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Sample records for anhydrides

  1. A method for isolating a phthalic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorkyan, A.A.; Amitin, A.V.; Dronov, V.K.; Geyman, V.N.; Ivanov, V.G.; Krupin, V.S.; Yermakova, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    The method for isolating phthalic anhydride from contact gases of vapor phase oxidation of naphthaline or o-xylene is distinguished by the fact that in order to simplify the process for cooling desublimates, water is used and melted phthalic anhydride is used for heating.

  2. MODIFICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE WITH ACETIC ANHYDRIDE AND BUTYRIC ANHYDRIDE IN IONIC LIQUID 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM CHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Di Chen; Ai-Ping Zhang,; Chuan-Fu Liu; Run-Cang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Bagasse acetate butyrates were prepared homogeneously in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) ionic liquid from ball-milled sugarcane bagasse by acylation with acetic anhydride and butyric anhydride. The parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time, feeding method of adding anhydrides, the dosage of total anhydrides to SCB, and the molar ratio of acetic anhydride to butyric anhydride, were considered, and the extent of acylation was measured by weight percent gain (WP...

  3. Polyisobutylene interaction kinetics with maleic anhydride in fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Киселёва-Логинова, Екатерина Валерьевна; Попов, Евгений Вадимович; Савяк, Роман Прокопович; Кондратов, Сергей Алексеевич

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of the interaction of maleic anhydride with polyisobutylene to form polyizobuthylene succine anhydride was investigated. It was shown that the kinetics is described by first-order equation

  4. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE IN TETRAHYDROFURAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1991-01-01

    The copo1ymerization of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate in tetrahydrofuran was studied.Results show that the maximum copolymerization rate is in 0.6 mole fraction of maleic anhydride,indicating the involvement of maleic anhydride-tetrahydrofuran charge-transfer complex in the chain initiation process. ESR study provides collateral evidence for the formation of maleic anhydride radical and tetrahydrofuran radical.

  5. Preparation of poly(glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) weak acid cation exchange stationary phases with succinic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, and maleic anhydride for ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junwei; Wang, Yong; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    In this work, poly(glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres were prepared and applied for the preparation of weak acid cation exchange stationary phases. Succinic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, and maleic anhydride were selected as carboxylation reagents to prepare three weak acid cation exchangers by direct chemical derivatization reaction without solvent or catalyst. The diameters and dispersity of the microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy; the amount of accessible epoxy groups and mechanical stability were also measured. The weak acid cation exchangers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; the content of carboxyl groups was measured by traditional acid base titration method. The chromatographic properties were characterized and compared by separating alkali, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium and polar amines. The separation properties enhanced in the order of succinic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, and maleic anhydride modified poly(glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) cation exchangers. PMID:27288092

  6. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  7. Properties of Esterified Wood Prepared with Maleic Anhydride / Tetrabr Omophthalic Anhydride / Glycerol Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianzhang; Furuno Takeshi; Zhou Wenrui; Yu Zhiming; Sun Yanling; Zhang Derong

    2003-01-01

    For overcoming disadvantages of wood, an esterification process was employed and tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA) was used as a reactive chemical agent to prepare an esterified wood with the high dimensional stability, flame resistance, and resistance to biodegradation from water-leaching. The experimental results indicated that esterification of wood plus maleic anhydride / tetrabromophthalic anhydride / glycerol could endow wood with dimensional stability, the antiswelling efficiency during water absorption (ASEw), reduction in water absorptivity (RWA), antiswelling efficiency during moisture absorption (ASEm), moisture excluding efficiency (MEE), and oxygen index (OI) of treated wood increased with an increase in the weight percent gain (WPG). And the treated wood showed great decay resistance and resistance to water leaching, too.

  8. The XPS peak structure of condensed aromatic anhydrides and imides

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, M; Baston, U.; Porwol, T.; Freund, H.-J.; Umbach, E.

    2004-01-01

    Photoelectron spectra of aromatic anhydrides and imides like PTCDA (perylene-tetracarboxylic dianhydride), PTCDI (perylene-tetracarboxylic diimide), and NDCA (naphthalene-dicarboxylic anhydride) on smooth single crystal surfaces show complex double peak structures in both the O1s and the anhydride C1s range. The peak intensity ratios cannot be simply explained by different chemical states of the atoms but are strongly influenced by intense shake-up satellites. Semiempirical SDCI calculations ...

