden an einem 1,9-l-Wirbelkammer-Turbodieselmotor Untersuchungen mit drei unterschiedlichen RME-Qualitaeten durchgefuehrt. Die RME-Kraftstoffe wurden von verschiedenen Herstellern geliefert. Zum Vergleich mit den RME-Kraftstoffen erfolgten Messungen mit einem konventionellen, schwefelarmen Dieselkraftstoff (S<0,05 Mas.-%). (orig.)

  1. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, Akanksha; Balasubramanian, Sundar; Lima, Marybeth; Boldor, Dorin

    2011-09-01

    Transesterification of vegetable oils (from soybeans and rice bran) into methyl and ethyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A critical comparison between the two alcohols was performed in terms of yields, quality, and reaction kinetics. Parameters tested were temperature (60, 70 and 80°C) and time (5, 10, 15 and 20 min). At all tested conditions, more than 96% conversion rates were obtained for both ethanol and methanol. Use of microwave technology to assist the transesterification process resulted in faster reaction times and reduced catalyst requirement (about ten-fold decrease). Methanol required lower alcohol:oil ratios than normally used in conventional heating, whereas ethanol required higher molar ratios. All esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Methanol performed better in terms of performance and costs, while ethanol may have some environmental and safety benefits.

  2. Mobility-limited polyarylamine biscarbonate ester (PABC) /[6,6]-phenyl $C_{61}$ butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Liang-Bih; Preske, Amanda E; Mamiya, Arthur A; Filho, Demétrio A da Silva; Cardoso, George C

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices made from blends of a polyarylamine biscarbonate ester (PABC) and [6,6]-phenyl $C_{61}$ butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have been fabricated and characterized. PABC is a hole transporting co-polymer prepared from reacting N,N'diphenyl-N,N'bis(3-hydroxyphenyl)1,1;biphenyl(4,4'diamine), diethylene glycol bischloroformate, and triethylemine. By varying the polymer loading in the blend, optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 0.45\\% has been achieved for a blend consisting of 25 wt\\% PABC, which is an order of magnitude higher than the PCE for a 45 wt\\% blend. The optimal ratio is at about 0.44:0.56 molar ratio of the active hole transporting to electron transporting moieties. Results of mobility studies suggest that blends with higher PABC loading have efficiencies limited by 'hole' transport. Also responsible for the lower efficiency at higher PABC concentrations was optical filtering. The efficiency does not appear to be limited by deep charge trapping. Density fun...

  3. Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer reactions in 4-amino-3-methyl benzoic acid methyl ester: A fluorescence study in condensedphase and jet-cooled molecular beams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amrita Chakraborty; Samiran Kar; D N Nath; Nikhil Guchhait

    2007-03-01

    Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer reactions in 4-amino-3-methyl benzoic acid methyl ester (AMBME) have been investigated spectroscopically. AMBME, with its weak charge donor primary amino group, shows dual emission in polar solvents. Absorption and emission measurements in the condensed phase support the premise that the short wavelength emission band corresponds to local emission and the long wavelength emission band to the charge transfer emission. Laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra show the presence of two low-energy conformers in jet-cooled molecular beams. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory help to determine structure, vibrational modes, potential energy surface, transition energy and oscillator strength for correlating experimental findings with theoretical results.

  4. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  5. Exploration of waste cooking oil methyl esters (WCOME as fuel in compression ignition engines: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kathirvel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing human population and the corresponding economic development of mankind have caused a relentless surge in the energy demand of the world. The fast diminishing fossil fuel reserves and the overdependence of petroleum based fuels have already prompted the world to look for alternate sources of energy to offset the fuel crisis in the future. Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (WCOME has proven itself as a viable alternate fuel that can be used in Compression Ignition (CI engines due to its low cost, non-toxicity, biodegradability and renewable nature. It also contributes a minimum amount of net greenhouse gases, such as CO2, SO2 and NO emissions to the atmosphere. The main objective of this paper is to focus on the study of the performance, combustion and emission parameters of CI engines using WCOME and to explore the possibility of utilizing WCOME blends with diesel extensively in place of diesel. The production methods used for transesterification play a vital role in the physiochemical properties of the methyl esters produced. Various production intensification technologies such as hydrodynamic cavitation and ultrasonic cavitation were employed to improve the yield of the methyl esters during transesterification. This review includes the study of WCOME from different origins in various types of diesel engines. Most of the studies comply with the decrease in carbon monoxide (CO emissions and the increase in brake thermal efficiency while using WCOME in CI engines. Many researchers reported slight increase in the emissions of oxides of nitrogen. ANN modeling has been widely used to predict the process variables of the diesel engine while using WCOME. The versatility of ANN modeling was proven by the minimum error percentages of the actual and predicted values of the performance and emission characteristics.

  6. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions. PMID:19409477

  7. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ► LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated macrophages. ► IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ► Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ► LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ► LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α).

  8. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadrado, Irene [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cidre, Florencia; Herranz, Sandra [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Estevez-Braun, Ana [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”. Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez 2. 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigaciones del Cáncer (ICIC) (Spain); Heras, Beatriz de las, E-mail: lasheras@farm.ucm.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, Sonsoles, E-mail: shortelano@isciii.es [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE{sub 2} production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ► LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. ► IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ► Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ► LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ► LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α).

  9. Unequivocal NMR assignments: O-methoxy-methyl esters derivatives of acid chromanones from Calophyllum brasiliense CAMB. (Guanandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneppele, D; Vieira, P C; Dall'Oglio, E L; da Silva, L E; Sousa, P T

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes the fractionation of the crude hexane extract (EBHEX) from Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) stem bark. Derivatization of DCM(2-9) fraction with diazomethane afforded the chromanones inophylloidic acid, isobrasiliensic acid, as well as, a mixture containing isobrasiliensic and brasiliensic acids, in the form of their more stable O-methoxy-methyl esters derivatives 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The isolation of 1 from C. brasiliense is described for the first time herein. The use of two-dimensional NMR methods ((1)H-COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) allowed the precise determination of (13)C and (1)H chemical shifts of compounds 1, 2, and 3. PMID:18626818

  10. Peak alignment and robust principal component analysis of gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and volatiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and of volatile lipid oxidation products from fish lipid extracts are analyzed by multivariate data analysis [principal component analysis (PCA)]. Peak alignment is necessary in order to include all sampled points of the chromatograms in the data set...... that the usage of ROPCA is advantageous, compared with traditional PCA, when analysing the entire profile of chromatographic data in cases of sub-optimally aligned data. It also demonstrates how choosing the most robust PCA (sample or element-wise) depends on the type of outliers present in the data set....

  11. Systematic evaluation of methyl ester bioisosteres in the context of developing alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for anti-HIV-1 chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Ayako; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Takayama, Jun; Xuan, Meiyan; Okazaki, Mari; Hartman, Tracy L; Buckheit, Robert W; Pannecouque, Christophe; Cushman, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) are a class of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) targeting HIV-1. Four chemically and metabolically stabilized ADAMs incorporating N-methoxyimidoyl halide replacements of the methyl esters of the lead compound were previously reported. In this study, twenty-five new ADAMs were synthesized in order to investigate the biological consequences of installing nine different methyl ester bioisosteres at three different locations. Attempts to define a universal rank order of methyl ester bioisosteres and discover the 'best' one in terms of inhibitory activity versus HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) led to the realization that the potencies are critically dependent on the surrounding structure at each location, and therefore the definition of universal rank order is impossible. This investigation produced several new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in which all three of the three methyl esters of the lead compound were replaced by methyl ester bioisosteres, resulting in compounds that are more potent as HIV-1 RT inhibitors and antiviral agents than the lead compound itself and are expected to also be more metabolically stable than the lead compound. PMID:27234889

  12. The oxidative stability of rapeseed oil methyl and ethyl esters - environment friendly alternative fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidative stability of rapeseed oil and bio diesel fuel RME and REE, produced from it, has been determined. The addition of antioxidant BHT essentially prolongs the utility term of oil and its esters. (authors)

  13. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 4-(4,6-dimethoxyl -pyrimidin-2-yl)-3-thiourea Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jie; SONG Ji-Rong; REN Ying-Hui; XU Kang-Zhen; MA Hai-Xia

    2006-01-01

    The title compound 4-(4,6-dimethoxylpyrimidin-2-yl)-3-thiourea carboxylic acid methyl ester was synthesized by the reaction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxyl pyrimidine, potassium thiocyanate and methyl chloroformate in ethyl acetate. Single crystals suitable for X-ray measurement were obtained by recrystallization with the solvent of dimethyl formamide at the room temperature. The structure was characterized by elemental analysis and IR and determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystallographic data: C9H12N4O4S, Mr = 272.29, monoclinic, space group C2/m with a = 1.6672(3), b = 0.66383(12), c = 1.1617(2) nm, β = 109.275(2)°, V = 1.2136(4) nm3, Dc = 1.490 g/cm3, μ = 0.281 mm-1, F(000) = 568, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0341and wR2 = 0.1042.

  14. Solvent free hydroxylation of the methyl esters of Blighia unijugata seed oil in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Adewale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extraction of oil from the seed of Blighia unijugata gave a yield of 50.82 ± 1.20% using hexane in a soxhlet extractor. The iodine and saponification values were 67.60 ± 0.80 g iodine/100 g and 239.20 ± 1.00 mg KOH/g respectively with C18:1 being the dominant fatty acid. Unsaturated methyl esters of Blighia unijugata which had been previously subjected to urea adduct complexation was used to synthesize methyl 9, 10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate via hydroxylation in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP. The reaction was monitored and confirmed using FTIR and GC-MS. This study has revealed that oxidation reaction of mono unsaturated bonds using CTAP could be achieved under solvent free condition.

  15. Energetic balance of castor oil methyl and ethyl esters; Balanco energetico de esteres metilicos e etilicos de oleo de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Pires, Monica de Moura; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: jalmeida@uesc.br; Parente Junior, Expedito [Tecnologias Bioenergeticas Ltda. (TECBIO), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Fundacao Nucleo de Tecnologia Industrial (NUTEC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: expeditojr@tecbio.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Castor oil (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the cultures chosen by the biodiesel federal and state programs to supply raw material for biodiesel production - a biofuel indicated as renewable and less pollutant than its fossil competitor. An energetic balance was performed based on LCA - Life Cycle Analysis principles and Input-Output Analysis, comparing the castor oil energy performance with others traditional cultures: colza (Brassica napus) in Europe and soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. Energy balance (O-I) was positive in both production ways (methyl and ethyl) independent of coproduct use allocation alternative. The relation Output-Input (O-I) calculated for castor oil biodiesel [1.3-2.9] was higher than the colza (1.2-1.9) and lower than the soybean (3.2--3.4), independent of the way and allocation of the used byproduct. Both indicators suggest the energy and environmental viability of the castor oil biodiesel, provided that high agricultural productivity (higher than 1.500 kg/ha year) can be guaranteed. The potentialization of the positive energetic and environmental effects depends on the adequate utilization of the coproducts and process residues, the improvement of the energy efficiency in the the castor oil and biodiesel processing and the implementation of efficient management in the use of the chemical inputs (specially the N), responsible for up 5% of the total energy input.

  16. BIODIESEL SYNTHESIS OF COTTON SEEDS OIL (CEIBAPENTANDRA BY CHEMICALLY TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS AND ION FRAGMENTATION OF METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Ryantin Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel is commercial energy sources in many communities where their abundance progressively reduced and the resulting environmental pollution. Biodiesel is one alternative fuel made from vegetable which oils are suitable to replace the function of fossil fuels and environmentally friendly. Synthesis of biodiesel from cotton seeds oil was carried out by chemically ransesterification process. Composition of methyl esters in biodiesel thatwas analyzed by GC-MS are methyl palmitate (16.71%, methyl 8,11-octadecadienoic (46.45 % and methyl linoleate (4.21 %.The highest amount of biodiesel conversion isat ratio of oil and methanol (1:1 with the catalyst 1% (weight of oil. The produced biodiesel was 93.7 %. Chemical properties of the produced biodiesel meets the standard SNI 04-7182-2006 i.e. saponification value of 120.167 mg KOH / g, acid value of 0.28 mg KOH / g and iod value 55.84g iod/100g of sample.

  17. Quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6 and linolenic acid (ω-3 were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98% and 14.80% respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  18. Quantiifcation of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi; Fazal Wajid; Inayat-ur-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6) and linolenic acid (ω-3) were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98%and 14.80%respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  19. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES ON DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH PONGAMIA METHYL ESTER INJECTION AND METHANOL CARBURETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIBABU, N.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of the present study is to clarify ignition characteristics, combustion process and knock limit of methanol premixture in a dual fuel diesel engine, and also to improve the trade-off between NOx and smoke markedly without deteriorating the high engine performance. Experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine operating in duel fuel mode using Pongamia methyl ester injection and methanol carburetion. Methanol is introduced into the engine at different throttle openings along with intake air stream by a carburetor which is arranged at bifurcated air inlet. Pongamia methyl ester fuel was supplied to the engine by conventional fuel injection. The experimental results show that exhaust gas temperatures are moderate and there is better reduction of NOx, HC, CO and CO2 at methanol mass flow rate of 16.2 mg/s. Smoke level was observed to be low and comparable. Improved thermal efficiency of the engine was observed.

  20. A database of chromatographic properties and mass spectra of fatty acid methyl esters from omega-3 products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Ziar; Mjøs, Svein A

    2013-07-19

    Fatty acids in products claimed to contain oils with the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were analyzed as fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using electron impact ionization. To cover the variation in products on the market, the 20 products that were studied in detail were selected from a larger sample set by statistical methodology. The samples were analyzed on two different stationary phases (polyethylene glycol and cyanopropyl) and the fatty acid methyl esters were identified by methodology that combines the mass spectra and retention indices into a single score value. More that 100 fatty acids had a chromatographic area above 0.1% of the total, in at least one product. Retention indices are reported as equivalent chain lengths, and overlap patterns on the two columns are discussed. Both columns were found suitable for analysis of major and nutritionally important fatty acids, but the large number of minor compounds that may act as interferents will be problematic if low limits of quantification are required in analyses of similar sample types. A database of mass spectral libraries and equivalent chain lengths of the detected compounds has been compiled and is available online. PMID:23773584

  1. Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Padhee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel substitute for internal combustion engines. An experimental investigation was performed to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with blends of Jatropha methyl ester and diesel. In the present work three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester (B10, B20, B40 and B100 were used. The increments in load on the engine increase the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific fuel consumption. The biodiesel blends produce lower carbon monoxide & unburned hydrocarbon emission and higher carbon dioxide & oxides of nitrogen than neat diesel fuel. From the results it was observed that the ignition delays decreased with increase in concentration of biodiesel in biodiesel blends with diesel. The combustion characteristics of single-fuel for biodiesel and diesel have similar combustion pressure and HRR patterns at different engine loads but it was observed that the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were lower for biodiesel blends compared to those of diesel fuel combustion.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CASTOR AND JATROPHA OIL SOURCE AND ITS METHYL ESTER TEST ON THE DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVENDRA VASHIST,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neat non-edible oils pose problems when subjected to use when used in the CI engines. These problems are attributed to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of these oils. Two non-edible sources of the oils were identified i.e jatropha and castor. The biodiesel was prepared from neat oils and blends preparedwith diesel. up till 20 percent of biodiesel. Produced blends were tested for their use as a substitute fuel for diesel in a single cylinder diesel engine at varying loads. The best engine operating condition based on lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher brake thermal efficiency were identified and compared. On the observed data for both the fuels, Chi square (2 statistical test was applied. The values calculated for 2 jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME = 0.0104 and 2 castor oil methyl ester (COME = 0.0524. The values concluded that there is no effect of fuel type on fuel consumption up till 20 percent biodiesel blended fuel.

  3. NF EN 14213. - Heating fuels. - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) - Requirements and test methods; NF EN 14213. - Fioul domestique. - Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). - Exigences et methodes d'essais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) to be used as heating oil solely or as a blending component for the production of heating oil. At 100% concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in heating equipment designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100% FAME.

  4. Quantification of trace fatty acid methyl esters in diesel fuel by using multidimensional gas chromatography with electron and chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R L; Rawson, P M; Evans, D J; Marriott, P J

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of contamination of marine and naval diesel fuels (arising from product mixing or adulteration) with biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters can be problematic, especially at very low levels. A suitable solution for this task for trace amounts of individual fatty acid methyl esters with resolution and quantification can be achieved by using a multidimensional gas chromatographic approach with electron and chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection. A unique column set comprising a 100 m methyl-siloxane nonpolar first dimension column and high-temperature ionic liquid column in the second dimension enabled identification of individual fatty acid methyl esters at below the lowest concentrations required to be reported in a diesel fuel matrix. Detection limits for individual fatty acid methyl esters compounds ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 mg/L, with excellent linearity up to 5000 mg/L and repeatability of the method from 1.3 to 3.2%. The method was applied to the analysis of diesel fuel samples with suspected biodiesel contamination. Contamination at 568 mg/L was calculated for an unknown sample and interpretation of the results permitted the determination of a likely source of the contamination. PMID:27159197

  5. Quantification of trace fatty acid methyl esters in diesel fuel by using multidimensional gas chromatography with electron and chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R L; Rawson, P M; Evans, D J; Marriott, P J

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of contamination of marine and naval diesel fuels (arising from product mixing or adulteration) with biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters can be problematic, especially at very low levels. A suitable solution for this task for trace amounts of individual fatty acid methyl esters with resolution and quantification can be achieved by using a multidimensional gas chromatographic approach with electron and chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection. A unique column set comprising a 100 m methyl-siloxane nonpolar first dimension column and high-temperature ionic liquid column in the second dimension enabled identification of individual fatty acid methyl esters at below the lowest concentrations required to be reported in a diesel fuel matrix. Detection limits for individual fatty acid methyl esters compounds ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 mg/L, with excellent linearity up to 5000 mg/L and repeatability of the method from 1.3 to 3.2%. The method was applied to the analysis of diesel fuel samples with suspected biodiesel contamination. Contamination at 568 mg/L was calculated for an unknown sample and interpretation of the results permitted the determination of a likely source of the contamination.

  6. Fuel properties of highly polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters: Prediction of fuel properties of algal biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, can be derived from other triacylglycerol-containing feedstocks. Especially algae are being considered for this purpose due to their claimed high production potential. However, there are no comprehensive reports regarding...

  7. Partial syntheses of some isomers of Gibberellin A, and Gibberellin A, methyl ester

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga, Braulio M.; Gómez, Clemente D.; Melchor G. Hernández; De Paz, Emilio; Tellado, Fernando G.; Perales, Áurea

    1990-01-01

    The partial synthesis of an isomer of gibberellic acid meyhyl ester, with a lactone between C-6 and C-10 and an esterified acid group at C-19, is described. The overall yield from gibberellic acid was 46%. The preparation of 6-epi-GA. has also been carried out. Its structure was confirmed by an X-ray analysis of its 1B-iodo derivativo.

  8. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mech. Eng. Dept., UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi 17555 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-15

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized. (author)

  9. Synthesis of (2R, 4R)-2-N-tert-Butyloxycarbonyl Amino-4,5-epoxido-valeric Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of (2R, 4R)-2-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl amino-4, 5-epoxido- valeric acid methyl ester 8, which is the key intermediate for the synthesis of (2'S, 2R) -3-trans-nitrocyclopropyl-alanine, was first accomplished.

  10. Synthesis of (2R,4R)—2—N—tert—Butyloxycarbonyl Amino—4,5—epoxido—valeric Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinRongQIN; YuLiXIE; 等

    2002-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of (2R,4R)-2-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl amino-4,5-epoxido-valeric acid methyl ester 8,which is the key intermediate for the synthesis of (2′S,2R)-3-trans-nitrocyclopropyl-alanine,was first accomplished.

  11. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 2-[(4-Methoxy- 6-methylthio-2-pyrimidinyl)aminocarbonyl-aminosulfonyl] Benzoic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明智; 王晓光; 毛春晖; 黄路; 宋海斌

    2004-01-01

    The title compound 2-[(4-methoxy-6-methylthio-2-pyrimidinyl)aminocarbonyl-aminosulfonyl]benzoic acid methyl ester (C15H16N4O6S2,Mr = 412.44) was obtained by the reaction of (4-methoxy-6-methylthio-2-pyrimidinyl)amine with 2-methoxylcarbonylbenzene-sulfonylisocya-nate.The crystal is of monoclinic,space group P21/c with a =11.169(3),b = 9.508(3),c = 17.690(5)(A),β = 91.593(5)o,Z = 4,V = 1877.9(10)(A)3,Dc = 1.459 g/cm3,F(000) = 856,μ(MoKα) = 0.324 mm-1,R = 0.0690 and Wr = 0.1368 for 3301 observed reflections (I > 2((I)).The N(1)-H…N(3) and N(2)-H…O(4) hydrogen bonds can be observed.In the molecule the phenyl plane(I),pyrimi-din-2-yl-urea bridge plane(Ⅱ) and ester plane(Ⅲ) form three conjugated systems.

  12. Morphology characterization of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester films via an electrohydrodynamic spraying route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Eun; Park, Ji-Woon; Hwang, Jungho, E-mail: hwangjh@yonsei.ac.kr

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a thin film layer of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) fine particles using electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spray and evaluated the effects of the process parameters on the film morphology. After the PCBM was dissolved in dichloromethane, the solution was sprayed onto a substrate using the stable cone-jet mode of EHD spraying at various flow rates ranging from 5 to 15 μl/min and electric potentials ranging from 3 to 5 kV. The effects of the liquid flow rate, nozzle-plate distance, solute fraction, and electrical conductivity on the spray characteristics were investigated. The sizes of the PCBM particles deposited on the substrate were calculated using a scaling law and a mass balance equation, the results of which were in agreement with those obtained by scanning electron microscopy. A thin film was obtained with the structure of PCBM particles deposited without any void or agglomeration from the EHD spraying technique. The electrical conductivity of the PCBM solution was the dominant parameter in controlling the size of the PCBM particles. As the conductivity was increased to 2.4 × 10{sup −3} S/m from 4.3 × 10{sup −9} S/m, the particle size decreased from 6.7 μm to 320 nm. The size distribution measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer also supported the generation of nano-scale PCBM particles. The decrease of the particle size with increasing electrical conductivity may lead to a better morphology of PCBM films. - Highlights: • The phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester thin film was obtained by electrospray. • The morphology of film consisting of microparticles was investigated. • The particle size was controlled by adjusting experimental parameters. • The nanoparticle was obtained by increasing the solution conductivity. • The particle size distribution was studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer.

  13. Morphology characterization of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester films via an electrohydrodynamic spraying route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we fabricated a thin film layer of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) fine particles using electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spray and evaluated the effects of the process parameters on the film morphology. After the PCBM was dissolved in dichloromethane, the solution was sprayed onto a substrate using the stable cone-jet mode of EHD spraying at various flow rates ranging from 5 to 15 μl/min and electric potentials ranging from 3 to 5 kV. The effects of the liquid flow rate, nozzle-plate distance, solute fraction, and electrical conductivity on the spray characteristics were investigated. The sizes of the PCBM particles deposited on the substrate were calculated using a scaling law and a mass balance equation, the results of which were in agreement with those obtained by scanning electron microscopy. A thin film was obtained with the structure of PCBM particles deposited without any void or agglomeration from the EHD spraying technique. The electrical conductivity of the PCBM solution was the dominant parameter in controlling the size of the PCBM particles. As the conductivity was increased to 2.4 × 10−3 S/m from 4.3 × 10−9 S/m, the particle size decreased from 6.7 μm to 320 nm. The size distribution measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer also supported the generation of nano-scale PCBM particles. The decrease of the particle size with increasing electrical conductivity may lead to a better morphology of PCBM films. - Highlights: • The phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester thin film was obtained by electrospray. • The morphology of film consisting of microparticles was investigated. • The particle size was controlled by adjusting experimental parameters. • The nanoparticle was obtained by increasing the solution conductivity. • The particle size distribution was studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer

  14. Ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester binding orients the misaligned active site of the ubiquitin hydrolase UCHL1 into productive conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, David A.; Maiti, Tushar K.; Davies, Christopher W.; Das, Chittaranjan (Purdue)

    2010-07-06

    Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a Parkinson disease-associated, putative cysteine protease found abundantly and selectively expressed in neurons. The crystal structure of apo UCHL1 showed that the active-site residues are not aligned in a canonical form, with the nucleophilic cysteine being 7.7 {angstrom} from the general base histidine, an arrangement consistent with an inactive form of the enzyme. Here we report the crystal structures of the wild type and two Parkinson disease-associated variants of the enzyme, S18Y and I93M, bound to a ubiquitin-based suicide substrate, ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester. These structures reveal that ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester binds primarily at two sites on the enzyme, with its carboxy terminus at the active site and with its amino-terminal {beta}-hairpin at the distal site - a surface-exposed hydrophobic crevice 17 {angstrom} away from the active site. Binding at the distal site initiates a cascade of side-chain movements in the enzyme that starts at a highly conserved, surface-exposed phenylalanine and is relayed to the active site resulting in the reorientation and proximal placement of the general base within 4 {angstrom} of the catalytic cysteine, an arrangement found in productive cysteine proteases. Mutation of the distal-site, surface-exposed phenylalanine to alanine reduces ubiquitin binding and severely impairs the catalytic activity of the enzyme. These results suggest that the activity of UCHL1 may be regulated by its own substrate.

  15. Used frying oils and fats and their utilization in the production of methyl esters of higher fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvengros, J. Jan; Cvengrosova, Zuzana [Slovak Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2004-08-01

    From the point of view price and available capacity used frying oils or fats (UFO) represent an attractive raw material for the production of methyl esters (ME) of higher fatty acids as alternative fuels for diesel engines. If they are treated such that the required quality, with an acidity number up to 3.0 mg KOH/g and a water content up to 0.1 wt%, is achieved they can be processed to ME using standard techniques of alkali-catalysed transesterification with methanol which are utilized for production of the ME from new oils/fats. The problematic waste can thus be converted to an ecologically friendly fuel. Vacuum distillation of free fatty acids in a film evaporator is an effective method for simultaneously decreasing the content of FFA and water in UFO. Final distillation of raw ME in a film vacuum evaporator results in practically all parameters required by the standard, in the final ME being achieved. Undesirable low-temperature properties of ME derived from UFO, due to higher fraction of saturated acyls, can be adjusted by the addition of depressants-flow improvers for winterization. Some simplified methods for the quality control of UFO and ME are discussed. The conversion of acylglycerols to ME is monitored by GLC with a packed column, where the peak areas of ME in the sample before and after the reaction with an effective methylation agent are compared. The method for the determination of the water content in esters utilizes the reaction of calcium carbide with water, the volume of acetylene being measured. (Author)

  16. Pyrogenic transformation of Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters without oil extraction for estimating total lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Tae O; Kim, Jae-Kon; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-07-01

    This study fundamentally investigated the pseudo-catalytic transesterification of dried Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) without oil extraction, which was achieved in less than 5min via a thermo-chemical pathway. This study presented that the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction was achieved in the presence of silica and that its main driving force was identified as temperature: pores in silica provided the numerous reaction space like a micro-reactor, where the heterogeneous reaction was developed. The introduced FAME derivatization showed an extraordinarily high tolerance of impurities (i.e., pyrolytic products and various extractives). This study also explored the thermal cracking of FAMEs derived from N. oceanica: the thermal cracking of saturated FAMEs was invulnerable at temperatures lower than 400°C. Lastly, this study reported that N. oceanica contained 14.4wt.% of dried N. oceanica and that the introduced methylation technique could be applicable to many research fields sharing the transesterification platform. PMID:27082269

  17. Microbubble ultrasound contrast agent with three esters and carboxylic methyl cellulose as main shell materials: Its preparation and imaging evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜永峰; 万明习; 周晓东

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study on the preparation process of a new surfactant-based microbubble ultrasound contrast agent and to evaluate its contrast effects in vivo. Methods: Microbubble ultrasound contrast agent with three ester surfactants and other additives as its shell materials was prepared by sonication. Sulfur hexafluoride was adopted as the inner gas of the microbubbles. New methods through the combination of optical microscope and some softwares were used to measure the size distribution and the concentration of the microbubbles. Some parameters such as the pH value of the phosphate buffer, quantity of the carboxylic methyl cellulose in the shell materials, selection of the ultrasound power and process time, were studied. Six hybirded dogs were used to verify the in vivo contrast imaging of the contrast agent using second harmonic power Doppler modality. Safety and persistent time of the agent inner animal body were also investigated. Results: Ultrasound contrast agent prepared in the experiment had an average microbubble diameter of 3.95 microns with concentration of 3.6×109 microbubbles per millilitre. Carboxylic methyl cellulose was found as an important shell material which had obviously effect on the microbubble stability and production even with a little quantity. The buffer pH value also had a key role on the microbubble formation and the final production. When the buffer pH value reached 7.4, there was no microbubble produced. Under the approximate microbubble production, process time could be shorten with the increasing ultrasound power. The obvious ultrasound contrast imaging effects were detected in the dog's heart chamber and liver as well as kidney using only one millilitre agent when diluted. The agent was found safe to the dogs. At the same time, persistent time of the agent was found over 20 min in the dog's body. Conclusion: The new ultrasound contrast agent prepared in the experiment has high microbubble production and concentration, narrow

  18. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME Succession in Different Substrates as Affected by the Co-Application of Three Pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cardinali

    Full Text Available In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality.In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged composts and their mixtures treated with a co-application of three pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron and epoxiconazole, with two extraction methods, and two incubation times (0 and 58 days. FAMEs extraction followed the microbial identification system (MIDI and ester-linked method (EL.The pesticides showed high persistence, as revealed by half-life (t1/2 values ranging from 168 to 298 days, which confirms their recalcitrance to degradation. However, t1/2 values were affected by substrate and compost age down to 8 days for chlorotoluron in S and up to 453 days for epoxiconazole in 12M. Fifty-six FAMEs were detected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the EL method detected a higher number of FAMEs and unique FAMEs than the MIDI one, whereas principal component analysis (PCA highlighted that the monosaturated 18:1ω9c and cyclopropane 19:0ω10c/19ω6 were the most significant FAMEs grouping by extraction method. The cyclopropyl to monoenoic acids ratio evidenced higher stress conditions when pesticides were applied to compost and compost+soil than solely soil, as well as with final time.Overall, FAMEs profiles showed the importance of the extraction method for both substrate and incubation time, the t1/2 values highlighted the effectiveness of solely soil and the less mature compost in reducing the persistence of pesticides.

  19. Methods of preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. Statistical assessment of the precision characteristics from a collaborative trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Camino, M. C.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The official regulations for the control of the olive and olive pomace oils of the European Union (EU and International Olive Oil Council (IOOC include the determination of fatty acids in order to be applied to several purity criteria. The determination of fatty acids require the preparation of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME for the subsequent analysis by gas chromatography with good precision and reproducibility. Among the methods used in the laboratories of both the industries and the official institutions looking after the olive oil control, the ones selected were: 1 cold methylation with methanolic potash and 2 hot methylation with sodium methylate followed by acidification with sulphuric acid in methanol and heating. A statistical assessment of the precision characteristics were performed on the determination of fatty acids using both methods by a collaborative trial following the directions included in the AOAC regulation (AOAC 1995. In oils with low acidities, the results obtained for both methylation methods were equivalent. However, the olivepomace oil sample (acidity 15.5% showed significative differences between the fatty acid compositions obtained using both methylation methods. Finally, the methylation with the acidic+basic method did not yield an increase of the trans-isomers of the fatty acids.Los métodos oficiales para el control del aceite de oliva y de orujo de oliva de la Unión Europea (UE y del Comité Oleícola Internacional (COI incluyen la determinación de ácidos grasos en la aplicación de varios criterios de pureza. La determinación de ácidos grasos requiere la preparación de los ésteres metílicos de los ácidos grasos (FAME y su posterior análisis mediante cromatografía de gases con una buena repetibilidad y reproducibilidad. Entre los muchos métodos usados por los laboratorios de la industria y de los organismos oficiales de control, se seleccionaron los siguientes: 1 metilación en frío con potasa

  20. Zum thermischen Verhalten einiger Kohlensäure[(methylphenylsilyl)methyl]ester-Derivate

    OpenAIRE

    Tacke, Reinhold; Link, Matthias; Bentlage-Felten, Anke; Zilch, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and the thermal behaviour of the (methylphenylsilyl)methyl carbonates \\(CH_3(C_6H_5)Si(H)CH_2OC(O)X (6: X = OCH_3; 7: X = Cl; 8: X = N(CH_3)_2)\\) is described. 8 rearranges in toluene solution at 100 °C quantitatively to give the carbam oyloxysilane \\(C_6H_5(CH_3)_2SiOC(O)N(CH_3)_2\\) (11), whereas neat 6 and 7 at 135 °C undergo quantitative formation of \\(C_6H_5(CH_3)_2SiOCH_3\\) (12) and \\(C_6H_5(CH_3)_2SiCl\\) (13), respectively. The formation of 12 and 13 is explained by a rear...

  1. Marinamide, a novel alkaloid and its methyl ester produced by the application of mixed fermentation technique to two mangrove endophytic fungi from the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Feng; LIN Yongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A novel 1-isoquinolone analog designated as marinamide (A) and its methyl ester (B), were produced by the application of mixed fermentation technique to two mangrove endophytic fungi (strains Nos. 1924 and 3893) from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectra methods (mainly by 2D NMR) as 4- (2-pyrrolyl)-1-isoquinolone-3-carboxylic acid (A) and methyl 4-(2-pyrrolyl)-1-isoquinolone-3-carboxylate (B), respectively. Compounds A and B were not obtained when either strain was cultured individually under the same conditions. The results showed that the application of mixed fermentation technique maybe rep- resents a potentially important approach to discover novel metabolites.

  2. Evaluation of the separation characteristics of application-specific (fatty acid methyl esters) open-tubular columns for gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiridena, Waruna; Qian, Jing; Koziol, Wladyslaw W; Poole, Colin F

    2007-03-01

    The solvation parameter model is used to characterize the separation properties of the polar stationary phases EC-Wax and PAG with a poly(ethylene oxide) backbone (substituted with propylene oxide in the case of PAG) and the cyanopropyl-substituted polysilphenylene-siloxane stationary phase BPX90 at five equally spaced temperatures between 60 and 140 degrees C. The separation characteristics of these stationary phases are compared to four PEG and two poly(cyanopropylsiloxane) stationary phases (HP-20M, HP-Innowax, SolGel-Wax, DB-WAXetr, HP-88, and SP-2340) characterized in the same way. The database of system constants for these polar stationary phases is used to provide insight into the separation mechanism for fatty acid methyl esters and to determine selectivity differences that can be expected for generically similar stationary phase types. The discussion is not structured to indicate which stationary phase should be used for a particular separation but to provide a general framework to demonstrate the relationship between the retention mechanism and stationary phase chemistry. PMID:17461115

  3. An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Samo, Khalid; Faturachman, Danny

    2012-09-01

    Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

  4. COMBUSTION, PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH NEEM OIL METHYL ESTER AND ITS DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative fuel is derived from the fats of animals and plants. As energy demands increase and fossil fuels are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. The main advantages of using this alternative fuel are its renewability, biodegradability and better quality of exhaust gases. It is technically competitive and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional petro-diesel fuel for use in Compression Ignition (CI engines. The use of biodiesel reduces the dependence on imported fossil fuels which continue to decrease in availability and affordability. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with the effect of using neem oil methyl ester and its diesel blends at different loads. The results showed that maximum cylinder pressure and maximum rate of heat release increased with the increase in bio diesel blends. The carbon monoxide (CO and smoke emissions were found significantly lower when operating on biodiesel-diesel blends, but Nitrogen Oxide (NOx emissions are found to be higher at full load.

  5. Performance of a domestic cooking wick stove using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oil plants in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagutu, Agatha W.; Chhabra, Sumesh C.; Lang' at-Thoruwa, Caroline C. [Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-0100, Nairobi (Kenya); Thoruwa, Thomas F.N. [Department of Energy Engineering, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi (Kenya); Mahunnah, R.L.A. [University of Dar-es Salaam, Muhimbili College of Medicine, P.O. Box 53486, Dar-es Salaam (Tanzania)

    2010-08-15

    With depletion of solid biomass fuels and their rising costs in recent years, there has been a shift towards using kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for domestic cooking in Kenya. However, the use of kerosene is associated with health and safety problems. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a clean, safe and sustainable liquid bio-fuel. Plant oil derivatives fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) present such a promising solution. This paper presents the performance of a wick stove using FAME fuels derived from oil plants: Jatropha curcus L. (Physic nut), Croton megalocarpus Hutch, Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb., Cocos nucifera L. (coconut), soyabeans and sunflower. The FAME performance tests were based on the standard water-boiling tests (WBT) and compared with kerosene. Unlike kerosene all FAME fuels burned with odorless and non-pungent smell generating an average firepower of 1095 W with specific fuel consumption of 44.6 g L{sup -1} (55% higher than kerosene). The flash points of the FAME fuels obtained were typically much higher (2.3-3.3 times) than kerosene implying that they are much safer to use than kerosene. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the FAME fuels have potential to provide safe and sustainable cooking liquid fuel in developing countries. (author)

  6. Cavitation assisted synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from sustainable feedstock in presence of heterogeneous catalyst using two step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Sumit M; Gole, Vitthal L; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-03-01

    The present work reports the intensification aspects for the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from a non-edible high acid value Nagchampa oil (31 mg of KOH/g of oil) using two stage acid esterification (catalyzed by H₂SO₄) followed by transesterification in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO). Intensification aspects of both stages have been investigated using sonochemical reactors and the obtained degree of intensification has been established by comparison with the conventional approach based on mechanical agitation. It has been observed that reaction temperature for esterification reduced from 65 to 40 °C for the ultrasonic approach whereas there was a significant reduction in the optimum reaction time for transesterification from 4h for the conventional approach to 2.5h for the ultrasound assisted approach. Also the reaction temperature reduced marginally from 65 to 60 °C and yield increased from 76% to 79% for the ultrasound assisted approach. Energy requirement and activation energy for both esterification and transesterification was lower for the ultrasound based approach as compared to the conventional approach. The present work has clearly established the intensification obtained due to the use of ultrasound and also illustrated the two step approach for the synthesis of FAME from high acid value feedstock based on the use of heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification step.

