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Sample records for anhydrides

  1. α-Costic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moha Berraho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: 2-(4a,8-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octahydronaphthalen-2-ylacrylic acid anhydride], C30H42O3, is a new isocostic anhydride which was synthesized from the aerial part of Inula Viscosa (L Aiton [or Dittrichia Viscosa (L Greuter]. The molecule adopts an essentially linear shape with two terminal fused-rings bridged by the anhydride group. The external rings have the same conformation (half-chair while each of the two inner rings has an almost ideal chair conformation. In the crystal, intermolecular C—H...O interactions link the molecules into a two-dimensional array in the bc plane.

  2. α-Costic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbaa, Mohamed; Akssira, Mohamed; Elhakmaoui, Ahmed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Benharref, Ahmed; Berraho, Moha

    2010-02-13

    THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 2-(4a,8-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octa-hydro-naphthalen-2-yl)acrylic acid anhydride], C(30)H(42)O(3), is a new isocostic anhydride which was synthesized from the aerial part of Inula Viscosa- (L) Aiton [or Dittrichia Viscosa- (L) Greuter]. The mol-ecule adopts an essentially linear shape with two terminal fused-rings bridged by the anhydride group. The external rings have the same conformation (half-chair) while each of the two inner rings has an almost ideal chair conformation. In the crystal, inter-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions link the mol-ecules into a two-dimensional array in the bc plane.

  3. Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride in a CSTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica N. Coraci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To find the optimal reactor volume and temperature for the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride at the lowest possible cost with a 90% conversion of acetic anhydride, a formula for the total cost of the reaction was created. Then, the first derivative was taken to find a value for the temperature. This value was then inputted into the second derivative of the equation to find the sign of the value which would indicate whether that point was a minima or maxima value. The minima value would then be the lowest total cost for the optimum reaction to take place.

  4. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  5. Properties of Esterified Wood Prepared with Maleic Anhydride / Tetrabr Omophthalic Anhydride / Glycerol Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianzhang; Furuno Takeshi; Zhou Wenrui; Yu Zhiming; Sun Yanling; Zhang Derong

    2003-01-01

    For overcoming disadvantages of wood, an esterification process was employed and tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA) was used as a reactive chemical agent to prepare an esterified wood with the high dimensional stability, flame resistance, and resistance to biodegradation from water-leaching. The experimental results indicated that esterification of wood plus maleic anhydride / tetrabromophthalic anhydride / glycerol could endow wood with dimensional stability, the antiswelling efficiency during water absorption (ASEw), reduction in water absorptivity (RWA), antiswelling efficiency during moisture absorption (ASEm), moisture excluding efficiency (MEE), and oxygen index (OI) of treated wood increased with an increase in the weight percent gain (WPG). And the treated wood showed great decay resistance and resistance to water leaching, too.

  6. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF EXTRACTABLE PROTEIN BINDING USING MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thirawan Nipithakul; Ladawan Watthanachote; Nanticha Kalapat

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study of using maleic anhydride copolymer for protein binding has been carried out.The polymeric films were prepared by compression of the purified resin and annealing the film to induce efficient back formation of the anhydride groups.The properties of the film surface were analyzed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements.The protein content was determined by Bradford assay.To obtain optimum conditions,immersion time for protein binding was examined.Results revealed that proteins can be successfully immobilized onto the film surface via covalent linkage.The efficiency of the covalent binding of the extractable protein to maleic anhydride-polyethylene film was estimated at 69.87 μtg/cm2,although the film had low anhydride content (3%) on the surface.

  7. PDMS-modified poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)s as water-borne coatings based on surfactant-free latexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunbas, I.D.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Benthem, R.A.T.M. van; Koning, C.E.; Noordover, B.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, two series of PDMS-modified poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)s (PSMA) were prepared by the partial imidization of their anhydride groups with mono-functional, amine-terminated polydimethyl siloxanes (PDMS-NH2) with two different molecular weights. Subsequently, surfactant-free artific

  8. Microwave-assisted addition of azomethines to isatoic anhydride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Dominic Jacob; Lopez Mathew; Baby Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Diels-Alder addition of azomethines to isatoic anhydride in a solvent-free and eco-friendly condition is investigated using a microwave oven. The product is exclusively 2,3-diaryl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones 4a-d. HOMO-LUMO energy of the iminoketene and the dienophiles were calculated using semi-empirical AM1 calculations.

  9. A facile and efficient synthetic method for 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Feng Wu; Mei Jia Yang; Yang Wang; Guo Wei Gao; Jian Men

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach to the synthesis of 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride has been described. The target compound was synthesized by Pd/Cu catalyzed Sonogashira coupling reaction between phenylacetylene and 4-bromophthalic acid which was for the first time employed as start material, followed by dehydration of 4-phenylethynylphthalic acid. Compared with traditional synthetic routes, this method provides several advantages such as readily available raw materials, convenient manipulation and high yield. The products were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analysis, respectively.

  10. Telechelic polyisobutylene with unsaturated end groups and with anhydride end groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walch, E.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Anhydride terminated polyisobutylene (PIB) oligomers were synthesized in a one- or two-step process from chlorine terminated oligomers. In the one-step process, chlorine functional oligomers were just heated in the presence of maleic anhydride (MA) for 12 h at 190°C without a catalyst. In the two-st

  11. MALEIC ANHYDRIDE HYDROGENATION OF PD/AL2O3 CATALYST UNDER SUPERCRITICAL CO2 MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogenation of maleic anhydride (MA) to either y-butyrolactone of succinic anhydride over simple Pd/Al2O3 impregnated catalyst in supercritical CO2 medium has been studied at different temperatures and pressures. A comparison of the supercritical CO2 medium reaction with the c...

  12. Investigations on organolead compounds III. The reaction of organolead compounds with ketene. (Triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1965-01-01

    The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead hydroxide in diethyl ether gave (triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride, (Ph3PbCH2CO)2O, the first anhydride-substituted organolead compound known. The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead acetate in absolute ethanol gave ethyl (triphenylplumbyl)acetate, Ph3PbCH

  13. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  14. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  15. Evaluation of copolymer conformation states of vinylchloride-maleic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The quantum-chemical analysis and experimental study of alternating vinylchloride-maleic anhydride (VC-MA) copolymer macromolecules with polymerization degree 600 have been carried out. The VC-MA copolymer in solvents of different nature undergoes cycloanhydride-enol tautomerism and the macromolecules take the form of corrugated sticks according to viscometric measurements. The computer simulation has shown that the segment with polymerization degree n < 18 (model compound) is not a helix and rolls while if n = 18 the conformations get distorted. The model molecule optimal structure comprising a random sequence of alternating units of comonomers and their enol tautomers with minimal system total energy has been found by the semiempirical parametric method PM3.

  16. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine.

  17. Investigation of Plasma Polymerized Maleic Anhydride Film in a Middle Frequency Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wenjie; CHEN Qiang; ZHANG Yuefei; GE Yuanjing

    2008-01-01

    Plasma polymerized maleic anhydride (MA) was carried out by using maleic anhydride supersaturated ethanol solution as a precursor in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The film properties were characterized by water contact angle (WCA), Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis, and a thickness profilometer. The influence of the processing parameters on the film properties such as the power frequency, and polymerization zone was investigated. The results show that anhydride group incorporated into the growing films is favorable at the frequency of 80 kHz and working pressure of 50 Pa. The poly (maleic anhydride) film is uniform and compact at an average deposition rate of 8 nm/min.

  18. Highly efficient peptide formation from N-acetylaminoacyl-AMP anhydride and free amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, D. W., Jr.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of formation of the N-blocked dipeptide, N-acetylglycylglycine, from N-acetylglycyl adenylate anhydride and glycine in aqueous solution at 25 C, and at various PH's are reported. The reaction is of interest in that over a physiologically relevant pH range (6-8), peptide synthesis proceeds more rapidly than hydrolysis, even at those pH's at which this compound becomes increasingly susceptible to base-catalyzed hydrolysis. Under similar conditions, the corresponding unblocked aminoacyl adenylate anhydrides are considerably more unstable, and undergo appreciable hydrlysis in the presence of free amino acid. Because N-blocked aminoacyl adenylate anhydrides serve as model compounds of peptidyl adenylate anhydrides, these results suggest that primitive amino acid polymerization systems may have operated by cyclic reactivation of the peptidyl carboxyl group, rather than that of the incoming amino acid.

  19. Graft Copolymers of Maleic Anhydride and Its Isostructural Analogues: High Performance Engineering Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rzayev, Zakir M. O.

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the main advances published over the last 15 years outlining the different methods of grafting, including reactive extruder systems, surface modification, grafting and graft copolymerization of synthetic and natural polymers with maleic anhydride and its isostructural analogues such as maleimides and maleates, and anhydrides, esters and imides of citraconic and itaconic acids, derivatives of fumaric acid, etc. Special attention is spared to the grafting of conventional ...

  20. Determination of the Preferred Structure, Dynamics, and Planarity of Substituted Anhydrides by Cp-Ftmw

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Timothy J.; Bailey, Josiah R.; Bird, Ryan G.; Pratt, David

    2016-06-01

    The planarity of five-membered rings is derived from a competition between ring-angle strain and stability of the torsional angles. The planar form maximizes the already stressed, smaller-than-normal, C-C bond angles, while puckering reduces the unfavorable eclipsed interactions. The structure, dynamics, and planarity of three anhydrides, succinic, methylsuccinic, and methylene (itaconic) anhydride, were studied and compared using chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy.

  1. Réaction du polyisobutène chloré sur l'anhydride maléique : mécanisme. Catalyse par l'anhydride dichloromaléique Reaction of Chlorinated Polyisobutene on Maleic Anhydride. Mechanism. Catalysis by Dichloromaleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sillion B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article le mécanisme de la réaction de condensation du polyisobutène chloré sur l'anhydride maléique, qui sert dans la synthèse d'additif pour lubrifiant, est étudié par une cinétique globale et par un travail sur composés modèles. Il est montré que, dans cette réaction, l'anhydride maléique joue un double rôle : de catalyseur de déshydrochloration par une réactivité de type acide de Lewis organique, de réactif comme diénophile. Grâce à ces résultats, il est proposé une catalyse par l'anhydride dichloromaléique, qui permet une amélioration sensible du procédé. This article examines the mechanism of the chlorinated-polyisobutene condensation reaction on maleic anhydride. The overall kinetics and model compounds are investigated for this reaction which is used in the synthesis of lubricant additives. Maleic anhydride is shown to play the dual role of a dehydrochlorination catalyst by having a reactivity of the organic Lewis acid type and of a reactant like dienophile. These results are used to propose a catalysis by dichloromaleic anhydride which appreciably improves the process.

  2. Selective hydrogenation of maleic anhydride over Pd/Al2O3 catalysts prepared via colloid deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongjing Yuan; Chunlei Zhang; Weitao Huo; Chunli Ning; Yong Tang; Yi Zhang; Dequan Cong; Wenxiang Zhang; Jiahuan Luo; Su Li; Zhenlu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Pd/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared via colloid deposition and the performance of the catalysts was examined in the selective hydrogenation of maleic anhydride to succinic anhydride. When the reaction was carried on in a batch system with 1,4-dioxane as the solvent (353K and 1.0MPa), high conversion of maleic anhydride (>98%) and high selectivity (>99%) for succinic anhydride were observed after 5 h. The as-prepared Pd/Al2O3 catalyst also showed excellent performance in solvent-free system and fixed-bed systems. The maleic anhydride (MA) conversion was greater than 98%, and high selectivity (>99%) for succinic anhydride was obtained after 1600 h in a fixed bed reacter. The results showed that the activity of the Pd/Al2O3 catalysts was excellent due to its high active surface area.

  3. Curing behaviors and properties of an extrinsic toughened epoxy/anhydride system and an intrinsic toughened epoxy/anhydride system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Mengjin; Liu, Jialin; Li, Xiangyuan [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Cheng, Jue, E-mail: chengjue@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Junying, E-mail: zjybuct@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-02-20

    Highlights: ► Two curing systems (ETRS and ITRS) with similar chemical composite were prepared. ► The curing kinetics of the ETRS and the novel ITRS were comparatively studied. ► Crosslinking density can affect the kinetic schemes of the two curing systems. ► Their mechanical properties and thermal stabilities were also comparatively studied. ► Crosslinking density may play an influential role in mechanical properties. - Abstract: The curing kinetics of an extrinsic toughened epoxy (mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A and 1,4-butanediol epoxy resin, DGEBA/DGEBD) and an intrinsic toughened epoxy (ethoxylated bisphenol-A epoxy resin with two oxyethylene units, DGEBAEO-2) using hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) as curing agent and tris-(dimethylaminomethyl) phenol (DMP-30) as accelerator were comparatively studied by non-isothermal DSC with a model-fitting Málek approach and a model-free advanced isoconversional method of Vyazovkin. The dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stabilities of the cured materials were investigated by DMTA and TGA, respectively. The results showed that Šesták–Berggren model can generally simulate well the reaction rates of these two systems. The activation energy of DGEBA/DGEBD/HHPA/DMP-30 at high fractional conversion changed much higher than that of DGEBAEO-2/HHPA/DMP-30, indicating the increased steric hindrance mainly affected the reaction kinetic scheme of DGEBA/DGEBD/HHPA/DMP-30. The T{sub g} and storage moduli of cured DGEBAEO-2/HHPA/DMP-30 were lower than those of cured DGEBA/DGEBD/HHPA/DMP-30 according to DMTA while TGA showed that the thermal stabilities of these two cured systems were similar.

  4. Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, D.R.; Bonifaz, C. (DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride has been studied over platinum- and palladium-containing zeolites as well as palladium-on-silica (Pd/SiO[sub 2]) catalysts. The results show that although a zeolite support is needed in many systems to effect a kinetic control to improve selectivity, thermodynamic control using Pd([approximately]2-4 ppm)/SiO[sub 2] is sufficient to give the desired selectivities in this system. In addition, a palladium-containing vanadium-phosphate catalyst was prepared that showed complete oxidation of carbon monoxide, conversion of butane to maleic anhydride, and no observable decomposition of the maleic anhydride. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Collagen functionalized with unsaturated cyclic anhydrides-interactions in solution and solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potorac, S; Popa, M; Picton, L; Dulong, V; Verestiuc, L; Le Cerf, D

    2014-03-01

    Maleic anhydride (CMA) and itaconic anhydride modified collagen (CITA) were prepared as precursors for production of interpenetrated polymer networks (IPN). Calculated values for Huggins coefficient in aqueous diluted and semi-diluted solutions of modified collagen indicated a slightly tendency of aggregation for itaconic anhydride-modified collagen. In semi-diluted solution collagen (Coll) and CMA present slightly differences in the thixotropic behavior, while CITA has a pronounced thixotropic behavior. Flow and oscillatory measurements revealed an elastic behavior of the collagen solutions, pure and modified with MA or ITA, as the storage modulus (G') has always a superior value compared with the loss modulus (G″). The denaturation temperature (Td) of unmodified collagen increased from 34°C to 40°C for CMA and to 39°C for CITA respectively, by formation of covalent bonds that stabilize the triple helix.

  6. Synthesis of first row transition metal carboxylate complexes by ring opening reactions of cyclic anhydrides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jubaraj Bikash Baruah

    2011-03-01

    Hydrolytic and solvolytic ring opening reactions of phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic dianhydride and 2,3-pyridine dicarboxylic anhydride in the presence of various transition metal salts with or without a ancillary ligands were studied. The reactions were found to be dependent on stoichiometry of ligand and types of anhydride used. In the case of pyromellitic dianhydride selective ring opening reaction by cobalt(II) ions gave 1,3-benzene dicarboxylate derivatives, whereas use of copper(II) ions gave 1,4-benzene dicarboxylate derivatives. Preference for methanolysis was seen in the case of copper (II) promoted reactions of pyromellitic dianhydride in the presence of 1:1 metal to 1,10-phenanthroline ratio.

  7. Crystal structure of 2,3-di-methyl-maleic anhydride: continuous chains of electrostatic attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscons, Ren A; Zeller, Matthias; Rowsell, Jesse L C

    2015-08-01

    In the crystal structure of 2,3-di-methyl-maleic anhydride, C6H6O3, the closest non-bonding inter-molecular distances, between the carbonyl C and O atoms of neighboring mol-ecules, were measured as 2.9054 (11) and 3.0509 (11) Å, which are well below the sum of the van der Waals radii for these atoms. These close contacts, as well as packing motifs similar to that of the title compound, were also found in the crystal structure of maleic anhydride itself and other 2,3-disubstituted maleic anhydrides. Computational modeling suggests that this close contact is caused by strong electrostatic inter-actions between the carbonyl C and O atoms.

  8. Solid—Liquid Equilibria of Several Binary and Ternary Systems Containing Meleic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAPeisheng; CHENMingming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibria(SLE) of three binary systems and seven ternary systems containing maleic anhydride(MA) are measured by visual method. The experimental data are compared with the calculated ones with modified universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient(UNIFAC) method in which the interaction parameters between groups come from two sources,dortmund data bank (DDB), if there′s any,and correlations based on our former presented experimental SLE data of twenty binary systems.New groups of MA,ACCOO group,COO group,>C=O group and cy-CH2 group are defined and the SLE data of maleic anhydride in isopropyl acetate in literature are cited in order to assess the new interaction parameters,correlated with Wilson equation and the λh equation.The modified UNIFAC method with these new regressed interaction parameters is also used to predict other three binary systems containing maleic anhydride.

  9. Hydrolysis and stability of thin pulsed plasma polymerised maleic anhydride coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Joanna Maria; Launay, Héléne; Hansen, Charles M.;

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The stability of plasma polymerised layers has become important because of their widespread use. This study explored the hydrolysis and degradation stability of coatings of plasma polymerised maleic anhydride. Coatings made with different plasma parameters were exposed to aqueous media...... of different pH as a function of time. ATR-FTIR was used for structure analysis and a toluidine blue staining method allowed quantitative analysis of the hydrolysis of anhydride groups to acid groups. Coatings with constant thickness were obtained at different plasma powers and layers with varying thickness...

  10. CATALYSIS OF POLYSTYRENE N-HYDROXYL SULFONAMIDE FOR ESTERIFICATION OF BUTANOL WITH ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shufeng; LI Qian; YANG Xinlin; HUANG Wenqiang

    2004-01-01

    Polystyrene N-hydroxyl sulfonamide resin 1 was prepared and used to catalyze the esterification of n-butanol and acetic anhydride. The mechanism of catalytic esterification proved by IR spectra of the resins was found that O-H and N-H of the N-hydroxyl sulfonamide resin reacted with the acetic anhydride respectively to form the active intermediate polystyrene N,O-diacetyl sulfonamate which was cleaved by n-butanol to produce butyl acetate. The catalytic esterification by resin 1 was in good agreement with the kinetic model of "bi-bi-ping-pong" mechanism.

  11. ULTRASONIC BEHAVIOR OF EPOXY RESINS/POLY (ETHYLENE OXIDE)BLENDS CURED WITH PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Sixun; WANG Haiqian; LUO Xiaolie; ZHANG Naibin; MA Dezhu; ZHU Changfei; HU Jiankai

    1995-01-01

    By means of ultrasonic attenuation apparatus, the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation of anhydride-cured epoxy resins (EP)/poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO)blends were measured on the basis of pulse-echo method. It was found that the sonic velocity of the blends decreased as the temperature increased, but attenuation coefficient increased and possessed a peak value. Larger velocity and smaller attenuation coefficient(α)can be obtained from perfect crosslinking network structures of pure DGEBA cured with phthalic anhydride (PA). As for cured DGEBA/PEO blend systems,sonic velocity decreased as a function of PEO concentration,but attenuation coefficient (α) increased.

  12. Solvent-free esterification of poly(vinyl alcohol) and maleic anhydride through mechanochemical reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A solid-state mechanochemical processing, that is, pan-milling, was used to conduct the esterification of poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) with maleic anhydride (MA) through stress-induced reaction. FTIR spectrum study indicated the presence of ester linkages and olefinic double bonds in maleic anhydride cross-linked PVA. Thermal properties of the cross-linked product were characterized by DSC. The results showed its glass transition temperature was 20 ℃ higher than the original linear PVA and the thermal stability was also improved.

  13. Tannic Acid as a Bio-Based Modifier of Epoxy/Anhydride Thermosets

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoma Fei; Fangqiao Zhao; Wei Wei; Jing Luo; Mingqing Chen; Xiaoya Liu

    2016-01-01

    Toughening an epoxy resin by bio-based modifiers without trade-offs in its modulus, mechanical strength, and other properties is still a big challenge. This paper presents an approach to modify epoxy resin with tannic acid (TA) as a bio-based feedstock. Carboxylic acid-modified tannic acid (TA–COOH) was first prepared through a simple esterification between TA and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride, and then used as a modifier for the epoxy/anhydride curing system. Owing to the chemical modifi...

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Biomaterial:Maleic Anhydride-modified Poly(dl-lactic acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Feng LUO; Yuan Liang WANG; Xu Feng NIU; Jun PAN; Liang Ping SHI

    2004-01-01

    A novel modified poly(dl-lactic acid) (PDLLA) was obtained by covalently grafting of maleic anhydride onto the backbone of PDLLA, attempting to improve PDLLA's hydrophilicity and cell affinity and to provide reactive groups for further chemical modification. FTIR, 13C NMR and DSC were used to characterize the maleic anhydride-modified PDLLA.

  15. Influence of the degree of hydrolysis of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) on miscibility with poly(vinyl acetate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, M.; Vorenkamp, E.J.; Brinke, G. ten; Challa, G.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the hydrolysis of anhydride groups in poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) on its miscibility with poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) is investigated. The cloudpoint curves of these blends are determined as a function of the degree of hydrolysis. The miscibility is shown to improve wit

  16. SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF ANHYDRIDES TO LACTONES UNDER SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective Hydrogenation of Anhydrides to Lactones Under Supercritical Carbon Dioxide MediumEndalkachew Sahle-Demessie Unnikrishnan R PillaiU.S. EPA , 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. Cincinnati, OH 45268 Phone: 513-569-7739Fax: 513-569-7677Abstract:Hydrogenat...

  17. Molecular characterization of trimellitic anhydride-induced respiratory allergy in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Heijne, W.H.; Dansen, M.; Verhoeckx, K.C.; Boorsma, A.; Radonjic, M.; Bruijntjes, J.; Stierum, R.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    To contribute to the hazard identification of low molecular weight (LMW) respiratory allergens, respiratory allergy induced by trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was characterized by whole genome analysis of lung tissue and blood proteomics in Brown Norway rats. Dermal sensitization (50% and 25% w/v) with

  18. THE GRAFTING OF MALEIC-ANHYDRIDE ON HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE IN AN EXTRUDER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    1992-01-01

    The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on high density polyethylene in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder has been studied. As the reaction kinetics appear to be affected by mass transfer, good micro mixing in the extruder is important. Due to the competing mechanisms of increasing mixing and de

  19. Maleic anhydride based copolymer dispersions for surface modification of polar substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunbas, I.D.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Hendrix, M.M.R.M.; Benthem, R.A.T.M. van; Koning, C.E.; Noordover, B.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the modification of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) with monofunctional amine-terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS-NH2) by thermal imidization, followed by the preparation and characterization of a surfactant-free artificial latex thereof and application of t

  20. Triflic Anhydride-Mediated Beckmann Rearrangement Reaction of Β-Oximyl Amides: Access to 5-Iminooxazolines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANGFEI YU; QIAN ZHANG; JIA WANG; PENG HUANG; PENGFEI YAN; RUI ZHANG; DEWEN DONG

    2016-06-01

    Facile and efficient synthesis of 5-iminooxazolines fromΑ, Α-disubstituted Β-oximyl amidesmediated by triflic anhydride $(Tf_{2}O)$ in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo(5.4.0)undec-7-ene (DBU) indichloromethane at room temperature is developed, and a mechanism involving tandem Beckmann rearrangementand intramolecular cyclization reaction is proposed.

  1. Microwave synthesis and thermal properties of polyacrylate derivatives containing itaconic anhydride moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sameh M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microwave irradiation as an alternative heat source is now a well-known method in synthetic chemistry. Microwave heating has emerged as a powerful technique to promote a variety of chemical reactions, offering reduced pollution, low cost and offer high yields together with simplicity in processing and handling. On the other hand, copolymers containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments are drawing considerable attention because of their possible use in biological systems. Various copolymer compositions can produce a very large number of different arrangements, producing materials of varying chemical and physical properties. Thus, the hydrophilicity of copolymers can be modified by changing the amount of incorporated itaconic anhydride. Results A series of methyl methacrylate (MMA and acrylamide (AA copolymers containing itaconic anhydride (ITA were synthesized by microwave irradiation employing a multimode reactor (Synthos 3000 Aton Paar, GmbH, 1400 W maximum magnetron as well as conventional method. The thermal properties of the copolymers were evaluated by different techniques. Structure-thermal property correlation based on changing the itaconic anhydride ratio was demonstrated. Results revealed that the incorporation of itaconic anhydride into the polymeric backbone of all series affect the thermal stability of copolymers. In addition, the use of the microwave method offers high molecular weight copolymers which lead eventually to an increase in thermal stability. Conclusions Microwave irradiation method showed advantages for the produced copolymers compared to that prepared by conventional method, where it can offer a copolymer in short time, high yield, more pure compounds and more thermally stable copolymers, rather than conventional method. Also, microwave irradiation method gives higher molecular weight due to prevention of the chain transfer. Moreover, as the itaconic anhydride content increases the thermal

  2. A new process for the valorisation of a bio-alcohol. The oxidehydration of 1-butanol into maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldarelli, A.; Cavani, F.; Garone, O.; Pavarelli, G. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; Bologna Univ. (Italy). CIRCC, Research Unit; Dubois, J.L. [ARKEMA, Colombes (France); Mitsova, I.; Simeonova, L. [JSC, Russe (Bulgaria). Orgachim

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with a study on the gas-phase transformation of 1-butanol into maleic anhydride, using different types of catalysts. Indeed, catalytic acid properties are needed to dehydrate 1-butanol into 1-butene, whereas redox-type properties are required for the oxidation of the olefin into maleic anhydride. The two types of active sites can be combined in bifunctional systems, showing both acid and redox-type properties. We found that vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyzes the one-pot reaction, giving a maximum selectivity to maleic anhydride of 28%. In fact, various side reactions contributed to the formation of by-products, eg, 1-butanol (oxidative) dehydrogenation into butyraldehyde, formation of light carboxylic acids and carbon oxides, and condensation of unsaturated C{sub 4} intermediates (butenes and butadiene) with the formed maleic anhydride to yield heavier compounds. (orig.)

  3. Ruthenium-catalyzed decarbonylative addition reaction of anhydrides with alkynes: a facile synthesis of isocoumarins and α-pyrones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Rashmi; Shekarrao, Kommuri; Gogoi, Sanjib; Boruah, Romesh C

    2015-06-21

    A novel ruthenium catalyzed straightforward and efficient synthesis of isocoumarin and α-pyrone derivatives has been accomplished by the decarbonylative addition reaction of anhydrides with alkynes under thermal conditions.

  4. Preparation and characterization of poly(styrene/maleic anhydride)/kaolin nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuening; ZHANG Hongtao; YANG Zhizhong; HA Chengyong

    2005-01-01

    The direct exfoliation of in situ intercalative copolymerized styrene/maleic anhydride charge-transfercomplex (PSMA) into the inter lamellar spaces of modified kaolin (Kao-DMSO), which was intercalated and surface modified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), was reported. The nano structure of the composites was investigated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The interaction between kaolin surface and PSMA chain was conformed by FTIR analysis. The XRD results showed that the intercalated polystyrene-maleic anhydride units were arranged in the flattened monolayer arrangements, and the 001 diffraction peak of the original kaolin disappeared. The TEM image showed that the kaolin was exfoliated into nanometer size and dispersed in the polymer matrix. Additionally the thermal stability of the nanocomposites was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and the resulting thermogram indicated that the thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased.

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance and FT-IR spectroscopic studies of glycine anhydride and betaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim Başkan, M.; Kartal, Zeki; Aydın, Murat

    2015-12-01

    Gamma irradiated powders of glycine anhydride and betaine hydrochloride have been investigated at room temperature by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In these compounds, the observed paramagnetic species were attributed to the R1 and R2 radicals, respectively. It was determined that the free electron interacted with environmental protons and 14N nucleus in both radicals. The EPR spectra of gamma irradiated powder samples remained unchanged at room temperature for two weeks after irradiation. Also, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), FT-Raman and thermal analyses of both compounds were investigated. The functional groups in the molecular structures of glycine anhydride and betaine hydrochloride were identified by vibrational spectroscopies (FT-IR and FT-Raman).

  6. Physicochemical Characterization and the Comparison of Chitin and Chitin Modified with Maleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Uzun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, chitin was modified via ring-opening reaction with maleic anhydride in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide. Then, both chitin and chitin modified with maleic anhydride (CMA were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD method, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was performed to investigate the thermal stability of chitin and CMA. TGA results showed that chitin is thermally more stable than CMA. In addition, the electrical conductivity of chitin and CMA was also measured. Electrical conductivity measurement results showed that the electrical conductivity of CMA (4.3x10-4 S cm-1 is more than that of chitin (6.5x10-6 S cm-1.

  7. Effect of Hyperbranched Polyester on Modification of Epoxy Resins Cured with Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Xia WANG; Zhi Gang JIANG; Yi Feng ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of hyperbranched polyester (HBP) with different molecular weight are studied. The effect of HBP on the modification of epoxy resins cured with anhydride is mainly discussed. The characteristics of HBP and the morphologies of cured system are determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The impact strength of cured system is detected and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements were used to pursue the curing process. The investigation shows that HBP can improve the toughness by forming copolymer networks between epoxy resins, HBP and anhydride. Moreover, when the molecular weight of HBP is 1342g/mol the toughening effect is the best, and the changes of toughness are small with the increase of molecular weight of HBP to 3500 g/mol.

  8. Wheat Gluten Blends with Maleic Anhydride-Functionalized Polyacrylate Cross-Linkers for Improved Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Cheng; Xia, Hongwei; Parnas, Richard S

    2015-10-14

    A family of polyacrylate-based cross-linkers was synthesized to maximize the toughness of high Tg, high modulus wheat gluten blends in the glassy state. Mechanical testing and damping measurements were conducted to provide an example where the work of fracture and strength of the blend substantially exceeds polystyrene while maintaining flexure stiffness in excess of 3 GPa. The new rubbery cross-linkers, polymethyl acrylate-co-maleic anhydride and polyethyl acrylate-co-maleic anhydride, improve WG mechanical properties and reduce water absorption simultaneously. MDSC, FTIR, HPLC, and NMR data confirmed the cross-linking reaction with wheat gluten. Flexural, DMA, and water absorption testing were carried out to characterize the property improvements. DMA was conducted to investigate the relationship between energy damping and mechanical property improvement. If the cross-linker damping temperature is close to the testing temperature, the entire sample exhibits high damping, toughness, and strength.

  9. Preparation and Physical Properties of Chitosan Benzoic Acid Derivatives Using a Phosphoryl Mixed Anhydride System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yun Chai

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct benzoylation of the two hydroxyl groups on chitosan was achieved using a phosphoryl mixed anhydride system, derived from trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA, benzoic acids (BAs, and phosphoric acid (PA. The reaction is operated as a one pot process under mild conditions that does not require neither an inert atmosphere nor dry solvents. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Solubility tests on the products revealed that they were soluble in organic solvents such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, and acetone. In the meantime, a morphological study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM evidently indicated that the chitosan benzoates underwent significant structural changes after the benzoylation.

  10. Graft Copolymers of Maleic Anhydride and Its Isostructural Analogues: High Performance Engineering Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rzayev, Zakir M O

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the main advances published over the last 15 years outlining the different methods of grafting, including reactive extruder systems, surface modification, grafting and graft copolymerization of synthetic and natural polymers with maleic anhydride and its isostructural analogues such as maleimides and maleates, and anhydrides, esters and imides of citraconic and itaconic acids, derivatives of fumaric acid, etc. Special attention is spared to the grafting of conventional and non-conventional synthetic and natural polymers, including biodegradable polymers, mechanism of grafting and graft copolymerization, in situ grafting reactions in melt by reactive extrusion systems, in solutions and solid state (photo- and plasma-induced graftings), and H-bonding effect in the reactive blend processing. The structural phenomena, unique properties and application areas of these copolymers and their various modifications and composites as high performance engineering materials have been also described.

  11. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Salts as New Catalysts to Produce Epoxy-anhydride Polymers with Improved Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail S. Fedoseev; Gruzdev, Matvey S.; Lubov F. Derzhavinskaya

    2014-01-01

    We report the curing process of epoxy oligomers by using isomethyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride catalyzed with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salts. Catalytic action has been ascertained to be dependent on the nature of anion. Salts with (Br-) and (PO4-) anions appeared to be most active. Formation of salt adducts with epoxy resin and anhydride is shown. Polymers having higher values of strength and glass transition temperature—as compared with similar epoxy systems cured in the presence of terti...

  12. Perylene anhydride fused porphyrins as near-infrared sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-07-15

    Two perylene anhydride fused porphyrins 1 and 2 have been synthesized and employed successfully in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both compounds showed broad incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra covering the entire visible spectral region and even extending into the near-infrared (NIR) region up to 1000 nm, which is impressive for ruthenium-free dyes in DSCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Dodecenylsuccinic Anhydride Derivatives of Gum Karaya (Sterculia urens): Preparation, Characterization, and Their Antibacterial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Padil, V.V.T.; Senan, Chandra; Cernik, M

    2015-01-01

    Esterifications of the tree-based gum, gum karaya (GK), using dodecenylsuccinic anhydride (DDSA) were carried out in aqueous solutions. GK was deacetylated using alkali treatment to obtain deacetylated gum karaya (DGK). The DGK and its DDSA derivative were characterized using gel permeation chromatography/multiangle laser light scattering (GPC/MALLS), attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proton nuclear magnetic re...

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Organic Impurities in Bortezomib Anhydride Produced by a Convergent Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Andrey S.; Shishkov, Sergey V.; Zhalnina, Anna A.

    2012-01-01

    A profile of impurities in bortezomib anhydride, produced by a recently developed convergent technology, has been characterized. HPLC-MS analysis of the drug essence revealed three impurities: an epimer of bortezomib, resulting from partial racemization of l-phenylalanine’s stereogenic center during the chemical synthesis, and two epimeric products of oxidative degradation of bortezomib, in which boron is replaced by the OH group. The impurities were obtained by chemical synthesis and characterized by physical methods. PMID:22396904

  15. Study on oil absorbency of succinic anhydride modified banana cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenting; Sheng, Zhanwu; Shen, Yixiao; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Lili; Yang, Jingsong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-05-05

    Banana cellulose contained number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups which were succinylated to be hydrophobic groups with high oil affinity. Succinic anhydride was used to modify banana cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in this study. The modified banana cellulose had a high oil absorption capacity. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and molar ratio of succinic anhydride to anhydroglucose on the degree of substitution of modified banana cellulose were evaluated. The optimal reaction condition was at a ratio of succinic anhydride and anhydroglucose 6:1 (m:m), reaction time 60min and temperature 90°C. The maximum degree of acylation reaction reached to 0.37. The characterization analysis of the modified banana cellulose was performed using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The oil absorption capacity and kinetics of the modified banana cellulose were evaluated at the modified cellulose dose (0.025-0.3g), initial oil amount (5-30g), and temperature (15-35°C) conditions. The maximum oil absorption capacity was 32.12g/g at the condition of the cellulose dose (0.05g), initial oil amount (25g) and temperature (15°C). The kinetics of oil absorption of the cellulose followed a pseudo-second-order model. The results of this study demonstrated that the modified banana cellulose could be used as an efficient bio-sorbent for oil adsorption.

  16. Tannic Acid as a Bio-Based Modifier of Epoxy/Anhydride Thermosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoma Fei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Toughening an epoxy resin by bio-based modifiers without trade-offs in its modulus, mechanical strength, and other properties is still a big challenge. This paper presents an approach to modify epoxy resin with tannic acid (TA as a bio-based feedstock. Carboxylic acid-modified tannic acid (TA–COOH was first prepared through a simple esterification between TA and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride, and then used as a modifier for the epoxy/anhydride curing system. Owing to the chemical modification, TA–COOH could easily disperse in epoxy resin and showed adequate interface interaction between TA–COOH and epoxy matrix, in avoid of phase separation. The use of TA–COOH in different proportions as modifier of epoxy/anhydride thermosets was studied. The results showed that TA–COOH could significantly improve the toughness with a great increase in impact strength under a low loading amount. Moreover, the addition of TA–COOH also simultaneously improved the tensile strength, elongation at break and glass transition temperature. The toughening and reinforcing mechanism was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and thermal mechanical analysis (TMA, which should be owned to the synergistic effect of good interface interaction, aromatic structure, decreasing of cross linking density and increasing of free volume. This approach allows us to utilize the renewable tannic acid as an effective modifier for epoxy resin with good mechanical and thermal properties.

  17. XPS depth profiling of derivatized amine and anhydride plasma polymers: Evidence of limitations of the derivatization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakhov, Anton; Michlíček, Miroslav; Felten, Alexandre; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques; Nečas, David; Zajíčková, Lenka

    2017-02-01

    The quantitative analysis of the chemistry at the surface of functional plasma polymers is highly important for the optimization of their deposition conditions and, therefore, for their subsequent applications. The chemical derivatization of amine and carboxyl-anhydride layers is a well-known technique already applied by many researchers, notwithstanding the known drawback of the derivatization procedures like side or uncomplete reactions that could lead to "unreliable" results. In this work, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with depth profiling with argon clusters is applied for the first time to study derivatized amine and carboxyl-anhydride plasma polymer layers. It revealed an additional important parameter affecting the derivatization reliability, namely the permeation of the derivatizing molecule through the target analysed layer, i.e. the composite effect of the probe molecule size and the layer porosity. Amine-rich films prepared by RF low pressure plasma polymerization of cyclopropylamine were derivatized with trifluoromethyl benzaldehide (TFBA) and it was observed by that the XPS-determined NH2 concentration depth profile is rapidly decreasing over top ten nanometers of the layer. The anhydride-rich films prepared by atmospheric plasma co-polymerization of maleic anhydride and C2H2 have been reacted with, parafluoroaniline and trifluoroethyl amine. The decrease of the F signal in top surface layer of the anhydride films derivatized by the "large" parafluoroaniline was observed similarly as for the amine films but the derivatization with the smaller trifluoroethylamine (TFEA) led to a more homogenous depth profile. The data analysis suggests that the size of the derivatizing molecule is the main factor, showing that the very limited permeation of the TFBA molecule can lead to underestimated densities of primary amines if the XPS analysis is solely carried out at a low take-off angle. In contrast, TFEA is found to be an efficient

  18. THE THERMAL AND ABLATIVE DEGRADATION OF SOME EPOXY RESINS CURED WITH METHYL BICYCLO(2.2.1)HEPTENE-2,3-DICARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE (NMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABLATION), (* EPOXY RESINS , (*PYROLYSIS, EPOXY RESINS ), CYCLOALKENES, ANHYDRIDES, CATALYSTS, ADDITIVES, CROSSLINKING(CHEMISTRY), REACTION KINETICS, DEGRADATION, AGING(MATERIALS), INFRARED SPECTRA, CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS.

  19. Quantification of free sphingosine in cultured cells by acylation with radioactive acetic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, H; Ruan, F; Hakomori, S; Igarashi, Y

    1994-11-01

    A simple and sensitive method for quantification of sphingosine in cellular lipid extracts was developed. The assay is based on quantitative conversion of sphingosine to N-[3H]acetylated sphingosine ([3H]C2-ceramide) by N-acylation with [3H]acetic anhydride under certain conditions. Sphingosine was extracted from cultured cells with chloroform and methanol and then treated with base to remove interfering glycerolipids having reactive amino groups (e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine). Sphingosine was acylated with [3H]acetic anhydride in the presence of 0.004 N NaOH. Acylation was complete in 1 h at 37 degrees C when sphingosine was present in the picomole range. After the acylation, samples were treated with NaOH to reduce background radioactivity by removing the remaining [3H]acetic anhydride and hydrolyzing any ester linkages formed during the acylation and resolved by thin-layer chromatography. [3H]C2-ceramide converted from sphingosine with the acylation was detected with radioautography and quantitated by scraping the corresponding band and counting its radioactivity with a scintillation counter. [3H]C2-ceramide formed was quantitatively measured. This assay allows quantification of sphingosine over a range of 10 to 1500 pmol. The amount of sphingosine in lipid extracts from cultured cells was proportional to the number of cells. Sphingosine levels in human gastric cancer KATO III cells, human promyelocytic leukemic HL60 cells, and human monoblastic U937 cells, determined by this method, were 26.6 +/- 2.2, 6.3 +/- 0.4, and 6.8 +/- 0.6 pmol per 10(6) cells, respectively. Our new procedure allows quantification of sphingosine levels present in the low picomole range in lipid extracts from biological samples.

  20. Space charge behaviour in maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene/ethylene - vinyl - acetate copolymer laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyung; Park, Jung Ki; Han, Jae Hong; Suh, Kwang S.

    1997-01-01

    Charge distributions in maleic anhydride (MAH) grafted polyethylene (g-PE)/ethylene - vinyl - acetate (EVA) copolymer laminates have been measured with materials of different composition. All laminates showed interfacial charge, the polarity and the magnitude of which are explained by interfacial polarization. It was found that the interfacial charge increased with the increase of MAH content in the g-PE, whereas it decreased with the increase of vinyl - acetate content in the EVA. This feature was attributed to the differences in electrical conductivity of the materials. Details of the experimental results are described.

  1. Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of a maleic anhydride derivative: effect of subphase divalent cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-García, B; Velázquez, M Mercedes; Pérez-Hernández, J A; Hernández-Toro, J

    2010-09-21

    We report the study of the equilibrium and dynamic properties of Langmuir monolayers of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) partial 2-buthoxyethyl ester cumene terminated polymer and the effect of the Mg(NO(3))(2) addition in the water subphase on the film properties. Results show that the polymer monolayer becomes more expanded when the electrolyte concentration in the subphase increases. Dense polymer films aggregate at the interface. The aggregates are transferred onto silicon wafers using the Langmuir-Blodgett methodology and the morphology is observed by AFM. The structure of aggregates depends on the subphase composition of the Langmuir film transferred onto the silicon wafer.

  2. Perfluoroalkylation of Unactivated Alkenes with Acid Anhydrides as the Perfluoroalkyl Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Shintaro; Sodeoka, Mikiko

    2016-07-18

    An efficient perfluoroalkylation of unactivated alkenes with perfluoro acid anhydrides was developed. Copper salts play a crucial role as a catalyst to achieve allylic perfluoroalkylation with the in situ generated bis(perfluoroacyl) peroxides. Furthermore, carboperfluoroalkylation of alkene bearing an aromatic ring at an appropriate position on the carbon side chain was found to proceed under metal-free conditions to afford carbocycles or heterocycles bearing a perfluoroalkyl group. This method, which makes use of readily available perfluoroalkyl sources, offers a convenient and powerful tool for introducing a perfluoroalkyl group onto an sp(3) carbon to construct synthetically useful skeletons.

  3. Preparation and Crystallization of Carbon Nanotube/maleic Anhydride-grafted Polypropylene Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua CHEN; Jing HU; Lingping ZHOU; Wenhua LI; Zi YANG; Yanguo WANG

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/maleic acid anhydride (MAH)-grafted polypropylene (PP) composites were prepared by in situ grafting method. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the CNTs were linked to PP by MAH grafting. The microstructures and calorimetry analysis indicated that the crystallization behaviors of the filled and unfilled PP were quite different. The addition of CNTs dramatically reduced the spherulite size, increased crystallization rate and improved the thermal stability of PP. These results confirmed the expected nucleant effect of CNT on the crystallization of PP. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that the CNTs were dispersed homogeneously, indicating that the original CNT bundles were separated into individual tubes by the grafting.

  4. Electrospun mats from styrene/maleic anhydride copolymers: modification with amines and assessment of antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Milena; Stoilova, Olya; Manolova, Nevena; Markova, Nadya; Rashkov, Iliya

    2010-08-11

    New antimicrobial microfibrous electrospun mats from styrene/maleic anhydride copolymers were prepared. Two approaches were applied: (i) grafting of poly(propylene glycol) monoamine (Jeffamine® M-600) on the mats followed by formation of complex with iodine; (ii) modification of the mats with amines of 8-hydroxyquinoline or biguanide type with antimicrobial activity. Microbiological screening against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans revealed that both the formation of complex with iodine and the covalent attachment of 5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline or of chlorhexidine impart high antimicrobial activity to the mats. In addition, S. aureus bacteria did not adhere to modified mats.

  5. POLYMER—SUPPORTED RHODIUM CATALYSTS FOR CARBONYLATION OF METHYL ACETATE TO ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENDean; HUANGShizhuan; 等

    1993-01-01

    Two kinds of rhodium catalysts supported on cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers containing bipyridine or o-phenylene diamine have been prepared and found to display high activity for methyl acetate carbonylation to form acetic anhydride,the activities are even higher than their homogeneous counterparts. XPS analysis was used to characterize the synthetic catalysts.The apparent activation parameters were determined to be Eα=73.3KJ/mol,ΔH≠=66.3KJ/mol,ΔS≠=-28.6eu.These parameters are very close to those in methanol carbonylation and imply to have analogous mechanism in both cases.

  6. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of octenyl succinic anhydride modified inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Ye-Wang; Zhang, Hongyin; Yang, Qiya; Wang, Haiying; Zhang, Guochao

    2015-01-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride modified inulin (In-OSA) was synthesized via chemical modification of inulin with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). The esterification of inulin with OSA was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and degree of substitution (DS) calculation. Antibacterial activity of In-OSA against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition rate determination. The results showed that inhibition rates against both E.coli and S. aureus increased with the increase of the In-OSA concentration. And the MICs against E. coli and S. aureus were 1% and 0.5% (w/v), respectively. The antibacterial mechanism was analyzed with the results of the proteins and nucleic acids leakage, SEM and negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both the leakages of proteins and nucleic acids increased with the increase of the In-OSA concentration. The leakage occurred mainly in the early stage which indicated that cell membrane and wall were destroyed by In-OSA quickly. The images of SEM and negative staining TEM suggested that the cell membranes and cell walls of S. aureus were damaged more severely and even destroyed completely; but only pores appeared on the surface of E. coli.

  7. Efficient photochemical generation of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides with ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Rider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical sources of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs are utilized in many atmospheric measurement techniques for calibration or to deliver an internal standard. Conventionally, such sources rely on phosphor-coated low-pressure mercury (Hg lamps to generate the UV light necessary to photo-dissociate a dialkyl ketone (usually acetone in the presence of a calibrated amount of nitric oxide (NO and oxygen (O2. In this manuscript, a photochemical PAN source in which the Hg lamp has been replaced by arrays of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs is described. The output of the UV-LED source was analyzed by gas chromatography (PAN-GC and thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS. Using acetone, diethyl ketone (DIEK, diisopropyl ketone (DIPK, or di-n-propyl ketone (DNPK, respectively, the source produces peroxyacetic (PAN, peroxypropionic (PPN, peroxyisobutanoic (PiBN, or peroxy-n-butanoic nitric anhydride (PnBN from NO in high yield (> 90%. Box model simulations with a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM were carried out to rationalize products yields and to identify side products. The use of UV-LED arrays offers many advantages over conventional Hg lamp setups, including greater light output over a narrower wavelength range, lower power consumption, and minimal generation of heat.

  8. Grafting of poly (lactic acid) with maleic anhydride using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankrua, R.; Pivsa-Art, S.; Hiroyuki, H.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to modify poly lactic acid (PLA) via free radical grafting with maleic anhydride (MA) by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was used as an initiator. The solubility of MA in SCCO2 was first determined to estimate the suitable grafting conditions and equilibrium. From the solubility study of MA in SCCO2, it was found that the solubility of MA in SCCO2 increased with the increasing pressure and dissolution time. PLA films were first prepared by compression molding. The ratio of MA to BPO was 2:1. The reaction temperature and pressure were 70°C and 100 bar respectively. The grafting reaction and the degree of grafting were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and titration, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique and contact angle were used to confirm the changes in physical properties of PLA film grafted MA. NMR spectrum indicated that the grafting of MA onto PLA was successively achieved. Degree of grafting by using SCCO2 was as high as 0.98%. This provided rather high grafting degree compared with other processes. SEM pictures showed the rough surface structure on modified PLA film. In addition, contact angle results showed an improvement of the hydrophilicity by maleic anhydride grafting onto polymers.

  9. Polycondensation of Tetrahydrofuran with Phthalic Anhydride Induced By a Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belbachir

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: “Maghnite” a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay, exchanged with protons to produce “H-Maghnite” is an efficient catalyst for polymerization of many vinylic and heterocyclic monomers (Belbachir, M. U.S. Patent. 066969.0101 –2001. The structure compositions of both “Maghnite” and “H-Maghnite” have been developed. This catalyst was used for the polycondensation of the tetrahydrofuran with phthalic anhydride. The polymerization was performed under suitable conditions at temperature (40°C, in presence of acetic anhydride. Experiments revealed that polymerization induced by “H-Maghnite”, proceed in bulk and the conversion increases with increasing “H-Maghnite” proportion.

  10. Synthesis and properties of starch-g-poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch-g-poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate (SMV was synthesized via the esterification reaction of starch with the copolymer of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate. The carboxylic unit percentage (CUP of SMV was tailored with reaction conditions, and it ranged from 29.8 to 46.9%. The structure and the morphology of the copolymers were characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that SMV could form complex with some metal cations such as Ca2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+ or cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan, and precipitate from the solution. The weight of precipitation increases with an increase of the CUP of SMV. In addition, a physically cross-linked hydrogel of SMV/poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA was obtained by freeze/thaw technique. Scanning electron microscopy exhibited the hydrogel was uniform. The gel exhibited pH-responsive re-swelling. The maximum swelling-ratio values of SMV/PVA (9:1, wt/wt gel were 3.29 and 5.34 in HCl (pH 1.0 and phosphate-buffer saline (PBS (pH 12 respectively.

  11. EFFECT OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE ON KENAF DUST FILLED POLYCAPROLACTONE/THERMOPLASTIC SAGO STARCH COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Yee Chang,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of biodegradable polymers for various applications has been restricted mainly by its high cost. This report aims to study the water absorption and mechanical properties of kenaf dust-filled polycaprolactone/thermoplastic sago starch biodegradable composites as a function of filler loading and treatment with maleic anhydride. While water absorption in untreated biocomposites increased as a function of filler loading, treated biocomposites resulted in weight loss, whereby low molecular weight substances were dissolved into the aging medium. The kenaf dust imparts reinforcing effects on the biocomposites, resulting in improved mechanical properties. This is further attested by morphological studies in which kenaf dust was well dispersed in the polycaprolactone/ thermoplastic sago starch blend matrix. The addition of maleic anhydride into the polycaprolactone/thermoplastic sago starch blend resulted in a homogeneous mixture. At low filler loading, strain at break of the maleated polycaprolactone/thermoplastic sago starch blend increased at the expense of tensile strength and modulus. This is most likely due to the excessive dicumyl peroxide content, which caused chain scission of the polycaprolactone backbone. Tensile strength and modulus improved only when high filler loading was employed.

  12. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  13. Lysine adducts between methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride and collagen in guinea pig lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, B A; Wishnok, J S; Skipper, P L; Stillwell, W G; Tannenbaum, S R

    1995-11-01

    The formation of adducts between methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA), an important industrial chemical and potent allergen, and collagen from guinea pig lung tissue was investigated. Collagen peptides were obtained from the lung tissue by homogenization, defatting, washing, and digestion with collagenase. In experiments in vitro, lung tissue was exposed to 8.4 mumol (50 microCi) of 14C MTHPA. The amount of adducts was 97 nmol MTHPA/g of wet tissue as determined from the bound radioactivity. In a study in vivo, four guinea pigs were injected intratracheally with 8.4 mumol of 14C MTHPA each. The amount of adducts was 0-1.2 nmol MTHPA/g of wet tissue (determined by bound radioactivity). N epsilon-methyltetrahydrophthaloyl-L-lysine (MTHPL) was synthesized and characterized by NMR, UV, and mass spectrometry (MS). A method to analyze MTHPL, after derivatization with methanol and pentafluorobenzoyl chloride, using gas chromatography-MS was developed. Analysis of Pronase-digested MTHPA-exposed lung tissue showed a concentration of 19 nmol MTHPL/g wet lung in vitro and between 0 and 0.15 nmol MTHPL/g wet lung in vivo. Thus, 20% in vitro and 12-15% in vivo of the bound radioactivity was found as adducts with lysine. These results are a first step toward studies of allergenic epitopes in proteins and methods for biological monitoring of exposure to acid anhydrides.

  14. Gelatin-based biomaterial engineering with anhydride-containing oligomeric cross-linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Tina; Hötzel, Rudi; Kascholke, Christian; Anderegg, Ulf; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    Chemically cross-linked gelatin hydrogels are versatile cell-adhesive hydrogel materials that have been established for a variety of biomedical applications. The most prominent cross-linker is glutaraldehyde, which, however, has been described to cause compatibility problems and loss of microscopic but relevant structural features. A recently developed oligomeric cross-linker that contains anhydride functionalities was evaluated as cross-linker for the fabrication of gelatin-based hydrogels and microparticles. In a fast curing reaction, hydrogels composed of gelatin and oligomeric cross-linker were fabricated with good conversion over a wide concentration range of constituents and with cross-linkers of different anhydride contents. Hydrogel properties, such as dry weight and mechanics, could be controlled by hydrogel composition and rheological properties correlated to elastic moduli from 1 to 10 kPa. The gels were shown to be cytocompatible and promoted cell adhesion. In soft formulations, cells migrated into the hydrogel bulk. Gelatin microparticles prepared by a standard water-in-oil emulsion technique were also treated with the novel oligomers, and cross-linking degrees matching those obtained with glutaraldehyde were obtained. At the same time, fewer interparticular cross-links were observed. Fluorescein-derivatized cross-linkers yielded labeled microparticles in a concentration-dependent manner. The oligomeric cross-linkers are presented as an efficient and possibly more functional and compatible alternative to glutaraldehyde. The engineered hydrogel materials hold potential for various biomedical applications.

  15. Pomelo peel modified with acetic anhydride and styrene as new sorbents for removal of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Junchen; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Beibei; Yin, Tiantian

    2015-11-01

    Pomelo peel (PP), as one of the well-known agricultural wastes, is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Based on PP, two new kinds of oil sorbents were prepared by using acetic anhydride and styrene. The structures of raw pomelo peel (RP), acetic anhydride-treated pomelo peel (AP) and styrene-treated pomelo peel (SP) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact-angle (CA) measurements. The optimum reaction conditions for preparation of AP and SP were also investigated. The resulting products exhibited better oil sorption capacity than that of RP for diesel and lubricating oil, also SP had better oil sorption capacity than AP, while the oil sorption capacities of SP for diesel and lubricating oil reached 18.91 and 26.36 g/g, respectively. Adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that AP and SP, especially SP could be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials.

  16. Characterization and in vitro degradation of salicylate-derived poly(anhydride-ester microspheres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeagy, Brian A; Prudencio, Almudena; Schmeltzer, Robert C; Uhrich, Kathryn E; Cook, Thomas J

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how glass transition temperature (Tg) influenced polymer microsphere formation and degradation of three chemically, similar novel salicylatebased poly(anhydride-esters): poly[1,6-bis(o-carboxyphenoxy)hexanoate] (CPH), Tg = 59 degrees C; poly[1,8-bis(o-carboxyphenoxy)octanoate] (CPO), Tg = 30 degrees C; and poly[1,10-bis(ocarboxyphenoxy) decanoate] (CPD), Tg = 27 degrees C. Microspheres of these polymers were prepared using a modified oil-in-water solvent evaporation method and processed by either resuspension or washed by centrifugation. The morphology of the microspheres determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that an extra washing step appears to increase aggregation as the Tg decreases; whereas only limited aggregation occurred in the polymer with the lowest Tg, CPD, in those not washed by centrifugation. Residual polyvinyl alcohol apparently affected the drug release rates from the microspheres by a stabilization process that produced an 8 h lag time and a 5% decrease in the amount of drug released over a 7 day period compared to microspheres washed free of PVA. These results demonstrate that salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters) with sufficiently high Tgs, can be processed into microspheres that release salicylate over a time period amenable for drug delivery applications.