  9. Maleic anhydride grafting on EPDM rubber in the melt

    OpenAIRE

    Oostenbrink, A.J.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The grafting of maleic anhydride on a EPDM rubber was studied with a twin screw extruder. The effect of barrel temperatures, throughput, maleic anhydride concentration and peroxide concentration [bis(t-butyl peroxy isopropyl)benzene] on the degree of grafting and melt viscosity was studied. The maleic anhydride concentration was determined by potentiometric titration and a correlation was made with quantitative i.r. analysis.

  10. Diglycerol-based polyesters: melt polymerization with hydrophobic anhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakshinamoorthy, Deivasagayam; Weinstock, Allison K; Damodaran, Krishnan; Iwig, David F; Mathers, Robert T

    2014-10-01

    The melt polymerization of diglycerol with bicyclic anhydride monomers derived from a naturally occurring monoterpene provides an avenue for polyesters with a high degree of sustainability. The hydrophobic anhydrides are synthesized at ambient temperature via a solvent-free Diels-Alder reaction of α-phellandrene with maleic anhydride. Subsequent melt polymerizations with tetra-functional diglycerol are effective under a range of [diglycerol]/[anhydride] ratios. The hydrophobicity of α-phellandrene directly impacts the swelling behavior of the resulting polyesters. The low E factors (75%), ambient temperature monomer synthesis, and polymer degradability represent key factors in the design of these sustainable polyesters. PMID:25138308

  11. Maleic anhydride grafting on EPDM rubber in the melt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrink, A.J.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The grafting of maleic anhydride on a EPDM rubber was studied with a twin screw extruder. The effect of barrel temperatures, throughput, maleic anhydride concentration and peroxide concentration [bis(t-butyl peroxy isopropyl)benzene] on the degree of grafting and melt viscosity was studied. The male

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(maleic Anhydride)s Cross-linked Polyimide Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2015-01-01

    With the development of technology for aerospace applications, new thermal insulation materials are required to be flexible and capable of surviving high heat flux. For instance, flexible insulation is needed for inflatable aerodynamic decelerators which are used to slow spacecraft for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations. Polyimide aerogels have low density, high porosity, high surface area, and better mechanical properties than silica aerogels and can be made into flexible thin films, thus they are potential candidates for aerospace needs. The previously reported cross-linkers such as octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS) and 1,3,5-triaminophenoxybenzene (TAB) are either expensive or not commercially available. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of polyimide aerogels cross-linked using various commercially available poly(maleic anhydride)s, as seen in Figure 1. The amine end capped polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and diamine combinations of dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ) and 4, 4-oxydianiline (ODA). The resulting aerogels have low density (0.12 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3), high porosity (90) and high surface area (380-554 m2g). The effect of the different poly(maleic anhydride) cross-linkers and polyimide backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed.

  13. Adsorption of maleic anhydride on Pt(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Godhuli; Heikkinen, Olli; Vestberg, Matias; Mether, Lotta; Nordlund, Kai; Lahtinen, Jouko

    2014-02-01

    The surface chemistry of maleic anhydride (MA) has been studied on Pt(111) with temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Adsorption of MA takes place at 170 K forming multilayers. We have studied the behavior of distinct carbon and oxygen species of MA depending on the surface temperature. MA-TPD indicates three main desorption temperatures; at 240 K, approximately 60% of total MA on the surface shows molecular desorption. At high temperatures (360 and 550 K) MA shows dissociative decomposition with production of C2H2, CO and CO2 fragments. A plausible decomposition pathway of MA on the Pt(111) surface is discussed. DFT calculations provide details of the adsorption geometry.

  14. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF EXTRACTABLE PROTEIN BINDING USING MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thirawan Nipithakul; Ladawan Watthanachote; Nanticha Kalapat

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study of using maleic anhydride copolymer for protein binding has been carried out.The polymeric films were prepared by compression of the purified resin and annealing the film to induce efficient back formation of the anhydride groups.The properties of the film surface were analyzed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements.The protein content was determined by Bradford assay.To obtain optimum conditions,immersion time for protein binding was examined.Results revealed that proteins can be successfully immobilized onto the film surface via covalent linkage.The efficiency of the covalent binding of the extractable protein to maleic anhydride-polyethylene film was estimated at 69.87 μtg/cm2,although the film had low anhydride content (3%) on the surface.