  7. Exhaust emissions and fuel properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil methyl esters blended with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Bryan R. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N University St, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Williams, Aaron; McCormick, Robert L. [United States Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, ReFUEL Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Haas, Michael J. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 E Mermaid Ln, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Important fuel properties and emission characteristics of blends (20 vol.%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes were observed for B20 blends of SME and PHSME versus neat ULSD: improved lubricity, higher kinematic viscosity and cetane number, lower sulfur content, and inferior low-temperature properties and oxidative stability. With respect to exhaust emissions, B20 blends of PHSME and SME exhibited lower PM and CO emissions in comparison to those of neat ULSD. The PHSME blend also showed a significant reduction in THC emissions. Both SME and PHSME B20 blends yielded small increases in NO{sub x} emissions. The reduction in double bond content of PHSME did not result in a statistically significant difference in NO{sub x} emissions versus SME at the B20 blend level. The test engine consumed a greater amount of fuel operating on the SME and PHSME blends than on neat ULSD, but the increase was smaller for the PHSME blend. (author)

  8. Characterization of Mycolic Acids in Total Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Fractions from Mycobacterium Species by High Resolution MALDI-TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Kanae; Suga, Mitsuo; Sato, Takafumi; Wada, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Mycolic acids (MAs) are characteristic components of bacteria in the suborder Corynebacterineae, such as Mycobacterium. MAs are categorized into subclasses based on their functional bases (cyclopropane ring, methoxy, keto, and epoxy group). Since MAs have heterogeneity among bacterial species, analyzing of MAs are required in the chemotaxonomic field. However, their structural analysis is not easy because of their long carbon-chain lengths and several functional groups. In this study, total fatty acid (FA) methyl ester (ME) fraction of M. tuberculosis H37Rv was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with a spiral ion trajectory (MALDI spiral-TOFMS). The distributions of carbon-chain length and their relative peak intensities were confirmed with those obtained by analysis of each subclass fraction which was separated from total FA ME fraction using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The observed major peaks were reliably assigned as MAs owing to the high mass accuracy (errorodd-numbered carbon-chain MAs for the total FA ME fraction were consistent with those of MA subclass fractions. To visualize whole MAs, contour maps of relative peak intensities for whole MAs were created. The contour maps indicated the MA subclasses and their distributions of carbon-chains with relative peak intensities at a glance. Our proposed method allows simple characterization in a short time and thus enables the analysis of large numbers of samples, and it would contribute to the chemotaxonomy. PMID:26819906

  9. S-(−-10,11-Dihydroxyfarnesoic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits Melanin Synthesis in Murine Melanocyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwa Baek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasmas, freckles, age spots, and chloasmas. In the course of screening for melanin synthesis inhibitors, we found that the culture broth from an insect morphopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana CS1029, exhibits potent antimelanogenic activity. We isolated and purified an active metabolite and identified it as S-(−-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesoic acid methyl ester (dhFAME, an insect juvenile hormone. To address whether dhFAME inhibits melanin synthesis, we first measured the size of the melanin biosynthesis inhibition zone caused by dhFAME. dhFAME also showed inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase in Melan-a cells. Intracellular, dose-dependent tyrosinase inhibition activity was also confirmed by zymography. In addition, we showed that dhFAME strongly inhibits melanin synthesis in Melan-a cells. Furthermore, we compared levels of TYR, TRP-1, TRP-2, MITF, and MC1R mRNA expression by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and showed that treatment of Melan-a cells with 35 μM dhFAME led to an 11-fold decrease in TYR expression, a 6-fold decrease in TRP-2 expression, and a 5-fold decrease in MITF expression. Together, these results indicate that dhFAME is a potent inhibitor of melanin synthesis that can potentially be used for cosmetic biomaterial(s.

  10. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil: Production process assessment and synergistic effects in its properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoira, Laureano; Garcia Galean, Juan; Alcantara, Ramon [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, ETS Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Lapuerta, Magin; Garcia-Contreras, Reyes [Maquinas y Motores Termicos, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil have been synthesized by methanolysis catalyzed by sodium methoxide and the optimal transesterification conditions have been found. However, some properties of the castor FAME render it unsuitable in pure state for its direct use as fuel in internal combustion engines. Thus, blends with reference diesel have been prepared and their properties have been evaluated. Among these properties, the oxidative stability of the blends shows a negative anti-synergistic effect, that is, all the blends have an induction period lower than the pure reference diesel and the pure castor FAME. On the contrary, the lubricity shows a positive synergistic effect, the wear scar of the blends being always lower than those of the pure components. The cold-filter plugging point of the blends shows also a singular effect, since the filterability remains identical to that of the reference diesel until around 50 vol% of castor FAME has been blended with it. The blends of castor FAME and reference diesel until approximately 40 vol% of castor FAME meet most of the specifications of the EN 590 standard. (author)

  11. Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifjur Raheman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was performed to study the combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with producer gas-biodiesel in dual fuel mode. Three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester with high speed diesel (HSD (B10, B20 and B100 were used with producer gas obtained from the gasification of briquettes made from de-oiled Jatropha seed cake. The increments in load on the engine increased the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific energy consumption. The ignition delays in dual-fuel mode of operation for both the fuels were longer than for single-fuel mode of operation. Combustion pressure and heat release rate (HRR patterns at different engine loads were found to be similar for biodiesel and HSD. In dual-fuel mode, the peak pressure and HRR for producer gas–biodiesel dual-fuel were slightly lower than those of producer gas–diesel combustion at full load condition. Significantly lower NOx emissions were obtained under the dual fuel mode of operation for both pilot fuels compared to the single-fuel mode especially HSD under all test conditions.

  12. A study of production and characterization of Manketti (Ricinodendron rautonemii methyl ester and its blends as a potential biodiesel feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Atabani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, more than 350 oil-bearing crops are known as potential biodiesel feedstocks. This study reports on production and characterization of Manketti (Ricinodendron rautonemii methyl ester and its blends with diesel. The effect of Manketti biodiesel (B5 on engine and emissions performance was also investigated. The cloud, pour and cold filter plugging points of the produced biodiesel were measured at 1, 3 and 5 °C, respectively. However, the kinematic viscosity of the biodiesel generated was found to be 8.34 mm2/s which was higher than the limit described by ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. This can be attributed to the high kinematic viscosity of the parent oil (132.75 mm2/s. Nevertheless, blending with diesel improved this attribute. Moreover, it is observed that at all engine speeds, B5 produced lower brake power (1.18% and higher brake specific fuel consumption (2.26% compared to B0 (neat diesel. B5 increased the CO and HC emissions by 32.27% and 37.5%, respectively, compared to B0. However, B0 produced 5.26% higher NO emissions than B5.

  13. Effect of Solvent Additives on the Solution Aggregation of Phenyl-C61-Butyl Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2015-11-24

    High-boiling-point solvent additives, employed during the solution processing of active-layer formulations, impact the efficiency of bulk hetero-junction (BHJ) organic solar cells by influencing the morphological / topological features of the multicomponent thin film. Here, we aim at a better understanding of how these additives change the aggregation landscape in the casting solution prior to film deposition via a multi-scale computational study of the aggregation phenomena of phenyl-C61-butyric-acid methyl ester (PCBM) in various solutions. The energetic landscape of PCBM-solvent / solvent-additive intermolecular interactions is evaluated at the electronic-structure level through symmetry-adapted perturbation theory to determine the nature and strength of non-covalent forces important to aggregation. Molecular dynamics simulations highlight how the choice of solvent and solvent additives control the formation of molecular aggregates. Our results indicate that high-boiling-point solvent additives change the effective interactions among the PCBM and casting-solvent molecules and alter the equilibrium PCBM aggregate sizes in solution.

  14. An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

  15. The effects of N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, sodium nitroprusside and noradrenaline on venous return in the anaesthetized cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, E. A.; Law, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    1. The vascular actions of N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), sodium nitroprusside and noradrenaline were investigated in cats under chloralose anaesthesia with controlled vascular tone and ventilation. Cardiac output, heart rate, vascular pressures and mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) were measured. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) and resistance to venous return (Rvr) were calculated from steady-state readings. 2. L-NAME (37 mumol kg-1, i.v.) administered to ten cats r...

  16. Silane Reduction of 5-Hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic Acid Diethyl Ester: Synthesis of Vitamin B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Gum

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for the synthesis of pyridoxine have been investigated. The key intermediate, 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester (5, was reduced with either a silane monomer (MeSiH(OEt2 or a polysiloxane (polymethylhydrosiloxane, PMHS to afford crude pyridoxine. An isolation technique utilizing a commercially available resin was devised, affording the desired product, vitamin B6, in an overall yield of 38-54 % and a purity of 76%.

  17. Simultaneous determination of shanzhiside methyl ester, 8-O-acetylshan- zhiside methyl ester and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Lamiophlomis rotata Pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yang; Liang, Xinlei; Sun, Tingting; Luo, Jinghan; Guo, Xingjie; Zhao, Longshan

    2016-05-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of shanzhiside methyl ester, 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of Lamiophlomis rotata Pill in rat plasma was developed and validated. After liquid-liquid extraction with n-butyl alcohol/ethyl acetate (70:30, v/v), analytes and paeoniflorin (internal standard, IS) were separated on an Acquity BEH UPLC C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. All calibration curves had good linearity (r>0.9929) over the concentration ranges of 1-1000 ng/mL for shanzhiside methyl ester and 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester, 0.3-150 ng/mL for luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. The intra- and inter-day precisions were all within 11.1% and the accuracy (relative error, RE%) all ranged from -13.6% to 5.3%. The method also guaranteed an acceptable selectivity, recovery and stability, which was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the three analytes in rats after oral administration of Lamiophlomis rotata Pill. PMID:27023158

  18. Asymmetric transesterification of ibuprofen methyl ester catalyzed by Novozym 435%Novozym435催化布洛芬甲酯的不对称醇解反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐景侠; 李立标; 孙建华

    2011-01-01

    目的 制备S(+)-布洛芬.方法 以布洛芬甲酯为原料,利用酶催化的 不对称转酯反应,将R(-)-布洛芬甲酯转化为R(-)-布洛芬丁酯,反应条件:布洛芬甲酯,10 g(100 mmol);Novozym 435,10 g;正丁醇,5.9 g(80 mmol);温度,39℃;时间,8~10 h.结果 不对称转酯反应的收率为83%,将得到的S(+)-布洛芬甲酯进行水解得S(+)-布洛芬,其收率为90%,光学纯为93%ee.结论 该本反应体系下,酶可以被回收利用,绿色经济,该方法有工业放大的潜力.%Aim To prepare S( + )-ibuprofen. Methods R( - )-ibuprofen methyl ester was transferred to R( - )-ibuprofen butyl ester catalyzed by enzyme. The reaction was performed as follows : Ibuprofen methyl ester, 10 g , 100 mmol; Novozym 435 , 10 g; 1-butanol, 5. 9 g,80 mmol;Temperature , 39℃ ; Time.8 - 10 h. Results The yield of asymmetric transesterification was 83% . The S( + )-ibuprofen methyl ester was then hydrolyzed. The yield of S( + )-ibuprofen with 93% ee was 90℃ . Conclusion The enzyme can be used repeatedly in these methods. The procedure has potential to be applied in industrial scale which was economic and environmental friendly.

  19. Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat Testis Following Exposure to Haloxyfop-p-methyl Ester, an Aryloxyphenoxypropionate Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Haloxyfop-p-methyl ester (HPME ((R-2-{4-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyloxy]phenoxy}propionic acid, is a selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP herbicide. It exerts phytotoxicity through inhibition of lipid metabolism and induction of oxidative stress in susceptible plants. This study investigated the toxicological potentials of HPME in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (170–210 g were randomized into four groups (I–IV. Group I (control received 1 mL of distilled water, while animals in Groups II, III and IV received 6.75, 13.5 and 27 mg/kg body weight HPME, respectively, for 21 days. There was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in renal and hepatic function biomarkers (urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, ALP, ALT, AST in the plasma of treated animals compared to control. Levels of testicular antioxidants, ascorbic acid and glutathione, and activities of glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced significantly after 21 days of HPME administration in a dose-dependent manner. The testicular malondialdehyde level increased significantly in the HPME-treated rats relative to the control. A significant decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase was also observed in HPME-treated animals. Testicular histology revealed severe interstitial edema and sections of seminiferous tubules with necrotic and eroded germinal epithelium in the HPME-treated rats. Overall, data from this study suggest that HPME altered hepatic and renal function and induced oxidative stress and morphological changes in the testis of rats.

  20. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Joelda; Santos, Jakeline Raiane D.; Cunha, Rodrigo Bruno L.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M., E-mail: joeldadantas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LabSMaC/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Lab. de Sintese de Materiais Ceramicos; Kiminami, Ruth Herta G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenhria de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 Degree-Sign C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w) of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 {sup m2}g{sup -1} and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion. (author)

  1. A limited LCA comparing large- and small-scale production of rape methyl ester (RME) under Swedish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, S.; Nilsson, D.; Hansson, P.A. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-06-01

    Production of rape methyl ester (RME) can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale RME production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three plant sizes. For small plants and physical allocation, the global warming potential was 40.3 g CO{sub 2}-eq/MJ{sub fuel}, the acidification potential 236 mg SO{sub 2}-eq/MJ{sub fuel}, the eutrophication potential 39.1 mg PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}eq/MJ{sub fuel}, the photochemical oxidant creation potential 3.29 mg C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-eq/MJ{sub fuel} and the energy requirement 295 kJ/MJ{sub fuel}. It was shown that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible. The higher oil extraction efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system were, to a certain degree, outweighed by the longer transport distances. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, soil emissions and tractive power made major contributions to the environmental load. The results were, however, largely dependent on the method used for allocation of the environmental burden between the RME and the by-products meal and glycerine. This indicates that when different biofuels or production strategies are to be compared, it is important that the results are calculated with the same allocation strategies and system limitations. (author)

  2. Negative polarity of phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester adjacent to donor macromolecule domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, Olivia J.; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Hardigree, Josué F. Martínez; Katz, Howard E., E-mail: hekatz@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 206 Maryland Hall, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Wu, Meng-Yin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 415 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Johns, Gary L.; Markovic, Nina [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Arnold, Michael S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 248 MS and E Building, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Interfacial fields within organic photovoltaics influence the movement of free charge carriers, including exciton dissociation and recombination. Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) can also be dependent on the interfacial fields, in the event that they modulate the energy gap between donor HOMO and acceptor LUMO. A rise in the vacuum level of the acceptor will increase the gap and the V{sub oc}, which can be beneficial for device efficiency. Here, we measure the interfacial potential differences at donor-acceptor junctions using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, and quantify how much of the potential difference originates from physical contact between the donor and acceptor. We see a statistically significant and pervasive negative polarity on the phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) side of PCBM/donor junctions, which should also be present at the complex interfaces in bulk heterojunctions. This potential difference may originate from molecular dipoles, interfacial interactions with donor materials, and/or equilibrium charge transfer due to the higher work function and electron affinity of PCBM. We show that the contact between PCBM and poly(3-hexylthiophene) doubles the interfacial potential difference, a statistically significant difference. Control experiments determined that this potential difference was not due to charges trapped in the underlying substrate. The direction of the observed potential difference would lead to increased V{sub oc}, but would also pose a barrier to electrons being injected into the PCBM and make recombination more favorable. Our method may allow unique information to be obtained in new donor-acceptor junctions.

  3. Accurate and reliable quantification of total microalgal fuel potential as fatty acid methyl esters by in situ transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M.L.; Quinn, Matthew; Wychen, Stefanie van; Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process. (orig.)

  4. Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

  5. Interaction of L-Arginine-methyl ester and Sonic hedgehog in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) on the course of liver ischemia and repeffusion (I/R) in rats,and the interaction between treatment with nitric oxide donor L-Arginine-methyl ester (L-Arg) and up-regulation of Shh expression.METHODS: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 220-240 g were used in this study. Sham-control group (G1, n = 10): a sham operation was performed (except for liver I/R). I/R-untreated group (G2,n = 10): rats underwent liver ischemia for 1 h followed by reperfusion for 45 min. I/R-L-Arg group (G3, n =10): after performing the same surgical procedure as in group 2, animals were treated with L-Arg. Liver tissues were taken for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA)levels, and biochemical and histological evaluations were made.RESULTS: Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) activities were higher in group 2 than in group 3. MDA values and the hepatic injury score decreased in the L-Arg treated group compared to the I/R-untreated group. In group 2,the hepatocytes were swollen with marked vacuolization.Group 3 rats showed well-preserved liver parenchyma,with hepatocytes extending from the central vein. The morphology of the hepatocytes and the sinusoidal structures was normal, without any signs of congestion.Mild Shh positive immunostaining was detected in group 2 animals. The expression of immunoreactive cells was increased markedly in liver tissue from I/R-L-Arg rats.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that Shh molecules are critical factors in the pathophysiology of inflammatory liver injury induced by I/R. In addition, NO plays an important role in the immunohistochemical expression of these molecules.

  6. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelda Dantas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 °C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 m²g- 1 and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m²g- 1 and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion.

  7. Very-long-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids, 3-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters and 2-alkanols from cuticular waxes of Aloe arborescens leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racovita, Radu C; Peng, Chen; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Abe, Ikuro; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-05-01

    The present work aimed at a comprehensive chemical characterization of the cuticular wax mixtures covering leaves of the monocot species Aloe arborescens. The wax mixtures were found to contain typical aliphatic compound classes in characteristic chain length distributions, including alkanes (predominantly C31), primary alcohols (predominantly C28), aldehydes (predominantly C32), fatty acid methyl esters (predominantly C28) and fatty acids (bimodal distribution around C32 and C28). Alkyl esters ranging from C42 to C52 were identified, and found to mainly contain C28 alcohol linked to C16-C20 acids. Three other homologous series were identified as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (predominantly C28), their methyl esters (predominantly C28), and 2-alkanols (predominantly C31). Based on structural similarities and homolog distributions, the biosynthetic pathways leading to these novel wax constituents can be hypothesized. Further detailed analyses showed that the A. arborescens leaf was covered with 15 μg/cm(2) wax on its adaxial side and 36 μg/cm(2) on the abaxial side, with 3:2 and 1:1 ratios between epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers on each side, respectively. Terpenoids were found mainly in the intracuticular waxes, whereas very-long-chain alkanes and fatty acids accumulated to relatively high concentrations in the epicuticular wax, hence near the true surface of the leaf. PMID:25200334

  8. Synthesis, structural and conformational study of some esters derived from 3-methyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8(α and β)-ols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriepa, I.; Bellanato, J.

    2014-09-01

    A series of α and β-esters bearing a 3-methyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane moiety as well as methyl and aryl substituents were synthesized and studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. In CDCl3 solution, at room temperature, a chair-envelope conformation for the bicycle moiety with the N-CH3 group in equatorial position with respect to the chair ring is proposed for both, α and β-esters. The chair conformation of the piperidine ring is puckered at C8 in the α-epimers and it is flattened at N3, in the β-epimers. Free rotation of the acyloxy group around the C8sbnd O bond has also been deduced. Analgesic activity of four of these substances was studied. 8β-Benzoyloxy-3-methyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane demonstrated significant analgesic activity in the hot plate test compared to morphine. By measuring the rectal temperature in mice, results also showed a significant antipyretic activity of this compound.

  9. Fast and simple method for determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in biodiesel blends using X-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Kowalewska, Zofia; Kocot, Karina; Polowniak, Marzena

    2011-09-30

    The determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in diesel fuel blends is an important aspect of production and blending process as well as quality control of distribution operations. In this study, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF) is used for the first time for determination of FAME in biodiesel blends. The principle of the method is based on intensity difference of X-ray radiation scattered from hydrocarbons and from FAME. The experiment shows that coherent and incoherent radiation, commonly applied for evaluation of the average atomic number of the sample with light matrix, cannot be applied for FAME determination. However, the application of scattered continuous radiation gives excellent correlation between FAME concentration and intensity of scattered radiation. The best results are obtained if continuum is collected in the range of energy between 10.5 and 15.0 keV for rhodium X-ray tube, operated at 35 kV. Linear relationship between the FAME concentration and the inverse of scattered continuous radiation is obtained with the correlation coefficients of 0.999. Standard deviation of measurement is ca. 0.46% (v/v) of FAME and detection limit is 1.2% (v/v) for 600 s counting time and 50% dead-time loss using Si-PIN detector. The investigation shows that crucial issue in determination of FAME in biodiesel blends using EDXRF spectrometer is the precision of measurements resulting from the counting statistics. Therefore, much better results (0.20% (v/v) standard deviation and 0.52% (v/v) detection limit) can be expected if higher intensity of primary radiation is applied and X-ray spectrum is collected by silicon drift detector of high input count rate. For concentration of FAME from 10 to 100% (v/v), the differences between reference method (Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) and the proposed method usually do not exceed 1% (v/v) of FAME. The proposed method is fast, simple and enables FAME determination in wide range of

  10. Standard Thermodynamic Functions of Tripeptides N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol and N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine Methyl Ester

    OpenAIRE

    Markin, Alexey V.; Markhasin, Evgeny; Sologubov, Semen S.; Smirnova, Natalia N.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The heat capacities of tripeptides N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol (N-f-MLF-OH) and N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (N-f-MLF-OMe) were measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry over the temperature range from T = (6 to 350) K. The tripeptides were stable over this temperature range, and no phase change, transformation, association, or thermal decomposition was observed. The standard thermodynamic functions: molar heat capacity C p,m, enthalpy...

  11. Dissociation of castor oil-induced diarrhoea and intestinal mucosal injury in rat: effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester.

    OpenAIRE

    Capasso, F; Mascolo, N; Izzo, A A; Gaginella, T S

    1994-01-01

    1. Castor oil (2 ml orally) produced diarrhoea in rats 1-7 h after challenge, which was associated with gross damage to the duodenal and jejunal mucosa. 2. The injury was accompanied by release of acid phosphatase into the gut lumen, indicating cellular injury. 3. Intraperitoneal injection of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 2.5-50 mg kg-1 twice), prevented the diarrhoea. The dose of L-NAME (50 mg kg-1) completely blocked the diarrhoea but inc...

  12. Commercial- and whitewashing-grade limestone as a heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from used frying oil (UFO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Shweta; Singh, Bhaskar; Sharma, Yogesh C. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Varanasi (India); Frometa, Amado Enrique N. [Universidad Tecnologica de Izucar de Matamoros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2012-12-15

    Commercial-grade limestone used in whitewashing which is a low-cost material has been used as a catalyst for the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters. The catalyst was characterized by differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the study of its physicochemical nature. The catalyst was calcined at 900 C for 2.5 h for the decomposition of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide. The catalyst was further activated by dissolving 1.5 wt% of catalyst in 30 ml methanol (7.5:1, methanol to used frying oil molar ratio) and stirred at 25 C for 1 h on a magnetic stirrer. The transesterification reaction was performed using calcium oxide as a catalyst and then with the ''activated calcium oxide.'' The conversion obtained was 94.4 % with calcium oxide and was found to be lower for the ''activated calcium oxide'' (i.e., 87.36 %). The conversion increased to 96.8 % on increasing the catalyst amount to 2.0 wt% in 5 h. A high yield (>95 %) of fatty acid methyl esters was observed when either calcium oxide or ''activated calcium oxide'' was taken as catalyst. The catalytic activity of calcium oxide obtained from low-grade limestone has been found to be comparable with the laboratory-grade CaO. (orig.)

  13. Rhodotorula glutinis Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase Enzyme Catalyzed Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of para-Hydroxycinnamic Acid and its Potential Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Marybeth C.; Arivalagan, Pugazhendhi; Barre, Douglas E.; MacInnis, Judith A.; D’Cunha, Godwin B.

    2016-01-01

    Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM) to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM) using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26) enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5), temperature (37°C), speed of agitation (50 rpm), enzyme concentration (0.080 μM), and substrate concentration (0.50 mM). Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ∼15% in 1 h incubation period and ∼63% after an overnight (∼18 h) incubation period. The product (p-HCAM) of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications. PMID:27014206

  14. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE, COMBUSTION AND EMMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF JATROPHA METHYL ESTER BLEND DIESEL FOR CI ENGINE WITH VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.ABINAV VISWANATH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted on a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine to determine the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics under different compression ratio using an alternate fuel. The raw oil from the jatropha seed was subjected to transesterification process and is supplied to the engine as jatropha methyl ester (JME blended with diesel. The blends used in our paper are 10%, 20% and 30%. We found that the performance of the engine under VCR is maximum at 20% blend for CR18. The fuelconsumption is also found to be increased with, a higher proportion of jatropha curcas oil in the blend. But BSFC is low at 20% JME-D. Emission was found to be optimum at CR18 for all blends of the methyl ester. At high engine load, the peak cylinder pressure was found to be higher for 20% JME-D under compression ratio 18. Using STAR CD software, three dimensional simulations are deployed and the results generated are compared against experimental output.

  15. Rhodotorulaglutinis phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase enzyme catalyzed synthesis of the methyl ester of para-hydroxycinnamic acid and its potential antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybeth C MacDonald

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26 enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5, temperature (37 C, speed of agitation (50 rpm, enzyme concentration (0.080 µM, and substrate concentration (0.50 mM. Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ~15% in 1 h incubation period and ~63% after an overnight (~18 h incubation period. The product (p-HCAM of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR. Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications.

  16. Rhodotorula glutinis Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase Enzyme Catalyzed Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of para-Hydroxycinnamic Acid and its Potential Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Marybeth C; Arivalagan, Pugazhendhi; Barre, Douglas E; MacInnis, Judith A; D'Cunha, Godwin B

    2016-01-01

    Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM) to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM) using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26) enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5), temperature (37°C), speed of agitation (50 rpm), enzyme concentration (0.080 μM), and substrate concentration (0.50 mM). Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ∼15% in 1 h incubation period and ∼63% after an overnight (∼18 h) incubation period. The product (p-HCAM) of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications.

  17. Characterization, quantitation and evolution of monoepoxy compounds formed in model systems of fatty acid methyl esters and monoacid triglycerides heated at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdeaux, O.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Monoepoxy compounds formed after heating methyl oleate and linoleate, triolein and trilinolein at 180°C for 5, 10 and 15 hours, were characterized and quantitated after derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters by using two base-catalyzed procedures. Structures were identified by GC-MS before and after hydrogénation. A complete recovery of the epoxy compounds was obtained by comparing results from methyl oleate and linoleate before and after transesterification, and good repeatability was also attained. Similar amounts of epoxides were found for methyl esters and triglycerides of the same degree of unsaturation, although formation was considerably greater for the less unsaturated substrates, methyl oleate and triolein, possibly due to the absence of remaining double bonds in the molecule which would involve a lower tendency to participate in further reactions. On other hand, independently of the degree of unsaturation of the model systems and of the period of heating, significantly higher amounts of trans isomers were formed. Finally from comparison between the amounts of epoxides and the level of polar fatty acids in samples, it was deduced that monoepoxy compounds were one of the major groups formed under the conditions used.

    En este estudio se identifican y cuantifican los compuestos epoxidados formados a partir de sistemas modelo de oleato y linoleato de metilo, trioleína y trilinoleína, calentados a 180°C durante 5,10 y 15 horas. La identificación se lleva a cabo mediante CG-EM en las muestras de esteres metílicos antes y después de someter a hidrogenación y para su cuantificación se utilizan dos procedimientos de transesterificación en medio alcalino. La comparación de las cantidades obtenidas, antes y después de la derivatización de los sistemas modelo de esteres metílicos, permitió deducir que la recuperación fue completa, obteniéndose también una excelente repetibilidad. Las cantidades de ep

  18. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major

  19. Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avaliação do pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the gastric emptying of rats: a pretreatment evaluation using Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Ferro Collares

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Há evidências de que o óxido nítrico participa do mecanismo de retardo do esvaziamento gástrico determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio bacteriano. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, um inibidor competitivo das óxido nítrico-sintetases, sobre o fenômeno. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se ratos, Wistar, machos, SPF ("specific-pathogen free", adultos, adaptados às condições do laboratório, que após 24 horas de jejum alimentar foram pré-tratados endovenosamente com veículo (salina ou Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester nas doses de 0,5, 1, 2,5 e 5 mg/kg. No tratamento, administrou-se endovenosamente veículo (salina ou lipopolissacarídio (50 µg/kg. O intervalo entre o pré-tratamento e o tratamento foi de 10 minutos, e entre este e a avaliação do esvaziamento gástrico foi de 60 minutos. O esvaziamento gástrico foi avaliado indiretamente através da determinação da retenção gástrica da solução salina marcada com fenol vermelho 10 minutos após administração por via orogástrica. RESULTADOS: Entre os animais pré-tratados com veículo, o tratamento com lipopolissacarídio determinou elevação significativa da retenção gástrica (média = 57% em relação aos tratados com veículo (38,1%. O pré-tratamento com as diferentes doses de Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester não modificou a retenção gástrica nos animais controles do tratamento. O pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester com a dose de 1 mg/kg determinou redução discreta, mas significativa, na retenção gástrica (52% nos animais tratados com lipopolissacarídio, em relação ao observado naqueles com pré-tratamento e tratamento com veículo (35,9%. Nos animais pré-tratados com 2,5 e 5 mg/kg de Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester e tratados com lipopolissacarídio, houve aumento significante da retenção gástrica (74,7% e 80,5%, respectivamente em relação aos seus controles pr

  20. Green Synthesis Process of Ibuprofen Methyl Ester%布洛芬甲酯的绿色合成工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雅晴; 汤鲁宏

    2013-01-01

    An environmentally benign process has been established for the production of ibuprofen methyl ester,with ibuprofen and methanol as reactants,p-toluene sulfonic acid(PTSA) as catalyst,and glycerol as the adsorbent of water and the solvent of catalyst. The immiscibility of glycerol and ibuprofen methyl ester was exploited in this benign process. The chromatography was used to isolate the products. For the whole process, there was no discharge of effluent either during the process of synthesis or that of the purification. The reaction conditions have been optimized as follows; the optimal molar ratio of reactants was n( ibuprofen) -n( methanol) :n{ glycerol) = 1:10. 2:1. 4;the optimal amount of PTSA was 1 % of ibuprofen; the optimal reaction time was 4 h; and the optimum stirring speed was 300 r/min. Under the optimized conditions, the conversion rate could reach 97. 1 % , and the yield was more than 95%. Detected by LC/MS, the purity of ibuprofen methyl ester was 99. 9%.%以布洛芬和甲醇为原料,以对甲苯磺酸为催化剂,以甘油作为吸水剂和催化剂分离的溶剂,利用甘油与布洛芬甲酯可自动分层的特性,辅以柱色谱分离,建立了一种布洛芬甲酯的绿色合成工艺.整个工艺路线无三废产生.合成条件经正交实验优化,确定了最佳反应条件:反应体系的最佳组成为n(布洛芬)∶n(甲醇)∶n(甘油)=1∶10.2∶1.4,催化剂对甲苯磺酸的最佳添加量为布洛芬质量的1%,最佳转速为300 r/min,最佳反应时间为4h,在该条件下转化率可达97.1%,得率大于95.0%.经液相-质谱联用(LC/MS)检测,色谱纯度为99.9%.

  1. Controlled-release levodopa methyl ester/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles ameliorate levodopa-induced dyskinesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Xinxin Yang1*, Ruiyuan Zheng2*, Yunpeng Cai2, Meiling Liao2, Weien Yuan1,2, Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital (affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*Xinxin Yang and Ruiyuan Zheng contributed equally to this workBackground: Levodopa remains the most effective drug in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, long-term administration of levodopa induces motor complications, such as levodopa-induced dyskinesia. The mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia are not fully understood.Methods: In this study, we prepared levodopa methyl ester (LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles, which can release LDME and benserazide in a sustained manner. Dyskinesia was induced in rats by repeated administration of levodopa then treated with LDME plus benserazide or the same dose of LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles. Apomorphine-induced rotations and abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs were measured on treatment days 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated dopamine- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, and ΔfosB were determined by Western blot. Tau levels were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Dynorphin levels in the striatum and cortex of rats were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Over the course of levodopa treatment, the rats developed abnormal AIMs, classified as locomotive, axial, orolingual, and forelimb dyskinesia. The degree of reduction of apomorphine-induced rotations was comparable in dyskinetic rats treated with LDME plus benserazide or LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles. The axial, limb, and orolingual (ALO AIMs of dyskinetic rats treated with LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles were 14 ± 2.5, 9 ± 2.0, and 10 ± 2.1 on treatment days 10, 15, and 20

  2. Standard Thermodynamic Functions of Tripeptides N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol and N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine Methyl Ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Alexey V; Markhasin, Evgeny; Sologubov, Semen S; Smirnova, Natalia N; Griffin, Robert G

    2014-04-10

    The heat capacities of tripeptides N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol (N-f-MLF-OH) and N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (N-f-MLF-OMe) were measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry over the temperature range from T = (6 to 350) K. The tripeptides were stable over this temperature range, and no phase change, transformation, association, or thermal decomposition was observed. The standard thermodynamic functions: molar heat capacity Cp,m, enthalpy H(T) - H(0), entropy S(T), and Gibbs energy G(T) - H(0) of peptides were calculated over the range from T = (0 to 350) K. The low-temperature (T ≤ 50 K) heat capacities dependencies were analyzed using the Debye's and the multifractal theories. The standard entropies of formation of peptides at T = 298.15 K were calculated.

  3. Conformational analysis and intramolecular interactions of L-proline methyl ester and its N-acetylated derivative through spectroscopic and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Carolyne B; Ducati, Lucas C; Tormena, Cláudio F; Rittner, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    This work reports a detailed study regarding the conformational preferences of L-proline methyl ester (ProOMe) and its N-acetylated derivative (AcProOMe) to elucidate the effects that rule their behaviors, through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies combined with theoretical calculations. These compounds do not present a zwitterionic form in solution, simulating properly amino acid residues in biological media, in a way closer than amino acids in the gas phase. Experimental (3)JHH coupling constants and infrared data showed excellent agreement with theoretical calculations, indicating no variations in conformer populations on changing solvents. Natural bond orbital (NBO) results showed that hyperconjugative interactions are responsible for the higher stability of the most populated conformer of ProOMe, whereas for AcProOMe both hyperconjugative and steric effects rule its conformational equilibrium.

  4. Standard Thermodynamic Functions of Tripeptides N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol and N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine Methyl Ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Alexey V; Markhasin, Evgeny; Sologubov, Semen S; Smirnova, Natalia N; Griffin, Robert G

    2014-04-10

    The heat capacities of tripeptides N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol (N-f-MLF-OH) and N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (N-f-MLF-OMe) were measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry over the temperature range from T = (6 to 350) K. The tripeptides were stable over this temperature range, and no phase change, transformation, association, or thermal decomposition was observed. The standard thermodynamic functions: molar heat capacity C p,m, enthalpy H(T) - H(0), entropy S(T), and Gibbs energy G(T) - H(0) of peptides were calculated over the range from T = (0 to 350) K. The low-temperature (T ≤ 50 K) heat capacities dependencies were analyzed using the Debye's and the multifractal theories. The standard entropies of formation of peptides at T = 298.15 K were calculated. PMID:24803685

  5. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A METHYL ESTER SUNFLOWER OILEUCALYPTUS OIL IN A SINGLE CYLINDER AIR COOLED AND DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMILVENDHAN.D,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass derived fuels are preferred as alternative fuels for IC engine due to its abundant availability and renewable nature. In the present work the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder constant speed , direct injection diesel engine using methyl ester of sun flower oil – eucalyptus oil blend as an alternative fuel were studied and the results are compared with thestandard diesel fuel operation. Result indicated that 50% reduction in smoke, 34% reduction in HC emission and a 37.5% reduction in CO emission for the MeS50Eu50 blend with 2.8 % increase in NOx emission at full load. Brake thermal efficiency was increased 2.7 % for eS50Eu50 blend.

  6. Chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester induces cell cycle arrest by the inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin in HCT116 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Dong Hwa; Park, Young Gyun; Son, Kun Ho; Nho, Chu Won; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-04-17

    We demonstrate that chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (CME), a triterpenoid saponin from the root of Achyranthes japonica, has an anticancer activity. We investigate its molecular mechanism in depth in HCT116 cells. CME reduces the amount of β-catenin in nucleus and inhibits the binding of β-catenin to specific DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) in target gene promoters. Thus, CME appears to decrease the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Cyclin D1, as a representative target for β-catenin, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. As a result of the decrease of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, CME inhibits cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Therefore, we suggest that CME as a novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor can be a putative agent for the treatment of colorectal cancers.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL TIME SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF WATER – DIETHYL ETHER SOLUTION IN DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM KERNEL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANAMURTHY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation tests were conducted on single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with neat diesel and biodiesel palm kernel methyl ester as a base line fuel with secondary injection of Water-DEE solution through the inlet manifold. A real time control systems consists of electronic unit pump that delivers 5% to 25% vol. Water-DEE solution through injector tip mounted nearer to the inlet manifold under a pressure of 3 kgf/cm2. NOx emissions reduced to a level of 500 ppm with simultaneous reduction of soot especially for PKME. However for 15% vol. of Water-DEE injection the HC emissions are closely tallying with that of neat diesel. A global overview of the results has shown that the 15% Water-DEE solution is the optimal blend based on performance and emission characteristics.

  8. Broadband gain in poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester photodetectors enabled by a semicontinuous gold interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melancon, Justin M.; Živanović, Sandra R., E-mail: sz@latech.edu [Institute for Micromanufacturing and Electrical Engineering Program, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana 71272 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Substantial broadband photoconductive gain has been realized for organic, thin-film photodetectors with a poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (P3HT:PCBM) active layer at low bias voltages. External quantum efficiencies upwards of 1500% were achieved when a semicontinuous gold layer was introduced at the anode interface. Significant gain was also observed in the sub-band gap, near infrared region where the external quantum efficiency approached 100% despite the lack of a sensitizer. The gain response was highly dependent on the thickness of the active layer of the photodetector with the best results achieved with the thinnest devices. The gain is the result of the injection of secondary electrons due to hole charge trapping at the semicontinuous gold layer.

  9. Thin film transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester hetero-junction for ammonia detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuyan; Xie, Guangzhong; Xie, Tao; Liu, Yanni; Du, Hongfei; Su, Yuanjie; Jiang, Yadong

    2015-10-01

    Composite film and bilayer film based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester(PC61BM) were firstly utilized as active layers of OTFT sensor. By comparing with electrical and sensing properties of these different devices for ammonia (NH3) at room temperature, the device based on PC61BM/P3HT composite film exhibited the optimum characteristics. The recovery value of PC61BM/P3HT composite film reached 93.9% of its initial value at 20 ppm NH3 within 9 min, which was improved by 75.5% in comparison with the one based on pristine P3HT film. In addition, the sensing mechanisms of all sensors were studied as well.