  17. Catalytic behavior of Sn/Bi metal powder in anhydride-based epoxy curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Keon-Soo; Eom, Yong-Sung; Moon, Jong-Tae; Oh, Yong-Soo; Nam, Jae-Do

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we report the catalytic activity of the Sn/Bi alloy beads and its acceleration of the exothermic epoxy curing reactions in various thermal conditions and bead compositions. As being used as low-melting solder balls in electronic interconnection processes with various epoxy systems, it was found that the Sn/Bi beads substantially lowered the exothermic peak temperature of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)/anhydride systems in up to ca. 140 degrees C depending on different types of anhydride curing agents. The catalytic activation of Sn/Bi powder was initiated with a small amount of Sn/Bi powder, for example, lowering ca. 50 degrees C of the exothermic peak temperature by adding only 0.1 vol% of Sn/Bi powder. The catalytic capability of the powder was increased by using smaller sized beads corresponding to larger catalytic surface area at the same volume fraction. Exhibiting a latent catalytic effect, the catalytic activity of Sn/Bi powder was remained latent at temperatures lower than 100 degrees C in isothermal conditions.

  18. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Salts as New Catalysts to Produce Epoxy-anhydride Polymers with Improved Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail S. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the curing process of epoxy oligomers by using isomethyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride catalyzed with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salts. Catalytic action has been ascertained to be dependent on the nature of anion. Salts with (Br- and (PO4- anions appeared to be most active. Formation of salt adducts with epoxy resin and anhydride is shown. Polymers having higher values of strength and glass transition temperature—as compared with similar epoxy systems cured in the presence of tertiary amines as catalysts—are prepared.

  19. CHARGE-TRANSFER AND ENERGY-TRANSFER IN THE PHOTO-INDUCED COPOLYMERIZATION OF 2-VINYLNAPHTHALENE WITH MALEIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tong; LUO Bin; LI Shanjun; CHU Guobei

    1990-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of the copolymerization of 2-vinylnaphthalene with maleic anhydride was studied under irradiation of 365 nm. The excited complex was formed from ( 1 ) the local excitation of 2-vinylnaphthalene followed by the charge-transfer interaction with maleic anhydride and ( 2 ) the excitation of the ground state charge-transfer complex, and then it collapsed to 1,4-tetramethylene biradical for initiation. A 1:1 alternating copolymer was formed in different monomer feeds. Addition of benzophenone could greatly enhance the rate of copolymerization through energy-transfer mechanism.

  20. SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE TO Y-BUTYROLACTONE OVER PD/AL(2)O(3) CATALYST USING SUPERCRITICAL CO(2) AS SOLVENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A selective hydrogenation of maleic anhydride to either y-butyrolactone or succinic anhydride over simple Pd/Al(2)O(3) catalyst under supercritical CO(2) medium is described for the first time which has considerable promise for obht lab-scale as well as industrial selective hydro...

  1. Soluble Synthetic Analogs of Malaria Pigment: Structure of Mesohematin Anhydride [FeIII(MP-IX)]2 and Solution Interaction with Chloroquine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Bohle; E Dodd; A Kosar; L Sharma; P Stephens; L Suarez; D Tazoo

    2011-12-31

    Changing the vinyl groups of hematin anhydride to either ethyl or hydrogen groups results in increased solubility (Por=porphyrin). Determination of the weak binding constants of the antimalarial drug chloroquine to dimers of these hematin anhydride analogues suggests that solution-phase heme/drug interactions alone are unlikely to be the origin of the action of the drug.

  2. EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION POSITION OF HYDROXY GROUP AT BENZOIC ACID ON THE LUMINESCENT AND DEGRADATION PROPERTIES OF POLY[DI(CARBOXYPHENYL) SUCCINATE-co-SEBACIC ANHYDRIDE]S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Fan; Hong-liang Jiang; Kang-jie Zhu

    2007-01-01

    In this work, two new diacids, di(m-carboxyphenyl) succinate (m-dCPS) and di(o-carboxyphenyl) succinate (o-dCPS), were synthesized by reaction of m-, o-hydroxy benzoic acid with succinic chloride, respectively. Their corresponding copolymers with sebacic acid (SA), P(m-dCPS:SA) and P(o-dCPS:SA), were prepared by melt copolycondensation and characterized by NMR, UV and DSC methods. Compared with inherently fluorescent poly[di(p-carboxyphenyl) succinateco-sebacic anhydride] (P(p-dCPS:SA)), P(m-dCPS:SA) and P(o-dCPS:SA) displayed different luminescent properties. P(m-dCPS:SA) could emit fluorescence under the excitation of both visible and UV light, while P(o-dCPS:SA) could only emit fluorescence when excited with UV light. Degradation rate of the two new copolyanhydrides increased with the increase of SA fraction in the copolymers. In addition, P(o-dCPS:SA) degraded more rapidly than P(m-dCPS:SA) with the same composition. Typical surface-degradation characteristics of these copolyanhydrides were observed.

  3. RAFT copolymerization of itaconic anhydride and 2-methoxyethyl acrylate: a multifunctional scaffold for preparation of “clickable” gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Kasama, Takeshi; Jankova, Katja Atanasova

    2013-01-01

    RAFT copolymerization of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate and itaconic anhydride – a monomer derived from renewable resources – is carried out in a controlled fashion. The copolymer allows preparation of gold nanoparticles with abundant surficial carboxyl and alkyne functional groups that are dendronized ...

  4. Kinetics of Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride by In-Situ FTIR Spectroscopy: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Shaker; Erkey, Can

    2005-01-01

    A reaction kinetics experiment for the chemical engineering undergraduate laboratory course was developed in which in-situ Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure reactant and product concentrations. The kinetics of the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride was determined by experiments carried out in a batch reactor. The results…

  5. Preparation and structural characterisation of novel and versatile amphiphilic octenyl succinic anhydride-modified hyaluronic acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eenschooten, Corinne Diane; Guillaumie, Fanny; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare amphiphilic hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives and to study the influence of a selection of reaction parameters on the degree of substitution (DS) of the derivatives. Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)–modified HA (OSA–HA) derivatives were prepared...

  6. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Yaoqi

    2016-05-01

    Biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch was investigated using ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media. Waxy maize starch was pretreated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chlorine and then esterified with OSA in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate by using Novozyme 435 as catalyst. The degree of substitution of OSA starch reached 0.0130 with 5 wt% starch concentration and 1 wt% lipase dosage based on ILs weight at 50 °C for 3h. The formation of OSA starch was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that the morphology and crystal structure of starch were significantly destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that esterification decreased the thermal stability of starch. The successful lipase-catalyzed synthesis of OSA starch in ILs suggests that ILs are potential replacement of traditional organic solvents for starch ester biosynthesis.

  7. Effects of Amine and Anhydride Curing Agents on the VARTM Matrix Processing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Hubert, Pascal; Song, Xiaolan; Cano, Roberto J.; Loos, Alfred C.; Pipes, R. Byron

    2002-01-01

    To ensure successful application of composite structure for aerospace vehicles, it is necessary to develop material systems that meet a variety of requirements. The industry has recently developed a number of low-viscosity epoxy resins to meet the processing requirements associated with vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) of aerospace components. The curing kinetics and viscosity of two of these resins, an amine-cured epoxy system, Applied Poleramic, Inc. VR-56-4 1, and an anhydride-cured epoxy system, A.T.A.R.D. Laboratories SI-ZG-5A, have been characterized for application in the VARTM process. Simulations were carried out using the process model, COMPRO, to examine heat transfer, curing kinetics and viscosity for different panel thicknesses and cure cycles. Results of these simulations indicate that the two resins have significantly different curing behaviors and flow characteristics.

  8. Polycondensation of Tetrahydrofuran with Phthalic Anhydride Induced By a Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Belbachir; Mohammed Issam Ferrahi

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: “Maghnite†a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay, exchanged with protons to produce “H-Maghnite†is an efficient catalyst for polymerization of many vinylic and heterocyclic monomers (Belbachir, M. U.S. Patent. 066969.0101 –2001). The structure compositions of both “Maghnite†and “H-Maghnite†have been developed. This catalyst was used for the polycondensation of the tetrahydrofuran with phthalic anhydride. The polymerization was performed un...

  9. Poly(anhydride-esters) comprised exclusively of naturally occurring antimicrobials and EDTA: antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-05-12

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways.

  10. Functionalization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces with maleic anhydride copolymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ana L; Zschoche, Stefan; Janke, Andreas; Nitschke, Mirko; Werner, Carsten

    2009-02-01

    Combining advantageous bulk properties of polymeric materials with surface-selective chemical conversions is required in numerous advanced technologies. For that aim, we investigate strategies to graft maleic anhydride (MA) copolymer films onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) precoatings. Amino groups allowing the covalent attachment of the MA copolymer films to the PDMS (Sylgard 184) surface were introduced either by low-pressure ammonia plasma treatment, or by attachment of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) onto air plasma-treated PDMS. The resultant coatings were extensively characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), contact angle measurements, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the impact of the plasma treatment on the physical properties on the topmost surface of the PDMS is critically important for the characteristics of the layered coatings.

  11. Role of Cellulose Nanocrystals on the Microstructure of Maleic Anhydride Plasma Polymer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioude, Michel M; Roucoules, Vincent; Haidara, Hamidou; Vonna, Laurent; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Recently, it was shown that the microstructure of a maleic anhydride plasma polymer (MAPP) could be tailored ab initio by adjusting the plasma process parameters. In this work, we aim to investigate the ability of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) to induce topographical structuration. Thus, a new approach was designed based on the deposition of MAPP on CNCs model surfaces. The nanocellulosic surfaces were produced by spin-coating the CNC suspension on a silicon wafer substrate and on a hydrophobic silicon wafer substrate patterned with circular hydrophilic microsized domains (diameter of 86.9 ± 4.9 μm), resulting in different degrees of CNC aggregation. By depositing the MAPP over these surfaces, it was possible to observe that the surface fraction of nanostructures increased from 20% to 35%. This observation suggests that CNCs can act as nucleation points resulting in more structures, although a critical density of the CNCs is required.

  12. Substituted Phthalic Anhydrides from Biobased Furanics: A New Approach to Renewable Aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; Genuino, Homer C; Śliwa, Michał; van der Waal, Jan C; de Jong, Ed; van Haveren, Jacco; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; van Es, Daan S

    2015-09-21

    A novel route for the production of renewable aromatic chemicals, particularly substituted phthalic acid anhydrides, is presented. The classical two-step approach to furanics-derived aromatics via Diels-Alder (DA) aromatization has been modified into a three-step procedure to address the general issue of the reversible nature of the intermediate DA addition step. The new sequence involves DA addition, followed by a mild hydrogenation step to obtain a stable oxanorbornane intermediate in high yield and purity. Subsequent one-pot, liquid-phase dehydration and dehydrogenation of the hydrogenated adduct using a physical mixture of acidic zeolites or resins in combination with metal on a carbon support then allows aromatization with yields as high as 84 % of total aromatics under relatively mild conditions. The mechanism of the final aromatization reaction step unexpectedly involves a lactone as primary intermediate.

  13. Enhanced Activity of Nanocrystalline Beta Zeolite for Acylation of Veratrole with Acetic Anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha Mahmood Abdulkareem, Al-Turkustani; Selvin, Rosilda

    2016-04-01

    Friedel-Craft acylation of veratrole using homogeneous acid catalysts such as AlCl3, FeCl3, ZnCl2, and HF etc. produces acetoveratrone, (3',4'-dimethoxyacetophenone), which is the intermediate for synthesis of papavarine alkaloids. The problems associated with these homogeneous catalysts can be overcome by using heterogeneous solid catalysts. Since acetoveratrone is a larger molecule, large pore Beta zeolites with smaller particle sizes are beneficial for the liquid-phase acylation of veratrole, for easy diffusion of reactants and products. The present study aims in the acylation of veratrole with acetic anhydride using nanocrystalline Beta Zeolite catalyst. A systematic investigation of the effects of various reaction parameters was done. The catalysts were characterized for their structural features by using XRD, TEM and DLS analyses. The catalytic activity of nanocrystalline Beta zeolite was compared with commercial Beta zeolite for the acylation and was found that nanocrystalline Beta zeolite possessed superior activity.

  14. Synthesis and paste properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified early Indica rice starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiao-yan; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui; HE Guo-qing; XU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified early Indica rice starch was prepared in aqueous slurry systems using response surface methodology. The paste properties of the OSA starch were also investigated. Results indicated that the suitable parameters for the preparation of OSA starch from early Indica rice starch were as follows: reaction period 4 h, reaction temperature 33.4 ℃, pH of reaction system 8.4, concentration of starch slurry 36.8% (in proportion to water, w/w), amount of OSA 3% (in proportion to starch, w/w). The degree of substitution was 0.0188 and the reaction efficiency was 81.0%. The results of paste properties showed that with increased OSA modification, the starch derivatives had higher paste clarity, decreased retrogradation and better freeze-thaw stability.

  15. Oil recovery with sulfomethylated poly (lower alkyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-05-22

    Lower alkyl vinyl ether e.g., methyl vinyl ether, propyl vinyl ether, isopropyl vinyl ether, hexyl vinyl ether, is copolymerized conventionally with maleic anhydride, the resulting copolymer is treated with ammonia or ammonium hydroxide to form the partial amide-ammonium salt, and this salt is in turn treated with formaldehyde and thereafter or simultaneously with ammonium or alkali metal salt sulfite (including bisulfites, etc.) to form an at least partially sulfomethylated copolymer. Aqueous solutions of the sulfomethylated copolymer are useful in increasing the viscosity of drive fluids used in the supplemented recovery of petroleum from subterranean formations. In general, enhancing the polyionic character of mobility control agents used in supplemented recovery of petroleum provides enhanced recovery. Achieving this enhancement of polyionic character through use of sulfonate groups provides a mobility control agent with good ability to sustain viscosity in the presence of brine and lime, usually present in the connate waters of petroleum-bearing formations. (7 claims)

  16. Synthesis of Poly(aryl amide imide)s Derived from o-diphenyltrimellitic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of novel poly(aryl amide imide)s based on o-diphenyltrimellitic anhydride are described.The poly(aryl amide-imide)s having inherent viscosities of 0.39-1.43dL/g in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone at 30℃,were prepared by polymerization with aromatic diamines in N,N-dimethylacetamide and subsequent chemical imidization.All the polymers were amorphous,readily soluble in aprotic polar solvents such as DMAC,NMP,DMF,DMSO,and m-cresol,and could be cast to form flexible and tough films.The glass trsanition temperatures were in the range of 284-336℃,and the temperatures for 5% weight loss in nitrogen were above 468℃.

  17. Dual-Functional Hydrazide-Reactive and Anhydride-Containing Oligomeric Hydrogel Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascholke, Christian; Loth, Tina; Kohn-Polster, Caroline; Möller, Stephanie; Bellstedt, Peter; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-02-08

    Biomimetic hydrogels are advanced biomaterials that have been developed following different synthetic routes. Covalent postfabrication functionalization is a promising strategy to achieve efficient matrix modification decoupled of general material properties. To this end, dual-functional macromers were synthesized by free radical polymerization of maleic anhydride with diacetone acrylamide (N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxobutyl)acrylamide) and pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate. Amphiphilic oligomers (Mn 40%). Efficient hydrazide/hydrazine immobilization depending on solution pH, hydrogel ketone content as well as ligand concentration for bioconjugation was shown and reversibility of hydrazone formation was indicated by physiologically relevant hydrazide release over 7 days. Proof-of-concept experiments with hydrazido-functionalized hyaluronan demonstrated potential for covalent aECM immobilization. The presented dual-functional macromers have perspective as reactive hydrogel building blocks for various biomedical applications.

  18. Stereodynamic control of star-epoxy/anhydride crosslinking actuated by liquid-crystalline phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Jean-Mathieu; Mija, Alice; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas

    2017-02-07

    The epoxy/anhydride copolymerization kinetics of an original star-epoxy monomer (TriaEP) was explored in dynamic heating mode using a series of isoconversional methods. Negative values of the apparent activation energy (Eα) related to an anti-Arrhenius behavior were observed. The transition from Arrhenius to anti-Arrhenius behavior and vice versa depending on the Eα of polymerization was correlated with the dynamics of mesophasic fall-in/fall-out events, physically induced transition (PIT) and chemically induced transition (CIT). This self-assembly phenomenon induces the generation of an anisotropic crosslinked architecture exhibiting both nematic discotic (ND) and nematic columnar (NC) organization. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluating the juxtaposition/contribution of the liquid-crystalline transitions to crosslinking, considering both the reaction dynamics and the macromolecular vision.

  19. Terpolymerization of 2-ethoxy ethylmethacrylate, styrene and maleic anhydride: determination of the reactivity ratios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Sanmathi; S Prasannakumar; B S Sherigara

    2004-06-01

    Terpolymerization of 2-ethoxyethyl methacrylate (2-EOEMA), styrene (St) and maleic anhydride (Ma) initiated by benzoyl peroxide was carried out in acetone as common solvent for three monomers. The structure and composition of terpolymer were determined by FTIR spectroscopy by recording analytical absorption bands for St (3002 cm-1), Ma (1781 cm-1) and 2-EOEMA (1261 cm-1) units, respectively. The reactivity ratios for the monomers were calculated according to the general copolymerization equations following the Finnemann–Ross and Kelen–Tudos models. The results show that terpolymerization were carried out through primary ``complex" mechanism at near-binary copolymerization of [St...Ma] complex with 2-EOEMA. Structure of the resulting terpolymer illustrated by 1H-NMR and differential scanning calorimeter showed reduction in g value.

  20. Fluorescence and Judd-Ofelt analysis of rare earth complexes with maleic anhydride and acrylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Shipeng; ZHANG Xiaoping; HU Shui; ZHANG Liqun; LIU Li

    2008-01-01

    Two kinds of Eu-complexes, Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(AA) and Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(MA) (HTFA=2-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone, Phen=1,10-phenanthroline, AA=acrylic acid, MA=Maleic anhydride), which combined the excellent fluorescence properties of Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(H2O) and the reactivity of acrylic acid and maleic anhydride with radicals, were synthesized. The two complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the data shown from the fluorescent spectra of the Eu-MA and Eu-AA complexes, the Ωλ (λ=2 and 4) experimental intensity parameters were calculated. The results demonstrated that the Ω2 intensity parameters for the two complexes were smaller than those for the Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(H2O) complex, indicating that a less symmetri-cal chemical environment existed in the complexes. It implied that the radiative efficiency of the 5D0 of these two complexes could be en-hanced by ligand of MA and AA, respectively. The luminescent lifetime of the Eu-AA (τ=7.26×10-4 s) or Eu-MA complex (τ=-8.12×10-4 s) was higher than that of the Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(H2O) complex, which was attributed to the substitution of the water molecule (H2O) in Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(H2O) by the MA or AA ligand.

  1. Interactions of poly (anhydride) nanoparticles with macrophages in light of their vaccine adjuvant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, C; Bussmann, H; Giemsa, S; Camacho, A I; Unsihuay, Daisy; Martín-Arbella, N; Irache, J M

    2015-12-30

    Understanding how nanoparticles are formed and how those processes ultimately determine the nanoparticles' properties and their impact on their capture by immune cells is key in vaccination studies. Accordingly, we wanted to evaluate how the previously described poly (anhydride)-based nanoparticles of the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (NP) interact with macrophages, and how this process depends on the physicochemical properties derived from the method of preparation. First, we studied the influence of the desolvation and drying processes used to obtain the nanoparticles. NP prepared by the desolvation of the polymers in acetone with a mixture of ethanol and water yielded higher mean diameters than those obtained in the presence of water (250nm vs. 180nm). In addition, nanoparticles dried by lyophilization presented higher negative zeta potentials than those dried by spray-drying (-47mV vs. -35mV). Second, the influence of the NP formulation on the phagocytosis by J774 murine macrophage-like cell line was investigated. The data indicated that NPs prepared in the presence of water were at least three-times more efficiently internalized by cells than NPs prepared with the mixture of ethanol and water. Besides, lyophilized nanoparticles appeared to be more efficiently taken up by J744 cells than those dried by spray-drying. To further understand the specific mechanisms involved in the cellular internalization of NPs, different pharmacological inhibitors were used to interfere with specific uptake pathways. Results suggest that the NP formulations, particularly, nanoparticles prepared by the addition of ethanol:water, are internalized by the clathrin-mediated endocytosis, rather than caveolae-mediated mechanisms, supporting their previously described vaccine adjuvant properties.

  2. Controlled delivery of paclitaxel from stent coatings using novel styrene maleic anhydride copolymer formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Robert; Schwarz, Marlene; Chan, Ken; Teigen, Nikolai; Boden, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The controlled release of paclitaxel (PTx) from stent coatings comprising an elastomeric polymer blended with a styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymer is described. The coated stents were characterized for morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and for drug release using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the extent of interaction between the PTx and polymers in the formulation. Coronary stents were coated with blends of poly(b-styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS) and SMA containing 7% or 14% maleic anhydride (MA) by weight. SEM examination of the stents showed that the coating did not crack or delaminate either before or after stent expansion. Examination of the coating surface via AFM after elution of the drug indicated that PTx resides primarily in the SMA phase and provided information about the mechanism of PTx release. The addition of SMA altered the release profile of PTx from the base elastomer coatings. In addition, the presence of the SMA enabled tunable release of PTx from the elastomeric stent coatings, while preserving mechanical properties. Thermal analysis reveled no shift in the glass transition temperatures for any of the polymers at all drug loadings studied, indicating that the PTx is not miscible with any component of the polymer blend. An in vivo evaluation indicated that biocompatibility and vascular response results for SMA/SIBS-coated stents (without PTx) are similar to results for SIBS-only-coated and bare stainless steel control stents when implanted in the non-injured coronary arteries of common swine for 30 and 90 days.

  3. The influence of tertiary amine accelerators on the curing behaviors of epoxy/anhydride systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Chongfeng; Zhang, Junying, E-mail: zjybuct@gmail.com; Cheng, Jue

    2014-02-10

    Highlights: • The influences of two types of accelerators (BDMA and DMP-30) on curing reaction of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems were studied comparatively. • The activation energy and kinetic parameters of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems with accelerator content of 0.2 phr and 0.5 phr were calculated, respectively. • The dependence of autocatalytic and non-autocatalytic curing reaction on the loading of accelerators was discussed. • The non-catalytic curing reaction dominated absolutely in the curing process of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems when the accelerator contents were 0.2 phr. - Abstract: Accelerators have significant effects on the curing behaviors of epoxy/anhydride (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F/methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride, DGEBF/MeHHPA) systems. Non-isothermal DSC was used to investigate the influence of dimethyl benzylamine (BDMA, 0.2 phr/0.5 phr) and Tris-(dimethyl aminomethyl) phenol (DMP-30, 0.2 phr/0.5 phr) on the curing behaviors of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems, respectively. When the amount of accelerators was kept constant, the activation energy calculated by Kissinger method changed slightly in the presence of either BDMA or DMP-30. And, with increasing the accelerator content from 0.2 phr to 0.5 phr, the value of activation energy decreased from 115 kJ/mol to 85 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the calculation results of Málek method identified that all systems in this study fitted Sesták–Berggren (SB) model and the corresponding model parameters, m and n, were obtained. It was found that the contribution of autocatalytic reaction with low accelerator content (0.2 phr) was far less than that with high accelerator content (0.5 phr)

  4. Effect of maleic anhydride-aniline derivative buffer layer on the properties of flexible substrate heterostructures: Indium tin oxide/nucleic acid base/metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanculescu, A., E-mail: sanca@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, Universite d' Angers, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045, Angers (France); Preda, N. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Albu, A.-M. [Department of Polymer Science, University ' Politehnica' of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Stanculescu, F. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Str. Atomistilor nr.405, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 (Romania)

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the properties of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) based heterostructures deposited on flexible substrates. The effects of two types of maleic anhydride-aniline derivatives (maleic anhydride-cyano aniline or maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline) buffer layer, deposited between indium tin oxide and (G) or (C) layer, on the optical and electrical properties of the heterostructures have been identified. The heterostructures containing a film of maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline have shown a good transparency and low photoluminescence in visible range. This buffer layer has determined an increase in the conductance only in the heterostructures based on (G) and (C) deposited on biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate substrate.

  5. Modular access to vicinally functionalized allylic (thio)morpholinonates and piperidinonates by substrate-controlled annulation of 1,3-azadienes with hexacyclic anhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Hannah; Langevin, Spencer; Khim, Monique; Adamson, Jonathan; Hovenkotter, Katie; Kotlarz, Lindsey; Mansker, Brandon; Beng, Timothy K

    2016-09-21

    A modular substrate-controlled hexannulation of inherently promiscuous 1,3-azadienes with hexacyclic anhydrides, which affords versatile vicinally functionalized allylic lactams, in high yields, regio- and stereoselectivities is described.

  6. Grafting amino drugs to poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) as a potential method for drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, Ardeshir; Saednia, Shahnaz; Saien, Javad; Abbasi, Fatemeh, E-mail: Khazaei_1326@yahoo.com, E-mail: ssaednia@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazem-Rostami, Masoud [Young Researchers Club and Elite, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghpour, Mahdieh [Department of Chemistry, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borazjani, Maryam Kiani [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Bushehr Payame Noor University (PNU), Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Drug delivery systems based on polymer-drug conjugates give an improved treatment with lower toxicity or side effects and be used for the treatment of different diseases. Conjugates of biodegradable poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA), with a therapeutic agents such as amantadine hydrochloride, amlodipine, gabapentin, zonisamide and mesalamine, were afforded by the formation of the amide bonds of the amino drugs that reacted with the PSMA anhydride groups. The amounts of covalently conjugated drugs were determined by a {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic method, and the in vitro release rate in buffer solution (pH 1.3) was studied at body temperature 37 Degree-Sign C. In kinetic studies, different dissolution models were examined to obtain drug release data and the collected data were well-fitted to the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation, revealing a dominant Fickian diffusion mechanism for drug release under the in vitro conditions. (author)

  7. Facile and Efficient Acetylation of Primary Alcohols and Phenols with Acetic Anhydride Catalyzed by Dried Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of primary alcohols and phenols were reacted with acetic anhydride at room temperature in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to produce corresponding esters in good to excellent yields. The acetylation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol was also carried out using other bicarbonates and carbonates. The reaction in the presence of cesium bicarbonate and lithium carbonate gave 4-nitrobenzyl acetate in excellent yield, while in the presence of Na2CO3, K2CO3, Cs2CO3, or KHCO3 the yield was in the range of 80%–95%. Calcium carbonate and cobaltous carbonate did not promote the acetylation of 4-ntirobenzyl alcohol using acetic anhydride. The acetylation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol was carried out using ethyl acetate, THF, toluene, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and acetonitrile, and gave good yields ranging from 75%–99%. Toluene was the best solvent for the reaction, while diethyl ether was the poorest.

  8. The Reaction of Crotonic Anhydride with Scots and Corsican Pine: Investigation of Kinetic Profiles and Determination of Activation Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Özmen, Nilgül; ÇETİN, Nihat Sami

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of crotonic anhydride with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) using pyridine as catalyst/solvent was investigated and activation energies for the initial reaction determined. Activation energies were calculated from the Arrhenius equation using rate data obtained from time-course experiments repeated at several temperatures. In one method, reaction constants (k) were determined experimentally, while in the other method initial rates were...

  9. Relationship between global indices of reactivity, electrodonating and electroaccepting powers, and the hammet constant in isatoic anhydride derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Durand-Niconoff; L Cruz-Kuri; M H Matus; J Correa-Basurto; J S Cruz-Sánchez; F R Ramos-Morales

    2011-09-01

    The possible correlation between Hammett’s constant (p), a characteristic parameter of functional groups with electrodonating or electroaccepting properties, and two indices of global reactivity were calculated in the gas phase. Parameters associated to a set of 22 structural variants of isatoic anhydride (2-3, 1-benzoxazin-2,4(1)-dione, ISA), replaced with diverse functional groups, were explored applying linear and quadratic statistical models for numerical analysis of the results.

  10. Ficusmicrochlorin A-C, two new methoxy lactone chlorins and an anhydride chlorin from the leaves of Ficus microcarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huan-You; Chiu, Hsi-Lin; Lu, Te-Ling; Tzeng, Chih-Ying; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lee, Ching-Kuo; Shao, Yi-Yuan; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Chang, Chi-I; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    Two new methoxy lactone chlorins ficusmicrochlorin A (1) and ficusmicrochlorin B (2), and one new anhydride chlorin ficusmicrochlorin C (3), along with eight known pheophytins were isolated from the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. Their structures were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. New pheophytin compound was rarely obtained from natural sources. In the past ten years, only three new natural pheophytins were characterized.

  11. A NOVEL COPOLYMER-BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX FOR THE CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Yuying; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    A series of porous microspheres of linear and ethylene diacrylate (M ') cross-linked copolymers of 2 - vinylpyridine (V) and methyl acrylate (M) reacted with tetracarbonyldichlorodirhodium to form a series of cis-dicarbonylrhodium chelate complex (MVRh and MVM 'Rh). They are thermally stable yet very reactive in the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid, and of methanol - acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride with a selectivity of 100% under relatively mild and anhydrous conditions.

  12. Preparation and characterization of porous titania-grafted poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)/maleic anhydride nanocomposite microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous titania-grafted poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)/maleic anhydride [P(St-DVB)/MA] nanocomposite microspheres were prepared by an open ring reaction method.The titania nanoparticles were first modified by attachment of amino groups to their surface to prevent particle aggregation,and to allow the nanoparticles to covalently bond the polymer microspheres,the surface of which was modified by attachment of MA functional groups to enable the polymer to retain their porous structures and to react with the amino groups on the surface of the titania particles.The porous nanocomposite microspheres were detected by FTIR,SEM,TEM,XRD and UV-Vis spectrophotometry.The results indicated that the nanocomposite microspheres were composed of nanosized titania uniformly distributed on the surface,and exhibited better UV absorbing property than pure polymer microspheres or unmodified titania.Furthermore,compared with pure porous polymer microspheres,the nanocomposite microspheres showed more efficient UV protection and slow release of Parsol-1789(a photo-reactive and cosmetic agent) held inside the porous network of the microspheres.

  13. Structural properties of pepsin-solubilized collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Conghu; Tian, Zhenhua; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2015-10-01

    The structural properties of pepsin-solubilized calf skin collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride were investigated in this paper. Compared with native collagen, acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation, as determined by amino acid analysis, circular dichroism and X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, the thermostability of acylated collagen using thermogravimetric measurements was enhanced as the residual weight increased by 5%. With the temperature increased from 25 to 115 °C, the secondary structure of native and acylated collagens using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements was destroyed since the intensity of the major amide bands decreased and the positions of the major amide bands shifted to lower wavenumber, respectively. Meanwhile, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy revealed that the most sensitive bands for acylated and native collagens were amide I and II bands, respectively. Additionally, the corresponding order of the groups between native and acylated collagens was different and the correlation degree for acylated collagen was weaker than that of native collagen, suggesting that temperature played a small influence on the conformation of acylated collagen, which might be concluded that the hydrophobic interaction improved the thermostability of collagen.

  14. Granular size of potato starch affects structural properties, octenylsuccinic anhydride modification and flowability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chan; Tang, Chuan-He; Fu, Xiong; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Native potato starch (PS) granules were separated into three size fractions: larger than 30μm (P-L), 15-30μm (P-M), and smaller than 15μm (P-S). The morphological and crystalline structure of fractionated potato starches were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The P-L fraction showed ellipsoidal shape and B-type X-ray pattern, whereas the P-S fraction had spherical shape and A-type pattern. The fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis data showed that the P-L fraction had more B2 chains and less short A and B1 chains than the P-S counterparts. Smaller granules with larger specific surface area had higher degree of substitution when reacted with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA), and showed more uniform distribution of octenylsuccinate substituents. Both OSA modified and unmodified P-S samples showed higher flowability compared with the P-L counterparts.

  15. Acetylation of Wood Flour from Four Wood Species Grown in Nigeria Using Vinegar and Acetic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Azeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of acetylation on pretreated wood flour of four different wood species, Boabab (Adansonia digitata, Mahoganny (Daniella oliveri, African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa and Beech wood (Gmelina arborea, had been investigated. The first batch of wood species were acetylated using acetic anhydride while the second batch were acetylated with commercial vinegar. Both experiments were conducted in the presence of varying amount of CaCl2 as catalyst and at temperature of 120°C for 3 h. The success of acetylation was determined based on Weight Percent Gain for each sample treated with either chemicals used. FT-IR, a veritable tool was used for the analysis of both treated and untreated samples to further investigate the success of acetylation. The results showed the presence of important band such as carbonyl absorptions at 1743, 1744, 1746, 1731, 1718 and 1696 cm−1 as appeared separately in the spectra of acetylated samples, confirming esterification occurred. The purpose of this work was to investigate the applicability of vinegar for acetylation of lignocellulosic fibers. Blends/composites were prepared by solution casting and their kinetics investigated in distilled water. The results indicated they could be used in outdoor applications such as, decking and packaging.

  16. RING OPENING COPOLYMERIZATION OF SUCCINIC ANHYDRIDE-ETHYLENE OXIDE BY Al (Ⅲ) ORGANOMETALLIC CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xianhai; ZHANG Yifeng; SHEN Zhiquan

    1997-01-01

    Ring opening copolymerization of succinic anhydride (SA) with ethylene oxide (EO)was successfully carried out by using a series of aluminum-based catalyst in 1,4-dioxane at 62±2℃. The results showed that in-situ AlR3-H2O (R=ethyl, iso-butyl) catalysts gave higher molecular weight ((-M)w ~ 104), while Al(OR)3 catalysts gave the higher alternating copolymer structure with slightly lower molecular weight. The in-situ AlR3-H2O systems have been evaluated in more detail for the reaction which showed the optimum H2O/Al molar ratio to be 0.5. The copolymers with different composition (FSA/FEO = 36/64 to 45/55 mol/mol) were synthesized by using different monomer feed ratio. The melting point (Tm), glass transition temperature (Tg) and enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of these copolymers are depended on the copolymer composition and in the range of 87~ 102℃,-12 ~ -18℃, and 37 ~ 66J/g, respectively. The second heating scan of DSC also indicated that the higher alternating copolymer was more easily recrystallized. The onset decomposition temperature was more than 300℃ under nitrogen and influenced by the copolymer composition.

  17. Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Nylon 6/PBT Blends Compatibilized with Styrene/Maleic Anhydride Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Shu-hao; YU Jie; ZHENG Qiang; HE Min; ZHU Hong

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties and dynamic mechanical properties of blends composed of Nylon 6 and poly( butylenes terephthalate) (PBT), with styrene/maleic anhydride(SMA) as compatibilizer, were studied. The observation on the morphologies of the etched surfaces of the cryogenically fractured specimens via scanning electron microscopy(SEM)demonstrated that in the compatibilized Nylon 6/PBT blends, there exists a finer and more uniform dispersion induced by thein-situ interfacial chemical reactions during the preparation than that in the corresponding uncompatibilized blends. On the other hand, the overall mechanical properties of the compatibilized blends could be remarkably improved compared with those of the uncompatibilized ones. Moreover, increasing the amount of the compatibilizer SMA leads to a more efficient dispersion of the PBT phase in Nylon 6/PBT blends. Furthermore, there exists an optimum level of SMA added to achieve the maximum mechanical properties. As far as the mechanism of this reactive compatibilization is concerned, the enhanced interfacial adhesion is necessary to obtain improved dispersion, stable phase morphology, and better mechanical properties.

  18. Reaction of octenylsuccinic anhydride with a mixture of granular starch and soluble maltodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanjie; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2013-11-06

    The reaction of octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) with a mixture of granular waxy maize starch and soluble maltodextrin was investigated. OSA was reacted with a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of the granular starch and maltodextrin at OSA levels of 1.5, 3, 9, and 15% (wt% based on starch weight). After the first 0.5h of the reaction, degree of substitution (DS) on maltodextrin reached 0.021, 0.030, 0.080, and 0.10 for 1.5, 3, 9, and 15% OSA, respectively, whereas DS for granular starch was only 0.0020, 0.0087, 0.014, and 0.016. At 2h of the reaction, the bound OS ratio of maltodextrin to granular starch was 10.8 when OSA concentration was 1.5% and the ratio decreased to ca. 5 at higher OSA concentrations. OSA preferred to react with maltodextrin than semi-crystalline granular starch when both existed in the system. OSA reacted with maltodextrin at a much faster rate and to a greater extent than with granular starch, but a significant amount of OSA reacted with granular starch at 3-15% OSA concentrations.

  19. Dodecenylsuccinic anhydride derivatives of gum karaya (Sterculia urens): preparation, characterization, and their antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padil, Vinod Vellora Thekkae; Senan, Chandra; Černík, Miroslav

    2015-04-15

    Esterifications of the tree-based gum, gum karaya (GK), using dodecenylsuccinic anhydride (DDSA) were carried out in aqueous solutions. GK was deacetylated using alkali treatment to obtain deacetylated gum karaya (DGK). The DGK and its DDSA derivative were characterized using gel permeation chromatography/multiangle laser light scattering (GPC/MALLS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and rheological studies. The degree of substitution was found to be 10.25% for DGK using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The critical aggregation concentration of DDSA-DGK was determined using dye solubilization and surface tension methods. The antibacterial activity of the DDSA-DGK derivative was then investigated against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The DDSA-DGK derivative has the potential for use as a stabilizing agent in food and nonfood applications. It can also be developed as an antibacterial agent.

  20. Separation of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene using multidimensional high-temperature liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, K N; Macko, T; Brüll, R; Remerie, K; Tacx, J; Garg, P; Ginzburg, A

    2016-04-01

    Functionalization addresses a property gap of polyolefins and opens new perspectives due to improved surface properties in applications like composites (e.g., glass fiber reinforced polypropylene) and anti-corrosive coatings for metals. Various techniques have been developed to characterize functionalized polyolefins, yet no analytical approach addressing their chemical heterogeneity exists. Using High Temperature Size Exclusion Chromatography (HT-SEC) coupled to infrared spectroscopy we could show for two model samples of polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA), differing in their nominal MA content, that the grafting density increases with decreasing molar mass. Crystallization Analysis Fractionation (CRYSTAF) does not enable to separate these samples according to their composition to the extent required. Yet, when using High Temperature High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HT-HPLC), with either silica gel or Mica as stationary phase and a gradient mobile phase, a deformulation into a grafted and a non-grafted fraction could be achieved. This was confirmed by analyzing the eluted fractions by infrared spectroscopy. Hyphenating the separation according to composition with a separation according to molar mass (HT-HPLC x HT-SEC) enabled for the first time to reveal the bivariate distribution of PP-g-MA with regard to the molar mass and composition. Using on-line infrared detection quantitative information on the compositional and molar mass parameters of the individual fractions could be obtained.

  1. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-06-15

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had β-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the β-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends.

  2. An efficient acetylation of dextran using in situ activated acetic anhydride with iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD A. HUSSAIN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A facile, efficient, cost-effective and solvent-free acetylation method has been developed for the acetylation of dextran. Dextran acetates were successfully synthesized using different molar ratios of acetic anhydride in the presence of iodine as a catalyst without the use of any solvent. The reactions were realized at 50 °C for 3 h under stirring and nitrogen. This efficient method yielded highly pure and organosoluble dextran esters. The reaction appears highly effective for obtaining higher degrees of substitution (DS with great efficiency. Under solvent-free conditions, dextran triacetates were efficiently synthesized. It was also observed that the molar ratio can easily control the DS of pendant groups onto the polymer backbone. Hence, a range of products with varying DS were successfully designed, purified and characterized. Covalent attachment of the pendant groups onto the polymer backbone was verified by spectroscopic techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the obtained dextran esters were thermally as stable as dextran. The DS of the pendant groups onto the polymer backbone was calculated using standard acid base titration after saponification. Furthermore, all products were thoroughly characterized by thermal analysis (TG and DTG, and FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic analysis.

  3. THERMAL properties and morphology of Polypropylene/Polycarbonate/Polypropylene-Graft-Maleic anhydride blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat-Shayuti M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of blending polycarbonate (PC into polypropylene (PP matrix polymer on thermal properties and morphology. The blends, containing 5% to 35% of polycarbonate and 5% compatibilizer, were compounded using twin-screw extruder and fabricated into standard tests samples using injection or compression molding. The compatibilizer used was polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed improved thermal degradation temperature of PP/PC/PP-g-MA blends compared to pure PP. As PC content increased, the thermal degradation temperature also improved. The highest improvement of thermal degradation temperature was 23.3%, demonstrated by 60/35/5 composition. It was found that the thermal stability of PP/PC blends was improved with the addition of PP-g-MA. PP-g-MA was suspected to enhance the phase adhesion between PP and PC, thus improving thermal stability. Microscopy analysis showed PC reinforcement phase existed as particulates dispersed in PP matrix phase. PC also was in irregular shapes of fibers or flakes in certain compositions, depending on PC fraction and compatibilizer content.

  4. Effect of maleic anhydride treatment on the mechanical properties of sansevieria fiber/vinyl ester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradipta, Rangga; Mardiyati, Steven, Purnomo, Ikhsan

    2017-03-01

    Sanseviera trifasciata commonly called mother-in-law tongue also known as snake plant is native to Indonesia, India and Africa. Sansevieria is a new fiber in composite research and has showed promising properties as reinforcement material in polymer matrix composites. Chemical treatment on reinforcing fiber is crucial to reduce hydrophilic tendency and thus improve compatibility with the matrix. In this study, effect of maleic anhydride as chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of Sansevieria fiber/vinyl ester composite was investigated. Sansevieria fibers were immersed by using NaOH 3% for two hours at 100°C and then treated by using maleic anhydrate for two hours at 120°C. Composites were prepared by solution casting with various volume fractions of fiber; 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%. Actual density, volume fraction of void and mechanical properties of composite were conducted according to ASTM standard testing methods D792, D3171 and D3039. It was found that mechanical properties of composites increased as volume fractions of fiber was increased. The highest tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of composites were 57.45 MPa and 3.47 GPa respectively, obtained from composites with volume fraction of fiber 10%.

  5. Locally delivered salicylic acid from a poly(anhydride-ester): impact on diabetic bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keisuke; Yu, Weiling; Elazizi, Mohamad; Barakat, Sandrine; Ouimet, Michelle A; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Fiorellini, Joseph P; Graves, Dana T; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can impair bone repair, including a prolonged inflammatory response. A salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SA-PAE) provides controlled and sustained release of salicylic acid (SA) that locally resolves inflammation. This study investigates the effect of polymer-controlled SA release on bone regeneration in diabetic rats where enhanced inflammation is expected. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: diabetic group induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection or normoglycemic controls injected with citrate buffer alone. Three weeks after hyperglycemia development or vehicle injection, 5mm critical sized defects were created at the rat mandibular angle and treated with SA-PAE/bone graft mixture or bone graft alone. Rats were euthanized 4 and 12weeks after surgery, then bone fill percentage in the defect region was assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometry. It was observed that bone fill increased significantly at 4 and 12weeks in SA-PAE/bone graft-treated diabetic rats compared to diabetic rats receiving bone graft alone. Accelerated bone formation in normoglycemic rats caused by SA-PAE/bone graft treatment was observed at 4weeks but not at 12weeks. This study shows that treatment with SA-PAE enhances bone regeneration in diabetic rats and accelerates bone regeneration in normoglycemic animals.

  6. Radical coupling of maleic anhydride onto graphite to fabricate oxidized graphene nanolayers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatemeh Samadaei; Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi; Hossein Roghani-Mamaqani

    2016-02-01

    Radical coupling was used to modify graphite with maleic anhydride (MAH). Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as radical generator activated MAH radically and it was reacted with defects at the surface of nanolayers. A set of batches with different reaction times (24, 48 and 72 h) were performed to obtain fully-modified nanolayers (GMA1, GMA2 and GMA3, respectively). Fourier transform infrared results approved the synthesis of MAHgrafted graphite. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that 5.9, 11.1 and 13.2 wt% of MAH was grafted onto the surface of GMA1, GMA2 and GMA3, respectively, and that was approved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. Also, X-ray diffraction patterns showed that $d$-spacing increased from 0.34 nm for graphite to 1.00 nm for all modified samples. However, GMA1 showed a weak peak related to graphite structure that disappeared when reaction time was increased. After modification with MAH, lamella flake structure of graphite was retained whereas the edges of sheets became distinguishable as depicted by scanning electron microscopy images. According to Raman spectra, modification progression resulted in more disorder structure of nanolayers due to grafting of MAH. Also, transmission electron microscopy images showed graphite as transparent layers while after modification, surface of nanolayers became folded due to the opposite effects of $\\pi$-conjugated domains and electrostatic repulsion of oxygen-containing groups.

  7. Cantharidin and its anhydride-modified derivatives: relation of structure to insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Liu, Zhongyi; Zhang, Yalin

    2012-12-20

    Cantharidin is a natural compound of novel structure with ideal insecticidal activity. However, the relationship of structure to insecticidal activity of cantharidin and its derivatives has not been ever clarified. To explore what determines the insecticidal activity structurally of cantharidin-related compounds, two series target compounds 6 and 7 were synthesized by replacing the anhydride ring of norcantharidin with an aromatic amine or fatty amine with different electron density, respectively. The structures of these compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS-ESI. A bioassay showed that compounds 6 (a-m) lacked any larvicidal activity against Plutella xylostella; whereas their ring-opened partners 7 (a-m) provided a variety of larvicidal activities against P. xylostella, and compound 7f indicated the highest larvicidal activity with LC(50) value of 0.43 mM. The present work demonstrated that the form of the compound (cyclic or ring-opened) or their ability to hydrolyze facilely was the key to determine whether it exhibits larvicidal activity. Moreover, it revealed that the improvement of insecticidal activity required a reasonable combination of both aliphatic amide and aromatic amide moieties, and the type of substituent Y on the aniline ring was critical.

  8. Reaction kinetics of piperylene and maleic anhydride%间戊二烯和顺酐反应动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷昊; 杨阿三; 孙勤; 程榕; 郑燕萍

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of C5 and maleic anhydride to synthesize crude methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) is a key step in the production of MTHPA and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA). The reaction kinetics of piperylene and maleic anhydride under the appropriate solvent was studied. Single-factor multilevel experiment was conducted to show the effects of the initial mole ratio (0.4-1. 1 )of maleic anhydride to piperylene, reaction temperature(1545 t), and solvents (MTHPA, toluene and acetone)on the reaction, and the kinetics data of piperylene and maleic anhydride reaction was determined. Based .on the basic mechanisms of Diels-Alder reaction, a kinetics model was established. By regressing experimental data to a linear fitting based on numerical calculation method, the activation energy and pre-exponential factor were obtained with methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, toluene and acetone as solvents. The results show that the reaction process accords with second-order reaction; different solvents have little influence on activation energy, but have great influences on the pre-exponential factor, in which the activation energy and pre-exponential factor approach the highest values when MTHPA is used as solvent.%C5和顺酐反应合成粗甲基四氢苯酐是生产甲基四氢苯酐及甲基六氢苯酐的关键步骤.为了研究C5中间戊二烯与顺酐反应动力学,选择合适溶剂并设计单因素多水平方案,考察了顺酐与间戊二烯摩尔比(0.4-1.1)、反应温度( 15-45℃)、溶剂(甲基四氢苯酐、甲苯和丙酮)等因素对反应的影响,测定了间戊二烯与顺酐反应的动力学数据.依据Diels-Alder反应的基本原理,建立了动力学模型.利用数值计算方法对实验数据进行线性拟合,分别得到了以甲基四氢苯酐、甲苯和丙酮为溶剂时的活化能和指前因子,结果表明反应符合二级反应.不同溶剂对反应的活化能影响较小,对指前因子影响较大,其中以甲基

  9. 丁二酸酐性能及各种生产工艺介绍%The Properties and Various Production Technology of Succinic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玉莹; 李江; 胡利娜; 肖鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    Succinic anhydride was a kind of widely used and important fine chemical raw materials , especially its derivatives of high value -added fine chemical products , succinic anhydride production process in all the world mainly divided into succinic acid dehydration and maleic anhydride hydrogenated to succinic anhydride .The properties, the application and production technology of succinic anhydride , and comparison of production technology , maleic anhydride melting catalytic hydrogenated to succinic anhydride were mainly introduced , which was one of the most competitive and promising development method due to the cost of production and the comprehensive energy consumption was low .%丁二酸酐是一种重要的精细化工原料,用途广泛,尤其它的衍生物更是附加值高的精细化工产品,全球丁二酸酐的生产工艺主要有丁二酸脱水法、顺丁烯二酸酐催化加氢法。本文章主要介绍了丁二酸酐的性能、用途和生产工艺技术,并对生产工艺技术进行了比较,顺丁烯二酸酐熔融催化加氢法由于生产成本和综合能耗较低,是最具竞争力,发展前景看好的一种方法。

  10. Elucidation of substituted ester group position in octenylsuccinic anhydride modified sugary maize soluble starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Huang, Chao; Lu, Keyu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.

  11. Trimellitic anhydride-conjugated serum albumin activates rat alveolar macrophages in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloksma Nanne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposure to airborne low molecular weight chemicals, like trimellitic anhydride (TMA, can result in occupational asthma. Alveolar macrophages (AMs are among the first cells to encounter these inhaled compounds and were previously shown to influence TMA-induced asthma-like symptoms in the Brown Norway rat. TMA is a hapten that will bind to endogenous proteins upon entrance of the body. Therefore, in the present study we determined if TMA and TMA conjugated to serum albumin induced the production of the macrophage mediators nitric oxide (NO, tumour necrosis factor (TNF, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in vitro using the rat AM cell line NR8383 and primary AMs derived from TMA-sensitized and naïve Brown Norway rats. Methods Cells were incubated with different concentrations of TMA, TMA conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA, and BSA as a control for 24 h and the culture supernatant was analyzed for mediator content. Results TMA alone was not able to induce the production of mediators by NR8383 cells and primary AMs from sensitized and sham-treated rats. TMA-BSA, on the contrary, dose-dependently stimulated the production of NO, TNF, and IL-6 by NR8383 cells and of NO and TNF, but not IL-6, by primary AMs independent of sensitization. Conclusion Results suggest that although TMA is a highly reactive compound, conjugation to a suitable protein is necessary to induce mediator production by AMs. Furthermore, the observation that effects of TMA-BSA were independent of sensitization suggests involvement of an immunologically non-specific receptor. In the discussion it is argued that a macrophage scavenger receptor is a likely candidate.

  12. Evaporative Derivatization of Phenols with 2-Sulfobenzoic Anhydride for Detection by MALDI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Poguang; Giese, Roger

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE Phenols are an important class of analytes, for example as bioactive environmental contaminants. Towards a goal of improving their detection by MALDI-TOF-MS or MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, we studied their derivatization with 2-sulfobenzoic anhydride (SBA). We chose SBA for this purpose since it is commercially available, inexpensive, and forms an anionic derivative. METHODS In selected conditions developed here for phenols, a reaction mixture of one or more of such compounds in acetonitrile containing SBA and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) is evaporated to a solid, heated at 60°C for 1 h, redissolved in 50% acetonitrile containing matrix, spotted onto a MALDI target, and subjected to negative ion MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. RESULTS While conventional (solution-phase) reaction of 4-phenylphenol (model analyte) with SBA and DMAP only gave a 47% yield of SBA-tagged 4-phenylphenol, evaporative derivatization as above gave a 96% yield, and 25 pmol (4.3 ng) of 4-phenylphenol could be detected in this way by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS at S/N = 260, whereas even 1 nmol of the nonderivatized phenol was not detected in the absence of derivatization. A wide range of responses was observed when a mixture of 15 phenols was derivatized, with the higher responses coming from phenols with a pKa value above 9. Without derivatization, phenols with pKa values below 5 were the most readily detected. CONCLUSION Evaporative derivatization with SBA (a convenient reagent) can improve the detection of phenols with relatively high pKa values (above 9) by negative ion MALDI-TOF-MS, and accomplish this in the absence of post-derivatization reaction cleanup. PMID:24519828

  13. Structural properties of pepsin-solubilized collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Conghu [The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); College of Life Sciences, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011 (China); Tian, Zhenhua; Liu, Wentao [The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Guoying, E-mail: liguoyings@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-10-01

    The structural properties of pepsin-solubilized calf skin collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride were investigated in this paper. Compared with native collagen, acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation, as determined by amino acid analysis, circular dichroism and X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, the thermostability of acylated collagen using thermogravimetric measurements was enhanced as the residual weight increased by 5%. With the temperature increased from 25 to 115 °C, the secondary structure of native and acylated collagens using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements was destroyed since the intensity of the major amide bands decreased and the positions of the major amide bands shifted to lower wavenumber, respectively. Meanwhile, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy revealed that the most sensitive bands for acylated and native collagens were amide I and II bands, respectively. Additionally, the corresponding order of the groups between native and acylated collagens was different and the correlation degree for acylated collagen was weaker than that of native collagen, suggesting that temperature played a small influence on the conformation of acylated collagen, which might be concluded that the hydrophobic interaction improved the thermostability of collagen. - Highlights: • Acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation. • Acylated collagen had stronger thermostability than native collagen. • Amide I was the most sensitive band to the temperature for acylated collagen. • Amide II was the most sensitive band to the temperature for native collagen. • Auto-peak at 1680 cm{sup −1} for acylated collagen disappeared at higher temperature.

  14. A New Process for Maleic Anhydride Synthesis from a Renewable Building Block: The Gas-Phase Oxidehydration of Bio-1-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarelli, Giulia; Velasquez Ochoa, Juliana; Caldarelli, Aurora; Puzzo, Francesco; Cavani, Fabrizio; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the synthesis of maleic anhydride by oxidehydration of a bio-alcohol, 1-butanol, as a possible alternative to the classical process of n-butane oxidation. A vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst was used to explore the one-pot reaction, which involved two sequential steps: 1) 1-butanol dehydration to 1-butene, catalysed by acid sites, and 2) the oxidation of butenes to maleic anhydride, catalysed by redox sites. A non-negligible amount of phthalic anhydride was also formed. The effect of different experimental parameters was investigated with chemically sourced 1-butanol, and the results were then confirmed by using genuinely bio-sourced 1-butanol. In the case of bio-1-butanol, however, the purity of the product remarkably affected the yield of maleic anhydride. It was found that the reaction mechanism includes the oxidation of butenes to crotonaldehyde and the oxidation of the latter to either furan or maleic acid, both of which are transformed to produce maleic anhydride.

  15. An Examination of the Chemistry of Peroxycarboxylic Nitric Anhydrides and Related Volatile Organic Compounds During Texas Air Quality Study 2000 Using Ground-Based Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, James M.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Murphy, Paul; Williams, Eric; Frost, G. J.; Riemer, D.; Apel, Eric; Stroud, C.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.

    2003-08-19

    Measurements of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) along with related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 Houston study. The PAN mixing ratios ranged up to 6.5 ppbv and were broadly correlated with O3, characteristic of a highly polluted urban environment. The anthropogenic PAN homologue concentrations were generally consistent with those found in other urban environments; peroxypropionic nitric anhydride (PPN) averaged 15%, and peroxyisobutyric nitric anhydride (PiBN) averaged 3% of PAN,. Some periods were noted where local petrochemical sources resulted in anomalous PANs chemistry. This effect was especially noticeable in the case of peroxyacrylic nitric anhydride (APAN) where local sources of 1,3-butadiene and acrolein resulted in APAN as high as 30% of PAN. Peroxymethacrylic nitric anhydride (MPAN) was a fairly minor constituent of the PANs except for two periods on 4 and 5 September when air masses from high biogenic hydrocarbons (BHC) areas were observed. BHC chemistry was not a factor in the highest ozone pollution episodes in Houston but may have an impact on daily average ozone levels in some circumstances.

  16. Biocompatible photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) based on functionalized poly(epsilon-caprolactone) prepolymer shows surface erosion controlled drug release in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkäre, J; Hakala, R A; Vlasova, M A; Huotari, A; Kilpeläinen, M; Kiviniemi, A; Meretoja, V; Herzig, K H; Korhonen, H; Seppälä, J V; Järvinen, K

    2010-09-15

    Star-shaped poly(epsilon-caprolactone) oligomers functionalized with succinic anhydride were used as prepolymers to prepare photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) to evaluate their in vivo drug delivery functionality and biocompatibility. Thus, in this work, erosion, drug release and safety of the photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) were examined in vitro and in vivo. A small water-soluble drug, propranolol HCl (M(w) 296 g/mol, solubility 50 mg/ml), was used as the model drug in an evaluation of the erosion controlled release. Drug-free and drug-loaded (10-60% w/w) poly(ester anhydride) discoids eroded in vitro (pH 7.4 buffer, +37 degrees C) linearly within 24-48 h. A strong correlation between the polymer erosion and the linear drug release in vitro was observed, indicating that the release had been controlled by the erosion of the polymer. Similarly, in vivo studies (s.c. implantation of discoids in rats) indicated that surface erosion controlled drug release from the discoids (drug loading 40% w/w). Oligomers did not decrease cell viability in vitro and the implanted discoids (s.c., rats) did not evoke any cytokine activity in vivo. In summary, surface erosion controlled drug release and the safety of photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) were demonstrated in this study.