  15. Thermal Study of Anhydrides Cured Tetrafunctional Cardo Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh P. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrafunctional cardo epoxy resin (EBCF was cured by using 10 wt% maleic anhydride (MA, pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA, phthalic anhydride (PA, tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA, tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA, and tetrachlorophthalic anhydride (TCPA as hardeners at 120°C for 40–105 min (gel time and then postcured 1 h at 130°C. Gel time is found to depend on the structure of the anhydrides used. Cured samples were found insoluble in common solvents. Cured and uncured EBCF were characterized by FTIR, DSC, and TGA techniques. Cured and uncured resins followed multistep degradation reactions. Kinetic parameters, namely, order of degradation, energy of activation, frequency factor, and entropy change, were determined according to the Anderson-Freeman method and interpreted in light of the nature of hardeners used for curing purpose. The resins followed integral or fractional order degradation kinetics. Complex degradation reactions are due to different types of linkages in cured resins. Both nature and structure of resin and hardeners affected the curing behavior and the resultant thermal properties of the cured resins.

  16. Properties of modified anhydride hardener and its cured resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Chen; Bingjun, Gao; Jinglin, Chen; Tongzhao, Xu

    2000-01-01

    Methyl-nadic-tetrahydric-methylanhydride (MNA), nadic-tetrahydric-methylanhydride (NA), anhydride hardener was modified by solid diol molecule to improve the impregnation resin fracture toughness in cryogenic temperature. The lap-shear strength, transverse tension as well as the thermal shock test showed that the resin cured by the modified anhydride hardener had higher bond strength and more toughness at 77 K. After the experiment of vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) processing, it was found that this resin had a longer usable life, better impregnating properties, but higher initial viscosity than the resin hybrid HY925 as hardener.

  17. Cepljenje malein anhidrida na polipropilen: Grafting of maleic anhydride onto polypropylene:

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrievski, Ilija; Malavašič, Tatjana; Šebenik, Anton; Trček, Urška

    1995-01-01

    The reaction of grafting of maleic anhydride onto polypropylene has been investigated in a Brabender Plasticorder. The effect of temperature, concentration of added maleic anhydride and concentration of added initiator on torque and on the concentration of bound maleic anhydride were studied. The products were analysed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy and the content of the bound maleic anhydride was determined by titration. Reakcijo ceplenja malein anhidrida (MAH) na polipropilen (PP) smo pr...

  18. Dissolution of paracetamol crystallized in the presence of poly(vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride)

    OpenAIRE

    Raval D; Parikh D; Patel V

    2006-01-01

    Copolymer of vinyl acetate and maleic anhydride, poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride) was prepared by precipitation polymerization and characterized. Paracetamol was crystallized in presence of different concentrations of poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride). Crystals were characterized by sieve analysis, solubility and dissolution study. Crystallization of paracetamol in presence of poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride) caused a marked enhancement in its dissolution rate with incr...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3500 Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA.... Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  20. Selective deoxygenation of stearic acid via an anhydride pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollak, S.A.W.; Bitter, W.; Haveren, van J.; Es, van D.S.

    2012-01-01

    Stearic anhydride is proposed as reactive intermediate in the hydrogen free decarbonylation and ketonization of stearic acid over Pd/Al2O3 at 523 K. This information is crucial towards developing of a selective low temperature decarbonylation process of fatty acids towards olefins.

  1. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820 Section 177.1820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated...

  2. Relationship of airborne trimellitic anhydride concentrations to trimellitic anhydride--induced symptoms and immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen workers exposed to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) powder were evaluated in 1979. Twelve of these workers were available for longitudinal study until 1982. Annual clinical evaluations and serum radioimmunoassays for total antibody binding and specific IgE binding to 125I-TM-HSA were performed. In 1979, five workers had antibody against TM-HSA. Of these, three workers were diagnosed with the late respiratory systemic syndrome (LRSS) and one worker with TMA-induced allergic rhinitis. The LRSS workers had significantly elevated total antibody binding of 125I-TM-HSA and the worker with rhinitis had significantly elevated specific IgE binding of 125I-TM-HSA per milliliter of serum. Although TMA handling was intermittent throughout the year, average airborne dust concentrations from 1974 to 1978 at job stations of the two heaviest TMA-exposed occupations, operator and assistant operator, were 2.1 and 0.82 mg/m3, respectively. After local exhaust ventilation had been improved, average airborne dust concentrations of TMA at the two latter job stations fell to levels of 0.03 and 0.01 mg/m3, respectively, in 1982. The decrease in TMA exposure coincided with a gradual fall in total antibody binding of 125I-TM-HSA per milliliter in 1982 and symptomatic improvement in the three individuals with the LRSS. The continuous low-level exposure of the worker with TMA rhinitis was sufficient to elicit a rise in specific IgE against TM-HSA from 1.1 ng of 125I-TM-HSA bound per milliliter in 1979 to 2.12 in 1982

  3. Microwave-assisted addition of azomethines to isatoic anhydride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Dominic Jacob; Lopez Mathew; Baby Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Diels-Alder addition of azomethines to isatoic anhydride in a solvent-free and eco-friendly condition is investigated using a microwave oven. The product is exclusively 2,3-diaryl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones 4a-d. HOMO-LUMO energy of the iminoketene and the dienophiles were calculated using semi-empirical AM1 calculations.