  10. Oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and vascular cell adhesion molecule expression in cells exposed to particulate matter from combustion of conventional diesel and methyl ester biodiesel blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Nøjgaard, Jakob Klenø;

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to compare hazards of particles from combustion of biodiesel blends and conventional diesel (D(100)) in old and improved engines. We determined DNA damage in A549 cells, mRNA levels of CCL2 and IL8 in THP-1 cells, and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical cord endothelial...... cells (HUVECs). Viability and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated in all cell types. We collected particles from combustion of D(100) and 20% (w/w) blends of animal fat or rapeseed oil methyl esters in light-duty vehicle engines complying with Euro2 or Euro4 standards....... Particles emitted from the Euro4 engine were smaller in size and more potent than particles emitted from the Euro2 engine with respect to ROS production and DNA damage, but similarly potent concerning cytokine mRNA expression. Particles emitted from combustion of biodiesel blends were larger in size...

  11. Noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of ChlorellaI vulgaris into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with charcoal via a thermo-chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Young Jae; Yi, Haakrho

    2013-02-01

    The noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) via a thermo-chemical process was mainly investigated in this work. The crude lipid of C. vulgaris was recovered by means of solvent extraction from C. vulgaris cultivated in a raceway pond. The conventional catalyzed transesterification of crude lipid of C. vulgaris is notably inhibited by the impurities contained in the crude lipid of C. vulgaris. These impurities are inevitably derived from the solvent extraction process for C. vulgaris. However, this work presents the noncatalytic transesterification of microalgal lipid into FAME, which could be an alternative option. For example, the noncatalytic transformation of microalgal lipid into FAME provides evidence that the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides can be combined into a single step less susceptible to the impurities and with a high conversion efficiency (∼97%). PMID:23294646

  12. Fractionation of fish oil fatty acid methyl esters by means of argentation and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and its utility in total fatty acid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcimder, M.; Hammers, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The utility of reversed-phase and argentation high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as pre-fractionation methods in fatty acid analysis is discussed. Both HPLC modes were applied to cod liver oil fatty acid methyl esters. Apart from positional isomers, the fractions obtained by reversed-phas

  13. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  14. Improving the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine having reentrant combustion chamber using diesel and Jatropha methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premnath, S; Devaradjane, G

    2015-11-01

    The emissions from the Compression ignition (CI) engines introduce toxicity to the atmosphere. The undesirable carbon deposits from these engines are realized in the nearby static or dynamic systems such as vehicles, inhabitants, etc. The objective of this research work is to improve the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine in the modified re-entrant combustion chamber using a diesel and Jatropha methyl ester blend (J20) at three different injection pressures. From the literature, it is revealed that the shape of the combustion chamber and the fuel injection pressure have an impact on the performance and emission parameters of the CI engine. In this work, a re-entrant combustion chamber with three different fuel injection pressures (200, 220 and 240bars) has been used in the place of the conventional hemispherical combustion chamber for diesel and J20. From the experimental results, it is found that the re-entrant chamber improves the brake thermal efficiency of diesel and J20 in all the tested conditions. It is also found that the 20% blend of Jatropha methyl ester showed 4% improvement in the brake thermal efficiency in the re-entrant chamber at the maximum injection pressure. Environmental safety directly relates to the reduction in the undesirable effects on both living and non-living things. Currently environmental pollution is of major concern. Even with the stringent emission norms new methods are required to reduce the harmful effects from automobiles. The toxicity of carbon monoxide (CO) is well known. In the re-entrant combustion chamber, the amount of CO emission is reduced by 26% when compared with the conventional fuel operation of the engine. Moreover, the amount of smoke is reduced by 24% and hydrocarbons (HC) emission by 24%. Thus, the modified re-entrant combustion chamber reduces harmful pollutants such as unburned HC and CO as well as toxic smoke emissions. PMID:26256249

  15. Improving the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine having reentrant combustion chamber using diesel and Jatropha methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premnath, S; Devaradjane, G

    2015-11-01

    The emissions from the Compression ignition (CI) engines introduce toxicity to the atmosphere. The undesirable carbon deposits from these engines are realized in the nearby static or dynamic systems such as vehicles, inhabitants, etc. The objective of this research work is to improve the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine in the modified re-entrant combustion chamber using a diesel and Jatropha methyl ester blend (J20) at three different injection pressures. From the literature, it is revealed that the shape of the combustion chamber and the fuel injection pressure have an impact on the performance and emission parameters of the CI engine. In this work, a re-entrant combustion chamber with three different fuel injection pressures (200, 220 and 240bars) has been used in the place of the conventional hemispherical combustion chamber for diesel and J20. From the experimental results, it is found that the re-entrant chamber improves the brake thermal efficiency of diesel and J20 in all the tested conditions. It is also found that the 20% blend of Jatropha methyl ester showed 4% improvement in the brake thermal efficiency in the re-entrant chamber at the maximum injection pressure. Environmental safety directly relates to the reduction in the undesirable effects on both living and non-living things. Currently environmental pollution is of major concern. Even with the stringent emission norms new methods are required to reduce the harmful effects from automobiles. The toxicity of carbon monoxide (CO) is well known. In the re-entrant combustion chamber, the amount of CO emission is reduced by 26% when compared with the conventional fuel operation of the engine. Moreover, the amount of smoke is reduced by 24% and hydrocarbons (HC) emission by 24%. Thus, the modified re-entrant combustion chamber reduces harmful pollutants such as unburned HC and CO as well as toxic smoke emissions.

  16. NF EN 14109. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the potassium content by atomic absorption spectroscopy; NF EN 14109. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en potassium par spectrometrie d'absorption atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a method of determination of sodium contents for concentrations equal or greater than 0.5 mg/kg. This method is applicable to fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) intended to be incorporated to mineral oils. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  17. NF EN 14108. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the sodium content by atomic absorption spectroscopy; NF EN 14108. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en sodium par spectrometrie d'obsorption atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a method of determination of sodium contents for concentrations equal or greater than 1 mg/kg. This method is applicable to fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) intended to be incorporated to mineral oils. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  18. NF EN 14104. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the acid index; NF EN 14104. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de l'indice d'acide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard describes a titration method for the determination of the acid index of slightly colored fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). This method allows the determination of the acid index over a concentration range comprised between 0.10 mg of KOH/g and 1 mg of KOH/g. (J.S.)

  19. 75 FR 4292 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2-methylpropyl 2-methyl-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...-propenoate; when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation. BASF Corporation submitted...-methylpropyl 2- methyl-2-propenoate on food or feed commodities. DATES: This regulation is effective January 27...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS...

  20. Improvement of synthesis of vegetable oil methyl ester%植物油甲酯的合成工艺改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽平; 洪永德; 徐维锋; 吴文忠

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis process of vegetable oil methyl ester was improved so as to increase the conver-sion rate and yield of vegetable oil methyl ester. The synergistic effect of shearer introduced to the trans-esterification was investigated, and the shortest reaction time was determined. The feasibility of sulfuric acid-catalyzed esterification of fatty acid saponifiable matter to improve the separation efficiency and yield was also researched. The results showed that the transesterification efficiency of the improved process increased greatly. The contents of monoglycerides, diglycerides and triglycerides were less than 0. 5%, 1% and undetectable respectively only in 5 min with laboratory device, and the conversion rate reached 99. 1%. The fatty acid saponifiable matter, the by-product in the reaction was neutralized by sulfuric acid and then esterified with methanol, the shortest reaction time was 1 h, and the acid value of the product was below 0. 8 mgKOH/g. Since emulsification effect caused by the fatty acid saponifiable matter was eliminated, the quick separation of oil and water was realized, and all the by-products trans-formed to fatty acid methyl ester, so the yield of the product reached 99. 5%. All the raw materials were industrial grade with low cost and wide selection of raw oils.%为了提高植物油甲酯的转化率和收率,对植物油甲酯的合成工艺进行了改进。考察了酯交换反应中引入剪切机的增效作用,确定了最短反应时间;并考察了硫酸催化副产物脂肪酸皂化物酯化来提高分离效率和收率的可行性。结果表明:经过改进的工艺,酯交换反应效率得到了大幅提高,实验室装置下只需5 min就可以达到单甘酯含量小于0.5%,二甘酯含量小于1%,三甘酯含量未检出的水平,甲酯转化率达到99.1%;反应生成的副产物脂肪酸皂化物被硫酸中和后与甲醇发生酯化反应,最短反应时间为1 h,产品酸值(KOH)小于0.8 mg/g;由于消除

  1. Rosmarinic Acid and Its Methyl Ester as Antimicrobial Components of the Hydromethanolic Extract of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abedini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biological examination of four extracts of the leaves and stems of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae, a plant species used as an antimicrobial agent in Guadeloupe, allowed us to select the hydromethanolic extract of the stems for further studies. It was tested against 46 microorganisms in vitro. It was active against 29 microorganisms. The best antibacterial activity was found against bacteria, mostly Gram-positive ones. Bioautography enabled the isolation and identification of four antibacterial compounds from this plant: rosmarinic acid, methyl rosmarinate, isoquercetin, and hyperoside. The MIC and MBC values of these compounds and their combinations were determined against eight pathogenic bacteria. The best inhibitory and bactericidal activity was found for methyl rosmarinate (0.3 mg/mL. Nevertheless, the bactericidal power of rosmarinic acid was much faster in the time kill study. Synergistic effects were found when combining the active compounds. Finally, the inhibitory effects of the compounds were evaluated on the bacterial growth phases at two different temperatures. Our study demonstrated for the first time antimicrobial activity of Hyptis atrorubens with identification of the active compounds. It supports its traditional use in French West Indies. Although its active compounds need to be further evaluated in vivo, this work emphasizes plants as potent sources of new antimicrobial agents when resistance to antibiotics increases dramatically.

  2. Rosmarinic Acid and Its Methyl Ester as Antimicrobial Components of the Hydromethanolic Extract of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Amin; Roumy, Vincent; Mahieux, Séverine; Biabiany, Murielle; Standaert-Vitse, Annie; Rivière, Céline; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François; Neut, Christel; Hennebelle, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Primary biological examination of four extracts of the leaves and stems of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae), a plant species used as an antimicrobial agent in Guadeloupe, allowed us to select the hydromethanolic extract of the stems for further studies. It was tested against 46 microorganisms in vitro. It was active against 29 microorganisms. The best antibacterial activity was found against bacteria, mostly Gram-positive ones. Bioautography enabled the isolation and identification of four antibacterial compounds from this plant: rosmarinic acid, methyl rosmarinate, isoquercetin, and hyperoside. The MIC and MBC values of these compounds and their combinations were determined against eight pathogenic bacteria. The best inhibitory and bactericidal activity was found for methyl rosmarinate (0.3 mg/mL). Nevertheless, the bactericidal power of rosmarinic acid was much faster in the time kill study. Synergistic effects were found when combining the active compounds. Finally, the inhibitory effects of the compounds were evaluated on the bacterial growth phases at two different temperatures. Our study demonstrated for the first time antimicrobial activity of Hyptis atrorubens with identification of the active compounds. It supports its traditional use in French West Indies. Although its active compounds need to be further evaluated in vivo, this work emphasizes plants as potent sources of new antimicrobial agents when resistance to antibiotics increases dramatically. PMID:24348709

  3. Probing the active center of benzaldehyde lyase with substitutions and the pseudosubstrate analogue benzoylphosphonic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gabriel S; Nemeria, Natalia; Chakraborty, Sumit; McLeish, Michael J; Yep, Alejandra; Kenyon, George L; Petsko, Gregory A; Jordan, Frank; Ringe, Dagmar

    2008-07-22

    Benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) catalyzes the reversible cleavage of ( R)-benzoin to benzaldehyde utilizing thiamin diphosphate and Mg (2+) as cofactors. The enzyme is important for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of a wide range of compounds via its carboligation reaction mechanism. In addition to its principal functions, BAL can slowly decarboxylate aromatic amino acids such as benzoylformic acid. It is also intriguing mechanistically due to the paucity of acid-base residues at the active center that can participate in proton transfer steps thought to be necessary for these types of reactions. Here methyl benzoylphosphonate, an excellent electrostatic analogue of benzoylformic acid, is used to probe the mechanism of benzaldehyde lyase. The structure of benzaldehyde lyase in its covalent complex with methyl benzoylphosphonate was determined to 2.49 A (Protein Data Bank entry 3D7K ) and represents the first structure of this enzyme with a compound bound in the active site. No large structural reorganization was detected compared to the complex of the enzyme with thiamin diphosphate. The configuration of the predecarboxylation thiamin-bound intermediate was clarified by the structure. Both spectroscopic and X-ray structural studies are consistent with inhibition resulting from the binding of MBP to the thiamin diphosphate in the active centers. We also delineated the role of His29 (the sole potential acid-base catalyst in the active site other than the highly conserved Glu50) and Trp163 in cofactor activation and catalysis by benzaldehyde lyase.

  4. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NOx showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NOx emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  5. Assessing the viability of using rape methyl ester (RME) as an alternative to mineral diesel fuel for powering road vehicles in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.-M.; Badr, O. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1998-02-01

    Rape methyl ester (RME) is a suitable substitute for mineral diesel in existing compression-ignition engines. Its use as an alternative transport fuel will result in decreased emissions of atmospheric pollutants (particularly SO{sub 2}, hydrocarbons and smoke) from this source. However, to encourage such a trend in the UK, the Government needs to adopt the European Union`s recommendation of a reduction of excise duties on biofuels to 10% of the rate applied to lead-free petrol to ensure its economic short-term competitiveness in the UK market. Such a subsidy will not be required by the year 2004. The available resource base for rape-seed oil in the UK limits the production of RME so it could satisfy only up to 4% of demand on fuel by road vehicles powered by diesel engines in the UK. This suggests that it should be used preferentially in urban areas and waterways where its environmental benefits would be maximized. (author)

  6. Experimental designs for modeling retention patterns and separation efficiency in analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skartland, Liv Kjersti; Mjøs, Svein A; Grung, Bjørn

    2011-09-23

    The retention behavior of components analyzed by chromatography varies with instrumental settings. Being able to predict how changes in these settings alter the elution pattern is useful, both with regards to component identification, as well as with regards to optimization of the chromatographic system. In this work, it is shown how experimental designs can be used for this purpose. Different experimental designs for response surface modeling of the separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as function of chromatographic conditions in GC have been evaluated. Full factorial, central composite, Doehlert and Box-Behnken designs were applied. A mixture of 38 FAMEs was separated on a polar cyanopropyl substituted polysilphenylene-siloxane phase capillary column. The temperature gradient, the start temperature of the gradient, and the carrier gas velocity were varied in the experiments. The modeled responses, as functions of chromatographic conditions, were retention time, retention indices, peak widths, separation efficiency and resolution between selected peak pairs. The designs that allowed inclusion of quadratic terms among the predictors performed significantly better than factorial design. Box-Behnken design provided the best results for prediction of retention, but the differences between the central composite, Doehlert and Box-Behnken designs were small. Retention indices could be modeled with much better accuracy than retention times. However, because the errors of predicted tR of closely eluting peaks were highly correlated, models of resolution (Rs) that were based on retention time had errors in the same range as corresponding models based on ECL. PMID:21851946

  7. 倡导绿色风尚下的脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐%Methyl ester sulfonates under the sponsorship of green fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2012-01-01

    回顾了脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐的发展历程以及国内外的开发现状。介绍了目前我国脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐的生产状况、技术特点、产品形式、绿色化与产品创新和下游原料企业MES的应用。提出了我国脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐从工业化到商业化需解决的问题。对我国脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐的发展状况、未来趋势及发展前景进行了展望。%The development course and the status of methyl ester sulfonates (MES) in domestic and overseas market were reviewed. Nowadays, the production status, technical features, product forms, greening and product innovation, as well as the application of MES in China were introduced. Some problems concerning industrialization and commercialization of MES which need to be resolved were put forward. The development status and future trend of MES were prospected.

  8. Prediction of capillary gas chromatographic retention times of fatty acid methyl esters in human blood using MLR, PLS and back-propagation artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Khani, Hadi; Ahmadi-Roudi, Behzad; Mirakhorli, Shima; Fereyduni, Ehsan; Agarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-15

    Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models correlating the retention times of fatty acid methyl esters in high resolution capillary gas chromatography and their structures were developed based on non-linear and linear modeling methods. Genetic algorithm (GA) was used for the selection of the variables that resulted in the best-fitted models. Gravitational index (G2), number of cis double bond (NcDB) and number of trans double bond (NtDB) were selected among a large number of descriptors. The selected descriptors were considered as inputs for artificial neural networks (ANNs) with three different weights update functions including Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation network (LM-ANN), BFGS (Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb, and Shanno) quasi-Newton backpropagation (BFG-ANN) and conjugate gradient backpropagation with Polak-Ribiére updates (CGP-ANN). Computational result indicates that the LM-ANN method has better predictive power than the other methods. The model was also tested successfully for external validation criteria. Standard error for the training set using LM-ANN was SE=0.932 with correlation coefficient R=0.996. For the prediction and validation sets, standard error was SE=0.645 and SE=0.445 and correlation coefficient was R=0.999 and R=0.999, respectively. The accuracy of 3-2-1 LM-ANN model was illustrated using leave multiple out-cross validations (LMO-CVs) and Y-randomization.

  9. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Paternò, Giuseppe Maria; Tregnago, Giulia; Cacialli, Franco [Department of Physics and Astronomy and London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Treat, Neil; Stingelin, Natalie [Department of Materials Science, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of “molecular terraces” whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.

  10. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Paternò, Giuseppe Maria; Tregnago, Giulia; Treat, Neil; Stingelin, Natalie; Yacoot, Andrew; Cacialli, Franco

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of "molecular terraces" whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.

  11. Synthesis of Structured Lipids by Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification of Triacetin with Camellia Oil Methyl Esters and Preliminary Evaluation of their Plasma Lipid-Lowering Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Structured lipids (SLCTs triacylglycerols with short- and long-chain acyl residues were synthesized by interesterification of triacetin and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs from camellia oil, followed by molecular distillation for purification. Different commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme RM IM and Novozyme 435, the substrate molar ratios of FAMEs to triacetin, the reaction temperatures and the lipase amounts were studied for their efficiency in producing SLCTs. Results showed that Novozyme 435 was more suitable for this reaction system. Moreover, the optimal reaction conditions for the highest conversion of FAMEs and the highest LLS-TAGs (triacylglycerols with one short- and two long-chain acyl residues yields were achieved at a molar ratio of FAMEs to triacetin of 3:1, 50 °C of reaction temperature and a lipase amount of 4% (w/v. Scale-up was conducted based on the optimized reaction conditions. Results showed that after 24 h of reaction , the conversion rate of FAMEs was 82.4% and the rate of disubstituted triacetin was 52.4 mol%. The final product yield rate was 94.6%. The effects of the synthesized SLCTs on the plasma lipid level of fasting mice were also studied. The SLCTs could effectively lessen the total triacylglycerol levels in plasma compared to the triacylglycerol group in fasting NIH mice. It suggested that this type of structured lipid might be beneficial for human health, especially for the prevention of obesity.

  12. Dielectric relaxation dependent memory elements in pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bi-layer field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoungnam

    2015-03-02

    We fabricate a pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) featuring large hysteresis that can be used as memory elements. Intentional introduction of excess electron traps in a PCBM layer by exposure to air caused large hysteresis in the FET. The memory window, characterized by the threshold voltage difference, increased upon exposure to air and this is attributed to an increase in the number of electron trapping centers and (or) an increase in the dielectric relaxation time in the underlying PCBM layer. Decrease in the electron conduction in the PCBM close to the SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric upon exposure to air is consistent with the increase in the dielectric relaxation time, ensuring that the presence of large hysteresis in the FET originates from electron trapping at the PCBM not at the pentacene. - Highlights: • Charge trapping-induced memory effect was clarified using transistors. • The memory window can be enhanced by controlling charge trapping mechanism. • Memory transistors can be optimized by controlling dielectric relaxation time.

  13. 6BTA 5.9 G2-1 Cummins engine performance and emission tests using methyl ester mahua (Madhuca indica) oil/diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godiganur, Sharanappa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rural Engineering College, Bhalki 585328, Karnataka (India); Suryanarayana Murthy, C.H. [Department of Mining Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Surathkal 575 025, Karnataka (India); Reddy, Rana Prathap [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Reva Institute of Technology and Management Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2009-10-15

    Neat mahua oil poses some problems when subjected to prolonged usage in CI engine. The transesterification of mahua oil can reduce these problems. The use of biodiesel fuel as substitute for conventional petroleum fuel in heavy-duty diesel engine is receiving an increasing amount of attention. This interest is based on the properties of bio-diesel including the fact that it is produced from a renewable resource, its biodegradability and potential to exhaust emissions. A Cummins 6BTA 5.9 G2- 1, 158 HP rated power, turbocharged, DI, water cooled diesel engine was run on diesel, methyl ester of mahua oil and its blends at constant speed of 1500 rpm under variable load conditions. The volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 0, 20, 40, 60, and 100. Engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific energy consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature) and emissions (CO, HC and NOx) were measured to evaluate and compute the behavior of the diesel engine running on biodiesel. The results indicate that with the increase of biodiesel in the blends CO, HC reduces significantly, fuel consumption and NOx emission of biodiesel increases slightly compared with diesel. Brake specific energy consumption decreases and thermal efficiency of engine slightly increases when operating on 20% biodiesel than that operating on diesel. (author)

  14. Production and application of nonionic surfactant-fatty methyl ester ethoxys%脂肪酸甲酯乙氧基化物FMEE的生产与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐铭勋

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester ethoxyes (FMEE) is a low foam non-ionic surfactant, the FMEE's production and related application performance, including resistance to hard water, cleaning property, low-temperature fluidity, ecological environmental protection and other properties were discussed. On the other hand, paper-making, floatation, hard surface cleaning, textile dyeing and finishing, and other fields related applications were also explored in this paper.%脂肪酸甲酯乙氧基化物(FMEE)是一种低泡沫的非离子表面活性剂,本文探讨了FMEE的生产工艺与相关应用性能,包括耐硬水、净洗性能、低温流动性、生态环保等性质,也探索了其在造纸、煤碳浮选、硬表面清洗、纺织印染等领域相关应用.

  15. Chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester induces cell cycle arrest by the inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin in HCT116 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Mi [Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ji Ho [Natural Products Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hwa [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Gyun [Natural Products Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kun Ho [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Chu Won, E-mail: cwnho@kist.re.kr [Natural Products Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeong Shik, E-mail: kims@snu.ac.kr [Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-17

    We demonstrate that chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (CME), a triterpenoid saponin from the root of Achyranthes japonica, has an anticancer activity. We investigate its molecular mechanism in depth in HCT116 cells. CME reduces the amount of β-catenin in nucleus and inhibits the binding of β-catenin to specific DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) in target gene promoters. Thus, CME appears to decrease the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Cyclin D1, as a representative target for β-catenin, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. As a result of the decrease of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, CME inhibits cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Therefore, we suggest that CME as a novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor can be a putative agent for the treatment of colorectal cancers. - Highlights: • CME inhibits cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. • CME increases cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. • CME attenuates cyclin D1 and regulates cell cycle regulatory proteins. • CME inhibits β-catenin translocation to nucleus.

  16. Efficient and stable, structurally inverted poly(3-hexylthiopen): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester heterojunction solar cells with fibrous like poly(3-hexylthiopen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandara, Jayasundera, E-mail: jayasundera@yahoo.com [Applied Functional Polymers and Laboratory for Solar Energy Research, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, CP 20000, Kandy (Sri Lanka); Shankar, Karthik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Grimes, Craig A., E-mail: cgrimes@engr.psu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Thelakkat, Mukundan, E-mail: mukundan.thelakkat@unibayreuth.de [Applied Functional Polymers and Laboratory for Solar Energy Research, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2011-10-31

    We investigated an inverted organic photovoltaic device structure in which a densely packed {approx} 100 nm thin TiO{sub 2} layer on fluorine doped conducting glass serves as anode and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate)/Au layer on top of the active layer serves as cathode. The active layer is comprised of a blend of poly(3-hexylthiopene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The rectification behavior of such a device is improved significantly and injection losses are minimized compared to devices without any compact TiO{sub 2} layer. Moreover, nanostructured P3HT active layer was achieved in-situ by spin coating concentrated pure P3HT and P3HT:PCBM blend and solar cell performances on thickness of the active layer were also investigated. For the inverted solar cells constructed with different concentrations of P3HT and PCBM keeping the P3HT:PCBM ratio 1:0.8 (wt.%), the highest short circuit current and efficiency was observed when the P3HT and PCBM concentration was equal to 1.5 (wt.%) and 1.2 (wt.%) respectively. This leads to highly stable and reproducible power conversion efficiency above 3.7% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity under AM 1.5 conditions.

  17. Dielectric relaxation dependent memory elements in pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bi-layer field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricate a pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) featuring large hysteresis that can be used as memory elements. Intentional introduction of excess electron traps in a PCBM layer by exposure to air caused large hysteresis in the FET. The memory window, characterized by the threshold voltage difference, increased upon exposure to air and this is attributed to an increase in the number of electron trapping centers and (or) an increase in the dielectric relaxation time in the underlying PCBM layer. Decrease in the electron conduction in the PCBM close to the SiO2 gate dielectric upon exposure to air is consistent with the increase in the dielectric relaxation time, ensuring that the presence of large hysteresis in the FET originates from electron trapping at the PCBM not at the pentacene. - Highlights: • Charge trapping-induced memory effect was clarified using transistors. • The memory window can be enhanced by controlling charge trapping mechanism. • Memory transistors can be optimized by controlling dielectric relaxation time

  18. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport vehicles greatly pollute the environment through emissions such as CO, CO2, NOx, SOx, unburnt or partially burnt HC and particulate emissions. Fossil fuels are the chief contributors to urban air pollution and major source of green house gases (GHGs) and considered to be the prime cause behind the global climate change. Biofuels are renewable, can supplement fossil fuels, reduce GHGs and mitigate their adverse effects on the climate resulting from global warming. This paper presents the results of performance and emission analyses carried out in an unmodified diesel engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel. Engine tests have been conducted to get the comparative measures of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) and emissions such as CO, CO2, HC, NOx to evaluate the behaviour of PPME and diesel in varying proportions. The results reveal that blends of PPME with diesel up to 40% by volume (B40) provide better engine performance (BSFC and BSEC) and improved emission characteristics. (author)

  19. (6E,10E) Isopolycerasoidol and (6E,10E) Isopolycerasoidol Methyl Ester, Prenylated Benzopyran Derivatives from Pseuduvaria monticola Induce Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hairin Taha; Chung Yeng Looi; Aditya Arya; Won Fen Wong; Lee Fah Yap; Mohadeseh Hasanpourghadi; Mohd, Mustafa A.; Paterson, Ian C.; Hapipah Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemicals from Pseuduvaria species have been reported to display a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, a known benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E) isopolycerasoidol (1), and a new benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E) isopolycerasoidol methyl ester (2), were isolated from a methanol extract of Pseuduvaria monticola leaves. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and LCMS-QTOF, and by comparison with p...

  20. Improved Synthesis of (S)-3-{[2'-cyanobiphenyl-4-yl] methyl}Valine Methyl Ester Hydrochloride%(S)-3-{[2'-氰基联苯-4-基]甲基}缬氨酸甲酯盐酸盐合成工艺改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金灿; 臧永军; 俞传明

    2015-01-01

    (S)-3-{[2'-cyanobiphenyl-4-yl] methyl}valine methyl ester hydrochloride was synthesized from L-valine methyl ester hydrochloride and 4-bromomethyl-2-cyanobiphenyl with an overall yield of about 92%. The advantages of this method are: shorter reaction time,high yields, solvent free, environmentally friendly and its general applicability.%报道了以L-缬氨酸甲酯盐酸盐和2'-氰基-4-溴甲基联苯为基本原料经球磨法合成缬沙坦的关键中间体(S)-3-{[2'-氰基联苯-4-基]甲基}缬氨酸甲酯盐酸盐的工艺,收率92%. 本工艺反应时间短,收率高,无溶剂,环境友好,具有较好的应用前景.

  1. Experimental Investigation on Performance Characteristic of Diesel Engine by Using Methyl Ester of Linseed and Neem oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kesava Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world has led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products. Petroleum based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore those countries not having these resources are facing a foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude oil. Hence, it is necessary to look for alternative fuels, which can be produced from materials available within the country. In addition, the use of vegetable oils as fuel is less pollution than petroleum fuels. In this thesis work, the transesterification process of linseed oil (lso and neem oil (no in order to obtain bio diesel. Different parameters for the optimization of bio diesel products were investigated in the first phase, and the effects were characterized to test their properties as fuel in diesel engines such as viscosity, density, flash point, fire point and cetane number. While in the next phase lsome & nome was produced by transesterification method using linseed oil, neem oil and methyl alcohol, and its effects on reaction temperature, catalyst percentages, and reaction time for optimum bio diesel production have been studied. The blends of various proportions of the lsome & nome with diesel were prepared, analyzed and compared with diesel fuel, and comparison was made to suggest the better option among the bio diesel understudy. However, its diesel blends showed reasonable efficiencies.

  2. A case study on quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation for environmental esters: Methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parabens have been reported as potential endocrine disrupters and are widely used in consumer projects including cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals. We report on the development of a PBPK model for methyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben. The model was parameterized through a combination of QSAR for tissue solubility and quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) for hydrolysis in portals of entry including intestine and skin as well as in the primary site of metabolism, the liver. Overall, the model provided very good agreement with published time-course data in blood and urine from controlled dosing studies in rat and human, and demonstrates the potential value of quantitative IVIVE in expanding the use of human biomonitoring data in safety assessment. An in vitro based cumulative margin of safety (MOS) was calculated by comparing the effective concentrations from an in vitro assay of estrogenicity to the free paraben concentrations predicted by the model to be associated with the 95th percentile urine concentrations reported in NHANES (2009–2010 collection period). The calculated MOS for adult females was 108, whereas the MOS for males was 444

  3. NF EN 14214. - Automotive fuels. - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. - Requirements and test methods; NF EN 14214. - Carburants pour automobiles. - Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG) pour moteurs Diesel. - Exigences et methodes d'essais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used either as automotive fuel for diesel engines, at 100% concentration, or as an extender for automotive fuel for diesel engines, in accordance with the requirements of EN 590. At 100% concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engine vehicles designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100% FAME.

  4. NF EN 14110. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the methanol content; NF EN 14110. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard describes a method of methanol dosimetry in fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) which can be applied to gas-oil and domestic fuel oil. This method is applicable over a large spectrum of methanol concentrations comprised between 0.01% (m/m) and 0.5% (m/m). It is not applicable to FAME mixtures containing low boiling point compounds. (J.S.)

  5. Human whole-body biodistribution and dosimetry of a new PET tracer, [11C]ketoprofen methyl ester, for imagings of neuroinflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Neuroinflammatory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and other brain disorders, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered therapeutic candidates. As a biomarker of neuroinflammatory processes, 11C-labeled ketoprofen methyl ester ([11C]KTP-Me) was designed to allow cerebral penetration of ketoprofen (KTP), an active form of a selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor that acts as an NSAID. Rat neuroinflammation models indicate that [11C]KTP-Me enters the brain and is retained in inflammatory lesions, accumulating in activated microglia. [11C]KTP-Me is washed out from normal tissues, leading to the present first-in-human exploratory study. Methods: [11C]KTP-Me was synthesized by rapid C-[11C]methylation of [11C]CH3I and the corresponding arylacetate precursor, purified with high-performance liquid chromatography, and prepared as an injectable solution including PEG400, providing radiochemical purity of > 99% and specific activity of > 25 GBq/μmol at injection. Six young healthy male humans were injected with [11C]KTP-Me and scanned with PET camera to determine the early-phase brain time course followed by three whole-body scans starting 8, 20, and 40 min post-injection, together with sequential blood sampling and labeled metabolite analysis. Results: No adverse effects were observed during PET scanning after [11C]KTP-Me injection. [11C]KTP-Me was rapidly metabolized to 11C-labeled ketoprofen ([11C]KTP) within 2–3 min and was gradually cleared from blood. The radioactivity entered the brain with an average peak cortical SUV of 1.5 at 2 min. The cortical activity was gradually washed out. Whole-body images indicated that the urinary bladder was the major excretory pathway. The organ with the highest radiation dose was the urinary bladder (average dose of 41μGy/MBq, respectively). The mean effective dose was 4.7 μSv/MBq, which was comparable to other 11C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals

  6. Quantum confinement-tunable ultrafast charge transfer at the PbS quantum dot and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester interface

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, AlA'A O.

    2014-05-14

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells have emerged as promising low-cost alternatives to existing photovoltaic technologies. Here, we investigate charge transfer and separation at PbS QDs and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interfaces using a combination of femtosecond broadband transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy and steady-state photoluminescence quenching measurements. We analyzed ultrafast electron injection and charge separation at PbS QD/PCBM interfaces for four different QD sizes and as a function of PCBM concentration. The results reveal that the energy band alignment, tuned by the quantum size effect, is the key element for efficient electron injection and charge separation processes. More specifically, the steady-state and time-resolved data demonstrate that only small-sized PbS QDs with a bandgap larger than 1 eV can transfer electrons to PCBM upon light absorption. We show that these trends result from the formation of a type-II interface band alignment, as a consequence of the size distribution of the QDs. Transient absorption data indicate that electron injection from photoexcited PbS QDs to PCBM occurs within our temporal resolution of 120 fs for QDs with bandgaps that achieve type-II alignment, while virtually all signals observed in smaller bandgap QD samples result from large bandgap outliers in the size distribution. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that charge transfer rates at QD interfaces can be tuned by several orders of magnitude by engineering the QD size distribution. The work presented here will advance both the design and the understanding of QD interfaces for solar energy conversion. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. Effects of Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitor Named, NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, on Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arfaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Recently, the findings of some studies have shown that, nitric oxide (NO probably has an important role in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nitric oxide production inhibitor named, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, on rat mesenchymal stem cells differentiation to osteoblasts in vitro. Materials & Methods: This was an experimental study conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009, in which rat bone marrow stem cells were isolated in an aseptic condition and cultured in vitro. After third passage, the cells were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium. To study the effects of L-NAME on osteogenic differentiation, the L-NAME was added to the culture medium at a concentration of 125, 250, and 500 μM in some culture plates. During the culture procedure, the media were replaced with fresh ones, with a three days interval. After 28 days of culturing the mineralized matrix was stained using Alizarian red staining method. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS software version 12 using one way ANOVA. Results: The findings of this study showed that in the presence of L-NAME, differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts was disordered and matrix mineralization significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: This study revealed that, inhibition of nitric oxide production using L-NAME can prevent the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast. The results imply that NO is an important constituent in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell to osteoblasts.

  8. Experimental studies on the combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with used cooking oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi Narayana Rao, G.; Sampath, S. [Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur (India); Rajagopal, K. [Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Univ., Hyderabad (India)

    2008-04-01

    Transesterified vegetable oils (biodiesel) are promising alternative fuel for diesel engines. Used vegetable oils are disposed from restaurants in large quantities. But higher viscosity restricts their direct use in diesel engines. In this study, used cooking oil was dehydrated and then transesterified using an alkaline catalyst. The combustion, performance and emission characteristics of Used Cooking oil Methyl Ester (UCME) and its blends with diesel oil are analyzed in a direct injection C.I. engine. The fuel properties and the combustion characteristics of UCME are found to be similar to those of diesel. A minor decrease in thermal efficiency with significant improvement in reduction of particulates, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons is observed compared to diesel. The use of transesterified used cooking oil and its blends as fuel for diesel engines will reduce dependence on fossil fuels and also decrease considerably the environmental pollution. Of the various alternate fuels under consideration, biodiesel is the most promising due to the following reasons: (1) Biodiesel can be used in the existing engine without any modifications. (2) Biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable sources; it does not contain any sulfur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals or crude oil residues. (3) Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel; emissions of carbon monoxide and soot tend to reduce. (4) Unlike fossil fuels, the use of biodiesel does not contribute to global warming as CO{sub 2} emitted is once again absorbed by the plants grown for vegetable oil/biodiesel production. Thus CO{sub 2} balance is maintained. (5) The Occupational Safety and Health Administration classifies biodiesel as a non-flammable liquid. (6) The use of biodiesel can extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel. (7) Biodiesel is produced from renewable vegetable oils/animal fats and hence improves the fuel or energy security and economy independence.

  9. Vascular and antioxidant effects of an aqueous Mentha cordifolia extract in experimental N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Prachaney, Parichat; Berkban, Warinee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Khrisanapant, Wilaiwan; Phirawatthakul, Yada

    2014-01-01

    The effect of an aqueous Mentha cordifolia (MC) extract on the haemodynamic status, vascular remodeling, function, and oxidative status in NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given L-NAME [50 mg/(kg body weight (BW) d)] in their drinking water for 5 weeks and were treated by intragastric administration with the MC extract [200 mg/(kgBWd)] for 2 consecutive weeks. Quercetin [25 mg/(kg BW d)] was used as a positive control. The effects of the MC extract on the haemodynamic status, thoracic aortic wall thickness, and oxidative stress markers were determined, and the vasorelaxant activity of the MC extract was tested in isolated mesenteric vascular beds in rats. Significant increases in the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), hind limb vascular resistance (HVR), wall thickness, and cross-sectional area of the thoracic aorta, as well as oxidative stress markers were found in the L-NAME-treated group compared to the control (P < 0.05). MAP, HVR, wall thickness, cross-sectional area of the thoracic aorta, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and vascular superoxide anion production were significantly reduced in L-NAME hypersensitive rats treated with the MC extract or quercetin. Furthermore, the MC extract induced vasorelaxation in the pre-constricted mesenteric vascular bed with intact and denuded endothelium of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Our results suggest that the MC extract exhibits an antihypertensive effect via its antioxidant capacity, vasodilator property, and reduced vascular remodeling.