  17. Preparation of epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Mitsukazu, E-mail: mochi@ipcku.kansai-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Suita-shi, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Nii, Daisuke; Harada, Miyuki [Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Suita-shi, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride. {yields} The half-ester compound of acid anhydride desorbed from zirconium played as curing agent of epoxy resin. {yields} The zirconia was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale by synchronizing the epoxy curing and sol-gel reactions. {yields} The refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content. - Abstract: Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized using a bisphenol A epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; DGEBA), zirconium(IV)-n-propoxide (ZTNP), and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) via in situ polymerization. HHPA played two roles in this system: it acted as a modifier to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium alkoxide and also as a curing agent - the half-ester compound of HHPA desorbed from zirconium reacted with the epoxy resin to form the epoxy network. As a result, both the sol-gel reaction and epoxy curing occurred simultaneously in a homogeneous solution, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials were readily obtained. Further, the zirconia produced by the in situ polymerization was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale; thus, hybrid materials that exhibited excellent optical transparency were obtained. Furthermore, the heat resistance of the hybrid materials could be improved by hybridization with zirconia. And, the refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content.

  18. Samarium-modified vanadium phosphate catalyst for the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hua-Yi [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Chemical Productions of Alcohols, Ethers and Esters, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hai-Bo [Fushun Res InstPetr& Petrochem, Fushun, 113001 (China); Liu, Xin-Hua; Li, Jian-Hui; Yang, Mei-Hua [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Chemical Productions of Alcohols, Ethers and Esters, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Huang, Chuan-Jing, E-mail: huangcj@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Chemical Productions of Alcohols, Ethers and Esters, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Weng, Wei-Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Chemical Productions of Alcohols, Ethers and Esters, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wan, Hui-Lin, E-mail: hlwan@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Chemical Productions of Alcohols, Ethers and Esters, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: The addition of a small amount of Sm into VPO catalyst brought about great changes in its physicochemical properties such as surface area, surface morphology, phase composition and redox property, thus leading to a higher catalytic performance in the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride, as compared to the undoped VPO catalyst. - Highlights: • The addition of Sm leads to great changes in the structure of VPO catalyst. • Sm improves performance of VPO for oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. • Catalytic performance is closely related to structure of VPO catalyst. - Abstract: A series of samarium-modified vanadium phosphate catalysts were prepared and studied in selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. The catalytic evaluation showed that Sm modification significantly increased the overall n-butane conversion and intrinsic activity. N{sub 2}-adsorption, XRD, SEM, Raman, XPS, EPR and H{sub 2}-TPR techniques were used to investigate the intrinsic difference among these catalysts. The results revealed that the addition of Sm to VPO catalyst can increase the surface area of the catalyst, lead to a significant change in catalyst morphology from plate-like structure into rosette-shape clusters, and largely promote the formation of (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}. All of these were related to the different catalytic performance of Sm-doped and undoped VPO catalysts. The roles of the different VOPO{sub 4} phases and the influence of Sm were also described and discussed.

  19. Short-chain grafting of tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxane cycles on vinylchloride-maleic anhydride copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass increase of vinylchloride-maleic anhydride (VC-MA copolymer samples aged in tetrahydrofuran (THF or in 1,4-dioxane results from chemical interaction of VC-MA macromolecules with 1,4-dioxane or THF. Microstructure of the products of such modification was proved by infrared spectroscopy (IR- and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR and 1H NMR. Mechanism of modification has been proposed. The results of microstructure research of VC-MA samples aged in THF and in 1,4-dioxane coincide with already known data on the reactions of opening of these and other oxygen-containing cycles under mild conditions.

  20. KINETIC STUDY OF CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE OVER A NOVEL COPOLYMER- BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuying; YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic study of carbonylation of methanol-acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride over a cis-dicarbonylrhodium complex (MVM' Rh)coordinated with the ethylene diacrylate (M')crosslinked copolymer of methyl acrylate (M) and 2 - vinylpyridine (V) shows that the rate of reaction is zero order with respect to both reactants methanol and carbon monoxide, but first order in the concentrations of promoter methyl iodide and rhodium in the complex . Polar solvents can accelerate the reaction .Activation parameters were calculated from the experimental results, being comparable to that of the homogeneous system . A mechanism similar to that of soluble rhodium catalyst was proposed .

  1. SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF WATER—ETHANOL MIXTURE THROUGH COPOLYMERIC MEMBRANES.Ⅱ.ACRYLONITRILE AND MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMERIC MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHangFuyao; ZhangYifeng; 等

    1993-01-01

    Acrylonitrile(AN) and maleic anhydride(MA) copolymer has been synthesized by radical polymerization using ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite as initiator.The pervaporation properties of the copolymeric membranes prepared have been investigated for the first time. The dependences of pervaporation characteristics on coplymer composition,feed concentration and operating temperature have been studied.In order to improve the separation properties of the copolymeric membranes,the membranes were hydrolyzed with 10 wt% soldium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide aqueous solution.The hydrolyzed membranes containing more than 0.069MA mol fraction showed higher tensile strength and separation properties than the original membranes.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW COMBLIKE POLYMER BASED ON POLY (VINYL METHYL ETHER-ALT-MALEIC ANHYDRIDE) BACKBONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Liming; LIN Yunqing; ZHOU Zinan; NI Jianlong; CHEN Donglin

    1995-01-01

    A new comblike polymer host for polymer electrolyte was synthesized by reacting monomethyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) with poly(vinyl methyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) and endcapping the residual carboxylic acid with methanol. Butanone was selected as a solvent for the esterification in order to obtain a completely soluble product. The synthesis process was traced through by IR. Compared with the model compounds, the presumed structure of this comblike polymer has been proved to be valid by 13C NMR. The comb polymer is a white rubbery solid. It can be dissolved in butanone and THF, and manifests good film forming ability.

  3. PREPARATION OF ISOMERIZED METHYL TETRAHYDROPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE%异构化甲基四氢苯酐的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光杰

    2001-01-01

    Isomerized methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride with low viscosity,a curing agent of epoxy resin (N-570D),was prepared in this paper.Effect of some factors,such as catalyst,temperature et al on product gield and method of inhibitting side reaction were also discussed.%制备了低粘度环氧树脂固化剂(N-570D),即:异构化甲基四氢苯酐(MeTHPA),讨论催化剂等因素对收率的影响,并论述了抑制副反应的方法。

  4. Synthesis of comb-like copolymers from renewable resources: Itaconic anhydride, stearyl methacrylate and lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shurui

    The synthesis and properties of comb-like copolymers and ionomers derived from renewable resources: itaconic anhydride (ITA), stearyl methacrylate (SM) and lactic acid (LA) are described. The copolymers based on ITA and SM (ITA-SM) were nearly random with a slight alternating tendency. The copolymers exhibited a nanophase-separated morphology, with the stearate side-chains forming a bilayer, semi-crystalline structure. The crystalline side-chains suppressed molecular motion of the main-chain, so that a glass transition temperature (Tg) was not resolved unless the ITA concentration was sufficiently high so that Tg > the melting point (Tm). The softening point and modulus of the copolymers increased with the increasing ITA concentration, but the thermal stability decreased. The ITA moiety along the main chain of the copolymers was neutralized with metal acetates to produce Na-, Ca- and Zn- random ionomers with comb-like architectures. In general, the incorporation of the ionic groups increased the Tg and suppressed the crystallinity of the side-chain packing. Ionomers with high SM side-chain density had two competing driving forces for self-assembled nano-phase separation: ionic aggregation and side-chain crystalline packing. Upon neutralization, a morphological transition from semi-crystalline lamella to spherical ionic aggregation was observed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermomechanical analysis revealed an increasing resistance to penetration deformation with an increasing degree of neutralization and an apparent rubbery plateau was observed above Tg. A controlled transesterification of PLA in glassware was an effective way to prepare a methacrylate functionalized PLA macromonomer with controlled molecular weight, which was used to synthesize a variety of copolymers. The copolymerization of this functionalized PLA macromonomer with ITA totally suppressed the side-chain crystallinity for the PLA chain

  5. Investigation of the ageing effects on phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder coated mineral fibres' mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder based mineral fibres exhibited better ageing properties for same duration of ageing. X......-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to identify the chemical changes occurring in the PUF binder coated mineral fibres and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres during that ageing. The samples were aged in a climate...... of amide, methylene ether and methylene linkages between urea groups present in the PUF binder. In the case of the alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres, both XPS and ToF-SIMS techniques consistently showed that the surface chemical composition of the organic components of the alkanol...

  6. 琥珀酸酐生产新工艺探讨%The Study of New Technology of Producing Amber Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕杨

    2012-01-01

    It introduced the properties of Amber Anhydride and widely used in every field.Introducing the major technology of producing Amber Anhydride.Reviewing new tecnology of producing Amber Anhydride and comparing the major technology with new technology to explaining the superiority of new technology.%介绍了琥珀酸酐的性质及在各个领域的广泛用途,介绍了目前国内琥珀酸酐的主要生产工艺技术方案,综述了琥珀酸酐生产新技术,并对目前国内琥珀酸酐的主要生产工艺和琥珀酸酐生产新工艺进行了比较,突出了新工艺的优势。

  7. Amphiphilic graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride with low molecular weight polyethylenimine for efficient gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan XP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaopin Duan,1,2 Jisheng Xiao,2 Qi Yin,2 Zhiwen Zhang,2 Shirui Mao,1 Yaping Li21School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Center of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, ChinaBackground and methods: A new amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer (SP was synthesized by conjugating poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride with low molecular weight polyethyleneimine for gene delivery. Fourier transform infrared spectrum, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and gel permeation chromatography were used to characterize the graft copolymer.Results: The buffering capability of SP was similar to that of polyethyleneimine within the endosomal pH range. The copolymer could condense DNA effectively to form complexes with a positive charge (13–30 mV and a small particle size (130–200 nm at N/P ratios between 5 and 20, and protect DNA from degradation by DNase I. In addition, SP showed much lower cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine 25,000. Importantly, the gene transfection activity and cellular uptake of SP-DNA complexes were all markedly higher than that of complexes of polyethyleneimine 25,000 and DNA in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cell lines.Conclusion: This work highlights the promise of SP as a safe and efficient synthetic vector for DNA delivery.Keywords: poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride, polyethylenimine, DNA, gene delivery

  8. Controlled Release of Damascone from Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride-based Bioconjugates in Functional Perfumery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Herrmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydrides were modified with poly(propylene oxide (PO-co-ethylene oxide (EO side chains (Jeffamine® with different EO/PO molar ratios, varying between 0.11 and 3.60. These copolymers were then further functionalized with a β-mercapto ketone of δ-damascone. The obtained poly(maleic acid monoamide-based β-mercapto ketones were then studied as delivery systems for the controlled release of δ-damascone by retro 1,4-addition. The release of δ-damascone, a volatile, bioactive molecule of the family of rose ketones, was studied by dynamic headspace analysis above a cotton surface after deposition of a cationic surfactant containing fabric softening formulation, as a function of the ethylene oxide (EO/propylene oxide (PO molar ratio of the grafted copolymer side chains. The polarity of the EO/PO side chain influenced the release efficiency of the damascone in a typical fabric softening application. PO-rich copolymers and the corresponding poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride without Jeffamine® side chains were found to be less efficient for the desired fragrance release than the corresponding bioconjugate with a EO/PO ratio of 3.60 in the side chain. This copolymer conjugate seemed to represent a suitable balance between hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity to favor the release of the δ-damascone and to improve the deposition of the conjugate from an aqueous environment onto a cotton surface.

  9. Development of novel melt-compounded starch-grafted polypropylene/polypropylene-grafted maleic anhydride/organoclay ternary hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lafranche

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch-grafted polypropylene (PP-g-starch/organoclay nanocomposites were melt-compounded using a corotating twin-screw extruder. Homopolymer or copolymer-based polypropylene-grafted maleic anhydrides (PP-g-MA with different molecular weights and different maleic anhydride (MA grafting levels were added at different weight contents as compatibilizer. Two organo-modified montmorillonites were used, the first one containing polar functional groups (Cloisite®30B having affinity to the starch phase, and the other one containing non polar-groups (Cloisite®20A having affinity to the polypropylene phase of the polymer matrix. Whatever the MA grafting level and the molecular weight and content of PP-g-MA, no significant immiscibility of PP-g-starch/PP-g-MA blends is evidenced. Regarding clay dispersion, adding a low content of ethylene-propylene copolymer-based PP-g-MA compatibilizer having a high MA-grafting level, and a polar organoclay (Cloisite®30B is the most desirable formulation to optimize clay intercalation and exfoliation in PP-g-starch. Nevertheless, regarding the reinforcement effect, whatever the PP-g-MA compatibilizer, the addition of non polar organoclay (Cloisite®20A is preferably recommended to reach higher tensile properties (modulus, yield stress, strength without significant loss of ductility.

  10. Increased oral bioavailability of paclitaxel by its encapsulation through complex formation with cyclodextrins in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüeros, M; Zabaleta, V; Espuelas, S; Campanero, M A; Irache, J M

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the oral bioavailability in rats of paclitaxel (PTX) when encapsulated as a complex with cyclodextrins in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NP). For this purpose three different cyclodextrins were selected: beta-cyclodextrin (CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and 6-monodeoxy-6-monoamino-beta-cyclodextrin (NHCD). A single dose of 10mg paclitaxel per kg body weight as PTX-cyclodextrin nanoparticles was used. Plasma curves were characterised by a plateau of paclitaxel concentration close to the C(max) from T(max) till 24h post-administration. For PTX-CD NP and PTX-HPCD NP, these sustained levels of the anticancer drug were found to be between 27 and 33-fold higher than the reported value of drug activity whereas the relative oral bioavailability of paclitaxel was calculated to be higher than 80%. These facts would be directly related with a synergistic effect obtained by the combination of the bioadhesive properties of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles and the inhibitory effect of cyclodextrins on the activity of P-glycoprotein and cythocrome P450.

  11. Using maleic anhydride functionalized graphene oxide for improving the interfacial properties of carbon fiber/BMI composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maleic anhydride functionalized graphene oxide (MAH-GO was synthesized and then introduced into carbon fiber (CF reinforced bismaleimide (BMI composites, with the aim of improving the interfacial adhesion strength between CF and BMI resin. Various characterization techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA demonstrated that the maleic anhydride has been successfully grafted onto the GO surfaces. The study showed that the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS and flexural properties of CF/BMI composites were all improved by the incorporation of GO and MAH-GO, and the MAH-GO showed the substantially improved effect due to the strong interaction between the MAH-GO and the resin matrix. The maximum increment of the ILSS, flexural strength and flexural modulus of composites were 24.4, 28.7 and 49.7%, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM photographs of the fracture surfaces revealed that the interfacial bonding between CF and resin matrix was significantly strengthened by the addition of MAH-GO. The results suggest that this feasible method may be an ideal substitute for the traditional method in the interfacial modification of composites.

  12. Anhydride functionalised calcium ferrite nanoparticles: a new selective magnetic material for enrichment of lead ions from water and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouz, Mojgan Jafari; Beyki, Mostafa Hossein; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-03-01

    In this research a sonochemistry route for manufacture of uniform nanocrystalline CaFe2O4 and its anhydride functionalisation were reported. The potential of raw and modified material as a magnetically separable sorbent in selective enrichment of lead ions from water and food samples is outlined. This material was characterised using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM and VSM results indicated that the calcium ferrite nanoparticles are sphere-like particles possessing superparamagnetic properties with an average diameter of 40 nm. Various analytical parameters, including pH, contact time, type and concentration of eluent, adsorption capacity, sample volume and interference of ions, were optimised. Following a modification by anhydride, calcium ferrite selectivity toward lead ions was raised more than twofold compared to the unmodified nanoparticles. Finally a pre-concentration procedure was applied for determination of trace Pb(II) in canned tuna fish, canned tomato paste, parsley, milk and well-water samples with satisfactory results.

  13. Greener Friedel-Crafts Acylation using Microwave-enhanced reactivity of Bismuth Triflate in the Friedel-Crafts Benzoylation of Aromatic Compounds with Benzoic Anhydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Nguyen, hai Truong; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    An efficient and facile bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate-catalyzed benzoylation of aromatic compounds using benzoic anhydride under solvent-free microwave irradiation has been developed. The microwave-assisted Friedel-Crafts benzoylation results in good yields within short reaction times. Bismut...

  14. Characterization of differently sized granule fractions of yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reagent type on the properties of acetylated starches was studied for yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate. Samples modified with vinyl acetate showed higher swelling volume and peak viscosity than those acetylated with ace

  15. An atom-economic approach to carboxylic acids via Pd-catalyzed direct addition of formic acid to olefins with acetic anhydride as a co-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Ren, Wenlong; Shi, Yian

    2015-08-21

    An effective Pd-catalyzed hydrocarboxylation of olefins using formic acid with acetic anhydride as a co-catalyst is described. A variety of carboxylic acids are obtained in good yields with high regioselectivities under mild reaction conditions without the use of toxic CO gas.

  16. Characterization of maleic acid/anhydride copolymer films by low-rate dynamic liquid-fluid contact angle measurements using axisymmetric drop shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Petra; Skorupa, Sebastian; Werner, Carsten; Grundke, Karina

    2005-07-05

    Thin films of alternating maleic acid/anhydride copolymers (poly(octadecene-alt-maleic acid/anhydride), POMA; poly(propene-alt-maleic acid/anhydride), PPMA; poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid/anhydride), PSMA) were studied to unravel the influence of the comonomer characteristics in the backbone on the surface-energetic properties of the copolymer films in the dry state and in contact with aqueous solutions. Water contact angle measurements revealed a graduation of the wettability of the dry hydrolyzed and annealed copolymer films that was dependent on the comonomer unit. It ranged from moderately hydrophilic (PPMA, annealed gamma(sv) = 39.9 mJ/m2) to very hydrophobic (POMA, annealed, gamma(sv) = 18.4 mJ/m2) surfaces. Liquid-fluid contact angle measurements using captive air bubbles were performed in different aqueous media (pure water, phosphate-buffered saline, and 10(-)(3) M KCl of two different pH values (pH = 3 and pH = 10) to study the copolymer films in their hydrated states relevant for biointerfacial phenomena. It was found that the graduation of the wettability of the copolymer films in the dry state is overall maintained upon immersion in aqueous solutions. The dependence of the wettability on the pH value of the aqueous medium could be related to the (de)protonation of the carboxylic groups.

  17. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid,...

  18. Chitosan: poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-alt-itaconic anhydride) nanocapsules—a promising alternative for the lung cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raţă, Delia Mihaela, E-mail: iureadeliamihaela@yahoo.com [„Apollonia” University of Iasi, Faculty of Medical Dentistry, „Academician Ioan Haulică” Research Institute (Romania); Chailan, Jean-François, E-mail: chailan@univ-tln.fr [University of Sud Toulon-Var, « Matériaux-Polymères-Interfaces-Environnement Marin (MAPIEM) Laboratory (France); Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara, E-mail: catipeptu@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection (Romania); Costuleanu, Marcel, E-mail: mcostuleanu@yahoo.com [University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa”- Iaşi, Department of General Pathology, Faculty of Dental Medicine (Romania); Popa, Marcel, E-mail: marpopa2001@yahoo.fr [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection (Romania)

    2015-07-15

    This study reports the preparation of novel polymeric nanocapsules based on a natural polymer, chitosan and a synthetic one, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-alt-itaconic anhydride) [(poly(NVPAI)] using an interfacial condensation technique. The infrared spectroscopy studies confirmed the crosslinking through the presence of amide bonds, formed between the two polymers chains. The diameter of nanocapsules was found in the range of 126–214 nm and it was determined by dynamic light scattering method. Morphological characterization demonstrated their nano size, the spherical shape of the nanocapsules and the formation of hollow particles. The nanocapsules presented good swelling capacity in aqueous solutions. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) loading and release capacity was studied, the processes being controlled by the drug diffusion through the polymeric membrane. The obtained results were encouraging, showing that 5-FU-loaded nanocapsules had 70 % higher apoptotic effect on A549 tumour cells than the drug in free state or mixed with the nanocapsules.

  19. Plasma Polymerized Thin Films of Maleic Anhydride and 1,2-methylenedioxybenzene for Improving Adhesion to Carbon Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Joanna Maria; Goutianos, Stergios; Kingshott, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Low power 2-phase AC plasma polymerization has been used to surface modify glassy carbon substrates that are used as an experimental model for carbon fibers in reinforced composites. In order to probe the role of carboxylic acid density on the interfacial adhesion strength a combination...... of different plasma powers and monomer compositions was used. Maleic anhydride (MAR) and 1,2-methylenedioxybenzene (MDOB) were plasma deposited separately and as mixtures to create layers with different surface compositions. In all cases the MAR was hydrolyzed to form carboxylic acid groups. Some carboxylic...... total veflectanc~ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the thickness of the plasma films and to monitor the surface roughness for the different polymerization conditions. Finally, preliminary results of fracture energy measurements of the plasma modified...

  20. LITHIUM ION CONDUCTING POLYMER ELECTROLYTES BASED ON ALTERNATING MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER WITH OLIGO-OXYETHYLENE SIDE CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Liming

    1996-01-01

    A comb polymer with oligo-oxyethylene side chains of the type -(CH2CH2O)12CH3 was prepared from methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride copolymer and poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether. The polymer can dissolve LiClO4 salt to form homogeneous amorphous polymer electrolyte. The ac ion conduction was measured using the complex impedance method, and conductivities were investigated as functions of temperatures and salt concentration. The complexes were first found to have two classes of glass transition which increase with increasing salt content. The optimum conductivity attained at 25℃ is in the order of 5.50 × 10-6Scm-1. IR spectroscopy was used to study the cation-polymer interaction.

  1. Chitosan: poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone- alt-itaconic anhydride) nanocapsules—a promising alternative for the lung cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raţă, Delia Mihaela; Chailan, Jean-François; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Costuleanu, Marcel; Popa, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    This study reports the preparation of novel polymeric nanocapsules based on a natural polymer, chitosan and a synthetic one, poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone- alt-itaconic anhydride) [(poly(NVPAI)] using an interfacial condensation technique. The infrared spectroscopy studies confirmed the crosslinking through the presence of amide bonds, formed between the two polymers chains. The diameter of nanocapsules was found in the range of 126-214 nm and it was determined by dynamic light scattering method. Morphological characterization demonstrated their nano size, the spherical shape of the nanocapsules and the formation of hollow particles. The nanocapsules presented good swelling capacity in aqueous solutions. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) loading and release capacity was studied, the processes being controlled by the drug diffusion through the polymeric membrane. The obtained results were encouraging, showing that 5-FU-loaded nanocapsules had 70 % higher apoptotic effect on A549 tumour cells than the drug in free state or mixed with the nanocapsules.

  2. Deactivation properties of a high-productive vanadia-titania catalyst for oxidation of o-xylene to phthalic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Georgieva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of a high-productive V2O5-TiO2 (anatase supported O 4-28 catalyst for oxidation of o-xylene to phthalic anhydride was investigated in the first three years of its exploitation in industry. By using a suitable mathematical model, an identification problem was solved and activation profiles of the catalyst along a fixed bed located in the tubes of an industrial reactor were determined. Experimental temperature regimes and yields of the main and side products for different periods of the catalyst life were used. The proper technological regimes providing for a maximum yield according to the requirements of the catalyst producer company were defined.

  3. Synthesis of 1H-benzoxazine-2,4-diones from heterocyclic anhydrides: evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I. Sarmiento-Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile one-step synthesis of 1H-benzoxazine-2,4-diones from heterocyclic anhydrides and TMSA was described. This paper determines their antimicrobial activity against nine human bacterial pathogens by the broth microdilution method; antioxidant activity by DPPH• inactivation and a ferric-reducing power assay; and toxicity by a brine shrimp, Artemia salina, assay. The 1H-benzoxazine-2,4-dione yields were in the range of 57 to 98%. The novel compound 1H-pyrazino[2,3-][1,3]oxazine-2,4-dione 4c showed the highest antioxidant capacity (DPPH 35.4% and FRAP 0.063 µmol TEs/µmol.

  4. Grafting of copolymer styrene maleic anhydride on poly(ethylene terephthalate) film by chemical reaction and by plasma method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigan, Muriel; Bigot, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire (UMR 8009), Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Mutel, Brigitte [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes d' Interactions Fluides reactifs-Materiaux (UPRES-EA 3751), Batiment C5, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: Brigitte.mutel@univ-lille1.fr; Coqueret, Xavier [Laboratoire Reactions Selectives et Applications (UMR-CNRS 6519) Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardennes, B.P. 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-02-15

    This work deals with the chemical grafting of a styrene maleic anhydride copolymer on the surface of a previously hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film 12 {mu}m thick via covalent bond. Two different ways are studied. The first one involves an activation of the hydrolyzed PET by the triethylamine before the grafting step. In the second one, the copolymer reacts with the 4-dimethylaminopyridine in order to form maleinyl pyridinium salt which reacts with alcohol function of the hydrolyzed PET. Characterization and quantification of the grafting are performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Factorial experiment designs are used to optimize the process and to estimate experimental parameters effects. The opportunity to associate the chemical process to a cold remote nitrogen plasma one is also examined.

  5. Effect of wood acetylation with vinyl acetate and acetic anhydride on the properties of wood-plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgül Özmen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modifications of Scots pine (Pinus slyvestris wood flour were performed with vinyl acetate (VA and acetic anhydride (AA in the presence of potassium carbonate as a catalyst. Scots pine wood flour samples were successfully acetylated with VA (19 wt% gain and AA (24 wt% gain. The effect of chemical modification of the Scots pine wood flour with AA and VA on the mechanical properties of wood high-density polyethylene composites (WPC were determined. It was observed that acetylation of wood flour allowed a significant increase in both the mechanical properties and the thermal stability of the WPCs. It was concluded that acetylation of lignocellulosic fibers improves thermal stability, dispersion in the polymer matrix, and compatibility with the polymer matrix.

  6. Acylation Modification of Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin Using Succinic Anhydride and Its Effects on Enzymatic Degradation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation rate of tissue engineering scaffolds should match the regeneration rate of new tissues. Controlling the degradation behavior of silk fibroin is an important subject for silk-based tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin was successfully modified with succinic anhydride and then characterized by zeta potential, ninhydrin method, and FTIR. In vitro, three-dimensional scaffolds prepared with modified silk fibroin were incubated in collagenase IA solution for 18 days to evaluate the impact of acylation on the degradation behavior. The results demonstrated that the degradation rate of modified silk fibroin scaffolds was more rapid than unmodified ones. The content of the β-sheet structure in silk fibroin obviously decreased after acylation, resulting in a high degradation rate. Above all, the degradation behavior of silk fibroin scaffolds could be regulated by acylation to match the requirements of various tissues regeneration.

  7. Polycarbonate/Polypropylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride and Nano-Zeolite-Based Nanocomposite Membrane: Mechanical and Gas Separation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausar A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this effort, blend membrane of polycarbonate (PC and polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PPMA was fabricated via phase inversion technique. The nano-zeolite (NZ was employed as nanofiller. Morphology of PC/PPMA/NZ membrane revealed unique inter-connected branched microstructure. Tensile strength and Young’s Modulus of PC/PPMA/NZ 0.1-5 were in the range of 59.9-74.5 MPa and 111.4-155.2 MPa respectively. The nano-zeolite filler was also effective in enhancing the permselectivity αCO2/N2 (23.5 to 38.5 relative to blend membrane (20.3. The permeability PCO2 of PC/PPMA/NZ 5 membrane was found as 106.2 Barrer. Filler loading enhanced gas diffusivity, however filler content did not significantly influence CO2 and N2 solubility.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Extruded Composites Based on Polypropylene and Chitosan Compatibilized with Polypropylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Carrasco-Guigón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of composites of synthetic and natural polymers represent an interesting option to combine properties; in this manner, polypropylene and chitosan extruded films using a different proportion of components and polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PPgMA as compatibilizer were prepared. The effect of the content of the biopolymer in the polypropylene (PP matrix, the addition of compatibilizer, and the particle size on the properties of the composites was analyzed using characterization by fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, tensile strength, and contact angle, finding that in general, the addition of the compatibilizer and reducing the particle size of the chitosan, favored the physicochemical and morphological properties of the films.

  9. Blends of nitrile butadiene rubber/poly (vinyl chloride: The use of maleated anhydride castor oil based plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiah Ratna Dewi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based plasticizers, with biodegradable materials, such as biopolymer which offers competitive mechanical properties. In this study, castor oil was modified with maleic anhydride (MAH to produce bioplasticizer named maleated anhydride castor oil (MACO, and used in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/poly vinyl chloride (PVC blend. The effect of MACO on its cure characteristics and mechanical properties of NBR/PVC blend has been determined. The reactions were carried out at different castor oil (CO/xylene ratios, i.e. 1:0 and 1:1 by weight, and fixed CO/MAH ratio, 1:3 by mole. DOP, CO, and MACO were added into each NBR/PVC blend according to the formula. It was found that the viscosity and safe process level of NBR/PVC blend is similar from all plasticizer, however, MACO (1:0 showed the highest cure rate index (CRI. MACO-based plasticizer gave a higher value of the mechanical properties of the NBR/PVC blend as compared to DOP based plasticizer. MACO (1:1 based plasticizer showed a rather significance performance compared to another type of plasticizers both before and after aging. The value of hardness, elongation at break, tensile strength, and tear strength were 96 Shore A, 155.91 %, 19.15 MPa, and 74.47 MPa, respectively. From this result, NBR/PVC blends based on MACO plasticizer can potentially replace the DOP, and therefore, making the rubber blends eco-friendly.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS POLY(STYRENE-co-MALEIC ANHYDRIDE)/SILICA HYBRID MATERIALS VIA A NONSURFACTANT-TEMPLATED SOL-GEL PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-bin Pang; Kun-yuan Qiu; Yen Wei

    2000-01-01

    Mesoporous poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)/silica hybrid materials have been prepared. The synthesis was achieved by the HCl-catalyzed sol-gel reactions of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer in the presence of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a coupling agent and citric acid as a nonsurfactant template or pore-forming agent, followed by ethanol extraction. Characterization results from nitrogen sorption isotherms and powder Xray diffraction indicate that polymer-modified mesoporous materials with large specific surface areas (e.g. 900 m2/g) and pore volumes (e.g. 0.6 cm3/g) could be prepared. As the citric acid concentration is increased, the specific surface areas, pore volumes and pore diameters of the hybrid materials increase.

  11. Mixed anhydrides (phosphoric-carboxyl) are also formed in the esterification of 5'-amp with n-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides - Implications regarding the origin of protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nalinie S. M. D.; Lacey, James C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Procedure for the formation of aminoacyl esters of monoribonucleotides with aminoacyl imidazolides were first reported by Gottikh et al. (1970) and summarized in 1970. This reaction has been widely used by us and numbers of other workers as a convenient means of preparing aminoacyl esters of nucleotides. We have previously reported that, under conditions of excess imidazolide, large amounts of bis 2', 3' esters are formed in addition to the monoesters. However, to our knowledge, no one has reported that in addition to the esters, relatively large amounts of the mixed anhydride, with the amino acid carboxyl attached to the phosphate, are also formed at short reaction times. We report here on the relative amounts of anhydride and esters formed in this reaction of racemic mixtures of eleven N-acetyl amino acid imidazolides with 5'-AMP and discuss the relevance of the findings to the origin of protein synthesis.

  12. Efficient synthesis of zinc-containing mesoporous silicas by microwave irradiation method and their high activities in acetylation of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene with acetic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bachari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of acid zinc-containing mesoporous materials have been synthesized by microwave irradiation method with different Si/Zn ratios (Si/Zn = 100, 65, 15 and characterized by several spectroscopic techniques such as: N2 physical adsorption, ICP, XRD, TEM, FT-IR and a temperature-programmed-desorption (TPD of pyridine. The liquid phase of acetylation of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene with acetic anhydride has been investigated over this series of catalysts. In fact, the catalyst Zn-JLU-15 (15 showed bigger performance in the acid-catalyzed acetylation of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene employing acetic anhydride as an acylating agent. Furthermore, the kinetics of the acetylation of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene over these catalysts have also been investigated.

  13. Epoxy/anhydride thermosets modified with end-capped star polymers with poly(ethyleneimine cores of different molecular weight and poly(ε–caprolactone arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Acebo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiarm star polymers, with a hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine (PEI core and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL arms end-capped with acetyl groups were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone from PEI cores of different molecular weight. These star polymers were used as toughening agents for epoxy/anhydride thermosets. The curing process was studied by calorimetry, thermomechanical analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The final properties of the resulting materials were determined by thermal and mechanical tests. The addition of the star polymers led to an improvement up to 130% on impact strength and a reduction in the thermal stresses up to 55%. The structure and molecular weight of the modifier used affected the morphology of the resulting materials. Electron microscopy showed phase-separated morphologies with nano-sized fine particles well adhered to the epoxy/anhydride matrix when the higher molecular weight modifier was used.

  14. Electronic Effects of Aluminum Complexes in the Copolymerization of Propylene Oxide with Tricyclic Anhydrides: Access to Well-Defined, Functionalizable Aliphatic Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zee, Nathan J; Sanford, Maria J; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-02

    The synthesis of well-defined and functionalizable aliphatic polyesters remains a key challenge in the advancement of emerging drug delivery and self-assembly technologies. Herein, we investigate the factors that influence the rates of undesirable transesterification and epimerization side reactions at high conversion in the copolymerization of tricyclic anhydrides with excess propylene oxide using aluminum salen catalysts. The structure of the tricyclic anhydride, the molar ratio of the aluminum catalyst to the nucleophilic cocatalyst, and the Lewis acidity of the aluminum catalyst all influence the rates of these side reactions. Optimal catalytic activity and selectivity against these side reactions requires a careful balance of all these factors. Effective suppression of undesirable transesterification and epimerization was achieved even with sterically unhindered monomers using a fluorinated aluminum salph complex with a substoichiometric amount of a nucleophilic cocatalyst. This process can be used to synthesize well-defined block copolymers via a sequential addition strategy.

  15. Effect of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and solvent on the rate of the Diels-Alder reaction between 9,10-anthracenedimethanol and maleic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, V. D.; Kornilov, D. A.; Anikin, O. V.; Latypova, L. I.; Konovalov, A. I.

    2017-03-01

    The rate of the reaction between 9,10-anthracenedimethanol and maleic anhydride in 1,4-dioxane, acetonitrile, trichloromethane, and toluene is studied at 25, 35, 45°C in the pressure range of 1-1772 bar. The rate constants, enthalpies, entropies and activation volumes are determined. It is shown that the rate of reaction with 9,10-anthracenedimethanol is approximately one order of magnitude higher than with 9-anthracenemethanol.

  16. N-甲酰-L-天冬氨酸酐的合成%Synthesis of N-Formyl-L-aspartic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷一欣; 芮新生; 马江权; 孙豪义; 周宏斌

    2001-01-01

    N-Formyl-L-aspartic anhydride was prepared by the reaction of L-aspartic acid and formic acid with magnesium oxide catalyst in acetic anhydride solvent.Effects of temperature,operation time and molar ratio of formic acid and acetic anhydride were discussed.The optimum operation conditions were temperature 50 ℃,operation time 5 h, molar ratio of formic acid to L-aspartic acid 1.6∶1.0 and molar ratio of acetic anhydride to L-aspartic acid 2.3∶1.0.The yield was 90.35%.%在乙酸酐溶剂中,以氧化镁为催化剂,L-天冬氨酸与甲酸进行甲酰化反应并脱水生成N-甲酰-L-天冬氨酸酐。考察了温度、时间、甲酸和乙酸酐用量比对反应的影响,得到了优化的反应条件为:反应温度50 ℃,反应时间5 h,甲酸与L-天冬氨酸的物质的量比为1.6∶1.0,乙酸酐与L-天冬氨酸的物质的量比为2.3∶1.0,此时产物收率达90.35%。

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Styrene- Ethylene-Propylene-Styrene (SEPS Grafted with Maleic Anhydride (MAH for Use as Coupling Agent in Wood Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Acevedo-Morantes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Styrene-Ethylene-Propylene-Styrene (SEPS block copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (MAH by reactive extrusion (SEPS-g-MAH using an organic peroxide as initiator in the grafting. SEPS-g-MAH was synthesized for use as coupling agent in wood polymer composite (WPC. Identification of this compatibilizer was made using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and the grafting degree was determinate with titration. The characteristic peaks in FTIR analysis indicated the presence of MAH in the copolymer.

  18. Synthesis of high molecular weight polylactic acid from aqueous lactic acid co-catalyzed by tin(II)chloride dihydrate and succinic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Ziqiang; BAI Yanbin; WANG Shoufeng

    2005-01-01

    Polylactic acid was synthesized from commercial available cheap aqueous lactic acid (85%―90% w/w) using succinic anhydride and SnCl2·2H2O as catalyst in the absence of organic solvents. As a result, polylactic acid with a molecular weight of 60000 was prepared in 10 h. The new procedure is much simple, cheap and outstanding in that the start material is aqueous lactic acid; the catalytic system is environmentally benign.

  19. Thermal curing of an epoxy-anhydride system modified with hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s with different terminal groups

    OpenAIRE

    Morancho Llena, José María; Fernández Francos, Xavier; Acebo Gorostiza, Cristina; Ramis Juan, Xavier; Salla Tarragó, José María; Serra Albet, Àngels

    2017-01-01

    New hyperbranched polymers (HBP) have been synthesized by reaction of a poly(ethylene imine) with phenyl and t-butyl isocyanates. These HBPs have been characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Their influence on the curing and properties of epoxy-anhydride thermosets has been studied by different techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and thermogravimetry (TG). The ...

  20. STUDY OF CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE OVER A BIDENTATE POLYMER BOUND CIS-DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX AS CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaojun; LIU Zhongyang; PAN Pinglai; YUAN Guoqing

    1996-01-01

    Copolymer of 2-vinylpyridine and vinylacetate coordinated with dicarbonylrhodium used as a catalyst for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid and anhydride has been studied. The structural characteristics of the copolymer ligand and complex, and the influences of the reaction conditions on the carbonylation catalyzed by this polymer complex have been investigated. In comparison with small molecule catalyst of Rh complex, the bidentate copolymer coordinated complex has better thermal stability. The reaction mechanism of the carbonylation reaction is also illustrated.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL STABILITY OF PMR POLYIMIDES USING 7-OXA-BICYCLO[2,2,1]HEPT-5-ENE-2, 3-DICARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE AS END CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-liang Gong; Yan-feng Li; Hai-xia Yang; Xiao-long Wang; Shu-jiang Zhang; Shi-yong Yanga

    2011-01-01

    An anhydride monomer containing ether oxide bridge,7-oxa-bicyclo[2,2,1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride (ONA),was successfully synthesized by Diels-Alder reaction of furan and maleic anhydride.The ONA was also studied as an end-cap for the polymerization of monomer reactant (PMR) type polyimides.Three molecular weight levels of the ONA end-capped PMR resins were evaluated.The effects of process conditions of these novel PMR resins on thermal and mechanical properties were investigated.It was demonstrated that the imidized prepolymers using the end-cap have good processability,and the cured polyimide specimens exhibited good thermal stability.The initial decomposition temperature,Td (ca.580℃) and glass transition temperature,Tg (330℃) of the novel resin (PI-20),prepared under optimum process conditions,compare favorably with the Td (ca.620℃) and Tg (ca.348℃) of the state-of-the-art resin (PI'-20),respectively.

  2. 聚乙烯接枝马来酸酐的工业生产技术研究%Production Technology of Polyethylene Grafted Maleic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益龙; 陈常明; 沈千新; 刘兴国

    2001-01-01

    Various methods of production of polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA) were compared by experiments. It was noted that the best way is reactive extrusion by means of reactive extruder. Its outstanding characteristics is that less free maleic anhydride exists in PE-g-MA and the process is automatic.It was also found that graft of HDPE was easier than that of LDPE,dicumyl peroxide had greater effect on graft rate than that of maleic anhydride.%通过实验比较了各种聚乙烯接枝马来酸酐的方法,发现利用反应式挤出机接枝最为理想,该方法的突出特点是产品中含游离态的马来酸酐少,工艺自动化及工作环境好等。通过实验还发现,HDPE比LDPE更易于接枝,接枝过程中过氧化物用量对接枝率的影响比MA用量对接枝率的影响大。

  3. Butanol Alcoholysis of Succinic Anhydride Under Neutral Condition%中性条件下丁二酸酐的丁醇解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳萍; 张利萍

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholysis of succinic anhydride and n - butyl alcohol takes place without catalysts and the monobutyl succinie forms. The IR and MS spectra of the products are measured respectively. The factors such as the molar radio between succinic anhydride and n - butanol, raction time are discussed. The radio of succinic acid to n - butanol is 1:3 ,the reaction time is 2h, alcoholysis radio is up to 95.8% ;the reaction time is over 2.5h,succinic anhydride has been alcoholyzed and a little amount of dibutyl has formed.%丁二酸酐和正丁醇在无催化剂参与下,直接醇解生成丁二酸正丁单酯。用IR谱和MS谱分别对产物进行了结构表征。反应讨论了物质的量比、反应时间对醇解反应的影响。当酸酐与醇的物质的量比为1:3,反应2h时,酸酐醇解率已达到95.8%;反应2.5h以上时,酸酐完全醇解,并且有少量丁二酸二丁酯生成。

  4. Radiation grafting of styrene and maleic anhydride onto PTFE membranes and sequent sulfonation for applications of vanadium redox battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Jingyi; Ni Jiangfeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: mlzhai@pku.edu.cn; Peng Jing [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou Henghui [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: hhzhou@pku.edu.cn; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Using {gamma}-radiation technique, poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane was grafted with styrene (St) (PTFE-graft-PS) or binary monomers of St and maleic anhydride (MAn) (PTFE-graft-PS-co-PMAn), respectively. Then grafted membranes were further sulfonated with chlorosulfonic acid into ion-exchange membranes (denoted as PTFE-graft-PSSA and PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc, respectively) for application of vanadium redox battery (VRB). Micro-FTIR analysis indicated that PTFE was successfully grafted and sulfonated at the above two different conditions. However, a higher degree of grafting (DOG) was obtained in St/MAn binary system at the same dose due to a synergistic effect. Comparing with PTFE-graft-PSSA, PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane showed higher water uptake and ion-exchange capacity (IEC) and lower area resistance (AR) at the same DOG. In addition, PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc with 6% DOG also showed a higher IEC and higher conductivity compared to Nafion membrane. Radiation grafting of PTFE in St/MAn binary system and sequent sulfonation is an appropriate method for preparing ion-exchange membrane of VRB.

  5. Anhydride-functional silane immobilized onto titanium surfaces induces osteoblast cell differentiation and reduces bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria, E-mail: maria.godoy.gallardo@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Guillem-Marti, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.guillem.marti@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sevilla, Pablo, E-mail: psevilla@euss.es [Department of Mechanics, Escola Universitària Salesiana de Sarrià (EUSS), C/ Passeig de Sant Bosco, 42, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Manero, José M., E-mail: jose.maria.manero@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gil, Francisco J., E-mail: francesc.xavier.gil@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial infection in dental implants along with osseointegration failure usually leads to loss of the device. Bioactive molecules with antibacterial properties can be attached to titanium surfaces with anchoring molecules such as silanes, preventing biofilm formation and improving osseointegration. Properties of silanes as molecular binders have been thoroughly studied, but research on the biological effects of these coatings is scarce. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro cell response and antibacterial effects of triethoxysilypropyl succinic anhydride (TESPSA) silane anchored on titanium surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed a successful silanization. The silanized surfaces showed no cytotoxic effects. Gene expression analyses of Sarcoma Osteogenic (SaOS-2) osteoblast-like cells cultured on TESPSA silanized surfaces reported a remarkable increase of biochemical markers related to induction of osteoblastic cell differentiation. A manifest decrease of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation at early stages was observed on treated substrates, while favoring cell adhesion and spreading in bacteria–cell co-cultures. Surfaces treated with TESPSA could enhance a biological sealing on implant surfaces against bacteria colonization of underlying tissues. Furthermore, it can be an effective anchoring platform of biomolecules on titanium surfaces with improved osteoblastic differentiation and antibacterial properties. - Highlights: • TESPSA silane induces osteoblast differentiation. • TESPSA reduces bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. • TESPSA is a promising anchoring platform of biomolecules onto titanium.

  6. GRAFTING OF PEROXIDE-INITIATED MALEIC ANHYDRIDE ON SPHERICAL PE/PP IN-REACTOR BLEND GRANULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-zhong Zhang; Zhi-qiang Fan; Bai-geng Wu; Jun-ting Xu; Qi Wang

    2004-01-01

    Spherical polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) in-reactor blend granules with various ethylene/propylene molar ratios and high porosity were synthesized using a high yield TiCl4/MgCl2 supported catalyst. A solution of benzoyl peroxide (BPO)/maleic anhydride (MAH)/xylene (interfacial reagent) or BPO/MAH/St (comonomer) was absorbed onto the PE/PP inreactor blend granules, and solid phase graft polymerization of MAH on PE/PP was conducted. The amount of grafted MAH on PE/PP was measured through chemical titration. The results showed that solid phase graft polymerization of MAH in PE/PP in-reactor blend granules produced graft copolymer with high amount of grafted MAH, and the amount of grafted MAH was raised slightly when St was introduced as comonomer. The graft in-reactor blend was fractionated into five fractions through temperature-gradient extraction fractionation (TGEF), and the fractions were analyzed by FTIR. The results revealed that MAH is mainly grafted on the PE segments, whereas MAH was predominantly grafted on the PP segments when St was present in the graft polymerization system. In addition, the final product is still in the form of regular spherical granules, which is beneficial for industrial processing.

  7. Development of a guided bone regeneration device using salicylic acid-poly(anhydride-ester) polymers and osteoconductive scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ashley; Kim, Brian; Cottrell, Jessica; Snyder, Sabrina; Witek, Lukasz; Ricci, John; Uhrich, Kathryn E; O'Connor, J Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Successful repair of craniofacial and periodontal tissue defects ideally involves a combined therapy that includes inflammation modulation, control of soft tissue infiltration, and bone regeneration. In this study, an anti-inflammatory polymer, salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SAPAE) and a three-dimensional osteoconductive ceramic scaffold were evaluated as a combined guided bone regeneration (GBR) system for concurrent control of inflammation, soft tissue ingrowth, and bone repair in a rabbit cranial defect model. At time periods of 1, 3, and 8 weeks, five groups were compared: (1) scaffolds with a solid ceramic cap (as a GBR structure); (2) scaffolds with no cap; (3) scaffolds with a poly(lactide-glycolide) cap; (4) scaffolds with a slow release SAPAE polymer cap; and (5) scaffolds with a fast release SAPAE polymer cap. Cellular infiltration and bone formation in these scaffolds were evaluated to assess inflammation and bone repair capacity of the test groups. The SAPAE polymers suppressed inflammation and displayed no deleterious effect on bone formation. Additional work is warranted to optimize the anti-inflammatory action of the SAPAE, GBR suppression of soft tissue infiltration, and stimulation of bone formation in the scaffolds and create a composite device for successful repair of craniofacial and periodontal tissue defects.

  8. In vitro release of clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl from poly adipic anhydride (PAA) and poly trimethylene carbonate (PTMC) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Rassoul; Alimorad, Mohammed Massoud; Amanlou, Massoud; Akbari, Hamid

    2005-10-01

    Controlled drug-delivery technology is concerned with the systematic release of a pharmaceutical agent to maintain a therapeutic level of the drug in the body for modulated and/or prolonged periods of time. This may be achieved by incorporating the therapeutic agent into a degradable polymer vehicle, which releases the agent continuously as the matrix erodes. In this study, poly trimethylene carbonate (PTMC), an aliphatic polycarbonate, and poly adipic anhydride (PAA), an aliphatic polyanhydride, were synthesized via melt condensation and ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate and adipic acid, respectively. The release of clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl from discs prepared with the use of PTMC-PAA blends in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) are also described. Clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl were both used as hydrophilic drug models. Theoretical treatment of the data with the Peppas model revealed that release of clomipramine HCl (5%) in devices containing 70% PTMC or more followed a Fickian diffusion model. However, the releases of buprenorphine HCl (5%) in the same devices were anomalous. For devices containing 50% and more PAA, surface erosion may play a significant role in the release of both molecules.

  9. Olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer based additives: a novel approach for compatibilizing blends of waste polyethylene and crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Balázs; Varga, Csilla; Bartha, László

    2015-04-01

    In our work processing conditions and mechanical properties of waste polyethylene (PE)/crumb rubber (CR) blends have been improved by new types of compatibilizing additives synthesized from experimental olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymers at our laboratory. Compatibilizing additives have been introduced into the PE/CR blends in 0.2 wt% while CR concentration has been varied between 10 and 50 wt%. For comparison of the effects commercially available MA-g-PO type compatibilizing additives have also been applied. Tensile and Charpy impact tests of the compression moulded samples have been carried out. Several experimental additives have enhanced properties of the PE/CR blends either from the point of view of tensile or Charpy impact strength while commercial additives have had improving effects only on one of the abovementioned mechanical properties but not for both of them simultaneously. Since good mechanical properties could be achieved by our experimental compatibilizers good adhesion in the waste PE/CR samples have been considered and was proven by SEM graphs either.

  10. Separator Membrane from Crosslinked Poly(Vinyl Alcohol and Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-alt-Maleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Vashisth Rohatgi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report separator membranes from crosslinking of two polymers, such as poly vinyl alcohol (PVA with an ionic polymer poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride (PMVE-MA. Such interpolymer-networked systems were extensively used for biomedical and desalination applications but they were not examined for their potential use as membranes or separators for batteries. Therefore, the chemical interactions between these two polymers and the influence of such crosslinking on physicochemical properties of the membrane are systematically investigated through rheology and by critical gel point study. The hydrogen bonding and the chemical interaction between PMVE-MA and PVA resulted in highly cross-linked membranes. Effect of the molecular weight of PVA on the membrane properties was also examined. The developed membranes were extensively characterized by studying their physicochemical properties (water uptake, swelling ratio, and conductivity, thermal and electrochemical properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The DSC study shows the presence of a single Tg in the membranes indicating compatibility of the two polymers in flexible and transparent films. The membranes show good stability and ion conductivity suitable for separator applications.

  11. Preparation, characterization and luminescent properties of dense nano-silica hybrids loaded with 1,8-naphthalic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinpeng; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Novel luminescent dense nano-silica hybrid materials (DNSS) modified with different amounts of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (NA) were successfully synthesized via two steps combined with post-grafting methods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-sorption analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, as well as time-resolved decays were employed to characterize the resultant hybrid materials. The results revealed that luminescent organic molecules had been successfully loaded onto the amine-modified surface of nano-silica spheres. In addition, their fluorescence intensity and characteristic peak of emission spectra changed with increasing amount of APTES and NA additive. In particular, the characteristic peak showed a red shift from 390 to 450 nm, however, this was inconsistent with results calculated on the basis of the elemental analysis data, most probably because of the dispersion behaviors of NA molecules from the aggregating to the monolayer state. These observations demonstrated the existence of a quantum confinement effectiveness of NA-DNSS samples, and therefore a possible mechanism was put forward.

  12. Immunosuppression of the Trimellitic Anhydride-Induced Th2 Response by Novel Nonanatural Products Mixture in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jung Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many natural dietary products prevent or cure allergic inflammation; however, the ability of mixtures of these natural medicinals to suppress allergic skin inflammation is unknown. We examined the inhibitory effects of nonanatural products mixture (NPM-9, which provides immunoregulatory activation, on Th2-mediated skin allergic inflammation. Oral administration of NPM-9 in mice reduced ear thickness and specific IgE production in trimellitic anhydride- (TMA-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS. NPM-9 also suppressed IL-4 and IL-1β production in splenocytes but prevented only TMA-induced IL-1β production in inflamed ears. To characterize the mechanism of this effect, we examined NPM-9 immunosuppression on an OVA-induced Th2 allergic state. Oral administration of NPM-9 inhibited Th2-mediated serum IgE overproduction. NPM-9 also downregulated the polarized Th2 response, whereas it upregulated Th1 response in splenocytes. These data suggest that NPM-9 may be a useful therapeutic agent for allergic inflammatory diseases through its suppression of the Th2-mediated allergic response.

  13. Intranasal Administration of Maleic Anhydride-Modified Human Serum Albumin for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. Neither vaccine nor effective antiviral therapy is available to prevent and treat RSV infection. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is the only product approved to prevent serious RSV infection, but its high cost is prohibitive in low-income countries. Here, we aimed to identify an effective, safe, and affordable antiviral agent for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP of RSV infection in children at high risk. We found that maleic anhydride (ML-modified human serum albumin (HSA, designated ML-HSA, exhibited potent antiviral activity against RSV and that the percentages of the modified lysines and arginies in ML- are correlated with such anti-RSV activity. ML-HSA inhibited RSV entry and replication by interacting with viral G protein and blocking RSV attachment to the target cells, while ML-HAS neither bound to F protein, nor inhibited F protein-mediated membrane fusion. Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of mice. ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis of RSV infection in children at high risk in both low- and high-income countries.

  14. Investigation of diode parameters using – and – characteristics of Al/maleic anhydride (MA)/p-Si structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A B Selçuk; S Bilge Ocak; G Kahraman; A H Selçuk

    2014-12-01

    Al/maleic anhydride (MA)/p-Si metal–polymer–semiconductor (MPS) structures were prepared on p-Si substrate by spin coating. Device parameters of Al/MA/p-Si structure have been determined by means of capacitance–voltage (–) and conductance–voltage (–) measurements between 700 kHz and 1.5 MHz and current–voltage (–) measurements at 300 K. The parameters of diode such as the ideality factor, series resistance, barrier height (BH) and flat band barrier height were calculated from the forward bias – characteristics. The investigation of interface states that density and series resistance from – and – characteristics in Al/MA/p-Si device has been reported. The frequency dependence of the capacitance could be attributed to trapping states. Several important device parameters such as the BH $\\phi_{b}$, fermi energy ($E_{F}$), diffusion voltage ($V_{D}$), donor carrier concentration ($N_{D}$) and space charge layer width ($W_{D}$) for the device have been obtained between 700 kHz and 1.5 MHz. The –, –- and –- characteristics confirm that the parameters like the BH, interface state density (it) and series resistance ($R_{s}$) of the diode are strongly dependent on the electrical parameters in the MPS structures.

  15. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  16. In Vivo Evaluation of Nerve Guidance Conduits Comprised of a Salicylic Acid-based Poly(anhydride-ester) Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Soo

    Unlike the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system can regenerate from injury. However, without surgical intervention, the results are often poor. Autologous nerve grafting is the golden standard for repairing peripheral nerve injury; but limited donor availability and donor site morbidity led researchers to seek alternative methods. Among the many alternative treatment options, synthetic nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have been most actively developed. The goal of NGCs is to serve as a physical scaffold that aids the axonal regeneration process while preventing scar tissue formation that interferes with regeneration. Biocompatible and biodegradable NGCs would provide additional benefits: minimize foreign body reaction and avoid secondary surgeries to remove NGCs. We developed a unique NGC that incorporated the characteristics described above and can release an anti-inflammatory drug, salicylic acid. In this work, in vivo assays were performed to evaluate NGCs fabricated from a poly(anhydride-ester) blend. To further assist in the regeneration process, bovine native collagen type I hydrogel were inserted into the NGCs lumen which was then implanted in femoral nerve of mice for up to 16 weeks. These studies demonstrated in vivo biodegradability, biocompatibility, and axonal regeneration following an injury to the peripheral nerve. These studies provide greater insights into the importance of designing NGCs and how they aid in regeneration and functional recovery of subjects.