  4. Syntheses and Drug Delivery Property of Biodegradable Polyether-Anhydrides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Both polyanhydrides and polyethers are new types of biodegradble polymers. They are of particular interest as materials for controlled drug release systems duo to their excellent surface erosion properties of polyanhydrides and excellent biocompatibility of polyethers. They have been widly used in biomaterials.A series of polyether anhydrides elastomer were firstly synthesed through introducing PEG into the polyanhydrides chains. Their degradation and drug release property were also studied. These materials may be used in applications where materials are needed with properties more close to those of natural skin.

  5. A facile and efficient synthetic method for 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Feng Wu; Mei Jia Yang; Yang Wang; Guo Wei Gao; Jian Men

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach to the synthesis of 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride has been described. The target compound was synthesized by Pd/Cu catalyzed Sonogashira coupling reaction between phenylacetylene and 4-bromophthalic acid which was for the first time employed as start material, followed by dehydration of 4-phenylethynylphthalic acid. Compared with traditional synthetic routes, this method provides several advantages such as readily available raw materials, convenient manipulation and high yield. The products were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analysis, respectively.

  6. POLYMERIZATION OF LACTIC O-CARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE USING ORGANOMETALLIC CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-li Zhuang; Hai-yang Yu; Zhao-hui Tang; Kenichi Oyaizu; Hiroyuki Nishide; Xue-si Chen

    2011-01-01

    The ring-opening polymerization of 5-methyl-l,3-dioxolane-2,4-dione (lactic O-earboxylic anhydride, LacOCA) using organometallic complexes, including Co(Ⅲ) complexes with Schiff base ligands, Tin(Ⅱ) alphatates and Al(Ⅲ)complexes with Schiff base ligands, was explored. The polymerization was carried out by treatment of the organometallic complexes with LacOCA in toluene under mild conditions. The corresponding poly(lactic acid) was characterized by spectroscopy and thermal analyses, which revealed insight into the structure of the effective catalyst for the polymerizationof LacOCA.

  7. Investigations on organolead compounds III. The reaction of organolead compounds with ketene. (Triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1965-01-01

    The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead hydroxide in diethyl ether gave (triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride, (Ph3PbCH2CO)2O, the first anhydride-substituted organolead compound known. The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead acetate in absolute ethanol gave ethyl (triphenylplumbyl)acetate, Ph3PbCH

  8. Initiation precursors and initiators in laser-induced copolymerization of styrene and maleic anhydride in acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E.; Chang, C. Ken

    1990-01-01

    The initiation step of photopolymerized styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer was investigated at 365 nm. UV absorption measurements provide decisive evidence that the styrene/maleic anhydride charge transfer complex is the sole absorbing species; however, key laser experiments suggest intermediate reactions lead to a monoradical initiating species. A mechanism for the photoinitiation step of the copolymer is proposed.

  9. MALEIC ANHYDRIDE HYDROGENATION OF PD/AL2O3 CATALYST UNDER SUPERCRITICAL CO2 MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogenation of maleic anhydride (MA) to either y-butyrolactone of succinic anhydride over simple Pd/Al2O3 impregnated catalyst in supercritical CO2 medium has been studied at different temperatures and pressures. A comparison of the supercritical CO2 medium reaction with the c...

  10. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... product with maleic anhydride. 721.524 Section 721.524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... with maleic anhydride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  11. Indirect rapid prototyping of antibacterial acid anhydride copolymer microneedles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microneedles are needle-like projections with microscale features that may be used for transdermal delivery of a variety of pharmacologic agents, including antibacterial agents. In the study described in this paper, an indirect rapid prototyping approach involving a combination of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography and micromolding was used to prepare microneedle arrays out of a biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer, Gantrez® AN 169 BF. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry and nanoindentation studies were performed to evaluate the chemical and mechanical properties of the Gantrez® AN 169 BF material. Agar plating studies were used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial performance of these arrays against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Large zones of growth inhibition were noted for Escherichia coli, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and B. subtilis. The performance of Gantrez® AN 169 BF against several bacteria suggests that biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer microneedle arrays prepared using visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography micromolding may be useful for treating a variety of skin infections. (communication)

  12. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  13. Protein-Semisynthese mit Hilfe gemischter Anhydride und Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, H.; Naithani, V. K.; Gattner, H.-G.; Büllesbach, E. E.; Thamm, P. M.