  10. Prevention and Treatment of Experimental Estrogen Receptor – Negative Mammary Carcinogenesis by the Synthetic Triterpenoid CDDO-Methyl Ester and the Rexinoid LG100268

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liby, Karen; Risingsong, Renee; Royce, Darlene B.; Williams, Charlotte R.; Yore, Mark M.; Honda, Tadashi; Gribble, Gordon W.; Lamph, William W.; Vannini, Nicola; Sogno, Ilaria; Albini, Adriana; Sporn, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test whether the triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid methyl ester (CDDO-Me) and the rexinoid LG100268 (268) prevent the formation of estrogen receptor (ER) – negative mammary tumors or either arrest the growth or cause regression of established tumors in MMTV-neu mice. Experimental Design For prevention, mice were fed control diet, CDDO-Me (60 mg/kg diet), 268 (20 mg/kg diet), or the combination for 45 weeks. For treatment, mice with established tumors at least 4 mm in diameter were fed control diet, CDDO-Me (100 mg/kg diet), 268 (60 mg/kg diet), or the combination for 4 weeks. Results CDDO-Me and 268 significantly delayed the development of ER-negative tumors, with a 14- and 24-week delay, respectively, compared with the control group for the time required to reach 50% tumor incidence. The combination of CDDO-Me and 268 was significantly more potent than the individual drugs, as only one tumor was found in the combination group, after 45 weeks on diet, at which time all control animals had tumors. Treating established tumors with CDDO-Me arrested the growth of 86% of the tumors, and 268 induced tumor regression in 85% of tumors. CDDO-Me and 268 target different signaling pathways and cell types. CDDO-Me inhibited constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation and the degradation of IKBα in ER-negative breast cancer cells, whereas 268 blocked IKBα degradation and the release of interleukin-6 in RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells, inhibited the ability of endothelial cells to organize into networks, and blocked angiogenesis in vivo. Conclusions CDDO-Me and 268 are useful as individual drugs to prevent ER-negative mammary tumorigenesis and to treat established tumors. They synergize when used in combination for prevention. PMID:18628471

  11. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk J Grubbs

    Full Text Available Microbial communities (microbiomes are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components.

  12. The Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester Diminishes the Immunomodulatory Effects of Parental Arginine in Rats with Subacute Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Hung, Ching-Yi; Huang, Fu-Huan; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Lee, Chien-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    The combined treatment of parenteral arginine and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) have been shown to improve liver function and systemic inflammation in subacute peritonitic rats. Here, we investigated the effects of single and combined parenteral arginine and L-NAME treatments on leukocyte and splenocyte immunity. Male Wistar rats were subjected to cecal punctures and were intravenously given total parenteral nutrition solutions with or without arginine and/or L-NAME supplementations for 7 days. Non-surgical and sham-operated rats with no cecal puncture were given a chow diet and parenteral nutrition, respectively. Parenteral feeding elevated the white blood cell numbers and subacute peritonitis augmented the parenteral nutrition-induced alterations in the loss of body weight gain, splenomegaly, and splenocyte decreases. Parenteral arginine significantly increased the B-leukocyte level, decreased the natural killer T (NKT)-leukocyte and splenocyte levels, alleviated the loss in body weight gain and total and cytotoxic T-splenocyte levels, and attenuated the increases in plasma nitrate/nitrite and interferon-gamma production by T-splenocytes. L-NAME infusion significantly decreased NKT-leukocyte level, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production by T-splenocytes and macrophages, and interferon-gamma production by T-leukocytes, monocytes, and T-splenocytes, as well as increased interleukin-6 production by T-leukocytes and monocytes and nitrate/nitrite production by T-leukocytes. Combined treatment significantly decreased plasma nitrate/nitrite, the NKT-leukocyte level, and TNF-alpha production by T-splenocytes. Parenteral arginine may attenuate immune impairment and L-NAME infusion may augment leukocyte proinflammatory response, eliminate splenocyte proinflammatory and T-helper 1 responses, and diminish arginine-induced immunomodulation in combined treatment in subacute peritonitic rats.

  13. Effects of antioxidant additives on pollutant formation from the combustion of palm oil methyl ester blends with diesel in a non-pressurised burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Suyin [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia); Ng, Hoon Kiat [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-07-15

    In order to alleviate escalating worldwide crises of oil reserves exhaustion and global warming, an alternative fuel that is sustainable, economically feasible and environmental friendly must be developed for large-scale adoption. Biodiesel has emerged as the leading alternative fuel of choice due to its cost, availability of current production technology and compatibility with existing infrastructure of petroleum diesel. Although considerable in-roads have been made to understand combustion and tailpipe emissions of various biodiesel fuels in compression-ignited engines, research efforts dedicated to examining these and the associated impacts of additives for non-transportation usage have been scarce. This work aims to establish the effects of antioxidants addition on pollutant emissions from the combustion of palm oil methyl ester blends with No. 2 diesel in a non-pressurised, water-cooled combustion chamber. Antioxidant additives butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) were individually dissolved at varying concentrations in B10 and B20 fuel blends for testing. Both BHA and TBHQ were effective in lowering the nitric oxide (NO) emission produced, where their concentrations in the fuel blends were shown to scale proportionately to NO levels in the flue gas. Addition of BHT to both fuel blends, however, increased the generation of NO during combustion. BHA was found to decrease the carbon monoxide (CO) levels when added to B10 and B20, while both BHT and TBHQ were observed to raise CO formation at all test points. With the proper selection of additives type and quantity for application to specific biodiesel blends, this simple measure has been shown to be an effective pollutants control strategy which is more economical than other existing technologies. (author)

  14. The Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) in the Biochemistry and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Activity of Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lilian N D; Ribeiro-Neto, José A; Valadares, Jéssica M M; Costa, Mariana M; Lima, Luciana A R S; Grillo, Luciano A M; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Alves, Stênio N; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2016-08-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of lymphatic filariasis and combating this insect is of great importance to public health. There are reports of insects that are resistant to the products currently used to control this vector, and therefore, the search for new products has increased. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) that showed larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, on glucose, total protein, and triacylglycerol contents and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in mosquito larvae. The exposure of the fourth instar larvae to the compounds caused a decrease in the total protein content and an increase in the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, the direct effect of FAMEs on cell membrane was assessed on purified pig kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase membranes, erythrocyte ghost membranes, and larvae membrane preparation. No modifications on total phospholipids and cholesterol content were found after FAMEs 20 min treatment on larvae membrane preparation, but only 360 µg/mL FAME 2 was able to decrease total phospholipid of erythrocyte ghost membrane. Moreover, only 60 and 360 µg/mL FAME 3 caused an activation of purified Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, that was an opposite effect of FAMEs treatment in larvae membrane preparation, and caused an inhibition of the pump activity. These data together suggest that maybe FAMEs can modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase on intact larvae for such mechanisms and not for a direct effect, one time that the direct effect of FAMEs in membrane preparation decreased the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The biochemical changes caused by the compounds were significant and may negatively influence the development and survival of C. quinquefasciatus larvae. PMID:26993642

  15. Combination of angiotensin II and l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester exacerbates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress to cause heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Dale J; Zhang, Aijun; Li, Shumin; Cao, Tram N; Smith, Jessie A; Vedula, Indira; Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M; Youker, Keith A; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Gupte, Anisha A

    2016-03-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a cause of energy deprivation in heart failure (HF). Herein, we tested individual and combined effects of two pathogenic factors of nonischemic HF, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis [with l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME)] and hypertension [with angiotensin II (AngII)], on myocardial mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and metabolic gene expression. l-NAME and AngII were administered individually and in combination to mice for 5 wk. Although all treatments increased blood pressure and reduced cardiac contractile function, the l-NAME + AngII group was associated with the most severe HF, as characterized by edema, hypertrophy, oxidative stress, increased expression of Nppa and Nppb, and decreased expression of Atp2a2 and Camk2b. l-NAME + AngII-treated mice exhibited robust deterioration of cardiac mitochondrial function, as observed by reduced respiratory control ratios in subsarcolemmal mitochondria and reduced state 3 levels in interfibrillar mitochondria for complex I but not for complex II substrates. Cardiac myofibrils showed reduced ADP-supported and oligomycin-inhibited oxygen consumption. Mitochondrial functional impairment was accompanied by reduced mitochondrial DNA content and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and complex I but increased H2O2 production and tissue protein carbonyls in hearts from AngII and l-NAME + AngII groups. Microarray analyses revealed the majority of the gene changes attributed to the l-NAME + AngII group. Pathway analyses indicated significant changes in metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial function, cardiac hypertrophy, and fatty acid metabolism in l-NAME + AngII hearts. We conclude that l-NAME + AngII is associated with impaired mitochondrial respiratory function and increased oxidative stress compared with either l-NAME or AngII alone, resulting in nonischemic HF.

  16. Optimization of the combustion of SOME (soybean oil methyl ester), B5, B10, B20 and petrodiesel in a semi industrial boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper characterizes combustion of petrodiesel and prevalent SOME blends (B100, B5, B10 and B20), which were produced through an alkali-based transesterification in PUT, in a semi industrial boiler by determining its efficiency, exhaust emissions and costs. First, the influence of oxygen content of stock gases (by volume percent) upon regular emissions, thermal efficiency and costs (calculated by a cost function) was studied in order to investigate the performance and feasibility of using biodiesel in the boiler. In the next level, a multi-objective optimization method, named cost-based optimization, was represented and optimized the combustion of the fuels. The overall efficiency of the boiler obtained with the different fuels is comparable for the same operating points. Soy bean methyl ester and the blends emitted lower emissions than petrodiesel. Results demonstrate that the use of pure biodiesel is not economically feasible in the boiler. The total costs of the boiler obtained with the blends and petrodiesel are quite competitive. B5 is introduced to be the best fuel for using in the boiler. Results also reveal an optimum (“compromise”) in total cost of all the fuels in relation to the oxygen concentration of stock gases, which promises a cost saving in the boiler performance. -- Highlights: ► Efficiency, emissions and economy of the boiler fuelled with SOME, B5, B10, B20 and petrodiesel are investigated. ► The use of pure biodiesel was not economically feasible while economy of the blends and petrodiesel is competitive. ► B5 is introduced to be the most appropriate and economic fuel for the boiler. ► Presentation of a cost-based method optimization method. ► Introducing an optimum, “compromise”, O2% for the combustion of each fuel which promises a cost saving.

  17. 混合溶剂法合成酯基锡(甲酯)及其对PVC的热稳定性%Synthesis of Ester-tin(methyl acrylate) by Mixing Solvent and its Effect on the Thermal Stability of PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书华; 刘波; 李洪森; 张娅娅; 朱晓鹰; 唐家玲; 陈砾

    2011-01-01

    Ester-tin(methyl acrylate) was synthesized by mixing solvent method with phase transfer catalyst The results show that the optimal reaction time is 5~6 h, the optimal reaction temperature is 53~58℃ and the concentration of Na2CO3aq. Used is 20%. The product synthesized by the proposed above method can still keep clear within 120 days after being synthesized; however, the same ester-tin(methyl acrylate) synthesized by the conventional method of using NaHCO3 will occur precipitation and sand out an odious small within seven days after being synthesized. The ester-tin(methyl acrylate) synthesized by the proposed new method was characterized by IR and 1H-NMR, and the results show that the product characterized has the similar IR spectrum and chemical shift of the main functional group as those of the ester-tin(methyl acrylate) synthesized by the conventional method of using NaHCO3. The thermal degradation of ester-tin(methyl acrylate)/PVC was investigated by TG/DTG in the flowing atmosphere of air at 50~650℃ and was compared with that of methyltin mercaptively/PVC. The results show that the ester-tin(methyl acrylate) exhibits a better primary stability but little poorer initial coloration characteristics than methyltin mercaptide. When temperature is over 300℃, the degradation speed of ester-tin(methyl acrylate)/PVC becomes slower, and the mass loss percentage is lower too. The dynamic thermal stability was tested on a plasticator and Color Quest XE. The transparency of ester-tin(methyl acrylate)/PVC only decreases from 7.54 to 8.95 after processing over 15 min at 180~183℃. These test results indicate that the ester-tin(methyl acrylate) can help the PVC to have not only an excellent transparency but also a good processing stability. The ester-tin(methyl acrylate) synthesis method proposed solves the key problem in ester-tin synthesis and its product can be used to produce transparent PVC goods.%采用混合溶剂法和相转移催化剂合成酯基锡(甲酯).

  18. Biodiesel With Optimized Fatty Ester Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is largely composed of the mono-alkyl esters, usually methyl esters, of vegetable oils or animal fats with its fatty acid profile corresponding to that of the parent oil or fat. The different fatty esters have varying properties of relevance to biodiesel. The feedstock-dependent variatio...

  19. 一锅法合成4-甲基-5-咪唑甲酸乙酯工艺%The Preparation of 4-Methyl-5-imidazole-carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester by One-pot Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱驯; 魏运洋

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] The aim is to look for a new preparation method of 4-methyl-5-imidazole-carboxylic acid ethyl ester. [Methods] 4-Methyl-5-imidazole-carboxylic acid ethyl ester with versatility was prepared from 3-oxo-butyric acid ethyl ester, sulfuryl chloride and formamide by one-pot reaction. [Results] The effect on yield of the mole ratio of materials, reaction temperature, different solvent were discussed by experiments. We could receive the optimal reaction condition, the mole ratio of 3-oxo-butyric acid ethyl ester, sulfuryl chloride and formamide is 1:1:2 (in mol), the reaction temperature is 120 ℃, the solvent is dioxane. And the syntheses yield of 4-methyl-5-imidazole-carboxylic acid ethyl ester is 70% under this condition. [Conclusions] The new route is simple and the raw materials are easily obtained, which is suitable for industrial production.%[目的]寻找一条合成4-甲基-5-咪唑甲酸乙酯的新工艺路线。[方法]以乙酰乙酸乙酯、磺酰氯与甲酰胺为原料,采用一锅法合成一种用途广泛的多功能单体4-甲基-5-咪唑甲酸乙酯。[结果]通过实验,确定了一条合成4-甲基-5-咪唑甲酸乙酯的新工艺:以二氧六环为溶剂,环化时反应温度为120℃,反应时间为4 h,n(乙酰乙酸乙酯)∶n(磺酰氯)∶n(甲酰胺)为1∶1∶2,在该条件下,4-甲基-5-眯唑甲酸乙酯的产率为70%。[结论]该方法路线简单,原料易得,适合工业化生产。

  20. Leucyl-leucine methyl ester treatment of donor cells permits establishment of immunocompetent parent----F1 chimeras that are selectively tolerant of host alloantigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of murine lymphocytes with L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (Leu-Leu-OMe) selectively removes natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors, and the capacity to cause lethal graft-vs-host disease, whereas bone marrow stem cell function and alloantigen-induced L3T4+ T helper function remains intact. The present studies assess the immunocompetence of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras established by reconstituting irradiated (C57BL/6 X DBA/2)F1 (B6D2F1) mice with Leu-Leu-OMe-treated C57BL/6 (B6) bone marrow and spleen cells. Spleen cells from such chimeras were found to have normal B and T cell mitogenic responses. Furthermore, levels of natural-killer cell function were comparable to those observed in B6----B6 syngeneic radiation chimeras established without Leu-Leu-OMe treatment of donor cells. Spleen cells from B6----B6D2F1 mice were identical with B6----B6 or B6 mice in allostimulatory capacity and thus contained no discernible cells of non-H-2b phenotype. Whereas B6----B6D2F1 spleen cells demonstrated alloproliferative and allocytotoxic responses toward H-2k bearing spleen cells, no H-2d specific proliferative or cytotoxic responses could be elicited. B6----B6D2F1 spleen cells did not suppress the generation of anti-H-2d or anti-H-2k proliferative or cytotoxic responses from control B6 spleen cells. Furthermore, addition of rat concanavalin A supernatants did not reconstitute anti-H-2d responses of B6----B6D2F1 chimeric spleen cells. Thus, Leu-Leu-OMe treatment of B6 donor cells not only prevents lethal graft-vs-host disease, but also permits establishment of long-lived parent----F1 chimeras that are selectively tolerant of host H-2 disparate alloantigens, but fully immunocompetent with respect to natural killer cell function, B and T cell mitogenesis, and anti-third party alloresponsiveness

  1. Leucyl-leucine methyl ester treatment of donor cells permits establishment of immunocompetent parent----F1 chimeras that are selectively tolerant of host alloantigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.L.; Calomeni, J.A.; Lipsky, P.E.

    1987-10-01

    Treatment of murine lymphocytes with L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (Leu-Leu-OMe) selectively removes natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors, and the capacity to cause lethal graft-vs-host disease, whereas bone marrow stem cell function and alloantigen-induced L3T4+ T helper function remains intact. The present studies assess the immunocompetence of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras established by reconstituting irradiated (C57BL/6 X DBA/2)F1 (B6D2F1) mice with Leu-Leu-OMe-treated C57BL/6 (B6) bone marrow and spleen cells. Spleen cells from such chimeras were found to have normal B and T cell mitogenic responses. Furthermore, levels of natural-killer cell function were comparable to those observed in B6----B6 syngeneic radiation chimeras established without Leu-Leu-OMe treatment of donor cells. Spleen cells from B6----B6D2F1 mice were identical with B6----B6 or B6 mice in allostimulatory capacity and thus contained no discernible cells of non-H-2b phenotype. Whereas B6----B6D2F1 spleen cells demonstrated alloproliferative and allocytotoxic responses toward H-2k bearing spleen cells, no H-2d specific proliferative or cytotoxic responses could be elicited. B6----B6D2F1 spleen cells did not suppress the generation of anti-H-2d or anti-H-2k proliferative or cytotoxic responses from control B6 spleen cells. Furthermore, addition of rat concanavalin A supernatants did not reconstitute anti-H-2d responses of B6----B6D2F1 chimeric spleen cells. Thus, Leu-Leu-OMe treatment of B6 donor cells not only prevents lethal graft-vs-host disease, but also permits establishment of long-lived parent----F1 chimeras that are selectively tolerant of host H-2 disparate alloantigens, but fully immunocompetent with respect to natural killer cell function, B and T cell mitogenesis, and anti-third party alloresponsiveness.

  2. Effect of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on invasion of human colorectal cancer cell line SL-174T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Bo Yu; Xin-Shu Dong; Wen-Zhou Sun; Dong-Lu Zhao; Yue Yang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect and mechanism of action of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on invasion and metastasis of human colorectal cancer cell line SL-174T.METHODS: Human colorectal cancer cell line SL-174T was cultured and treated separately with four different dosages of L-NAME for 72 h. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured with Griess reagent. The effect of L-NAME on invasion and migration of SL-174T cells were evaluated by using Transwell chambers attached with polycarbonate filters and reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel).RT-PCR was performed to determine the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2).RESULTS: L-NAME could significantly inhibit NO production of SL-174T in a dose-dependent manner. After being treated for 72 h with 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0 mmol/L LNAME, respectively, the ability of the L-NAME treated SL174T cells to invade the reconstituted basement membrane decreased significantly (t = 8.056, P<0.05;t= 14.467, P<0.01;t= 27.785, P<0.01;and t= 29.405,P<0.01, respectively) and the inhibition rates were 10.29%,19.62%, 34.08%, and 42.23%, respectively. Moreover,L-NAME could inhibit migration of SL-174T cells, and the inhibition rates were 20.76%, 24.95%, 39.43%, and 46.85% for L-NAME at 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0 mmol/L,respectively (t = 15.116, P<0.01). In addition, after treatment with L-NAME, expression of MMP-2 mRNA was significantly decreased (t = 71.238, P<0.01) and that of TIMP-2 mRNA was markedly increased (t = -13.020,P<O.01).CONCLUSION: L-NAME exerts anti-invasive and antimetastatic effects on SL-174T cell line via downregulating MMP-2 mRNA expression and upregulating TIMP-2 mRNA expression.

  3. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Sodium Monosulfuron-ester (N-[2'-(4-Methyl)pyrimidinyl]-2-carbomethoxy Benzyl Sulfonylurea Sodium)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Jun-Jie; LI Zheng-Ming; SONG Hai-Bin

    2006-01-01

    Monosulfuron-ester is a novel sulfonylurea herbicide with ultra-low dosage. Herein sodium monosulfuron-ester was synthesized and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 9.335(5), b = 20.632(12), c = 13.853(8) (A), β = 107.193(9)°, Mr = 487.46, Z = 4, Dc = 1.270 g/cm3, μ = 0.293 mm-1, F(000) = 1015, R = 0.0859 and wR = 0.2633. In the title compound, Na coordinates with N(1), O(1) and O(3) from one monosulfuron-ester molecule, N(4A) and O(5A) from the other monosulfuron-ester molecule and one oxygen atom from DMSO to give six coordination bonds.

  4. NF EN 14106. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the free glycerol content; NF EN 14106. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en glycerol libre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a gas chromatography method of determination of the free glycerol content of fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) for concentrations comprised between 0.005% and 0.070%. The objective of this method is to evaluate the quality of the FAMEs in terms of trans-esterification of their by-products content, such as glycerol, which can change the fuel combustion properties. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  5. Use of potato tuber nucleotide pyrophosphatase to synthesize adenosine 5'-monophosphate methyl ester: evidence that the solvolytic preferences of the enzyme are regulated by pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, A; Ribeiro, J M; Canales, J; Cameselle, J C

    1998-07-01

    Nucleotide alkyl esters are pharmacologically important as potential (ant)agonists of purinoceptors and inhibitors of enzymes. Potato nucleotide pyrophosphatase (PNP) was compared with snake venom phosphodiesterase (SVP) as a catalyst to synthesize nucleotide alkyl esters. In methanol-water mixtures, the methanolysis/hydrolysis ratio of PNP, but not SVP, changed with pH and temperature, being optimal at high pH and low temperature. In a semi-preparative experiment, a crude PNP preparation produced 0.17 mM AMP-O-methyl ester (AMP-OMe) from 1 mM diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P2-diphosphate (AppA) and 5M methanol, at pH 9 and 0 degrees C. Drawbacks to large-scale use are: low rates inherent to low temperatures, ATP unsuitability as a substrate for alcoholysis, and high cost of AppA. Advantages of PNP vs. SVP are cheapness, non-toxicity, and availability of the enzyme source.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked (CAS No. 117675-55-5, FCM Substance No 1022, to be used as liquid absorber in the form of fibres in absorbent pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered that migration is not expected when the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded. Therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that none of these starting substances and the cross-linked polymer gives rise to concern for genotoxicity. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked does not raise a safety concern when used as fibres in absorber pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables under conditions under which the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded and mechanical release of the fibres from the pads is excluded.

  7. A Comparison of Effects of Ambient Pressure on the Atomization Performance of Soybean Oil Methyl Ester and Dimethyl Ether Sprays Comparaison des effets de la pression ambiante sur l’atomisation en “spray” de methylester d’huile de soja et de dimethyléther

    OpenAIRE

    Kim H.J.; Park S.H.; Chon M.S.; Lee C. S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the experimental investigation of Soybean oil Methyl Ester (SME) and DiMethyl Ether (DME) spray characteristics injected through the common-rail injection system under various ambient pressures. A high pressure chamber that can be pressurized up to 4 MPa was utilized for a change of ambient pressure. In order to compare the spray development and atomization characteristics, the images of SME and DME were obtained by using a high speed camera with two metal ha...

  8. 3-溴-4-羟基-5-甲氧基苯甲酸甲酯的合成%Synthesis of 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxy-benzoic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫慧丽; 张立新; 张慧芳; 马甲民

    2011-01-01

    以香兰素为主要原料,经溴水溴代得溴代香兰素,再经氧化银氧化制取溴代香兰酸,最后与甲醇发生酯化反应,成功制得3-溴-4-羟基-5-甲氧基苯甲酸甲酯,总收率66.4%.各步反应的生成物提纯后经过1H-NMR、IR进行表征.%3-bromo4-hydroxy-5-methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester in total yield of 66.4% is synthesized from vanillin via bromation by bromide, oxidation over silver oxide and esterification with methanol.The products from different steps are identified by 1H-NMR and IR.

  9. Constrained photophysics of partially and fully encapsulated charge transfer probe (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester inside cyclodextrin nano-cavities: Evidence of cyclodextrins cavity dependent complex stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shalini; Jana, Sankar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2011-12-01

    The polarity sensitive intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) emission from (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester (MAPAME) is found to show distinct changes once introduced into the nano-cavities of cyclodextrins in aqueous environment. Movement of the molecule from the more polar aqueous environment to the less polar, hydrophobic cyclodextrin interior is marked by the blue shift of the CT emission band with simultaneous fluorescence intensity enhancement. The emission spectral changes on complexation with the α- and β-CD show different stoichiometries as observed from the Benesi-Hildebrand plots. Fluorescence anisotropy and lifetime measurements were performed to probe the different behaviors of MAPAME in aqueous α- and β-CD solutions.

  10. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ∼2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  11. Statements by non-UBA experts on the 'Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)' in its wording of September 28, 1992. Annex to UBA-Texte 4/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex to ''Publications of the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), No. 4/93'' contains eleven statements by experts regarding the agency's report ''Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel'' of October/November 1992. Scientific research institutions, associations and groups representing the interests of the sectors of industry concerned have their say. (UWA)

  12. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  13. Preparation and characterization oF Ru-Sn/Al2O3 catalysts for the hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina A. Mazzieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ru-Sn/Al2O3 catalysts with different Sn loadings were prepared by the coimpregnation method. Several characterization techniques such as TPR, pyridine TPD and catalytic tests for dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis were used to evaluate and compare such catalysts. TPR results indicate that Sn is deposited both onto the support and as species strongly interacting with Ru. Such non selective deposition modifies the acid and metallic functions of the catalysts. Both total acidity and acid strength distribution are affected: total acidity decreases and new sites of lower acid strength are created. Both dehydrogenating and hydrogenolytic activities are strongly diminished by the addition of Sn. Results of catalytic tests for methyl oleate hydrogenation indicate that methyl stearate is the main product, with only minute amounts of oleyl alcohol produced, and that the addition of Sn diminishes the hydrogenation activity.

  14. Preparation and characterization of Ru-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for the hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzieri, Vanina A.; Sad, Mario R.; Vera, Carlos R.; Pieck, Carlos L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Inst. de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica; Grau, Ricardo [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Inst. de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Ru-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with different Sn loadings were prepared by the coimpregnation method. Several characterization techniques such as TPR, pyridine TPD and catalytic tests for dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis were used to evaluate and compare such catalysts. TPR results indicate that Sn is deposited both onto the support and as species strongly interacting with Ru. Such non selective deposition modifies the acid and metallic functions of the catalysts. Both total acidity and acid strength distribution are affected: total acidity decreases and new sites of lower acid strength are created. Both dehydrogenating and hydrogenolytic activities are strongly diminished by the addition of Sn. Results of catalytic tests for methyl oleate hydrogenation indicate that methyl stearate is the main product, with only minute amounts of oleyl alcohol produced, and that the addition of Sn diminishes the hydrogenation activity. (author)

  15. Synthesis and homologous series gelators of fatty acyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester%脂酰苯丙氨酸甲酯同系凝胶因子的合成及凝胶性质考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 秦凌浩; 吴进锐; 胡巧红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To synthesize a series of fatty acyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester gelators including N-myristoyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (C14-L-Phe-OMe),N-palmityl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (C16-L-Phe-OMe), N-octadecanoyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester ( C18-L-Phe-OMe ) , and to investigate their structural characteristics and property.Methods The gelators including C14-L-Phe-OMe, C16-L-Phe-OMe and C18-L-Phe-OMe were synthesized by reaction of L-phenylalanine methyl ester with chloride including myristoyl chloride , palmityl chloride and octadecanoyl chloride.Their structures were characterized by IR ,1H-NMR and MS.The melting points, gelatinizing ability and phase transition temperature in refined soybean oil were investigated .Results The C14-L-Phe-OMe, C16-L-Phe-OMe and C18-L-Phe-OMe were successfully synthesized ,moreover,their structures were identified;the melting points of three kinds of gelatins were 61.3 ~63.1℃,72.1 ~73.0℃ and 62.3 ~64.1℃, respectively;the sequence of gelatinizing ability was C16-L-Phe-OMe >C18-L-Phe-OMe >C14-L-Phe-OMe;the enthalpy (ΔH) of three kinds of gelators in refined soybean oil was 42.58 kJ/mol,22.61 kJ/mol and 65.01 kJ/mol,respectively.Conclusion The synthesized a series of gelators including C14-L-Phe-OMe,C16-L-Phe-OMe and C18-L-Phe-OMe have better gelatinizing ability in which C 16-L-Phe-OMe has the best gelatinizing ability ,which is hopeful to be used as a controlled release drug carrier in local medication .%目的:合成一系列脂酰苯丙氨酸凝胶因子———肉豆蔻酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯( C14-L-Phe-OMe)、棕榈酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯( C16-L-Phe-OMe)及硬脂酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯(C 18-L-Phe-OMe),并对其进行结构表征和性质考察。方法以L-苯丙氨酸甲酯盐酸盐为母核,肉豆蔻酰氯、棕榈酰氯、硬脂酰氯为酰化剂,合成一系列脂酰苯丙氨酸凝胶因子,采用IR、1H-NMR、MS等手段对其结构进行表征,并考察其熔点、一级大豆油中

  16. Antifungal properties of halofumarate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L

    1978-04-01

    Alkyl esters (C1--C4) of the four halofumaric acids were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes at pH 5.6 and 7.0 in the absence and presence of 10% beef serum in Sabouraud dextrose agar. The most toxic compound to each organism was: C. albicans, ethyl iodofumarate (0.054 mmole/liter); A. niger, methyl bromofumarate (0.090 mmole/liter); M. mucedo, methyl fluorofumarate (0.037 mmole/liter); and T. mentagrophytes, ethyl iodofumarate (0.020 mmole/liter). The order of overall activity of the six most toxic compounds was: ethyl iodofumarate greater than ethyl chlorofumarate greater than methyl iodofumarate = methyl bromofumarate greater than methyl chlorofumarate greater than bromofumarate.

  17. Synthesis and hydrolysis resisting capacity of ethoxylated ricinoleic acid methyl esters%蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物的合成与耐酸耐碱性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谦; 孙永强; 王万绪; 智丽飞; Martino Di Serio; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    Ethoxylated ricinoleic acid methyl esters (ECAME - 10)obtained directly from castor oil acid methyl esters by the use of a special homogeneous catalyst. The average ethylene oxide (EO)adduct number of ECAME - 10 was determined by saponification value,gas chromatography (GC)and 1 HNMR. The hydrolysis resisting capacity of ECAME - 10 was investigated under different pH value conditions. The appearance changes of ECAME - 10 solution under different storing time periods was tracked and photographed and surface tension of different stages of the solution at different stages was measured. Results showed that the hydrolysis resisting capacity of ECAME - 10 is rather strong. The hydrolysis rate of ECAME - 10 is below 40% in pH value range of 4 - 9 after eight weeks. Surface tension of solutions can be kept stable after the hydrolysis reaction.%在一定的温度和压力条件下,以及特制的均相催化剂作用下,直接由蓖麻油酸甲酯得到了产物蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物(ECAME -10)。通过皂化值、气相色谱(GC)和1 HNMR 测定了ECAME -10的平均环氧乙烷(EO)加合数,在不同pH条件下测定了ECAME -10的耐酸耐碱性,并跟踪拍摄了不同pH溶液不同阶段的外观照片,同时测定了不同阶段溶液的表面张力。结果显示:ECAME -10有较强的抗水解能力,当pH =4~9时,ECAME -10的水解较慢,8周后其水解率在40%以下;水解后的表面张力数据表明,水解后溶液的表面张力可保持稳定。

  18. Multi Response Optimization of NOx Emission of a Stationary Diesel Engine Fuelled with Crude Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester Optimisation à réponses multiples de l’émission de NOx d’un moteur Diesel stationnaire alimenté par de l’ester méthylique d’huile de riz brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt was made to reduce the NOx emission of crude rice bran oil methyl ester without any considerable increase in smoke density, when used as a fuel in a stationary CI engine. Three factors namely, fuel injection timing, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR and fuel injection pressure were chosen and their combined effect in controlling the NOx emission of a stationary Diesel engine fuelled with crude rice bran oil methyl ester was investigated. Three levels were chosen in each factor and NOx emission, smoke density and brake thermal efficiency were taken as the response variables. Experiments were designed by employing design of experiments method and Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array was used to conduct the engine tests with different levels of the chosen factors. Multi Response Signal-to-Noise ratio (MRSN was calculated for the response variables and the optimum combination level of factors was obtained simultaneously using Taguchi’s parametric design. Confirmation experiment was conducted for the obtained optimum combination level of factors and the results were compared with normal operating conditions and significant improvement was observed in the response variables. Dans la présente étude, il a été tenté de réduire les émissions de NOx de l'ester méthylique d'huile de riz brut sans accroissement considérable de la densité de fumée lorsqu'il est utilisé comme carburant dans un moteur stationnaire à allumage par compression. Trois facteurs, à savoir le calage d'injection de carburant, le pourcentage de recirculation des gaz d'échappement (EGR ; Exhaust Gas Recirculation et la pression d'injection de carburant ont été choisis, et leur effet combiné a été examiné en matière de maîtrise des émissions de NOx d'un moteur Diesel stationnaire alimenté avec de l'ester méthylique d'huile de riz brut. Trois niveaux ont été choisis pour chaque facteur et les émissions de NOx, la densité de fum

  19. Metabolism of fatty acid in yeast: addition of reducing agents to the reaction medium influences beta-oxidation activities, gamma-decalactone production, and cell ultrastructure in Sporidiobolus ruinenii cultivated on ricinoleic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Mauvais, Geneviève; Lherminier, Jeanine; Michel, Joël; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Viel, Christophe; Cachon, Rémy

    2007-06-01

    The sensitivity of Sporidiobolus ruinenii yeast to the use of reducing agents, reflected in changes in the oxidoreduction potential at pH 7 (Eh7) environment, ricinoleic acid methyl ester catabolism, gamma-decalactone synthesis, cofactor level, beta-oxidation activity, and ultrastructure of the cell, was studied. Three environmental conditions (corresponding to oxidative, neutral, and reducing conditions) were fixed with the use of air or air and reducing agents (hydrogen and dithiothreitol). Lowering Eh7 to neutral conditions (Eh7 = +30 mV and +2.5 mV) favoured the production of lactone more than the more oxidative condition (Eh7 = +350 mV). In contrast, when a reducing condition was used (Eh7 = -130 mV), the production of gamma-decalactone was very low. These results were linked to changes in the cofactor ratio during lactone production, to the beta-oxidation activity involved in decanolide synthesis, and to ultrastructural modification of the cell. PMID:17668034

  20. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. PMID:27136612

  1. Concepts, experience and recommendations for the production and use of rape oil methyl ester (RME) as well as natural vegetable oil; Konzepte, Erfahrungen und Empfehlungen bei der Herstellung und Nutzung von RME sowie naturbelassenem Pflanzenoel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, T.; Vetter, A. [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Jena (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Rape oil methyl ester and natural rape oil gained from decentral plants for oilseeds processing have been used successfully as alternative motor fuel for approximately 8 years in environmentally sensitive areas of Thuringia. The target is the set-up and operation of an almost closed system for the cultivation, processing and utilisation of oilseeds, mainly winter rape on non-cultivated fields. Processing is supposed to occur in cold-press and esterification plants, which are jointly operated by the farmers. The conversion of the vehicles of each farmer to vehicles that can be operated with RME should be carried out without any exception. This solution only will lead to the necessary flexibility to use the most cost-effective type of motor fuel. (orig.) [German] Seit ca. 8 Jahren wird Rapsoelmethylester und naturbelassenes Rapsoel aus dezentralen Anlagen der Oelsaatenverarbeitung als alternativer Kraftstoff besonders in umweltsensiblen Bereichen in Thueringen erfolgreich eingesetzt. Ziel ist der Aufbau und Betrieb eines weitgehend geschlossenen System zum Anbau, zur Aufarbeitung und Verwertung von Oelsaaten, vornehmlich Winterraps von Stillegungsflaechen. Die Verarbeitung soll vorrangig in gemeinsamen, von der Landwirtschaft betriebenen Kaltpress- und Veresterungsanlagen erfolgen. Die Umstellung der einzelbetrieblichen Fuhrparks auf RME-taugliche Fahrzeuge sollte konsequent Anwendung finden. Nur so kann die noetige Flexibilitaet erreicht werden, die jeweils preisguenstigste Kraftstoffart zu nutzen. (orig.)

  2. Exhaust gas emissions from diesel-engines driven by rape seed oil methyl ester, rape seed oil and diesel fuel - an evaluation of laboratory and vehicle fleet test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, C.; Widmann, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Diesel fuels from rape seed oil can contribute to a reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and save mineral fuel resources. But at the same time other emission components, which have an environmental or health impact, must be compared with the exhaust gas emissions from presently used mineral diesel fuels. This study compares various results from vehicle emission tests, concentrating on personnel vehicles and rape seed oil methyl ester (RME), to show a tendency if there is a similar, lower or even higher output of critical exhaust gas components. The results vary in a wide range: for motors with a generally high emission level there is a tendency for lower emissions with RME, but for motors with a sophisticated technology (e.g. injection technique and exhaust gas cleaning) the differences between the fuels become more and more insignificant, so that general statements about advantages cannot be made. The influence of modern motor and exhaust gas cleaning technology seems more important here than the fuel properties. Even through the differences between the fuels in emission components are not significant in general it can be stated that the advantages concerning the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emission and biodegradability remain. (orig.)

  3. Exhaust gas emissions from diesel-engines driven by rape seed oil methyl ester, rape seed oil and diesel fuel - an evaluation of laboratory and vehicle fleet test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, C.; Widmann, B. (Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany))

    1999-01-01

    Diesel fuels from rape seed oil can contribute to a reduction of CO[sub 2]-emissions and save mineral fuel resources. But at the same time other emission components, which have an environmental or health impact, must be compared with the exhaust gas emissions from presently used mineral diesel fuels. This study compares various results from vehicle emission tests, concentrating on personnel vehicles and rape seed oil methyl ester (RME), to show a tendency if there is a similar, lower or even higher output of critical exhaust gas components. The results vary in a wide range: for motors with a generally high emission level there is a tendency for lower emissions with RME, but for motors with a sophisticated technology (e.g. injection technique and exhaust gas cleaning) the differences between the fuels become more and more insignificant, so that general statements about advantages cannot be made. The influence of modern motor and exhaust gas cleaning technology seems more important here than the fuel properties. Even through the differences between the fuels in emission components are not significant in general it can be stated that the advantages concerning the reduction of CO[sub 2]-emission and biodegradability remain. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil.