  17. Adsorption of heavy metal ions and azo dyes by crosslinked nanochelating resins based on poly(methylmethacrylate-co-maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaemy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chelating resins are suitable materials for the removal of heavy metals in water treatments. A copolymer, Poly(MMA-co-MA, was synthesized by radical polymerization of maleic anhydride (MA and methyl methacrylate (MMA, characterized and transformed into multifunctional nanochelating resin beads (80–150 nm via hydrolysis, grafting and crosslink reactions. The resin beads were characterized by swelling studies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The main purpose of this work was to determine the adsorption capacity of the prepared resins (swelling ratio ~55% towards metal ions such as Hg2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ from water at three different pH values (3, 6 and 9. Variations in pH and types of metal ions have not significantly affected the chelation capacity of these resins. The maximum chelation capacity of one of the prepared resin beads (Co-g-AP3 for Hg2+ was 63, 85.8 and 71.14 mg/g at pH 3, 6 and 9, respectively. Approximately 96% of the metal ions could be desorbed from the resin. Adsorption capacity of these resins towards three commercial synthetic azo dyes was also investigated. The maximum adsorption of dye AY42 was 91% for the resin Co-g-AP3 at room temperature. This insures the applicability of the synthesized resins for industrial applications.

  18. Preparation of High Density Polyethylene/Waste Polyurethane Blends Compatibilized with Polyethylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride by Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. In this study, we developed a recycling method for waste PU that utilizes the radiation grafting technique. Grafting of waste PU was carried out using a radiation technique with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA. The PE-g-MA-grafted PU/high density polyethylene (HDPE composite was prepared by melt-blending at various concentrations (0–10 phr of PE-g-MA-grafted PU. The composites were characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and their surface morphology and thermal/mechanical properties are reported. For 1 phr PU, the PU could be easily introduced to the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender after the radiation-induced grafting of PU with PE-g-MA. PE-g-MA was easily reacted with PU according to the increasing radiation dose and was located at the interface between the PU and the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender, which improved the interfacial interactions and the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. However, the elongation at break for a PU content >2 phr was drastically decreased.

  19. Evaluation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydride from the Salado Formation: Sensitivity analysis and data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, R.L.; Kalbus, J.S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Howarth, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report documents, demonstrates, evaluates, and provides theoretical justification for methods used to convert experimental data into relative permeability relationships. The report facilities accurate determination of relative permeabilities of anhydride rock samples from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Relative permeability characteristic curves are necessary for WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) predictions of the potential for flow of waste-generated gas from the repository and brine flow into repository. This report follows Christiansen and Howarth (1995), a comprehensive literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability. It focuses on unsteady-state experiments and describes five methods for obtaining relative permeability relationships from unsteady-state experiments. Unsteady-state experimental methods were recommended for relative permeability measurements of low-permeability anhydrite rock samples form the Salado Formation because these tests produce accurate relative permeability information and take significantly less time to complete than steady-state tests. Five methods for obtaining relative permeability relationships from unsteady-state experiments are described: the Welge method, the Johnson-Bossler-Naumann method, the Jones-Roszelle method, the Ramakrishnan-Cappiello method, and the Hagoort method. A summary, an example of the calculations, and a theoretical justification are provided for each of the five methods. Displacements in porous media are numerically simulated for the calculation examples. The simulated product data were processed using the methods, and the relative permeabilities obtained were compared with those input to the numerical model. A variety of operating conditions were simulated to show sensitivity of production behavior to rock-fluid properties.

  20. Photophysical properties of 1,8-naphthalic anhydride in aprotic solvents: An electron acceptor in excited state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sujay; Biswas, Subhanip; Mondal, Mousumi; Basu, Samita, E-mail: samita.basu@saha.ac.in

    2014-01-15

    1,8-Naphthalic anhydride (NAN) has long been known as an intermediate for the synthesis of 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives with diverse applications. Uses of NAN for other purposes are restricted because it hydrolyzes in water and other protic solvents. In the current work we have investigated the absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of NAN in eight different aprotic solvents of varying polarity. The compound is found to have different quantum yields in all the solvents. Astoundingly, NAN shows minimal fluorescence yield in dimethyl sulphoxide and N,N-dimethylformamide which is found to originate from pure collisional quenching owing to proton affinity of the solvent. In aprotic solvents acetonitrile and ethyl acetate, fluorescence emission and lifetime of NAN are quenched on addition of aliphatic amines namely triethylamine (TEA), tri-N-butylamine (TBA) and diisopropylethylamine (DIEA). Laser flash photolysis experiments in acetonitrile solvent have been used to find out the transient intermediates, which depict the involvement of photo-induced electron transfer from the amines to NAN. Hence, NAN has the potential to act as an efficient photo-induced electron acceptor in aprotic medium. -- Highlights: • In aprotic solvents NAN absorbs with maximum around 330–340 nm. • NAN fluoresce in aprotic solvents with maximum around 345–395 nm. • NAN has negligibly poor fluorescence in DMSO and DMF. • Fluorescence of NAN in aprotic solvents is quenched by TEA, TBA and DIEA. • Photo-induced electron transfer from the amines to NAN is the reason for such interaction.

  1. A gas chromatograph for quantification of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides calibrated by thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Tokarek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs, molecular formula RC(OO2NO2 can readily be observed by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection (PAN-GC. Calibration of a PAN-GC remains a challenge because the response factors (RF's differ for each of the PANs and because their synthesis in sufficiently high purity is non-trivial, in particular for PANs containing unsaturated side chains. In this manuscript, a PAN-GC and its calibration using diffusion standards, whose output was quantified by blue diode laser thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS, are described. The PAN-GC peak areas correlated linearly with total peroxy nitrate (ΣPN mixing ratios measured by TD-CRDS (r > 0.96. Accurate determination of RF's required the concentrations of PAN impurities in the synthetic standards to be subtracted from ΣPN. The PAN-GC and its TD-CRDS calibration method were deployed during ambient air measurement campaigns in Abbotsford, BC, from 20 July to 5 August, 2012, and during the Fort McMurray Oil Sands Strategic Investigation of Local Sources (FOSSILS campaign at the AMS13 ground site in Fort McKay, AB, from 10 August to 5 September 2013. For the Abbotsford data set, the PAN-GC mixing ratios were compared and agreed with those determined in parallel by thermal dissociation chemical ionization mass spectrometry (TD-CIMS. Advantages and disadvantages of the PAN measurement techniques used in this work and the utility of TD-CRDS as a PAN-GC calibration method are discussed.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Titrated Extract of Centella asiatica in Phthalic Anhydride-Induced Allergic Dermatitis Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Ho; Choi, Ji Yeon; Son, Dong Ju; Park, Eun Kyung; Song, Min Jong; Hellström, Mats; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-03-30

    Centella asiatica has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its anti-dermatitic effect has not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the anti-dermatitic effects of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) in a phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) animal model as well as in vitro model. An AD-like lesion was induced by the topical application of five percent PA to the dorsal skin or ear of Hos:HR-1 mouse. After AD induction, 100 μL of 0.2% and 0.4% of TECA (40 μg or 80 μg/cm²) was spread on the dorsum of the ear or back skin three times a week for four weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and changes in protein expression by Western blotting for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and NF-κB activity, which were determined by electromobility shift assay (EMSA). We also measured TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IgE concentration in the blood of AD mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TECA treatment attenuated the development of PA-induced atopic dermatitis. Histological analysis showed that TECA inhibited hyperkeratosis, mast cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. TECA treatment inhibited expression of iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κB activity as well as the release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IgE. In addition, TECA (1, 2, 5 μg/mL) potently inhibited Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 μg/mL)-induced NO production, expression of iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κB DNA binding activities in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Our data demonstrated that TECA could be a promising agent for AD by inhibition of NF-κB signaling.

  3. Novel 4-Arm Poly(Ethylene Glycol-Block-Poly(Anhydride-Esters Amphiphilic Copolymer Micelles Loading Curcumin: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(anhydride-esters amphiphilic copolymer (4-arm PEG-b-PAE was synthesized by esterization of 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol and poly(anhydride-esters which was obtained by melt polycondensation of α-, ω-acetic anhydride terminated poly(L-lactic acid. The obtained 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was characterized by 1H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micelle concentration of 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was 2.38 μg/mL. The curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles were prepared by a solid dispersion method and the drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency of the micelles were 7.0% and 85.2%, respectively. The curcumin-loaded micelles were spherical with a hydrodynamic diameter of 151.9 nm. Curcumin was encapsulated within 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles amorphously and released from the micelles, faster in pH 5.0 than pH 7.4, presenting one biphasic drug release pattern with rapid release at the initial stage and slow release later. The hemolysis rate of the curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles was 3.18%, which was below 5%. The IC50 value of the curcumin-loaded micelles against Hela cells was 10.21 μg/mL, lower than the one of free curcumin (25.90 μg/mL. The cellular uptake of the curcumin-loaded micelles in Hela cell increased in a time-dependent manner. The curcumin-loaded micelles could induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Hela cells.

  4. Utilization of α-olefins obtained by pyrolysis of waste high density polyethylene to synthesize α-olefin-succinic-anhydride based cold flow improvers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norbert MISKOLCZI; Richard SAGI; László BARTHA; Lívia FORCEK

    2009-01-01

    A new route of utilization of α-olefin rich hydrocarbon fractions obtained by waste polymer pyrolysis was investigated. α-olefin-succinic-anhydride intermediate-based pour point depressant additives for diesel fuel were synthesized, in which reactions needed α-olefins were obtained by pyrolysis of waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Fraction of α-olefins was produced by the de-polymerization of plastic waste in a tube reactor at 500℃ in the absence of catalysts and air. C17~22 range of mixtures of olefins and paraffins were separated for synthesis and then, these hydrocarbons were reacted with maleic-anhydride (MA) for formation of α-olefin-succinic-anhydride intermediates. The olefin-rich hydrocarbon fraction contained approximately 60% of olefins, including 90%~95% α-olefins. Other intermediates were produced in the same way by using commercial C20 α-olefin instead of C17~22 olefin mixture. The two different experimental intermediates with number average molecular weights of 1850g/mol and 1760g/mol were reacted with different alcohols: 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, i-butanol, and c-hexanol to produce their ester derivatives. The synthesized ten experimental pour point depressants were added in different concentrations to conventional diesel fuel, which had no other additive content before. The structure and efficiency of experimental additives were followed by different standardized and non-standardized methods. Results showed that the experimental additives on the basis of the product of waste pyrolysis were able to decrease not only the pour but also the cloud point and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of diesel fuel, whose effects could be observed even if the concentration of additives was low. Furthermore, all additives had anti-wear and anti-friction effects in diesel fuel.

  5. Non-woven fibrous materials with antibacterial properties prepared by tailored attachment of quaternized chitosan to electrospun mats from maleic anhydride copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Milena; Petkova, Zhanina; Manolova, Nevena; Markova, Nadya; Rashkov, Iliya

    2012-01-01

    In order to impart antibacterial properties to microfibrous electrospun materials from styrene/maleic anhydride copolymers, quaternized chitosan derivatives (QCh) containing alkyl substituents of different chain lengths are covalently attached to the mats. A complete inhibition of the growth of bacteria, S. aureus (Gram-positive) and E. coli (Gram-negative), for a contact time of 30–120 min or a decrease of the bacterial titer by 2–3 log units is observed depending on the quaternization degree, the chain length of the alkyl substituent, and the molar mass of QCh. The modified mats are also effective in suppressing the adhesion of pathogenic S. aureus bacteria.

  6. Supplementation with difructose anhydride III promotes passive calcium absorption in the small intestine immediately after calving in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, M; Wynn, S; Reshalaitihan, M; Kyuno, W; Sato, T; Ohtani, M; Kawashima, C; Hanada, M

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hypocalcemia increases in high-parity dairy cows because resorption of bone Ca is delayed in these animals, and they appear to have a reduced ability to absorb Ca from the intestine during the early postpartum period. Difructose anhydride (DFA) III has been shown to promote the absorption of intestinal Ca via a paracellular pathway. However, past studies have not reported this effect in peripartum dairy cows. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DFA III supplementation on Ca metabolism during the peripartum period to determine whether DFA III promotes intestinal Ca absorption via this route. Seventy-four multiparous Holstein cows were separated into DFA and control groups based on their parity and body weight. The feed of the DFA group was supplemented with 40g/d of DFA III from -14 to 6d relative to calving. The control group did not receive DFA III. At calving (0h relative to calving), serum Ca declined below 9mg/dL in both groups. However, serum Ca concentrations were greater in the DFA group than in the control group at 6, 12, 24, and 48h relative to calving, and the time required for serum Ca to recover to 9mg/dL during the postpartum period was shorter in the high-parity cows in the DFA group than in those in the control group. Parathyroid hormone concentrations increased immediately after calving in both groups and were greater in the control group than in the DFA group at 12 and 24h relative to calving. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations increased at 0 and 12h relative to calving in both groups and were higher in the control group than in the DFA group at 72h relative to calving. Serum concentrations of the bone-resorption marker cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were not different between the groups during peripartum period, and serum NTX in all cows was lower at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h relative to calving than at -21, 4, and 5d relative to calving. Thus, DFA treatment induced faster recovery of serum Ca

  7. Preparation and characterization of new succinic anhydride grafted Posidonia for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadlia, Aguir, E-mail: aguirc@yahoo.ca [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Appliquee et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Mohamed, Khalfaoui [Unite de Recherche de Physique Quantique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Najah, Laribi; Farouk, M' henni Mohamed [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Appliquee et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia)

    2009-12-30

    The present work describes the preparation of new chelating materials derived from Posidonia for adsorption of heavy metal ions and dye in aqueous solution. The first part of this report deals with the chemical modification of Posidonia with succinic anhydride. Thus, we have obtained materials with various succinyl groups contents (from 29.8 to 39.2%). The obtained materials were characterized by infrared and CP/MAS {sup 13}C-RMN spectroscopy. The rate of succinyl content of the modified Posidonia was determined by saponification. The second part is devoted to the evaluation of the adsorption capacity of metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and dye such as direct red 75 (DR75) for raw and modified Posidonia materials. Two possible ways for the adsorption of these pollutants are studied: adsorption of each pollutant alone onto these supports, and cumulative adsorption of both metal ions and dye on the same supports. In the last case, the pollutant is adsorbed successively from two different solutions. The effects of pollutants concentration, support dose, pH, contact time and temperature on adsorption of each pollutant were evaluated. The results showed that the raw and modified Posidonia show a high capacity for Pb{sup 2+} adsorption. The capacity of modified Posidonia saturated with Pb{sup 2+} to adsorb DR75 was found 147.12 mg g{sup -1}. While the adsorption capacity of the nonsaturated modified Posidonia was equal to 81.63 mg g{sup -1}. The pseudo-second-order model was the best to represent adsorption kinetics of DR75. The pseudo-first-order model would be better for fitting the adsorption kinetic process of Pb{sup 2+} onto raw and modified Posidonia. The adsorption isotherms of Pb{sup 2+} could be described by the Jossens equation model. Any of the tested models can describe the adsorption of DR75 onto the studied materials. These results confirm that the adsorption of DR75 from aqueous solution was multilayer.

  8. Comparative Study Of The Preparation Of Maleic Anhydride-g-Polypropylene By Two Grafting Processes Using Peroxide; Estudo comparativo de dois processos de graftizacao de polipropileno com anidrido maleico utilizando peroxidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakahara, R.M.; Wang, S.H., E-mail: sakahara@usp.b, E-mail: wangshui@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The Polypropylene grafting with Maleic anhydride is a thoroughly known technique. Its wide application is due, mainly,to the controlled changing in the polarity of this polymer, which increases the interfacial adhesion in blends and compounds. In this study, two grafting processes were compared. In the first, the maleic anhydride was grafted on polypropylene in a solution batch process, carried out in a round-bottom vessel. The second approach was carried out by reactive extrusion of polypropylene in the presence of peroxide and maleic anhydride. The samples thus prepared were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, WAXS, EDS e SEM. It was possible to conclude that the solution technique was more efficient than the reactive extrusion; however the later was easier to accomplish due to the high viscosity of PP. (author)

  9. Solid-Liquid Equilibria of Several Binary and Ternary Systems Containing Maleic Anhydride%顺丁烯二酸酐在单一溶剂和混合溶剂中的固液平衡研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马沛生; 陈明鸣; 董奕

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) of three binary systems and seven ternary systems containing maleic anhydride(MA) are measured by visual method. The experimental data are compared with the calculated ones with modified universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient(UNIFAC) method in which the interaction parameters between groups come from two sources, dortmund data bank(DDB), if there's any, and correlations based on our former presented experimental SLE data of twenty binary systems. New groups of MA, ACCOO group, COO group, >C=O group and cy-CH2 group are defined and the SLE data of maleic anhydride in isopropyl acetate in literature are cited in order to assess the new interaction parameters, correlated with Wilson equation and the λh equation. The modified UNIFAC method with these new regressed interaction parameters is also used to predict other three binary systems containing maleic anhydride.

  10. Mechanosynthesis and mechanochemical treatment of bismuth doped vanadium phosphorus oxide catalysts for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y H.Taufiq-Yap; Y C.Wong; Y Kamiya; W.J.Tang

    2008-01-01

    Three Bi-doped vanadyl pyrophosphate catalysts were prepared via dihydrate route(VPD method),which consisted of different preparation methods including mechanosvnthesis,mechanochemical treatment,and the conventional reflux method.The catalysts produced by the above three methods were characterized by x-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and temperature programmed reduction(TPR).Catalytic evaluation for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride (MA) was also carried out.The XRD patterns of all the Bi-doped catalysts showed the main peaks of pyrophosphate phase.Lower intensity peaks were observed for the mechanochemically treated Bi-doped catalyst(VPDBiMill)with two additional small DeakS corresponding to the presence of a small amount of V5+ phase.The TPR profiles showed that the highest amount of active oxygen species.i.e.V4+-O- pair,responsible for n-butane activation,was removed from VPDBiMill.Furthermore.from the catalytic test results.the graph of selectivity to MA as a function of the conversion of n-butane demonstrated that VPDBiMill was the most selective catalyst.This suggests that the mechanochemical treatment of vanadium phosphate catalyst(VPDBiMill)is a potential method to improve the catalytic properties for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride.

  11. Synthesis of densely phosphorylated bis-1,5-diphospho-myo-inositol tetrakisphosphate and its enantiomer by bidirectional P-anhydride formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolicchio, Samanta; Wang, Huanchen; Thakor, Divyeshsinh T; Shears, Stephen B; Jessen, Henning J

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitous mammalian signaling molecule bis-diphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate (1,5-(PP)2 -myo-InsP4 , or InsP8 ) displays the most congested three-dimensional array of phosphate groups found in nature. The high charge density, the accumulation of unstable P-anhydrides and P-esters, the lack of UV absorbance, and low levels of optical rotation constitute severe obstacles to its synthesis, characterization, and purification. Herein, we describe the first procedure for the synthesis of enantiopure 1,5-(PP)2 -myo-InsP4 and 3,5-(PP)2 -myo-InsP4 utilizing a C2 -symmetric P-amidite for desymmetrization and concomitant phosphitylation followed by a one-pot bidirectional P-anhydride-forming reaction that combines sixteen chemical transformations with high efficiency. The configuration of these materials is unambiguously shown by subsequent X-ray analyses of both enantiomers after being individually soaked into crystals of the kinase domain of human diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase 2.

  12. Energy filtering transmission electron microscopy immunocytochemistry and antigen retrieval of surface layer proteins from Tannerella forsythensis using microwave or autoclave heating with citraconic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, K; Mitamura, Y; Iwami, J; Hasegawa, Y; Higuchi, N; Murakami, Y; Maeda, H; Yoshimura, F; Nakamura, H; Ohno, N

    2012-11-01

    Tannerella forsythensis (Bacteroides forsythus), an anaerobic Gram-negative species of bacteria that plays a role in the progression of periodontal disease, has a unique bacterial protein profile. It is characterized by two unique protein bands with molecular weights of more than 200 kDa. It also is known to have a typical surface layer (S-layer) consisting of regularly arrayed subunits outside the outer membrane. We examined the relationship between high molecular weight proteins and the S-layer using electron microscopic immunolabeling with chemical fixation and an antigen retrieval procedure consisting of heating in a microwave oven or autoclave with citraconic anhydride. Immunogold particles were localized clearly at the outermost cell surface. We also used energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) to visualize 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) reaction products after microwave antigen retrieval with 1% citraconic anhydride. The three-window method for electron spectroscopic images (ESI) of nitrogen by the EFTEM reflected the presence of moieties demonstrated by the DAB reaction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibodies instead of immunogold particles. The mapping patterns of net nitrogen were restricted to the outermost cell surface.

  13. Cu(II), Zn(II) andMn(II) complexes of poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride). Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamic parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hidayet Mazi; Ali Gulpinar

    2014-01-01

    The complexes of poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (poly(MVE-alt-MA)) with Zn(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions were synthesized from the reaction of the aqueous solution of copolymer and metal(II) chlorides at different temperatures ranging from 25° to 40°C. Elemental analysis of themetal-polymer complexes suggests that the metal to ligand ratio is 1:1. The formation constants of each complex were determined by the mol-ratio method. UV-Vis studies showed that the complex formation tendency increased in the following order: Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Mn(II). This order was confirmed by the Irving-William series and Pearson’s classification. The IR spectral data indicated the metal ions to be coordinated through the hydroxyl groups of the hydrolysed maleic anhydride. The intrinsic viscosity and thermal properties of the copolymer and metal-polymer complexes and their thermal stability are discussed.

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of ―Methyl Vinyl Ether-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer‖ (chewing gum base ingredient) as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of “methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer (Gantrez SF)” as a novel food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC)...... concerns regarding genotoxicity and the low molecular weight components. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer (Gantrez SF), is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of “methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer (Gantrez SF)” as a novel food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC......) No 258/97. The novel food ingredient Gantrez SF is an anhydrous copolymer formed by the reaction of methyl vinyl ether (MVE) and maleic anhydride (MAN) under appropriate conditions. The Panel considers that the information provided on the specifications, stability and production process do not raise...

  15. Anodic incineration of phthalic anhydride using RuO2–IrO2–SnO2–TiO2 coated on Ti anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chellammal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Phthalic anhydride is a toxic and non-biodegradable organic compound and is widely used for the production of dyes. This paper has investigated the electrochemical oxidation of phthalic anhydride in an undivided cell at different experimental parameters such as pH, current density and supporting electrolytes on the anode of titanium substrate coated with mixed metal oxides of RuO2, IrO2, SnO2 and TiO2 prepared by thermal decomposition method. The surface morphology and the structure of the above anode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersion microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The study shows that the electrode exhibits good electro catalytic activity together with chemical stability during the treatment of the phthalic anhydride. At pH 3, the maximum removal of COD of 88% with energy consumption of 30.5 kW h kg−1 was achieved by the addition of 10 g l−1 NaCl in 0.2 mol dm−3 Na2SO4 at 5 Adm−2. This electrolytic investigation offers an attractive alternative method for the destruction of industrial effluents contaminated with phthalic anhydride.

  16. POLYMERIC IONIC CONDUCTORS MODIFIED WITH POLAR GROUPS: PART Ⅱ. STRUCTURE-IONIC CONDUCTION RELATION IN LI-COMPLEX BASED ON MALEIC ANHYDRIDE- COPOLYMERIZED METHACRYLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kang; ZHOU Tong; DENG Zhenghua; WAN Guoxiang

    1992-01-01

    Ringlike polar monomer maleic anhydride (MAn) was copolymerized with oligo (oxyethylene)methacrylate (MEOn), and its effect on ion conduction property of the corresponding polymer-salt complexes was studied. As a consequence the introduction of MAn onto polymer chain retards crystallization of the ether pendants considerably, and improves the ion conductivity to a larger degree compared with other polar groups once investigated (σmax,25 ℃ = 8.5 × 10-5 S/cm). The structure-ion conduction relation in the polymer- salt matrix is also analyzed macroscopically through the correspondence between composition-dependences of polymerization conversion and isothermal ion conductivity, and microscopically through the measurements of cross polarized light and electron transmission.

  17. The Formation of Polycomplexes of Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-Co-Maleic Anhydride and Bovine Serum Albumin in the Presence of Copper Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karahan Mesut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The binary and ternary complex formations of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride (PMVEMA with copper ions and with bovine serum albumin (BSA in the presence of copper ions in phosphate buffer solution at pH = 7 were examined by the techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy measurements. In the formation of binary complexes of PMVEMA-Cu(II, the addition of copper ions to the solution of PMVEMA in phosphate buffer solution at pH = 7 forms homogeneous solutions when the molar ratio of Cu(II/MVEMA is 0.5. Then the formations of ternary complexes of PMVEMA-Cu(II-BSA were examined. Study analysis revealed that the toxicities of polymer-metal and polymer-metal-protein mixture solutions depend on the nature and ratio of components in mixtures.

  18. THE STUDY AND PREPARATION OFMALEIC ANHYDRIDE GRAFTED POLYETHYLENE WAX%马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯蜡的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颜; 杨国明; 李燕

    2000-01-01

    The influences of the kinds and amount of initiators, the amount of maleic anhydride, the temperature and time of reaction, the molecular structure of polyetylene wax on the grafting ratio, the grafting effectiveness, the odour, the colour and the crossing -linkage of maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene wax were studied. It was showed that the di -tert -butyl peroxide was an excellent initiator for the grafted reaction. The grafting ratio could reach over 1. 5 % under the amount of the initiator of 0. 2%, the amount of the maleic anlyoride of 4%, the reaction temperature of 150~160 and reation time of 3 h. The grafted wax could be used as a novel coupling agent in the plastic filler.%考察了引发剂种类用量、马来酸酐加量、反应温度、反应时间、聚乙烯蜡分子结构等因素对马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯蜡的接枝率、接枝效率、气味、颜色、交联程度的影响。结果表明二叔丁基过氧化物是一种优良的接枝反应引发剂,在引发剂加量 0.2%,马来酸酐加量4%,反应温度150~160 C,反应时间3 h的条件下,接枝率大于1.5%,该接枝蜡可作为一种新型偶联剂应用在塑料填充料中。

  19. Solvent effects in acid-catalyzed dehydration of the Diels-Alder cycloadduct between 2,5-dimethylfuran and maleic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati-fard, Taha; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Doren, Douglas J.

    2017-03-01

    Dehydration of the cycloadduct produced from the Diels-Alder reaction between 2,5-dimethylfuran and maleic anhydride to 3,6-dimethylphthalic anhydride exemplifies an important step in producing platform chemicals from biomass. The mechanisms of dehydration and catalytic effects of Lewis and Brønsted acids are investigated with density functional theory. The uncatalyzed reaction has a very high activation barrier (68.7 kcal/mol) in the gas phase and it is not significantly affected by solvation. With a Lewis acid catalyst, modeled as an alkali ion, the activation barriers are reduced, but intermediates are also stabilized. The net effect in vacuum is that the energetic span, or apparent activation energy of the catalytic cycle, is 77.9 kcal/mol, even higher than the barrier in the uncatalyzed case. In solution, however, the energetic span is reduced by as much as 20 kcal/mol, due to differences in the solvation energy of the transition states and intermediates. In the case of a Brønsted acid catalyst, modeled as a proton, the gas phase transition state energies are reduced even more than in the Lewis acid case, and there is no strong stabilization of the intermediates. The energetic span in vacuum is only 13.8 kcal/mol and is reduced even further in solution. Brønsted acid catalysis appears to be the preferred mechanism for dehydration of this cycloadduct. Since the Diels-Alder reaction that produced the molecule has previously been shown to be catalyzed by Brønsted acids, this suggests that a single catalyst could be used to accelerate both steps.

  20. Enhancement of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate Biocomposites by Matrix Esterification Using Succinic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Siyamak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate PBAT (EcoflexTM, as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites’ performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH as a coupling agent in the presence and absence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP and benzoyl peroxide (BPO as initiators. For the composite preparation, several blends were prepared with varying ratios of filler and matrix using the melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (wt % and characterized. The effects of fiber loading and coupling agent loading on the thermal properties of biodegradable polymer composites were evaluated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used for morphological studies. The chemical structure of the new biocomposites was also analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy technique. The PBAT biocomposite reinforced with 40 (wt % of EFB fiber showed the best mechanical properties compared to the other PBAT/EFB fiber biocomposites. Biocomposite treatment with 4 (wt % succinic anhydride (SAH and 1 (wt % dicumyl peroxide (DCP improved both tensile and flexural strength as well as tensile and flexural modulus. The FTIR analyses proved the mechanical test results by presenting the evidence of successful esterification using SAH/DCP in the biocomposites’ spectra. The SEM micrograph of the tensile fractured surfaces showed the improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion after using SAH. The TGA results showed that chemical modification using SAH/DCP improved the thermal stability of the PBAT/EFB biocomposite.

  1. Enhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) biocomposites by matrix esterification using succinic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyamak, Samira; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Abdolmohammadi, Sanaz; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Bin Wan; Rahman, Mohamad Zaki Ab

    2012-02-16

    In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) PBAT (Ecoflex™), as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites' performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH) as a coupling agent in the presence and absence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiators. For the composite preparation, several blends were prepared with varying ratios of filler and matrix using the melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (wt %) and characterized. The effects of fiber loading and coupling agent loading on the thermal properties of biodegradable polymer composites were evaluated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used for morphological studies. The chemical structure of the new biocomposites was also analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The PBAT biocomposite reinforced with 40 (wt %) of EFB fiber showed the best mechanical properties compared to the other PBAT/EFB fiber biocomposites. Biocomposite treatment with 4 (wt %) succinic anhydride (SAH) and 1 (wt %) dicumyl peroxide (DCP) improved both tensile and flexural strength as well as tensile and flexural modulus. The FTIR analyses proved the mechanical test results by presenting the evidence of successful esterification using SAH/DCP in the biocomposites' spectra. The SEM micrograph of the tensile fractured surfaces showed the improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion after using SAH. The TGA results showed that chemical modification using SAH/DCP improved the thermal stability of the PBAT/EFB biocomposite.

  2. Study on Curing Reaction of Epoxidized Linseed Oil with Anhydrides%环氧亚麻油与酸酐固化反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宇; 裴帆; 石春韬; 王雪; 许艳玲; 李萍

    2015-01-01

    Epoxidized linseed oil is a type of epoxy resin synthesized by the epoxidation reaction of linsee d oil. Thermosetting epoxy resin-based polymer composites with a variety of properties can be prepared after the reaction of epoxy resin and curing agents, which can be used in many fields. In this work, the curing reaction of epoxidized linseed oil was studied and the optimized reaction conditions were also obtained by the application of orthogonal experimental method based on the best selection of curing agent and accelerator. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR)and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)techniques were applied to investigate the curing reaction process and characterization. The results show that a mixture of maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride (molar ratio 0.83﹕0.17) was the best curing agent while N, N-dimethylbenzylamine was the best accelerator. The factors impacting curing reaction were in the order of mixed anhydride/epoxy ratio > temperature >amount of accelerator > time. Curing degree of the final product could reach 97.13% under the following optimized conditions:mixed anhydride / epoxy ratio was 1.2﹕1.0 (molar ratio), the amount of accelerator was 2.5%, the temperature and time were 120 ℃ and 4 h,respectively. IR characteristic absorption of epoxy and anhydride gradually disappeared as the proceeding of the reaction and the curing reaction tended to be complete. Curing reaction of epoxidized linseed oil with mixed anhydride is an exothermic one with peak temperature at 182.6 ℃ and reaction enthalpy is -130.2 J/g.%环氧亚麻油是亚麻油通过环氧化反应合成的环氧树脂,其可进一步与固化剂反应,制备具有多种性能的热固性环氧树脂基复合材料,在多种领域具有广泛应用。文中研究了环氧亚麻油的固化反应,在选择最佳固化剂和促进剂的基础上,用正交试验优化反应条件,红外光谱表征固化反应过程,差示扫描量热法(DSC

  3. 响应面分析优化菊粉的十二烯基琥珀酸酐改性工艺研究%Study on dodecenly succinic anhydride-modified inulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹丹; 曹威; 周杰; 李静鹏

    2013-01-01

    为了研究菊糖的十二烯基琥珀酸酐改性工艺条件,以菊糖、硼氢化钠及十二烯基琥珀酸酐用量、反应时间、反应pH以及反应温度为影响因素,以十二烯基琥珀酸酐的取代度为考察指标,运用Plackett-Burman设计筛选出3个对菊糖的十二烯基琥珀酸酐取代度影响显著因素,即十二烯基琥珀酸酐用量、反应pH和反应时间.用响应面分析实验优化十二烯基琥珀酸菊糖酯改性工艺.十二烯基琥珀酸菊糖酯改性最优工艺:菊糖4g,硼氢化钠0.015g,十二烯基琥珀酸酐0.94g,反应时间为6.8h,反应pH8.5,反应温度35℃,菊糖的十二烯基琥珀酸酐取代度为0.0140±3.33E-05.%In order to study optimum conditions for dodecenly succinic anhydride-modified inulin,effects of the amount of inulin,the dosage of sodium borohydride and dodecenly succinic anhydride (DDSA),pH,time and temperature used on the degree of substitution of dodecenly succinic anhydride-modified inulin were investigated.Plackett-Burman was adopted to screen out the important factors,which were the dosage of dodecenly succinic anhydride,pH and time used.The optimum reaction conditions were obtained by response surface analysis..inulin 4g,sodium borohydride 0.015g,dodecenly succinic anhydride 0.94g,time 6.8h,pH8.5,temperature 35℃,and the degree of substitution of dodecenly succinic anhydride-modified inulin is 0.0140± 3.33E-05.

  4. 含顺丁烯二酸酐结构化合物抑制黑曲霉性能的研究%Research on Inhibition of the Compound with Maleic Anhydride Structure on the Performance of Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金侃华; 陈小龙

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to research the relationships between the side chain of maleic anhydride structure compounds and inhibition effect on Aspergillus niger. [Method]Choosing 7 kinds of common compounds with maleic anhydride structure and tautomycin, the test of inhibiting Aspergillus niger was carried out by using oxford cup method. [Result]Diphenylmaleic anhydride with the concentration of 10 g/L had a good inhibition on Aspergillus niger, while tautomycin with the lower concentration of 1 g/L also had a considerable inhibition effect. [Conclusions]The side chain of maleic anhydride structure compounds containing chlorine could promote the inhibition effect on Aspergillus niger, and containing benzene couldn't enhance the activity of inhibition on Aspergillus niger.%[目的]研究含顺丁烯二酸酐结构化合物侧链结构与抑制黑曲霉效果的关系. [方法]选取7种常见含顺丁烯二酸酐结构化合物以及变构霉素,用牛津杯法进行抑制黑曲霉试验.[结果]3, 6-二氯邻苯二甲酸酐在10 g/L浓度下对黑曲霉有较好的抑制作用,变构霉素在1 g/L 浓度下仍对黑曲霉有一定的抑制作用. [结论]含顺丁烯二酸酐结构化合物侧链含有氯对抑制黑曲霉有促进作用,而含有苯环则不能增强其对抑制黑曲霉的活性.

  5. Effect of Solvent and Acid-Base on Palladium(ll)-catalyzed Dicarbonylation of Terminal Acetylenes: a General, Efficient andStereoselective Synthesis of Maleic Diesters and Maleic Anhydrides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG, Huan-Feng; LI, JiN-Heng; CHEN, Ming-Cai

    2001-01-01

    The productions of maleic diesters and maleic anhydrises depend on the effect of solvint and acid-bade of solvent and acid-base in palladium-catalyzed dicarbonylation of terminal acetylenes. For primaryand secondary alcohol in benzene.only maleic diesters wereobtained stereospecifically from the sicabonylation ofacetylenes in the presence of PdCl2,and NaHCO3.For tERTIARy alcohols,maleic anhydrides were synthesized selectively.

  6. Pre-irradiation grafting of styrene and maleic anhydride onto PVDF membrane and subsequent sulfonation for application in vanadium redox batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jingyi; Zhai, Maolin; Ni, Jiangfeng; Zhou, Henghui; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Wei, Genshuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science (BNLMS), Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, Long [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Gunma University, Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    A poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) membrane was grafted with styrene (St) and maleic anhydride (MAn) using an electron-beam-induced pre-irradiation grafting technique. The grafted membrane (PVDF-g-PS-co-PMAn) was then sulfonated and hydrolyzed to give an ion exchange membrane (denoted as PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc) for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) use. Micro-FTIR analysis indicated that PVDF was successfully grafted and sulfonated at the above condition, and the membrane with a high grafting yield (GY) can be easily prepared in a St/MAn binary system at low dose due to a synergistic effect. The water uptake and ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane increased with GY, so too did the conductivity. At a GY of 33.6%, the resulting PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane showed a much higher IEC and conductivity than a conventional Nafion117 membrane, and a much lower permeability of vanadium ions: ca. 1/11 to 1/16 of that through Nafion117. Open circuit voltage measurements showed that the VRB assembled with the PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane maintained values above 1.3 V after a period of 33 h, which was much longer than that with the Nafion117 membrane. It is expected that this work provides a new approach for the fabrication of ion exchange membranes for VRB. (author)

  7. Crystallization and melting behavior of {beta}-nucleated isotactic polypropylene/polyamide 6 blends with maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene-vinyl acetate as a compatibilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhugen [Materials Science Institute, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Key Laboratory of Polymeric Composites and Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, UMR 5270 CNRS, Ecole centrale de Lyon, Equipe Chimie et Nanobiotechnologies, 36 Avenue Guy-de-Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Mai, Kancheng, E-mail: cesmkc@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Materials Science Institute, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Key Laboratory of Polymeric Composites and Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-11-20

    {beta}-Nucleated isotactic polypropylene ({beta}-iPP) blend with maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA-g-MA) and {beta}-iPP/polyamide (PA) 6 blend, as well as its compatibilized version with EVA-g-MA as a compatibilizer were prepared with an internal mixer. Analysis from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) indicates that the addition of EVA-g-MA into {beta}-nucleated iPP decreases the crystallization temperature (T{sub c}{sup p}) of PP, but it has no pronounced influence on the {beta}-crystal content for {beta}-nucleated iPP. For {beta}-nucleated iPP/PA6 blends, PA6 obviously decreases the {beta}-crystal content. However, the addition of EVA-g-MA is quite benefit for the formation of {beta}-crystal in {beta}-nucleated iPP/PA6 blends and the {beta}-crystal content increases with increasing EVA-g-MA content. It is suggested that the nucleating agent mainly disperses in the PA6 phase and/or the interface between iPP and PA6 in iPP/PA6 blend, which was proved by etching the blends with sulfuric acid and experimental facts from SEM.

  8. Letrozole dispersed on poly (vinyl alcohol) anchored maleic anhydride grafted low density polyethylene: a controlled drug delivery system for treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqa, Akhtar Jahan; Chaudhury, Koel; Adhikari, Basudam

    2014-04-01

    The present work focuses on the design of a drug delivery system for systemic, controlled release of the poorly soluble breast cancer drug, letrozole. The drug delivery system was prepared in two steps: a low density polyethylene (LDPE) substrate surface was grafted with maleic anhydride (MA) via solution grafting technique. Next, the grafted substrate was used to anchor a hydrophilic polymeric drug release system consisting of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The PVA anchored MA grafted LDPE (PVA/MA-g-LDPE) drug release system was used for the controlled release of letrozole. This system was characterized using ATR-FTIR spectrophotometry, surface profilometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility studies were also carried out. In vitro release studies of letrozole from the system were performed in distilled water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37°C. Release of ∼90% letrozole from hydrophilic PVA matrix was observed within a period of 35 days. A high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.99) was seen between the release of letrozole in distilled water and PBS. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT colorimetric assay suggested that all samples were biocompatible. It is concluded that the letrozole delivery system appears to overcome the limitations associated with letrozole by providing enhanced drug dissolution rate, controlled release and improved bioavailability of the incorporated drug and, therefore, seems to have extended therapeutic effects.

  9. Promotional Effect of CoO(OH)on Selective Hydrogenation of Maleic Anhydride to γ-Butyrolactone over Supported Ruthenium Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yafen; Wang Qing; Wang Manman; Yang Wenjuan; Zhou Limei; Ma Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    A decorated ruthenium catalyst was prepared by the coprecipitation method and used for the selective hydro-genation of maleic anhydride (MA) to γ-butyrolactone (GBL). The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by XRD, TG-DTG and N2 adsorption techniques. The characterization tests revealed that the catalyst carrier was composed of monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2) and hydroxyl cobalt oxide (CoO(OH)). The hydrogenation results showed that the content of CoO(OH), the reaction temperature, the hydrogen pressure and the reaction time signiifcantly affectedthe catalytic selectivity to GBL. The promotional effect of CoO(OH) was remarkable, which led to an obvious increase in GBL selectivity. An 100% MA conversion and 92.0% selectivity to GBL were achieved over the Ru/ZrO2-CoO(OH)(35%) catalyst in water solvent under the conditions involving a reaction temperature of 180℃, a hydrogen pressure of 3.0 MPa, and a reaction time of 6 h.

  10. Highly dispersed ruthenium nanoparticle-embedded mesoporous silica as a catalyst for the production of gamma-butyrolactone from succinic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Ho; Eom, Hee-Jun; Kim, Min-Sung; Lee, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwan-Young

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel, strategic method was developed for the synthesis of a mesoporous silica catalyst embedded with ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs/SiO2) by combining the polyol and modified sol-gel methods. By applying this new procedure, uniformly synthesized ruthenium nanoparticles with an average size of 3.8 nm and 95% spherical shape were highly dispersed in the mesoporous silica support material. Coordinated carbonyl groups of PVP remaining from the synthesis of the RuNPs were effectively removed by the thermal treatment (calcined at 573 K for 4 h) and the sythesized RuNPs/SiO2 catalysts were reduced under hydrogen at 20 bar for 2 h. These catalysts were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption-desorption, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the thermal treatment and the reduction procedure, the size and shape of the embedded RuNPs were nearly unchanged, and the catalyst was active in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of succinic anhydride (SAN) to selectively form y-butyrolactone (GBL) with a maximum yield of 90.1%. This novel catalyst preparation is a potentially useful method for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles as heterogeneous catalysts.

  11. Extractionless GC/MS analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone with trifluoroacetic anhydride and heptafluoro-1-butanol from aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabucedo, Alberto J; Furton, Kenneth G

    2004-06-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a DEA Schedule I drug of abuse commonly spiked into beverages to incapacitate victims of sexual assault. GHB is a challenging drug for analysis by GC/MS because of its small size, charged nature, low volatility, and intramolecular esterification leading to gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). In this work an extractionless technique has been developed that allows for the use of an aqueous sample for direct derivatization. The technique uses a solution of trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (HFB) to derivatize the active hydrogens of GHB. The conversion of GBL into GHB can be forced under alkaline conditions by diluting the sample in 10 mM borate buffer, pH 12. GBL found in beverages intended for human consumption is treated as a Schedule I control substance analogue. Spikes of the two compounds into several beverage matrices gave quantitative recovery of GHB by GC/MS. The derivatization produces higher molecular mass products whose fragmentation pattern provides multiple peaks for confirmation and quantification. The concentration of GBL can also be indirectly determined by the method developed. Therefore, this extractionless technique is rapid, sensitive, and selective for the confirmation of the presence of GHB and GBL in commercial beverages.

  12. Preparation of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Broken Rice Starch%辛烯基琥珀酸碎米淀粉酯的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟林; 王泽南; 韩堂健; 蒋艳; 徐春泽

    2011-01-01

    Broken rice starch was modified with octenyl succinic anhydride in aqueous slurry system.The modification process was optimized by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods to achieve maximum degree of substitution(DS).The results showed that the optimal process conditions were found to be: starch slurry concentration 30%,pH 8.5,reaction time 5 h,and reaction temperature 35 ℃.Under the optimal conditions,the degree of substitution was 0.01445.%以碎米淀粉为原料,采用湿法制备辛烯基琥珀酸碎米淀粉酯,以取代度为评价指标,确定辛烯基琥珀酸酐添加量为3%,通过单因素与正交试验确定辛烯基琥珀酸碎米淀粉酯的最佳制备工艺。结果显示:淀粉乳质量分数30%、pH8.5、反应时间5h、反应温度35℃为最佳工艺条件,在此条件下所得产品取代度可达0.01445。

  13. Electrospun poly(bisphenol A-co-4-nitrophthalic anhydride-co-1,3-phenylenediamine fibers: Preparation and potential for use in filtration applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharaporn Thitiwongsawet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(bisphenol A-co-4-nitrophthalic anhydride-co-1,3-phenylenediamine (PEI fibers were successfully prepared byelectrospinning from PEI solutions in dichloromethane (DCM, 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP andcertain mixtures between NMP and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. Electrospinnability of PEI solutions in NMP was greaterthan that in DCM and DCE. The addition of DMF with NMP for the preparation of PEI solutions helped improve electrospinnabilityof the PEI solutions. The effect of solution concentration on morphological appearance and/or size of the obtainedproducts was investigated. At low concentrations of the PEI solutions, discrete beads and/or beaded fibers was formed.Smooth fibers were obtained at the highest concentration investigated, i.e., 20% (w/v. The size of the obtained fibers wasfound to be an increasing function with the solution concentration or, to be exact, the solution viscosity. The water fluxesthrough the electrospun fiber mats prepared from 20% (w/v PEI solutions in 75/25 and 50/50 NMP/DMF mixtures wereinvestigated in comparison with the films prepared by phase immersion-precipitation technique. The fiber mats exhibitedmuch greater fluxes of water than the films, which implied their potential for uses as filtration membranes.

  14. ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols, phenols and amines with acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Farhadi; Kosar Jahanara

    2014-01-01

    A ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was prepared from metal nitrates and tetraethyl orthosilicate by the sol-gel process, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The nanocomposite was tested as a heterogeneous catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols, phenols, and amines under solvent-free conditions. Under optimized conditions, efficient acetylation of these substrates with acetic anhy-dride over the ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was obtained. Acetylation of anilines and primary aliphatic amines proceeded rapidly at room temperature, while the reaction time was longer for the acetylation of alcohols and phenols, showing that an amine NH2 group can be selectively acetylated in the presence of alcoholic or phenolic OH groups. The catalyst can be reused without obvious loss of catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of the ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was higher than that of pure ZnAl2O4. The method gives high yields, and is clean, cost effective, compatible with sub-strates having other functional groups and it is suitable for practical organic synthesis.

  15. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R

    2016-02-03

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant.

  16. SUBSTITUTION OF HIGH-YIELD-PULP FOR HARDWOOD BLEACHED KRAFT PULP IN PAPER PRODUCTION AND ITS EFFECT ON ALKENYL SUCCINIC ANHYDRIDE SIZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijie Chen,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using high-yield pulp (HYP as a partial replacement for hardwood bleached kraft pulp (HWBKP in the production of high-quality fine papers as a cost-effective way of improving the product performance. This study investigated the substitution of HYP for HWBKP and its effect on the Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA sizing performance. The results showed that the substitution of an aspen HYP for HWBKP can increase the ASA sizing performance at a HYP substitution as high as 15 to 20%. The ASA addition sequence has an influence on the ASA sizing performance and first adding ASA to the HYP followed by mixing with kraft pulps was the preferred method. Using precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC as a paper filler at a dosage of less than 20% can increase the ASA sizing performance due to the contribution of the calcium soap of the hydrolysed ASA. A PCC dosage greater than 20% resulted in a negative impact on the sizing performance. It was also found that different PCC loading sequences can also affect the ASA sizing performance.

  17. Deposition of antibacterial of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy propane)-co-(sebacic anhydride)) 20:80/gentamicin sulfate composite coatings by MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG-36, RO-077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG-36, RO-077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Gittard, S.D.; Miller, P.R. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States); Martin, T.N. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Narayan, R.J. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States); Andronie, A.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3 Nano-SAE Research Center, P.O. Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Troy, 12180-3590 NY (United States)

    2011-04-01

    We report on thin film deposition of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy propane)-co-sebacic anhydride)) 20:80 thin films containing several gentamicin concentrations by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser was used to deposit the polymer-drug composite thin films. Release of gentamicin from these MAPLE-deposited polymer conjugate structures was assessed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that the functional groups of the MAPLE-transferred materials were not changed by the deposition process nor were new functional groups formed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films of good morphological quality. The activity of gentamicin-doped films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated using disk diffusion and antibacterial drop test. Our studies indicate that deposition of polymer-drug composite thin films prepared by MAPLE is a suitable technique for performing controlled drug delivery. Antimicrobial thin film coatings have several medical applications, including use for indwelling catheters and implanted medical devices.

  18. Preparation of Poly-(Methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic Anhydride Nanoparticles by Solution-Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qiang Kang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical CO2-based technologies have been widely used in the formation of drug and/or polymer particles for biomedical applications. In this study, nanoparticles of poly-(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride (PVM/MA were successfully fabricated by a process of solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SEDS. A 23 factorial experiment was designed to investigate and identify the significance of the processing parameters (concentration, flow and solvent/nonsolvent for the surface morphology, particle size, and particle size distribution of the products. The effect of the concentration of PVM/MA was found to be dominant in the results regarding particle size. Decreasing the initial solution concentration of PVM/MA decreased the particle size significantly. After optimization, the resulting PVM/MA nanoparticles exhibited a good spherical shape, a smooth surface, and a narrow particle size distribution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectra demonstrated that the chemical composition of PVM/MA was not altered during the SEDS process and that the SEDS process was therefore a typical physical process. The absolute value of zeta potential of the obtained PVM/MA nanoparticles was larger than 40 mV, indicating the samples’ stability in aqueous suspension. Analysis of thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC revealed that the effect of the SEDS process on the thermostability of PVM/MA was negligible. The results of gas chromatography (GC analysis confirmed that the SEDS process could efficiently remove the organic residue.

  19. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R.

    2016-01-01

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant. PMID:26837840

  20. Plasma-enhanced CVD of functional coatings in Ar/maleic anhydride/C2H2 homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajíčková, Lenka; Jelínek, Petr; Obrusník, Adam; Vodák, Jiří; Nečas, David

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution, we focus on the general problems of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges, i.e. deposition uniformity, film roughness and the formation of dust particles, and demonstrate them on the example of carboxyl coatings prepared by co-polymerization of acetylene and maleic anhydride. Since the transport of monomers at atmospheric pressure is advection-driven, special attention is paid to the gas dynamics simulations, gas flow patterns, velocity and residence time. By using numerical simulations, we design an optimized gas supply geometry capable of synthesizing uniform layers. The selection of the gas mixture containing acetylene was motivated by two of its characteristics: (i) suppression of filaments in dielectric barrier discharges, and (ii) improved film cross-linking, keeping the amount of functional groups high. However, acetylene discharges are prone to the formation of nanoparticles that can be incorporated into the deposited films, leading to their high roughness. Therefore, we also discuss the role of the gas composition, the spatial position of the substrate with respect to gas flow and the deposition time on the topography of the deposited films.

  1. Sub-micronic capsules based on gelatin and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate) obtained by interfacial condensation with potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurea, Delia Mihaela; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Chailan, Jean-François; Carriere, Pascal; Popa, Marcel

    2013-06-01

    New sub-micronic capsules based on a copolymer of maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate and a natural polymer (gelatin) using an interfacial condensation method were obtained. Sub-micronic capsules were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, zeta-potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to some parameters of the synthesis reaction (polymer weight ratio, acetone/water ratio, surfactant concentration), the mean diameter of the sub-micronic capsules can be tuned from 200 to 760 nm. The sub-micronic capsules show a higher agglomeration tendency as the amount of gelatin in their composition increases. The swelling capacity in aqueous solutions is dependent on the composition and size of the sub-micronic capsules, decreasing with their diameter and gelatin composition. The drug loading and release capacity was studied using Penicillin G (sodium salt) (PG), and it has been proved that it is influenced by the sub-micronic capsules morphology induced by preparation parameters. Encapsulation and controlled release of small molecule were successfully carried out, demonstrating the potential biomedical applications of these new easily obtained sub-micronic capsules.

  2. Investigation of the formation of benzoyl peroxide, benzoic anhydride, and other potential aerosol products from gas-phase reactions of benzoylperoxy radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Christen M.; Ziemann, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products of the reaction of benzaldehyde with Cl atoms and with OH radicals in air in the absence of NOx were investigated in an environmental chamber in order to better understand the possible role of organic peroxy radical self-reactions in SOA formation. SOA products and authentic standards were analyzed using mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography, and results show that the yields of benzoyl peroxide (C6H5C(O)OO(O)CC6H5) and benzoic anhydride (C6H5C(O)O(O)CC6H5), two potential products from the gas-phase self-reaction of benzoylperoxy radicals (C6H5C(O)OO·), were less than 0.1%. This is in contrast to results of recent studies that have shown that the gas-phase self-reactions of β-nitrooxyperoxy radicals formed from reactions of isoprene with NO3 radicals form dialkyl peroxides that contribute significantly to gas-phase and SOA products. Such reactions have also been proposed to explain the gas-phase formation of extremely low volatility dimers from autooxidation of terpenes. The results obtained here indicate that, at least for benzoylperoxy radicals, the self-reactions form only benzoyloxy radicals. Analyses of SOA composition and volatility were inconclusive, but it appears that the SOA may consist primarily of oligomers formed through heterogeneous/multiphase reactions possibly involving some combination of phenol, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and peroxybenzoic acid.

  3. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fiber-Wood-Plastic Composites via Maleic Anhydride Grafted High-Density Polyethylene (MAPE Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanisms, using microscopy and strength testing approaches, by which the addition of maleic anhydride grafted high-density polyethylene (MAPE enhances the mechanical properties of basalt fiber-wood-plastic composites (BF-WPCs. The maximum values of the specific tensile and flexural strengths are achieved at a MAPE content of 5%–8%. The elongation increases rapidly at first and then continues slowly. The nearly complete integration of the wood fiber with the high-density polyethylene upon MAPE addition to WPC is examined, and two models of interfacial behavior are proposed. We examined the physical significance of both interfacial models and their ability to accurately describe the effects of MAPE addition. The mechanism of formation of the Model I interface and the integrated matrix is outlined based on the chemical reactions that may occur between the various components as a result of hydrogen bond formation or based on the principle of compatibility, resulting from similar polarity. The Model I fracture occurred on the outer surface of the interfacial layer, visually demonstrating the compatibilization effect of MAPE addition.

  4. Oligoesters and polyesters produced by the curing of sunflower oil epoxidized biodiesel with cis-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiznautt, Quelen B. [Laboratory of Instrumentation and Molecular Dynamics, Department of Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Garcia, Irene T.S. [Department of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry and Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Pelotas, 96010-900, Pelotas (Brazil); Samios, Dimitrios, E-mail: dsamios@iq.ufrgs.br [Laboratory of Instrumentation and Molecular Dynamics, Department of Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-08-31

    Oligoesters and polyesters produced from sunflower oil biodiesel were synthesized and characterized. The polymers were obtained through the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy esters (EE) with cis-1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride (CH) and triethylamine (TEA) as initiator. Some reactions were conducted by adding small amounts of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE). The intermediate products of the synthesis process, including sunflower oil, methyl ester, epoxidised methyl esters, and the oligoesters and polyesters produced, were followed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance. The products obtained from the curing of the epoxidised esters with different compositions present similar chemical structures; however, they still depend on the amount of the epoxy resin BDGE that was added in the polymerization reaction. Thermoplastic materials with molecular weights (MW) starting at 3800 g/mol and reaching very high MWs, resulted in cross linked polymers. The thermal behaviour of the different products was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the structure of the materials increases the bonding capacity, resulting in higher molecular weight materials, which present good thermal stability.