    1981-02-01

    Proteins play a prominent role in nature and their biosynthesis occurs via stepwise combination of amino acids. One can imitate this method in laboratory or synthesize the polypeptide chain by combining smaller preformed fragments (fragment condensation). Reversible protection of reactive groups and solubility problems arising are the most important features in this regard. Semisynthesis, i.e., coupling of amino acids or peptides to natural material may help to overcome these difficulties. The preparation of hybrid preproinsulin by mixed anhydride synthesis and the conversion of pork insulin to human insulin by enzyme-catalyzed peptide synthesis are two examples of the semisynthesis of proteins. In both cases optimal reaction conditions are essential for maximal yield of the product desired. In spite of the rapid improvement of gene technology, chemical peptide synthesis will retain its value for the preparation of biologically and pharmacologically interesting substances.

  14. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine.

  15. Perylenetetracarboxylic anhydride as a precursor of fluorescent carbon nanoonion rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoví, Herme G.; Herance, José Raul; Manuel Víctor, Víctor; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2015-07-01

    Thermal annealing at 400 °C of perylenetetracarboxylic anhydride in low molecular mass PEG gives rise to the formation of well defined nanoobjects of 2.5 nm height and size distribution from 10 to 65 nm (average 40 nm) after purification of the raw mixture with silicagel chromatography. TEM reveals that the flat nanoobjects are constituted of concentric graphenic rings (0.34 nm interlayer distance). The morphology of the nanoparticles resembles onion rings of nanometric dimensions (nanoonion rings C-NOR). C-NOR particles have an excitation dependent emission with λem from 430 to 570 nm and a maximum emission quantum yield of 0.49. C-NOR particles can be internalized into Hep3B human hepatoma cells as determined by confocal fluorescence microscopy and are remarkably biocompatible affecting slightly cell viability according to the MTT test.

  16. Low Viscosity Imides Based on Asymmetric Oxydiphthalic Anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Criss, Jim M., Jr.; Mintz, Eric A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    A series of low-melt viscosity imide resins were prepared from asymmetric oxydiphthalic dianhydride (a-ODPA) and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride as the endcap, along with 3,4' - oxydianiline (3,4' -ODA), 3,4' -methylenedianiline (3,4' -MDA), 3,3' -methylenedianiline (3,3' - MDA) and 3,3'-diaminobenzophenone (3,3'-DABP), using a solvent-free melt process. These imide oligomers displays low-melt viscosities (2-15 poise) at 260-280 C, which made them amenable to low-cost resin transfer molding (RTM) process. The a-ODPA based RTM resins exhibits glass transition temperatures (Tg's) in the range of 265-330 C after postcure at 343 C. The mechanical properties of these polyimide/carbon fiber composites fabricated by RTM will be discussed.

  17. Crystal structure of 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride: continuous chains of electrostatic attraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wiscons, Ren A.; Matthias Zeller; Rowsell, Jesse L. C.

    2015-01-01

    In the crystal structure of 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, C6H6O3, the closest non-bonding intermolecular distances, between the carbonyl C and O atoms of neighboring molecules, were measured as 2.9054 (11) and 3.0509 (11) Å, which are well below the sum of the van der Waals radii for these atoms. These close contacts, as well as packing motifs similar to that of the title compound, were also found in the crystal structure of maleic anhydride itself and other 2,3-disubstituted maleic anhydride...

  18. Poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate)/cellulose nanocrystal composites modified with phthalic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuzhen; Zhang, Yong

    2015-12-10

    As a kind of biomass nanofiller for polymers, cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) has good mechanical properties and reinforcing capability. To improve the compatibility of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA)/CNC composites, phthalic anhydride was used as a compatilizer during melt mixing, leading to the significant improvement of the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composites, which is related to the better dispersion of CNC in the composites. The addition of phthalic anhydride could accelerate the crystallization of PBSA component as evidenced by the curves of isothermal crystallization of the composites, but had little effect on the crystalline polymorphs of PBSA component. The addition of phthalic anhydride could strongly improve the hydrophobicity of the composites. The good mechanical properties, fast crystallization and improved hydrophobicity of PBSA/CNC composites with phthalic anhydride are favor to their practical commercial utilization.