  5. Dimethyl carbonate-mediated lipid extraction and lipase-catalyzed in situ transesterification for simultaneous preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and glycerol carbonate from Chlorella sp. KR-1 biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yoon Ju; Lee, Ok Kyung; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2014-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and glycerol carbonate were simultaneously prepared from Chlorella sp. KR-1 containing 40.9% (w/w) lipid using a reactive extraction method with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). DMC was used as lipid extraction agent, acyl acceptor for transesterification of the extracted triglycerides, substrate for glycerol carbonate synthesis from glycerol, and reaction medium for the solvent-free reaction system. For 1g of biomass, 367.31 mg of FAMEs and 16.73 mg of glycerol carbonate were obtained under the optimized conditions: DMC to biomass ratio of 10:1 (v/w), water content of 0.5% (v/v), and Novozyme 435 to biomass ratio of 20% (w/w) at 70°C for 24h. The amount of residual glycerol was only in the range of 1-2.5mg. Compared to conventional method, the cost of FAME production with the proposed technique could be reduced by combining lipid extraction with transesterification and omitting the extraction solvent recovery process. PMID:24583221

  6. Rosmarinic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits LPS-Induced NO Production via Suppression of MyD88- Dependent and -Independent Pathways and Induction of HO-1 in RAW 264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Yangkang; Lee, Seung Young; Han, Ah-Reum; Kim, Jin-Baek; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jin, Chang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of rosmarinic acid methyl ester (RAME) isolated from a mutant cultivar of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. We found that RAME inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, with an IC50 of 14.25 µM, in RAW 264.7 cells. RAME inhibited the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, RAME suppressed the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. These results suggest that the downregulation of iNOS expression by RAME was due to myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent and -independent pathways. Furthermore, RAME induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. Treatment with tin protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO-1, reversed the RAME-induced suppression of NO production. Taken together, RAME isolated from P. frutescens inhibited NO production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells through simultaneous induction of HO-1 and inhibition of MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:27548124

  7. (6E,10E Isopolycerasoidol and (6E,10E Isopolycerasoidol Methyl Ester, Prenylated Benzopyran Derivatives from Pseuduvaria monticola Induce Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairin Taha

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals from Pseuduvaria species have been reported to display a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, a known benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E isopolycerasoidol (1, and a new benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E isopolycerasoidol methyl ester (2, were isolated from a methanol extract of Pseuduvaria monticola leaves. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and LCMS-QTOF, and by comparison with previously published data. The anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of these compounds on human breast cancer cell-lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and a human normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A were investigated. MTT results revealed both (1 and (2 were efficient in reducing cell viability of breast cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that (1 and (2 induced cell death via apoptosis, as demonstrated by an increase in phosphotidylserine exposure. Both compounds elevated ROS production, leading to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased plasma membrane permeability in breast cancer cells. These effects occurred concomitantly with a dose-dependent activation of caspase 3/7 and 9, a down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 and the accumulation of p38 MAPK in the nucleus. Taken together, our data demonstrate that (1 and (2 induce intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, which provides the first pharmacological evidence for their future development as anticancer agents.

  8. (6E,10E) Isopolycerasoidol and (6E,10E) Isopolycerasoidol Methyl Ester, Prenylated Benzopyran Derivatives from Pseuduvaria monticola Induce Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Hairin; Looi, Chung Yeng; Arya, Aditya; Wong, Won Fen; Yap, Lee Fah; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh; Mohd, Mustafa A; Paterson, Ian C; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemicals from Pseuduvaria species have been reported to display a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, a known benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E) isopolycerasoidol (1), and a new benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E) isopolycerasoidol methyl ester (2), were isolated from a methanol extract of Pseuduvaria monticola leaves. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and LCMS-QTOF, and by comparison with previously published data. The anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of these compounds on human breast cancer cell-lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a human normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) were investigated. MTT results revealed both (1) and (2) were efficient in reducing cell viability of breast cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that (1) and (2) induced cell death via apoptosis, as demonstrated by an increase in phosphotidylserine exposure. Both compounds elevated ROS production, leading to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased plasma membrane permeability in breast cancer cells. These effects occurred concomitantly with a dose-dependent activation of caspase 3/7 and 9, a down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 and the accumulation of p38 MAPK in the nucleus. Taken together, our data demonstrate that (1) and (2) induce intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, which provides the first pharmacological evidence for their future development as anticancer agents. PMID:25946039

  9. Dimethyl carbonate-mediated lipid extraction and lipase-catalyzed in situ transesterification for simultaneous preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and glycerol carbonate from Chlorella sp. KR-1 biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yoon Ju; Lee, Ok Kyung; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2014-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and glycerol carbonate were simultaneously prepared from Chlorella sp. KR-1 containing 40.9% (w/w) lipid using a reactive extraction method with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). DMC was used as lipid extraction agent, acyl acceptor for transesterification of the extracted triglycerides, substrate for glycerol carbonate synthesis from glycerol, and reaction medium for the solvent-free reaction system. For 1g of biomass, 367.31 mg of FAMEs and 16.73 mg of glycerol carbonate were obtained under the optimized conditions: DMC to biomass ratio of 10:1 (v/w), water content of 0.5% (v/v), and Novozyme 435 to biomass ratio of 20% (w/w) at 70°C for 24h. The amount of residual glycerol was only in the range of 1-2.5mg. Compared to conventional method, the cost of FAME production with the proposed technique could be reduced by combining lipid extraction with transesterification and omitting the extraction solvent recovery process.

  10. Synergetic Enhancement of Device Efficiency in Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl/[6,6]-phenyl C61 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Glycerol Addition in the Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobins Augustine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl(P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM is the widely used active layer for the bulk heterojunction solar cells. Annealing is essential for P3HT:PC60BM active layer, since it facilitates the creation of better network for the transfer of the charge carriers. However, the PC60BM in the active layer can crystallize excessively during annealing treatments and disrupt the favorable morphology by forming crystallites in micrometer ranges, thus reducing device efficiency. In this paper we used glycerol as an additive in the active layer. Due to high boiling point of glycerol, it makes slow drying of the active layer possible during the annealing. It thus gives enough time to both electron donor (P3HT and electron acceptor (PC60BM components of the active layer to self-organize and also restrict the crystal overgrowth of PC60BM. Further, the glycerol additive makes the active layer smoother, which may also improve adhesion between the electrode and the active layer. The devices with the pristine active layer showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE of about 2.1% and, with the addition of 30 vol% of glycerol in the active layer, the PCE value increased to 3%.

  11. Determination of 13C isotopic enrichment of glutathione and glycine by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry after formation of the N- or N,S-ethoxycarbonyl methyl ester derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea, Illa; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Küster, Alice; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    The depletion of glutathione (GSH) reported in very-low-birth-weight infants is implicated in several pathologies, especially if deficiency occurs during foetal development. The cause of this depletion is suggested to be modification of GSH turnover. To probe the role of GSH, a reliable non-invasive method adapted to very-low-birth-weight infants is required. In this paper, we report the preparation of the N,S-ethoxycarbonyl methyl ester derivatives of GSH and glycine and their application to the measurement of (13)C/(12)C ratios at natural abundance in erythrocyte samples by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). The technique allowed the determination of (13)C/(12)C ratios at natural abundance with a precision synthesis rate (FSR) in human adult blood (approx. 300% day(-1)) using the low-enrichment (13)C-glycine/GC/C/IRMS protocol and that using highly enriched (13)C-glycine (99 atom %)/GC/MS with the same derivative. The GC/C/IRMS method was shown to be suitable to measure the in vitro GSH FSR (200-660% day(-1)) in human venous and arterial blood from the umbilical cord. This approach provides a good tool for studying the turnover of GSH in vitro in infants, allowing both the use of minimal amounts of tracer and negligible perturbation of endogenous precursor pools.

  12. NF EN 14107. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the phosphorus content by high frequency induced plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP method); NF EN 14107. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en phosphore par spectrometrie d'emission de plasma induit par haute frequence (methode ICP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a method of phosphorus content dosimetry in fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) using high frequency induced plasma emission spectroscopy and for concentrations comprised between 4 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg. The objective of this method is to evaluate the quality of the FAMEs in terms of trans-esterification of their by-products content, such as phosphorus, which can change the fuel combustion properties. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  13. NF EN 14105. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the free- and total-glycerol content and of the mono-, di-, and triglycerides content. Reference method; NF EN 14105. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en glycerols libre et total et en mono-, di- et triglycerides. Methode de reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a method of determination of the free glycerol and of the residual mono-, di-, and triglycerides content in fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) which will be incorporated in mineral oils. The total glycerol content is then determined from the obtained results. This method is adapted to colza, sunflower and soja oil FAMEs but not to copra or palm oil-based FAMEs because of the risk of peak superimposition. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  14. ZrOCl2·8H2O:An Efifcient and Cheap Catalyst for Esteriifcation of Free Fatty Acids to Methyl Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jie; Zhang Qiuyun; Huang Congmin; Zhou Kaizhi; Ma Peihua

    2014-01-01

    The esteriifcation of lauric acid with methanol could be efifciently catalyzed by ZrOCl2·8H2O, and this reaction was studied to develop a green method for biodiesel production. The inlfuencing factors, such as amount of catalyst, reac-tion time and molar ratio of acid to methanol, were investigated. The results indicated that the ZrOCl2·8H2O catalyst showed high catalytic activity, and gave a 97.0%methyl laurate conversion rate under the following optimized conditions, viz.:a lauric acid/methanol molar ratio of 1:10, a catalyst dosage of 4%, and a reaction duration of 2 h at methanol relfuxing tem-perature. The catalyst could be easily recovered while its activity could be well retained after three cycles. The ZrOCl2·8H2O catalyst also exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the esteriifcation of different free long-chain fatty acids (including non-edible oils with high acid value) with different short carbon chain alcohols. Therefore, the ZrOCl2·8H2O catalyst has good potential for the synthesis of biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks such as waste vegetable oils and non-edible oils.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of N-palmityl-L-phenylalanine Methyl Ester Gelator%棕榈酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯凝胶因子的制备及其性质考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 秦凌浩; 陈秋玲; 吴进锐; 陈小媛; 胡巧红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To synthesize N-palmityl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (C1 6-L-Phe-OMe)a kind of self-assembled supramolecular gelator, and characterize its structure and property. Methods Using L-phenylalanine methyl ester and palmityl chloride as materials, gelator of C1 6-L-Phe-OMe was synthesized. Its structure was characterized by IR,1 H-NMR and MS. Its melting point, minimal gelation concentration and phase transition temperature in some kinds of vegetable oil were determined. Results The results of IR,1 H-NMR and MS showed that C1 6-L-Phe-OMe was successfully synthesized. The productivity was 7 3.4 0 % . The melting point was 7 1.5-7 2.3 ℃ and the minimal gelation concentration in olive oil, refined soybean oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and peanut oil was 1 5 0 , 1 6 0 , 1 6 0 , 1 7 0 and 1 9 0 g· L-1 , respectively at room temperature. The phase transition temperature increased with increasing concentration of C1 6-L-Phe-OMe.Conclusion The preparation process of C1 6-L-Phe-OMe was flexible. The gelation ability of C1 6-L-Phe-OMe was very good in olive oil, refined soybean oil and sunflower oil. It was a good organogel gelator and a suitable controlled release drug carrier.%目的:合成一种自组装超分子有机凝胶因子---棕榈酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯(C16-L-Phe-OMe),并对其进行结构表征和性质考察。方法以 L-苯丙氨酸甲酯盐酸盐为母核、棕榈酰氯为酰化剂,合成棕榈酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯凝胶因子,采用 IR、1 H-NMR、MS 等手段对其结构进行表征,并考察其熔点、在各种植物油中的最低胶凝浓度、相转变温度等凝胶行为。结果 IR、1 H-NMR、MS 等分析结果表明合成物质的结构为棕榈酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯,产率为73.40%,熔程为71.5~72.3℃,室温下在橄榄油、一级大豆油、葵花油、大豆油、花生油中的最低胶凝浓度分别为150、160、160、170、190 g·L-1,相转变温度随凝胶因子浓度的增加而升高。结论 C16-L-Phe-OMe 的制备工

  16. 棕榈酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯凝胶因子的制备及其性质考察%Synthesis and Characterization of N-palmityl-L-phenylalanine Methyl Ester Gelator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 秦凌浩; 陈秋玲; 吴进锐; 陈小媛; 胡巧红

    2014-01-01

    目的:合成一种自组装超分子有机凝胶因子---棕榈酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯(C16-L-Phe-OMe),并对其进行结构表征和性质考察。方法以 L-苯丙氨酸甲酯盐酸盐为母核、棕榈酰氯为酰化剂,合成棕榈酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯凝胶因子,采用 IR、1 H-NMR、MS 等手段对其结构进行表征,并考察其熔点、在各种植物油中的最低胶凝浓度、相转变温度等凝胶行为。结果 IR、1 H-NMR、MS 等分析结果表明合成物质的结构为棕榈酰-苯丙氨酸甲酯,产率为73.40%,熔程为71.5~72.3℃,室温下在橄榄油、一级大豆油、葵花油、大豆油、花生油中的最低胶凝浓度分别为150、160、160、170、190 g·L-1,相转变温度随凝胶因子浓度的增加而升高。结论 C16-L-Phe-OMe 的制备工艺简单,在橄榄油、一级大豆油、葵花油中具有很强的胶凝能力,是一种优良的有机凝胶因子,适于作为药物控释载体。%Objective To synthesize N-palmityl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (C1 6-L-Phe-OMe)a kind of self-assembled supramolecular gelator, and characterize its structure and property. Methods Using L-phenylalanine methyl ester and palmityl chloride as materials, gelator of C1 6-L-Phe-OMe was synthesized. Its structure was characterized by IR,1 H-NMR and MS. Its melting point, minimal gelation concentration and phase transition temperature in some kinds of vegetable oil were determined. Results The results of IR,1 H-NMR and MS showed that C1 6-L-Phe-OMe was successfully synthesized. The productivity was 7 3.4 0 % . The melting point was 7 1.5-7 2.3 ℃ and the minimal gelation concentration in olive oil, refined soybean oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and peanut oil was 1 5 0 , 1 6 0 , 1 6 0 , 1 7 0 and 1 9 0 g· L-1 , respectively at room temperature. The phase transition temperature increased with increasing concentration of C1 6-L-Phe-OMe.Conclusion The preparation process of C1 6-L-Phe-OMe was flexible. The gelation ability of C1 6-L

  17. Density functional study of electronic, charge density, and chemical bonding properties of 9-methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic acid ethyl ester crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies – Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kamarudin, H. [Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Alahmed, Z.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Auluck, S. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Chyský, Jan [Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical density functional investigation of the electronic crystal structure, chemical bonding, and the electron charge densities of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3, 2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester (C{sub 15}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}O{sub 2}S{sub 2}) is performed. The density of states at Fermi level equal to 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, and the calculated bare electronic specific heat coefficient is found to be 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K{sup 2} for the local density approximation (Engel–Vosko generalized gradient approximation). The electronic charge density space distribution contours in (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes were calculated. We find that there are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit exhibit intramolecular C–H…O, C–H…N interactions. This intramolecular interaction is different in molecules A and B, where A molecule show C–H…O interaction while B molecule exhibit C–H…N interaction. We should emphasis that there is π–π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules gives extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. The calculated distance between the two neighbors pyrimidine rings found to be 3.345 Å, in good agreement with the measured one (3.424(1) Å). - Highlights: • Electronic structure, chemical bonding, and electron charge density were studied. • Density of states at Fermi level is 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, for LDA (EVGGA). • Bare electronic specific heat coefficient is 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K{sup 2} for LDA(EVGGA). • There are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit.

  18. Purification and Characterization of a New Antifungal Compound 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic Acid Methyl Ester from Streptomyces hydrogenans Strain DH16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kaur, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vishal; Manhas, Rajesh K

    2016-01-01

    In agriculture, biocontrol agents have been emerged as safe alternative to chemical pesticides where Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites constitute a great potential for their exploration as potent agents for controlling various fungal phytopathogens. The present study reports an antifungal compound purified from Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16, a soil isolate, using silica gel chromatography and semi preparative HPLC. The compound was characterized using various spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR) and named 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic acid methyl ester (SH2). Compound (SH2) showed significant inhibitory activity against fungal phytopathogens and resulted in severe morphological aberrations in their structure. Minimal inhibitory and minimal fungicidal concentrations of the compound ranged from 6.25 to 25 μg/ml and 25 to 50 μg/ml, respectively. In vivo evaluation of the compound showed strong control efficacy against Alternaria brassicicola, a seed borne pathogen, on radish seeds. In comparison to mancozeb and carbendazim, the compound was more effective in controlling damping off disease. Additionally, it promoted plant growth with increased rate of seed germination, and displayed no phytotoxicity. The compound retained its antifungal activity after its exposure to temperature of 100°C and sunlight for 1 h. Furthermore, the compound (SH2) when tested for its biosafety was found to be non-cytotoxic, and non-mutagenic against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. This compound from S. hydrogenans strain DH16 has not been reported earlier, so this new compound can be developed as an ideal safe and superior biofungicide for the control of various fungal plant diseases. PMID:27446043

  19. Morphological and spectroscopic characterizations of inkjet-printed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl): Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends for organic solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most exploited active material for photovoltaic devices is the regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), p-type conjugated polymer, blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), n-type material. The deposition methods and the induced morphology strongly influence the functionality of the active material and in turn the final charge generation performances of a photoactive layer. In the present work, we studied the influence of PCBM concentration on the morphological and spectroscopic properties of the inkjet printed P3HT:PCBM blends through atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy. The aim is to value the charge formation yield in the blends, prepared by inkjet technology, as function of the acceptor concentrations in correlation with morphology and intermixing of the two components. For the inkjet printed samples the blends composition that corresponds to the best intermixing between P3HT and PCBM and the higher charges formation yield should be between 20% and 45% in weight (wt)., differently for what has been found previously for spin-coated samples. Indeed, for inkjet prepared film, the 45 wt.% blend ratio leads to much bigger domains with respect to the spin-coated samples as shown from the AFM measurements. - Highlights: • Inkjet-printed P3HT:PCBM blends for organic solar cell applications • Coarser morphology of inkjet P3HT:PCBM films with respect to the spin-coated film • Inkjet P3HT:PCBM films showed charge formation maximum for PCBM wt.% lower than 45

  20. Morphological and spectroscopic characterizations of inkjet-printed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl): Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends for organic solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, A., E-mail: annalisa.bruno@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Villani, F., E-mail: fulvia.villani@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Grimaldi, I.A.; Loffredo, F.; Morvillo, P.; Diana, R. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Haque, S. [Chemistry Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Minarini, C. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy)

    2014-06-02

    The most exploited active material for photovoltaic devices is the regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), p-type conjugated polymer, blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), n-type material. The deposition methods and the induced morphology strongly influence the functionality of the active material and in turn the final charge generation performances of a photoactive layer. In the present work, we studied the influence of PCBM concentration on the morphological and spectroscopic properties of the inkjet printed P3HT:PCBM blends through atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy. The aim is to value the charge formation yield in the blends, prepared by inkjet technology, as function of the acceptor concentrations in correlation with morphology and intermixing of the two components. For the inkjet printed samples the blends composition that corresponds to the best intermixing between P3HT and PCBM and the higher charges formation yield should be between 20% and 45% in weight (wt)., differently for what has been found previously for spin-coated samples. Indeed, for inkjet prepared film, the 45 wt.% blend ratio leads to much bigger domains with respect to the spin-coated samples as shown from the AFM measurements. - Highlights: • Inkjet-printed P3HT:PCBM blends for organic solar cell applications • Coarser morphology of inkjet P3HT:PCBM films with respect to the spin-coated film • Inkjet P3HT:PCBM films showed charge formation maximum for PCBM wt.% lower than 45.

  1. 脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐中二钠盐来源分析及改进%Source analysis of dio-sodium salt in fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate and amelioration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋惠亮; 王相明

    2012-01-01

    实验考察了脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐(MES)合成的各工序中α-磺基脂肪酸二钠(二钠盐)的变化量。其中再酯化阶段二钠盐减少最多,中和阶段二钠盐产生最多,这是由于再酯化阶段引入了部分甲醇以及中和阶段的强碱性环境和较高温度引起的。同时提出了各阶段的改进方法。经过优化实验,得到二钠盐含量最低时,各阶段最佳条件为:漂白温度75℃,再酯化时间6 h,甲醇与脂肪酸甲酯磺酸摩尔比30∶1,中和方式为以碳酸钠粉末干法中和。%The content ofdi-sodium salt ( DSS ) in every step of MES's synthesis was measured, the maximal decrease of DSS is in reesterification stage, the maximal increase of DSS is in neutralization stage. It could be resulted from the methanol introduction in reesterification stage, strong alkaline environment and higher temperature in neutralization stage. Meanwhile, improvement is also proposed for every stage in ameliorated method. By optimizing the experiment, the optimal condition for every stage was obtained as, bleaching temperature 75 ℃, reesterification time 6h, the mole ratio of methanol to fatty acid methyl ester sulfonic acid 30 : 1, neutralization pattern, dry neutralization by sodium carbonate powder when the content of di-sodium salt is the lowest.

  2. Ester Exchange Polymerization of 3-Hydroxyl Propionic Acid Methyl Ester Catalyzed by SO3 H-functionalized Ionic Liquids%磺酸功能化离子液体催化3-羟基丙酸甲酯酯交换聚合反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国荣; 刘建华; 宋大勇; 陈静; 夏春谷

    2012-01-01

    Employing SO3 H-functionalized ionic liquids as catalysts, the biodegradable poly [ 3-hydroxypropionic acid] (PHP) was obtained by ester exchange polymerization of 3-Hydroxyl propionie acid methyl ester(3-HPM). The effects of various ionic liquids, reaction temperature and reaction time on the polymerization performance were discussed in detail. Meanwhile, the FFIR, NMR and TG-DSC were applied to characterize the products. The PHP with Mw above 1.0×104 and yield above 82% could be obtained when catalyzed by [ BsMIm] [ OTf] under the opti- mal reaction conditions. In addition, the catalyst in the polymer could be removed completely after washing with water, efficiently avoiding the pollution of the product.%以磺酸功能化咪唑离子液体为催化剂,以3-羟基丙酸甲酯为原料,采用自身酯交换法合成了具有生物可降解性能的聚羟基脂肪酸酯.系统考察了离子液体种类、反应温度以及聚合反应时间对反应性能的影响,同时采用红外、核磁、热分析等手段对产物进行表征.研究结果表明:阴离子为CF3SO-3的磺酸功能化离子液体在120℃的低温下催化聚合反应所得聚酯Mw可达10 159,收率82.1%;通过水洗方法可有效去除产物中的离子液体催化剂,从而避免催化剂污染产物.

  3. Effects of ultrasound radiation on coconut fatty acid methyl esters preparation by enzyme%超声波辐射对酶法制备椰子油脂肪酸甲酯的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚本前; 刘钟栋

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable energy, is environmental friendly. As the substitute and supplement for petroleum, biodiesel has many advantages, such as renewable, easily degradation, low of the combustion emissions and almost no greenhouse effect. In this paper ultrasonic radiation was used in esterifying synthesis biodiesel. The reaction was fast and yield was high. Ultrasonic radiation can assist lipase catalyzed ester synthesis by fatty acid and methanol in organic medium. Effects of different factors and ultrasound radiation on coconut fatty acid methyl esters preparation by enzyme were studied. Coconut fatty acid, ethanol and lipozyme Novozym435 were the major raw material. The single factor is used in optimizing the parameters. The best condition was: enzyme 7% ( mass fraction based on oil) ; water 10% ( mass fraction based on oil) ; ultrasonic power 250W; the total reaction time 25min; n-hexane, 2mL/goil; molar ration of ethanol to coconut fatty acid 2' 1. The transesterification yield of 90. 18% was obtained under the optimum conditions.%生物柴油作为可再生能源,是环境友好的生物燃料,作为石化柴油的替代品及补充品具有可再生、易于降解、燃烧排放的污染物低、基本无温室效应等特点.本文利用超声辐射强化酯化制备生物柴油具有反应速度快,产率高等优点,探讨了超声辐照对有机相中脂肪酶催化脂肪酸与甲醇酯化反应的促进作用.以蒸馏椰子油脂肪酸、甲醇及Novozym435脂肪酶为主要原料,研究了不同因素及超声辐射对酶法促进油脂脂肪酸甲酯化的影响.对反应条件进行单因素实验,确定了最佳反应工艺参数.经分析初步得出脂肪酶催化甲酯化最佳条件为:酶用量7%,水加入量10%,超声功率250W,反应总时间25min,2mL正已烷/1g脂肪酸,甲醇与椰子油脂肪酸的摩尔比2∶1.在此条件下,脂肪酸甲酯转化率达到90.18%.

  4. Crystallization behavior of fatty acid methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel made from vegetable oils or animal fats has many attractive characteristics as an alternative fuel for compression-ignition (diesel) engines. However, biodiesel from the most common agricultural sources has flow properties that are susceptible to start up and operability problems during c...

  5. Human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells: III. Effect of L-phenylalanine methyl ester on LAK cell activation from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: possible protease involvement of monocytes, natural killer cells and LAK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K H

    1991-01-01

    We have shown that depletion of monocytes from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by L-phenylalanine methyl ester (PheOMe) enhanced lymphokine-activated killer cell (LAK) generation by recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) at high cell density. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of action of PheOMe on LAK activation by using trypsin, chymotrypsin, tosylphenylalaninechloromethanol (TPCK, a chymotrypsin inhibitor), tosyl-L-lysinechloromethane (TLCK, a trypsin inhibitor), phenylalaninol (PheOH), and benzamidine. PBMC were treated with 1-5 mM PheOMe for 40 min at room temperature in combination with the various agents, washed and assessed for their effects on natural killer (NK) activity against K562 cells and monocyte depletion. The treated cells were then cultured with or without rIL-2 for 3 days. LAK cytotoxicity was assayed against 51Cr-labeled K562 and Raji tumor target cells. TPCK at 10 micrograms/ml partially inhibited depletion of monocytes by PheOMe. TLCK did not prevent depletion of monocytes nor inhibition of NK activity induced by PheOMe. TPCK and TLCK inhibited NK activity by themselves. TPCK but not TLCK inhibited rIL-2 induction of LAK cells. On the other hand, PheOH and benzamidine (analogs of PheOMe) lacked any effect on monocyte depletion but abrogated the inhibitory effect of PheOMe on NK activity. They had no effect on rIL-2 activation of LAK activity enhanced by PheOMe. Trypsin potentiated the inhibitory effect of PheOMe on NK activity and monocyte depletion. Trypsin partially inhibited IL-2 activation of LAK activity enhanced by PheOMe. Chymotrypsin had little effect on NK activity but prevented the inhibitory effect of PheOMe on NK activity. It had little effect on monocyte depletion induced by PheOMe. PheOMe was hydrolysed by monocytes and chymotrypsin to Phe and methanol as determined by HPLC. TPCK inhibited hydrolysis of PheOMe by monocytes. Our data suggest that the effects of PheOMe on monocytes, NK cells and LAK

  6. Study of 1-methyl-3-propane Sulfonic Group Imidazoledihydrogen Phosphate Salt Catalytic Synthesis of Ester%1-甲基-3-丙磺酸基咪唑硫酸氢盐催化合成酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 石月丹; 徐凛然

    2014-01-01

    研究采用1-甲基-3-丙磺酸基咪唑硫酸氢盐[ prmim][ HSO4]离子液体作为催化剂合成了异丁酸异戊酯、异丁酸丁酯,考察醇酸摩尔比、催化剂用量、反应时间对酯化率的影响,分析催化剂的重复使用效果。结果表明:当醇酸摩尔量比为1.4∶1,催化剂用量为2.0 mL,反应时间为3.5 h时,异丁酸异戊酯和异丁酸丁酯的酯化率分别达到93.07%和92.96%。生成的羧酸酯不溶于催化体系,采用分液漏斗能够实现催化剂的分离过程。离子液体循环使用6次,催化效果无明显降低。%In this study,1-methyl-3-propyl sulfonic acid hydrogen sulfate imidazole salt [ prmim] [ HSO4-] ionic liquids was used as catalysts to synthesize isoamyl butyrate and butyl isobutyrate. The effect of alkyd mole rati-o,catalyst dosage and reaction time on the esterification rate was investigated and reuse performance of catalyst was also discussed. The results indicate that the esterification rates reach 93. 07% and 92. 96% when alkyd molar weight ratio is 1. 4 ∶ 1,the dosage of catalyst is 2. 0 mL and the reaction time is 3. 5 h,respectively. The generated carboxylic acid ester is not dissolved in the catalytic system,and the catalyst separation process can be realized by adopting the separatory funnel. Catalytic performance is not obviously decreased after Ionic liquid circulation was reused 6 times.

  7. Synthesis of (2R,3aR,8aR)-6-Chloro-3a-hydroxy-1,2,3,3a,8,8a- hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-2-carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester by Reductive Cyclization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG,Wen-Xu(洪文旭); YAO,Zhu-Jun(姚祝军)

    2004-01-01

    A synthesis of(2R,3aR,8aR)-6-chloro-3a-hydroxy-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester(1)was achieved.An aldol reaction with Garner aldehyde,a hydroxyl introduction by Davis reagent,and a reductive intramolecular ring-closure reaction were served as the key steps.This piece of work provides a new way to synthesize the analogues of hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole,starting from readily available chemical substrates and inexpensive reagents.

  8. (Accumulation of methyl-deficient rat liver messenger ribonucleic acid on ethionine administration). Progress report. [Methyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and effects of phorbol ester on methyltransferase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borek, E.

    1980-01-01

    Enzyme fractions were isolated from Ehrlich ascites cells which introduced methyl groups into methyl deficient rat liver mRNA and unmethylated vaccinia mRNA. The methyl groups were incorporated at the 5' end into cap 1 structures by the viral enzyme, whereas both cap 0 and cap 1 structures were formed by the Ehrlich ascites cell enzymes. Preliminary results indicate the presence of adenine N/sup 6/-methyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites cells. These results indicate that mRNA deficient in 5'-cap methylation and in internal methylation of adenine accumulated in rats on exposure to ethionine. The methyl-deficient mRNA isolated from the liver of ethionine-fed rats differed in its translational properties from mRNA isolated from control animals. Preliminary experiments indicate that single topical application of 17n moles of TPA to mouse skin altered tRNA methyltransferases. The extent of methylation was increased over 2-fold in mouse skin treated with TPA for 48 hours. These changes have been observed as early as 12 hours following TPA treatment. In contrast, the application of initiating dose of DMBA had no effect on these enzymes. It should be emphasized that the changes in tRNA methyltransferases produced by TPA are not merely an increase of the concentration of the enzyme, rather that they represent alterations of specificity of a battery of enzymes. In turn the change in enzyme specificity can produce alterations in the structure of tRNA. (ERB)

  9. Effects of the addition of rape oil methyl ester (RME) on the lubrication performance of low-sulphur diesel fuel as specified in DIN EN 590 (new). Final report; Auswirkungen des Zusatzes von Rapsoelmethylester (RME) auf die Schmierfaehigkeit von schwefelarmem Dieselkraftstoff nach DIN EN 590 (neu). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescher, K.; Wichmann, V.

    2001-06-01

    Since the transposition in February 1999 of the European Standard for diesel fuels, which took effect in 1996, into the German standard DIN EN 590 German fuel manufacturers have been obliged to deliver their products with a considerably lower sulphur content. However, a low sulphur content has the serious drawback that it impairs the inherent lubricating qualities of diesel fuel. This has particularly adverse effects on the durability of diesel fuel injection systems. The provision of additives or admixture of other fuels with superior lubricating properties is therefore vital for achieving the requisite lubricating performance. Since plant oil methyl esters (PME) and in particular rape oil methyl esters (RME) have good lubricating properties, and since moreover diesel engines have proven long-term resistant to correctly formulated RME, an obvious option is to partially or wholly substitute synthetic, and hence expensive, additives in crude-oil-based diesel for admixtures of these plant-derived fuels. In order to have the same friction and wear inhibiting effects as sulphur compounds, diesel fuel additives or admixtures must meet high requirements. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the suitability of RME and sunflower methyl ester as lubricant additives for diesel fuels. [German] Mit der Uebernahme der seit 1996 geltenden europaeischen Norm fuer Dieselkraftstoffe in die DIN-EN 590 ab Februar 1999 ist auch fuer die deutschen Kraftstoffhersteller eine deutliche Absenkung des Schwefelgehaltes zur Pflicht geworden. Deutlicher Nachteil des geringeren Schwefelgehaltes ist die verringerte inhaerente Schmierfaehigkeit des Dieselkraftstoffs, was sich besonders negativ auf die Standfestigkeit der dieselmotorischen Einspritzanlagen auswirkt. Zur Erreichung ausreichender Schmierfaehigkeit sind daher Zuschlaege in Form von Additiven oder Zumischungen anderer Kraftstoffe, die eine hoehere Eigenschmierfaehigkeit besitzen, unbedingt erforderlich. Da

  10. One-step fabrication of large-scaled indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester multi-layered structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianchen [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Shirai, Yasuhiro [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Photovoltaic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Han, Liyuan [Photovoltaic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Wakayama, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    A technique is established for fabricating a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM) multi-layered structure in one step by transferring a continuous P3HT:PCBM solid film floating on PEDOT:PSS solution onto an indium tin oxide/glass substrate with a size of 2.5 × 1.5 cm{sup 2}. This structure can be obtained under simple experimental conditions and can be fabricated over a large area. Preliminary testing shows that the prepared structure can yield a photovoltaic effect. - Highlights: • Organic photovoltaic cell produced by floating multi-layers • One-step fabrication technique for large-scale organic photovoltaic cell • Swelling and surface tension to enable multi-layer floating films.

  11. 磺酸功能化离子液体催化不饱和脂肪酸甲酯的环氧化研究%Epoxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in the Presence of SO3H-functional Br(o)nsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡双飞; 王利生

    2011-01-01

    The epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by peroxyacetic acid generated in situ from hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid was studied in the presence of SO3H-functional Br(o)nsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) [C3SO3HMIM][HSO4] as catalyst. The effects of hydrogen peroxide/ethylenic unsaturation ratio, acetic acid concentration, IL concentration, recycling of the IL catalyst, and temperature on the conversion to oxirane were studied. The kinetics and thermodynamics of unsaturated FAMEs epoxidation and the kinetics of oxirane cleavage of the epoxidized FAMEs by acetic acid were also studied. The conversion of ethylenic unsaturation group to oxirane, the reaction rate of the conversion to oxirane, and the rate of hydrolysis (oxirane cleavage) were higher by using the IL catalyst.

  12. How cancerogenous are RME emissions? Impact of soot from diesel engines operated with vegetable fuels as exemplified by rape oil methyl ester; Wie kanzerogen sind RME-Emissionen? Wirkung von Russen aus Dieselmotoren mit Treibstoffen pflanzlicher Herkunft am Beispiel von Rapsoelmethylester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, K. [Abt. Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin, Univ. Goettingen (Germany); Gerhard, V. [Abt. Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin, Univ. Goettingen (Germany); Krahl, J. [Inst. fuer Biosystemtechnik, Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig-Voelkenrode (Germany); Munack, A. [Inst. fuer Biosystemtechnik, Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig-Voelkenrode (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as renewable automotive fuels calls not only for the solution of technical problems but demands also attention to the implications of the combustion products emitted by these new fuels into the atmosphere. An assessment of the cancerogenous effect of diesel soot from rape oil methyl ester (RME) by means of a conventional in-vitro test revealed lower activity than that of diesel soot from fossil automotive fuel. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz von Pflanzenoelen und ihrer Derivate als erneuerbare Motorkraftstoffe erfordert nicht nur die Loesung technischer Probleme, sondern auch die Beachtung veraenderter Auswirkungen der in die Luft abgegebenen Verbrennungsprodukte. Die mit einem gebraeuchlichen in-vitro-Testverfahren vorgenommene Abschaetzung der kanzerogenen Wirkung von Dieselrussen, die beim Betrieb mit Rapsoelmethylester (RME) entstehen, ergab eine geringere Wirksamkeit verglichen mit Dieselrussen aus fossilem Kraftstoff. (orig.)

  13. Preparation of polyol esters based on vegetable and animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, S; Piechocki, W; Gryglewicz, G

    2003-03-01

    The possibility of using some natural fats: rapeseed oil, olive oil and lard, as starting material for the preparation of neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylol propane (TMP) esters is reported. The syntheses of final products were performed by alcoholysis of fatty acid methyl esters, obtained from natural fats studied, with the appropriate polyhydric alcohol using calcium methoxide as a catalyst. The basic physicochemical properties of the NPG and TMP esters synthesized were the following: viscosity at 40 degrees C in the range of 13.5-37.6 cSt, pour point between -10.5 and -17.5 degrees C and very high viscosity indices, higher than 200. Generally, the esters of neopentyl alcohols were characterized by higher stability in thermo-oxidative conditions in comparison to native triglycerides. Due to the low content of polyunsaturated acids, the olive oil based esters showed the highest thermo-oxidative resistance. Also, methyl esters of fatty acids of lard would constitute a good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils, provided that their saturated acids content was lowered. This permits synthesis of NPG and TMP esters with a lower pour point (below -10 degrees C) than natural lard (+33 degrees C). PMID:12733572

  14. Preparation of polyol esters based on vegetable and animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, S; Piechocki, W; Gryglewicz, G

    2003-03-01

    The possibility of using some natural fats: rapeseed oil, olive oil and lard, as starting material for the preparation of neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylol propane (TMP) esters is reported. The syntheses of final products were performed by alcoholysis of fatty acid methyl esters, obtained from natural fats studied, with the appropriate polyhydric alcohol using calcium methoxide as a catalyst. The basic physicochemical properties of the NPG and TMP esters synthesized were the following: viscosity at 40 degrees C in the range of 13.5-37.6 cSt, pour point between -10.5 and -17.5 degrees C and very high viscosity indices, higher than 200. Generally, the esters of neopentyl alcohols were characterized by higher stability in thermo-oxidative conditions in comparison to native triglycerides. Due to the low content of polyunsaturated acids, the olive oil based esters showed the highest thermo-oxidative resistance. Also, methyl esters of fatty acids of lard would constitute a good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils, provided that their saturated acids content was lowered. This permits synthesis of NPG and TMP esters with a lower pour point (below -10 degrees C) than natural lard (+33 degrees C).