  5. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA)/fatty acid composites as form stable phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali; Oenal, Adem [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240, Tokat (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    Fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA), palmitic acid (PA), myristic acid (MA) and lauric acid (LA) are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications, but high cost is the major drawback of them, limiting their utility area in thermal energy storage. The use of fatty acids as form stable PCMs will increase their feasibilities in practical applications due to the reduced cost of the LHTES system. In this regard, a series of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA)/fatty acid composites, SMA/SA, SMA/PA, SMA/MA, and SMA/LA, were prepared as form stable PCMs by encapsulation of fatty acids into the SMA, which acts as a supporting material. The encapsulation ratio of fatty acids was as much as 85 wt.% and no leakage of fatty acid was observed even when the temperature of the form stable PCM was over the melting point of the fatty acid in the composite. The prepared form stable composite PCMs were characterized using optic microscopy (OM), viscosimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy methods, and the results showed that the SMA was physically and chemically compatible with the fatty acids. In addition, the thermal characteristics such as melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of the form stable composite PCMs were measured by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique, which indicated they had good thermal properties. On the basis of all the results, it was concluded that form stable SMA/fatty acid composite PCMs had important potential for practical LHTES applications such as under floor space heating of buildings and passive solar space heating of buildings by using wallboard, plasterboard or floors impregnated with a form stable PCM due to their satisfying thermal properties, easy preparation in desired dimensions, direct usability without needing additional encapsulation thereby eliminating the thermal resistance caused by the shell and, thus, reducing the cost of

  6. Enhancement of mechanical properties, microstructure, and antimicrobial activities of zein films cross-linked using succinic anhydride, eugenol, and citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ashraf A; Deraz, Sahar F; Elrahman, Somia Abd; El-Fawal, Gomaa

    2015-08-18

    Zein constitutes about half of the endosperm proteins in corn. Recently, attempts have been made to utilize zein for food coatings and biodegradable materials, which require better physical properties, using chemical modification of zein. In this study, zein proteins were modified using citric acid, succinic anhydride, and eugenol as natural cross-linking agents in the wet state. The cross-linkers were added either separately or combined in increment concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4%). The effects of those agents on the mechanical properties, microstructure, optical properties, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and antibacterial activities of zein were investigated. The addition of cross-linking agents promoted changes in the arrangement of groups in zein film-forming particles. Regarding the film properties, incorporation of cross-linking agents into zein films prepared in ethanol resulted in two- to three-fold increases in tensile strength (TS) values. According to the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and Hunter parameters there were no remarkable changes in the structure and color of zein films. Transparency of zein films was decreased differentially according to the type and cross-linker concentration. The mechanical and optical properties of zein films were closely related to their microstructure. All cross-linked films showed remarkable antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus ATCC 49064 and Salmonella enterica ATCC 25566. Food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria were affected in a film-dependent manner. Our experimental results show that even with partial cross-linking the mechanical properties and antipathogen activities of zein films were significantly improved, which would be useful for various industrial applications.

  7. Synthesis, characterisation, and evaluation of a cross-linked disulphide amide-anhydride-containing polymer based on cysteine for colonic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Vuanghao; Peh, Kok Khiang; Sahudin, Shariza

    2013-12-18

    The use of disulphide polymers, a low redox potential responsive delivery, is one strategy for targeting drugs to the colon so that they are specifically released there. The objective of this study was to synthesise a new cross-linked disulphide-containing polymer based on the amino acid cysteine as a colon drug delivery system and to evaluate the efficiency of the polymers for colon targeted drug delivery under the condition of a low redox potential. The disulphide cross-linked polymers were synthesised via air oxidation of 1,2-ethanedithiol and 3-mercapto-N-2-(3-mercaptopropionamide)-3-mercapto propionic anhydride (trithiol monomers) using different ratio combinations. Four types of polymers were synthesised: P10, P11, P151, and P15. All compounds synthesised were characterised by NMR, IR, LC-MS, CHNS analysis, Raman spectrometry, SEM-EDX, and elemental mapping. The synthesised polymers were evaluated in chemical reduction studies that were performed in zinc/acetic acid solution. The suitability of each polymer for use in colon-targeted drug delivery was investigated in vitro using simulated conditions. Chemical reduction studies showed that all polymers were reduced after 0.5-1.0 h, but different polymers had different thiol concentrations. The bacterial degradation studies showed that the polymers were biodegraded in the anaerobic colonic bacterial medium. Degradation was most pronounced for polymer P15. This result complements the general consensus that biodegradability depends on the swellability of polymers in an aqueous environment. Overall, these results suggest that the cross-linked disulphide-containing polymers described herein could be used as coatings for drugs delivered to the colon.

  8. Safety evaluation of long-term vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride and its non-invasive reversal on accessory reproductive organs in langurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Manivannan; S. S. Bhande; S. Panneerdoss; S. Sriram; N. K. Lohiya

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the safety of the long term vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) and its non-invasive reversal at the level of accessory reproductive glands (ARGs) in langurs. Methods: The morphology of seminal vesicle and ventral prostate was evaluated by light as well as transmission electron microscopy. Serum clinical chemistry and urine albumin were evaluated in an autoanalyzer using reagent kits. Fructose, acid phosphatase and zinc in the seminal plasma were evaluated spectrophotomet-ically according to the WHO manual. Serum testosterone,prostate specific antigen and sperm antibodies were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)using reagent kits and hematology was estimated according to standard procedures. Results: The morphological features and secretory activity of the seminal vesicle and prostate were normal as evidenced by the presence of welldeveloped mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, secretory granules and normal nuclear characteristics throughout the course of investigation. Serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen remained unaltered and serum antisperm antibodies level presented negative titres. Urine albumin was nil. Total red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood corpuscles (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and red cell indices, serum protein, glucose, cholesterol,creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin, urea, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not show appreciable changes following vas occlusion and after its non-invasive reversal. Although fructose, acid phosphatase (ACP) and zinc in the seminal plasma showed a significant reduction following vas occlusion, it could not be related to the morphology of seminal vesicle and prostate. Conclusion: SMA vas occlusion and its non-invasive reversal do not damage the accessory reproductive organs.

  9. Synthesis, Characterisation, and Evaluation of a Cross-Linked Disulphide Amide-Anhydride-Containing Polymer Based on Cysteine for Colonic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuanghao Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of disulphide polymers, a low redox potential responsive delivery, is one strategy for targeting drugs to the colon so that they are specifically released there. The objective of this study was to synthesise a new cross-linked disulphide-containing polymer based on the amino acid cysteine as a colon drug delivery system and to evaluate the efficiency of the polymers for colon targeted drug delivery under the condition of a low redox potential. The disulphide cross-linked polymers were synthesised via air oxidation of 1,2-ethanedithiol and 3-mercapto-N-2-(3-mercaptopropionamide-3-mercapto propionic anhydride (trithiol monomers using different ratio combinations. Four types of polymers were synthesised: P10, P11, P151, and P15. All compounds synthesised were characterised by NMR, IR, LC-MS, CHNS analysis, Raman spectrometry, SEM-EDX, and elemental mapping. The synthesised polymers were evaluated in chemical reduction studies that were performed in zinc/acetic acid solution. The suitability of each polymer for use in colon-targeted drug delivery was investigated in vitro using simulated conditions. Chemical reduction studies showed that all polymers were reduced after 0.5–1.0 h, but different polymers had different thiol concentrations. The bacterial degradation studies showed that the polymers were biodegraded in the anaerobic colonic bacterial medium. Degradation was most pronounced for polymer P15. This result complements the general consensus that biodegradability depends on the swellability of polymers in an aqueous environment. Overall, these results suggest that the cross-linked disulphide-containing polymers described herein could be used as coatings for drugs delivered to the colon.

  10. 亚临界水介质回收酸酐固化环氧树脂/碳纤维复合材料%Recycling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin Cured with Anhydride in Subcritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一明; 刘杰; 吴广峰; 唐涛

    2013-01-01

    研究了不同添加剂对碳纤维增强酸酐固化环氧树脂复合材料在亚临界水中降解的影响,通过IR、GC-MS等分析,确定了环氧树脂的分解机理主要为酯键的断裂.结果表明,KOH与苯酚对酸酐固化环氧树脂的分解没有协同效应,碱性物质更有利于酯键的断裂.甲基四氢邻苯二甲酸酐固化的环氧树脂增强碳纤维复合材料在反应温度为250℃、反应时间为60 min、KOH浓度为0.2 mol/L时可完全分解,回收碳纤维的拉伸强度和表面形貌未受影响.%Effect of additives on the decomposition behavior of the carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin cured with anhydride in subcritical water was investigated.IR and GC-MS results show that the decomposition is ascribed to cleavage of ester bond.KOH and phenol does not exhibit the synergetic effect on the decomposition of anhydride cured epoxy resin.Alkaline conditions are found to be favorable to the cleavage of ester linkages.The carbon fiber reinforced methyl-tetrabydrophalic anhydride (MeTHPA) cured epoxy resin composite was totally decomposed with the addition of 0.2 mol/L KOH at 250 ℃ for 60 min.The tensile strength and morphology of the recycled carbon fibers are not influenced.

  11. Resonance energy transfer from quinolinone modified polystyrene-block-poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) copolymer to terbium(III) metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Výprachtický, Drahomír, E-mail: vyprachticky@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovský Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Mikeš, František [New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, Polymer Research Institute, 6 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Lokaj, Jan; Pokorná, Veronika; Cimrová, Věra [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovský Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Polystyrene-block-poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) was synthesized by nitroxide mediated radical polymerization and modified with 7-amino-4-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (I) and methanol. The formed block polymer ligand contained a quinolinone fluorophore (Ω) and carboxyl (III) or sodium carboxylate (IV) binding sites. The ligand-to-metal resonance energy transfer (RET) and ligand binding properties of [III–Tb{sup 3+}] and [IV–Tb{sup 3+}] complexes were investigated by steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy in tetrahydrofuran/methanol and/or tetrahydrofuran/deuterated methanol mixtures and compared with those of a low-molecular-weight model ligand, i.e. the sodium salt of N-(4-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-7-yl)succinamic acid (II). The long-lived emission intensities of Tb{sup 3+} at 490, 545, 585, and 620 nm corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 6}, {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5}, {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 4}, and {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 3} transitions, respectively, were strongly increased by the addition of ligands in the order [II-Tb{sup 3+}]⪡[III-Tb{sup 3+}]<[IV-Tb{sup 3+}]. The efficiency of energy transfer (E) was evaluated from the emission intensity of the donor (Ω) in the presence or absence of the acceptor (Tb{sup 3+}) depending on the acceptor concentration and ligand neutralization. It was concluded that the macromolecular ligand structural properties (polymer coil and supramolecular structures, e.g. micelles) were responsible for the increase in RET. The time-resolved luminescence measurements revealed that the binding affinity of the ligands II, III, and IV increased in the order II

  12. Catalytic conversions of methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezdin, S.Yu.; Dokuchaeva, T.G.; Sibarov, D.A.; Panfilova, N.N.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1987-07-10

    Catalysts with various amounts (from 2.0 to 6.0 mass %) of the active component were tested for estimation of the hydrogenating and dehydrogenating properties of palladium on alumina. Alumina-palladium catalyst with a palladium content of 5.0 mass % has the highest activity and selectivity in synthesis of 4-MPA. The yield of 4-MPA under the optical conditions found is 60-61% on the converted feed, with 100% conversion. Alumina-palladium catalyst with a palladium content of 3.0 mass % has the highest activity and selectivity in synthesis of 4-MHHPA. Under the optimal conditions found the yield of 4-MHHPA is 75-80% on the converted feed, with 100% conversion.

  13. 基于降冰片烯酸酐的酰亚胺封端剂的研究进展%Research progress of imide end-capping agent based norbornene anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁永红; 李亮荣; 李定国; 欧阳红霞; 孙戊辰; 刘峰

    2013-01-01

    Norbornene anhydride end-capped PMR polyimide has excellent processing properties,thermal stability and mechanical properties,which is widely used in aerospace and other high-temperature areas.It was reviewed that research progress in the crosslinking structure and thermal decomposition of norbornene anhydride end-capped PMR polyimide,as well as the optimization of the capping agent.Finally,development direction of capped polyimide and end-capping agent was pointed out.%降冰片烯酸酐封端PMR聚酰亚胺具有优良的加工性能、热稳定性能和力学性能,被广泛运用于航空航天等高温领域.综述了降冰片烯酸酐封端PMR聚酰亚胺的交联结构和热分解,以及封端剂的优化的研究进展.展望了封端聚酰亚胺和封端剂未来的发展方向.

  14. Preparation of maleic anhydride modified cassava lees/PVC wood plastic composites%马来酸酐改性木薯酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃宇奔; 胡华宇; 张燕娟; 覃杏珍; 蒋婷; 杨梅; 黄爱民; 黄祖强; 罗袁伟

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation of cassava lees/PVC wood plastic composites ( WPC) by solid phase blending modification.Cassava lees/PVC WPC were prepared by hot press molding technology using cassava lees as reinforced material, PVC as polymer matrix, maleic an-hydride as modifier, internal mixer as synchronous mixing equipment, and plate vulcanizing press as plate-pressing machine.The effects of hot press temperature, pressure, time, dosage of maleic an-hydride, etc.on the properties of the composites were investigated, and the feasibility of synchronous modification of cassava lees and PVC by maleic anhydride was also discussed.The results show that under the conditions of cassava lees content 50%, hot press temperature 180 ℃, pressure 6 MPa, time 7.5 min, and the dosage of maleic anhydride of 1%, the bending strength and tensile strength of the cassava lees/PVC composite were 26.1 MPa and 11.1 MPa, respectively, meeting the re-quirements of the basic mechanics indexes of the composites.The addition of calcium zinc compound heat stabilizer could effectively improve the mechanical properties of the composites.With the dosage of heat stabilizer of 0.8%, the bending strength and tensile strength increased by 7.7% and 19.8%, respectively.Our results indicated that cassava lees and PVC could be modified synchronously by maleic anhydride in solid phase process, which improved the adhesion between fiber and polymer matrix and effectively enhanced the mechanical properties of WPC.%为研究固相共混改性法制备木薯酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料的工艺,探讨马来酸酐同步改性木薯酒糟和PVC的可行性,以木薯酒糟为增强原料,PVC为聚合物基体,马来酸酐为改性剂,密炼机为同步混炼设备,平板硫化机为压板机,采用热压成型技术制备酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料,研究热压成型温度、压力、时间、马来酸酐用量等因素对板材力学性能的影响。结果表明:在酒糟填充量50%

  15. 顺酐加氢产物精制丁二酸的工艺研究%Purifying Technology of Succinic Acid from Product of M aleic Anhydride Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丹; 霍稳周; 吕清林; 乔凯; 孟宪革; 李守田

    2013-01-01

    The process of succinic acid purifying from product of maleic anhydride hydrogenation was studied .The effects of distillation pressure ,temperature and reflux ratio on the process of vacuum distillation were investigated ;it also discussed the effects of reaction time and molar ratio of water to succinic anhydride on hydrolysis ;meanwhile ,the effect of temperature on the crystallization was concerned . The pure succinic acid was acquired through vacuum distillation , hydrolyzation and crystallization .The process conditions of purifying technology of succinic acid were detemined .The results show that the yield of succinic acid is more than 70% and purity of the product can reach 99 .5% even more under the conditions of vaccum distillation temperature 75~85 ℃ ,distillation pressure 200~300 Pa ,hydrolysis temperature 100 ℃ ,molar ratio of water to succinic anhydride 4~5 ,reaction time 2 h .%对顺酐加氢产物精制丁二酸的工艺进行了研究。考察了蒸馏压力、蒸馏温度及回流比对减压蒸馏过程的影响;考察了水解时间、水与酸酐物质的量比对水解过程的影响;考察了结晶温度对结晶过程的影响。确定了顺酐加氢产物减压蒸馏后水解结晶精制丁二酸的方法及工艺条件。结果表明,在减压蒸馏温度为75~85℃,蒸馏压力为200~300 Pa ,水解温度为100℃,水与丁二酸酐物质的量比为4~5,水解时间为2 h的条件下,得到的丁二酸产品收率≥70%,纯度≥99.5%。

  16. Gatifloxa-polysebacic anhydride local delivery system for prevention of osteomyelitis in rabbits%加替沙星-聚癸二酸酐局部缓释系统预防兔骨髓炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁锋; 严雪征; 马术友; 张鸿图

    2014-01-01

      结果与结论:建模后8周,模型组兔建模后,食欲差,皮毛不光滑,体质量减轻,3只兔于3周内死亡,其他7只X射线片上骨膜反应较重,可见小块死骨形成,解剖学检查均可见脓肿形成,骨培养及组织学检查均可见骨髓炎表现;加替沙星组建模后体质量减轻,2只兔于建模后3周内死亡,解剖学检查可见有4只动物有脓肿形成,X射线片上可见8只动物骨膜反应较轻,未见死骨形成,骨培养及组织学检查6只兔有骨髓炎表现;加替沙星-聚癸二酸酐缓释制剂治疗组兔一般情况好,解剖学检查未见异常,X射线片检查、骨培养和细菌计数、组织学检查均未见骨髓炎表现。结果证实,加替沙星-聚癸二酸酐局部缓释制剂预防股骨骨髓炎感染效果较好。%BACKGROUND:Polyanhydride materials characterized as surface corrosion resistance, biodegradability and adjustable release rate have been used as drug delivery materials for the body, but the application of polysebacic anhydride delivery system has been rarely reported. OBJECTIVE:To study the role of gatifloxa-polysebacic anhydride local delivery system in the prevention of osteomyelitis in rabbits. METHODS:According to Norden method, we made Staphylococcus aureus-induced osteomyelitis models in the femur of 30 rabbits. There were three groups in the study, 10 rats in each group. Gatifloxa-polysebacic anhydride local delivery system and gatifloxa were respectively used in comparison with model group. After modeling, general observation, anatomical observation, X-ray examination, bone culture and bacteria counting, and histological examination were performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After 8 weeks, animals in the model group presented with poor appetite, rough fur, and weight loss. Among these 10 rabbits, 3 rabbits died within 3 weeks, and another 7 rabbits appeared to have severe periosteal reactions on the X-ray films, that is

  17. 牵引电机有机硅绝缘系统和环氧酸酐绝缘系统的性能对比%Performance Comparison of Silicone Insulation System and Epoxy Anhydride Insulation System for Traction Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁西川; 曹燕飞; 陈红生; 李鸿岩; 唐畅

    2013-01-01

    The structure design features of silicone and heat-resistant epoxy anhydride insulation system for traction motor were stated, and their conventional electrical properties and thermal aging properties were compared. The results show that both of the insulation systems have good electrical properties and heat resistance; and the silicone insulation system performs much better in thermal stability.%  介绍了牵引电机有机硅和耐热环氧酸酐两种绝缘系统的结构设计特点,对比了两种绝缘系统的常规电气性能和热老化性能。结果表明:两种绝缘系统都具有良好的电气性能和耐热性能,有机硅绝缘系统的热稳定性表现更突出。

  18. Study on the properties of cassava hydroxypropyl and octenyl succinic anhydride compound modified starch%木薯羟丙基化辛烯基琥珀酸酯化复合改性淀粉的性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷欣欣; 张本山; 周雪

    2012-01-01

    以木薯淀粉为原料制备木薯羟丙基化辛烯基琥珀酸酯化复合改性淀粉,采用傅里叶变换红外谱仪、扫描电镜、X射线衍射仪和Brabender黏度仪等对木薯羟丙基化辛烯基琥珀酸酯化复合改性淀粉的物化性质进行了测定和分析.并与木薯原淀粉和木薯辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯进行对比。结果表明,木薯淀粉经复合改性后,在1550-1610cm-1出现新的吸收峰.与原木薯淀粉和木薯SSOS相比,在940、880、730、570cm-1处呈现较弱的吸收峰;复合改性后颗粒表面受损严重.颗粒的形状也发生明显改变,但晶体类型没有发生改变;乳化性能和透明度得到提高;起糊温度、峰值温度降低.糊粘度增大;与单一的辛烯基琥珀酸酯化改性淀粉相比,热糊稳定性升高,凝沉性增强。%The cassava starch was used to prepare cassava hydroxypropyl and octenyl succinic anhydride compound modified starch. The physical properties of cassava hydroxypropyl and octenyl succinic anhydride compound modified starch were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FT-IR),Scanning electron microscop,X-ray diffraction(XRD),Brabender viscometer and so on with the comparison of the native cassava starch and octenyl succinic anhydride(OSA)-modified cassava starch. The results indicated that the FT-IR spectrum of compound modified cassava starch showed new absorption peaks at 1550-1610cm-1. and weaken absorption peak at the 940,880,730 and 570cm-1,compared with the native cassava starch and OSA- modified cassava starch. The starch granule exhibited rougher surface,more irregular shape significantly but the crystalline was not changed. The product showed good emulsifiability and transparency. That gelatinization temperature and the peak temperature all decreased,and paste viscosity was higher as well.The setback capacity was weaker,and hot paste stability increased,compared with single octenyl succinic anhydride

  19. 低温等离子体与马来酸酐对 UHMWPE 纤维表面改性%Low Temperature Plasma/Grafting Treatment of Maleic Anhydride on UHMWPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳凝; 赵丹丹; 侯金国; 王春莲

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature plasma technology and grafting treatment were used on surface modification on the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fiber ( UHMWPE) surface.The optimum process of the grafted Maleic anhydride on the fiber surface was aqueous solution as a solvent and 1.0 mol/L of Maleic anhydride concentration at 80 ℃for 1.5 h.After the treated polar groups were grafted in the side chain of the fiber , so the chemical bonding ability with other matrix materials increased and the occlusion ability between the fiber surface and other materials enhanced but the mechanical properties and surface morphology of the fiber were kept unchanged.As a result, the surface properties were improved.%用低温等离子体技术和接枝反应对超高分子量聚乙烯( UHMWPE)纤维进行表面处理.纤维进行低温等离子体后接枝处理的最佳工艺条件是:在80℃的1.0 mol/L的马来酸酐水溶液中加热1.5 h在维持整体形貌的前提下,在纤维长链表面引入了活性基团,增大了纤维与其他基质材料之间的化学键合能力和咬合能力,提高纤维的表面性能,从而达到表面改性的目的。

  20. Influência da estrutura de diferentes copolímeros de etileno e a-olefinas na funcionalização com anidrido maleico Influence of structure of ethylene a-olefins copolymers in functionalization with maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota H. F. Maurano

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A funcionalização de copolímeros de etileno e a-olefinas com anidrido maleico (AM foi realizada em solução de xileno com peróxido de dibenzoíla (DBP como iniciador. Foi estudado o efeito das diferentes estruturas dos copolímeros, como número e comprimento de ramificação, na incorporação do AM. A funcionalização também foi realizada em estado fundido utilizando-se um misturador Rheomix 600 e uma extrusora Rheocord 9000 da Haake. A funcionalidade foi determinada por titulometria de neutralização e os produtos foram caracterizados por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FT-IR e por cromatografia de permeação em gel (GPC. A funcionalidade dos copolímeros de etileno com 1-hexeno aumentou com o aumento do teor de comonômero e dos copolímeros com 1-octeno e 1-deceno aumentou com o aumento do teor de a-olefina até um máximo, decrescendo e mantendo-se constante.Chemical modification of ethylene a-olefins copolymers with maleic anhydride was studied by radical reaction in solution, melt mixing and extrusion. The effect of copolymer structure, as the amount and length of the branches, was evaluated on the MA incorporation. The reactions were also achieved in Rheomix 600 (Haake mixer and Rheocord 9000 (Haake extruder. Functionalization was determinated by titration and modified ethylene a-olefins copolymers were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography. The maleic anhydride incorporation in the ethylene-hexene copolymers increases with the amount of a-olefin. Functionalization of ethylene-octene and ethylene-decene comonomers increases with increasing peroxide concentration until a maximum and then decreases up to a constant value.

  1. SMA共聚物玻璃化转变温度测定条件的优化%Optimal Analytical Procedure for Measuring Glass Transition Temperature of Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙根; 许中强; 朱海燕

    2012-01-01

    Styrene-maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymer is a commercially heat resistant materials and compatibilizer bearing reactive anhydride groups.The effects of atmosphere,heating rate,sample mass and flow rate of carrier gas on glass transition temperature of SMA were also investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) N2 is preferred as the carrier gas.Moderate carrier gas flow rate,heating rate and sample mass help to obtain relatively accurate results.The results indicate that Ts of SMA was measured preferably with the sample mass of about 10 mg,N2 flow rate of 40 mL/min and heating rate of 20 ℃/min,which is proved appropriate by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis.%利用差示扫描量热法(DSC)研究了气氛、升温速率、试样量和载气流速对苯乙烯-马来酸酐共聚物(SMA)玻璃化转变温度的影响.并用优化后的条件考察了上海石油化工研究院自制SMA样品的玻璃化转变温度.实验结果表明,在试样量10mg左右、氮气流速40 mL/min、升温速率20℃/min的优化条件下,测定结果良好.经验证,DSC与动态机械热分析(DMTA)所测得的Tg基本一致,表明优化后的条件很适合SMA玻璃化转变温度的测定,此结果有助于SMA的生产和应用.

  2. The application of ASPEN PLUS software on the simulation of solvent absorption in maleic anhydride plant%ASPEN PLUS在顺酐回收工艺模拟中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文彪; 屈一新

    2011-01-01

    ASPEN PLUS has been used to simulate the maleic anhydride absorption process.The Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation modified with K - D mixing rule has been used to get thermodynamic calculations, and the missing physical parameters of components in the database have been supplied from literature to obtain a more accurate simulation results.With the toolbox of sensitivity analysis, the optimal operating parameters have been generated: the optimal temperature of absorbent fed into the tower is 40 - 45 ℃; the optimal temperature of maleic anhydride mixture fed into the tower is 48 - 56 ℃; the optimal flow rate of circulating absorbent is 24 214 kg/h.According to the analysis results, an alteration project is presented which can save 5501.948 MJ/h and reduce the expense of one heat exchanger compared to the original process.%应用化工流程模拟软件ASPEN PLUS对顺酐溶剂回收工艺进行模拟.使用经K-D混合规则修正了的Soave-Redlich-Kwong方程进行热力学计算,并对数据库中缺失的物性参数进行补充以获得更准确的模拟结果.通过灵敏度分析,得到最优的操作参数:吸收剂入塔最优温度40~45℃,顺酐混合气人塔最优温度48~56℃,吸收剂循环流量24 214 kg/h.根据分析优化结果对原工艺提出改造方案,经过模拟计算预测,改造后的工艺与原工艺相比可以节省能量5 501.948 MJ/h,同时减少一个换热器的建造和维护费用.

  3. Curing mechanism and kinetics of epoxy/anhydride system modified by benzoxazine%苯并嗪改性环氧酸酐体系的固化机理及动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖进彬; 姜其斌; 曾智; 李鸿岩

    2014-01-01

    An epoxy/anhydride system was modified by aromatic diamine-based benzoxazine. The curing mechanism of the system was analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR)and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The blend system exhibited two curing reactions in the curing process. Epoxy resin first cured with sufficient anhydride catalyzed by imidazole at 100℃, and cured completely at 150℃ for 2 h. Benzoxazine underwent ring-opening polymerization at 180℃. The curing kinetics of modified resin system was studied with non-isothermal DSC at different heating rates. The average activation energies of two reactions were calculated utilizing the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method to be 65.27 kJ·mol-1 and 92.8 kJ·mol-1, respectively. Both curing reactions were found to be autocatalytic processes by the Friedman method, and the predicted curves from the autocatalytic model fitted well with those of experiments.%利用一种二胺型苯并嗪改性环氧酸酐体系。通过FT-IR和DSC分析了改性体系的固化机理。结果表明:共混树脂体系在固化时存在两个反应,首先是环氧树脂与足量的酸酐在咪唑作用下在100℃先开始固化,并在150℃固化2 h后固化完全,之后苯并嗪在180℃发生开环聚合。用非等温DSC法研究了该共混体系的固化动力学。采用 Flynn-Wall-Ozawa 方法求出了共混体系在固化时两个固化反应的活化能,分别为65.27 kJ·mol-1和92.8 kJ·mol-1,并利用Friedman方法判断了两个反应都是自催化反应,计算得到自催化模型曲线与实验曲线能较好地吻合。

  4. 马来酸酐及其酯接枝mPE增容PA 6/mPE共混物的制备%Properties of PA 6/metallocene PE blends compatibilized by maleic anhydride and dibutyl maleate grafted metallocene PE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连国; 张良均

    2012-01-01

    The author prepared maleic anhydride grafted metallocene polyethylene (Mpe) (Mpe-g-MAH) and dibutyl maleate grafted Mpe (Mpe-g-DBM) via aqueous suspension grafting. The grafted products were taken as compatibilizers of polyamide (PA) 6/Mpe and were applied to the preparation of ternary blends, such as polyamide(PA) 6/Mpe/Mpe-g-M A H or PA 6/Mpe/Mpe-g-DBM. The compatibility between PA 6 and Mpe in the ternary blends was greatly strengthened with increasing the amount of Mpe-g-MAH or Mpe-g-DBM, which led to a rise in y crystal and a reduction in a crystal of PA 6 in the blends. As a result, the toughness, especially the low temperature toughness of the ternary blends was improved. The compatibilizing and toughening efficiency of Mpe-g-DBM were inferior to those of Mpe-g-MAH in the ternary blends for the reason that the anhydride groups of the latter were easier to react with the amino or imino groups of PA 6 in comparison with the ester groups of the former, although Mpe-g-DBM had higher grafting ratio than Mpe-g-MAH did.%采用水相悬浮法制备了马来酸酐接枝茂金属聚乙烯(mPE-g-MAH)、马来酸二丁酯接枝茂金属聚乙烯(mPE-g-DBM),并以其为聚酰胺(PA)6/茂金属聚乙烯(mPE)共混物的增容剂,分别制备了PA 6/mPE/mPE-g-MAH,PA 6/mPE/mPE-g-DBM 三元共混物.随着mPE-g-MAH,mPE-g-DBM用量的增加,三元共混物中PA 6的γ晶型增多,α晶型减少,PA 6与rmPE的相容性加强,使三元共混物的韧性,特别是低温韧性提高.尽管mPE-g-DBM的接枝率比mPE-g-MAH高,但由于后者中的酸酐基团比前者的酯基更易与PA 6中的氨基、亚氨基反应,因此,mPE-g-DBM的增容、增韧效果不如mPE-g-MAH.

  5. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Syuhada; Ratnam, C. T.; Ahmad, S. H.; Athirah, Nurul

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ΔHf and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

  6. Mechanistic Insights into an Unexpected Carbon DioxideInsertion Reaction through the Crystal Structures of CarbamicDiphenylthiophosphinic Anhydride and 1-[( 4-Nitrophenyl )-sulfonyl ]-trans-2,5-pyrrolidinedicarboxylic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI, Min; SHEN, Yu-Mei; JIANG, Jian-Kang

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structures of an unexpected carbon dioxide inserted carbamicdiphenylthiophosphinic anhydride and 1-[(4-nitrophenyl) sulfonyl]- trans-2, 5-pyrrolidinedicarboxylic acid methyl ester were determined by X-ray analysis. They crystallized in the space group P21(#4) with α=0.9550(2), b=0.9401(4), c= 1.2880(2) nm, β= 107.74°, V=1.1013(5) nm3, D calcd = 1.349 g/cm3, Z = 2 and P212121 ( # 19)with α= 1.4666(2), b = 0.7195(2), c = 1.6339(2) nm, V= 1.7240(7) nm3, Dcalcd= 1.434 g/cm3, Z=4, respectively.Through the investigation of these two crystal structures, the mechanistic insights into this unexpected carbon dioxide insertion in the reaction of trans-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine with diphenylthiophosphoryl chloride in the presence of potassium carbonate were disclosed.

  7. O emprego de quitosana quimicamente modificada com anidrido succínico na adsorção de azul de metileno The use of chemical modified chitosam with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilauro S. Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption capacity of alpha-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically in L class and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methyene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 ± 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 ± 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 ± 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 ± 0.4 and -21.5 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable.

  8. Performance of epoxy resin-anhydride pouring materials modified with hyperbranched polyester%超支化聚酯改性环氧-酸酐浇注树脂及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井丰喜; 石兆从; 张道洪

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy pouring resin was prepared by using the hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polyester, epoxy resin, methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride and silica powder as the main materials. The effects of hyperbranched polyester as the addictive on the viscosity, settleability, heat-resistance, mechanical and electrical properties of the cured pouring resin were in detail studied. The results showed that hyperbranched polyester not only increased the heat-resistance, mechanical and electrical properties of the cured pouring resin, but also effectively dispersed the silica powder into the pouring resin and improved the evenness of the mixing system.%采用端羟基超支化聚酯、环氧树脂、甲基四氢苯酐和活性硅微粉为主要材料制备了高性能环氧浇注树脂。研究了超支化聚酯对体系黏度、沉降性、耐温指数、机械性能和电性能的影响及其规律。结果表明,超支化聚酯可有效分散硅微粉,提高混合体系的均匀度,提高浇筑树脂的耐热性、机械强度和电性能。

  9. Disproportionation of bromous acid HOBrO by direct O-transfer and via anhydrides O(BrO)2 and BrO-BrO2. An ab initio study of the mechanism of a key step of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillating reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Rainer; Jost, Mary

    2012-08-16

    The results are reported of an ab initio study of the thermochemistry and of the kinetics of the HOBrO disproportionation reaction 2HOBrO (2) ⇄ HOBr (1) + HBrO(3) (3), reaction ( R4' ), in gas phase (MP2(full)/6-311G*) and aqueous solution (SMD(MP2(full)/6-311G*)). The reaction energy of bromous acid disproportionation is discussed in the context of the coupled reaction system R2-R4 of the FKN mechanism of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and considering the acidities of HBr and HOBrO(2). The structures were determined of ten dimeric aggregates 4 of bromous acid, (HOBrO)(2), of eight mixed aggregates 5 formed between the products of disproportionation, (HOBr)(HOBrO(2)), and of four transition states structures 6 for disproportionation by direct O-transfer. It was found that the condensation of two HOBrO molecules provides facile access to bromous acid anhydride 7, O(BrO)(2). A discussion of the potential energy surface of Br(2)O(3) shows that O(BrO)(2) is prone to isomerization to the mixed anhydride 8, BrO-BrO(2), and to dissociation to 9, BrO, and 10, BrO(2), and their radical pair 11. Hence, three possible paths from O(BrO)(2) to the products of disproportionation, HOBr and HOBrO(2), are discussed: (1) hydrolysis of O(BrO)(2) along a path that differs from its formation, (2) isomerization of O(BrO)(2) to BrO-BrO(2) followed by hydrolysis, and (3) O(BrO)(2) dissociation to BrO and BrO(2) and their reactions with water. The results of the potential energy surface analysis show that the rate-limiting step in the disproportionation of HOBrO consists of the formation of the hydrate 12a of bromous acid anhydride 7 via transition state structure 14a. The computed activation free enthalpy ΔG(act)(SMD) = 13.6 kcal/mol for the process 2·2a → [14a](‡) → 12a corresponds to the reaction rate constant k(4) = 667.5 M(-1) s(-1) and is in very good agreement with experimental measurements. The potential energy surface analysis further shows that anhydride 7 is

  10. Research progress of maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene for hot melt adhesive%热熔胶用马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文; 张华华; 闫瑞涛; 周文娟; 陈艳军; 张超灿

    2016-01-01

    Maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene is widely used as hot melt adhesive in steel-plastic composite pipe,because of its excellent adhesive properties,and low cost. The grafted progress is always processed through twin-screw extrude. In this paper,the effect of reaction conditions on the graft reaction are summarized,such as initiation methods,reaction temperature,screw structure and speed. The influence of initiators,PE type,and modified monomers are also concluded. Then,the characterization methods of the grafting yield are summarized,such as chemical titration and infrared spectroscopy. The effects of surface treatment and coating process on the peeling strength are discussed too. Finally,we pointed out some drawbacks of traditional sample preparing methods in peeling strength and put forward a reliable way to obtain stable and reliable peeling strength data. The research prospects of PE hot melt adhesive of low maleic anhydride content,excellent adhesion property and environmental characteristics,are predicated.%通过双螺杆挤出机将马来酸酐熔融接枝聚乙烯,制备的聚乙烯热熔胶具有粘接性能强、价格低等优点,广泛地应用于钢塑复合管。本文根据近年来聚乙烯热熔胶的研究方向,综述了新型引发剂及引发方式对接枝反应的影响;比较了不同种类聚乙烯接枝效果的差异;总结了改性单体对热熔胶性能的改善以及温度、挤出机螺杆结构和转速等工艺条件对聚乙烯热熔胶的影响。分别总结了化学滴定法和红外光谱法对接枝率的表征;简述了材料表面处理和涂胶工艺对剥离强度的影响。分析了热熔胶剥离强度传统制样方法的不足,并总结了能得到稳定真实剥离强度的制样方案。展望了低马来酸酐含量、高粘接强度的绿色环保型聚乙烯热熔胶的研究前景。

  11. 乙酸酐/乙酸法制备油溶性胭脂虫红色素%Acetic anhydride/acetic acid prepared oil-soluble cochineal dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰香; 郑华; 钱岐雄; 张雯雯; 高山; 张弘

    2015-01-01

    胭脂虫红色素是水溶性极好的天然色素,改善其油溶性后可拓展该色素在油溶性食品、化妆品、药品、化工等行业的应用.本文以乙酸酐/乙酸为反应体系,对其有效染色成分胭脂红酸分子进行化学修饰后制得了油溶性胭脂虫红色素衍生物.通过单因素及响应曲面优化实验确定了制备油溶性胭脂虫红色素衍生物的最佳工艺参数为:胭脂虫红色素0.5g; 乙酸酐与乙酸用量均为10mL; 催化剂三乙胺用量为1.0mL; 反应温度70℃; 反应时间为8h; 此条件下油溶性胭脂虫红色素衍生物收率为65.2%.通过紫外可见光谱、红外光谱对所得到的色素产物进行了初步的结构表征,表明胭脂虫红酸分子中增加了酯基和烷基,得到的产物在油样中的溶解度为 2.41(25℃),且稳定性良好,说明胭脂虫红色素的油溶性得到有效的改善,具有开发和应用潜在价值与前景.%Cochineal is one of the most valuable water soluble natural pigments. Improving its oil soluble may contribute to the application on oil soluble food,cosmetics,medicines,etc. Herein, oil-soluble cochineal dye was obtained by molecule esterification of carminic acid with acetic anhydride/acetic acid in this paper. Based on single factor experiments,response surface methodology has been applied to further optimize pretreatment condition. Under the optimal condition,i.e. cochineal dye was 0.5g,acetic anhydride and acetic acid dosage were 10mL,catalyst dosage of triethylamine was 1.0mL,reaction temperature was 70℃,and reaction time was 8h,the yield of cochineal dye derivatives reach up to 65.2%. The target product showed good solubility in corn oil,good dyeing effect and good stability with 2.41g in oil (25℃). This suggests that cochineal dye derivatives have potential value and promising development prospects.

  12. Studies on the rheological,phase morphologic,thermal and mechanical properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/ethylene propylene diene monomer copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride/metallocene polyethylene blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUN Mingtao; SONG Hongzan; WANG Yingjin; YAO Chenguang; GAO Jungang

    2007-01-01

    s The rheological,phase morphologic,thermal and mechanical properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/metallocene polyethylene(PTT/mPE)blends in the presence of ethylene propylene diene monomer copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride(EPDM-g-MAHl as compatibilizer are studied by means of a capillary rheometer,scanning electron microscopy(SEM),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA).Results suggest that the compatibility of PTT/mPE blends is improved greatly after the addition of a compatibilizer.The radius of the dispersed phase in the system decreases greatly when the compatibilizer is added into the blend.When the amount of compatibilizer exceeds 8 wt-%,the size of dispersed phase becomes larger again.This phenomena could be attributed to the higher viscosity of the EPDM-g-MAH phase,which is dispersed more difficulty in the PTT phase of lower viscosity,thus the mixing efficiency is apparently decreased during the melt blending process.Moreover,the melt viscosity of the blend reaches the maximal value in case of 4 wt-%compatibilizer content,above which it would decrease again.This result is associated with the generation of more and bigger dispersed phase inside the bulk phase,thus the grafting efficiency at the interface is decreased,which could result in lower viscosity.The DSC results suggest that the mPE component shows a nucleating effect,and could increase the overall degree and rate of PTT crystallization,while the addition of a compatibilizer might slightly diminish these effects.In addition,the blend with 4 wt-% compatibilizer shows the best thermal stability.Furthermore,the Izod impact strength and the tensile strength at room temperature of the blend are also markedly improved by the addition of a 4-8 wt-% compatibilizer.

  13. Isothermal Vapor-liquid Equilibria for the Binary System Maleic Anhydride+Di-n-butylsebacate%顺丁烯二酸酐-癸二酸二丁酯二元体系等温气液平衡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱荣娇; 刘淑参; 季甲; 田宜灵

    2009-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium(VLE) data for maleic anhydride (MAN) and its absorption solvents are important for developing and researching the MAN production process. Isothermal VLE data for MAN and di-n-butylsebacate(DBS) binary system at 413.15, 433.15 and 453.15 K were determined with a modified ebulliometer in this work. Saturated pressure of pure DBS and MAN were measured and their Antoine constants were obtained. The experimental results were correlated and calculated using the NRTL model. The UNIFAC model was also used to predict the VLE data. At the same time, the parameters of the NRTL model for the MAN(l) +DBS(2) binary system were obtained. And the predicted results show a good agreement between the correlated data and the experimental data.%利用改进的沸点仪测定了顺酐-癸二酸二丁酯二元体系在413.15, 433.15和453.15 K下的等温气液平衡数据以及纯癸二酸二丁酯和顺酐的饱和蒸气压数据. 通过与文献值对比, 验证了此方法的可靠性. 同时, 将实验数据回归得到了纯癸二酸二丁酯和顺酐的Antoine常数. 利用NRTL方程进行了气液平衡数据的关联推算, 得到了顺酐-癸二酸二丁酯二元体系的NRTL模型参数. 利用UNIFAC基团贡献法对实验数据进行了预测, 其结果与实验值及运用NRTL方程拟合的结果吻合较好.

  14. 桐马酸酐与环氧树脂的非等温固化反应动力学%Non - isothermal curing kinetics of Tung - maleic anhydride and epoxy resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄坤; 夏建陵; 李梅; 林贵福; 连建伟

    2011-01-01

    The non- isothermal curing kinetics of Tung- maleic anhydride and epoxy resin E-51 blend with 1%DMP -30 by weight was studied by Má1ek method. The real curing process was stimulated well using mechanism equation (S)esták - Berggren. The active energy calculated by iso - conversion ratio method was 69. 78 kJ/mol. The pre -exponential factor A was 4. 567 × 108 min -1 and the values of n and m were 1. 082 and O. 456, respectively.Based on the curing kinetic equation obtained, the calculated curing time of the system with 98% conversion rate was 115 minutes at the curing temperature 137. 05 ℃.%采用Málek法对桐马酸酐与双酚A环氧树脂E-51体系(含有1%质最分数的DMP-30)的非等温固化反应动力学进行了研究.通过机理函数(S)esták-Berggren方程很好地模拟了真实的固化反应过程.等转化率法求得反应活化能为69.78 kJ/mol.指前因子A的值为4.567×108min-1,n和m的值分别为1.082和0.456.根据得到的同化动力学方程计算可知,在固化温度为137.05℃时达到98%固化度的固化时间为115 min.

  15. Application of Maleic Anhydride/1-Decene Copolymer in Polypropylene Wood Plastic Composite%马来酸酐/1-十烯共聚物在聚丙烯木塑复合材料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐运祺; 雷影红; 徐睿杰

    2012-01-01

    Maleic anhydride(MAH)/1-decene copolymer was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 'H-NMR and GPC. The application of this copolymer as compatibilizer in polypropylene(PP) wood plastic composite was discussed. The results show that MAH/1-decenc copolymer can improve the dispersion of wood flour and the compatibility between wood flour and PP, enhance the interracial adhesion of wood plastic composite; when the compatibilizer content is 5 phr, the tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength of the composite increase by 59.3%, 44.6% and 82.6% respectively.%采用红外光谱、核磁共振氢谱和凝胶渗透色谱表征了自行合成的马来酸酐(MAH)/1-十烯共聚物,探讨了该共聚物作为相容剂在聚丙烯(PP)基木塑复合材料中的应用.结果表明:MAH/1-十烯共聚物可改善木粉在PP中的分散性和相容性,提高PP与木粉间的界面黏合力,进而改善复合材料的力学性能;当相容荆用量为5份时,复合材料的拉伸强度提高了59.3%,弯曲强度提高了44.6%,冲击强度提高了82.6%.

  16. 糯玉米辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯糊性质的研究%Paste Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Waxy Corn Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓燕; 李真; 谢慧玲

    2009-01-01

    The paste properties (e.g. , viscosity, paste clarity, retrogradation, freeze-thaw stability and digestibility) of waxy maize starch before and after oetenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modification were investigated. The results showed that the starch derivatives had higher viscosities and paste clarity, lower retrogradation and digestibility, better freeze-thaw stability. The viscosities of the starches increased from 91.7 mPa·s to 2 013.3 mPa·s with the increase of DS from 0 to 0. 0185. The light transparency increased from 37.0 % to 90.4 % ; the water precipitation decreased from 4.0 mL to 0 mL at room temperature (25℃) for 720 h; during the fourth freeze-thaw cycle, no water discharged from the gels of OSA modified starch. The paste of OSA modified starch is shear-shinning, which should belong to pseudoplastic liquid. The experiment provided the reference of the application of OSA modified starches in food industry .%为了探讨辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯的应用特性,对糯玉米淀粉辛烯基琥珀酸酐(OSA)改性前后淀粉糊的黏度、透明度、凝沉性和消化特性进行了研究.结果表明:经过OSA改性之后,糯玉米淀粉糊的黏度、透明度、凝沉性和冻融稳定性得到显著改善,离体消化速度下降.当取代度由0增加至0.018 5时,淀粉糊的表观黏度由91.7 mPa·s增至2 013.3 mPa·s,透光率由37.0%提高到90.4%;25℃下静置720 h时析出水的体积由4.0 mL降低为0 mL;经过4次冻融循环后无水析出.糯玉米辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯具有剪切变稀现象,属于假塑性流体.

  17. EPDM-g-MAH对PP膨胀阻燃材料性能的影响%Effect of maleic anhydride grafted EPDM on properties of intumescent flame retardant PP materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫怀文; 危加丽; 尹波; 杨鸣波

    2012-01-01

    采用氮磷膨胀型阻燃剂制备了无卤阻燃聚丙烯(PP)材料,研究了马来酸酐(MAH)接枝三元乙丙橡胶(EPDM)(EPDM-g-MAH)对PP无卤阻燃材料性能的影响.结果表明:加入EPDM-g-MAH可提高阻燃剂和PP基体间的界面作用,降低试样在燃烧过程中的熔融滴落现象,且加入EPDM-g-MAH提高了阻燃PP的力学性能.此外,加入EPDM-g-MAH可提高PP无卤阻燃材料在高温(600~800℃)下的炭层热稳定性以及材料的最大热分解速率,但会降低材料的最大热分解温度.因此,少量的EPDM-g-MAH可以提高PP无卤阻燃材料的极限氧指数(LOI),但当w(EPDM-g-MAH)超过10%时,PP无卤阻燃材料的LOI下降,阻燃性能降低.%The authors prepared halogen-free flame retardant polypropylene (PP) by introducing intumescent flame retardant made from nitrogen phosphorus compound, and studied the effect of content of maleic anhydride grafted ethylene propylene diene monomer(EPDM-g-MAH) on properties of the PP materials. The results show that adding EPDM-g-MAH can enhance interfacial interaction between PP matrix and the flame retardant, reduce melt dripping of the specimens during combustion process and improve mechanical properties of the PP materials. The addition of EPDM-g-MAH can raise thermal stability of the carbon layer at high temperature (600-800 ℃) and the maximum thermal decomposition rate but lowers the maximum thermal decomposition temperature of the PP materials. As a result, adding a small quantity of EPDM-g-MAH can make the limited oxygen index (LOF) of the PP materials augment However, the LOI decreases and the flame retardancy of the PP material declines when the mass content of EPDM-g-MAH exceeds 10%.

  18. 苯乙烯-马来酸酐共聚物对大庆原油降凝作用的研究%Pour-point depressing process of styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer in Daqing crude oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑彤; 孙寿家; 陈志强

    2000-01-01

    The effect of pour-point depressing and viscosity reducing to crude-oil which led by pour-point depressor would be severely influenced by the depressor' s molecular configuration, additive quantity, active temperature, and shearing strength. And it also relates to the quality of crude oil including cere concentration, pectin concentration, carbon amount distribution and composition. For producing a kind of depressor suitable to Daqing crude-oil, a pourpoint depressor (HJN-5 # ) mainly cousisting of an esterification product of styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer(SMA) has been prepared, and the relationships between the pour-poim depressing effect and the impacting factors including depressor concentration, activation temperature , and shear intensity have also been researched. In addition, by watching the variation of modality of cere crystalloid caused by adding depressor, the mechanism of pourpoint depressing and viscosity reducing were discussed. The results show that adding 0.2 wt% of HJN-5 # could get 50% depression of pour-point and more than 90% reduction of apparent viscosity of Daqing crude oil. The rnost suitable activation temperature of the depressor is 88 ℃.%降凝剂对原油的降凝减粘效果受其分子结构、使用剂量、活化温度及所受剪切强度的影响,并与原油的品质(如:蜡含量、胶质含量、碳数分布及组成等)有着密切的关系.为研制出适合大庆原油品质的降凝剂,合成了以苯乙烯-马来酸酐共聚物(SMA)的酯化物为主体的酯型降凝剂(HJN-5#),并对其使用剂量、活化温度等参数进行了研究,还根据观察到的降凝剂使用前后原油中蜡晶形态的变化对降凝减粘作用机理进行了讨论.结果表明,添加质量百分数为0.2%的HJN-5#,可使大庆原油的倾点下降50%,表观粘度下降90%以上,最佳活化温度为88℃

  19. Hydrogen bonding in cyclic imides and amide carboxylic acid derivatives from the facile reaction of cis-cyclohexane-1,2-carboxylic anhydride with o- and p-anisidine and m- and p-aminobenzoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2012-09-01

    The structures of the open-chain amide carboxylic acid rac-cis-2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, C(15)H(19)NO(4), (I), and the cyclic imides rac-cis-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydroisoindole-1,3-dione, C(15)H(17)NO(3), (II), chiral cis-3-(1,3-dioxo-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydroisoindol-2-yl)benzoic acid, C(15)H(15)NO(4), (III), and rac-cis-4-(1,3-dioxo-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydroisoindol-2-yl)benzoic acid monohydrate, C(15)H(15)NO(4)·H(2)O, (IV), are reported. In the amide acid (I), the phenylcarbamoyl group is essentially planar [maximum deviation from the least-squares plane = 0.060 (1) Å for the amide O atom] and the molecules form discrete centrosymmetric dimers through intermolecular cyclic carboxy-carboxy O-H···O hydrogen-bonding interactions [graph-set notation R(2)(2)(8)]. The cyclic imides (II)-(IV) are conformationally similar, with comparable benzene ring rotations about the imide N-C(ar) bond [dihedral angles between the benzene and isoindole rings = 51.55 (7)° in (II), 59.22 (12)° in (III) and 51.99 (14)° in (IV)]. Unlike (II), in which only weak intermolecular C-H···O(imide) hydrogen bonding is present, the crystal packing of imides (III) and (IV) shows strong intermolecular carboxylic acid O-H···O hydrogen-bonding associations. With (III), these involve imide O-atom acceptors, giving one-dimensional zigzag chains [graph-set C(9)], while with the monohydrate (IV), the hydrogen bond involves the partially disordered water molecule which also bridges molecules through both imide and carboxy O-atom acceptors in a cyclic R(4)(4)(12) association, giving a two-dimensional sheet structure. The structures reported here expand the structural database for compounds of this series formed from the facile reaction of cis-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride with substituted anilines, in which there is a much larger incidence of cyclic imides compared to amide carboxylic acids.

  20. Effect of Amine Catalyst Work on Epoxy / Anhydride Curing System%胺类促进剂对环氧树脂/酸酐固化体系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 张晓逆

    2012-01-01

    Adopting liquid methyltetrahydro phthalic anhydride as curing agent, multiplicate amine catalyst (including aliphatic ethanol amine, cycloaliphatic amine, aliphatic amine, quaternary ammonium salt, urea) were used to study diglycidyl ether bisphnol-A epoxy resin system. The best formula was confirmed from the aspects of amine catalyst compatibility, gel time, Tg, pot life etc. The results showed that cycloaliphatic amine (N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine), aliphatic amine (N-dimethylpropane-l, 3-diamine), quaternary ammonium salt ( 2,2-dimethyl-Propanoic acid ammonium salt) could accelerate the curing system by decreasing the curing temperature from 160? to 100-120? and satisfied the mechanical properties request of FRP wind and casting / encapsulation.%以液体四氢甲基苯酐为固化剂,选用了多种胺类促进剂(包括脂肪类乙醇胺、脂环胺、脂肪胺、季胺盐、脲类)对双酚A缩水甘油醚类环氧树脂固化体系进行研究.从固化促进剂的相容性、凝胶时间、玻璃化转化温度、可使用时间等方面确定最佳配方.研究表明,脂环胺(N,N-二甲环己胺)、脂肪胺[三(二甲胺基丙基)胺]、季胺盐(2,2-二甲基丙酸季胺盐)可以促进双酚A缩水甘油醚类环氧树脂/液体四氢甲基苯酐固化体系的固化,并能使该体系的固化温度从160℃降低到100~120℃,力学性能达到玻璃钢缠绕和灌封浇注料的要求.

  1. 氨基硅烷/马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯界面化学反应的研究%A Study of Interface Reaction between Amino Silane and Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余剑英; 周祖福; 赵青南; 程景飞; 闻荻江

    2000-01-01

    Through removing polymer physisorbed on the glass fiber surface with solvent extraction to minimize the signal of the polymer in IR and XPS analysis,the interaction was studied by IR and XPS between maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene(MA-g-PP)and an amino silane coupling agent-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane(APS).It is found that the absorption bands of polypropylene still exits in IR spectra of the glass fiber after 72h dimethyl benzene extraction and a new state of N1s at 401.9eV appears in the XPS,which shows that the MA-g-PP and APS have reacted chemically and the reaction product with amido is formed.Although open chain APS and cyclic APS with an internal hydrogen bond coexist on the APS treated glass fiber surface,it is discovered that APS which reacts chemically with MA-g-PP is mainly open chain APS by the quantitative analysis of XPS for N1s in different chemical state.%利用溶剂萃取与红外光谱(IR)、光电子能谱(XPS)技术研究了化学键接在玻璃纤维表面的硅烷偶联剂与接枝聚丙烯间的界面化学反应。结果表明:溶剂萃取可以除去玻璃纤维/树脂界面区物理结合的聚合物基体,减少基体信号的影响,在此基础上,利用IR、XPS可以直接证明氨基硅烷(APS)与马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯(MA-g-PP)间发生了界面化学反应,生成了含酰胺基的反应产物。进一步对不同化学状态的N1s的XPS定量分析发现,尽管APS在玻纤表面以开环直链和以氢键结合的环状两种结构形式存在,但在界面上主要是无环开链结构中的氨基与酸酐发生反应。

  2. Preparation and Application of Novel Maleic Anhydride Grafted Propylene-based Elastomer%新型马来酸酐接枝丙烯基弹性体的制备及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤俊杰; 段浩; 杨涛; 郭建鹏; 孟成铭

    2011-01-01

    Maleic anhydride was grafted onto propylene-based elastomer via melt reaction in a twin-screw extruder. The influences of initiator, MAH concentration, crossli~king inhibitor, and processing condition on the structure and properties of the products were analyzed using FT-IR and neutralization titration. It indicated that with increasing initiator concentration the grafting degree increased first and then dropped. With increasing MAH concentration, the grafting degree increased first and then leveled off. The crosslinking during grafting was best inhibited by hexanolactam. The toughening effect of the products and traditional POE-g-MAH were compared in polyamide, and it was found that the grafted product achieved both better tougheness and flowability of polyamide.%通过熔融反应挤出制备了一种新型马来酸酐接枝丙烯基弹性体(以下简称接枝物),研究了引发剂用量、马来酸酐(MAH)用量、交联抑制剂的种类和加工工艺条件对接枝物性能的影响。利用红外光谱对接枝物进行了结构表征,并用酸碱滴定法测定其接枝率,同时比较了该接枝物与传统马来酸酐接枝乙烯-辛烯弹性体(MAH—g-POE)在聚酰胺(PA)中的增韧效果。结果表明,随着引发剂含量的增加,接枝物的接枝率先增大后下降;随着MAH含量的增加,其接枝率先增大后趋于平稳;己内酰胺对接枝物的交联副反应抑制效果最好;接枝物作为增容剂提高了PA的熔体流动速率,达到增韧效果。

  3. 邻苯二甲酸酐与环氧氯丙烷反应合成聚酯树脂%Synthesis of Polyester Resin from Phthalic Anhydride and Epichlorohydrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋云全; 申屠宝卿; 翁志学

    2011-01-01

    以四乙基溴化胺为催化剂,1,4-丁二醇为起始剂,邻苯二甲酸酐和环氧氯丙烷为原料合成聚酯树脂,采用傅立叶红外光谱(FT-IR)和核磁共振(1H-NMR)对产物的结构进行表征,并考察了催化剂用量和反应温度对合成聚酯树脂的影响.结果表明,合成聚酯树脂的端基为羟基,且随着温度升高和催化剂用量增加,反应速率增加,合适的反应条件为温度100℃,邻苯二甲酸酐16.28g,环氧氯丙烷10.18g,1,4-丁二醇0.36g,四乙基溴化铵0.21g,溶剂N,N-二甲基甲酰胺4 mL.聚酯树脂的合成为一级反应,其表观活化能为91 kJ/mol,指前因子为4.99 min(-1).%The polyester resin was synthesized from phthalic anhydride(PA) and epichlorohydrin(ECH) over catalyst tetraethylammonium bromide(TEAB) using l,4-butanediol(BDO) as initiator and was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The effects of reaction temperature and catalyst dosage on synthesis of polyester resin were investigated. The results showed that the product was polyester resin with hydroxyl end group. The reaction rate increased with the increase of temperature or catalyst dosage. The appropriate reaction conditions were temperature 100 ℃. PA 16.28 g. And ECH 10.18 g, BDO 0.36 g, TEAB 0.21 g. Solvent N,N-dimethy!formamide 4 mL. The synthesis of polyester resin was the first-order reaction and the apparent activation energy was 91 kJ/mol, the pre-exponential factor was 4.99 min-1.