  19. Studying the effect of high pressure on the cycloaddition reactions of maleic anhydride and substituted anthracenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, V. D.; Shakirova, I. I.; Kornilov, D. A.; Kashaeva, E. A.; Potapova, L. N.; Konovalov, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics (rate, activation, and volume) of the high-pressure (up to 2500 bar) Diels-Alder reactions of maleic anhydride with 9-phenylanthracene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene in toluene is investigated.

  20. Investigation of Plasma Polymerized Maleic Anhydride Film in a Middle Frequency Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wenjie; CHEN Qiang; ZHANG Yuefei; GE Yuanjing

    2008-01-01

    Plasma polymerized maleic anhydride (MA) was carried out by using maleic anhydride supersaturated ethanol solution as a precursor in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The film properties were characterized by water contact angle (WCA), Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis, and a thickness profilometer. The influence of the processing parameters on the film properties such as the power frequency, and polymerization zone was investigated. The results show that anhydride group incorporated into the growing films is favorable at the frequency of 80 kHz and working pressure of 50 Pa. The poly (maleic anhydride) film is uniform and compact at an average deposition rate of 8 nm/min.

  1. Morphologies and Thermal Variability of Patterned Polymer Films with Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter Samyn; Gustaaf Schoukens

    2014-01-01

    Patterned films of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) copolymers were deposited by dip-coating from acetone solutions. A qualitative study of the film morphologies shows the formation of polymer spheres with smaller diameters at higher amounts of maleic anhydride (MA), and long-fibrous features at higher molecular weights. Upon heating, the films progressively re-assemble with short- and long-fibrous structures as a function of heating time and temperature. In parallel, the film morphologies a...

  2. Physicochemical Characterization and the Comparison of Chitin and Chitin Modified with Maleic Anhydride

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan Uzun; Ömer Çelik

    2015-01-01

    Firstly, chitin was modified via ring-opening reaction with maleic anhydride in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide. Then, both chitin and chitin modified with maleic anhydride (CMA) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) method, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to investigate the thermal stability of chitin and CMA. TGA results showed that...

  3. Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymerization in a recycle tubular reactor: reactor stability and product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Belkhiria, Sahbi; Meyer, Thierry; Renken, Albert

    1994-01-01

    A tubular recycle reactor was developed to ensure good homogeneity of concn. and temp. in the copolymn. of styrene and maleic anhydride. The compn. of the copolymer obtained is in good agreements with predicted values and the uniformity of compn. was measured for the entire mol.-wt. distribution. The characterization of the reactor (both hydrodynamic and stability) and the quality of the resulting polymer are presented herein. The limits of use of this reactor for the styrene-maleic anhydride...

  4. Mechanistic Studies on a Sulfoxide Transfer Reaction Mediated by Diphenyl Sulfoxide/Triflic Anhydride

    OpenAIRE

    Fascione, Martin A; Adshead, Sophie J; Mandal, Pintu K; Kilner, Colin A; Leach, Andrew G; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Sulfoxides are frequently used in organic synthesis as chiral auxiliaries and reagents to mediate a wide variety of chemical transformations. For example, diphenyl sulfoxide and triflic anhydride can be used to activate a wide range of glycosyl donors including hemiacetals, glycals and thioglycosides. In this way, an alcohol, enol or sulfide is converted into a good leaving group for subsequent reaction with an acceptor alcohol. However, reaction of diphenyl sulfoxide and triflic anhydride wi...

  5. Réaction du polyisobutène chloré sur l'anhydride maléique : mécanisme. Catalyse par l'anhydride dichloromaléique Reaction of Chlorinated Polyisobutene on Maleic Anhydride. Mechanism. Catalysis by Dichloromaleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sillion B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article le mécanisme de la réaction de condensation du polyisobutène chloré sur l'anhydride maléique, qui sert dans la synthèse d'additif pour lubrifiant, est étudié par une cinétique globale et par un travail sur composés modèles. Il est montré que, dans cette réaction, l'anhydride maléique joue un double rôle : de catalyseur de déshydrochloration par une réactivité de type acide de Lewis organique, de réactif comme diénophile. Grâce à ces résultats, il est proposé une catalyse par l'anhydride dichloromaléique, qui permet une amélioration sensible du procédé. This article examines the mechanism of the chlorinated-polyisobutene condensation reaction on maleic anhydride. The overall kinetics and model compounds are investigated for this reaction which is used in the synthesis of lubricant additives. Maleic anhydride is shown to play the dual role of a dehydrochlorination catalyst by having a reactivity of the organic Lewis acid type and of a reactant like dienophile. These results are used to propose a catalysis by dichloromaleic anhydride which appreciably improves the process.