  15. Choline Chloride Catalyzed Amidation of Fatty Acid Ester to Monoethanolamide: A Green Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pramod; Pratap, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Choline chloride catalyzed efficient method for amidation of fatty acid methyl ester to monoethanolamide respectively. This is a solvent free, ecofriendly, 100% chemo selective and economically viable path for alkanolamide synthesis. The Kinetics of amidation of methyl ester were studied and found to be first order with respect to the concentration of ethanolamine. The activation energy (Ea) for the amidation of lauric acid methyl ester catalyzed by choline chloride was found to be 50.20 KJ mol(-1). The 98% conversion of lauric acid monoethanolamide was obtained at 110°C in 1 h with 6% weight of catalyst and 1:1.5 molar ratio of methyl ester to ethanolamine under nitrogen atmosphere. PMID:26666271

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, terephthalic acid, dimethyl ester , polymer with 1,4-butanediol, cyclized, polymers with glycidyl methacrylate, hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, methyl methacrylate and styrene, and cobalt stearate for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the oxygen absorber (terephthalic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4-butanediol, cyclized, polymers with glycidyl methacrylate, hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, methyl methacrylate and styrene copolymer (CAS No 1223402-34-3, FCM substance No 1005 and the oxidation catalyst cobalt stearate (CAS No 1002-88-6 and FCM Substance No 1004, intended to be used up to a maximum percentage of 1% in polyethylene terephtalate (PET for absorbing oxygen from the food environment. All starting substances of the oxygen absorber formulation and cobalt stearate have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials. Methyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate and cobalt stearate were not detected at the detection limits of 0.6, 0.006 and 0.0005 mg/kg food simulant, respectively. Butadiene was not detected in the PET bottles at a detection limit of 0.33 mg/kg plastic. For PET formulated with the maximum 1% of the active copoymer, the migration of the low molecular weight fraction (LMWF of the copolymer was estimated to be less than 35 µg/kg food. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the copolymer up to 1% w/w in PET for contact with all types of foods at temperature up to 95°C and the use of cobalt stearate as oxidation catalyst in PET, is not of safety concern for the consumer.

  17. Chemical modifications of Sterculia foetida L. oil to branched ester derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manurung, Robert; Daniel, Louis; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik H.; Buntara, Teddy; Maemunah, Siti; Kraai, Gerard; Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study to modify Sterculia foetida L. oil (STO) or the corresponding methyl esters (STO FAME) to branched ester derivatives is reported. The transformations involve conversion of the cyclopropene rings in the fatty acid chains of STO through various catalytic as well as stoichiometric

  18. A Lactobacillus plantarum esterase active on a broad range of phenolic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Torres, María; Landete, José María; Reverón, Inés; Santamaría, Laura; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in the fermentation of food products of plant origin on which phenolic compounds are abundant. L. plantarum strains showed great flexibility in their ability to adapt to different environments and growth substrates. Of 28 L. plantarum strains analyzed, only cultures from 7 strains were able to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamic esters, such as methyl ferulate or methyl caffeate. As revealed by PCR, only these seven strains possessed the est_1092 gene. When the est_1092 gene was introduced into L. plantarum WCFS1 or L. lactis MG1363, their cultures acquired the ability to degrade hydroxycinnamic esters. These results support the suggestion that Est_1092 is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of hydroxycinnamic esters on the L. plantarum strains analyzed. The Est_1092 protein was recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized. Surprisingly, Est_1092 was able to hydrolyze not only hydroxycinnamic esters, since all the phenolic esters assayed were hydrolyzed. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that the expression of est_1092 was induced in the presence of methyl ferulate, an hydroxycinnamic ester, but was inhibited on methyl gallate, an hydroxybenzoic ester. As Est_1092 is an enzyme active on a broad range of phenolic esters, simultaneously possessing feruloyl esterase and tannase activities, its presence on some L. plantarum strains provides them with additional advantages to survive and grow on plant environments.

  19. Sintesis Surfaktan Metil Ester Sulfonat dari Sulfonasi Metil Ester Asam Lemak Minyak Kastor (Ricinus communis L)

    OpenAIRE

    Aritonang, Rianti E J

    2011-01-01

    Methyl ester sulfonate (MES) surfactant is an anionic surfactant which could be synthesized from oil. Surfactant have a capability to reduce surface tension, interface tension and elevate the stability of emulsion system. The material sources to produce surfactant was derived from petroleum oil, vegetables oil and animals fats. One of vegetables oil is polar castor oil, because it contained of ricinoleic acid as the major compound which has –OH group. Castor oil could be synthesize became ...

  20. Methyl trisporate E. A sex pheromone in Phycomyces blakesleeanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M L; Sutter, R P

    1984-05-25

    Combined mating type cultures of Phycomyces blakesleeanus accumulate 41 mg of trisporic acids/l of medium, of which 30% is trisporic acid E. The methyl ester of trisporic acid E exhibits the same zygophore -inducing activity in bioassays with P. blakesleeanus and Mucor mucedo as does the pheromone methyl trisporate C. The structure of methyl trisporate E is 1,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyl-4-oxo-6-(2'-hydroxyl-6'- methylocta -5',7'-d ien-8'-yl) -5-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester.

  1. Atmospheric oxidation of selected alcohols and esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Cavalli, F.

    2001-03-01

    The decision whether it is appropriate and beneficial for the environment to deploy specific oxygenated organic compounds as replacements for traditional solvent types requires a quantitative assessment of their potential atmospheric impacts including tropospheric ozone and other photooxidant formation. This involves developing chemical mechanisms for the gasphase atmospheric oxidation of the compounds which can be reliably used in models to predict their atmospheric reactivity under a variety of environmental conditions. Until this study, there was very little information available concerning the atmospheric fate of alcohols and esters. The objectives of this study were to measure the atmospheric reaction rates and to define atmospheric reaction mechanisms for the following selected oxygenated volatile organic compounds: the alcohols, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, and the esters, methyl propionate and dimethyl succinate. The study has successfully addressed these objectives. (orig.)

  2. Methyl 5-bromo-2-[methyl(methylsulfonylamino]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Hayat Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H12BrNO4S, is an intermediate in the synthesis of benzothiazine. The planar methyl ester group (maximum deviation is 0.0065 Å is oriented at a dihedral angle of 39.09 (13° with respect to the aromatic ring. In the crystal structure, weak intermolecular C—H...O interactions link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers, through R22(10 ring motifs.

  3. 蓖麻籽脂质提取与甲酯化衍生优化及其脂肪酸组成分析%Optimization of Castor Bean Lipid Extraction and Methyl Ester Derivation and Analysis of Fatty Acid Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼乔明; 杨文鸽; 徐大伦; 金淼; 吴东晓; 郑贤孟

    2012-01-01

    The effects on lipid extraction and methyl ester derivation of castor seeds were studied using different methods, and the fatty acid composition was also analyzed in this paper. The results indicated that significant differenees existed in the effects of different methods on the lipid extraction and methyl ester derivation(P <0. 05). The method of dichlormethane - methanol was effective in lipid extraction and the extraction level was 58. 25% , which had the great advantages of low toxicity, good solubility and complete extraction of lipids. Acid - alkali combined method had virtues of entire derivatization and less side effects, which could better reflect the fatty acid composition of castor seeds, and was a ideal method for the derivatization of castor seeds lipid. Meanwhile, castor oil mainly consisted of ricinoleic acid (76.43%~86. 50% ), linolic acid (4. 88%~6.27% ) and oleic acid (2.70%~4. 18%) , and also contained small amounts of palmitic acid, stearic acid, linolenic acid and dodecenoic acid.%采用不同方法对蓖麻籽的脂质提取和甲酯化衍生效果进行研究,并对其脂肪酸组成进行分析.结果表明:不同方法对蓖麻籽的脂质提取和衍生化效果存在显著差异(P<0.05);二氯甲烷-甲醇法的脂质提取率为58.25%,且具有低毒、溶解性强和提取完全的优点,是蓖麻籽脂质提取的有效方法;酸碱结合法具有衍生完全且副反应少等优点,能更好地反映蓖麻籽脂肪酸的真实组成,是蓖麻籽脂质甲酯化衍生的理想方法.同时蓖麻籽脂肪酸以蓖麻油酸(76.43%~86.50%)、亚油酸(4.88%~6.27%)和油酸(2.70%~4.18%)为主,并含有少量的棕榈酸、硬脂酸以及亚麻酸和二十碳烯酸.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of a Novel Gold(III Complex with O,O′-Diethyl Ester of Ethylenediamine-N,N′-Di-2-(4-MethylPentanoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pantelić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel gold(III complex, [AuCl2{(S,S-Et2eddl}]PF6, ((S,S-Et2eddl = O,O′-diethyl ester of ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(4-methylpentanoic acid was synthesized and characterized by IR, 1D (1H and 13C, and 2D (H,H-COSY and H,H-NOESY NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. Density functional theory calculations confirmed that (R,R-N,N′ diastereoisomer was energetically the most stable isomer. In vitro antitumor action of ligand precursor [(S,S-H2Et2eddl]Cl2 and corresponding gold(III complex was determined against tumor cell lines: human adenocarcinoma (HeLa, human colon carcinoma (LS174, human breast cancer (MCF7, non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (A549, and non-cancerous cell line human embryonic lung fibroblast (MRC-5 using microculture tetrazolium test (MTT assay. The results indicate that both ligand precursor and gold(III complex have showed very good to moderate cytotoxic activity against all tested malignant cell lines. The highest activity was expressed by [AuCl2{(S,S-Et2eddl}]PF6 against the LS174 cells, with IC50 value of 7.4 ± 1.2 µM.

  5. New Phase Transfer Agent for Dye:Application for Hyperbranched Poly(ester-amine)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng QIU; Li Ming TANG; Xin Lin TUO; De Shan LIU

    2004-01-01

    Hydrophilic hyperbranched poly(ester-amine) (HPEA) synthesized from diethanolamine and methyl acrylate was used as phase transfer agent for the first time to transfer methyl orange (MO) from water into chloroform.This process was quantified by UV-Vis spectra.A possible mechanism was put forward based on the formation of amphiphilic aggregates.

  6. Influence of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl)-hexyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester blend ratio on the performance of inverted type organic solar cells based on Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginting, Riski Titian [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Chi Chin, E-mail: ccyap@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-06-01

    The influence of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl)-hexyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) weight ratio on the photovoltaic performance of inverted type organic solar cell based on Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods has been investigated. Experimental results showed that the photovoltaic performance improved with weight ratio of MEH-PPV:PCBM from 1:1 to 1:3 due to better percolation pathway for electron transport and enhanced infiltration of polymer blend into interspace of Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods. However, the overall performance started to decrease at weight ratio of 1:4 due to the aggregation of PCBM clusters which results in poor polymer blend infiltration. The optimum device at weight ratio of 1:3 exhibited short circuit current density of 3.95 ± 0.10 mA cm{sup −2}, open circuit voltage of 0.53 ± 0.03 V, fill factor of 0.50 ± 0.03, and power conversion efficiency of 1.02 ± 0.07 %. - Highlights: • The device performance increased with donor:acceptor weight ratio up to 1:3. • Aggregation of fullerene-derivative led to poor infiltration at weight ratio of 1:4. • The optimum weight ratio was different from that of conventional device.

  7. Solvent effects on hydrogen bonding between primary alcohols and esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DHARMALINGAM K.; RAMACHANDRAN K.; SIVAGURUNATHAN P.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction by hydrogen bond formation of some primary alcohols (1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 1-decanol) with esters (methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate) was investigated in non-polar solvents viz., n-heptane,CCh and benzene by means of FTIR spectroscopy. Formation constants and free energy changes of complex formation were determined. The dependence of the equilibrium constants and free energy changes of complex formation on the alkyl chain length of both the alcohols and esters are discussed. The solvent effect on the hydrogen bond formation is discussed in terms of specific interaction between the solute and solvent.

  8. Apomorphine and its esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkar, Nrupa; Chen, Zhizhong; Saaby, Lasse;

    2016-01-01

    Oral delivery of apomorphine via prodrug principle may be a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transport and stability of apomorphine and its esters across Caco-2 cell monolayer and their affinity towards chylomicrons. Apomorphine...

  9. An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

    2010-02-19

    Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

  10. Lubricants based on synthetic esters; Schmierstoffe auf Basis synthetischer Ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahl, J. [Forschung und Entwicklung Kaeltemaschinenoele, Fuchs DEA Schmierstoffe GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    This article describes the synthetic esters that are being used in refrigeration applications that use chlorine-free working fluids. The chemical basics involved in these high-performance lubricants, their manufacture and their lubricating properties are looked at in detail. The history of their development from their use as machining oils, lubricants for weapons and two-stroke engines through to turbine lubricants and as hydraulic oil in aeronautics is reviewed. Modern neopentyl-polyol esters used in refrigeration applications are described. Further, the chemical structures and applications of complex esters, carbonate esters, aromatic and silicate esters are looked at.

  11. Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. While their use has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this paper, the use of phosphate esters and thiophosphate esters as anti-wear or extreme pressure additives is reviewed with an emphasis on their mechanism of action. The review includes the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal containing thiophosphate esters. The mechanisms of these materials interacting with a range of iron and steel based bearing material are examined.

  12. Attraction of the Parasitic Mite Varroa to the Drone Larvae of Honey Bees by Simple Aliphatic Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Conte, Yves; Arnold, Gerard; Trouiller, Jerome; Masson, Claudine; Chappe, Bertrand; Ourisson, Guy

    1989-08-01

    An important parasitic threat to honey bees, the mite Varroa jacobsoni, is attracted to its major prey, drone larvae, by methyl and ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids, in particular methyl palmitate. These esters were extracted from drone larvae with n-hexane and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their behavioral effect was evaluated with the use of a four-arm airflow olfactometer.

  13. 青钱柳叶水提物对Nω-硝基左旋精氨酸甲酯盐酸盐诱导的高血压大鼠的影响%Effect of the Aqueous Extract from Cyclocarya paliurus on Hypertensive Rats Induced by Nω-nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓霞; 席加喜; 王硕; 张春花; 刘华钢; 缪剑华

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨青钱柳叶水提物对Nω-硝基左旋精氨酸甲酯盐酸盐(L-NAME,Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride)诱导的高血压大鼠的影响.方法:用L-NAME ig给药4周复制高血压大鼠模型.将40只高血压大鼠随机分为模型组、青钱柳叶水提物低、中、高剂量组(3.0,6.0,12.0 g·kg-1·d-1)和卡托普利组(0.010 g·kg-1·d-1),每组8只.另外正常8只SD大鼠作为空白组.采用无创尾动脉测压法,每周测定大鼠血压1次,共6周.计算大鼠左心室质量指数和肾脏质量指数,观察胸主动脉形态学变化.结果:给予青钱柳叶水提物6周后,高血压大鼠的收缩压和舒张压明显降低(P <0.01或P<0.05),其中低、中、高剂量组的收缩压下降率分别为16.18%,16.92%,16.92%;舒张压下降率分别为15.98%,15.73%,16.64%.同时治疗组左心室质量指数和肾脏质量指数下降(P<0.01或P<0.05),能够缓和胸主动脉中膜增厚现象.结论:青钱柳叶水提物对L-NAME诱导的高血压大鼠血压有降低作用.%Objective; To observe the effect of the aqueous extract from Cyclocarya paliurus on hypertensive rats induced by Z.-NAME ( Nω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride). Method; Hypertensive rats were given by L-NAME for 4 weeks to produce hypertensive model. The 40 hypertensive rats were randomly divided into model group, C. paliurus extract low, medium and high dose group (3.0, 6.0, 12. 0 g · kg ') , captopril group (0.010 g - kg-1') , additional 8 rats were choose as control group. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement was used to detect the arterial blood pressure of rat tail once a week for 6 weeks. The left ventricular weight index and kidney weight index were calculated, and morphological changes of the thoracic aorta were observed. Result; After 6 weeks of administration, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of hypertensive rats significantly decreased ( P < 0. 01 , P < 0. 05 ) , in low, medium and high

  14. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent d...

  15. Performance of spray deposited poly [N-9 Double-Prime -hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4 Prime ,7 Prime -di-2-thienyl-2 Prime ,1 Prime , 3 Prime -benzothiadiazole)]/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend active layer based bulk heterojunction organic solar cell devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Leona [Department of Electrical Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Aichi 470-0392 (Japan); Babu, R. Ramesh [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Kannappan, Santhakumar; Kojima, Kenzo; Mizutani, Teruyoshi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Aichi 470-0392 (Japan); Ochiai, Shizuyasu, E-mail: ochiai@aitech.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Aichi 470-0392 (Japan)

    2012-01-31

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cell devices were fabricated using the spray deposited poly [N-9 Double-Prime -hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4 Prime ,7 Prime -di-2-thienyl-2 Prime ,1 Prime , 3 Prime -benzothiadiazole)]/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend active layer. The spray coating parameters such as spraying time, substrate-nozzle distance for the deposition of active layers were analyzed. Optical absorption of the active layers was analyzed using UV-visible spectral studies in the wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm. The surface morphology of the active layers deposited with different parameters was examined using atomic force microscopy. Surface morphology of the active layers deposited with the substrate-nozzle distance of 20 cm and for 20 s shows smooth morphology with peak-valley value of 4 nm. The devices fabricated using the selected active layer show overall power conversion efficiency of 1.08%. - Graphical abstract: Current-voltage (J-V) characteristics of spray deposited PCDTBT:PC{sub 61}BM active layer based solar cell device under illumination of AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic solar cells were fabricated using a spray deposited PCDTBT:PC61BM active layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The active layers deposited with spray conditions show flat morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using the selected active layers power conversion efficiency of 1.08% is obtained.

  16. 壳聚糖-聚乳酸及壳聚糖-聚(R)-3-羟基丁酸甲酯共混膜的制备及评价%Preparation and Evaluation of Blended Membrane Consisted of Chitosan and Polylactide or Poly(R)-3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘弋潞; 谭艳玲; 梁秋志

    2012-01-01

    The blended membrane consisted of chitosan and polylactide (PLA) or poly (R) -3-hydroxybutyric acid methyl ester (PHB) was prepared by the tape casting process. The tensile strength of chitosan-PLA (111, w/w) and chitosan-PHB (1 : \\,w/w) blended membrane were (25.39±1.63) and (23.49±0.43)Mpa with the water absorption rate of (32.65±2.41) % and (33.72±3.11) %, respectively. The degrading rate of the chitosan-PLA blended membrane immersed in the artificial tissue fluid for 45 d was (32.26±0.56) %. It indicated that the membrane could induce the new tissue to regenerate.%用流延法制备壳聚糖与聚乳酸或聚(R)-3-羟基丁酸甲酯共混膜.壳聚糖-聚乳酸(1∶1,w/w)和壳聚糖-聚(R)-3-羟基丁酸甲酯(1∶1,w/w)共混膜的抗拉强度为(25.39±1.63)和(23.49±0.43)MPa,吸水率为(32.65±2.41)%和(33.72±3.11)%.该壳聚糖-聚乳酸膜在人工组织液中浸泡45d后,降解率为(32.26±0.56)%,提示其可诱导新组织再生.

  17. Syntheses of Chiral 1,3-Disubstituted-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carbolines by Highly Stereoselective Pictet-Spengler Reaction of L-tryptophan Methyl Ester Hydrobromide with Aldehydes%L-色氨酸甲酯氢溴酸盐与醛的高立体选择性Pictet-Spengler反应合成手性1,3-二取代-1,2,3,4-四氢-β-咔啉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖森; 董菁; 胡键; 严晶晶; 邢静; 施小新

    2009-01-01

    A series of chiral 1,3-disubstituted-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carbolines were synthesized by highly stereoselective Pictet-Spengler reaction of L-tryptophan methyl ester hydrobromide with aldehydes via a crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation process. The structures were characterized by ~1H NMR, IR, MS and elemental analysis.%研究了L-色氨酸甲酯氢溴酸盐与醛的Pictet-Spengler反应,该反应经过一个晶体诱导过程,高立体选择性地合成了一系列1,3-二取代-1,2,3,4-四氢-β-咔啉化合物,其结构经~1H NMR,IR,MS和元素分析表征.

  18. Investigation on the lubrication properties of biodiesel made of Camelina Sativa and Lard esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreivaitis, Raimondas; Padgurskas, Juozas [Aleksandras Stulginskis Univ., Kaunas (Lithuania). Inst. of Power and Transport Machinery; Gumbyte, Milda [Aleksandras Stulginskis Univ., Kaunas (Lithuania). Inst. of Environment and Ecology

    2013-06-01

    The ethyl esters can be produced from renewable resources while methyl esters have petroleum based methyl part. Camelina Sativa is the potential source of oilseeds. The oil has similar properties as that of rapeseed oil. Animal fats are cheap raw material and there esters were suggested as a fuel for diesel engine by many authors. The objective of this study would be the lubrication properties of ethyl esters made of Camelina Sativa and Lard. The lubrication properties investigated using High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) method. The wear scar diameter represents the lubrication properties. The observed lubrication results are compared with lubrication properties of conventional diesel fuel obtained from manufacturer ''ORLEN Lietuva'' Lithuania. The results show that mixtures of diesel and biodiesel improve the lubrication properties. (orig.)

  19. Synthesis, Resolution, and Enantiomeric Purity Assay of 2-n-Butylbutanedioic Acid 4-t-Butyl Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Racemic 2-n-butylbutanedioic acid 4-t-butyl esters were synthesized from methyl hexanoate and t-butyl α-iodoacetate via alkylation and subsequently selective hydrolyzation. The (R)-and (S)-2-n-butylbutanedioic acid 4-t-butyl esters were obtained by the resolution of the above-mentioned racemic compounds with(S)-( - ) or(R)-( + )-α-methylbenzylamine, respectively. The e.e. values of the two optical active products were determined to be above 99% by HPLC after the formation of two pairs of diastereoisomers with ( R)-( + )-α-methylbenzylamine and (S)-phenylalanine methyl ester.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of novel dipeptide ester prodrugs of acyclovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashed, Yasser E.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2003-07-01

    Four dipeptide (Gly-Gly, Gly-Val, Val-Val, Val-Gly) ester prodrugs of 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine (acyclovir, ACV) were synthesized. LC/MS was used to characterize the new prodrugs. Both 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the four prodrugs of ACV were measured and assigned based on spectral comparison with compounds of similar structures.

  1. Method of making alkyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  2. [Enantioseparation of 2-phenylcarboxylic acid esters by capillary gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xueyan; Liu, Feipeng; Bian, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid derivatives are important intermediates for preparing 2-arylcarboxylic acids, which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In order to separate 2-phenylcarboxylic acid ester enantiomers by capillary gas chromatography (CGC), 2, 6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin and 2,6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-heptanoyl-β-cyclodextrin were used as CGC chiral stationary phases, separately, and their enantioseparation abilities to enantiomers of methyl 2-phenylbutanoate, ethyl 2-phenylbutanoate, isopropyl 2-phenylbutanoate, methyl 2-phenylpropionate and cyclopentyl 2-phenylpropionate were examined. It was found that methyl 2-phenylbutanoate, methyl 2-phenylpropionate and cyclopentyl 2-phenylpropionate were successfully separated by using 2,6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin and 2,6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-heptanoyl-β-cyclodextrin as CGC chiral stationary phases, respectively. The enantiomer separation abilities of 2, 6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin to the three pairs of 2-phenylcarboxylic acid esters tested are superior to those of 2, 6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-heptanoyl-β-cyclodextrin. PMID:27319170

  3. ANALYSIS OF NOME (NEEM OIL METHYL ESTER) FOR BIODIESEL GENERATION

    OpenAIRE

    P Lakshmi Kandan*, R Magendra Varma

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel derived from the neem oil has been proved as an alternative fuel sources. Since neem is most common edible and medicinal plant could be grown at any places in India, it was selected for the biodiesel purpose. Selected grades of neem seeds are collected and they are dried for some time. Dried seeds are crushed and the oil was extracted in the oil mill. Collected oil was tested to know their various properties. Since it was found to be more suitable for biodiesel then it was trans-est...

  4. Solvent-free Synthesis of Long Chain Aliphatic Acid Methyl Esters in Br(o)nsted Acidic Ionic Liquids at Room Temperature%在Br(o)nsted酸性功能化离子液体中室温无溶剂合成长链脂肪酸甲酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心忠; 林棋

    2009-01-01

    SO_3H-functionalized Br(o)nsted acidic ionic liquid:1-(4-sulfonic benzyl)-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate was synthesized and characterized.The synthesis of these ionic liquids by using N-methylimidazole,benzyl chloride,sulphuric acid,chlorosulfonic acid as the starting material via quaternarization,ion-exchange,and sulfonation reaction,their structures were confirmed by IR and 1HNMR.It was investigated that these ionic liquids could act as reaction media and the catalyst for the Fischer esterification of the long chain aliphatic acids with methanol.The optimum reaction conditions were:n(acids):n(methol):n(ionic liquids)=1:1:0.1,reaction temperature 25 ℃,reaction time 3~4.5 h,the isolated yields 84%~98%.This approach has advantages such as:it can be carried out smoothly at room temperature under solvent-free conditions,without heating and separating water,esters can be separated easily and high yields.The ionic liquid could be recovered easily and recycled three times without any significant loss in catalytic activity.%该文以N-甲基咪唑、苄基氯、硫酸、氯磺酸为原料,经季铵化、离子交换、磺化3步反应合成了磺酸型Br(o)nsted 酸性离子液体:1-(4-磺酸基苄基)-3-甲基-咪唑硫酸氢根盐,通过FTIR、1HNMR对其结构进行了确证.以其作为反应介质与催化剂,考察了C4~C16的直链脂肪酸与甲醇的Fischer酯化反应,确定了最佳反应条件:n(酸):n(醇):n(离子液体)=1:1:0.1,反应温度25 ℃、反应时间3~4.5 h,产率84%~98%,产物气相色谱纯度≥96%.该法无需加热、分水,产物分离简便,离子液体经真空除水后可重复使用,循环使用3次,催化活性保持不变.

  5. In vitro skin permeation and retention of 5-aminolevulinic acid ester derivatives for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Lange, Norbert; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado; Rotta, Jeane Cristina Gomes; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2003-04-29

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), 5-aminiolevulinic acid (5-ALA) applied topically is converted, via the heme cycle, into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a photosensitizing agent, which upon excitation with light can induce tumor destruction. Due to its hydrophilic and zwitterionic characteristics, 5-ALA has limited penetration into the skin. More lipophilic 5-ALA ester derivatives are expected to cross stratum corneum more easily than 5-ALA. According to the determination of the partition coefficients of 5-ALA methyl, n-butyl, n-hexyl and n-octyl esters, these compounds showed an increased affinity to the SC, with 5-ALA hexyl ester and 5-ALA-octyl ester having the highest partition coefficients. Our in vitro skin permeation studies demonstrated an increased permeated amount for hexyl-ALA after 6 h of incubation, compared to other esters and 5-ALA. After 6 h, more 5-ALA-hexyl ester and -octyl ester were retained at viable epidermis and dermis than 5-ALA. According to these results, and considering that the conversion of 5-ALA into PpIX occurs preferentially in epidermis, it can be supposed that topical use of ester derivatives with longer chains (C(6) or C(8)) is an interesting proposal to optimize topical 5-ALA-PDT

  6. Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Paul K; Pearce, Anthony D; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily L; Dennis, Eric G; Jeffery, David W

    2015-01-01

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L(-1) required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study. PMID:25939071

  7. Pengaruh Peningkatan Jumlah Abu Kulit Buah Kelapa Sebagai Katalis Dalam Pembuatan Metil Ester Dengan Bahan Baku Minyak Sawit Mentah (Crude Palm Oil)

    OpenAIRE

    Sihotang, Allen Rianto

    2014-01-01

    Methyl esters are generally synthesized through transesterification with mild alcohol to using conventional alkaline catalysts are NaOH, KOH, and others. So by using coconut husk ash as a catalyst can be an alternative to conventional catalysts are very expensive. In the manufacture of methyl ester in this study is using two-stage reaction such as, esterification reaction with a strong acid catalyst (H2SO4) to reduce free fatty acids and transesterification with methanol which variated the am...

  8. Antifungal activity of 4-substituted crotonic acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L; Gawiak, D E

    1976-08-01

    Twenty-three 4-substituted crotonic acid esters were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. For the analogues of the methyl ester containing substituents in the 4 position, the following order of fungitoxicity was observed: I greater than Br greater than Cl greater than CH3S greater than CH3O greater than F=H. Of the homologues of the esters of the 4-iodo and 4-bromo compounds which included methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl, and n-hexyl, ethyl 4-iodocrotonate was most toxic to the four fungi at pH 7.0 in the presence of 10% beef serum (C. albicans, 18mug/ml, A. niger, 40 mug/ml, M. mucedo, 5 mug/ml, T. mentagrophytes, 4 mug/ml). It is believed that the mechanism of fungitoxicity is due, in part, to a nucleophilic reaction involving SH-containing compounds. This is based on the correlation of fungitoxicity with the order of leaving groups in the nucleophilic reaction and the protection against the toxicity of the test compounds to the fungi by cysteine and glutathione.

  9. Studies of a pyridino-crown ether-based chiral stationary phase on the enantioseparation of biogenic chiral aralkylamines and α-amino acid esters by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévai, Sándor; Németh, Tamás; Fődi, Tamás; Kupai, József; Tóth, Tünde; Huszthy, Péter; Balogh, György Tibor

    2015-11-10

    This paper reports the enantioseparation ability of a pyridino-18-crown-6 ether-based chiral stationary phase [(S,S)-CSP-1]. The enantiomeric discrimination of chiral stationary phase (S,S)-CSP-1 was evaluated by HPLC using the mixtures of enantiomers of various protonated primary aralkylamines [1-phenylethylamine hydrogen perchlorate (PEA), 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine (1-aminoindan), 2,2'-(1,2-diaminoethane-1,2-diyl) diphenol (HPEN)] and perchlorate salts of α-amino acid esters [alanine benzyl ester (Ala-OBn), phenylalanine benzyl ester (Phe-OBn), phenylalanine methyl ester (Phe-OMe), phenylglycine methyl ester (PhGly-OMe), glutamic acid dibenzyl ester (Glu-diOBn), and valine benzyl ester (Val-OBn)]. The best enantioseparation was achieved in the case of PEA. The high enantioselectivity was rationalized by the strong π-π interaction of the extended π system of the aryl-substituted pyridine unit. PMID:26218505

  10. Carboxy Methyl and Carboxy Analogs Argaminolics B and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel D. Klika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new analogs, a carboxy methyl (Argaminolic B and a carboxy derivative (Argaminolic C, of a recently reported amino phenolic, Argaminolic A, isolated from the fruit of the argan tree, Argania spinosa (Skeels L., are described. Argaminolic B exhibits facile hydrolysis of its methyl ester to yield Argaminolic C, which then undergoes a remarkably facile decarboxylation to the previously described Argaminolic A.

  11. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of new bioconjugates of Salinomycin with amino acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczak, Michał; Sobusiak, Maria; Maj, Ewa; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Huczyński, Adam

    2015-09-01

    New Salinomycin (SAL) bioconjugates with amino acid methyl esters were obtained and their antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines including drug-resistant ones was studied. New compounds exhibit antiproliferative activity towards leukemia and doxorubicin-resistant colon adenocarcinoma cell line and are more effective and less toxic than the commonly currently used anticancer drugs.

  12. Enantioselective Rh-catalyzed hydrogenation of N-formyl dehydroamino esters with monodentate phosphoramidite ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panella, L; Aleixandre, AM; Kruidhof, GJ; Robertus, J; Feringa, BL; de Vries, JG; Minnaard, AJ; Aleixandre, Alicia Marco; Kruidhof, Gerlof J.; Feringa, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Enantioselectivities up to > 99% ee were achieved in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of N-formyl dehydroamino esters using morrodentate phosphoramidites as chiral ligands. The substrates were synthesized by condensation of methyl isocyanoacetate with a range of aldehydes and with cycl

  13. Studi Penggunaan Metil Ester Minyak Sawit sebagai Minyak Isolasi Peralatan Listrik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rajab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses experimental results on some parameters of palm methyl ester as insulating oil. Destillations are firstly made to obtained the composition of oil that provide the optimal compromise among measured parameters. Breakdown voltage, dissipation factor, dielectric constant, viscosity and oxidation stability were then tested on original, destilled, and destillation residual oils. The results showed that the dissipation factor and viscosity of destilled palm methyl ester comply with the standard spesification for natural ester to be used as insulating oil. Sadly, the breakdown voltage and oxidation stability of oils do not fulfill the standard. However, the lower breakdown voltage of oils seem to be tolerable as their value are still higher then that of mineral oil. Dielectric constant of oils which were higher then that of mineral oil is an advantage when the oils will be used in combination with solid insulation for more uniformly field reason.

  14. A Convenient Route to 4-Carboxy-4-Anilidopiperidine Esters and Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjermund Henriksen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The route selection and development of a convenient synthesis of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines is described. Previous routes were hampered by the low yield of the target esters as well as the inability to convert the esters to the required free acids. Considerations for large-scale production led to a modified synthesis that utilised a tert-butyl ester of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines which resulted in a dramatic increase in the overall yield of the target N-propionylated- 4-anilidopiperidine-4-carboxylic acids and their corresponding methyl esters. These compounds are now available for use as precursors and reference standards, of particular value for the production of 11C and 18F-labelled 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidine radiotracers.

  15. Experimental investigation on a DI diesel engine fuelled with Madhuca Indica ester and diesel blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC Engines, Hall 11A, Tata Motors, Pimpri, Pune 411019, Maharashtra (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennai (India); Puhan, Sukumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Veltech Engineering College, Avadi, Chennai (India)

    2010-06-15

    Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester, which is renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification. One of the popularly used biodiesel in India is Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica). In the present investigation Mahua oil was transesterified using methanol in the presence of alkali catalyst and was used to study the performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel was tested on a single cylinder, four stroke compression ignition engine. Engine performance tests showed that power loss was around 13% combined with 20% increase in fuel consumption with Mahua oil methyl ester at full load. Emissions such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon were lesser for Mahua ester compared to diesel by 26% and 20% respectively. Oxides of nitrogen were lesser by 4% for the ester compared to diesel. (author)

  16. Identification of rapeseed oil fatty acid esters in transesterification reactions by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeseed oil transesterification with different alcohols - methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and isopropyl alcohol - has been carried out. Yields of fatty acid alkyl esters obtained from rapeseed oil were determined using the internal standard method. Results of interpretation of the obtained ester mass spectra are reported. The specimen of Latvian rape oil contains: 57.6% of oleic acid, 18.2% of linoleic acid, 8.2% linolenic acid, 3.3% palmitic acid, 2% of stearic acid and less than 1% of arachidic acid. Values of Kovats retention indices of the rapeseed oil fatty acid esters on the capillary columns DB-5 MS and DB-17 MS have been compared. More selective separation of fatty acid alkyl esters has been achieved on the stationary phase with higher content of phenyl groups (DB-17 MS). (authors)

  17. Synthesis of novel naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and esters and their anticancer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkathip, Boonsong; Akkarasamiyo, Sunisa; Hasitapan, Komkrit; Sittikul, Pichamon; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Kongkathip, Ngampong

    2013-02-01

    Fourteen new naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and seventeen naphthoquinone aliphatic esters were synthesized in nine to ten steps from 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid with 9-25% overall yield for the amides, and 16-21% overall yield for the esters. The key step of the amide synthesis is a coupling reaction between amine and various aliphatic acids using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM) as a coupling agent while for the ester synthesis, DCC/DMAP or CDI was used as the coupling reagent between aliphatic acids and naphthoquinone alcohol. Both naphthoquinone amides and esters were evaluated for their anticancer activity against KB cells. It was found that naphthoquinone aliphatic amides showed stronger anticancer activity than those of the esters when the chains are longer than 7-carbon atoms. The optimum chain of amides is expected to be 16-carbon atoms. In addition, naphthoquinone aliphatic esters with α-methyl on the ester moiety possessed much stronger anticancer activity than the straight chains. Decatenation assay revealed that naphthoquinone amide with 16-carbon atoms chain at 15 μM and 20 μM can completely inhibit hTopoIIα activity while at 10 μM the enzyme activity was moderately inhibited. Molecular docking result also showed the same trend as the cytotoxicity and decatenation assay. PMID:23313636

  18. Analysis of alcohols, as dimethylglycine esters, by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D W

    2001-03-01

    Dimethylglycine (DMG) esters are new derivatives for the rapid, sensitive and selective analysis of primary and secondary alcohols, in complex mixtures, by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Their development was inspired by the use of the complementary dimethylaminoethyl esters for the trace, rapid analysis of fatty acids. DMG esters are simply prepared by heating a dichloromethane solution of the imidazolide of dimethylglycine, containing triethylamine, and an alcohol. DMG esters of long-chain fatty alcohols, isoprenoidal alcohols and hydroxy-acids are analysed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with a precursor ion of m/z 104 scan. Diols, glyceryl esters, glyceryl ethers and some sterols are analysed by a neutral loss of 103 Da scan. Trimethylglycine (TMG) ester iodides, prepared by alkylation of DMG esters with methyl iodide, are more sensitive derivatives for molecules containing secondary alcohol groups, such as cholesterol and gibberellic acid. They are analysed by a precursor ion of m/z 118 scan. DMG or TMG derivatives were shown to be at least comparable and sometimes an order of magnitude more sensitive than N-methylpyridyl ether derivatives for ESI-MS/MS analysis of the different classes of alcohols. Applications of these derivatives for the diagnosis of inherited disorders and the analysis of natural products are presented. PMID:11312519

  19. Study of the spectroscopic characteristics of methyl (ligand) cobaloximes and their antibacterial activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Navaneetha; P A Nagarjun; S Satyanarayana

    2007-01-01

    Spectroscopic characterization (IR, NMR and electronic spectra) of methyl (ligand) cobaloxime was done, where ligand = pyrazole, dimethyl pyrazole, alanine and alanine methyl ester. The frequency changes in the IR spectra and shifts in the NMR were explained on the basis of basicity of the ligand, steric hindrance, HSAB principle and - back-bonding from metal to ligand. Alanine and alanine methyl ester form more stable complexes than pyrazole and dimethyl pyrazole. Based on their IR and 1H NMR spectra it is inferred that pyrazole and dimethylpyrazole bind to Co (III) via N-2 ring nitrogen, i.e. monodentate coordination.

  20. 富勒烯衍生物苯基C71-丁酸甲酯的结构和电学性质第一性原理研究%First principles calculations of structure and the electronic properties of fullerene derivative phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹霞; 赵彦亮; 闫新; 韩培德; 刘旭光; 郝玉英; 许并社

    2009-01-01

    Phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM) clusters are investigated by using the B3LYP method with 6-31G(d) basis set. The optimized results indicate that the addition of PCBM into the [6,6]-junction produces a closed methanofullerene which is thermodynamically stable product; and the addition into the [5,6]-junction results in an enlarged fullerene (an open fulleroid) which is a kinetically controlled product. The first adiabatic electron affinity for [70]PCBM is similar to that for C70. The energy gaps of [70]PCBM are reduced compared with those of C70. PCBM derivatives and show increased level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of fullerenes. From the natural charge populations, it is found that adding PCBM unit onto the C70 cages does not change the charge populations remarkably; attaching a PCBM has no effect on the electronic structures of C70. The results of theoretical calculation suggest that PCBM is not involved in the process of photoelectric conversion but it plays a key role in adjusting the level of HOMO-LUMO for increasing photoelectric conversion efficiencies.%使用B3LYP/6-31G(d)方法对有机太阳电池中作为电子受体材料的富勒烯衍生物苯基C71-丁酸甲酯([70]PCBM)的同分异构体进行了计算.PCBM与C70通过六元环和六元环共用的CC双键加成得到的产物是热力学控制产物;通过五元环和六元环共用的C-C键加成得到的产物则是动力学控制产物.[70]PCBM与C70的第一绝热电子亲和势很接近.PCBM对前线轨道贡献很小,[70]PCBM的最高占据分子轨道和最低未占据分子轨道(LUMO)的电子云主要分布在C70笼上.PCBM提升了C70的LUMO能级水平,有利于提高太阳电池的光电转换效率.自然布居分析表明,PCBM与C70之间没有发生显著的电荷转移.所有的性质研究表明,PCBM基团并不涉及电池光电转换过程,但在调整C70能级水平提高光电转换效率中发挥了重要作用.