  4. Synthesis and Control of Molecular Weight of Fluorinated Polyimide Based on 4, 4′ -(Hexafluorolsopropyhdene)dlphthallc Anhydride%6FDA型聚酰亚胺的合成及其分子量调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍慧雯; 李华; 康红梅; 刘河洲

    2012-01-01

    以4,40(六氟异丙烯)二酞酸酐(6FDA)为二酐单体,2,2-双(3胺基-4-羟基苯)六氟丙烷为二胺单体,采用“溶液缩聚-亚胺化反应”两步合成法,获得了可溶性聚酰亚胺材料。通过傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)、凝胶色谱(GPC)、热重分析(TGA)、X射线衍射(XRD)等分析测试,考察了原料配比、亚胺化温度、亚胺化时间及催化剂等因素对产物重均分子量等特性参量的影响。结果表明:通过调节合成条件,该聚酰亚胺重均分子量可达4.5×10^4,具有优良的热稳定性,其起始分解温度高于490℃,且在NMP、DMF、DMAc、DMSO、THF、丙酮等有机溶剂中具有优良的溶解性能,能于80℃的低温下亚胺化制得,对材料的大批量制备具有重要意义。%4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) was polymerized with 2, 2 bis (3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane (BAPAF). Fluorinated polyimide was obtained via a two- step polycondensaion procedure. The effect of reaction factors like raw materials' ratio, imidization tem- perature, imidization time and catalyst on the molecular weight were studied. Polyimide was characterized by FT-IR, GPC, XRD and solubility test. Results showed that polyimide of 6FDA-BAPAF obtained under imidization temperature (80 ℃) had high molecular weight reaching 4.5 ×10^4 , which displayed excellent thermal properties with Td higher than 490 ℃ and had excellent solubility in polar aprotic organic solvents such as NMP, DMF, DMAc, DMSO, THF and acetone.

  5. Preparation and properties of itaconic anhydride-based copolymers with L-lactide%衣康酸酐与 L-丙交酯共聚物的制备与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕丽晶; 张明飞; 高宗春; 汪磊; 徐晓红; 聂王焰; 周艺峰; 陈鹏鹏

    2015-01-01

    以衣康酸酐(IAn)和L‐丙交酯(LLA)为单体、辛酸亚锡为催化剂,采用熔融开环聚合的方法合成一种新型的生物基聚乳酸共聚物(IAn‐PLLA).用1 H‐NMR、GPC、DSC、TGA、XRD、水降解测试表征共聚物的结构与性能.1 H‐NMR结果表明,合成的共聚物为预期产物;DSC和TGA分析表明,随着IAn摩尔比增大,IAn‐PLLA的熔点和玻璃化转变温度降低,但仍有较好的热稳定性;磷酸盐缓冲溶液(pH=7.4)中的降解测试结果表明,随着衣康酸酐含量的增加,共聚酯的降解速率显著提高.%A novel biobased polylactide copolymer (IAn‐PLLA ) was synthesized via melting ring‐opening polymerization of itaconic anhydride (IAn ) with L‐lactide (LLA ) in the presence of stannous octoate as a catalyst .The structure and properties of the prepared copolymers were confirmed with 1 H‐NMR , GPC , DSC , TGA , XRD and hydrolytic degradation test .1 H‐NMR spectra showed that the synthetic copolymers were the expected products .DSC and TGA analysis indicated that the melting point (Tm ) and glass transition temperature(Tg ) of IAn‐PLLA decreased with the increasing of IAn reaction mole ratios , but they still had excellent thermal stability .The result of degradation tests in the phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.4) indicated that the degradation rate of copolymers had significantly increased with the increasing IAn content .

  6. Bis(phenyl-phospho-nic) anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Hua, Guoxiong; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2009-10-03

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(12)H(12)O(5)P(2), contains four independent mol-ecules, generating two dimers via pairs of inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming R(2) (2)(8) rings. The two aryl rings of each mol-ecule form dihedral angles of 108.6 (1), 103.2 (1), 12.5 (2) and 8.1 (2)° in the four mol-ecules.

  7. Quick analysis method of sulphuric anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Montraveta, J.

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEl clinker de cemento portland molido sin adición alguna da un cemento que fragua inmediatamente, y la escoria de alto horno, molida asimismo sin adición, nos proporciona un producto que fragua muy lentamente. Ambos requieren la adición de un retardador o de un acelerante que les regule su fraguado. El sulfato calcico, ya sea en forma de sulfato cálcico dihidratado o yeso (CaS04.2H20 o como sulfato cálcico anhidro o anhidrita (CaSO4, actúa como regulador de fraguado en los dos casos, y por ello se añade en la molienda de los cementos portland, siderúrgicos, sobresulfatados, puzolánicos, etc.; todo lo cual obliga a que el sulfato cálcico deba considerarse como materia prima para la producción de todos los cementos, a excepción del cemento aluminoso fundido.

  8. Critical behavior of anhydride cured epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, V.; Richtering, W.; Burchard, W.

    1992-07-01

    Critical behavior was studied with a crosslinking system obtained by living anionic polymerization, where the primary chain length was kept constant and the crosslinking density was varied. Gelation was found at a critical ratio of crosslinker per chain X_c=0.884± 0.004. Different samples from the pre gel region were studied by dynamic and static light scattering in dilute solution and oscillatory rheology in melt. The exponents γ = 1.75± 0.38 and ν = 0.98± 0.19, determined from M_w and R_g dependence on (X_c-X), are in accordance with three dimensional percolation theory. The distribution of diffusion coefficients obtained by inverse Laplace transformation of the time correlation function shows power law behavior in a limited interval, from which an exponent tau = 2.17± 0.03 is derived. Rheological measurements show a systematic change of G^{prime}(ω) and G''(ω) from typical liquid to the critical gel behavior, where tan δ = G''(ω)/G^{prime}(ω) becomes frequency independent.

  9. Antiviral activity of 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified ovalbumin against herpes simplex virus 2 in vitro%邻苯二甲酸酐修饰卵清蛋白体外抗单纯疱疹病毒Ⅱ型的活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽丽; 段江曼; 裘佳寅; 于飞; 刘叔文; 李琳

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究邻苯二甲酸酐修饰卵清蛋白(3-Hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified ovalbumin,HP-OVA)体外对抗单纯疱疹病毒Ⅱ型(HSV-2)的活性.方法 采用化学修饰的方法将3-羟基.邻苯二甲酸酐(HP)修饰卵清蛋白(OVA),合成酸酐修饰蛋白HP-OVA;选用HSV-2 333病毒株及非洲绿猴肾细胞(vero 细胞)靶细胞,采用MTT比色法检测HP-OVA的体外抗HSV-2病毒活性及其对Vero细胞的体外细胞毒性;镜检观察HP-OVA对17株阴道收集的乳酸杆菌的抑菌作用.结果 酸酐修饰卵清蛋白HP-OVA对HSV-2病毒具有明显抑制作用,其IC50为23.56±8.33 μg/ml,且其对病毒作用靶细胞毒性较低,CC50>1 mg/ml,对17株阴道乳酸杆菌均无明显抑制作用,MIC>1 mg/ml.结论 酸酐修饰蛋白HP-OVA体外有较好的抗HSV-2病毒的活性,有望被开发为预防性传播性疾病的候选杀微生物剂.%Objective To investigate the antiviral activity of 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified ovalbumin (HP-OVA) against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Methods By chemical modification, ovalbumin (OVA) was treated with 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride (HP) to prepare HP-OVA. The anti-HSV-2 activity against HSV-2 333 virus in vitro and the cytotoxicity of HP-OVA in African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) were detected by MTT colorimetric assay. The inhibitory effects of HP-OVA on 17 strains of vaginal lactobacilli were observed by microscopy. Results Anhydride-modified ovalbumin significantly inhibited the infection by HSV-2 with an Igo of 23.56±8.33 μg/ ml. HP-OVA showed only low cytotoxicity to the host cells with a CC50over 1 mg/ml. HP-OVA did not produce significant inhibitory effect on the 17 strains of vaginal lactobacilli (MIC>1 mg/ml). Conclusion Anhydride-modified protein HP-OVA exhibits potent anti-HSV-2 activity in vitro and can be a good microbicide candidate for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

  10. Ação do anidrido naftálico na seletividade de herbicidas aplicados para controle de azevém em aveia-branca Action of naphthalic anhydride on herbicide selected for ryegrass control in oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rizzardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em Passo Fundo-RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do tratamento de sementes de aveia-branca (Avena sativa com o antídoto anidrido naftálico (AN na seletividade de herbicidas utilizados para controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em parcelas subdivididas, em blocos casualizados, repetidos quatro vezes. As parcelas principais foram constituídas pela ausência ou presença do AN (5 g kg-1 no tratamento das sementes de aveia, e nas subparcelas foram alocados cinco tratamentos herbicidas, uma testemunha sem azevém e sem aplicação de herbicida e uma testemunha sem controle de azevém. Os tratamentos herbicidas utilizados foram diclofop (284 e 426 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (52,5 g ha-1 e clomazone (1.000 g ha-1. Foram avaliados o percentual de controle de azevém, a fitotoxicidade visual dos herbicidas e as características associadas à cultura da aveia, como massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, número de plantas e de panículas por área, peso de 1.000 grãos e rendimento de grãos. Os resultados evidenciaram que o tratamento de sementes de aveia com AN não aumentou a seletividade dos herbicidas aplicados, com exceção para massa seca da parte aérea, no caso de sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas que propiciaram os melhores níveis de controle de azevém foram os que ocasionaram maiores danos fitotóxicos à cultura da aveia-branca.An experiment was conducted in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of treatment of oat seeds (Avena sativa with naphthalic anhydride safener (AN on the herbicide selectivity used for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum control. The experimental design used was a split-plot one, in randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of oat seed treated or not with AN (5 g kg-1 seed as main plots, and of five herbicide treatments, one check without ryegrass and herbicide and

  11. Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Starch and Its Application in Chicken Sausages%辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯的特性分析及在鸡肉灌肠中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓燕; 董振江; 李真; 杨延超; 裴亚琼

    2012-01-01

    以早籼米淀粉为原料,采用水相体系制备不同黏度的辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯,并对其糊化特性、冻融稳定性及在鸡肉灌肠中的应用进行研究。结果表明:淀粉经酸解和辛烯基琥珀酸酐改性后,可以得到不同黏度的辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯,具有良好的冻融稳定性。在鸡肉灌肠中应用时,加入早籼米辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯的鸡肉灌肠与加入木薯变性淀粉的鸡肉灌肠相比较,其硬度、弹性和咀嚼性都有不同程度的提高(p〈0.05)。扫描电子显微镜分析显示,添加木薯变性淀粉的样品,内部结构比较蓬松,而添加早籼米OSA-H6的样品,其内部组织则相对紧实细腻。该研究表明,辛烯基琥珀酸酐改性淀粉(烯基琥珀酸淀粉酸)可以改善肉制品的质构特性,在肉制品中具有潜在的应用价值。%Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified starches with different viscosities were prepared from early indica rice starch in aqueous slurry systems. The pasting property and freeze-thaw stability of the products were analyzed and their application in chicken sausages was evaluated. The results showed that acid hydrolysis of starch followed by OSA modification produced OSA modified starch, which had better freeze-thaw stability than its native counterpart. The texture of sausages with added OSA modified indica rice starch was improved in hardness, springiness and chewiness when compared to sausages with added modified tapioca starch (P 〈 0.05). SEM observations revealed that sausages with the addition of tapioca modified starch had large pores in its structure and fluffy texture, while sausages with the addition of OSA modified indica rice starch was compact in texture. In summary, OSA modified starch can improve texture characteristics of meat products and consequently holds potential for applications in meat products.

  12. Graft Modification of Cellulose with Maleic Anhydride by In-Situ Reactive Extrusion%反应挤出原位制备纤维素马来酸酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玥; 李海峰; 李欣达; 黎欢; 余木火

    2013-01-01

    以离子液体1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑氯盐([Bmim] Cl)作反应介质,采用马来酸酐对纤维素进行原位化学改性.利用双螺杆挤出机的剪切作用来提高纤维素在[Bmim] Cl中的溶解效率,并促进马来酸酐与纤维素的醣化反应.红外光谱(FTIR)结果证明了纤维素马来酸酯的生成,导致纤维素的氢键网络结构破坏,同时也破坏了纤维素的规整度,降低了纤维素的结晶度.热重分析(TGA)结果显示:马来酸酐支链阻碍了纤维素主链的运动,使改性纤维素的热稳定性明显高于未改性纤维素.当马采酸酐与纤维素质量比为0.8、螺杆转速为50 r/min时,改性纤维素在[Bmim]Cl中的溶解度达到20%,是未改性纤维素溶解度的2倍.%Cellulose is chemically modified with maleic anhydride(MA) by in-situ reactive extrusion.1-N-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) is applied as reaction medium.Owing to the high shear stress of twin-screw extruder,the dissolving efficiency of cellulose in [Bmim]Cl as well as the modification effect of MA is improved effectively.Fourier transform infrared spectrscope (FTIR) results show that the formation of MA side chain in cellulose maleate obviously destroys the regularity of cellulose chains and reduces the crystallinity of cellulose.Thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA) results show that the resistance of cellulose segment motion in the cellulose maleate suppresses the degradation of cellulose in [Bmim]Cl and improves the thermal stability of cellulose maleate.The hydrogen bond network in cellulose maleate is destructed efficiently and intermolecular force of cellulose maleate is decreased with the increase of MA content.As a result,the concentration of cellulose in spinning solution can be up to 20 % when the MA content is 80 % with respect to the weight of cellulose and the screw speed is 50 rpm,which is almost double of the concentration of unmodified cellulose.

  13. Process Optimization for Synthesis of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Oxidized Sweet Potato Starch by Response Surface Analysis%响应面法优化氧化辛烯基琥珀酸甘薯淀粉酯的制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 邬应龙; 何靖柳

    2011-01-01

    以氧化甘薯淀粉(oxidation sweet potato starch,OSPS)为原料,制备氧化辛烯基琥珀酸甘薯淀粉酯(octenylsuccinate anhydride-oxidation sweet potato starch,OSA-OSPS)。运用响应面分析(response surface method analysis,RSA)辛烯基琥珀酸酐(octenyl succinate anhydride,OSA)添加量、pH值、温度和时间对OSA-OSPS取代度(degreeof substitution,DS)的影响,得出最佳制备工艺:酸酐添加量7%、pH8.40、温度40℃,反应时间10h。采用快速黏度分析仪(rapid viscosity analyzer,RVA)分析表明:氧化甘薯淀粉峰值黏度较低,而经过OSA酯化后,峰值黏度又会有一定程度的提高,且随DS的增加呈上升趋势。%Oxidized sweet potato starch was used as the raw material to prepare octenyl succinic anhydride(OSA) modified oxidized sweet potato starch.The effects of OSA amount,pH,temperature and reaction time on degree of substitution(DS) of OSA-modified oxidized sweet potato starch were studied employing response surface analysis.The optimum process conditions determined were as follows: OSA amount 7%,pH 8.40,temperature 40 ℃,and reaction time 10 h.Rapid viscosity analyzer(RVA) analysis showed that the peak viscosity of sweet potato starch decreased after oxidation,and increased after furthermodification with OSA with a positive correlation with DS.

  14. Preparation of Cu/TiO2-Al2O3 Catalysts for Vapor-Phase Hydrogenation of Maleic Anhydride to g-Butyrolactone at Atmospheric Pressure%用于顺酐常压气相加氢制g-丁内酯的Cu/TiO2-Al2O3催化剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨勃; 郭杨龙; 郭耘; 王筠松; 卢冠忠

    2003-01-01

      The effects of different preparation methods for Cu/TiO2-Al2O3 catalysts, such as stepwise impregnation method, co-impregnation method, sol-gel method, and co-precipitation method, and activation modes on vapor-phase hydrogenation of maleic anhydride (MA) to g-butyrolactone (GBL) at atmospheric pressure were investigated in this paper. The catalyst prepared by co-precipitation method exhibited higher performance over the temperature range of 180~270°C, in which the conversion of MA and selectivity of GBL was nearly 100% and 93.2%~99.3%, respectively.%  研究了不同制备方法(分步浸渍法,共浸渍法,溶胶凝胶法和共沉淀法)和还原方式对用于顺酐常压气相加氢制g-丁内酯Cu/TiO2-Al2O3催化剂性能的影响,并对影响因素进行了初步探讨.结果表明,用共沉淀法制备的催化剂具有较好的催化性能,当反应温度在180~270°C范围内,催化剂的活性和选择性分别为100%和93.2%~99.3%.

  15. Investigação da cinética de cura por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC de resinas epóxi preparadas a partir de óleo de soja epoxidado com diferentes anidridos e aminas terciárias Investigation of the kinetics of cure by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of epoxy resins prepared from epoxidized soybean oil with different anhydrides and tertiary amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. O. Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, utilizou-se a calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC para investigar a cinética da reação de cura de resinas epóxi produzidas a partir da reação do óleo de soja epoxidado (ESO, com os anidridos dodecenilsuccínico (DDS, maleico (MAL, ftálico (FTA, succínico (SUC e hexahidroftálico (CH, atuando como agentes de cura, e na presença de aminas terciárias como a trietilamina (TEA, a N,N'-dimetilanilina (ARO e a 1,4- diazobiciclo [2,2,2] octano (DABCO, atuando como catalisadores. A taxa de aquecimento, a natureza química e a estrutura do anidrido e das aminas influenciaram a reação de cura. Os métodos dinâmicos de Kissinger, Ozawa e de Barrett foram utilizados para calcular a energia de ativação dos sistemas onde se variou o anidrido. Observou-se que os anidridos mais reativos foram o DDS e maleico que apresentaram os menores valores de energias de ativação. No estudo da influência do catalisador, utilizou-se o método de Barrett para determinar as energias de ativação das reações com as diferentes aminas. A amina cicloaliafática (DABCO foi a mais reativa obtendo-se o menor valor de energia de ativação (Ea = 51 kJ.mol-1 e fator pré-exponencial (ln A0 = 9 s-1.In the present work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to investigate the curing reaction kinetics of epoxy resins produced from reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO with cyclic anhydrides dodecenylsuccinic (DDS, maleic (MAL, phthalic (PA, succinic (SUC and hexahydrophthalic (CH, in the presence of tertiary amines such as triethylamine (TEA, N,N-dimethylaniline (ARO and 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO. The heating rate, the nature and structure of anhydrides and amines were found to affect the curing reaction. The dynamic methods of Kissinger, Ozawa and Barrett were used to calculate the activation energy of the reactions where different anhydrides were used. DDS and maleic anhydrides were more reactive than the others

  16. Performance of non-crystal cross-linked octenyl succinic anhydride starch ester synthesized through one-step process%非晶交联辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯的一步法合成及其性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆来仙; 童张法; 石海信; 张友全

    2014-01-01

    Using non-crystal starch (N-NS) as raw material,sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) and Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA) as modification agents,non-crystal cross-linked octenyl succinic anhydride starch ester (N-1-COSAS) was synthesized by one-step process. The properties of N-1-COSAS,such as degree of substitution,combined phosphorus,intrinsic viscosity,transparency, apparent viscosity and blue value,were comparatively studied by the product synthesized by three-step process (N-3-COSAS) to analyze their similarities and differences. The functional groups, morphology,crystal structure and thermostability of the products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the degree of substitution,combined phosphorus and intrinsic viscosity for N-1-COSAS were greater than those by N-3-COSAS. The new absorption peak at 1600 cm-1 appeared in the FT-IR spectrum of the two starch esters demonstrated that the esterification reaction were occurred in both processes. The results of XRD indicated that the dispersion degrees of the peaks in N-1-COSAS and N-3-COSAS were similar to those of N-NS but the crystallinities of N-1-COSAS and N-3-COSAS were lower than that of NS. The particle surfaces of N-1-COSAS and N-3-COSAS were rougher than that of N-NS. Moreover , thermostabilities of N-1-COSAS and N-3-COSAS were better than that of N-NS.%以非晶木薯淀粉(N-NS)为原料,三偏磷酸钠(STMP)和辛烯基琥珀酸酐(OSA)为变性剂,采用一步法合成非晶交联辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯(N-1-COSAS),测定产物的取代度、结合磷含量、透明度、表观黏度、特性黏度和蓝值,并与三步法合成的非晶交联辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯(N-3-COSAS)作对比。同时采用傅里叶红外光谱仪(FT-IR)、扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)和差示扫描量热仪(DSC)

  17. 苯乙烯-马来酸酐共聚物对20%除虫脲悬浮剂分散稳定性的影响%Effect of Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer on the Dispersibility of 20% Diflubenzuron Suspension Concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙停停; 张树芹; 路福绥; 陈甜甜

    2012-01-01

    With benzoyl peroxide as initiator, a series of stysene-maleic anhydride copolymer was prepared by solution copolymerization under different temperatures. Polystyrene-maleic anhydride sulfonic acid sodium (SSMA) with different relative molecular mass was obtained by sulfonated the polystyrene-maleic anhdride. The dispersibility of 20% diflubenzuron suspension concentrate was identified by assaying and analyzing the diameter of particles, Zeta potentials and viscosities. The results showed that the optimal dispersant was SSMA, which was prepared at 75℃ , and the most suitable concentration was 3% . At pH =9, the dispersion stability of suspension concentrate was the best due to the strong steric hindrance provided by completely ionizing of the molecules. Na+ or Ca2+ was able to decrease the absolute value of Zeta potential by compressing the electronic double layer thickness of particles surface, which could lead to particles aggregation due to the reduction of electric quantity and ultimately deteriorate the dispersive effect of suspension concentrate. If the ions concentration were the same, the coagulation capacity by Ca2 + was stronger than that of Na+ , and the dispersion stability of suspension was worse after adding Ca2 +.%以过氧化苯甲酰为引发剂,采用溶液共聚法在不同温度下合成了一系列苯乙烯-马来酸酐共聚物,经磺化制得不同相对分子质量的聚苯乙烯-马来酸酐磺酸钠(SSMA).通过测定平均粒径、Zeta电势、黏度等考察了SSMA对20%除虫脲悬浮剂分散稳定性的影响.结果表明,最佳分散剂为75℃聚合得到的SSMA,其质量分数为3%时,水悬浮剂的分散稳定性最好;当pH=9时SSMA分子完全电离,能为颗粒提供较大的空间势垒,水悬浮剂分散稳定性最好;Na+或Ca2+压缩颗粒界面的双电层,降低Zeta电势的绝对值,使颗粒因带电量减少而聚结,导致水悬浮剂分散稳定性变差;当离子浓度相同时,Ca2+的

  18. 马来酸酐改性聚乳酸对成骨细胞黏附、增殖和分化的研究%Effects of Maleic Anhydride-modified Poly(D,L-lactic acid) on the Adhesion,Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向燕; 王远亮; 罗彦凤; 张兵兵; 辛娟; 郑丹芳

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to observe the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mouse os-teblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on maleic anhydride-modified poly(D,L-lactic acid) (MPLA) and poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) polymers, and to evaluate the cytocompatibility of MPLA polymer. The effects of MPLA and PDLLA polymers on the morphology, adhesion, proliferation, the content of total cellular protein, alkaline phospha-tase (ALP) activity and the content of Ca of MC3T3-E1 cells were explored. These results indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells on MPLA polymer adhered and spread more fully. On MPLA polymer, the proliferation, total protein content, ALP activity, Ca content of the cells were significantly higher than those of the cells on PDLLA polymer (P< 0. 01). It was concluded that MPLA polymer could promote the adhesion, spreading, proliferation and the synthesis of protein of osteoblasts, and also induced the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts, suggesting that MPLA polymer might have the better cytocompatibility than PDLLA.%通过研究马来酸酐改性聚乳酸(MPLA)和聚乳酸(PDLLA)材料表面对MC3T3-E1成骨细胞形态、黏附、增殖、细胞总蛋白含量、碱性磷酸酶活性及细胞分泌无机钙含量的影响,评价MPLA和PDLLA材料的细胞相容性.结果显示:与PDLLA相比,MPLA材料上的成骨细胞完全黏附和充分铺展;MPLA材料上细胞的增殖速率、细胞总蛋白含量、细胞碱性磷酸酶活性及细胞分泌的无机钙含量都显著高于PDLLA(P<0.01).这些结果说明,MPLA材料能促进MC3T3-E1成骨细胞的黏附、铺展、增殖及蛋白质的合成,并能促进成骨细胞的分化和矿化,与PDLLA材料相比具有更好的细胞相容性.

  19. Estudo da capacidade de complexação de íons Cu2+ em solução aquosa usando celulose modificada com anidrido succínico e com poliaminas Study of copper removal from aqueous solutions using modified celluloses with succinic anhydride and polyamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Corti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho foi realizada a preparação de novos materiais, a partir da celulose, para complexar íons de metais pesados em solução aquosa e assim, descontaminar águas poluídas por tais metais. Na primeira parte foi realizada a modificação química da celulose usando o anidrido succínico. As funções carboxílicas introduzidas no material foram usadas para ancorar poliaminas produzindo-se três celuloses modificadas inéditas. Todos os materiais obtidos foram caracterizados por espectroscopia no infravermelho (IV e submetidos à análise elementar. A segunda parte do trabalho foi constituída da avaliação do poder de adsorção das celuloses modificadas obtidas em relação aos íons Cu2+ em solução aquosa. O estudo foi realizado usando a titulometria, um método analítico tradicional. Os vários materiais mostraram uma capacidade máxima de complexação variando entre 141 e 263 mg de Cu2+ por grama do material modificado. A eficiência na complexação dos íons Cu2+ mostrou-se proporcional ao número de funções aminas introduzidas na celulose.This work describes the preparation of new materials, derived from cellulose, to be used as complexing agents for heavy metal ions in aqueous solutions and, hence, to decontaminate waters polluted by such metals. The first part deals with the chemical modification of the cellulose using succinic anhydride. The carboxylic acid functions introduced in the material were used to anchor polyamines resulting in three novel modified celluloses. The materials obtained were characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy (IR. The second part of the work features the evaluation of the adsorption capacity of the modified celluloses in relation to Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. The study was accomplished by titration, a traditional analytical method. The various materials showed a maximum complexing capacity ranging from 141 to 263 mg of Cu2+ per gram of the modified material. The

  20. 聚乳酸接枝马来酸酐/丙烯酸丁酯共聚物的制备与性能∗%Preparation and properties of maleic anhydride/butyl acrylate grafted poly(lactic acid)copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗卫华; 袁彩霞; 王正良; 向世欢; 聂鹏; 袁光明

    2015-01-01

    Maleic anhydride (MAH)/butyl acrylate (BA)grafted poly(lactic acid)(PLA)copolymers (mPLAs) were prepared through solution grafting copolymerization using benzoyl peroxide as initiator,MAH and BA as monomers.The structure and properties of the graft copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR),wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)and thermogravimetry (TG).The monomer graft degree on PLA first increases and then decreases with increasing mass ratio of BA to MAH.It reaches the highest value of 1.96% when the mass ratios of BA to MAH and MAH to PLA are 1/1 and 3/100 respectively.Compared with the pure PLA,mPLAs exhibit lower crystallinity and decreased thermal stability.A higher monomer graft degree was associated with a lower crystallinity of the samples.With the increase of mass ratio of BA to MAH,both the melting temperature and glass transition temperature of mPLAs have a trend of declining.%以马来酸酐(MAH)和丙烯酸丁酯(BA)为单体,通过溶液接枝法制备了聚乳酸(PLA )接枝MAH/BA共聚物(mPLA).使用红外光谱(FT-IR)、广角X 射线衍射(WAXD)、差示扫描量热仪(DSC)、热重分析仪(TG)研究了接枝共聚物的结构和性能.结果表明,随着单体质量比BA/MA H 的增加,单体在PLA 上的接枝率出现先增大后减小的趋势,当m(MAH)/m (BA )=1/1,m (MAH )/m (PLA )=3/100时,制备的 mPLA 接枝率最高为1.96%;与纯PLA相比,mPLA 的结晶度和热稳定性均比有所下降,且样品的接枝率越大其结晶度越低;随着单体中BA含量的增加,mPLA 的熔融温度和玻璃化转变温度有减小的趋势.

  1. Physical insights into salicylic acid release from poly(anhydrides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Queeny; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2016-01-21

    Salicylic acid (SA) based biodegradable polyanhydrides (PAHs) are of great interest for drug delivery in a variety of diseases and disorders owing to the multi-utility of SA. There is a need for the design of SA-based PAHs for tunable drug release, optimized for the treatment of different diseases. In this study, we devised a simple strategy for tuning the release properties and erosion kinetics of a family of PAHs. PAHs incorporating SA were derived from related aliphatic diacids, varying only in the chain length, and prepared by simple melt condensation polymerization. Upon hydrolysis induced erosion, the polymer degrades into cytocompatible products, including the incorporated bioactive SA and diacid. The degradation follows first order kinetics with the rate constant varying by nearly 25 times between the PAH obtained with adipic acid and that with dodecanedioic acid. The release profiles have been tailored from 100% to 50% SA release in 7 days across the different PAHs. The release rate constants of these semi-crystalline, surface eroding PAHs decreased almost linearly with an increase in the diacid chain length, and varied by nearly 40 times between adipic acid and dodecanedioic acid PAH. The degradation products with SA concentration in the range of 30-350 ppm were used to assess cytocompatibility and showed no cytotoxicity to HeLa cells. This particular strategy is expected to (a) enable synthesis of application specific PAHs with tunable erosion and release profiles; (b) encompass a large number of drugs that may be incorporated into the PAH matrix. Such a strategy can potentially be extended to the controlled release of other drugs that may be incorporated into the PAH backbone and has important implications for the rational design of drug eluting bioactive polymers.

  2. PLA branching with anhydrides and tri-functional aziridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liangliang; Xu, Yuewen; Naredla, Rajasekhar; Hoye, Thomas; Macosko, Christopher

    Branched PLA was prepared by melt blending with tri-functional aziridine (T-Az) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA). 1HNMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and rheology were used to characterize the topological structures of branched PLA. Fast reaction between PLA carboxyl end group and T-Az resulted in 3-arm stars and increased the molecular weight. However, the 3-arm stars did not show strain hardening behavior under extensional flow. After modifying PLA hydroxyl end group with PMDA, PLA can react with T-Az on both chain ends and form long chain branched structure, which showed strain hardening in extension. It was found that that only 10% of the PLA hydroxyl end groups reacted with PMDA. This work is supported by Center for Sustainable Polymers.

  3. 烯基琥珀酸酐改性瓜尔胶的合成及其凝胶破胶性能研究%Synthesis and Property Study of Gel and Gel Breaking for Guar Gum Modified by Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛贝; 沈一丁; 杨晓武; 李培枝; 王健

    2012-01-01

    A novel guar gum modified by alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) was synthesized by dry preparation method when the catalyst was NaHCO3. The optimum reaction condition of the gum was obtained as follows: guar gum and ASA in mass ratio 7:1, 60℃ reaction temperature, 10 hrs reaction time and 0.4% NaHCO3dosage. The surface tension of 0.4% modified guar gum solution was of 35.29 raN/m, and that of the gelout solution, which was broken by ammonium persulfate, was of 29.65 mN/m. The interf~ial tension of gelout solution and kerosene was of 2.27 raN/m, and the residue content was of 300 mg/L. It was showed that the properties of temperature and shear resistance were improved after the guar gum modified. When the shearing rate or temperature was low, the viscosity of modified gum decreased, which was beneficial to reduce the flowing friction of fluid in pipeline. On the contrary, when the shearing rate or temperature was high, the viscosity increased, which was conducive to bring sand fracturing in later process.%以碳酸氢钠为催化剂,采用干法制备烯基琥珀酸酐(ASA)改性瓜尔胶。瓜尔胶与ASA反应的最佳条件为:瓜尔胶原粉、ASA质量比7:1,反应温度60℃,反应时间10h,碳酸氢钠质量分数0.4%。0.4%的ASA改性瓜尔胶水溶液的表面张力为35.29mN/m。用过硫酸铵破胶后破胶液的表面张力为29.65mN/m,煤油/冻胶破胶液的界面张力为2.27mN/m,残渣含量为300mg/L。与瓜尔胶原粉相比,改性瓜尔胶制备冻胶的耐温性、耐剪切性提高。在低剪切速率或温度较低时,改性瓜尔胶黏度降低,有利于减少流体在管道中流动的摩阻;而在高剪切速率或温度较高时,改性瓜尔胶黏度增加,有利于后期的携沙造缝。图8表1参13

  4. 高剪切应力对苯乙烯-乙烯/丁烯-苯乙烯三嵌段聚合物马来酸酐化反应的影响%Influence of high shear stress on functionalization of maleic anhydride with styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene terblock polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽; 张玲; 张云灿

    2013-01-01

    The functionalization reaction of styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene terblock polymer (SEBS) with maleic anhydride (MAH) was investigated through the high shear stress-induced initiation by increasing the screw rotation speed of twin-screw extruder.The results showed that the percent of grafting and the melt flow rate of functionalized products (SEBS-g-MAH) increased obviously with the increase of screw rotation speed,indicating that the high shear stress produced by increasing screw rotation speed led to the chain scission and the macro-radical,thus initiating the grafting reaction between SEBS and MAH.The crosslinking reaction could be effectively suppressed through increasing screw rotation speed to prepare the functionalized product SEBS-g-MAH with higher percent of grafting (mass fraction 0.79%-0.89%) and appropriate melt flow rate (1.859-4.398 g/min) and lower gel content (no more than mass fraction 0.32%).Meanwhile,the toughening effect of SEBS-g-MAH on nylon (PA 66) was much better.The Izod notched impact strength of the blend reached up to 94 kJ/m2,which was 30 times more than that of pure PA 66 without significant decrease of tensile and flexural strengthes.%通过提高双螺杆挤出机螺杆转速的应力引发方法,研究了高剪切应力下马来酸酐(MAH)与苯乙烯-乙烯/丁烯-苯乙烯三嵌段聚合物(SEBS)的官能化反应.结果表明,随着双螺杆挤出机螺杆转速的提高,官能化产物的接枝率和熔体流动速率明显增大.高剪切应力的作用引起大分子链断链,形成大分子自由基,从而引发SEBS的接枝反应.通过提高螺杆转速可有效地抑制交联副反应,制得接枝率较高(质量分数0.79%~0.89%)、熔体流动速率适宜(1.859 ~4.398 g/min)和凝胶含量较低(质量分数不大于0.32%)的官能化产物.同时,由应力诱导引发所得官能化产物SEBS-g-MAH对尼龙(PA 66)的增韧效果较好,其共混物的悬臂梁缺口冲击强度能达到约94 kJ/m2,

  5. TiOx(x<2)表面修饰Ni/TiO2-SiO2催化顺酐液相选择加氢合成γ-丁内酯%Selective Hydrogenation of Maleic Anhydride to γ-Butyrolactone over TiOx (x < 2) Surface-Modified Ni/TiO2-SiO2 in Liquid Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕萍; 张因; 高春光; 赵永祥

    2011-01-01

    TiO2-SiO2 aerogel with different TiO2 content was prepared by the sol-gel method. Ni/TiCh-SiCh catalyst samples were then pre pared via impregnation and were applied to the selective hydrogenation of maleic anhydride (MA) to y-butyrolactone (GBL). The catalyst samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, dif fuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, and H2 temperature-programmed adsorption-mass spectroscopy techniques. The characterization results indicated that smaller Ni° species favored the formation of GBL. Meanwhile, TiOx (x < 2) species, produced by the partial reduction of TiO2, was generated during the reduction process. The formation of TiOx (x < 2) species effectively promoted the hydro genation of C=O group. Therefore, the hydrogenation of carbonyl was affected by both the size of Ni0 and TiOx species. When the synergistic effect of small Ni0 and TiOx species existed, the catalyst showed higher hydrogenation activity for C=O group.%以TiO2-SiO2复合氧化物气凝胶为载体,制备了一系列Ni/TiO2-SiO2催化剂,并采用N2物理吸附-脱附、H2程序升温还原/脱附、X射线衍射及原位漫反射傅里叶变换红外光谱等技术对催化剂进行了表征,考察了载体中钛含量对催化剂结构、表面性质及其催化顺酐液相选择加氢合成γ-丁内酯反应性能的影响.结果表明,较小的Ni0晶粒有利于γ-丁内酯的生成.在催化剂活性组分的还原过程中,随着载体中钛含量的增加,越米越多的TiO2被还原为TiOx(x<2)物种.Ni0晶粒和TiOx物种的协同作用影响了催化剂的羰基加氢性能;当较小的Ni0晶粒匹配合适的TiOx物种时,催化剂表现出较高的羰基加氢活性.

  6. Rheological, pasting, thermal and retrogradation properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin WON

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate the rheological, pasting, and thermal properties of octenyl succinic anhydrate (OSA-modified potato starch. Potato starch was modified using different concentrations of OSA (0, 1, 3, and 5%, v/v. The degree of substitution (DS for the OSA-modified starch ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0055. The amylose leaching values of native and OSA-modified potato starch with different DS levels were in the range of 47.09-87.32%. The gel strength values of the OSA-modified starch were lower than those of native potato starch. Rapid Visco Analyzer data showed that peak, hot pasting, final and setback viscosities of the native starch decreased after OSA modification. Dynamic shear rheological tests, conducted at 4 °C, indicated that OSA-modified potato starch had weak gel-like behavior with the storage moduli (G' higher than the loss moduli (G” over most of the frequency ranges (0.63-63.8 rad·s-1.

  7. Tetrahydrofuran Unit Adopting Davy's Latest Maleic Anhydride Technology to Come Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 1,4-butanediol (BDO)/tetrahydrofuran (THF) project constructed by the Blue Star (Nanjing) New Chemical Ma-terials Co., Ltd. adopting a whole package of the world's latest patented technology will come on-stream by the end of 2008. It is told that by that time Blue Star will rank among the global leaders in terms of quality of BDO and THF products, which can substitute for around 40% of imported high-quality products.

  8. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA)-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marefati, Ali; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Wahlgren, Marie; Rayner, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w) oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable. PMID:27479315

  9. Synthetic studies of coumarin derivatives from o-hydroxybenzophenones with phenylacetic acid and acetic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Soon Hee; Yang, Sung Yun [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    The 8 coumarin derivatives have been synthesized from 8 starting materials(2-hydroxy-benzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzophenone, 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-4'-dimethoxybenzophenone) with phenylacetic acid and Ac{sub 2}O/TEA in acetone at reflux temperature. The ratio of o-hydroxybenzophenone, phenylacetic acid, Ac{sub 2}O and TEA is 1:1:8:8 in acetone. Our results showed higher products yields of coumarin derivatives than Shama and Ray's method in previous papers. A new intermediate form was proposed to our mechanism of coumarin synthetic method.

  10. 78 FR 76567 - Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ...://www.epa.gov/dockets . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lois Rossi, Registration Division (7505P... aquatic environment. 2. The polymer does contain as an integral part of its composition the atomic... composition, except as impurities, any element other than those listed in 40 CFR 723.250(d)(2)(ii). 4....

  11. Maleic-anhydride grafted EPM as compatibilising agent in NR/BR/EPDM blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Datta, R.N.; Talma, A.G.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Incorporation of approximately 30 phr Ethylene–Propylene–Diene rubber (EPDM) into natural rubber (NR)/butadiene rubber (BR) is a means to achieve non-staining ozone resistance for tire sidewall applications. However, due to incompatibility of the elastomers and heterogeneous filler distribution in e

  12. Microwave-Assisted Cross-Coupling Reaction of Sodium Tetraphenylboratewith Carboxylic Anhydrides Catalyzed by Palladium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Quan; WANG Jin-Xian; WANG Ke-Hu; ZHAO Lian-Biao

    2003-01-01

    @@ Cross-coupling processes of aryl or alkenyl halides with organometallic compounds of main group elements cat alyzed by palladium complexes have been found extensive use in organic synthesis. These cross-coupling reactions offer a powerful tool for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. [1] The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction has been employed for the synthesis of ketone as well.

  13. A fully coupled diffusion-reaction scheme for moisture sorption-desorption in an anhydride-cured epoxy resin

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal

    2012-11-01

    Thermoset materials frequently display non-classical moisture sorption behaviors. In this paper, we investigated this issue from an experimental point of view as well as in terms of modeling the water transport. We used the gravimetric technique to monitor water uptake by epoxy samples, with several thicknesses exposed to different levels of humidity during absorption and desorption tests. Our results revealed that the polymer displays a two-stage behavior with a residual amount of water that is desorbed progressively. We proposed a phenomenological reaction-diffusion scheme to describe this behavior. The model describes water transport as a competition between diffusion and the reaction, during which the local diffusivity and solubility depend on the local advancement of the reaction. We then implemented our model using COMSOL Multiphysics and identified it using a MATLAB-COMSOL optimization tool and the experimental data. We discussed the relation between the hydrophilicity of the product of the reaction and the diffusion behavior. We examined the reaction-induced modification of the water concentration field. It is worth noting that part of the phenomenology can be explained by the presence of hydrolyzable groups. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reaction of Silane Alkoxide with Acid Anhydride as a Novel Synthetic Method for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Fujiwara

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Sol-gel method is a potent method to produce new inorganic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials. The key step of this methodology is the hydrolysis of a metal alkoxide or other metal substrates such as acetylacetonates to form hydroxyl metal species, followed by their condensation to metal-oxygen-metal (M - O - M)bonds. In this process, the utilization of water, generally in excess, is essential and alcoholic solvents such as ethanol are often required to homogenize the solution when organic compounds coexist. As the common sol-gel method using water allows for limited uses of organic substrates due to their low solubility and stability in aqueous solution, modified variations of sol-gel method are required. Recently, some processes were reported for preparing metal oxides from metal alkoxides without the utilization of water.

  15. Attack of carbonic anhydride and hydrogen sulfide on API class H cement slurries exposed to saline formation waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez, G.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the attack of the major ions (sulfate, chloride, and magnesium and sour gases, present in natural gas (CO2 y SH2, on API class H cement, the type used in gas wells under high pressure and temperature. The effects of these chemical agents on this cement was simulated to study the physicochemical changes due to the action of sour gases and formation water. Cement specimens were immersed in neutral solutions containing fixed concentrations of the major ions inside Parr reactors. These solutions were analysed and XRD analyses were conducted for over two months to identify mineralogical variations from 14 to 60 days. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the joint attack of major ions and sour gases on cement pastes. The main effects of both gases, jointly or separately, on cement durability were, respectively, the carbonation process and the leaching of some components.

    Se simuló la acción agresiva de los denominados iones fundamentales (sulfato, cloruro y magnesio y los gases agrios presentes en el gas natural (CO2 y H2S sobre un cemento API clase H utilizado en pozos gasíferos a presión y temperatura elevadas, al objeto de observar sus alteraciones fisicoquímicas por la acción combinada de tales gases y las aguas de formación. Se prepararon varias probetas del material cementante para su inmersión en disoluciones neutras, conteniendo los iones fundamentales en concentraciones fijas, dentro de reactores tipo Parr. Se analizaron durante más de dos meses una serie de disoluciones en contacto con el cemento utilizado; así como, mediante DRX, la evolución de la mineralogía de dicho material entre los 14 y los 60 días. Los principales efectos de ambos gases, en conjunto o por separado, sobre la durabilidad del cemento fueron, respectivamente, la formación de carbonato cálcico y la lixiviación de algunos componentes.

  16. MECHANICAL RELAXATION AND INTERMOLECULAR INTERACTION IN EPOXY RESINS/POLY (ETHYLENE OXIDE)BLENDS CURED WITH PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiaolie; ZHENG Sixun; MA Dezhu; HU Keliang

    1995-01-01

    The miscibility of the blend,composed of a bisphenol A epoxy resins (Diglycidyl etherof bisphenol A) (DGEBA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and crosslinked by phthalicanhydride (PA) was studied using dynamic mechanical method. Single glass transitiontemperatures intermediate between the two pure components were observed for all blendlevels. The secondary relaxation mechanism should relate to not only diester linkage, butalso hydroxyether structural unit in the system. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) is applied to study the curing reaction and intermolecular specific interaction of thesystem. The results indicate the PEO participates the crosslinking reaction, accelerates thecuring reaction and make the reaction more perfect. The shifts of the hydroxyl band andcarbonyl band demonstrate the presence of the intermolecular interaction in the curedblend. Moreover, the molecular interaction between the side hydroxyl in the hydroxyetherunits and the ether bond in PEO macromolecules is stronger.

  17. Effect of vanadic anhydride and copper oxide on the development of hard porcelain composite and its antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpan Kool

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A mullite-reinforced porcelain composite with antibacterial properties has been developed using transition metal oxides by solid state sintering. The composite has been characterized in terms of mullite content, hardness, color and antibacterial properties. The physico-chemical properties of the porcelain were substantially increased in the presence of V2O5 and CuO. Well-crystallized needle shaped mullite of average length ∼ 3 μm was observed in the porcelain body at 1300 °C and 1500 °C after the addition of V2O5 and CuO. Vickers hardness of the composite increased 4.2 times for 2% V2O5 at 1500 °C. The porcelain composites showed satisfactory antibacterial activity on gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli with mortality rates of 45% and 22% for V2O5 and CuO doped porcelain respectively.

  18. Tailor-made synthesis of various backbone-substituted imidazolinium salts by triflic anhydride mediated intramolecular cyclisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Su, Xiaolong; Fu, Jun; Qin, Xinke; Zhao, Meixin; Shi, Min

    2012-09-21

    We have found a Tf(2)O-mediated intramolecular cyclization reaction and have revealed an intriguing stereoselectivity and a regioselectivity during the preparation of intermediate alcohols, which allow for the tailor-made synthesis of various backbone-substituted imidazolinium salts, and structurally specific syn-4,5-disubstituted imidazolinium salts.

  19. 双环戊二烯-马来酸酐自由基共聚%Dicyclopentadiene- Maleic Anhydride Freeradical Copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 王小梅; 王芳; 闫卫东

    2005-01-01

    用过氧化苯甲酰(BPO)引发双环戊二烯(DCPD)与马来酸酐(MA)于70℃下进行自由基共聚,控制共聚时间使共聚转化率低于10%.用电位滴定法测定共聚物中MA的含量,测定结果与13C核磁共振(NMR)法的测定结果相吻合,相对偏差为-0.77%.13CNMR法的测定结果表明,参与自由基共聚的DCPD单元中降冰片烯与环戊烯的摩尔比为7.143.采用Fineman-Ross法测定单体的竞聚率(r),rMA=0.006 4,rDCPD=0.676 0.研究了共聚物中DCPD与MA单元的链段序列分布.

  20. Salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) nerve guidance conduits: Impact of localized drug release on nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong S; Griffin, Jeremy; Masand, Shirley N; Shreiber, David I; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-04-01

    Nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) can serve as physical scaffolds aligning and supporting regenerating cells while preventing scar tissue formation that often interferes with the regeneration process. Numerous studies have focused on functionalizing NGCs with neurotrophic factors, for example, to support nerve regeneration over longer gaps, but few directly incorporate therapeutic agents. Herein, we fabricated NGCs from a polyanhydride comprised of salicylic acid (SA), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, then performed in vitro and in vivo assays. In vitro studies included cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory response, and NGC porosity measurements. To prepare for implantation, type I collagen hydrogels were used as NGC luminal fillers to further enhance the axonal regeneration process. For the in vivo studies, SA-NGCs were implanted in femoral nerves of mice for 16 weeks and evaluated for functional recovery. The SA-based NGCs functioned as both a drug delivery vehicle capable of reducing inflammation and scar tissue formation because of SA release as well as a tissue scaffold that promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery.

  1. Chromic anhydride-3, 5-dimethylpyrazole complex: an efficient reagent for oxidation of steroidal estrogens to 6-oxo-derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, G A; Rao, P N

    1983-10-01

    An efficient procedure for the oxidation of steroidal estrogens to the corresponding 6-oxo-derivatives is described. The oxidative process involves the use of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole-chromium trioxide complex at low temperature (-20 degrees). Under these conditions, only the 6-oxo-derivative and the unreacted starting material were obtained and the latter could be subjected to oxidation once again to obtain additional amount of 6-oxo-derivative.

  2. P(CTFE-VAc-MAH)的合成%Synthesis of chlorotrifluoroethylene-vinyl acetate-maleic anhydride copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 卓虎; 侯丽华; 张书香

    2013-01-01

      要: 以超临界CO2为反应介质,制备了三氟氯乙烯(CTFE)-乙酸乙烯酯(VAc)-马来酸酐(MAH)共聚物[P(CTFE-VAc-MAH)]。考察了单体配比对聚合反应及聚合物结构、性能的影响,研究了聚合物的自乳化性能及交联反应。结果表明:在m(VAc)/m(CTFE)为6∶14的聚合体系中,增加MAH单体的比例,聚合物颗粒逐渐减小,产物中的氟含量逐渐降低;通过溶液法可使P(CTFE-VAc-MAH)共聚物形成自乳化乳液,乳胶粒的粒径随着聚合物中MAH比例的增大而变小;此共聚物在一定条件下可与多元醇或多元胺类发生交联反应。%The chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE)-vinyl acetate (VAc)-maleic anhydride (MAH) copolymer [P(CTFE-VAc-MAH)] was produced in supercritical carbon dioxide. The effect of monomer ratio on the polymerization and the structure and properties of the polymer was investigated, and the self-emulsifying property and the cross-linking reaction of the polymer were studied. The results show that the polymer particles become smaller and the fluorine content in the polymer gets lower gradually with increasing the amount of MAH monomer when the mass ratio of VAc to CTFE is 6∶14. P(CTFE-VAc-MAH) self-emulsifying latex can be obtained by solution method, and the sizes of the latex particles become smaller with the increase in the content of MAH in the polymer. The polymer can take place the cross-linking reaction with polyamine and polyol on certain conditions.

  3. TREATMENT AND COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION OF SACCHARIN WASTEWATER FROM PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE PROCESS%苯酐法糖精废水的治理与综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉民

    2005-01-01

    利用废铁屑与含铜酸性废水作用制备金属铜和聚合硫酸铁,并用聚合硫酸铁作絮凝剂处理酯化废水.实验结果表明,每吨含铜酸性废水可制得8.5kg铜粉及230kg浓度158~160 g/L Fe3+的聚合硫酸铁,处理后的酸性废水中硫酸的含量降低了83.5%,Cu2+的含量降低了85.0%;在优化条件下,沉降30min,酯化废水的COD、色度去除率分别达到86.8%、88.5%.

  4. 乙酰化大豆分离蛋白的功能特性研究%The functional properties of isolate soybean protein useing acetic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玉静; 杨晓泉

    2001-01-01

    本文采用乙酸酐对大豆分离蛋白进行改性.测定了改性前后,不同改性程度下大豆分离蛋白功能特性的变化.结果表明:乙酰化大豆蛋白在5.0~9.5范围内大大提高发泡性能、乳化性能,并使等电点朝酸性偏移.

  5. 氯化聚乙烯接枝马来酸酐胶粘剂的研究%Study on Chlorinated Polyethylene Graft Maleic Anhydride Adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢方亮; 白洪才; 边兴海

    2002-01-01

    本文介绍了改性聚丙烯(PP)基泡沫材料用的水溶性胶粘剂的研制.该胶粘剂不影响泡沫材料的阻燃性能和吸声性能,并有较好的热稳定性和储存性以及优化的耐水性.

  6. Characterization of polyethylene wax grafted with maleic anhydride by solution method%溶液法聚乙烯蜡接枝马来酸酐的表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德钦; 王剑峰; 张丽珍; 林铭前; 林增祥; 王碧玮

    2007-01-01

    以溶液法合成了聚乙烯蜡接枝马来酸酐(PEW-g-MAH).利用酸碱中和滴定法测定PEW-g-MAH中酸酐含量,借助红外光谱分析证明接枝物的存在,探讨了取样量、滴定温度对测试结果的影响,得到表征PEW-g-MAH的优化实验方法.结果表明,在温度70℃下取样量达到1.5g-2g时,能得到较稳定的接枝率测试数据.

  7. HDPE-g-MAH改性氢氧化铝阻燃PP%Investigation on blend of polypropylene and aluminium trihydroxide modified with maleic anhydride grafting polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉丰; 付朝霞; 马劲松

    2007-01-01

    在液相中用马来酸酐接枝高密度聚乙烯(HDPE-g-MAH)表面改性Al(OH)3以改善其在高分子基相中的分散性.形态观察表明,用适量HDPE-g-MAH处理Al(OH)3可改善Al(OH)3,在聚丙烯(PP)中的分散性,从而提高体系的力学性能;HDPE-g-MAH用量过多造成的Al(OH),粒子间桥联,该现象经熔融混合后依然存在,导致力学性能降低.偏光显微镜观察显示,适量HDPE-g-MAH处理Al(OH)3可改善PP的结晶形态.

  8. Maleic anhydride grafted chlorinated polyethylene by melt blending%马来酸酐熔融接枝氯化聚乙烯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈尔凡; 李中浩; 马驰; 吴波; 裴群

    2015-01-01

    以过氧化二异丙苯、过氧化二苯甲酰、偶氮二异丁腈为引发剂,研究了引发剂及马来酸酐用量对熔融接枝氯化聚乙烯的接枝率、硫化工艺性及力学性能的影响,并用红外光谱表征研究了接枝结构及机理.制备了马来酸酐接枝氯化聚乙烯/聚乙烯共混物,通过共混物的性能考察了马来酸酐接枝氯化聚乙烯的自黏性,并采用差示扫描量热法、热重分析法和扫描电镜对共混物进行了热行为和形态的分析.结果表明,过氧化二苯甲酰引发马来酸酐接枝氯化聚乙烯的效果较好,组分最优配伍时(过氧化二苯甲酰1.6份,马来酸酐8份)接枝物的硫化工艺性、力学性能和热性能明显改善,硫化出现了典型的平坦区,拉伸强度达到16.7 MPa.共混物的力学性能和耐热性能均有所提高,接枝后氯化聚乙烯的自黏性有较大程度的改善.

  9. 苯乙烯/马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯蜡的研究%Research of maleic anhydride and styrene grafted polyethylene wax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄军左; 李道通; 李国远

    2009-01-01

    用溶液法制备了马来酸酐和马来酸酐/苯乙烯双单体接枝的聚乙烯蜡,考察了反应时间、温度、引发荆、单体用量对产物接枝率的影响.结果表明二叔丁基过氧化物是一种优良的接枝反应引发剂,在ω(引发剂)=0.4%、ω(马来酸酐)=6.0%、ω(苯乙烯)=4.0%、反应温度143℃、反应时间2.5 h的条件下,聚乙烯蜡接枝率为3.4%.并对产品进行了红外光谱分析、热分析表征.

  10. Study on maleic anhydride grafted low molecular weight polyethylene%低分子量聚乙烯熔融接枝马来酸酐的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪梅; 张海霞; 郝立辉; 沈立新; 张振林

    2008-01-01

    研究了吉林石化高密度聚乙烯装置副产低分子量聚乙烯与马来酸酐(MAH)的融熔接枝反应,考察了单体、引发剂用量、反应时间、温度对接枝率的影响.马来酸酐接枝低分子量聚乙烯应用于PE/CaCO3体系的性能测试结果表明,接枝物可以起到偶联剂的作用,改善体系的性能.