  1. Carboxylesterase activities toward pesticide esters in crops and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershater, Markus; Sharples, Kate; Edwards, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Proteins were extracted from maize, rice, sorghum, soybean, flax and lucerne; the weeds Abutilon theophrasti, Echinochloa crus-galli, Phalaris canariensis, Setaria faberii, Setaria viridis, Sorghum halepense and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and assayed for carboxylesterase activity toward a range of xenobiotics. These included the pro-herbicidal esters clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, fenthioprop-ethyl, methyl-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d-methyl), bromoxynil-octanoate, the herbicide-safener cloquintocet-mexyl and the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin. Highest activities were recorded with alpha-naphthyl acetate and methylumbelliferyl acetate. Esters of p-nitrophenol were also readily hydrolysed, with turnover declining as the chain length of the acyl component increased. Activities determined with model substrates were much higher than those observed with pesticide esters and were of limited value in predicting the relative rates of hydrolysis of the crop protection agents. Substrate preferences with the herbicides were typically 2,4-d-methyl>clodinafop-propargyl>fenthioprop-ethyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl and bromoxynil-octanoate. Isoelectric focussing in conjunction with staining for esterase activity using alpha-naphthyl acetate as substrate confirmed the presence of multiple carboxylesterase isoenzymes in each plant, with major qualitative differences observed between species. The presence of serine hydrolases among the resolved isoenzymes was confirmed through their selective inhibition by the organophosphate insecticide paraoxon. Our studies identify potentially exploitable differences between crops and weeds in their ability to bioactivate herbicides by enzymic hydrolysis and also highlight the usefulness of Arabidopsis as a plant model to study xenobiotic biotransformation.

  2. Methyl vinyl glycolate as a diverse platform molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Taarning, Esben; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Methyl vinyl glycolate (methyl 2-hydroxybut-3-enoate, MVG) is available by zeolite catalyzed degradation of mono- and disaccharides and has the potential to become a renewable platform molecule for commercially relevant catalytic transformations. This is further illustrated here by the development...... and various long-chain terminal olefins give unsaturated α-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters in good yields. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements of MVG also proceed in good yields to give unsaturated adipic acid derivatives. Finally, rearrangement of the allylic acetate of MVG proceeds in acceptable yield...

  3. Methyl gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Pagola

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate, C8H8O5, is composed of essentially planar molecules [maximum departures from the mean carbon and oxygen skeleton plane of 0.0348 (10 Å]. The H atoms of the three hydroxyl groups, which function as hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors simultaneously, are oriented in the same direction around the aromatic ring. In addition to two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, each molecule is hydrogen bonded to six others, creating a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

  4. Methyl gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Deborah; Pagola, Silvina

    2009-01-01

    THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE TITLE COMPOUND (SYSTEMATIC NAME: methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxy-benzoate), C(8)H(8)O(5), is composed of essentially planar mol-ecules [maximum departures from the mean carbon and oxygen skeleton plane of 0.0348 (10) Å]. The H atoms of the three hydroxyl groups, which function as hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors simultaneously, are oriented in the same direction around the aromatic ring. In addition to two intra-molecular hydrogen bonds, each mol-ecule is hydrogen bonded to six others, creating a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network. PMID:21581923

  5. Methyl gallate

    OpenAIRE

    Silvina Pagola; Deborah Bebout

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate), C8H8O5, is composed of essentially planar molecules [maximum departures from the mean carbon and oxygen skeleton plane of 0.0348 (10) Å]. The H atoms of the three hydroxyl groups, which function as hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors simultaneously, are oriented in the same direction around the aromatic ring. In addition to two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, each molecule is hydroge...

  6. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  7. Synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, Morten; Hansen, Henriette M; Begtrup, Mikael;

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters is described via lithiation/in situ trapping of the corresponding methoxy-, trifluoromethyl-, fluoro-, chloro-, and bromobenzonitriles. The crude arylboronic esters were obtained in high yields and purities and with good regioselectivities....

  8. Lipase-catalyzed (trans)esterification of 5-hydroxy- methylfurfural and separation from HMF esters using deep-eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystof, Monika; Pérez-Sánchez, María; Domínguez de María, Pablo

    2013-04-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a valuable biomass-derived building block. Among possible HMF valorization products, a broad range of HMF esters can be synthesized. These HMF esters have found some promising applications, such as monomers, fuels, additives, surfactants, and fungicides, and thus several catalytic approaches for HMF (trans)esterifications have been reported. The intrinsic reactivity of HMF is challenging, forcing the use of mild reaction conditions to avoid by-product formation. This paper explores the lipase-catalyzed (trans)esterification of HMF with different acyl donors (carboxylic acids and methyl- and ethyl esters) mostly in solvent-free conditions. The results demonstrate that lipases may be promising alternatives for the synthesis of HMF esters-with high productivities and reactions at high substrate loadings-provided that robust systems for lipase immobilization are applied to assure an adequate reusability of the enzymes. Once (trans)esterifications have been conducted, the separation of unreacted HMF and HMF esters is performed by using deep-eutectic solvents (DES) as separation agents. DES are able to dissolve hydrogen-bond donors (e.g., HMF), whereas non-hydrogen-bond donors (in this case HMF esters) form a second phase. By using this approach, high ester purities (>99 %) and efficiencies (up to >90 % HMF ester recovery) in separations were obtained by using choline chloride-based DES. PMID:23456887

  9. Enzymatic synthesis and application of fatty acid ascorbyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid ascorbyl esters are liposoluble substances that possess good antioxidative properties. These compounds could be synthesized by using various acyl donors for acylation of vitamin C in reaction catalyzed by chemical means or lipases. Enzymatic process is preferred since it is regioselective, performed under mild reaction conditions, with the obtained product being environmentally friendly. Polar organic solvents, ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids has been successfully used as a reaction medium, since commonly used solvents with high Log P values are inapplicable due to ascorbic acid high polarity. Acylation of vitamin C using fatty acids, their methyl-, ethyl-, and vinyl esters, as well as triglycerides has been performed, whereas application of the activated acyl donors enabled higher molar conversions. In each case, majority of authors reported that using excessive amount of the acyl donor had positive effect on yield of product. Furthermore, several strategies have been employed for shifting the equilibrium towards the product by water content control. These include adjusting the initial water activity by pre-equilibration of reaction mixture, enzyme preparation with water vapor of saturated salt solutions, and the removal of formed water by the addition of molecular sieves or salt hydrate pairs. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of the procedures described so far for the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid ascorbyl esters with emphasis on the potential application in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the main obstacles for process commercialization are long reaction times, lack of adequate purification methods, and high costs of lipases. Thus, future challenges in this area are testing new catalysts, developing continuous processes for esters production, finding cheaper acyl donors and reaction mediums, as well as identifying standard procedures for

  10. Transesterification of vegetable oils with ethanol and characterization of the key fuel properties of ethyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastopoulos, G.; Zannikou, Y.; Stournas, S. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Fuels Technology and Lubricants, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Athens 15780 (Greece); Kalligeros, S. [Hellenic Organization for Standardization, Technical Committee 66, 67 Prevezis Street, Athens, 10444 (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil) with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 - 1.5%), the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 - 12:1), and the reaction temperature (35 - 90 {sup o}C) were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt), and 80 {sup o}C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage. (author)

  11. Transesterification of Vegetable Oils with Ethanol and Characterization of the Key Fuel Properties of Ethyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamoulis Stournas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 – 1.5%, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 – 12:1, and the reaction temperature (35 – 90 °C were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt, and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage.

  12. Hydroxycinnamic acids are ester-linked directly to glucosyl moieties within the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, K.; Vincken, J.P.; Verhoef, R.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    In flaxseed hulls, lignans are present in an oligomeric structure. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), ester-linked to hydroxy-methyl-glutaric acid (HMGA), forms the backbone of this lignan macromolecule. The hydroxycinnamic acids p-coumaric acid glucoside (CouAG) and ferulic acid glucoside (FeA

  13. Colour indicator for enantiomeric excess and assignment of the configuration of the major enantiomer of an amino acid ester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, R.A.van; Feringa, B.L.

    2002-01-01

    A colour indicator for the full range of enantiomeric excess (-100% --> 100% ee) is presented which is based on visual colour inspection of a liquid crystal doped with the analyte, i.e. the methyl ester of amino acid phenylglycine, providing the enantiomeric excess and allowing the assignment of the

  14. Palladium-mediated conversion of para-aminoarylboronic esters into para-aminoaryl- 11C-methanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Valdemar Lykke; Herth, Matthias Manfred; Lehel, Szabolcs;

    2013-01-01

    Cross-couplings are an alternative to conventional 11C-methylations which are generally employed in PET tracer synthesis. Therefore, we set out to develop a general procedure for the synthesis of para-11CH3 labeled aromatic amines from the corresponding para-aminoarylboronic esters in the presence...

  15. Isohexide hydroxy esters : Synthesis and application of a new class of biobased AB-type building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; Wu, Jing; Knoop, Rutger J I; Van Haveren, Jacco; Lutz, Martin; Van Es, Daan S.

    2014-01-01

    Here we present the synthesis of a new family of sugar derived 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitol based AB-type monomers, containing one methyl ester group and a secondary hydroxyl group in all four possible stereo isomers (RR, RS, SR, SS). Structural characterization of the monomers (5a-d) was established by

  16. Batch Production of Trimetylolpropane Ester from Palm Oil as Lubricant Base Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah Sulaiman, Siti; Luqman Chuah, A.; Fakhru`L-Razi, A.

    A batch process for the ransesterification of Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) with trimethylolpropane (TMP) to TMP ester was investigated in a mini pilot reactor. The process was equipped with a high vacuum pump. The experimental studies explored effects of vacuum pressure, temperature, molar ratio, catalyst amount and agitator speed on the overall conversion. Five liters of TMP esters containing 83 to 87 w/w % triesterss (TE) were successfully synthesized after 2 h of reaction time Application of vacuum pump enhanced conversion of TE (w/w %) for the process. High catalyst amount resulted in higher conversion of TE (w/w %) but increased in solid content of the product. This has reduced the product yield due to inefficient separation by gravity settling.

  17. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  18. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2000-02-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  19. A convenient method to generate methylated and un-methylated control DNA in methylation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Manoochehri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylated and un-methylated control DNA is an important part of DNA methylation studies. Although human and mouse DNA methylation control sets are commercially available, in case of methylation studies on other species such as animals, plants, and bacteria, control sets need to be prepared. In this paper a simple method of generating methylated and un-methylated control DNA is described. Whole genome amplification and enzymatic methylation were performed to generate un-methylated and methylated DNA. The generated DNA were confirmed using methylation sensitive/dependant enzymes, and methylation specific PCR. Control reaction assays confirmed the generated methylated and un-methylated DNA.

  20. Sesquiterpene Esters from Salvia roborowskii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya LI; Ning LOU; Yan Qi WU; Xian Feng LIN; Yu LI

    2003-01-01

    Two new sesquiterpene esters, 3β, 6β, 8α-triacetyl-4β, 5α-epoxy -1- oxogermacr-10(14)-ene (1) and 3β, 6β, 8α-triacetyl-4β, 5α-epoxygermacr-1(10)-ene (2) were isolated from the whole plant of Salvia roborowskii Maxim. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectral data (2DNMR and HRMS).

  1. The ability of fruit and vegetable enzyme system to hydrolyse ester bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum, topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus and apples (Malus silvestris can hydrolyse totally, or almost totally, ester bonds in phenyl, α- and β-naphthyl, benzyl and cinnamyl acetates. In methyl 4-acetoxy-3-metoxybenzoate and methyl 2,5-diacetoxybenzoate as well as testosterone propionate and 16,17-acetonide of 21-acetoxy-6-fluoro-16α,17β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione, the hydrolysis is selective towards the substrate and the bioreagent. In contrast, ethyl benzoate and cinnamate are resistant to hydrolysis.

  2. Chemically Methylated and Reduced Pectins: Preparation and Characterisation by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy, Enzymatic Degradation and Gelling Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbohm, Christoph; Lundt, Inge; Christensen, T.M.I.E.;

    2003-01-01

    The gelling properties of pectin are known to be closely related to the degree of methylation (DM) and the distribution of the ester groups. In order to investigate this dependency, a natural citrus pectin (DM=64%) has been methylated to pectins with higher DM’s or saponified to achieve pectins...... than with unmodified pectin. The new reduced pectins exhibit high gelling properties. Keywords: Pectin; Methylation; Deesterification; Reduction; DM and DR by 1H-NMR spectroscopy; Reduced Pectin; Pectinases; Gelling properties....

  3. Sintesis Surfaktan Metil Ester Sulfonat Minyak Jarak Dari Biji Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Harry Gotfrans

    2010-01-01

    Surfactant were used to reduce the surface tension, interface tension and elevate the stability of emulsion system. The material to produce the surfactant could be derived from vegetables oil and animal fats. Surfactant could be synthesized from vegetables oil trough intermediate product of methyl ester fatty acid. One of the vegetables oil is Jatropha oil contain triglyceride which contain oleic acid and linoleic acid as a mayor component. One of the process to produce surfactant is sulfonat...

  4. The CGC enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters by using β-cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xueyan; Liu, Feipeng; Mao, Jianyou

    2016-03-17

    Chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters are important intermediates in preparation of enantioenriched 2-arylpropionic acids type Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters is crucial for evaluation of the asymmetric synthesis efficiency and the enantiomer excess of chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid derivatives. The capillary gas chromatography (CGC) enantiomer separation of 17 pairs of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters enantiomers was conducted by using seven different β-cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) as chiral stationary phases. It was found that for the 7 pairs of 2-phenylpropionates enantiomers, CDs with both alkyl and acyl substituents especially 2,6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin exhibited better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs examined. For the 7 pairs of 2-(4-substituted phenyl)propionates enantiomers, 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin possessed better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs. Among the 3 pairs of 2-phenylbutyrates enantiomers examined, only methyl 2-phenylbutyrate enantiomers could be separated by three CDs among the 7 CDs tested, while enantiomers of ethyl 2-phenylbutyrate and isopropyl 2-phenylbutyrate couldn't be separated by any of the 7 CDs tested. Besides the structures of CDs, the structures of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters including different ester moieties, substituents of phenyl, and different carboxylic acids moieties in 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters also affected the enantiomer separation results greatly. The CGC enantiomer separation results of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters on different CDs are useful for solving the enantiomer separation problem of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters. PMID:26920785

  5. Tropane ethyl esters in illicit cocaine: isolation, detection, and determination of new manufacturing by-products from the clandestine purification of crude cocaine base with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, John F; Boudreau, Danielle K; Jones, Laura M

    2008-05-01

    Seven ethyl homologues of known tropane esters have recently been detected as impurities in the gas chromatographic signature profiles of authentic Peruvian illicit cocaine base and hydrochloride exhibits. Peruvian cocaine base processors are now known to use ethanol for the purification of crude cocaine base. This process is referred to as the "base lavada" or "washed base" process and is a recent substitute method for the potassium permanganate oxidation purification methodology. Seven ethyl ester homologues were formed in illicit cocaine from the transesterification of known tropane methyl esters or possibly ethyl esterification of their respective tropane C-2 carboxylic acids in the presence of ethanol. Exhibits containing these compounds were subjected to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses to determine their identity and were subsequently synthesized to verify their structures. Quantitative determinations were obtained from ion-pair chromatography isolation followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Specifically, hexanoylecgonine ethyl ester, cocaethylene, cis-cinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester, trans-cinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester, 3',4',5'-trimethoxybenzoylecgonine ethyl ester, cis-3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester, and trans-3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester were detected and characterized. When present, these compounds were detected at levels ranging from 8.6 x 10(-4) to 9.3 x 10(-1)% relative to cocaine. PMID:18471211

  6. Ester Tuiksoo. Proua Suhkru kibedad päevad / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo, kellel peagi täitub ministri ametis aasta Euroopa Liidu suhkrutrahvist, maaettevõtlusest, põllumajandusest, Euroopa Liidu toetustest, ministri elu- ja teenistuskäigust. Lisa: Ester Tuiksoo

  7. Metodologia experimental para avaliação de custos de produção e utilização de biodiesel: estudo de caso de quatro ésteres metílicos e óleo diesel comercial Experimental methodology for assessing the cost of biodiesel production and use biodiesel: a case study of four methyl esters and commercial diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Fiorese

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que o Brasil detém uma vasta gama de matérias-primas para produção de biodiesel, e também que há a possibilidade de produção em pequena escala, prima-se por estudos de cunho econômico a partir de metodologias de fácil execução. O objetivo do trabalho foi demonstrar uma metodologia e sua aplicação para avaliação dos custos inseridos dentro do processo produtivo e de utilização do biodiesel. A metodologia foi aplicada a biodieseis originários de óleo de soja, girassol, frango e sebo bovino, dos quais se avaliaram economicamente os custos fixos e variáveis para conversão química dos óleos e gorduras em ésteres metílicos, em uma planta de produção experimental. Os custos de produção para cada uma das quatro citadas são distintos em função do valor inicial por litro de cada uma. Também fora avaliado o custo específico e o consumo específico de cada um dos biodieseis, a fim de determinar a diferença em relação ao óleo diesel comercial. No estudo de caso, os resultados mostraram vantagens para o óleo diesel, tanto no custo quanto no consumo. Comparando-se os biodieseis, o de sebo bovino apresentou-se com o menor custo de produção e o menor consumo.Considering that Brazil has a wide range of raw materials for biodiesel production, and also the possibility of small scale production, there is a demand for economic methodology studies with easy implementation. The objective of this research was to demonstrate a methodology and its application to assess the costs within the production process and the biodiesel use. The methodology was applied to biodiesels originated from soybean oil, sunflower oil, chicken oil and beef tallow, which assessed the fixed and variable costs for chemical conversion of oils and fats into methyl esters in an experimental production plant. Production costs for each of the four mentioned esters are peculiar due to the initial value of each oil per liter. Also the specific cost

  8. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  9. Enzymatic Synthesis of Palm Alkyl Ester Using Dialkyl Carbonate as an Alkyl Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roila Awang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Though efficient in terms of reaction yield and time, the chemical approach to synthesizing alkyl ester has drawback such as difficulties in the recovery of glycerol and the need for removal of salt residue. On the other hand, biocatalyst allow for synthesis of specific alkyl esters and easy recovery of glycerol. However, the solvent-free alcoholysis, does not give high conversion. The same problem was also found when ethyl or methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptors. Approach: Lipase catalyzed transesterification of oil and dialkyl carbonate was predicted to give higher conversion in solvent free reaction system. Results: Alkyl esters were synthesized enzymatically to overcome the problems associated with chemical processes. In this study, dialkyl carbonates were used as an alkyl donor for the production of alkyl ester. Nine commercial lipases were tested for their suitability for the reaction system. Among the lipase tested, Novozym 435 was chosen for optimization study because of their higher activity. In a solvent-free reaction system, the ester formation using dialkyl carbonate was 6 times higher than using ethanol and methanol. The effect of various reaction parameters such as temperature, amount of enzyme, organic solvent and structure of substrates were studied to determine optimal condition. The optimal conditions of ester formation were reaction temperature at 60°C, reaction time at 8 h, enzyme amount of 10% (w/w of oil and 0.2% wt added water. Conclusion: Solvent-free lipase catalyzed transesterification of palm kernel oil and dialkyl carbonates gave higher conversion of ester compared to the reaction using short chain alcohol as an alkyl donors.

  10. Studies on biodegradation and molecular characterization of 2,4-D Ethyl Ester and Pencycuron induced Cyanobacteria by using GC-MS and 16S rDNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Nirmal Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS study and molecular characterization by 16S rDNA amplification were carried out to evaluate differential effects of 2,4-D ethyl ester and pencycuron on Anabaena fertilissima, Aulosira fertilissima and Westiellopsis prolifica. Each organism has its own capacity to degrade both pesticides into various subgroups depending largely upon the main functional group of each individual pesticide. Hence, different subgroups like 2,4-D methyl ester, 2,4-D isobutyl ester, Isobutyric acid allyl ester, 3-Bromobutyric acid, 2,4-D butyl ester, Hydroxyurea, Trifluroacetic acid, 2-Methyl propyl ester, Acetic acid 2-propenyl ester and Acetic acid (2,3-dichlorophenoxy were transformed from 2,4-D ethyl ester while Benzoxazole was the only compound generated from pencycuron treated W. prolifica. The results obtained by 16S rDNA sequencing confirmed that 16S rDNA region of Anabaena fertilissima was more affected by 2,4-D ethyl ester as there was no homology in the region of 39 basepairs, in addition, several mismatches and gaps were observed, whereas less difference in 16S rDNA was observed in case of Aulosira fertilissima and W. prolific on forth day. However, there was no significant change in the sequence of 16S rDNA pattern of all the three test organisms after 16-days of exposure to pencycuron treatment.

  11. [Allosteric regulation of glucosamine synthetase activity by naphthoquinone derivatives and ethyl ester of di-(4-oxycumarinyl-3)-acetic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaev, P N; Bogdanov, N G; Sarycheva, I K; Zhukova, E E

    1981-02-01

    The effects of derivatives of naphthoquinone, e.g. 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K1), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3), 3-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-2-sodium sulfonate (vicasol), derivatives of naphthohydroxyquinone, e.g. 2-methyl-1,4-naphthohydroxyquinone 1-monoacetate, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthohydroxyquinone 1,4-diacetate and the oxycumarine derivative di-(4-oxycumarinyl-3)-acetate ethyl ester (pelentan) on the activity of purified glutamine synthetase (EC 5.3.1.19) from rat liver were studied. The enzyme activity was increased under effects of vitamins K1 and K3 and was inhibited by pelentan. The data obtained are indicative of the allosteric effect of these compounds on the enzyme. PMID:7195738

  12. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide emissions from baking: an unrecognized anthropogenic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brett F; Horst, Axel; Carrizo, Daniel; Holmstrand, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Methyl chloride and methyl bromide (CH3Cl and CH3Br) are the largest natural sources of chlorine and bromine, respectively, to the stratosphere, where they contribute to ozone depletion. We report the anthropogenic production of CH3Cl and CH3Br during breadbaking, and suggest this production is an abiotic process involving the methyl ester functional groups in pectin and lignin structural polymers of plant cells. Wide variations in baking styles allow only rough estimates of this flux of methyl halides on a global basis. A simple model suggests that CH3Br emissions from breadbaking likely peaked circa 1990 at approximately 200tonnes per year (about 0.3% of industrial production), prior to restrictions on the dough conditioner potassium bromate. In contrast, CH3Cl emissions from breadbaking may be of similar magnitude as acknowledged present-day CH3Cl industrial emissions. Because the mechanisms involve functional groups and compounds widely found in plant materials, this type of methyl halide production may occur in other cooking techniques as well. PMID:26878644

  13. Dissociation dynamics of methylal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, P.; Frey, H.-M.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P.; Tzannis, A.-P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The dissociation of methylal is investigated using mass spectrometry, combined with a pyrolytic radical source and femtosecond pump probe experiments. Based on preliminary results two reaction paths of methylal dissociation are proposed and discussed. (author) 4 fig., 3 refs.

  14. Synthesis of insecticidal sucrose esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zi-juan; Li Shu-jun; Chen Xi; Liu Li-mei; Song Zhan-qian

    2006-01-01

    Some synthetic sucrose esters (SE) are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids, which are safe for the environment. Especially, sucrose esters composed of C6-C12 fatty acids have desirable insecticidal properties against many soft-bodied arthropod pests. In our study, sucrose octanoate which has the highest activity against a range of arthropod species was synthesized by a trans-esterification method and proved its insecticidal property. Under the condition of a homogeneous liquid, sucrose octanoate was prepared by reacting ethyl octanoate with sucrose at reduced pressure; the yield was 79.11%. Sucrose octanoate synthesized was identified and its property analyzed by IR, TLC and spectrophotometric analysis. It was shown that the ratio of monoester to polyester in sucrose octanoate was 1.48:1. The insecticidal activity of the synthetic sucrose octanoate was evaluated at a concentration of 4 and 8 mg·mL-1. The mortality of first-instar larvae ofLymantria dispar from its contact toxicity was 72.5% after 36 hours, the revision insect reduced rate of Aphis glycines reached above 80% at 4 and 8 mg·mL-1 after being treated for 5 days. Since the SE products are nontoxic to humans and higher animals, fully biodegradable and hydrolyzed to readily metabolizable sucrose and fatty acid, they are not harmful to crops and appear to be good insecticide candidates.

  15. Esteróles en esponjas marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Duque

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión bibliográfica comprende la mayona del trabajo publicado hasta el momento sobre esteróles aislados de esponjas marinas. Estos esteróles comprenden compuestos desde Cig hasta C31 con estructuras convencionales y con estructuras novedosas (núcleo y/o cadena lateral no convencional.

  16. Synthesis and Photochemical Properties of a New Substituted Phenol Covalently Linked to Ruthenium (Ⅱ) Tris-bipyridine Containing Four Ester Groups as Sensitizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng SHI; Hong Yang LI; Xiao Jun PENG; Rong ZHANG; Xiao Qiang CHEN; Jiang Li FAN; Li Cheng SUN

    2004-01-01

    As photosensitizer for solar cell, a new ruthenium (Ⅱ) complex with four ester groups had been synthesized, in which a phenol substituted by {[(2-hydroxy-5-tert-butylbenzyl)(pyridyl2-methyl)amino]methyl} is covalently linked to ruthenium (Ⅱ) tris-bipyridine. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by NMR and ESI-MS spectra. The electrochemical and photochemical properties were also studied.

  17. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOCIDAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL HALOGENATED - 4-[(SUBSTITUTED-BENZOTHIAZOL-2-YL HYDRAZONO]-2-(SUBSTITUTED-PHENYL-5-METHYL /ETHOXY -2,4-DIHYDRO-PYRAZOL-3-ONE DERIVATIVES Synthese, Charakterisierung und biozide Aktivität NOVEL HALOGENIERTEN - 4 - [(substituiertes-benzothiazol-2-YL hydrazono] -2 -(Substituiertes Phenyl-5-Methyl / ETHOXY -2,4-DIHYDRO-pyrazol-3-ONE DERIVATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Khatri, K. Sharma, V. Sareen, D. Shinde and S. Sareen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Some new 4-[(substituted-benzothiazol-2-ylhydrazono]-2-(substituted-phenyl-5- methyl/ethoxy-2,4-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one(4 have been synthesized by reacting substituted 2- amino benzothiazol (1 with acetoacetic ester and malonic ester (2. 2-[(substituted-benzothiazol- 2-ylhydrazono]-3-oxo-butyric acid ethyl ester and 2-[(substituted-benzothiazol-2- ylhydrazono]- malonic acid diethyl ester (3 react with different hydrazines to give the title compounds(4. These compounds are evaluated for their antifungal and insecticidal activity. The structures of all these compounds have been confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis data.

  18. 杂环氨基酸酯的合成与表征%Synthesis and characterization of heterocyclic amino acid esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马养民; 刘斌

    2011-01-01

    L-trytophan methyl/ethyl ester hydrochloride, L-histidine methyl ester hydrochloride and L-proline methyl/ethyl ester hydrochloride were synthesized by reacting with three kinds of heterocyclic amino acids in a methanol/alcohol in the presence of thionyl chloride,and high yield product was produced. The structures of these compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Three types of heterocuclic amino acid esters were prepared by amino acid ester hydrochiloride in saturatede sodium carbonate,and extracted by methylene chloride.%以三种杂环结构的氡基酸、二氯亚砜、甲醇/乙醇为原料,合成L-色氨酸甲/乙酯盐酸盐、L-组氨酸甲酯盐酸盐以及L-脯氨酸甲/乙酯盐酸盐.产率较高,并通过核磁共振谱、红外光谱、元素分析对其盐酸盐进行了结构表征,所得到的氨基酸酯盐酸盐分别用饱和碳酸钠溶液中和、二氯甲烷萃取,最终得到了三类杂环氨基酸酯.

  19. Cold Flow Properties of Fatty Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kleinová

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of cold fl ow properties of neat esters of branched chain alcohols with fatty acids and blends of these esters with fossil diesel fuel. According to the determined CFPP values, the influence of alcohol branching on the fuel filterability is negligible and was detected only in the case of 2-ethyl hexanol. Fossil fuel blending with fatty esters up to 10 % vol. does not substantially change the cold flow properties of fossil fuel. DSC cooling scan parameters should be employed to predict CFPP of blended diesel fuel.

  20. The application of inelastic neutron scattering to investigate the interaction of methyl propanoate with silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Andrew R; Geller, Hannah; Silverwood, Ian P; Cooper, Richard I; Watkin, David J; Parker, Stewart F; Winfield, John M; Lennon, David

    2016-06-29

    A modern industrial route for the manufacture of methyl methacrylate involves the reaction of methyl propanoate and formaldehyde over a silica-supported Cs catalyst. Although the process has been successfully commercialised, little is known about the surface interactions responsible for the forward chemistry. This work concentrates upon the interaction of methyl propanoate over a representative silica. A combination of infrared spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, DFT calculations, X-ray diffraction and temperature-programmed desorption is used to deduce how the ester interacts with the silica surface. PMID:27182815

  1. Space-Qualifiable Cyanate Ester Elastomer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) proposes to design and develop a space-qualifiable cyanate ester elastomer for application in self-deployable space...

  2. Space-Qualifiable Cyanate Ester Elastomer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, CRG demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach to prepare cyanate ester based elastomers. This approach polymerizes in-situ siloxane within a...

  3. Research on Particle Size of Organic Semiconductor Materials Poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-Phenyl-C60-butyric Acid Methyl Ester in Chlorobenzene Solution%有机半导体材料聚(3-己基噻吩)及[6,6]-苯基-C60丁酸甲酯在氯苯溶液中粒径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨希; 董兵超; 李萌; 王金淼; 蔡雯君; 牛贺莹; 马恒

    2014-01-01

    The mixture of organic semiconductor electron donor poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is dissolved in chlorobenzene for measuring the solute particle diameter. By comparing the performance of solar cells and the surface morphology of the active layer, the dispersion law of the mixed solutes in chlorobenzene is analyzed. The influence of temperature and concentration on particle size, furthermore, the impact of particle size on device performance are discussed. The results show that most of the particle sizes in the solution are populated at about 4000 nm, and both the concentration and the temperature of the solution have a significant effect on the particle size of the solution. For low concentration solution, the particle sizes are greatly influenced by temperature. On the contrary, the effect of temperature on the particle size in the solution concentration is less apparent when the concentration becomes higher. When the solution concentration reaches 12.67 mg/mL, it has a preferably dispersion and optimal fill factor. When the concentration reaches 19.00 mg/mL, the solar cell made by the solution shows a well property on power conversion efficiency and short-circuits current.%以聚(3-己基噻吩)(P3HT)为电子给体,[6,6]-苯基-C60丁酸甲酯(PCBM)为电子受体材料,制备了不同浓度活性层材料(P3HT:PCBM)的聚合物太阳能电池.通过对比电池性能参数,活性层表面形貌,进一步分析了氯苯溶剂中有机半导体材料的分散规律,并讨论了溶液温度和浓度对溶质粒径的影响,以及粒径大小对器件性能的影响.结果表明,溶液中溶质直径在4000 nm左右的粒子占有较大比例,溶液的浓度和温度对溶液中粒子的粒径有明显的影响,浓度较低时,溶质粒径受温度影响较大.相反,温度对高浓度溶液中的溶质粒径的影响作用减小.溶液浓度为12.67 mg/mL 时,分散效果最好,具有最

  4. Dispersion behaviour of rape oil methyl ester and rape-oil-based hydraulic oils in soils and on soil surfaces with due consideration to the technical performance capabilities of the hydraulic oils. Part-project 1: studies on model ecosystems. Part-project 2: provision of oils with defined degrees of ageing. Final report; Ausbreitungsverhalten von Rapsoelmethylester und Hydraulikoelen auf Rapsoelbasis im Boden und auf Bodenoberflaechen unter Beruecksichtigung der technischen Leistungsfaehigkeit der Hydraulikoele. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen an Modelloekosystemen. Teilvorhaben 2: Bereitstellung definiert gealterter Hydraulikoele. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, W.; Schuett, C.; Roemer, A.; Foelster, N.; Lemke, M.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present cooperative research project is to study the toxicity, the degradation and in particular the dispersion behaviour of biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils and rape oil methyl esters (RME) in soils and waters with a special focus on hydraulic oils. This is to serve as a basis for developing guidelines for action in the event of accidents involving biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic fluids that ensure proper accident reporting and handling. The outcome of the cooperative research project is to permit a first risk assessment for the soil and water compartments in the event of accidents involving hydraulic oils and RME. Another task is to clarify to what extent it is permissible to deviate from the usual measures prescribed for oil accidents involving crude oil when biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils or RME are involved instead. [German] Ziel des Verbundvorhabens ist es, die Toxizitaet, den Abbau und insbesondere das Ausbreitungsverhalten von biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen und Rapsoelmethylester (RME) in Boden und Wasser zu untersuchen, wobei der Schwerpunkt der Arbeiten bei den Hydraulikoelen liegt. Damit sollen Verfahrensrichtlinien angegeben werden, die im Falle von Unfaellen mit biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikfluessigkeiten oder Biodiesel eine angemessene Unfallaufnahme und -abwicklung sicherstellen. Als Ergebnis des Verbundvorhabens soll eine erste Risikoabschaetzung fuer die Kompartimente Boden und Wasser bei Unfaellen mit Hydraulikoelen und RME moeglich sein. Darueber hinaus soll geklaert werden, inwieweit Abweichungen von den ueblichen Massnahmen bei Oelunfaellen mit Mineraloelprodukten im Vergleich zu biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen oder RME moeglich sind. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  6. Rapid Output Growth of Special Acrylic Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lianzhi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Acrylic esters are usually classified into general-purpose varieties and special varieties. The production and application of general-purpose varieties is already quite matured in the world and their output growth tends to be flat. Owing to the development of coatings, electronics, automobiles,textiles, printing and construction sectors, especially the application of radiation curing technology in various sectors, special acrylic esters have developed rapidly.

  7. The electrochemical reduction of biotin (vitamin B7) and conversion into its ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Biotin can be reduced electrochemically, by one-electron, at a platinum electrode. •The reduction likely follows a direct discharge mechanism of the carboxyl group. •Electrochemically generated biotin carboxylate was reacted with iodomethane (91%). •ATR–FTIR characterization of biotin, its carboxylate anion, and its methyl ester. -- Abstract: An electrochemical study on biotin (vitamin B7), performed in aprotic solvents and at a platinum electrode, revealed that at approximately Ef0=−1.6to−1.8 vs. (Fc/Fc+)/V (Ef0=formal reduction potential and Fc=ferrocene), biotin is reduced by one-electron to form its carboxylate anion and dihydrogen via a direct discharge of the carboxylic acid at the platinum surface. The electrochemical reduction process appeared to be chemically reversible on the time-frame of cyclic voltammetry (CV) (t ≤ s), but not over the extended period of controlled potential electrolysis (CPE) (t ≥ min) where the conversion of biotin into its carboxylate anion was found to be chemically irreversible. A strategy to functionalize biotin's carboxyl group was established by performing a bulk reductive electrolysis, and then reacting the electrochemically generated carboxylate anion with iodomethane to afford biotin methyl ester in excellent yield (91%). Attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy was successful in identifying several distinct and characteristic carbonyl absorbance peaks associated with the analogous forms of biotin available before electrolysis, after electrolysis, and after methylation

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Inclusion Complexes of a Hemisuccinate Ester Prodrug of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol with Modified Beta-Cyclodextrins

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhye, Sampada B.; Kulkarni, Swapnil J.; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Avery, Mitchell A.; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Repka, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol hemisuccinate (THC-HS), an ester prodrug of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been investigated for its potential to form inclusion complexes with modified synthetic beta-cyclodextrins (CDs). Phase solubility studies were performed to determine the stoichiometric ratio of complexation of THC-HS with random methylated beta-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) and 2-hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD). THC-HS/RAMEB and THC-HS/HPBCD solid systems were prepared by lyophilization and t...

  9. Synthesis of monoketo and monohydroxy eicosanoic acids and esters with substituents at odd–numbered (3-13 carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CELIK

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, monoketo and monohydroxy eicosanoic acids and their methyl esters with the position of the substituent on odd numbered carbon atoms from 3 to 13 were synthesized with high purity. Furthermore, the semicarbazone and anilide derivatives of the obtained keto acids were prepared. They were characterized by TLC, IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and their physical and chemical properties were established.

  10. Analysis of. gamma. -radiolysis products of aqueous solutions of esters of aliphatic amino acids by the PMR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panin, V.I.; Sidorov, P.S.; Usatyi, A.F.

    1987-09-01

    The ..gamma..-radiolysis of aqueous solutions of methyl esters of aliphatic amino acids and peptides was investigated by the method of nuclear (proton) magnetic resonance (PMR). The resonance lines appearing in the PMR spectra of the irradiated systems were identified, and a conclusion was drawn about the molecular structure of the radiolysis products. The kinetics of the accumulation of radiolysis products was studied, and the values of their radiation yields were estimated.

  11. Synthesis, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of novel vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime esters: preponderant role of the phenyl ester substituents on the piperidin-4-one oxime core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harini, Salakatte Thammaiah; Kumar, Honnaiah Vijay; Rangaswamy, Javarappa; Naik, Nagaraja

    2012-12-15

    The study has been achieved the efficient synthesis of vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime esters (5a-m) via four step reaction involved Mannich reaction of vanillin, acetone and ammonium acetate to obtain 2,6-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-piperidin-4-one 2 followed by N-methylation and oximation. Further, to enhance the biological activity of vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime core, esterification of 4 with substituted benzoyl chlorides in the presence of strong organic base t-BuOK accomplished a series of vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime esters (5a-m). The synthesized analogues are screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial studies and the preponderant effect of the phenyl ester substituents on the biological activity of piperidin-4-one oxime core was demonstrated. Among the tested compounds, 5i and 5j are emerged as outperformed antioxidants than standard Butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) whereas, compounds 5b and 5d manifested potent antibacterial and antifungal activity than standard streptomycin and fluconazole respectively.