  11. Solid-Phase Grafting of Maleic Anhydride onto Polyethylene%聚乙烯和顺丁烯二酸酐的固相接枝共聚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立庆; 沈宁祥; 刘国友; 刘超

    2000-01-01

    采用固相接枝共聚法在聚乙烯大分子链上接枝顺丁烯二酸酐,研究了其表面的极性和结晶行为参数.固相接枝反应的接枝率与单体浓度和引发剂浓度有关,当反应温度为105℃,反应时间为2h,单体和引发剂的质量分数均为8%左右时,接枝率最大.接枝物的Tm、Tc、△Hm和△Hc值均比聚乙烯低.

  12. 反应精馏生产丁酸酐的过程模拟%The process simulation of reactive distillation produce butyric anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继泉; 高飞; 田文德

    2007-01-01

    丁酸酐是一种重要的有机原料,其现有的生产工艺为间歇操作,收率较低.本研究将反应精馏技术应用到生产丁酸酐的工艺中,建立了连续生产工艺的数学模型,在实验数据的基础上,用数据分析软件MATLAB对实验数据分析处理,得到相应的模型参数.采用ASPEN PLUS进行工艺方案的模拟计算,结果表明,利用反应精馏连续生产丁酸酐的工艺是可行的,以分离促反应,产品收率到达了97%以上,同时选择工艺操作参数,最佳条件为:酸酐比2∶1、反应压力0.2 atm、塔板数为12块,确定反应区主要为进料板附近.

  13. Detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions using {sup 111}In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic bicyclic anhydride-IgG ({sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG) scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Tomohiro; Goto, Hajime; Wada, Hiroo; Yuasa, Kazumi; Iguchi, Mari; Okamura, Tatsuru; Ieki, Ryuji; Suzuki, Kenzo [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome General Hospital (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The utility of {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG imaging for the detection of intrathoracic lesions was evaluated in 10 patients with the suspicion of inflammatory or infectious diseases. They were intravenously administered 40 or 80 MBq of {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG, and scanned after 24 or 48 hours. Of these, 8 cases, consisted of 4 cases with pneumonia and 2 cases with lung abscess and one case of pulmonary tuberculosis and one of a tuberculous pleuritis, showed true positive results. Others were one false negative case of pneumonia and one true negative case of lung cancer. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. There were no cases which showed side effects or abnormal laboratory findings caused by the radiopharmaceuticals administered. Thus, {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG imaging is a useful tool for the detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions. (author)

  14. Reactive Extrusion for In-situ Chemical Modification of Cellulose with De-Octenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA in presence of Ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi Elamin Gibril

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modification of microcrystalline cellulose by means of DDSA through the reactive extrusion process was preformed. The process was carried out by twin screw extruder in the presence of ionic liquids (IL, 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium chloride [Bmim]Cl. The suitable composition for cellulose/IL mixture and optimum conditions for extrusion process were determined. Degree of substitution (DS for modified cellulose was found to be in the range of 0.100- 0.284. In order to study the chemical structure and the physical properties of the modified cellulose, characterization was done by FT-IR, solid-state CP/MAS 13CNMR, and theromgravimetric analysis. FT-IR data were found to have a new peak in contrast to original reactant which clearly indicated the presence of a chemical group. CP/MAS 13CNMR analysis approved the existence of succinylation between cellulose and DDSA. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of modified cellulose was decreased upon increasing of the degree of substitution (DS or the increasing of the amount of DDSA in the samples.

  15. POLIELECTROLITI PE BAZA DE COPOLIMERI MALEICI
    (Polyélectrolytes à base de copolymères de l'anhydride maléique)

    OpenAIRE

    Aldea, Gabriela

    2005-01-01

    Travail expérimental réalisé à Angers dans le cadre du programme d'échanges Brancusi.; Polyelectrolytes are an important class of polymers which were studied over 3 decades. The field of polyelectrolytes is currently undergoing an amazing explosion of activity in several science domains: chemistry, biology, medicine, physics, nanomaterials, nanotechnologies... The peculiar interest manifested for the polyelectrolytes is due not only to the need for better understanding of their behavior but a...

  16. Promotional Effect of Bismuth as Dopant in Bi-Doped Vanadyl Pyrophosphate Catalysts for Selective Oxidation of n-Butane to Maleic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.H.Taufiq-Yap; Y.Kamiya; K.P.Tan

    2006-01-01

    Bismuth-promoted (1% and 3%) vanadyl pyrophosphate catalysts were prepared by refluxing creased the surface area and lowered the overall V oxidation state. Profiles of temperature programmed reduction (TPR) in H2 show a significant shift of the maxima of major reduction peaks to lower temperatures for the Bi-promoted catalysts. A new peak was also observed at the low temperature region for the catalyst with 3% of Bi dopant. The addition of Bi also increased the total amount of oxygen removed from the catalysts. The reduction pattern and reactivity information provide fundamental insight into the catalytic properties of the catalysts. Bi-promoted catalysts were found to be highly active (71% and 81%conversion for 1% and 3% Bi promoted catalysts, respectively, at 703 K), as compared to the unpromoted material (47% conversion). The higher activity of the Bi-promoted catalysts is due to that these catalysts possess highly active and labile lattice oxygen. The better catalytic performance can also be attributed to the larger surface area.

  17. 聚烯烃接枝马来酸酐的反应挤出研究%STUDY ON REACTIVE EXTRUSION OF POLYOLEFIN GRAFTED MALEIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广成

    2002-01-01

    研究了聚乙烯(PE)、聚丙烯(PP)接枝马来酸酐(MAH)的反应挤出,进行了反应体系的热分析,讨论了引发剂过氧化二异丙苯(DCP)对PE/DCP和PP/DCP体系的影响,以及DCP、MAH和电子给予体(EDA)对LDPE/DCP/MAH和PP/DCP/MAH两种接枝体系的影响.

  18. MECANISME DE TRANSFERT DE PROTON ENTRE LES ACIDES ACETIQUE, TRIFLUOROACETIQUE ET L'ANHYDRIDE ACETIQUE. MISE EN EVIDENCE D'IONS ANHYDRIDIUM ET ACIDIUM ACETIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BOUCHOUL

    2000-06-01

    Les bandes I.R et Raman des différentes espèces sont déterminées et l'examen de leurs  intensités montre que les équilibres de protonation sont en relation étroite avec les fractions molaires relatives initiales des produits en présence.

  19. Production Technologies and Home and Abroad Market Analysis of Acetic Anhydride%醋酐的生产技术及国内外市场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金栋

    2007-01-01

    介绍了乙烯酮法、乙醛氧化法以及醋酸甲酯羰基合成法3种醋酐的生产方法.2006年全世界醋酐的总生产能力为2 384 kt,总消费量约为1 885 kt,预计2011年总消费量将达到约2 000 kt.2006年我国醋酐的总生产能力为310 kt,消费量为238 kt,预计2011年我国醋酐的总消费量将达到约389 kt.针对存在的问题,提出了我国醋酐生产今后发展的建议.

  20. Dynamic mechanical analysis of binary and ternary polymer blends based on nylon copolymer/EPDM rubber and EPM grafted maleic anhydride compatibilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic mechanical properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus and damping properties of blends of nylon copolymer (PA6,66 with ethylene propylene diene (EPDM rubber was investigated with special reference to the effect of blend ratio and compatibilisation over a temperature range –100°C to 150°C at different frequencies. The effect of change in the composition of the polymer blends on tanδ was studied to understand the extent of polymer miscibility and damping characteristics. The loss tangent curve of the blends exhibited two transition peaks, corresponding to the glass transition temperature (Tg of individual components indicating incompatibility of the blend systems. The morphology of the blends has been examined by using scanning electron microscopy. The Arrhenius relationship was used to calculate the activation energy for the glass transition of the blends. Finally, attempts have been made to compare the experimental data with theoretical models.

  1. Two novel R- and S-malato-bridged coordination polymers by reacting lanthanide chloride and maleic anhydride, 1,10-phenanthroline at hydrothermal condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ping; Huang, Liang; Qu, Ling-bo; Peng, Hua; Zhao, Yu-Fen

    2006-04-01

    Two less common lanthanide coordination polymers, [Ln 2(fum)(malate) 2(phen) 2] n· n1.25H 2O (Ln=Eu, 1; Pr, 2. fum=fumarate, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by IR spectra and X-ray crystallography. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that complex 1 is isostructural with complex 2. In the two complexes, we found a pair of enantiomers ( R-malate and S-malate) which are obtained by addition reaction between maleate and water and fumarate which result from configurational tranformation of maleate. The two structures consist of coordination polymer chains along the c-axis which are held together solely through hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking. Three-dimension supramolecular structures are formed through the two types of weak interaction. The IR data are also described and compared with those of other similar complexes.

  2. Performance Research on Low Volatile Epoxy Anhydride Impregnating Resin%低挥发性环氧酸酐浸渍树脂的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娜; 王志威

    2014-01-01

    介绍了国内外VPI用环氧浸渍树脂的应用情况,通过H9145低挥发性VPI用环氧酸酐浸渍树脂与国外的ET884树脂的性能对比,表明H9145环氧酸酐浸渍树脂具有良好的电气性能、热态稳定性,并可以常温浸渍,适用于大电机的VPI浸渍.

  3. Mechanical Force Induced Functionalization of High Density Polyethylene with Maleic Anhydride%机械力引发马来酸酐官能化PE-HD研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 张云灿

    2005-01-01

    采用机械力引发方法研究了马来酸酐(MAH)熔融接枝高密度聚乙烯(PE-HD)的官能化反应,并考察了接枝产物对PE-HD/PA66及PE-HD/GF材料力学性能的影响.结果表明:通过控制引发剂含量和提高双螺杆挤出机的螺杆转速可抑制PE-HD在接枝过程中的交联副反应,制得具有较高接枝率(Gd=0.75~1.34%),较好熔体流动性(0.3~0.6 g/10 min)和较低凝胶含量(≤0.9%)的接枝产物;该方法所得产物可使PE-HD/PA66共混材料的缺口冲击强度提高至6.5倍以上,使PE-HD/GF复合材料的拉伸、弯曲和缺口冲击强度显著增大.

  4. Effect of using batch or semi-batch reactor on the chemical composition distribution of styrene-maleic anhydride-acrylonitrile terpolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Regina de J. S.; Ailton S. Gomes

    1997-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p.595-600 The influence of the reactor type on distribution of chemical composition of STY AN/MA terpolymers obtained by free-radical polymerization is shown. When a batch reactor was used we have obtained polymers with broad chemical composition distribution. However, if a semi-batch reactor with appropriate addition protocol was used it can be possible to synthesize terpolymers with homogeneous chemical composition.

  5. Thermal curing of an epoxy-anhydride system modified with hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s with different terminal groups

    OpenAIRE

    Morancho Llena, José María; Fernández Francos, Xavier; Acebo Gorostiza, Cristina; Ramis Juan, Xavier; Salla Tarragó, José María; Serra Albet, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Epoxy resins are widely used in applications such as adhesives, coatings, electric laminates, encapsulation of semiconductor devices, matrix material for composites, structural components and cryogenic engineering because of their mechanical properties, adhesion and chemical resistance. However, epoxy resins are inherently brittle due to their high cross-link density. To increase their toughness different modifiers such as rubber, thermoplastic and glass particles can be added, but they al...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydrid...

  7. The Graft Copolymer of Low-Density Polyethylene with Maleic Anhydride and Their Polyblend with Kaolin%低密度聚乙烯接枝马来酸酐及与高岭土复合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏介生; 林松柏

    1993-01-01

    研究低密度聚乙烯接枝马来酸酐,其接枝物用红外光谱证实.用正交设计法研究接枝物的接枝度与单体、溶剂、引发剂、反应时间和温度的影响规律,找出最佳接枝条件.对接枝物与定量高岭土进行复合,初步探讨它们与抗张强度的关系.

  8. Graft Reactions of Polyethylene Glycol Bearing Different End Functional Groups with Polypropylene Grafted Maleic Anhydride%不同端基官能团PEG与聚丙烯接枝马来酸酐的接枝反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董英伟; 徐建峰; 朱梦冰; 俞强

    2012-01-01

    The end-hydroxy groups of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether(MPEG) were converted into end-amino and end-isocyanate groups,respectively,by step reactions of MPEG with para-toluenesulfonamide and phthalimide potassiumand,and/or by the reaction of MPEG with diisocyanate.The graft reactions between polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride(MPP) and MPEG with different end groups were conducted in xylene,in order to prepare graft copolymer of polypropylene and polyethylene glycol(PP-g-PEG).FT-IR and 1H-NMR were used to characterize structure of the reaction products.It was found that the reactivity of the end-functional groups of MPEG in the reaction with MPP follows this order:-NCO〉-NH2〉-OH.For MPP/MPEG-NCO reaction system,reaction extent and PEG grafting ratio increase when the molar ratio of(NCO)/(anhydride) raises from 1∶1 to 5∶1.However,the reaction extent and the number of PEG chains grafted onto PP chains decrease when the molecular weight of MPEG increases from 1000 to 6000.%利用羟基与对甲苯磺酰氯和邻苯二甲酰亚胺钾的分步反应或者与二异氰酸酯的反应,将聚乙二醇单甲醚(MPEG)的端羟基分别转化为端氨基和端异氰酸酯基。将带有端羟基、端胺基和端异氰酸酯基的MPEG分别与聚丙烯接枝马来酸酐(MPP)反应,制备聚丙烯/聚乙二醇接枝共聚物,并比较不同体系的动力学。MPEG端基官能团与MPP链上马来酸酐的反应活性顺序为:-NCO〉-NH2〉-OH。在端异氰酸酯基MPEG与MPP反应体系中,随n(NCO)/n(MAH)增大,PEG接枝率增大;随MPEG分子量增大,接枝到PP链上的PEG支链数目减少。

  9. Study on grafting of polyethylene wax with maleic anhydride by melting method%熔融法聚乙烯蜡接枝马来酸酐的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宇辉; 王桂香; 禹雪晴; 张端; 王润珩

    2003-01-01

    研究了熔融法聚乙烯蜡接枝马来酸酐的工艺过程和影响反应的主要因素.以丙酮为溶剂,将MAH和聚合引发剂配成溶液滴加反应,引发剂和MAH的质量分数各为12%,反应温度165 ℃左右,接枝率可达15.6%.经红外谱图分析证明聚乙烯蜡与马来酸酐发生了接枝反应.在热熔胶的制备中,发现使用接枝聚乙烯蜡比使用未接枝聚乙烯蜡的粘接强度(PVC/木材)提高了约90%.

  10. 聚乙烯马来酸酐接枝物合成环氧树脂的研究%Study on synthesis of epoxy resin from polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏桂明; 刘津瑞; 关建宁; 魏无际; 龚丽芳

    2010-01-01

    以低密度聚乙烯接枝马来酸酐(LDPE-g-MAH)为原料与环氧氯丙烷反应合成一种以聚乙烯为主要结构的固态环氧树脂-聚乙烯酯型环氧树脂(LDPE-g-MAH-g-ECH),并利用FT-IR光谱表征了该环氧树脂的化学结构.采用化学分析法研究了反应物料配比、反应温度、反应时间、催化剂用量、碱的用量与浓度等因素对合成反应的影响,确定了合成该环氧树脂的最佳反应条件.该树脂为淡褐色透明粉末,采用化学分析方法测得其环氧值0.24~0.27mmol/g,酸值<0.5mg/g.

  11. 马来酸酐改性的丙烯-丁烯共聚物的溶度参数%The Solubility Parameter of Propylene-butene Copolymers Modified with Maleic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大壮; 董雪茹

    2004-01-01

    在聚烯烃分子上接枝马来酸酐的主要目的是增加分子的极性.在比较了多种处理方法之后,提出了一种用缔合力参数和溶度参数表示的新的二维方法处理马来酸酐接枝改性的丙烯丁烯共聚物溶解度数据.溶剂的缔合力参数可以用Hansen的三维溶度参数计算出来.结果发现可溶区的形状是一个椭圆,这个椭圆可以用来表示聚合物溶度参数的范围.PPB-MAH的缔合力参数可以用来量化表示其分子极性,椭圆方程可以用作溶剂的可溶性的预测.

  12. Properties of high performance bisphenol F epoxy resin/anhydride curing system for VARTM%VARTM用高性能双酚F环氧/酸酐固化体系的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭嘉琳; 袁象恺; 谢丹; 周金利; 姜正飞; 余木火

    2014-01-01

    采用示差扫描量热仪,力学性能测试,扫描电镜分析和热重分析研究了在双酚F环氧树脂/酸酐固化体系中加入纳米粒子型增韧剂的效果.并以加入纳米粒子增韧剂的树脂体系为基体,碳纤维平纹布为增强体,通过真空辅助树脂传递模塑(VARTM)工艺制备了复合材料,对其力学性能和微缺陷进行了研究.结果表明,加入纳米粒子型增韧剂后,在弯曲强度损失较小的情况下,浇注体的拉伸性能有所提高,冲击韧性大幅增加.制备的复合材料树脂/纤维浸润良好,没有干斑存在,微缺陷较少,力学性能优异,有望用于VARTM成型大型汽车结构部件的制造.

  13. Application of Ultrasonc Wave to Study of PP and Maleic Anhydride Solid-grafting%超声波在聚丙烯固相接枝马来酸酐研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜慷慨; 吴翠玲

    2000-01-01

    本文利用超声波的分散原理,研究聚丙烯(PP)固相接枝马来酸酐(MAH)的反应,考察反应温度,超声波作用时间,过氧化苯甲酰(BPO)用量,MAH使用量等因素对接枝率的影响,并用红外光谱对接枝产物加以证实.结果表明,PP固相接枝MAH反应:随着温度的升高、超声波作用时间的延长、MAH用量的增加,接枝率提高;随着BPO用量的增加,接枝率先增加,后略有降低.在实验条件下,可得到接枝率为8.5%的PP-MAH接枝产物.

  14. The effect of active carbon to Cu/ZnO catalyst of maleic anhydride hydrogenation%活性炭对顺酐加氢催化剂Cu/ZnO的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亿新; 王江兵; 古凤强; 陈国术; 陈胜洲; 刘自力

    2011-01-01

    研究了Cu/ZnO、Cu/ZnO-C和Cu/ZnO-Al2O3 催化剂.采用XRD、TPR、BET、SEM等方法对催化剂进行表征,考察了它们的催化反应性能,发现Cu/Zn0催化剂中添加活性炭可以使顺酐气相加氢合成γ-丁内酯(GBL)的反应温度降低.在250℃,液体空速为0.1 h-1,氢酐摩尔比为50:1的条件下,顺酐转化率达到100%,GBL选择性超过90%.对Cu/ZnO-C催化剂的失活因素进行了分析,结果表明,催化剂的烧结与积炭是导致催化剂失活的主要原因.

  15. 顺酐加氢合成γ-丁内酯的Cu-ZnO/C催化剂研究%Study on Cu-Zno/C Catalysts for Maleic Anhydride Hydrogenation to γ-Butyrolactone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江兵; 古凤强; 梁海波; 周美兰; 陈国术; 陈亿新

    2010-01-01

    采用XRD、TPR、BET等方法对几种Cu/Zn催化剂进行表征,考察了催化剂活性与寿命.发现Cu/Zn催化剂添加活性炭可使顺酐常压气相加氢合成γ-丁内酯(GBL)的反应温度降低至240℃.在优化条件下:液体空速为0.1 h-1,氢酐摩尔比为50:1,顺酐转化率100%,GBL选择性为93.28%,催化剂寿命达2 000 h以上.

  16. Research on Non-noble Metal/Palladium Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Maleic Anhydride%非贵金属/钯顺酐加氢催化剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建国; 王海京; 阮济之

    2003-01-01

    以γ-丁内酯(GBL)为模型化合物,考察了Cu、Zn、Mn、Al 4种非贵金属元素对Pd系顺酐加氢催化剂在中压条件下对GBL和顺酐(MA)加氢的影响,发现4种非贵金属元素的组合加入对Pd系顺酐加氢催化剂的加氢性能有显著影响,其中Mn、Al的加入有利于提高催化剂的加氢活性,Cu、Zn的加入有利于提高GBL到四氢呋喃(THF)的转化.研制的PdCuZnMnAl/C催化剂在6.0 MPa的中压条件下,对顺酐进行加氢,MA转化率为100%,THF选择性达72.8%.催化剂的TEM、XRD、XPS分析表明非贵金属Cu、Zn、Mn、Al和贵金属Pd之间有明显的相互作用.

  17. Optimization condition of octenyl succinic anhydride hydrolysis starch by enzymolysis%酶法制备辛烯基琥珀酸酐水解淀粉的工艺及其优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建; 刘亚伟

    2011-01-01

    以玉米淀粉为原料,用α-淀粉酶对合成的辛烯基琥珀酸酐淀粉水解,研究酶法制备辛烯基琥珀酸酐水解淀粉的工艺条件,并通过响应面分析实验对工艺进行优化。确定合成的最佳工艺参数为:酶用量115U/g,水解温度95℃,水解时间49min,所得产品辛烯基琥珀酸酐水解淀粉的DE值为8.01。通过响应面方差分析可以得出,三个因素对辛烯基琥珀酸酐水解淀粉的DE值的影响显著,且加酶量与水解温度、水解温度与水解时间之间的交互影响作用也显著。%The synthesis process condition of enzymatic octenyl succinic anhydride(OSA)corn starch was researched.Through hydrolysis response surface analysis,the results showed that the optimum condition of synthesizing enzymatic OSA corn starch(DE=8.01)was enzyme dosage 115U/g,hydrolysis temperature 95℃,hydrolysis time 49 minutes;enzyme dosage and hydrolysis temperature,hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time interacted significantly;DE value increased significantly higher in high temperature than in low temperature.

  18. Predication Model for the Esterification of Cellulose with Succinic Anhydride in LiCl/N, N'-Dimethylacetamide Solvent System%丁二酸纤维素酯合成过程取代度的预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟金锋; 覃小丽; 柴欣生

    2014-01-01

    为了有效监控丁二酸纤维素酯的合成过程中产物取代度(degree of substitution,DS)变化,研究丁二酸纤维素酯均相合成的反应参数(反应时间、反应温度和丁二酸酐/纤维素物质的量比)对产物取代度的变化趋势,探索纤维素酯合成中主要参数的影响,并建立了产物DS预测模型,即:DS =h×ln(1+k0×e-i/T×R×t).结果表明:在本实验条件下,该模型可有效预测反应过程中丁二酸纤维素酯的DS变化(R2=0.945 4),它可为纤维素酯化反应合成丁二酸纤维素酯的生产实践提供很好的指导.

  19. SMA增容吸水膨胀橡胶的制备及其性能%Preparation and properties of a water-swellable rubber compatibilized by styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛华; 马凤博; 田凯; 赵星; 朱万诚

    2016-01-01

    以自制苯乙烯-马来酸酐共聚物SMA为增容剂,通过物理方法将吸水树脂PAAS与氯丁橡胶CR共混制备吸水膨胀橡胶WSR.重点研究PAAS用量、SMA用量、S用量对WSR主要性能指标(吸水倍率及其力学性能)的影响,结果表明:WSR吸水能力随着PAAS用量增大而提高,随着SMA、S用量的增大先提高后降低;WSR力学性能随着PAAS、SMA、S用量增大先增强后降低;在本研究体系中,三者较佳的用量为30 phr、5 phr、1 phr.硫化胶断面扫描电镜观察表明SMA在CR和PAAS两组分间起到了良好的增容作用.

  20. 改性马来酸酐橡胶接枝物增韧尼龙6的制备及表征%Preparation and characterization of modified maleic anhydride graft rubber toughened nylon 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓华; 张希伟; 曾鹏; 宋雪; 程伟东

    2015-01-01

    为了促进橡胶接枝物与尼龙6(PA6)的相容性并提高增韧效果,利用马来酸酐和对苯二胺合成了一种含酰胺键的二元羧酸,命名为对苯马来二酰胺二酸(改性马来酸酐,MDMA),并将MDMA接枝到三元乙丙橡胶(EPDM)上,制备出不同接枝率的改性马来酸酐橡胶接枝物(EPDM-g-MDMA),以EPDM-g-MDMA与PA6质量比为30∶70,通过共混挤出制备了含不同接枝率接枝物的EPDM-g-MDMA/PA6共混物.通过核磁共振和红外光谱对MDMA进行了测试,表明成功合成了所需要的二元羧酸.对共混物进行了相容性测试、DSC、熔融指数(MI)、SEM、拉伸和冲击力学性能测试.结果表明:随着接枝率的增大,共混物的熔融峰温度略有降低,其熔体黏度不断增大,橡胶接枝物在PA6基体中有良好的分散性,使EPDM-g-MDMA/PA6共混物的冲击强度提高了5.5倍,说明EPDM-g-MDMA对PA6的增韧效果较为明显.

  1. Study on aluminum pigment encapsulated by in situ copolymerization of styrene-maleic anhydride%苯乙烯-马来酸酐原位共聚包覆铝颜料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 叶红齐; 林丹; 何显达

    2007-01-01

    研究了苯乙烯-马来酸酐原位共聚包覆铝颜料的最佳反应条件,探讨了m(St+MAn)/m(Al)对颜料铝粉耐腐蚀性能与光泽度的影响.结果表明,最佳反应条件是:反应温度为80℃;反应时间为4h;引发剂用量为0.075g;n(St)∶n(MAn)为1∶1.当m(St+MAn)/m(Al)为0.1时,包覆得到的产物同时具有良好的光泽度与耐腐蚀性.运用IR、光学显微镜、SEM、粒度分析等手段对包覆样品进行了分析与表征.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of amphetamines and ephedrines in urine by GC/MS using analytical-grade acetic anhydride/ayridine as derivatizing reagents: a suitable approach to reduce costs of routine analyses.

    OpenAIRE

    Bergo, Patrícia Luísa de Souza; Correa, Joane Mariela Miari; Nagem, Tanus Jorge; Augusti,Rodinei; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido e validado um método quantitativo para a análise de anfetaminas e efedrinas em urina, utilizando-se anidrido acético e piridina, ambos em grau analítico, como derivatizantes. As amostras foram extraídas por extração em fase sólida (EFS), derivatizadas e em seguida analisadas por CG-EM. O método apresentou ampla faixa linear (25-1000 ng mL-1 com R2 > 0,99), alta sensibilidade (LODs variando de 0,0140 a 15,33 ng mL-1 e LOQs variando de 0,0466 a 51,10 ng mL-1), bo...

  3. Study of transformations of hydrated high alumina cement by means of ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Influence of carbon anhydride, temperature, humidity and the addition of powdered limestone (continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, T.

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa espectroscopia de absorción I.R. (designada al principio de este trabajo con las siglas E.I. es una técnica de amplia utilización dentro de la Química Orgánica. Tan sólo en los últimos años se ha extendido mucho a la Química Inorgánica. Dentro del campo del cemento y más particularmente del aluminoso, el estudio ha sido realmente restringido. El primer trabajo aparecido fue en el año 1965 y efectuado por A. Braniski (29 que estudió por I.R. la hidratación del AC entre las edades de 1 y 7 días. Mucho más estudiadas han sido las fases individuales, los aluminatos de calcio que componen (o pueden componer el producto anhidro e hidratado del cemento aluminoso; como trabajo de interés en este aspecto, está la Tesis Doctoral de J. Volant (31, que versó sobre la espectrometría infrarroja de los aluminatos de calcio hidratados. El autor, como técnica de preparación de muestras, utiliza la suspensión del producto en un líquido oleaginoso apropiado. En el presente trabajo se ha escogido la técnica de las "pastillas de BrK" como idónea para la conservación de la muestra y la posibilidad, por lo tanto, de repetición del espectro en un futuro. Asimismo facilita el análisis cuantitativo.

  4. Development and Application of Stearic Acid Diethanolamide Acrylate Ester/Styrene/Maleic Anhydride (SSM) Copolymer as Diesel Depressant%SSM共聚物柴油降凝剂的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓非; 毕立娜; 王晶镱; 田春雨; 李贵学

    2009-01-01

    采用溶液聚合法合成降凝剂,研究了单体配比、引发剂用量、聚合温度和聚合时间对聚合物助滤效果的影响.红外光谱对化合物的分子结构进行了表征,结果表明,合成的分子结构和设计目标分子结构相符.此降凝剂可使大庆0#柴油的凝点降低6℃,对其他柴油也有一定的降凝效果.

  5. Study on Phthalic Anhydride Cured Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Decomposed by Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide%四甲基氢氧化铵降解苯酐固化双酚A型环氧树脂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜坤; 罗炎

    2013-01-01

    将四甲基氢氧化铵(TMAH)降解聚酯的方法移植用于降解苯酐(PA)固化双酚A型环氧树脂(DGEBA),降解生成的邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMP)可被气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)快速检测到,同时通过内标法考察了TMAH用量对降解率的影响,结果表明TMAH降解苯酐固化环氧树脂效率较高,甲酯化率在95%以上.此项研究为剖析毫克级酸酐固化环氧树脂中的固化剂提供了一种快速且有效的方法.

  6. 双酚-S环氧树脂与琥珀酸酐固化反应动力学%Kinetics of Succinic Anhydride Curing of Bisphenol-S Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊刚; 李燕芳

    2000-01-01

    用差示扫描量热法(DSC)研究了双酚-S环氧树脂(BPSER)与琥珀酸酐固化反应的历程.实验结果表明,固化反应主要分两个阶段,前期由化学动力学控制,服从自催化机理.实验数据利用Kamal方程处理得到两个速率常数k1、k2及两个反应级数m、n.k1、k2的值随反应温度的升高呈增大的趋势,总反应级数m+n在2~2.5之间.当转化率达到40%左右后,由于交联程度增加,分子量迅速增长,分子间扩散较慢,进入反应的第二阶段,主要由扩散作用控制固化速率.

  7. Preparation and Rheological Property of Fenugreek Gum Thickener Modified by Cis-Butenedioic Anhydride%马来酸酯葫芦巴胶稠化剂的制备及流变性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董斌; 李小瑞; 杨晓武; 秋列维; 王钊; 陈洪伟

    2015-01-01

    以葫芦巴胶(FG)为原料,马来酸酐(MAH)为酯化试剂,N-溴代丁二酰亚胺(NBS)为催化剂制备马来酸酯葫芦巴胶(MAFG).反应的最佳条件为:m(马来酸酐):m(葫芦巴胶)=0.35:1,催化剂用量为马来酸酐质量的1%,反应温度60℃,反应时间4h.通过FTIR、XRD、有机元素分析对MAFG进行了结构表征,并研究了MAFG低浓度水溶液制备的冻胶的流变性能.结果表明,MAFG分子中引入了侧链,使其结晶度下降.MAFG相比FG具有更好的增稠性能,MAFG的低浓度水溶液制成的冻胶的流变性能优于FG,具有良好的耐温耐剪切性能.

  8. 聚乙烯熔融法接枝马来酸酐的制备及表征%Preparation of Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polyethylene Using Melt Method and Its Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禄秋艺; 罗筑; 杨乐; 娄金分

    2014-01-01

    研究了加工工艺及环氧树脂的加入对聚乙烯接枝马来酸酐(PE-g-MAH)接枝反应的影响.结果表明:当引发剂浓度较低时,随着温度的提高,PE-g-MAH的接枝率增大,但其熔体流动速率降低;引发剂用量超过0.5 phr后,随着温度的提高,PE-g-MAH的接枝率及熔体流动速率基本保持不变.随着环氧树脂用量的增加,PE-g-MAH的接枝率增大,当环氧树脂用量为1.2 phr时,接枝率达到量大,熔体流动速率降至最低.环氧树脂的加入促进了马来酸酐的接枝,在PE大分子链上引入了新的极性基团.与PE相比,PE-g-MAH的结晶峰温提高,结晶度降低.

  9. EFFECT OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE-GRAFTED ON COMPATIBILITY OF PP/PA6 BLENDS%马来酸酐接枝物对PE/PA6共混物相容性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍玉娇; 王珏; 杨红军; 骆丁胜; 丁兴艳

    2007-01-01

    采用熔融共混法制备了PP/PA6/POE-g-MAH和PP/PA6/PP-g-MAH共混物.通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、差示扫描量热(DSC)仪分析和力学性能测试研究了增容剂POE-g-MAH和PP-g-MAH对PP/PA6共混物相容性、形态结构和宏观力学性能的影响.结果表明,在PP/PA6共混体系中分别加入POE-g-MAH和PP-g-MAH不仅能显著改善两相界面的相容性,减小分散相的粒径,而且能使共混物的力学性能显著提高.当增客剂的用量为5份时,PP/PA6共混物有较好的综合力学性能.POE-g-MAH和PP-g-MAH增容PP/PA6共混体系非等温结晶行为的研究表明,POE-g-MAH和PP-g-MAH均能促进PA6对PP基体的异相成核作用.

  10. Study on PA66/EVA Copolymer Grafted Maleic Anhydride Blends%尼龙/乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯共聚物接枝马来酸酐共混体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 陈民杰; 万吴军; 殷会玉

    2003-01-01

    通过双螺杆挤出机利用熔融挤出法制备了增韧的尼龙66/乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯共聚物接枝马来酸酐共混物(PA66/EVA-g-MAH).实验结果表明,未经接枝改性的EVA与PA66是不相容的,对增韧PA66几乎没有贡献,而EVA-g-MAH则出现了明显的增韧效果.在熔融挤出过程中,PA66与EVA-g-MAH发生了原位化学反应,生成了PA66-EVA共聚物.这种共聚物细化了分散相尺寸,使得分散相在PA66基体中分散得更均匀,提高了两相的相容性.同时增强了两相界面间的结合力,使得应力能够在两相间有效地传递,这种界面形态的改善直接影响到共混物力学性能的变化.随着EVA-g-MAH含量的增加,PA66/EVA-g-MAH共混物的冲击强度提高,当PA66/EVA-g-MAH的共混比为70/30(质量比)时,体系发生了脆韧转变,冲击强度达到了最大,比纯PA66、PA66/EVA(70/30)共混物提高了12倍.和PE-g-MAH、PP-g-MAH相比,EVA-g-MAH对PA66的增韧效果最好.

  11. Increasing the electrical discharge endurance of acid anhydride cured DGEBA epoxy resin by dispersion of nanoparticle silica. High Perform. Polym. 11 (1999) pp 281-296 by IOP Publishing Ltd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henk, Peter O; Kortsen, T.W.; Kvarts, T.

    1999-01-01

    combinations were used: (a) fumed nanoparticle silicon dioxide referred to as Aerosil, (b) equal volumes of Aerosil and nanoparticle anatase, and (c) Aerosil plus anatase in combination with coarse-particle filler grade calcium-magnesium carbonate dolomite. A test for endurance using the CIGRE method II...... the endurance by a factor of up to 20 as the Aerosil content goes from zero to 5.4 vol%. Aerosil mixed with anatase has a similar effect. The high level of endurance is maintained with an additional high-volume (35 vol.%) filling of coarse-particle dolomite to an epoxy system already containing Aerosil...

  12. THE EFFECT OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE GRAFTING RATIO OF POE ON TOUGHNESS OF PA11/POE/POE- G-MAH BLENDS%接枝率对尼龙11/POE/POE-g-MAH韧性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彧; 吕坤; 李齐方

    2001-01-01

    研究了含不同马来酸酐接枝率的POE-g-MAH对尼龙11/POE/POE-g-MAH(POE为乙烯-辛烯共聚物)共混物的影响,考察了共混物的缺口冲击强度.结果表明:增加POE-g-MAH的用量可以提高共混物的缺口冲击强度;共混物缺口冲击强度与POE的马来酸酐接枝率密切相关,缺口冲击强度随着接枝率的增大而增大;共混物的缺口冲击强度和马来酸酐接枝率之间的变化关系在较宽的温度范围内(-40℃~25℃)存在.

  13. Synthesis of Coronene Using Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing YANG; Ying LI; Ming Gui XIE

    2003-01-01

    Using microwave irradiation, perylene was obtained from 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracar- boxylic dianhydride with copper powder in boiling quinoline. With the same method, 1,12- benzoperylene was synthesized from 1, 12-benzoperylene-1', 2'-dicarboxylic anhydride, and coronene was prepared from coronene-1, 2- dicarboxylic anhydride with good yield. Through Dields-Alder reaction, 1, 12-benzoperylene-1', 2'-dicarboxylic anhydride and coronene-1,2- dicarboxylic anhydride were also prepared using microwave irradiation.

  14. Develop a Biomedical Database on the Medical Aspects of Chemical Defense. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-23

    Butyl. dihydrogen phosphate 1623-15-0 UF Monobutyiphosphoric acid Butyl ether 142-96-1 Butyric anhydride 106-31-0 UF Butanoic acid, anhydrides, anhydride...acid U butyl dihydrogen phosphate Monocrotophos BT Insecticides, organophosphate Monoi soni trosoacetone U MINA Monopotassium oxalate U Potassium acid...THE SOMAN PREPARATION HAD A PI50 OF 10.2, AND WHEN ADDED TO THE ENZYME IN THE PRESENCE OF THE BUFFER AND ALLOWED TO STAND AT ROOM TEMPERATURE FOR 1, 5

  15. USSR Report Military Affairs No. 1790.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    technical squad, where it is duly processed. On this basis the requisite quantity and nomenclature of spare parts, lubricants and preservatives are...15-20 days after the engine shutdown, which is caused by the condensation of sulfuric anhydride - from exhaust gases. The extent of the anhydride ... anhydride and its condensation on the surface of cylinder liners is unavoidable even under ideal ope- rating conditions, after the engine shutdown the

  16. A Micro Hydrogen Air Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Monomers The nomenclature rationale is that the first letter tells whether the copolymer is random (R) or block (B). The second letter defines the co...We believe that the peak corresponds to carbonyls of anhydride end groups of degraded polyimide. There are several reasons for proposing that the...peak at 1785 cm- 1 is for the anhydride end groups. The C=O stretching band for anhydride groups of 1,4,5,8- naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride

  17. Preparation of Poly(oxybutyleneoxymaleoyl Catalyzed by a Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belbachir

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The polycondensation of tetrahydrofuran with maleic anhydride catalyzed byMaghnite-H+ (Mag-H was investigated. Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicateclay that is exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H [1]. It was found that thepolymerization in bulk is initiated by Mag-H in the presence of acetic anhydride at 40°C.The effects of the amounts of Mag-H and acetic anhydride were studied. Thepolymerization yield increased as the proportions of catalyst and acetic anhydride wereincreased.

  18. Preparation of poly(oxybutyleneoxymaleoyl) catalyzed by a proton exchanged montmorillonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrahi, Mohammed Issam; Belbachir, Mohammed

    2004-01-01

    The polycondensation of tetrahydrofuran with maleic anhydride catalyzed by Maghnite-H+ (Mag-H) was investigated. Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay that is exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H [1]. It was found that the polymerization in bulk is initiated by Mag-H in the presence of acetic anhydride at 40 degrees C. The effects of the amounts of Mag-H and acetic anhydride were studied. The polymerization yield increased as the proportions of catalyst and acetic anhydride were increased.

  19. Preparation of Poly(oxybutyleneoxymaleoyl) Catalyzed by a Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Belbachir; Mohammed Issam Ferrahi

    2004-01-01

    The polycondensation of tetrahydrofuran with maleic anhydride catalyzed byMaghnite-H+ (Mag-H) was investigated. Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicateclay that is exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H [1]. It was found that thepolymerization in bulk is initiated by Mag-H in the presence of acetic anhydride at 40°C.The effects of the amounts of Mag-H and acetic anhydride were studied. Thepolymerization yield increased as the proportions of catalyst and acetic anhydride wereincr...

  20. Comparative Kinetic Study and Microwaves Non-Thermal Effects on the Formation of Poly(amic acid 4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidenediphthalic Anhydride (6FDA and 4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidenebis(p-phenyleneoxydianiline (BAPHF. Reaction Activated by Microwave, Ultrasound and Conventional Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Mendoza Tellez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry is the design of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. The use and production of chemicals involve the reduction of waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Green chemistry applies innovative scientific solutions in the use of new reagents, catalysts and non-classical modes of activation such as ultrasounds or microwaves. Kinetic behavior and non-thermal effect of poly(amic acid synthesized from (6FDA dianhydride and (BAPHF diamine in a low microwave absorbing p-dioxane solvent at low temperature of 30, 50, 70 °C were studied, under conventional heating (CH, microwave (MW and ultrasound irradiation (US. Results show that the polycondensation rate decreases (MW > US > CH and that the increased rates observed with US and MW are due to decreased activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. Rate constant for a chemical process activated by conventional heating declines proportionally as the induction time increases, however, this behavior is not observed under microwave and ultrasound activation. We can say that in addition to the thermal microwave effect, a non-thermal microwave effect is present in the system.

  1. Comparative kinetic study and microwaves non-thermal effects on the formation of poly(amic acid) 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(p-phenyleneoxy)dianiline (BAPHF). Reaction activated by microwave, ultrasound and conventional heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Hugo Mendoza; Alquisira, Joaquín Palacios; Alonso, Carlos Rius; Cortés, José Guadalupe López; Toledano, Cecilio Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Green chemistry is the design of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. The use and production of chemicals involve the reduction of waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Green chemistry applies innovative scientific solutions in the use of new reagents, catalysts and non-classical modes of activation such as ultrasounds or microwaves. Kinetic behavior and non-thermal effect of poly(amic acid) synthesized from (6FDA) dianhydride and (BAPHF) diamine in a low microwave absorbing p-dioxane solvent at low temperature of 30, 50, 70 °C were studied, under conventional heating (CH), microwave (MW) and ultrasound irradiation (US). Results show that the polycondensation rate decreases (MW > US > CH) and that the increased rates observed with US and MW are due to decreased activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. Rate constant for a chemical process activated by conventional heating declines proportionally as the induction time increases, however, this behavior is not observed under microwave and ultrasound activation. We can say that in addition to the thermal microwave effect, a non-thermal microwave effect is present in the system.

  2. 炭改性对Ni/Al2O3催化剂顺酐加氢合成γ-丁内酯反应性能的影响%Effect of Carbon Modification on Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Maleic Anhydride to Butyrolactone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛; 张鸿喜; 陈昊然; 张因; 高春光; 赵永祥

    2010-01-01

    通过热解蔗糖/Al2O3前驱体的方法制备了炭包覆改性Al2O3(CCA)载体,并采用等体积浸渍制备了负载量17 %的镍基催化剂.对载体及相应催化剂进行了TPO-MS、N2物理吸附、TPR、XRD等测试表征,并考察了催化剂顺酐(MA)加氢合成γ-丁内酯(GBL)的反应性能.结果表明,适量炭的引入改变了载体Al2O3的表面性质,使金属-载体相互作用减弱,活性组分镍的分散度提高,催化剂在MA加氢反应中表现出高的GBL选择性.当Al2O3中引入8.9 %的炭时,催化剂表现出最高的催化活性,在210 ℃,5 MPa氢气压力下反应3 h时,MA转化率达98%以上,GBL选择性达91.71 %.

  3. Study on deactivation and regeneration of Cu-CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of maleic anhydride to γ-butyrolactone%顺酐加氢制γ-丁内酯Cu-CeO2-Al2O3催化剂失活与再生研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱爱玲

    2015-01-01

    采用共沉淀法制备了Cu-CeO2-Al2 O3 (CCA)催化剂,用于顺酐(MA)常压气相加氢制γ-丁内酯(GBL)反应,表现了很好的催化性能,MA的转化率和GBL的选择性均达到100%,然而催化剂容易失活.采用扫描电子显微镜、热失重、N2O分解和X射线粉末衍射表征研究了CCA催化剂的失活原因和中间产物琥珀酸酐(SA)对CCA催化剂失活的影响,并考察了N2-air-H2法对CCA催化剂的再生效果;同时,通过设计试验对CCA催化剂上MA加氢制GBL反应历程进行了分析.结果表明:CCA催化剂的失活主要是由于表面沉积物的生成覆盖了催化剂表面活性位,而表面沉积物的生成与SA的浓度有关;通过N2-air-H2再生法能够完全恢复CCA催化剂的催化性能.此外,给出了CCA催化剂上MA加氢制GBL可能的反应历程.

  4. 马来酸酐改性蓖麻油制备耐光性聚氨酯复鞣剂--乳液性能研究%Preparation of Sunproof Polyurethane Retanning Agents with Maleic Anhydride Modified Castor Oil--Study of the Emulsions Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍利红; 兰云军; 张淑芬

    2006-01-01

    用马来酸酐改性蓖麻油(MCO)合成了一系列不同组成的耐光性聚氨酯复鞣剂水乳液(MC-PUR),研究了复鞣剂中-COOH质量分数、n(NCO)/n(OH)、m(MCO)/m(PEG1000)对乳液电导率、黏度、临界聚沉值(CC.C)、耐酸稳定性的影响.结果表明,随-COOH质量分数从3%增大到7%,电导率从1 556 μs/cm增大到3 435 μs/cm,黏度先从168 mPa · s增大到224 mPa · s,后又降低到85 mPa · s,当w(-COOH)=5%时,黏度达到最大值;随n(NCO)/n(OH)从0.5增大到0.9,电导率从2 943 μs/cm降到2 464 μs/cm,黏度从428 m Pa · s降到224 mPa · s;随m(MCO): m(PEG1000)从1: 1增大到3: 0,黏度从224 mPa · s降到67 mPa · s;CC.C随-COOH质量分数增加和m(MCO)/m(PEG1000)增大而降低;耐酸稳定性结果证明,当w(-COOH)=3%~5%,m(MCO): m(PEG1000)=1: 1,n(NCO)/n(OH)=0.5~0.9时,MC-PUR适用于皮革复鞣工序.

  5. Dynamic Thermal Behavior of Recycled PET Modified with 2, 2-Bis (2-oxazoline) and Phthalic Anhydride%2,2-双(2-(口恶)唑啉)与苯酐联用改性回收PET的动态热性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡长庚; 唐峰; 贾德民

    2005-01-01

    以扩链剂2,2-双(2-(口恶)唑啉)(BOZ)与苯酐(PA)联用改性回收PET,系统地考察了增黏改性后回收PET动态流变性能和动态力学性能的影响.结果表明,BOZ与PA联用的改性效果明显优于单用BOZ改性回收PET体系;但因扩链剂的加入,在PET分子链中引入的柔性链段而导致聚合物弹性模量下降.

  6. Evaluation of Surface Free Energy of Maleopimaric Anhydride Modified 2 K-WPU by Contact Angle Goniometry%接触角法测量马来海松酸改性双组分水性聚氨酯的表面能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司红燕; 商士斌; 刘鹤; 王丹; 廖圣良; 宋湛谦

    2016-01-01

    将亲水改性的多异氰酸酯分别与马来海松酸改性聚酯多元醇( MPP)、聚酯多元醇( PP)和Bayhydrol D270聚酯多元醇水分散体进行复合交联制得MPP-2K-WPU、PP-2K-WPU和D270-2K-WPU,并采用FT-IR和DSC对产物进行表征。利用接触角法研究了n(—NCO)∶n(—OH)及多元醇组分种类对2K-WPU涂膜接触角、表面能和耐水性的影响,并采用Equation of State法和Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble法对试验数据进行分析。结果表明,与甲酰胺系列(甲酰胺、甲酰胺-二碘甲烷)检测液体相比,水系列(水、水-二碘甲烷)检测液体能更好地对2K-WPU涂膜表面性能进行描述;随着n(—NCO)∶n(—OH)的增加,MPP-2K-WPU的表面能先减小后增大,耐水性呈现先增强后减弱的趋势,当n(—NCO)∶n(—OH)为1.5∶1时其表面能最小、耐水性最强;与2种对照样( PP-2K-WPU和D270-2K-WPU)相比,MPP-2K-WPU的表面能最小且耐水性最强。%MPP-2K-WPU, PP-2K-WPU and D270-2K-WPU were prepared by crosslinking of hydrophilic-modified polyisocyanate with maleopimaric acid modified polyester polyol ( MPP) , polyester polyol ( PP) and Bayhydrol D270 polyester polyol dispersion, respectively. The products were characterized by FT-IR and DSC. The influences of n(—NCO)∶n(—OH) and type of polyol component on contact angle, surface free energy and water resistance of 2K-WPU films were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed using Equation of State method and Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble method. The results showed that water series test liquid (water, water-diiodomethane) was better to describe the surface properties of 2K-WPU, if it was compared with formamide series test liquid ( formamide, formamide-diiodomethane) . With increasing of n(—NCO)∶n(—OH) , the surface free energy of MPP-2K-WPU decreased firstly and then increased, and the water resistance increased firstly and then decreased. MPP-2K-WPU exhibited the minimum surface free energy and the strongest water resistance when the n(—NCO)∶ n(—OH) was 1. 5∶1. Compared with two kinds of control samples (PP-2K-WPU and D270-2K-WPU), the surface free energy of MPP-2K-WPU was the minimum, and its water resistance was the best.

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of Stearic Acid Diethanolamide Acrylate Ester/Maleic Anhydride/Vinyl Acetate (SMV) Copolymer Diesel Fuel Depressant%硬脂酸二乙醇酰胺丙烯酸单酯-马来酸酐-醋酸乙烯酯共聚物柴油降凝剂制备及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艾秋; 刘侠; 韩艳双

    2011-01-01

    以硬脂酸二乙醇酰胺丙烯酸单酯、马来酸酐、醋酸乙烯酯为单体,采用溶液聚合法合成了硬脂酸二乙醇酰胺丙烯酸单酯-马来酸酐-醋酸乙烯酯降凝剂,考察了单体物质的量比、引发剂用量、聚合温度对降凝效果的影响.通过红外光谱对共聚物分子结构进行了表征,结果表明,合成的分子结构和设计目标分子结构相符.此降凝剂可使东营0#柴油的凝点降低7℃,与AH - BSF216型降凝剂复配后具有较好的降凝效果.

  8. Preparation and properties of polyamide 6-clay nanocomposites/ethylene-octene copolymer-grafted-maleic anhydride blends%尼龙-6/蒙脱土纳米复合材料用POE-g-MAH改性及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波; 黄锐; 魏刚

    2004-01-01

    制备了尼龙-6(PA6)/马来酸酐接枝乙烯-1-辛烯共聚物(POE-g-MAH)和PA6-蒙脱土纳米复合物(NCH)/POE-g-MAH两种复合材料,其脆韧转变点都是在POE-g-MAH质量分数为8%~10%.在脆韧转变点前,PA6/POE-g-MAH和NCH/POE-g-MAH的缺口冲击强度几乎相同;在脆韧转变点后,NCH/POE-g-MAH的冲击强度远高于PA6/POE-g-MAH.复合材料的拉伸强度都随POE-g-MAH的增加而线性下降,在相同POE-g-MAH含量时,NCH/POE-g-MAH的拉伸强度比PA6/POE-g-MAH的低4 MPa左右.

  9. 5-(2,5-Dioxooxolan-3-yl-8-methyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-naphtho[1,2-c]furan-1,3-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H14O6, the dihedral angle between the two anhydride rings is 76.01 (8°while the dihedral angles between the benzene and anhydride rings are 42.60 (7 and 68.94 (7°. The cyclohexene ring of the tetrahydronaphthalene unit exhibits an envelope conformation.

  10. Study of some improved shellac derivatives as microencapsulating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, D S; Kshirsagar, M D; Dorle, A K

    1991-01-01

    Shellac was chemically modified to alter its permeability and to prevent its 'after hardening'. Various shellac derivatives such as with succinic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, ethylenediamine and myristic acid were prepared. Salicylic acid granules were coated and evaluated for flow properties, moisture absorption and release characteristics before and after ageing. These derivatives imparted better flow properties and showed excellent ageing properties.

  11. 1,2,4-Butanetriol: Analysis and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-08

    ANHYDRIDE ........................41 CLEAVAGE OF CYCLIC ETHERS. .. ....... ......... 43 REFERENCES .. ... .......... .......... ......... 45... NOMENCLATURE .. ... .......... .......... ........ 49 1. iii/jy NSWC TR 82-380 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page I HYDROGENATION OF DIETHYLMALATE IN ETHANOL OVER NIKKI...of acetic acid, acetic anhydride , and sul Uric acid yielded 1,2,4-butanetriol triacetate. Subsequent methanolysis of the acetate produced BT. Wagaman

  12. Chemiluminescence of Organic Peroxides. Thermal Generation of an o-Xylylene Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-07

    Our efforts to discover new chemiluminescent systems and to probe the mechanism of electronically excited state generation led to the synthesis and...product is a precursor to diketone or ketoester k we carried out the thermolysis of in the presence of maleic anhydride. A 1.Ox]O - 3 I p-xylene solution of... diketone -3- that is essentially the same as in the absence of anhydride. Increasing the maleic anhydride concentration to 1.5x10- 2 M results in the

  13. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  14. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  15. Zn/ ZrCl4 System Induced Reductive Cleavage of Se-Se Bond in Diaryl Diselenides: A Novel Method for the Systhesis of Selenoesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Se-Se bond in diaryl diselenides was reduced by Zn/ZrCl4 system to produce selenide anions, which react with acyl chlorides or acid anhydrides to afford selenoesters in THF under mild and neutral conditions.

  16. T3P as an efficient cyclodehydration reagent for the one-pot synthesis of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andivelu Ilangovan; Shanmugasundar Saravanakumar; Siddappa Umesh

    2015-05-01

    A scalable and environmentally friendly one-pot method for the synthesis of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles from acylhydrazides and isocyanates has been achieved with propane phosponic anhydride (T3P) acting as cyclodehydrating reagent.

  17. Fast methods for screening of trichothecenes in fungal cultures using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thrane, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a fast method for trichothecene profiling and chemotaxonomic studies in species of Fusarium, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and Memnoniella. Micro scale extracted crude Fusarium extracts were derivatised using pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analysed by gas chromatography...

  18. Catalytic actions of alkaline salts in reactions between 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and cellulose: II. Esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Bolin; Tang, Peixin; Yan, Kelu; Sun, Gang

    2015-11-05

    1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) reacts with cellulose in two steps with catalysis of alkaline salts such as sodium hypophosphite: anhydride formation and esterification of anhydride with cellulose. The alkali metal ions were found effective in catalyzing formation of BTCA anhydride in a previous report. In this work, catalytic functions of the alkaline salts in the esterification reaction between BTCA anhydride and cellulose were investigated. Results revealed that acid anions play an important role in the esterification reaction by assisting removal of protons on intermediates and completion of the esterification between cellulose and BTCA. Besides, alkaline salts with lower pKa1 values of the corresponding acids are more effective ones for the reaction since addition of these salts could lead to lower pH values and higher acid anion concentrations in finishing baths. The mechanism explains the results of FTIR and wrinkle recovery angles of the fabrics cured under different temperatures and times.

  19. Rapid and Efficient Synthesis of Hydroxytriarylmethanes under Ultra Sonic Irradiation Using Keggin Heteropolyacids and Preyssler Catalysts in Green Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Hamidian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new synthesis of hydroxytriarylmethane derived from the reaction of 2-sulfobenzoic anhydride and phenols in the presence of heteropolyacids as green, reusable, and efficient catalyst (using catalytic amount under ultrasonic irradiation is reported in this paper.

  20. Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an eye wash. Boron was used as a food preservative between 1870 and 1920, and during World Wars ... chemical symbol), B (symbole chimique), Borate, Borate de Sodium, Borates, Bore, Boric Acid, Boric Anhydride, Boric Tartrate, ...

  1. Aminoacyl-nucleotide reactions - Studies related to the origin of the genetic code and protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, D. W., Jr.; Senaratne, N.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In the present paper, a report is presented on the effect of pH and carbonate on the hydrolysis rate constants of N-blocked and free aminoacyl adenylate anhydrides. Whereas the hydrolysis of free aminoacyl adenylates seems principally catalyzed by OH(-), the hydrolysis of the N-blocked species is also catalyzed by H(+), giving this compound a U-shaped hydrolysis vs. pH curve. Furthermore, at pH's less than 8, carbonate has an extreme catalytic effect on the hydrolysis of free aminoacyl-AMP anhydride, but essentially no effect on the hydrolysis of N-blocked aminoacyl-AMP anhydride. Furthermore, the N-blocked aminoacyl-AMP anhydride is a very efficient generator of peptides using free glycine as acceptor. The possible significance of the observations to prebiological peptide synthesis is discussed.

  2. Immediate and delayed allergy from epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Jolanki, R; Tupasela, O; Halmepuro, L; Keskinen, H; Estlander, T; Sysilampi, M L

    1991-06-01

    This case report presents two patients with immediate and delayed allergy to epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). In patch testing, the epoxy resin (DGEBA-based) of the standard series gave allergic reactions. Both patients had a prick test reaction of histamine size or larger to the human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate of DGEBA-based epoxy resins. One had been occupationally exposed to methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) and had a histamine-size prick test reaction to the HSA conjugate of MTHPA; the other did not react to the conjugate. Determinations of specific immunoglobulin E were carried out with HSA-DGEBA conjugates, two DGEBA-based epoxy resins, and phthalic anhydrides. The first patient had positive tests to DGEBA, the DGEBA-based epoxy resins, and two phthalic anhydrides, and the second to DGEBA and the DGEBA-based epoxy resins, but not to the phthalic anhydrides.