  12. Detection of testosterone esters in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsdahl, Guro; Erceg, Damir; Geisendorfer, Thomas; Turkalj, Mirjana; Plavec, Davor; Thevis, Mario; Tretzel, Laura; Gmeiner, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Injections of synthetic esters of testosterone are among the most common forms of testosterone application. In doping control, the detection of an intact ester of testosterone in blood gives unequivocal proof of the administration of exogenous testosterone. The aim of the current project was to investigate the detection window for injected testosterone esters as a mixed substance preparation and as a single substance preparation in serum and plasma. Furthermore, the suitability of different types of blood collection devices was evaluated. Collection tubes with stabilizing additives, as well as non-stabilized serum separation tubes, were tested. A clinical study with six participants was carried out, comprising a single intramuscular injection of either 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate (Nebido(®)) or a mixture of 30 mg testosterone propionate, 60 mg testosterone phenylpropionate, 60 mg testosterone isocaproate, and 100 mg testosterone decanoate (Sustanon(®)). Blood was collected throughout a testing period of 60 days. The applied analytical method for blood analysis included liquid-liquid extraction and preparation of oxime derivatives, prior to TLX-sample clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection. All investigated testosterone esters could be detected in post-administration blood samples. The detection time depended on the type of ester administered. Furthermore, results from the study show that measured blood concentrations of especially short-chained testosterone esters are influenced by the type of blood collection device applied. The testosterone ester detection window, however, was comparable. PMID:26695486

  13. [A21-Asparaginimide] insulin. Saponification of insulin hexamethyl ester, I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattner, H G; Schmitt, E W

    1977-01-01

    [Asn A21]Insulin is formed as the main product during alkaline saponification of insulin hexamethyl ester. Purification was achieved by gel chromatography followed by ion-exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl cellulose at pH 4 or by preparative isoelectric focusing in a granulated gel over a narrow pH range. Two main products could be isolated. One of them showed the electrophoretic behaviour of insulin (A), whilst the other corresponded to insulin with a blocked carboxyl function (B). Incubation of this product B with carboxypeptidase A liberated only the C-terminal alanine of the B-chain, but not the asparagine of the C-terminus of the A-chain. Chymotryptic digestion of the isolated S-sulfonate A-chain derivative (C) followed by high-voltage electrophoresis confirmed that the carboxyl function of asparagine A21 was blocked. In order to determine the free carboxyl functions of the A-chain derivative C, it was coupled with glycine methyl ester yielding D. Amino acid analysis of the chymotryptic peptides of D showed that the carboxyl functions of glutamic acid A4 and A17 had been free prior to coupling. The amino acid analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysate (subtilisin, aminopeptidase M) of the A-chain derivative C showed an additional peak with an elution position identical to the model compound aminosuccinimide. The biological activity of the [Asm A21[insulin was found to be about 40% in the fat cell test and 13.2 units/mg measured by the mouse convulsion method.

  14. Aggregation behavior and antimicrobial activity of ester-functionalized imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ionic liquids in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M Teresa; Ribosa, Isabel; Perez, Lourdes; Manresa, Angeles; Comelles, Francesc

    2013-02-26

    Two series of long chain imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ionic liquids containing an ester functional group in the alkyl side chain, 3-methyl-1-alkyloxycarbonylmethylimidazolium bromides (C(n)EMeImBr) and 1-alkyloxycarbonylmethylpyridinium bromides (C(n)EPyrBr), were synthesized and their thermal stability, aggregation behavior in aqueous medium, and antimicrobial activity investigated. The introduction of an ester group decreased the thermal stability of the functionalized ILs compared to simple alkyl chain containing ILs (1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides and 1-alkylpyridinium bromides). Tensiometry, conductimetry, and spectrofluorimetry were applied to study the self-aggregation of the amphiphilic ILs in aqueous solution. The ILs investigated displayed surface activity and the characteristic chain length dependence of the micellization process of surfactants. As compared to simple alkyl chain containing ILs bearing the same hydrocarbon chain, ester-functionalized ILs possess higher adsorption efficiency (pC(20)) and significantly lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension at the cmc (γ(cmc)), indicating that the incorporation of an ester group promotes adsorption at the air/water interface and micelle formation. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. ILs containing more than eight carbon atoms in the alkyl chain showed antimicrobial activity. Their efficiency as antimicrobial agents increased with the hydrophobicity of the amphiphilic cation being the C(12) homologous the most active compounds. The incorporation of an ester group particularly increased the biological activity against fungi.

  15. Incorporating Amino Acid Esters into Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation: Steric and Electronic Effects and the Role of Water as a Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lense, Sheri; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Shentan; Jain, Avijita; Raugei, Simone; Linehan, John C.; Roberts, John A. S.; Appel, Aaron M.; Shaw, Wendy

    2012-10-08

    Four derivatives of a hydrogen oxidation catalyst, [Ni(PCy2NBn-R2)2]2+ (Cy = cyclohexyl, Bn = benzyl, R = OMe, COOMe, CO-alanine-methyl ester, CO-phenylalanine-methyl ester), have been prepared to investigate steric and electronic effects on catalysis. Each complex was characterized spectroscopically and electrochemically, and thermodynamic data were determined. Crystal structures are also reported for the -OMe and -COOMe derivatives. All four catalysts were found to be active for H2 oxidation. The methyl ester (R = COOMe) and amino acid ester containing complexes (R = CO-alanine-methyl ester or CO-phenylalanine-methyl ester) had rates slower (4 s–1) than that of the parent complex (10 s–1), in which R = H, which is consistent with the lower amine pKa's and less favorable ΔGH2's found for these electron-withdrawing substituents. Dynamic processes for the amino acid ester containing complexes were also investigated and found not to hinder catalysis. The electron-donating methyl ether derivative (R = OMe) was prepared to compare electronic effects and has a catalytic rate similar to that of the parent complex. In the course of these studies, it was found that water could act as a weak base for H2 oxidation, although catalytic turnover requires a higher potential and utilizes a different sequence of catalytic steps than when using a base with a higher pKa. Finally and importantly, these catalysts provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached to [Ni(PCy2NBn2)2]2+ hydrogen oxidation catalysts in order to more fully investigate and implement the effects of the outer coordination sphere.

  16. IN SITU TRANSESTERIFIKASI MINYAK BIJI MAHONI MENJADI METIL ESTER DENGAN CO-SOLVENT THF (TETRAHYDROFURAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvianto Dwi Daryono

    2014-05-01

    .8%, reaction time is 3, 8, 13, 18, and 23 minutes, and the molar ratio of oil: THF is 1: 47.15, 1: 57.85 and 1: 67.85. Mahogany seeds that have been dried and pulverized size +20/-30 mesh as much as 50 grams included in the three-neck flask equipped condenser and added methanol, THF and catalyst NaOH and the reaction carried out in accordance with the variables and operating conditions. After the reaction is complete, the filtrate and cake was separated. The filtrate is distilled at a temperature of ± 70°C and the residue distilled included in the separating funnel and allowed to stand for ± 12 hours in order to form two layers. The top layer as methyl esters were analyzed by GC to concentrations of methyl oleate. From the research data obtained the best results at a molar ratio of oil: THF = 1: 67.85 and reaction time 23 minutes with methyl oleate concentration of 59.10% and yield methyl ester of 79.69%. Methyl ester density 0.8791 g/cm3 meet SNI 04-7182-2006 from 0.85 to 0.89 g/cm3. Keywords : biodiesel, co-solvent, in situ transesterification, mahogany seed oil  

  17. Methylated β-Cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter; Madsen, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    The complexation of 6 bile salts with various methylated β-cyclodextrins was studied to elucidate how the degree and pattern of substitution affects the binding. The structures of the CDs were determined by mass spectrometry and NMR techniques, and the structures of the inclusion complexes were...... groups at O2 promote complexation by extending the hydrophobic cavity. Like in the case of 2-hydroxypropylated cyclodextrins, the methyl substituents cause an increased release of ordered water from the hydration shell of the bile salts, resulting in a strong increase in both the enthalpy and the entropy...... of complexation with increased number of methyl substituents. Due to enthalpy–entropy compensation the effect on the stability constant is relatively limited. However, when all hydroxyl groups are methylated, the rigid structure of the free cyclodextrin is lost and the complexes are severely destabilized due...

  18. Lysine methylation: beyond histones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Zhang; Hong Wen; Xiaobing Shi

    2012-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins,such as acetylation,methylation,phosphorylation,and ubiquitylation,play essential roles in regulating chromatin dynamics.Combinations of different modifications on the histone proteins,termed 'histone code' in many cases,extend the information potential of the genetic code by regulating DNA at the epigenetic level.Many PTMs occur on non-histone proteins as well as histones,regulating protein-protein interactions,stability,localization,and/or enzymatic activities of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes.Although protein phosphorylation,ubiquitylation,and acetylation have been extensively studied,only a few proteins other than histones have been reported that can be modified by lysine methylation.This review summarizes the current progress on lysine methylation of nonhistone proteins,and we propose that lysine methylation,like phosphorylation and acetylation,is a common PTM that regulates proteins in diverse cellular processes.

  19. Sulfuric Acid ([3-(3-Silicapropyl)sulfanyl]propyl)ester as a Recyclable Catalyst for the Synthesis of 4,4'-(Arylmethylene)bis(1H-pyrazol-5-ols)%Sulfuric Acid ([3-(3-Silicapropyl)sulfanyl]propyl)ester as a Recyclable Catalyst for the Synthesis of4,4'-(Arylmethylene)bis(1H-pyrazol-5-ols)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shekoofeh TAYEBI; Mojtaba BAGHERNEJAD; Dariush SABERI; Khodabakhsh NI KNAM

    2011-01-01

    Sulfuric acid ([3-(3-silicapropyl)sulfanyl]propyl)ester is employed as a recyclable catalyst for the condensation reaction between aromatic aldehydes and 3-methyl-l-phenyl-5-pyrazolone.This condensation reaction was performed in ethanol under refluxing conditions giving 4,4-alkylmethylene-bis(3-methyl-5-pyrazolones) in 74-90% yields.The heterogeneous catalyst was recycled and used in eleven runs for the reaction between benzaldehyde and 3-methyl-l-phenyl-5-pyrazolone without losing catalytic activity.

  20. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  1. Inheritance of Cytosine Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillo, Desiree; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Vinson, Charles

    2016-11-01

    There are numerous examples of parental transgenerational inheritance that is epigenetic. The informational molecules include RNA, chromatin modifications, and cytosine methylation. With advances in DNA sequencing technologies, the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms mediating these effects are now starting to be uncovered. This mini-review will highlight some of the examples of epigenetic inheritance, the establishment of cytosine methylation in sperm, and recent genomic studies linking sperm cytosine methylation to epigenetic effects on offspring. A recent paper examining changes in diet and sperm cytosine methylation from pools of eight animals each, found differences between a normal diet, a high fat diet, and a low protein diet. However, epivariation between individuals within a group was greater than the differences between groups obscuring any potential methylation changes linked to diet. Learning more about epivariation may help unravel the mechanisms that regulate cytosine methylation. In addition, other experimental and genetic systems may also produce more dramatic changes in the sperm methylome, making it easier to unravel potential transgenerational phenomena. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2346-2352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26910768

  2. Photodynamic therapy with topical methyl- and hexylaminolevulinate for prophylaxis and treatment of UV-induced SCC in hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Poulsen, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    Hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) is a long-chained 5-aminolevulinic acid-ester that has been proposed as a novel photosensitizing agent to methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in topical photodynamic therapy (PDT). The more lipophilic HAL, may improve treatment outcome for non-melanoma skin cancer....

  3. Methylated DNA in Borrelia species.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, C A; Johnson, R C

    1990-01-01

    The DNA of Borrelia species was examined for the presence of methylated GATC sequences. The relapsing-fever Borrelia sp., B. coriaceae, and only 3 of 22 strains of B. burgdorferi contained adenine methylation systems. B. anserina lacked an adenine methylation system. Fundamental differences in DNA methylation exist among members of the genus Borrelia.

  4. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  5. Chiral extraction of ketoprofen enantiomers with chiral selector tartaric esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan; LIU Jia-jia; TANG Ke-wen; HUANG Ke-long

    2007-01-01

    Distribution behavior of ketoprofen enantiomers was examined in methanol aqueous and organic solvent mixture containing tartaric esters. The influence of length of alkyl chain of tartaric esters, concentration of L-tartaric esters and methanol aqueous, kind of organic solvent on partition ratio and separation factors was investigated. The results show that L-tartaric and D-tartaric esters have different chiral recognition abilities. S-ketoprofen is easily extracted by L-tartaric esters, and R-ketoprofen is easily extracted by D-tartaric esters. L-tartaric esters form more stable diastereomeric complexes with S-enantiomer than that with R-enantiomer. This distribution behavior is consistent with chiral recognition mechanism. With the increase of the concentration of tartaric ester from 0 to 0.3 mol/L, partition coefficient K and separation factor α increase. Also, the kind of organic solvent and the concentration of the methanol aqueous have significant influence on K and α.

  6. An efficient and scalable one-pot double Michael addition-Dieckmann condensation for the synthesis of 4,4-disubstituted cyclohexane beta-keto esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraffenreid, Michael R; Bennett, Sarah; Caille, Sebastien; Gonzalez-Lopez de Turiso, Felix; Hungate, Randall W; Julian, Lisa D; Kaizerman, Jacob A; McMinn, Dustin L; Rew, Yosup; Sun, Daqing; Yan, Xuelei; Powers, Jay P

    2007-09-14

    A simple, scalable, and efficient one-pot methodology for the synthesis of 4,4-disubstituted cyclohexane beta-keto esters from benzylic nitriles or esters and methyl acrylate promoted by potassium tert-butoxide is described. The process relies on a tandem double Michael addition-Dieckmann condensation reaction, which results in the formation of three discrete carbon-carbon bonds in a single pot, including a quaternary center. The method allows for the convenient and rapid synthesis of a variety of 4-aryl-4-cyano-2-carbomethoxycyclohexanone and 4-aryl-2,4-biscarbomethoxycyclohexanone building blocks for use in natural products synthesis and medicinal chemistry. PMID:17696402

  7. Absolute configuration and enantiomeric composition of partially resolved mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acids by {sup 1}H NMR of their (S)-2-methylbutyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Francisco A. da C.; Mendes, Maricleide P. de L.; Fonseca, Neuracy C. da, E-mail: fandrade@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-06-15

    The mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acid esters of the (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol were examined as diastereomeric derivatives for the stereochemical analysis of the mentioned acids by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at 300 MHz. The diastereomeric esters showed distinctive signals in the methylenic absorption range (O-CH{sub 2}-CH) of the alcoholic moieties. By spectral analysis at this region, absolute configurations were attributed, chemical shifts of the correspondent pro-(R) and pro-(S) hydrogens from the methylene group of the alcohol moiety were assigned and enantiomeric compositions were determined for the original partially resolved acids. (author)

  8. Long-lived testosterone esters in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, W; Shackleton, C. H.; Pahuja, S L; Hochberg, R B

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade it has become increasingly clear that steroid hormones are enzymatically esterified with fatty acids. These steroidal esters are the natural analogs of synthetic esters that are used therapeutically. One such family of pharmacological steroids is the synthetic alkyl esters of testosterone, androgens with great hormonal potency. We have investigated whether testosterone esters exist naturally by using the rat as a model. Most tissues of male rats, including blood, have ver...

  9. Acrylic Acid and Esters Will Be Oversupply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drastic capacity growth The production capacity of acrylic acid in China has grown drastically in recent years. With the completion of the 80 thousand t/a acrylic acid and 130 thous and t/a acrylic ester project in Shenyang Paraffin Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., (CCR2006,No. 31) the capacity of acrylic acid in China has reached 882 thousand t/a.

  10. Determination of Mass Spectrometric Sensitivity of Different Metalloporphyrin Esters Relative to Porphyrin Ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Egsgaard, Helge; Møller, J.;

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative determination of metalloporphyrin contamination in preparations of biologically important porphyrins was achieved mass spectrometrically by application of the integrated ion current technique. For this purpose, the relative molecular ion sensitivities of the contaminating metal...... complexes were determined from the ratios of the integrated molecular ion currents of a series of calibration samples containing a porphyrin ester and one of its metal complexes in known molar ratio. Complexes formed with divalent ions of Cu, Zn, Fe, Co and Ni of copro- as well as uro......-prophyrin permethylester were all found to have the same molecular ion sensitivities as their metal-free porphyrin ester. The relative metalloporphyrin ester content in a sample of porphyrin ester was thus obtained directly as the integrated ion current ratios of the normalized molecular ions. The preparation of...

  11. Ester Tuiksoo - Eesti esimene naissoost põllumajandusminister / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Toomas Verrev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Ametist lahkuv põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo räägib saadud juhtimiskogemusest, Euroopa Liidu ühise põllumajanduspoliitika juurutamisest, rahvuskala valimisest, Rahvaliidu käekäigust parlamendivalimistel

  12. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of catonic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrogen hydrolysis rate constant.

  13. Use of citric acid esters as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Georg; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany); Schieder, Doris [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Chemie Biogener Rohstoffe

    2013-06-01

    Common fuels for (adapted) diesel engines are fossil diesel fuel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME or biodiesel) or vegetable oils. Furthermore the citric acid esters tributylcitrate (TBC) and triethylcitrate (TEC) are expected to be a possible diesel substitute. Their use as fuel was applied for a patent in Germany in 2010. According to the patent applicant the advantages are low soot combustion, independence of energy imports due to the possibility of local production and a broad raw material base. Their fuel properties have been analysed in the laboratory and compared with the relevant fuel standards. Only some of the determined values are meeting the specifications, but on the other hand few rapeseed oil characteristics (e. g. oxidation stability and viscosity) can be improved if the citric acid esters are used as a blend component. The operating and emission behaviour of a vegetable oil compatible CHP unit fuelled with various rapeseed oil and TBC blends were investigated and a trouble free and soot emission reduced engine operation due to the high molecularly bound oxygen content was observed. Long term test runs are necessary for an entire technical validation. (orig.)

  14. Transition metal cations extraction by ester and ketone derivatives of chromogenic azocalix[4]arenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Metin; Taban, Deniz; Deligöz, Hasalettin

    2008-06-15

    The molecule of azocalix[n]arene is a macrocyclic used effectively in the complexation of the heavy metal pollutants (like silver and mercury). In this work, our main aim is to prepare new chromogenic azocalix[n]arene molecules to elaborate an extractant with high extractant selectivity for metal ions able to detect this type of pollutant. The solvent extraction properties of four acetyls, four methyl ketones and four benzoyls derivatives from azocalix[4]arenes which were prepared by linking 4-ethyl, 4-n-butyl, 4-acetamid anilin and 2-aminothiazol to calix[4]arene through a diazo-coupling reaction, the alkaline earth (Sr2+) and the transition (Ag+, Hg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cr3+) metal cations have been determined by extraction studies with metal picrates. Both ketones are better extractants than esters, and show a strong preference for Ag+, while Cu2+ and Cr3+ are the most extracted cation with the esters. Both acetyl and benzoyl esters are good carriers for Ag+ and Hg2+.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of boron in complex matrices by isothermal distillation of borate ester into curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ distillation of borate ester into the curcumin solution has been developed for the spectrophotometric determination of boron in a variety of complex matrixes. A polypropylene vessel containing the sample solution was placed inside a vessel (PP) containing 10 ml of curcumin solution and the distillation was carried out at room temperature/on a water bath. The borate ester collected in to the curcumin solution was evaporated to dryness on the water bath, taken in acetone and the absorbance was measured at 550 nm. In situ distillation of borate ester directly into the chromogenic reagent eliminates tedious sample treatment (before and/or after borate separation), use of methanol, complicated quartz set up, possible loss of boron and reduces the analysis time significantly. In situ dehydration of sample solution by ethanolic vapour in the absence of dehydrating acid prevents the formation of fluoborate and co-distillation of potential anionic interferents (nitrate and fluoride). This developed method has been applied for the determination of traces of boric acid in boron powder by the distillation of methyl borate at room temperature. For other matrixes (water, uranium oxide, uranyl nitrate, fluoride salt, etc.) distillation of ethyl borate was carried out on the water bath. LOD (3σ) was 5 ng g-1 for water and 30 ng g-1 for solid samples

  16. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  17. Half esters and coating compositions comprising reactions products of half esters and polyepoxides

    OpenAIRE

    Blaauw, R; Mulder, W J; Koelewijn, R.; Boswinkel, G.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to half esters based on dicarboxylic acid derivatives and dimer fatty diols, wherein the dimer fatty dio ls are based on dimerised and/or trimerised and/or oligomerised unsaturated fatty acids. The present invention further relates to resin compositions based on the half ester and an polyepoxide. The resin composition can be used in high solids coatings, inks, adhesives, wall covering products, flooring products and plastic products

  18. Expanding the modular ester fermentative pathways for combinatorial biosynthesis of esters from volatile organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic acids are byproducts of fermentative metabolism, for example, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes, and are often times undesired inhibiting cell growth and reducing directed formation of the desired products. Here, we devised a general framework for upgrading these volatile organic acids to high-value esters that can be used as flavors, fragrances, solvents, and biofuels. This framework employs the acid-to-ester modules, consisting of an AAT (alcohol acyltransferase) plus ACT (acyl CoA transferase) submodule and an alcohol submodule, for co-fermentation of sugars and organic acids to acyl CoAs and alcohols to form a combinatorial library of esters. By assembling these modules with the engineered Escherichia coli modular chassis cell, we developed microbial manufacturing platforms to perform the following functions: (i) rapid in vivo screening of novel AATs for their catalytic activities; (ii) expanding combinatorial biosynthesis of unique fermentative esters; and (iii) upgrading volatile organic acids to esters using single or mixed cell cultures. To demonstrate this framework, we screened for a set of five unique and divergent AATs from multiple species, and were able to determine their novel activities as well as produce a library of 12 out of the 13 expected esters from co-fermentation of sugars and (C2-C6) volatile organic acids. We envision the developed framework to be valuable for in vivo characterization of a repertoire of not-well-characterized natural AATs, expanding the combinatorial biosynthesis of fermentative esters, and upgrading volatile organic acids to high-value esters. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1764-1776. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26853081

  19. Fuel-Specific Influences on the Composition of Reaction Intermediates in Premixed Flames of Three C5H10O2 Ester Isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Cool, T. A.; Westbrook, Charles K.; Hansen, N.; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the composition of reaction intermediates in low-pressure premixed flat flames of three simple esters, the methyl butanoate (MB), methyl isobutanoate (MIB), and ethyl propanoate (EP) isomers of C{sub 5}H{sub 10}O{sub 2}, enable further refinement and validation of a detailed chemical reaction mechanism originally developed in modeling studies of similar flames of methyl formate, methyl acetate, ethyl formate, and ethyl acetate. Photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS), using monochromated synchrotron radiation, reveals significant differences in the compositions of key reaction intermediates between flames of the MB, MIB, and EP isomers studied under identical flame conditions. Detailed kinetic modeling describes how these differences are related to molecular structures of each of these isomers, leading to unique fuel destruction pathways. Despite the simple structures of these small esters, they contain structural functional groups expected to account for fuel-specific effects observed in the combustion of practical biodiesel fuels. The good agreement between experimental measurements and detailed reaction mechanisms applicable to these simple esters demonstrates that major features of each flame can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by building a hierarchical reaction mechanism based on three factors: (1) unimolecular decomposition of the fuel, especially by complex bond fission; (2) H-atom abstraction reactions followed by β-scission of the resulting radicals, leading to nearly all of the intermediate species observed in each flame; (3) the rates of H-atom abstraction reactions for each alkoxy or alkyl group (i.e., methoxy, ethoxy, methyl, ethyl, propyl) are effectively the same as in other ester fuels with the same structural groups.

  20. Preparation of metal adsorbent from poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch via gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Hemvichian, Kasinee; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Seko, Noriaki

    2012-08-01

    Metal adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups was successfully synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) onto cassava starch. The optimum conditions for grafting were studied in terms of % degree of grafting (Dg). Conversion of the ester groups present in poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch copolymer into hydroxamic acid was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of alkaline solution. The maximum percentage conversion of the ester groups of the grafted copolymer, % Dg=191 (7.63 mmol/g of MA), into the hydroxamic groups was 70% (5.35 mmol/g of MA) at the optimum condition. The adsorbent of 191%Dg had total adsorption capacities of 2.6, 1.46, 1.36, 1.15 and 1.6 mmol/g-adsorbent for Cd2+, Al3+, UO22+, V5+ and Pb2+, respectively, in the batch mode adsorption.

  1. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Huan X.; Hackett, James A. [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Nestor, Colm [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Breakthrough Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Dunican, Donncha S.; Madej, Monika; Reddington, James P. [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Pennings, Sari [Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Harrison, David J. [Breakthrough Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Meehan, Richard R., E-mail: Richard.Meehan@hgu.mrc.ac.uk [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Breakthrough Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG.

  2. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Meehan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG.

  3. Conversion of 3-Carbethoxy-4-methyl Coumarin Derivatives into Several New Annelated Coumarin Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAKEER; HadeerMohammed

    2003-01-01

    The reaction of ethyl esters of 4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-l-benzo(naphtho) pyran.3-carboxylic acids (1) with aromatic aldehy-des in the presence of piperidine yielded 4-styryl-3-carboxami-dopiperidyl connmrin derivatives 4. The reaction of hydrazlne hydrate with 1 gave acetophenone hydrozone derivatives 5 and acetophenone azine derivatives 6. The reaction of 1 with prima-ry amines afforded compomlds 7—9. And the treatment of la with Grignard reagents afforded 3-aroyl-4-methyl coumarin derivatives 10.

  4. Analysis of wax ester molecular species by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Urbanová, Klára; Cvacka, Josef

    2010-06-18

    High chromatographic resolution of wax esters (WEs) was achieved by non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Nova-Pak C18 column by optimising the acetonitrile/ethyl acetate mobile phase gradient. The retention behaviour of WEs was studied in this chromatographic system. The WEs eluted according to their equivalent carbon number (ECN) values; within the group of WEs with the identical ECN, the most unsaturated species tended to elute first. The isobaric WEs with different positions of the ester moiety were separated from each other whenever the lengths of the chains were sufficiently different. The methyl-branched esters eluted at shorter retention times than the straight-chained analogues, and the resolution among methyl-branched WEs depended on the position of the branching. The analytes were detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using data-dependent scanning. WEs provided simple full-scan spectra with abundant protonated molecules and low-intensity fragments. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) promoted identification of the WE molecular species. The responses of WEs were found to be dependent on the number of double bonds and on the alkyl-chain length; the limits of the detection ranged from 20micromol/L to 200nmol/L. The HPLC/APCI-MS was applied for the analysis of the WEs isolated from honeycomb beeswax, jojoba oil and human hair. Good agreement between reported results and the literature data was achieved, with several novel polyunsaturated WEs also being found.

  5. Real-Time monitoring of intracellular wax ester metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Matti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wax esters are industrially relevant molecules exploited in several applications of oleochemistry and food industry. At the moment, the production processes mostly rely on chemical synthesis from rather expensive starting materials, and therefore solutions are sought from biotechnology. Bacterial wax esters are attractive alternatives, and especially the wax ester metabolism of Acinetobacter sp. has been extensively studied. However, the lack of suitable tools for rapid and simple monitoring of wax ester metabolism in vivo has partly restricted the screening and analyses of potential hosts and optimal conditions. Results Based on sensitive and specific detection of intracellular long-chain aldehydes, specific intermediates of wax ester synthesis, bacterial luciferase (LuxAB was exploited in studying the wax ester metabolism in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Luminescence was detected in the cultivation of the strain producing wax esters, and the changes in signal levels could be linked to corresponding cell growth and wax ester synthesis phases. Conclusions The monitoring system showed correlation between wax ester synthesis pattern and luminescent signal. The system shows potential for real-time screening purposes and studies on bacterial wax esters, revealing new aspects to dynamics and role of wax ester metabolism in bacteria.

  6. Curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin with organic ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Renhe; Wang Yanmin; Zhang Baoping

    2014-01-01

    To study the curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin with organic ester, three esters were chosen to react with three systems - alkaline phenolic resin, potassium hydroxide aqueous solution containing phenol, and potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The variations of pH, heat release and gel pH during the reactions were monitored and measured. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermal gravity analysis (TG) techniques were used to characterize the curing reaction. It was found that organic ester is only partial y hydrolyzed and resin can be cured through organic ester hydrolysis process as wel as the reaction with redundant organic ester. The sequential curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin cured by organic ester was identified as fol ows: a portion of organic ester is firstly hydrolyzed owing to the effect of the strong alkaline; the gel is then formed after the pH decreases to about 10.8-10.88, meanwhile, the redundant organic ester (i.e. non-hydrolysis ester) starts the curing reaction with the resin. It has also been found that the curing rate depends on the hydrolysis velocity of organic ester. The faster the hydrolysis speed of the ester, the faster the curing rate of the resin.

  7. 40 CFR 180.551 - Fluthiacet-methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...]-methyl ester, in or on the food commodity: Commodity Parts per million Corn, field, forage 0.050 Corn, field, grain 0.010 Corn, field, stover 0.050 Corn, pop, grain 0.010 Corn, pop, stover 0.050 Corn, sweet, forage 0.050 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.010 Corn, sweet, stover 0.050...

  8. Crystal structure of ethyl 5-[3-(di-methyl-amino)-acrylo-yl]-2-{[(di-methyl-amino)-methyl-idene]-amino}-4-methylthio-phene-3-carb-oxy-late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, M S; Prasad, N L; Nagarajaiah, H; Begum, Noor Shahina

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, C16H23N3O3S, the dihedral angles between the thio-phene ring and the almost planar di-methyl-amino-methyl-ene-amino (r.m.s. deviation = 0.005 Å) and di-methyl-amino-acryloyl (r.m.s. deviation = 0.033 Å) substituents are 6.99 (8) and 6.69 (7)°, respectively. The ester CO2 group subtends a dihedral angle of 44.92 (18)° with the thio-phene ring. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R (2) 2(14) loops. In addition, a weak C-H⋯π inter-action is observed. PMID:26870521

  9. The effect of supercharging on performance and emission characteristics of C.I. Engine with diesel-ethanol-ester blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donepudi Jagadish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels like ethanol, biodiesel, have attracted attention of people worldwide and proved to be the successful fuel alternates to petroleum products. In the present investigation, the effect of supercharging is studied on the performance of a direct injection diesel engine using ethanol diesel blends with palm stearin methyl ester as additive. The performance of the engine is evaluated in terms of brake specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide emissions, and smoke opacity. The investigation results showed that the output and torque performance of the engine with supercharging was improved in comparison with naturally aspirated engine. It is observed that the brake thermal efficiency of ethanol diesel blends was higher than that of diesel. With supercharging brake thermal efficiency is further improved. Brake specific fuel consumption of ethanol, ester and diesel blends are lower compared with diesel at full load. Further reduction in brake specific fuel consumption is observed with supercharging. Nitrous oxide formation seems to decrease with ethanol, ester and diesel blends. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions are more with ethanol, ester and diesel blends with supercharging slight reduction in those values are observed.

  10. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  11. Mixed-Salt/Ester Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Li+ Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytes comprising, variously, LiPF6 or LiPF6 plus LiBF4 dissolved at various concentrations in mixtures of alkyl carbonates and alkyl esters have been found to afford improved low-temperature performance in rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. These and other electrolytes have been investigated in a continuing effort to extend the lower limit of operating temperatures of such cells. This research at earlier stages, and the underlying physical and chemical principles, were reported in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the most recent being Ester-Based Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Li-Ion Cells (NPO-41097), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 59. The ingredients of the solvent mixtures include ethylene carbonate (EC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), methyl butyrate (MB), and methyl propionate (MP). The electrolytes were placed in Li-ion cells containing carbon anodes and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathodes, and the electrical performances of the cells were measured over a range of temperatures down to 60 C. The electrolytes that yielded the best low-temperature performances were found to consist, variously, of 1.0 M LiPF6 + 0.4 M LiBF4 or 1.4 LiPF6 in 1EC + 1EMC + 8MP or 1EC + 1EMC + 8MB, where the concentrations of the salts are given in molar units and the proportions of the solvents are by relative volume.

  12. Structure-activity relationships of vanillic acid ester analogs in inhibitory effect of antigen-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimata, Nao; Ito, Hideyuki; Tai, Akihiro

    2016-08-01

    Methyl vanillate (1) showed strong degranulation inhibitory activity among vanillin derivatives tested. In order to find structure-activity relationships for developing anti-allergic agents with simple structures and potent activity, we synthesized several vanillic acid (VA) ester derivatives with C1-C4 and C8 alkyl chains and evaluated their degranulation inhibitory activities. The most active compound of VA ester derivatives was derivative 5 with a C4 straight alkyl chain, and derivative 5 exhibited approximately three-fold greater inhibitory activity than that of 1. Moreover, we designed 8 types of analogs based on 5, and we found that the minimum structure for potent degranulation inhibitory activity requires direct connection of the butyl ester moiety on the benzene ring and at least one hydroxyl group on the benzene ring. Butyl meta or para hydroxyl benzoate (10 or 11) has a simpler structure than that of 5 and exhibited more potent degranulation inhibitory activity than that of 5. PMID:27324979

  13. Event extraction for DNA methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta Tomoko; Pyysalo Sampo; Miwa Makoto; Tsujii Jun’ichi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts inc...

  14. Withanolides and Sucrose Esters from Physalis neomexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cong-Mei; Wu, Xiaoqing; Kindscher, Kelly; Xu, Liang; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2015-10-23

    Four withanolides (1-4) and two sucrose esters (5, 6) were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis neomexicana. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated through a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity studies of the isolates revealed that 2 inhibited human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) with IC50 values of 1.7 and 6.3 μM, respectively.

  15. Ethyl ester production from (RBD palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mauricio Martínez Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a methodology for obtaining ethyl esters from RBD (refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil by evaluating the oil’s transesterification and separation. Two catalysts were first tested (KOH and NaOH by studying the effect of water presence on the reaction. The separation process was then evaluated by using water and water-salt and water-acid mixtures, establishing the agent offering the best results and carrying out the purification stage. Raw materials and products were characterised for comparing the latter with those obtained by traditional means and verifying the quality of the esters so produced; minimum differences were found bet-ween both. The proposed methodology thus allows esters to be used as raw material in petrochemical industry applications. A more profitable process can be obtained compared to those used today, given the amounts of separation agent so established (1% H3PO4 solution, in water. The overall process achieved 74.4% yield, based on the oil being used.

  16. Benzyl esters of C2-C20 fatty acids and metabolically relevant carboxylic acids. Preparation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatowitz, B; Gercken, G

    1987-11-13

    Short-, medium- and long-chain fatty acids, and other types of metabolically relevant carboxylic acids like hydroxy-, keto-, aromatic and dicarboxylic acids, were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. For separation, benzyl ester derivatives were used, prepared by reaction of the potassium carboxylates with benzyl bromide in acetonitrile catalyzed by a crown ether. The reaction conditions for quantitative benzylation were studied. Keto groups of ketocarboxylic acids were stabilized prior to benzylation by formation of O-methyl oximes using methoxyamine hydrochloride in aqueous-ethanolic solution. The separation of more than 45 carboxylic acids was achieved on a CP-Sil 5 CB fused-silica capillary column in less than 70 min. The electron impact mass spectra of ketocarboxylic acid O-methyl oxime benzyl esters PMID:3693495

  17. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Chern, Mawsheng [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed.

  18. Enzymatic Synthesis of Glucose-Based Fatty Acid Esters in Bisolvent Systems Containing Ionic Liquids or Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hua Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar fatty acid esters (SFAEs are biocompatible nonionic surfactants with broad applications in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They can be synthesized enzymatically with many advantages over their chemical synthesis. In this study, SFAE synthesis was investigated by using two reactions: (1 transesterification of glucose with fatty acid vinyl esters and (2 esterification of methyl glucoside with fatty acids, catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM and Novozym 435 respectively. Fourteen ionic liquids (ILs and 14 deep eutectic solvents (DESs were screened as solvents, and the bisolvent system composed of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate ([HMIm][TfO] and 2-methyl-2-butanol (2M2B was the best for both reactions, yielding optimal productivities (769.6 and 397.5 µmol/h/g, respectively which are superior to those reported in the literature. Impacts of different reaction conditions were studied for both reactions. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the transesterification reaction. Results also demonstrated that as co-substrate, methyl glucoside yielded higher conversions than glucose, and that conversions increased with an increase in the chain length of the fatty acid moieties. DESs were poor solvents for the above reactions presumably due to their high viscosity and high polarity.

  19. Pengaruh Katalis H2SO4 pada Reaksi Epoksidasi Metil Ester PFAD (Palm Fatty Acid Distillate)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Mersi Suriani

    2010-01-01

    Ester epoksi selain sebagai pelunak juga dapat memperbaiki ketahanan komponen polivinil klorida (PVC) terhadap panas dan cahaya. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk merumuskan kondisi katalis yang sesuai bagi pembuatan senyawa epoksi metil ester PFAD dari senyawa metil ester PFAD. Metil ester PFAD terdiri dari ester lemak jenuh dan tidak jenuh., metode pemisahan kristalisasi dengan pelarut metanol untuk memisahkan ester lemak jenuh dari ester lemak tak jenuh, yang bertujuan meningkatkan kemamp...

  20. Bioelement status with oral administration of fish oil methyl ester and diesel fuel in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Laçine; Tütüncü, Hakan; Alper, Yasemin; Büyükben, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    This paper is a study on the effects on the amounts of trace elements in case of possible repeat accidental or environmental exposure with fish oil biodiesel. For this purpose, 35 male Wistar albino rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into five groups. The first group was determined as the control group. The rats in this group were gavaged orally with 250 mg/kg sunflower oil. The rats in the second and third groups were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg (D1) and 500 mg/kg (D2) diesel fuel mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil, respectively. The rats in the fourth group were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F1) and the rats in the fifth group were administered by oral gavage of 500 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F2), both mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil. At the end of the study, bioelement concentrations in the serum and the kidney, lung, and liver tissues were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. It was observed that serum Ca, Mg, and Sr concentrations were significantly (poil biodiesel could be chosen as an alternative fuel instead of diesel fuel.