  3. EST Table: FS769167 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tances) 10/09/28 49 %/261 aa ref|XP_972621.2| PREDICTED:...e mechanism)|GO:0016020(membrane)|GO:0016820(hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, catalyzing transmembrane movement of subs

  4. EST Table: BY932043 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tances) 10/09/28 73 %/272 aa ref|XP_001120297.1| PREDICT...e mechanism)|GO:0016020(membrane)|GO:0016820(hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, catalyzing transmembrane movement of subs

  5. EST Table: BY930753 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tances) 10/09/28 59 %/185 aa ref|XP_001944617.1| PREDICT...e mechanism)|GO:0016020(membrane)|GO:0016820(hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, catalyzing transmembrane movement of subs

  6. EST Table: FS888238 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tances) 10/09/28 49 %/214 aa ref|XP_623145.2| PREDICTED:...e mechanism)|GO:0016020(membrane)|GO:0016820(hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, catalyzing transmembrane movement of subs

  7. EST Table: FS851582 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tances) 10/09/28 63 %/166 aa ref|XP_396589.2| PREDICTED:...e mechanism)|GO:0016020(membrane)|GO:0016820(hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, catalyzing transmembrane movement of subs

  8. Synthese van peroxyacetylnitraat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquemijns M; Zomer G

    1991-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate was synthesised from peracetic acid and sodium nitrate with concentrated acetic acid. Peracetic acid was obtained by treatment of acetic anhydride with concentrated acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

  9. Syntheses of {gamma}-aminobutyric-1-{sup 14}C and of {alpha}-aminoadipic-6-{sup 14}C acid from methoxy-3 chloropropyl-magnesium and marked carbon dioxide; Syntheses de l'acide {gamma}-aminobutyrique{sup 14}C-1 et de l'acide {alpha}-aminoadipique {sup 14}C-6 a partir de methoxy-3 chloropropylmagnesium et d'anhydride carbonique marque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung Nhu Liem [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Departement des radioelements, Service des molecules marquees

    1967-04-01

    Carbonation of {gamma}-methoxypropyl-magnesium chloride by CO{sub 2} gives {gamma}-methoxy-butyric carboxylic-{sup 14}C acid with a yield of about 95 per cent. When the latter is treated successively with anhydrous HBr and with diazomethane, methyl carboxylic {gamma}-bromobutyrate-{sup 14}C is formed. This in turn gives {gamma}-amino-butyric carboxylic-{sup 14}C acid with an overall yield of 66 per cent with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}, when it is condensed with potassium phthalimide and hydrolyzed by acid. By reacting methyl-{gamma}-bromobutyrate-{sup 14}C with the sodium derivative of ethyl cyanacetamido-acetate in ethanol, followed by an acid hydrolysis, {alpha}-aminoadipic-6-{sup 14}C acid is obtained with an overall yield of 46 per cent with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}. (author) [French] La carbonatation du chlorure de {gamma}-methoxypropylmagnesium par {sup 14}CO{sub 2} donne l'acide {gamma}-methoxybutyrique carboxyle {sup 14}C avec un rendement d'environ 95 pour cent. Ce dernier traite successivement par HBr anhydre et par le diazomethane conduit au {gamma}-bromobutyrate de methyle carboxyle {sup 14}C. Celui-ci condense avec le phtalimide de potassium suivi d'une hydrolyse acide fournit l'acide {gamma}-aminobutyrique carboxyle {sup 14}C avec un rendement global de 66 pour cent par rapport a Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}. L'action du {gamma}-bromobutyrate de methyle {sup 14}C sur le derive sode du cyanacetamidoacetate d'ethyle dans l'ethanol suivie d'hydrolyse acide donne l'acide {alpha}-aminoadipique {sup 14}C-6 avec un rendement global de 46 pour cent par rapport a Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}. (auteur)

  10. Three new compounds from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Hua, Ying; Bao, Yong-Li; Wu, Yin; Sun, Lu-Guo; Yu, Chun-Lei; Huang, Yan-Xin; Wang, En-Bo; Jiang, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Three new compounds, 3,6-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxy-1,8-naphalic anhydride (1), 3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-1,8-naphalic anhydride (2), and methyl (7E,9E)-6,11-dioxononadeca-7,9-dienoate (3), were isolated from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-TOF-MS, and by comparison with the literature data.

  11. Numerical Estimation of the Formation Process of Anthropogenic Precipitation in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdyakov Dmitriy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of condensation of sulfur trioxide SO3 and water vapor H2O. Sulfuric anhydride is formed in flues of thermal power plants (TPP by partial oxidation of SO2 (up to 5 % of the total SO2 from the combustion of high-sulfur fuels, and belongs to a class of mild-hazard products. Sulfuric anhydride in the interaction with water vapor, which refers to greenhouse gases, under certain conditions, it forms sulfuric acid.

  12. Comparison of Catalysts Preyssler and Silica-Supported Nano Preyssler in the Synthesis of Acetyl Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari, H.; Ahmadpour, A.; Bamoharram, F. F.; Heravi, M. M.; Eslami, N.

    2012-01-01

    The extensive demand for cleaner environment is forcing chemical industry to use less hazardous materials. In this regard, heteropolyacids attracted considerable amount of interest due to the less toxic behavior in addition of possessing higher acidity. Heteropoly acids have been used as catalysts for the reaction of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride. The performance of different forms of heteropoly acids in the presence of acetic anhydride as acetylating agent for acetylation of salicylic...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of novel organic heteroatom compounds from reaction of Woollins’ Reagent with various organic substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Guoxiong; Du, Junyi; Cordes, David Bradford; Athukorala Arachchige, Kasun Sankalpa; Slawin, Alexandra Martha Zoya; Woollins, J. Derek

    2016-01-01

    A series of new selenium-containing heteroatom compounds were synthesized in good yields by the reactions of Woollins’ reagent with various organic substrates such as cyclohexanamine, N-benzoylbenzamide, benzoic anhydride, 4-fluoro-N-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl)benzamide, N-benzoylbenzamide, benzoic anhydride, 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile, 1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol and sodium alcoholate. Three representative X-ray structures are described. Postprint Postprint Peer reviewed

  14. Modification of microneedles using inkjet printing

    OpenAIRE

    R D Boehm; Miller, P.R.; S L Hayes; Monteiro-Riviere, N.A.; Narayan, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer microneedles containing quantum dots were fabricated by means of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography-micromolding and inkjet printing. Nanoindentation was performed to obtain the hardness and the Young's modulus of the biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer. Imaging of quantum dots within porcine skin was accomplished by means of multiphoton microscopy. Our results suggest that the combination of visible light dynamic mask m...

  15. Adhesion International 1987. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society, Inc. (10th) Held in Williamsburg, Virginia on 23-27 February 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    of Adhesive Bond and its use for Prediction of Bond Performance". J. Adhesion (submitted for publication). 308 W. S. GUTOWSKI Appendix NOMENCLATURE Y1...viscosity liquid, it could be readily mixed with the resin. RT CURING EPOXY ADHESIVES 351 BTDA and HHPA are tetrafunctional anhydrides which result in...S-311; lactic acid-J. T. Baker #0194 (88% aqueous solution containing lactic acid and its anhydride ); Pluronic 31R4-BASF Wyandotte (block copolymer of

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Brain-Specific Anti-RNA Viral Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-31

    genetic material either DNA or RNA and the type of nucleic acid give rise to the system of nomenclature for these entities. The viral DNA or RNA can then... anhydride (3) to produce the 5’-trigonellinate iodide of the protected sugar (4). Reduction of this quaternary salt in aqueous basic sodium dithionite...yielded the 5’-(1,4- dihydrotrigonellinate) of the ribavirin acetonide (5, AVS 5505). In the above synthesis, trigonelline anhydride was used to avoid

  17. Bimanes and Related Heterocycles as Laser Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-10

    anhydride ) converted anti-(amino,hy- benzoquinone (DDQ) gave syn-(benzo,tetramneth- drogen)bimane 11 to anti-(anino,nitro)bimane 15 ylene)bimnane 27...514 ones) as laser dyes. Kosower introduced a system nm. Presumably helicity, that was demonstrated by of trivial nomenclature for the bimanes based...chloride). Laser activ- nitric acid (90%) and acetic anhydride , converted ity from dyes in polymeric glasses [16] will be de-nitr c ac d (9 9o v rte

  18. USSR Report, Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Sulfuric Acid Anhydride and Water "Conversion Reactions in Molecular Photocatalytic System (V.N. Parmon, Ye.N. Savinov, et al.; ZHURNAL FIZICHESKOY...essentially limited by nomenclature , technical parameters and reliability_of automated analytical control systems. Any automated analytical control...SULFURIC ACID ANHYDRIDE AND WATER CONVERSION REACTIONS IN MOLECULAR PHOTOCATALYTIC SYSTEM Moscow ZHURNAL FIZICHESKOY KHIMII in Russian Vol 58, No 10, Oct

  19. US Japan Workshop. Hybrid 2000 Conference Held in Ithaca, New York on May 7-12, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    the preparation and applications of Z-SMA will be presented based on the reaction of zirconium alkoxides with styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA...spectra. The decreasing intensity of vc=o (acid anhydride ) and the appearance of vc=o (caiboxyiate group)- Z-SMA was prepared from ZTB and SMA in the...Chemistry", "International Journal of Polymeric Materials". -Corresponding Member of IUPAC Commission on Polymer Nomenclature ; Chairman of the Polymer

  20. Advanced Fuel Properties. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    normal and branched carboxylic acids, aromatic carboxylic acids, anhydrides , various kinds of esters, halogenated compounds, amines and imines...ACIDS 19 22 OTHER ALIPHATIC ACIDS 33 23 AROMATIC CARBOXYLIC ACIDS 37 24 ANHYDRIDES 9 25 FORMATES & ACETATES 27 26 N-ALKYL ESTERS 50 27 UNSATURATED...NIPER NAMEN2 The second 60 characters of the NIPER name NAMEI The chemical name according to IUPAC nomenclature rules These are the fields in the

  1. Advanced Fuel Properties; A Computer Program for Estimating Property Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    and peroxides, normal and branched carboxylic acids, aromatic carboxylic acids, anhydrides , various kinds of esters, halogenated compounds, amines and...24 ANHYDRIDES 9 25 FORMATES & ACETATES 27 26 N-ALKYL ESTERS 51 27 UNSATURATED ALIPHATIC ESTERS 16 28 AROMATIC ESTERS 48 29 ESTERS 37 30 EPOXIDES...model. 15 Nomenclature Relation - Record - Field - Key Key -Field(s) to Uniquely ID a Record Field, Column A B C D E F1 /////// ___ Record, Row 4MR

  2. Final Summary Report on Project 3310 Marine Diesel Exhaust Emissions (Alternative Fuels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    soluble acid anhydrides . This was important to know since the concern of this project was under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (See Section 1.2... anhydrides (nitrogen and sulfur oxides) would end up more in the water column, rather than the air. Saturated concentrations of nitric oxide in the water...with the results of the analysis discussed in sections that follow. The procedures and nomenclature in ISO standard DP 8178-1, RIC Engines - Exhaust

  3. Wetting of Functionalized Polyethylene Film Having Ionizable Organic Acids and Bases at the Polymer-Water Interface: Relations between Functional Group Polarity, Extent of Ionization, and Contact Angle with Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    polyethylene containing ketone/aldehyde, carboxylic acid and amide groups in its functionalized interface. Using this nomenclature , the material PE...neat rifluoracetic anhydride (or lauroyl chloride, ootn Aldrich) for :2 h at room temp. The films were then rinsed in water (4 times) , :netnanolLj ce...was Zreatea , -n 30 acetone containing 10 g of succinic anhydride and i -L of ,r$," 44 triethylamine for 1 n. The film was rinsed in acetone, water, and

  4. Permeation of Mixed Penetrants through Glassy Polymer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-15

    hesafhtr istptitplsideni.di ~hhahi anhydride with I , d ian n, phi halt .. ( pr,-part d hI\\ r(’at tin of 4.4-hextafluoroisoprophlkidenediphthali an- h...the well-defined significance provided by the dual mode model. Nomenclature bi Affinity constant of component i for the polymer (atm-1 ) DD Diffusion...as polyimides and were formed by con- densation of 4,4’- hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride with 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid and with ,5

  5. Snapshot of a phosphorylated substrate intermediate by kinetic crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Käck, Helena; Gibson, Katharine J.; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1998-01-01

    The ATP-dependent enzyme dethiobiotin synthetase from Escherichia coli catalyses the formation of dethiobiotin from CO2 and 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid. The reaction is initiated by the formation of a carbamate and proceeds through a phosphorylated intermediate, a mixed carbamic phosphoric anhydride. Here, we report the crystal structures at 1.9- and 1.6-Å resolution, respectively, of the enzyme–MgATP–diaminopelargonic acid and enzyme–MgADP–carbamic–phosphoric acid anhydride complexes, observe...

  6. Ultrasound-assisted catalytic synthesis of acyclic imides in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid under solvent free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-Esfahani Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and convenient preparation of acyclic imides by the reaction of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles with acyclic carboxylic anhydride in the presence of catalytic amounts of p-toluenesulfonic acid under thermal or ultrasonic conditions is reported. The advantages of this procedure are moderate reaction times, good to excellent yields, use of inexpensive and ecofriendly catalyst. The reaction of nitriles with aliphatic anhydrides proceeds in thermal conditions, while by the use of ultrasound irradiations these reactions get accelerated.

  7. Some intrinsic and extrinsic factors of acetylated starches: morphological, physicochemical and structural characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Degree substitution (DS), morphological characteristics, X-ray diraction (XRD), pasting properties, thermal properties and amylopectin chain length distribution were used to study the eect of botanical source (potato starch, PS; and maize starch, MS) and reagent type (acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate) on starch acetylation. The reagent type produced a dierent eect depending on the botanical source: for MS, the reaction with acetic anhydride produced higher DS than PS, whereas that in the re...

  8. Synthesis of 24-phenyl-24-oxo steroids derived from bile acids by palladium-catalyzed cross coupling with phenylboronic acid. NMR characterization and X-ray structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorquín-Torres, Martha C; Romero-Ávila, Margarita; Flores-Álamo, Marcos; Iglesias-Arteaga, Martin A

    2013-11-01

    Palladium-catalyzed cross coupling of phenyboronic acid with acetylated bile acids in which the carboxyl functions have been activated by formation of a mixed anhydride with pivalic anhydride afforded moderate to good yield of 24-phenyl-24-oxo-steroids. Unambiguous assignments of the NMR signals were made with the aid of combined 1D and 2D NMR techniques. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the obtained structures.

  9. US Air Force 1989 Research Initiation Program . Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-25

    Degradation of the Renal Peritubular Basement Dr. Thomas Lockwood Membrane in Relation to Toxic Nephropathy from Compounds of Military Interest 210-10MG...anhydrous lithium nitrate and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride (triflic anhydride) in refluxing nitromethane solvent was found to be the most convenient...unreliable and erratic method was developed for in situ synthesis of nitronium triflate (nitronium trifluoromethane- sulfonate) from lithium nitrate and

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides containing 4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene-bisphthalic

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of polyimides, which contain a 4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene-bisphthalic anhydride (6FDA) unit in the backbone. These polyimides are a result of the use of the traditional method of "one step". The reactions occur between equimolar of a dianhydride and an aromatic diamine in presence of the solvent dimethylacetamide (DMAc), then cyclo-dehydrided by adding the acetic anhydride and pyridine. In this work, the 6FDA was used as the dianhydrid...

  11. Characterization of new materials in chromatography and fuel cell development by modern NMR techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Schauff, Siri

    2007-01-01

    Phosphonic acids for high temperature fuel cell membrane materials were investigated with respect to proton mobility and transport applying solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Water uptake and its effects on anhydride formation were studied on samples that were equilibrated with saturated salt solutions. For polyvinylphosphonic acid reversible anhydride formation was found. Variable temperature 1H MAS NMR spectroscopy of three different phosphonic acids revealed single proton sites, and 1H chemical...

  12. STUDY ON THE EPOXY RESIN TOUGHENED BY HYDROXY-TERMINATED BUTADIENE-ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiaozu; LI Shaoying; ZHANG Qingyu

    1990-01-01

    Toughened epoxy resin with excellent properties was obtained by adding organic acid anhydride curing agent and hydroxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (HTBN), which is cheaper than CTBN. The anhydride reacts with both epoxy groups on epoxy resin and hydroxyl groups on HTBN. As a result the soft long chains of HTBN and the rigid chain of epoxy resin form one network, giving the resin toughness. Two-phase structure of the toughened resin was observed by SEM and TEM.

  13. Synthesis of 2-substituted pyridines via a regiospecific alkylation, alkynylation, and arylation of pyridine N-oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Hans; Almqvist, Fredrik; Olsson, Roger

    2007-03-29

    [structure: see text]. Sequential addition of Grignard reagents to pyridine N-oxides in THF at room temperature followed by treatment with acetic anhydride at 120 degrees C afforded 2-substituted pyridines in good to high yields. Furthermore, by exchanging acetic anhydride for DMF in the second step, 2-substituted pyridine N-oxides were obtained, as intermediates suitable for addition of a second Grignard reagent for the synthesis of 2,6-disubstituted pyridines.

  14. Environmentally Benign Repair of Composites Using High Temperature Cyanate Ester Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A bisphenol-A type epoxy resin EPON-828 (Miller- Stephenson Chemical, USA) and the room-temperature amine curing agent DETA (Miller- Stephenson...Chemical, USA) was chosen as one of the benchmark matrix systems . In addition, a high temperature cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CA, 3,4...epoxycyclohexylmethyl 3,4- epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate, Sigma-Aldrich, USA) mixed with an anhydride curing agent (HHPA, hexahydro-4-methylphthalic anhydride , Sigma

  15. The Fracture of Thermosetting Resins after Exposure to Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    1.0 water. 23 0C uptakeamine- cured 0.6 /* anhydride cured 0.2 bisphenol cured epoxy /glass laminate (VF =0.55) Source: H W Gitschner and G Menges...for this in the highly cross-linked epoxy systems . The fracture surfaces of polyesters with different flexibiliser additions, and consequently...procedure are (a) replacement of phthalic anhydride by isophthalic acid and (b) use of different glycols. Different proportions of unsaturated (maleic) to

  16. Preparation and Application of a Nanocomposite (MPNS/SMA) in Leather Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A nanocomposite of MPNS/(Styrene-maleic anhydride) was prepared by the polymerization of methacryloxypropyl nano SiO2 (MPNS), styrene (ST) and maleic anhydride (MA) with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator in toluene. The prepared samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Meanwhile, the nanocomposite was applied as a tanning agent in leather making and the results showed that leather treated with MPNS/SMA nanocomposite has excellent quality.

  17. Partial oxidation of n- and i-pentane over promoted vanadium-phosphorus oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazhigalov, V.A.; Mikhajluk, B.D.; Komashko, G.A. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii

    1998-12-31

    It is known, that the cost of raw materials for catalytic oxidation processes is about 60% of the product price. Cheap initial compounds to produce variety of products and to replace olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons are paraffins. That is why catalytic systems which could be possibly rather efficient in selective oxidation of paraffin hydrocarbons are under very close investigation now. One of such processes in n-pentane oxidation. The obtained results on n-pentane oxidation over VPO catalysts were quite encouraging in respect of possible reach high selectivity and yield of phthalic anhydride. However, in our work it was shown that the main product of n-pentane oxidation in the presence of VPO catalytic system as well as VPMeO was maleic anhydride. Some later our results were confirmed in, where to grow the selectivity towards phthalic anhydride the Co-additive was introduced. On the basis of the proposal made before on the mechanism of paraffins conversion over the vanadyl pyrophosphate surface with their activation at the first and fourth carbon atoms, we assumed possible methylmaleic (citraconic) anhydride forming at n- and i-pentane oxidation. This assumption has been recently supported by both our and other researchers` experimental results. In it was also hypothized possible mechanistic features for phthalic anhydride forming from n-pentane. The present work deals with the results of n- and i-pentane oxidation over VPO catalysts promoted with Bi, Cs, Te, Zr. (orig.)

  18. STUDIES ON APPARENT KINETICS AND RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF EPOXY/ACRYLATE IPNS AS VACUUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-kuan Duan; Chonung Kim; Ping-kai Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The apparent kinetics and cure behavior of novel interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CER) and tri-functional acrylate have been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectrosccpy (FT-IR). The results of DSC measurements show that the curing reaction of the TMPTMA component is much earlier than that of the CER component, which can lead to the formation of the IPNs. In contrast to neat anhydride-CER system, the anhydride-CER/TMPTMA systems exhibit relatively lower curing temperatures. The activation energy for initiating the reaction of the anhydride-CER system slightly increases, whereas the activation energy for propagating the reaction markedly reduces during the full IPNs formation. The FF-IR spectroscopic changes are interpreted in terms of curing mechanism of CER and TMPTMA components. The extent of reaction is calculated from FT-IR absorption bands, which depends on the reactive group concentration. The experimental results of FT-IR measurements are in good agreements with those of DSC measurements. The theological behavior of anhydride-CER/TMPTMA systems during IPNs formation is studied in this paper. It is confirmed that the introduction of TMPTMA monomer into anhydride-epoxy resin has significant effects on the theological behavior of the system.

  19. Enzyme-catalyzed Synthesis of Vitamin E Succinate Using a Chemically Modified Novozym-435%化学修饰Novozym-435酶催化合成维生素E琥珀酸酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹春华; 张聪; 高明

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin E succinate was synthesized in organic solvents using a modified Novozym-435 as catalyst. In order to improve the catalytic performance of Novozym-435, the enzyme was modified using acetic anhydride, propionic anhydride and succinic anhydride separately. We found that both the hydrolytic activity and the thermal stability of the modified Novozym-435 were enhanced compared with the unmodified enzyme. The modified Novozym-435 catalysts were used to synthesize the succinate derivative of vitamin E. Compared with the native Novozym-435, the catalytic activity of the modified novozym-435 in promoting the synthesis of vitamin E succinate was dramatically increased, with the novozym-435 modified with succinic anhydride (N435-S) as the most active catalyst. Conditions for the synthesis of vitamin E succinate were also optimized. A mixture of tert-butanol and DMSO (volume ratio of 2: 3) was the most suitable medium for the reaction, whereas the appropriate molar ratio of vitamin E to succinic anhydride and reaction temperature were 1: 5 and 40 ℃, respectively. Under these reaction conditions, the yield of vitamin E succinate reached 94.4%. N435-S could be reused for five batches.

  20. Green route to modification of wood waste, cellulose and hemicellulose using reactive extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Alankar A; Gaugler, Marc; Smith, Dawn A

    2016-01-20

    A large volume of wood waste is produced in timber processing industry which traditionally used in low value applications. Here, value addition to the wood waste (Sander dust) and cellulose, hemicellulose isolated thereof by functionalisation using cyclic anhydrides in a solvent-free and green reactive extrusion process is reported. The effect of extrusion temperature, catalyst and different weight ratios of Sander dust (SD):succinic anhydride (SA) on the esterification reaction is evaluated. The esterified products were characterised by the acid value, degree of substitution (DS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), solid state (13)C NMR and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Under optimum extrusion conditions, mixed esters are formed, with highest acid value obtained for succinylation of cellulose (0.122 g/g at DS of 0.350) which is two times higher compared to succinylated SD (0.059 g/g at a weight gain of 0.452) and hemicellulose (0.043 g/g at DS of 0.290). The reactivity trend for individual anhydride was: (1) SA-Cellulose>SD>hemicellulose; (2) maleic anhydride (MA)-SD>hemicellulose>cellulose and (3) dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA)-SD ≈ cellulose ≫ hemicellulose. The pendant free carboxyl groups generated through functionalisation of wood waste, cellulose and hemicellulose without the presence of polymeric carriers will allow more tailored or targeted modification of wood-plastic composites.

  1. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF POLYMERS ON CARBON FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiasong; WU Renjie

    1983-01-01

    Styrene-co-maleic anhydride, vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride, methyl methacrylate-co-maleic anhydride copolymers were deposited on the surface of carbon fibers by an electrodeposition technique.The anion-free radical mechanism of this process and the physical adhesion to the surface were preliminarily confirmed. The adhesion at fiber-resin matrix interface in carbon fiber reinforced plastics was improved by the electrodeposited polymer interlayer and the shear failure occurred mainly in the matrix.Interlaminar shear strength of the unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite is increased from about 600 kg/cm2 to 1000 kg/cm2 by electrodeposition of polymers and the strength loss of the composite which has been immersed in boiling water for 100 hrs is decreased.

  2. Synthesis and study of MPNS/SMA nano-composite tanning agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Pan; Mei Qi; Zhi Jun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The radical polymerization of maleic anhydride (MA),styrene (ST) with the vinyl groups introduced onto the surface of the nano-sized silica via solution polymerization method was developed.The methacryloxypropyl nano-sized silica (MPNS) was used as macromonomer and polymerized with maleic anhydride and styrene by initiating with BPO in toluene.The structure and properties of MPNS/SMA nano-composite were characterized by FT-IR spectra and TEM.Meanwhile,it was applied as tanning agent compared with the traditional styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer in leather.It was found that the applied leather had better quality characteristics with the addition of the nano-sized silica.

  3. Synthesis of unsaturated polyesters for improved interfacial strength in carbon fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamstedt, E.K.; Skrifvars, M.; Jacobsen, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    Carbon fibres are gaining use as reinforcement in glass fibre/polyester composites for increased stiffness as a hybrid composite. The mechanics and chemistry of the carbon fibre–polyester interface should be addressed to achieve an improvement also in fatigue performance and off-axis strength....... To make better use of the versatility of unsaturated polyesters in a carbon fibre composite, a set of unsaturated polyester resins have been synthesized with different ratios of maleic anhydride, o-phthalic anhydride and 1,2-propylene glycol as precursors. The effective interfacial strength was determined...... by micro-Raman spectroscopy of a single-fibre composite tested in tension. The interfacial shear strength with untreated carbon fibres increased with increasing degree of unsaturation of the polyester, which is controlled by the relative amount of maleic anhydride. This can be explained by a contribution...

  4. A study on the preparation of the exfoliated polyimide nanocomposite and its characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, S.G.; Park, D.Y.; Kim, Y.S. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea); Lee, Y.C. [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Chonan (Korea); Sur, G.S. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    Diamines (p-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine, and n-hexamethylenediamine) were intercalated into sodium montmorillonite for the further reaction with the anhydride end groups of polyamic acid. The anhydride terminated polyamic acid was synthesized using a mole ratio of 4,4'-oxydianilline : 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic dianhydride = 1.50 : 1.53. The modified montmorillonite was reacted with polyamic acid terminated with anhydride group in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (polyamic acid/clay nanocomposite). After imidization, thin films of the polyimide/clay nanocomposite were prepared. From the results of XRD and TEM, we found that mono layered silicated were dispersed in polyimide matrix and those resultants were exfoliated nanocomposites. Mechanical properties of exfoliated polyimide nanocomposite were better than both those of pure polyimide and those of intercalated polyimide nanocomposite. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  5. Functional properties of acetylated and succinylated cowpea protein concentrate and effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René; Mbome, Israël Lape

    2011-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to improve functional properties of cowpea protein concentrate by acylation and partial hydrolysis with pepsin. The acylated concentrate showed significant improvement in protein solubility and water solubility index, at neutral pH. In addition, acylation increased fat absorption capacity compared with the untreated concentrate, and the maximum was obtained at 0.75 g succinic anhydride/g concentrate. Acetylation at concentrations of 0.25-0.50 g/g led to the higher emulsifying activity, and a markedly improvement in emulsifying stability was observed at 1.0 g anhydride/g concentrate. Foaming activity increased following acylation, particularly at 0.25 and 1.00 g/g succinic anhydride/g concentrate, while foam stability decreased. At pH 3.5, protein solubility of the acylated concentrates was low ( < 8%). Partial hydrolysis of cowpea protein concentrate with pepsin increased protein solubility at the isoelectric and neutral pH.

  6. Polyimide analysis using diffuse reflectance-FTIR. [Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal imidization of a number of polyimide precursors in the form of powders, films, and prepregs was examined by an in situ diffuse reflectance-FTIR technique where infrared spectra were determined while the material was being heated. An analysis of these spectra revealed that, with the exception of one water soluble adhesive, each precursor developed an anhydride band around 1850 cm/cu during imidization. This band diminished in intensity during final stages of cure. Efforts were made to quantify the amount of anhydride in several samples. Evidence obtained could be interpreted to mean that poly(amic acid) resins undergo an initial reduction in molecular weight during imidization before recombining to achieve their ultimate molecular weights as polyimides. Several reports in the literature are cited to support this interpretation. This report serves both to document anhydride formation during imidization and to increase our fundamental understanding of how polyimides cure.

  7. Synthesis of [sup 14]C-labeled copolymers for drug delivery studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, S.W.; Reist, E.J. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Rock, M.T.

    1994-02-01

    [sup 14]C-labeled polyanhydride copolymers [(20:80)/1,3-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-propane (CPP):sebacic acid (SA)] were synthesized according to schemes I and II: [sup 14]C-labeled sebacic acid (2,9-[sup 14]C[sub 2]) and [sup 14]C-labeled CPP 1,3-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-propane (labeled at C-1, C-3 of the propyl group) were transformed to the corresponding mixed anhydrides as prepolymers respectively by reaction with acetic anhydride. The labeled mixed anhydride prepolymers were condensed with unlabeled counter-prepolymers to give the labeled polyanhydride copolymers. The labeled copolymers were identified and characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). (author).

  8. Structural Analysis of Aromatic Liquid Crystalline Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Somogyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory preparations of liquid crystalline prepolymers, distillates accompanying prepolymers, final polymers, and sublimates accompanying final polymers were examined. NaOD/D2O depolymerization of prepolymers and polymers back to monomers with integration of the 1H NMR spectra showed up to 6% excess of carboxyls over phenol groups, caused partly by loss of the low-boiling comonomer hydroquinone through distillation during prepolymerization and leaving anhydride units in the polymer chain. ESI− MS and MS/MS of hexafluoroisopropanol extracts of the prepolymer detected small molecules including some containing anhydride groups; ESI+ MS showed the presence of small cyclic oligomers. 1H NMR (including TOCSY spectra provided more quantitative analyses of these oligomers. The final polymerization increases the length of the polymer chains and sublimes out the small oligomers. Anhydride linkages remaining in the polymer must make LCP’s more susceptible to degradation by nucleophilic reagents such as water, alkalis, and amines.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Cellulose Acetate from TCF Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi Muhammad Djuned

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA was successfully synthesized by the acetylation of TCF cellulose pulp from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB at room temperature, using acetic anhydride as the acetylating agent and acetic acid as the solvent in the presence of sulfuric acid/sodium bisulfate as catalysts. Degree of substitution (DS was controlled by the variables of acetylation time and acetic anhydride to cellulose ratio, under the heterogeneous state. The product (CA obtained was characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicate that the CA obtained has characteristics similar to commercial CA, and DS is significantly dependent on acetylation time and the acetic anhydride-to-cellulose ratio.

  10. Modification of microneedles using inkjet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Boehm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer microneedles containing quantum dots were fabricated by means of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography-micromolding and inkjet printing. Nanoindentation was performed to obtain the hardness and the Young's modulus of the biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer. Imaging of quantum dots within porcine skin was accomplished by means of multiphoton microscopy. Our results suggest that the combination of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography-micromolding and inkjet printing enables fabrication of solid biodegradable microneedles with a wide range of geometries as well as a wide range of pharmacologic agent compositions.

  11. Acid-base and surface energy characterization of grafted polyethylene using inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Petra; Schneider, Steffen

    2002-09-06

    For a specific design of interfaces, i.e. in composites and blends, it is essential to know the surface thermodynamics of the components. Polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride and maleic anhydride-styrene mixtures, respectively, was the component of interest of our investigations. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution was shown to be an appropriate method to evaluate the dispersive and acid-base surface characteristics although there is an influence of bulk absorption and morphology when performing IGC above the glass transition temperature of the polymer.

  12. Comparison of Catalysts Preyssler and Silica-Supported Nano Preyssler in the Synthesis of Acetyl Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nazari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive demand for cleaner environment is forcing chemical industry to use less hazardous materials. In this regard, heteropolyacids attracted considerable amount of interest due to the less toxic behavior in addition of possessing higher acidity. Heteropoly acids have been used as catalysts for the reaction of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride. The performance of different forms of heteropoly acids in the presence of acetic anhydride as acetylating agent for acetylation of salicylic acid was compared. The best conditions were observed using Preyssler and Silica-supported Preyssler Nanoparticles as catalysts. The catalyst is recyclable and reusable.

  13. A Compendium of Thermoplastic Polymer Pyrograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    structure of a sample of Nylon 6,12 is shown in Figure 35. Nylon 6,12 is the condensation product of 1,6-hexanediamine and 1,12 dodecanedioic acid . DRDC...Poly(amide-imide) - Torlon Poly(amide imide)s are prepared from trimellitic anhydride (benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid - 1,2-anhydride) and a...tetracarboxylic acids or aromatic tetracarboxylic acid dianhydrides and a diamine. A typical poly(imide) based on benzene tetracarboxylic acid

  14. Heparin stability by determining unsubstituted amino groups using hydrophilic interaction chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Li, Lingyun; Cai, Chao; Li, Guoyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-09-15

    The thermal instability of the anticoagulant heparin is associated, in part, with the solvolytic loss of N-sulfo groups. This study describes a new method to assess the increased content of unsubstituted amino groups present in thermally stressed and autoclave-sterilized heparin formulations. N-Acetylation of heparin samples with acetic anhydride-d6 is followed by exhaustive heparinase treatment and disaccharide analysis by hydrophilic interaction chromatography mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS). The introduction of a stable isotopic label provides a sensitive probe for the detection and localization of the lost N-sulfo groups, potentially providing valuable insights into the degradation mechanism and the reasons for anticoagulant potency loss.

  15. 一种新型四元阻垢剂的合成和性能研究%Synthesis and Inhibition Efficiency of a Novel Quadripolymer Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云霞; 吴季怀; 郝三存; 刘明华

    2007-01-01

    A novel quadripolymer scale inhibitor poly-maleic anhydride-acrylic acid-acrylamide-sodium methallyl sulfonate (PMAAS) was synthesized by solution polymerization with maleic anhydride (MA), acrylic acid (AA),acrylamide (AM), sodium methallyl sulfonate (SMAS), etc. IR spectrum shows that PMAAS contains carbonyl,hydroxyl, phosphatic and sulfonic acid group. SEM indicates that PMAAS blocks the normal growth of scale CaCO3 and CaSO4 crystals. The influences of PMAAS concentration, Ca2+ concentration, temperature and pH value of the system on the inhibition efficiency are investigated. The inhibition efficiency of PMAAS is superior to commercial inhibitors T-225 and XF-192.

  16. STUDY ON GEL COAT RESIN%胶衣树脂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建宇

    2001-01-01

    F-Gel coat resin was prepared from propylene glycol,maleic anhydride,phthalic anhydride,m-phthalic acid and styrene and the properties of products met with the requirement of composite material.%以丙二醇、顺酐、邻苯二甲酸酐、间苯二甲酸酐、苯乙烯为原料研制出的F型胶衣树脂,产品性能满足复合材料制品性能要求。

  17. Gas-Phase Partial Oxidation of Lignin to Carboxylic Acids over Vanadium Pyrophosphate and Aluminum-Vanadium-Molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Samira; Boffito, Daria C; Patience, Gregory S

    2015-10-26

    Lignin is a complex polymer that is a potential feedstock for aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids by cleaving the β-O-4 and 5-5' linkages. In this work, a syringe pump atomizes an alkaline solution of lignin into a catalytic fluidized bed operating above 600 K. The vanadium heterogeneous catalysts convert all the lignin into carboxylic acids (up to 25 % selectivity), coke, carbon oxides, and hydrogen. Aluminum-vanadium-molybdenum mostly produced lactic acid (together with formic acid, acrylic acid, and maleic anhydride), whereas the vanadium pyrophosphate catalyst produced more maleic anhydride.

  18. Advances in Analysis and Detection of Explosives. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Analysis and Detection of Explosives (4th), Held in Jerusalem, Israel on September 7-10, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    designation by Hodgdon. The manufacturer’s designations have no direct correlations to Hodgdon nomenclature . One Olin powder may be marketed by Hodgdon as...A. Preparation of 2,2-Dimethyl-4-nitroxymethyl-l,3-dioxolane (II): To a solution of 10 gr of solketal in 12 ml of acetic anhydride at OC was added...dropwise a cold solution prepared from 5 gr of fuming nitric acid in 12 ml of acetic anhydride . The solution was stirred an additional 10 min and poured

  19. Montmorillonite K-10 supported one-pot synthesis of some symmetric diimides and 3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydroisoindole-1,3-dione derivatives under solvent-free conditions using microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVOOD HABIBI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The syntheses of cis-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydroisoindole-1,3-dione derivatives and some cyclic diimides were performed by the reaction of different aromatic and aliphatic amines and diamines with cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride and maleic anhydride on montmorillonite K-10 under microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions. The desired attractive products were obtained in high yields and characterized by elemental analysis aswell as by IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  20. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  1. Direct Synthesis of Telechelic Polyethylene by Selective Insertion Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhongbao

    2016-10-14

    A single-step route to telechelic polyethylene (PE) is enabled by selective insertion polymerization. PdII-catalyzed copolymerization of ethylene and 2-vinylfuran (VF) generates α,ω-di-furan telechelic polyethylene. Orthogonally reactive exclusively in-chain anhydride groups are formed by terpolymerization with carbic anhydride. Combined experimental and theoretical DFT studies reveal the key for this direct approach to telechelics to be a match of the comonomers’ different electronics and bulk. Identified essential features of the comonomer are that it is an electron-rich olefin that forms an insertion product stabilized by an additional interaction, namely a π–η3 interaction for the case of VF.

  2. Optimization of the synthesis of a high specific activity 125{sup I}-labelled hapten for radioimmunoassays; Optimizacion de un metodo de preparacion de un radiohapteno-125''I para ria de alta actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suraez, C.; Paz, D.; Simon, M. A.; Romero del Hombrebueno, B.

    1994-07-01

    In this first report it is described the synthesis, separation and purification of the 2-radioiodinated histamine- I-labelled histamine by a mixed anhydride reaction. About 75% incorporation of I{sup -}125, from Na{sup 1}25I, was achieved with a molecular ratio of 1:1 mixed anhydride:histamine. The radiochemical purity of the conjugate by TLC was > 99% and its theoretical specific activity, 3850 {mu}Ci/{mu}g. Dissolved in ethanol and held at -20 degree centigree under darkness decomposition on storage didn't exceed 1% per month. (Author) 13 refs.

  3. A Modified Synthesis of the Insect Repellent DEET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoess, Peter H.; Neeland, Edward G.

    1998-10-01

    In the preparation of the insect repellent DEET, lab procedures prepare the intermediate m-toluoyl chloride by heating m-toluic acid with thionyl chloride for times ranging from 15 to 45 minutes. The acid chloride is then worked up under Schotten-Baumann conditions to yield DEET. In our students' hands, these procedures gave a darkly colored product which was contaminated with an anhydride by-product. We have shown that the m-toluoyl chloride can be prepared at room temperature in 8 minutes and that the eventual DEET product is obtained in excellent yield without the dark coloration or anhydride by-product.

  4. Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Rubber-toughened Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of mass fraction 15% CTBN (carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile), 15% Qishi toughening-agent toughened anhydride-cured epoxy resins (EP), and pure anhydride-cured EP were measured. The results showed that the two main toughening mechanisms, localized shear yielding and void plastics growth, which occurred near the threshold region because the rubber size is much less than the plastics size at the crack front, improved the near threshold FCP behavior and increased the threshold. The stable FCP behavior was obviously improved with the FCP rates decreased to less than 21%.

  5. Acetylation of pea isolate in a torus microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, J; Guéguen, J; Berot, S; Popineau, Y; Nouri, L

    1997-02-20

    Acetylation, which acts on the amino groups of proteins, allows to increase the solubility and the emulsifying properties of pea isolate. Acetylation by acetic anhydride was carried out in a torus microreactor in semibatch and continuous conditions. The mixing characteristics, obtained by a residence time distribution (RTD) method, are the same in batch and continuous processes. The maximum acetylation degree reached by the torus reactor is higher than with the stirred reactor. Torus reactors are more efficient than stirred ones as shown by a conversion efficiency, defined by the quantity of modified lysine groups by consumed acetic anhydride. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 53: 409-414, 1997.

  6. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TITANOCENE POLYMER DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhuting; SUN Shumen

    1988-01-01

    Titanocene polymer derivatives with potential antitumor properties were synthesized by interfacial condensation. The preformed polymers used are PAA (polyacrylic acid), CPSMA (1:1 alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride) and DVEMA (1:2 copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride). The ratio of practical and theoretical titanium content is 73.6%, 92.2% and 86.2% for PAA, CPSMA and DVEMA polymer derivatives respectively. The IR spectra of the polymer derivatives possess the characteristic absorptions of titanocene. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) of O1s and Ti2p3/2 supports the existence of Ti-O bonding.

  7. Pasting properties and (chemical) fine structure of acetylated yellow pea starch is affected by acetylation reagent type and granule size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Yellow pea starch was fractionated into small and large size granule fractions and then modified with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate (acetylation after sieving) or first acetylated in the same way and then fractionated into small and large size fractions (acetylation before sieving). Acetylation

  8. Green procedures for the chemoselective synthesis of acylals and their cleavage promoted by recoverable sulfonic acid based nanoporous carbon (CMK-5-SO3H)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Daryoush Zareyee; Ehsan Mirzajanzadeh; Mohammad Ali Khalilzadeh

    2015-07-01

    A selective synthesis of gem-diacetates from the reaction of aldehydes and acetic anhydride in the presence of recyclable nanoporous solid sulfonic acid (CMK-5-SO3H) under solvent-free reaction conditions is reported. The catalyst was also found to be highly active for deprotection of resulting acylals in water.

  9. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization: Highly efficient synthesis of substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones under microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Bakavoli; O. Sabzevari; M. Rahimizadeh

    2007-01-01

    A highly efficient synthesis of 2-amino-N-substituted-benzamides was performed by the condensation of isatoic anhydride with several amines in solvent-free conditions under microwave irradiation. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization of these products with ortho-esters under similar conditions afforded the relevant substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones in high yields.

  10. Feasibility Study on the Design of Reinforced Plastic Components for the LVTP (7) Vehicle Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    neat (pure) resin properties for LRF-092 and LRF-271. LRF-092 LRF-271 - Resin Casting Property (unaged) Property Value Property Value Tensile Strength...fiber properties (Table IV) and resin properties of (Epoxy-Anhydride). 34 4.3.1 Selection of a Shaft Composite Design The purpose of this study is to

  11. Ultrasound-promoted regio and chemoselective synthesis of pyridazinones and phthalazinones catalyzed by ionic liquid [bmim]Br/AlCl3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Leila; Mahmoodi, Nosrat Ollah; Yahyazadeh, Asieh; Nikpassand, Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    The first ultrasound-promoted multicomponent synthesis of pyridazinones and phthalazinones from arenes, cyclic anhydrides and ArNHNH(2) in the presence of an efficient recyclable catalyst, [bmim]Br/AlCl(3), in high yield and short reaction time is reported.

  12. Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

  13. 40 CFR 261.32 - Hazardous wastes from specific sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from cumene (T) K023 Distillation light ends from the production of phthalic anhydride from naphthalene... dinitrotoluene via nitration of toluene (C,T) K112 Reaction by-product water from the drying column in the.../or information about raw materials used, production processes used, and reaction and...

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2 Catalytic Properties of Molybdosiloxane Systems in Epoxidation of Propene With Cumene Hydroperoxide [V. N. Leonov, A. A. Belyy, et al...2 Autocatalysis and Solvent Effects in Reaction of Phthallic Anhydride With Aniline...11 Organometallic Compounds Reaction of Metallic Thallium With Iodoalkanes [I. F. Gunkin, E. V Astakhova, et al.; ZHURNAL OBSHCHEY KHIMII

  15. Alternating Side-Chain Liquid-Crystalline Copolymers with Polar Moieties in the Backbone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwhof, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers (SCLCPs) obtained via the alternating copolymeri-zation of maleic anhydride (MA) and mesogenic 1-alkenes are an interesting class of polymers that may show good adhesion towards metal surfaces and form ordered layered structures. If these polymers contain metho

  16. Iodine Supported on 3-Aminopropyl Silica Gel as Efficient Catalyst for Acetylation of Alcohols under Solvent-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHDAVI Hossein; GHAEMY Mosa; ZERAATPISHEH Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    3-Aminopropyl silica gel (I2/APSG) was found to catalyze the acetylation of alcohols and phenols efficiently with acetic anhydride. The reaction is mild and selective with high yields. A wide variety of alcohols and phenols are selectively converted into the corresponding acetates using I2/APSG under solvent-free conditions at room tem-perature.

  17. Fast preparation of dihydrocyclocitral from citronellal under solventless microwave irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Fritz; Doan, Nhuan Ngoc; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2005-01-01

    Dihydrocyclocitral, a useful reagent in organic synthesis, has been synthesized in high yield and with high stereoselectivity from citronellal under microwave irradiation in two steps, involving acetic anhydride under base catalysis, then p-toluene-sulfonic acid on silica gel under solventless...

  18. Resources for Precision Analysis of Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    ethidium bro-with triethanolamine/acetic anhydride and proteinase K mide staining to visualize psoriasin (246 bp) and GAPDHbefore hybridization...and proteinA .e Psoriasin mRNA was detected in all tumors by RT- els in invasive tumors, and persistance of psoriasin~ - PCR, but the levels varied

  19. Hydrotalcite as an Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for Acylation of Phenols, Amines and Thiols Under Solvent-free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Massah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of alcohols, phenols, amines and thiols were efficiently acylated with carboxylic acid anhydrides and chlorides in the presence of Hydrotalcite under solvent-free conditions at room temperature in good to high yields. Eco-friendly conditions and reusability of the catalyst are the most important advantages of this protocol.

  20. Reactivity of aminodeoxyalditols and derivatives in hydrogen fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Jens Chr.

    to the corresponding 2,5-anhydrides were achieved. These compounds can be recognized as muscarine analogues or precursors. The general mechanism of the reactions was evaluated by 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of the acyloxonium ion intermediates.A series of 1-deoxy-1-trifluoroacetamido-hexitols was prepared...

  1. Techno-economic analysis of unsaturated polyester production from waste PET

    OpenAIRE

    Drah, Abdusalam; Rusmirović, Jelena D.; Milošević, Milena; Kalifa, Mustafa; Stojiljković, Ivana; Rančić, Milica; Aleksandar D. Marinković

    2016-01-01

    Unsaturated polyester resins (UPe) were synthesized from maleic anhydride and products of glycolysis, obtained by polyethylene terephthalate (PET) depolymerization with dipropylene glycol (DPG) in the presence of tetrabutyl titanate catalyst. Waste PET glycolyzed product and UPes were characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, acid value (AV), hydroxyl value (HV) and iodine value. Nanocomposites, based on unsaturated polyester resins and hexamethyldisilazane modified sili...

  2. Ionic liquid [bmim][BF4] acts as solvent and promoter for synthesis of halo-containing N-arylphthalimides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Chu Chen; Hong Qi Ye; Hao Wu

    2007-01-01

    A new synthetic process of N-arylphthalimide and halo-containing N-arylphthalimides through the reaction between phthalic anhydride and aromatic amines bearing halo groups in [bmim][BF4] was described, ionic liquid [bmim][BF4] acted as the dual role of solvent and promoter.

  3. United States Counter-narcotics Policies towards Burma, and How the Illegal Myanmar Regime is Manipulating Those Policies to Commit Ethnic Genocide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Cocaine and Acetic Anhydride for Heroin. 209 Jones. 64 strength is the reason for the growing number of paranoid schizophrenia and powerful mental...than other amphetamines. The hypo-chloride methamphetamines produced from the Golden Triangle region cause severe paranoia, schizophrenia , and

  4. Synthesis and properties of poly(butylene terephthalate)-b-polyisobutylene segmented block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walch, E.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers of polyisobutylene (PIB) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) were made by condensation polymerization of α,θ-di-anhydride telechelic PIB, with 1,4-butanediol and dimethyl terephthalate. The inherent viscosity of the polymers was between 0.35 and 2.0 dl g−1. The extracta

  5. 77 FR 22780 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... additive. with acrylic acid and maleic anhydride, maltodextrin and methacrylic acid, sodium salt, hydrogen... (G) Laundry and auto (G) Carbohydrate, polymers dishwash additive. with acrylic acid maltodextrin... acrylic acid, iso-pr alcohol, maltodextrin, 3- mercaptopropanoic acid and styrene, sodium salt,...

  6. A Feasibility Study of Response Techniques for Discharges of Hazardous Chemicals That Disperse through the Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    chelated by common reagents. * Chromic anhydride, CrO 3, is not directly treatable by chelation. If complex formation is desired, pretreatment with alkali ...case of NaII 2PO4 , may or may not lead to temporary increase in algal growth. Phosphate is sometimes the biomass -determining nutrient, but it is

  7. Reaction of Grignard Reagents with Diethyl Perfluoroacyl( 1-Cyanoethyl ) phosphonates. Synthesis of Perfluoroalkylated α, β-Unsaturated Nitriles with Predominant Z-Selectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN,Yan-Chang(沈延昌); JIANG,Guo-Fang(江国防)

    2002-01-01

    Diethyl (1-cyanoethyl)phosphonate 1 was reacted with n-butyllithium in tetrahydrofuran ( THF ) at - 78 ℃ and the resulting carbanion 2 reacted with perfluoroalkanoic acid anhydride to afford perfluoroacylated phosphonate 3. Without isolation 3was attacked by Grognard reagents giving perfluoroalkylated α,β-unsaturated nitries in 46%-88% yields with high Zstereoselectivity(Z:E=89-62:11-38).

  8. Green starch conversions : Studies on starch acetylation in densified CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; Picchioni, Francesco; Heeres, Hero J.; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.

    2010-01-01

    The acetylation of potato starch with acetic anhydride (AAH) and sodium acetate (NaOAc) as catalyst in densified CO2 was explored in a batch reactor setup. The effects of process variables such as pressure (6-9.8 MPa), temperature (40-90 degrees C), AAH to starch ratio (2-5 mol/mol AGU), NaOAc to st

  9. Synthesis ofε-Caprolactone by Oxidation of Cyclohexanone with Monoperoxysuccinic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建; 赵小双; 张光旭; 陈波; 蔡卫权

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of catalyst, 70%hydrogen peroxide was used to oxidize succinic anhydride to solid mo-noperoxysuccinic acid (PSA). Then PSA was applied to synthesis ofε-caprolactone (ε-CL) by oxidation of cyclo-hexanone in the heterogeneous system. In order to achieve material recycle, solid precipitated in the process of synthesizing ε-CL was dehydrated via reactive distillation followed by recrystallization to prepare succinic anhy-dride, which was characterized by IR (infrared spectra) and 1HNMR (1H nuclear magnetic resonance). Effects of molar ratio of PSA to cyclohexanone, acetic acid dosage, reaction temperature, reaction time on conversion of cyclohexanone, yield and selectivity ofε-CL were investigated respectively. The results indicated that conversion of cyclohexanone, yield and selectivity of ε-CL were upto 98.1%, 97.5% and 99.4% respectively under the optimal conditions. In addition, in the process of synthesizing succinic anhydride, the optimal yield of succinic anhydride reached 67.4%.

  10. An Efficient and Facile Procedure for Synthesis of Acetates from Alcohols Catalyzed by Poly(4-vinylpyridinium tribromide)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maryam HAJJAMI; Arash GHORBANI-CHOGHAMARANI; Masoomeh NOROUZI

    2012-01-01

    Poly(4-vinylpyridinium tribromide) is an efficient catalyst for the conversion of various alcohols to their corresponding acetate derivatives with acetic anhydride.This method has some advantages such as mild reaction conditions,good to excellent yields,and ease of work-up.

  11. Degradation and contamination of perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane due to swelling-dehydration cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Morgen, Per; Skou, Eivind Morten

    to the membrane degradation in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), where liquid water has direct contact with the electrolyte. An ex-situ experiment was established with swelling-dehydration cycles on the membrane. However, formation of sulfonic anhydride was not detected during the entire treatment; instead...... contamination from calcium was found the primary reason for the deterioration of the membrane properties....

  12. Synthesis of coenzyme A thioesters using methyl acyl phosphates in an aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Mohan; Bearne, Stephen L

    2014-12-28

    Regioselective S-acylation of coenzyme A (CoA) is achieved under aqueous conditions using various aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids activated as their methyl acyl phosphate monoesters. Unlike many hydrophobic activating groups, the anionic methyl acyl phosphate mixed anhydride is more compatible with aqueous solvents, making it useful for conducting acylation reactions in an aqueous medium.

  13. Exceptionally large banded spherulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, R. R.

    1994-07-01

    This article concerns the crystallization of maleic anhydride from a blend containing 2 wt% of poly(acrylonitrile). High speed photography and temperature measurements during the crystallization as well as X-ray diffraction from the blend after crystallization are consistent with a banded spherulitic morphology.

  14. Reinforcement of polypropylene by annual plant fibers: optimisation of the coupling agent efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.H.B.; Bos, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Annual growth agrofibers like flax and jute can compete with glass fibers, considering their intrinsic mechanical properties. This paper discusses reinforcement of polypropylene (PP) homopolymer with flax bast fibers. Maleic Anhydride modified PP (MAPP) grades are screened on coupling efficiency. Th

  15. A Quick and Simple Conversion of Carboxylic Acids into Their Anilides of Heating with Phenyl Isothiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Ram N.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Converting carboxylic acids into their anilides, which usually involves preparation of acid chloride or mixed anhydride followed by treatment with aniline, is tedious and/or time-consuming. A quick and easier procedure, using phenyl isothiocyanate, is provided. Reactions involved and a summary table of results are included. (JN)

  16. Synthetic Studies of Bioactive Substances of 4-Hydroxybenzalhydantoin Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, IW; Sumiarsa, D.; Permatasari, M.; AKania; Riska; Priani, L.

    2017-02-01

    4-hydroxybenzalhydantoin derivatives were synthesized by the condensation reaction between benzaldehydes 12-13 and substituted hydantoins 14-16 under standard conditions of reflux in glacial acetic acid, in the present of sodium acetate and a little amount of acetic anhydride as a catalyst. All compounds were identified by spectral analysis to give 4-hydroxybenzalhydantoins 17-21.

  17. Targeting PCNA Phosphorylation in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    consecutive amino acid analogues representing lysine (peptoid nomenclature : NLys). These ‘lysine’ peptoids are N-terminally conjugated, separated by a 6...dihydroquinazolin-6-yl acetate (3) A suspension of 6-hydroxy-7-methoxyquinazolin-4(3H)-one (2, 2.4 g, 12.5 mmol) in acetic anhydride (15 mL), pyridine (3.0 mL

  18. Cyclopentadienyl Rhenium (Technetium) Tricarbonyl Complexes Integrated in Estrogen Receptor Ligands for ER+ Tumor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Oxidation to the N-oxide 38 with peroxy acid, with subsequent rearrangement provides the alcohol 39. Treatment of 39 with triflic anhydride in...anionic monodentate ligand is bromide for the pyridyl-imine rhenium tricarbonyl bromide (PIRB VI) system. A nomenclature of PIRB ligands is based

  19. Elastomeric Materials for Acoustical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-15

    useful guides to identification and selection of these are: ASTM D 1418 - Rubber and Rubber Lattices- Nomenclature , ASTM D 1566 - Standard Definition of...molecular weight of 600 g/mol. It normally contains small amounts of dodecyl succinic anhydride as an antioxodant. The material that is normally used

  20. Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive Materials for Transducer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    epoxy is as follows: 10 gm vinylcyclohexene dioxide 4 gmn diglycidyl ether of polypropylene glycol 26 gm nonenyl succinic anhydride 0.4 gm...Pb substitution and four different levels of Pyroelectric measurements were made to obtain spon- Nb substitution. The nomenclature CPNT-y-x will be