  6. Convergence of Biological Nitration and Nitrosation via Symmetrical Nitrous Anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitturi, Dario A.; Minarrieta, Lucia; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Fazzari, Marco; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Lancaster, Jack R.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Current perspective holds that the generation of secondary signaling mediators from nitrite (NO2−) requires acidification to nitrous acid (HNO2) or metal catalysis. Herein, the use of stable isotope-labeled NO2− and LC-MS/MS analysis of products revealed that NO2− also participates in fatty acid nitration and thiol S-nitrosation at neutral pH. These reactions occur in the absence of metal centers and are stimulated by nitric oxide (•NO) autoxidation via symmetrical dinitrogen trioxide (nitrous anhydride, symN2O3) formation. While theoretical models have predicted physiological symN2O3 formation, its generation is now demonstrated in aqueous reaction systems, cell models and in viv, with the concerted reactions of •NO and NO2− shown to be critical for symN2O3 formation. These results reveal new mechanisms underlying the NO2− propagation of •NO signaling and the regulation of both biomolecule function and signaling network activity via NO2−-dependent nitrosation and nitration reactions. PMID:26006011

  7. Selective hydrogenation of maleic anhydride over Pd/Al2O3 catalysts prepared via colloid deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongjing Yuan; Chunlei Zhang; Weitao Huo; Chunli Ning; Yong Tang; Yi Zhang; Dequan Cong; Wenxiang Zhang; Jiahuan Luo; Su Li; Zhenlu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Pd/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared via colloid deposition and the performance of the catalysts was examined in the selective hydrogenation of maleic anhydride to succinic anhydride. When the reaction was carried on in a batch system with 1,4-dioxane as the solvent (353K and 1.0MPa), high conversion of maleic anhydride (>98%) and high selectivity (>99%) for succinic anhydride were observed after 5 h. The as-prepared Pd/Al2O3 catalyst also showed excellent performance in solvent-free system and fixed-bed systems. The maleic anhydride (MA) conversion was greater than 98%, and high selectivity (>99%) for succinic anhydride was obtained after 1600 h in a fixed bed reacter. The results showed that the activity of the Pd/Al2O3 catalysts was excellent due to its high active surface area.

  8. Inverse Secondary Deuterium Kinetic Isotope Effect in Diels-Alder Reaction of Orthonaphtho [3.3] orthoanthracenophane with Maleic Anhydride

    OpenAIRE

    Mataka, Shuntaro; Ma, Jiang; Tsuzuki, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kozaburo; Thiemann, Thies; Tashiro, Masashi

    1996-01-01

    The Diels-Alderreactions of rigid [3.3] orthoanthracenophanes 1 and 2 with maleic anhydride and deuterium-labeled maleic anhydride-d_2, were studied. In the reaction of naphtophane 1, a large inverse secondary kinetic isotope effect (SDKIE) (kH_2/kD_2=0.78) was observed, while benzophane 2 shows a SDKIE similar to that of anthracene itself (kH_2/kD_2=0.95 and 0.96).

  9. Melt Modification of Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with Alcohols in the Presence of 1,3-Oxazolines

    OpenAIRE

    Bruch, Matthias; Mäder, Dietmar; Bauers, Florian; Loontjens, Ton; Mülhaupt, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    Various copolyesteramides were prepared by melt compounding at 220 °C involving reaction of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride), SMA, with 6, 17, and 28 wt % maleic anhydride content, and 1-dodecanol, C12OH, in the presence of 2-undecyl-1,3-oxazoline, C11OXA. Copolymer architectures were examined by means of 1H NMR, FTIR, DSC, and TGA using model compounds prepared via solution reactions. While conversion of anhydride with alcohol was poor due to the thermodynamically favored anhydride ring for...

  10. The application of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy to the analysis of poly(anhydride) homo- and co-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, A. M.; Melia, C. D.; Davies, M. C.; Hendra, P. J.; Church, S.; Domb, A. J.; Langer, R.

    Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy was used to characterise a homologous series of aliphatic poly(anhydrides), poly[ bis( p-carboxyphenoxy) alkane anhydrides] and a selection of co-polymers of sebacic/ [bis( p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride] P(SA-CPP). The techniqe is compared to conventional infrared for characterisation work, highlighting the advantage of small sample requirement and minimal sample preparation necessary for acquisition of spectral information. It is possible to differentiate between aromatic and aliphatic anhydride bonding, and in conjunction with other diagnostic bands to monitor the change in individual monomer composition within a co-polymer mixture.

  11. Biodegradable polymers derived from renewable resources: Highly branched copolymers of itaconic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Joshua Andrew

    In an effort to design cyclic anhydride containing polymers that are derived from renewable resources and have biodegradable characteristics, three copolymer systems using itaconic anhydride have been studied. Two of the systems were copolymers with stearate based monomers; vinyl stearate and stearyl methacrylate, while the third was a copolymer with a methacrylate terminated poly (lactic acid) (PLA) macromonomer. For the stearate systems, stearyl methacrylate showed good copolymerization with equal conversions for both monomers. On the other hand vinyl stearate did not show as good results due to its decreased reactivity, which resulted in a copolymer highly enriched in itaconic anhydride with significant amounts of unreacted vinyl stearate under all copolymer compositions. These differing results were confirmed through analysis of reactivity ratios showing a results that are more favorable for copolymerization for the methacrylate system. Copolymers from both systems showed single melting transitions in a precarious range of 45--50°C arising from the stearyl side groups, though after quenching from the melt this shifted to below room temperature. Anhydride retention was confirmed through structural analysis. Similar to the stearyl methacrylate system, methacrylate terminated PLA macromonomers were copolymerized with itaconic anhydride. PLA's acceptance as a biodegradable material derived from renewable resources, make it a viable choice, with which to design anhydride containing copolymers. Good copolymerization was shown for all compositions studied with retention of the anhydride, though at high itaconic anhydride concentrations conversions were reduced significantly. Copolymers showed glass transition temperatures ranging from 32°C for 85 mole % PLA macromonomer to 73°C for 85 mole % itaconic anhydride. An effort to produce PLA macromonomers through a process of chemical recycling commercial PLA was also undertaken. Promising results were obtained showing

  12. Curing behaviors and properties of an extrinsic toughened epoxy/anhydride system and an intrinsic toughened epoxy/anhydride system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Two curing systems (ETRS and ITRS) with similar chemical composite were prepared. ► The curing kinetics of the ETRS and the novel ITRS were comparatively studied. ► Crosslinking density can affect the kinetic schemes of the two curing systems. ► Their mechanical properties and thermal stabilities were also comparatively studied. ► Crosslinking density may play an influential role in mechanical properties. - Abstract: The curing kinetics of an extrinsic toughened epoxy (mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A and 1,4-butanediol epoxy resin, DGEBA/DGEBD) and an intrinsic toughened epoxy (ethoxylated bisphenol-A epoxy resin with two oxyethylene units, DGEBAEO-2) using hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) as curing agent and tris-(dimethylaminomethyl) phenol (DMP-30) as accelerator were comparatively studied by non-isothermal DSC with a model-fitting Málek approach and a model-free advanced isoconversional method of Vyazovkin. The dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stabilities of the cured materials were investigated by DMTA and TGA, respectively. The results showed that Šesták–Berggren model can generally simulate well the reaction rates of these two systems. The activation energy of DGEBA/DGEBD/HHPA/DMP-30 at high fractional conversion changed much higher than that of DGEBAEO-2/HHPA/DMP-30, indicating the increased steric hindrance mainly affected the reaction kinetic scheme of DGEBA/DGEBD/HHPA/DMP-30. The Tg and storage moduli of cured DGEBAEO-2/HHPA/DMP-30 were lower than those of cured DGEBA/DGEBD/HHPA/DMP-30 according to DMTA while TGA showed that the thermal stabilities of these two cured systems were similar

  13. Curing behaviors and properties of an extrinsic toughened epoxy/anhydride system and an intrinsic toughened epoxy/anhydride system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Mengjin; Liu, Jialin; Li, Xiangyuan [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Cheng, Jue, E-mail: chengjue@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Junying, E-mail: zjybuct@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-02-20

    Highlights: ► Two curing systems (ETRS and ITRS) with similar chemical composite were prepared. ► The curing kinetics of the ETRS and the novel ITRS were comparatively studied. ► Crosslinking density can affect the kinetic schemes of the two curing systems. ► Their mechanical properties and thermal stabilities were also comparatively studied. ► Crosslinking density may play an influential role in mechanical properties. - Abstract: The curing kinetics of an extrinsic toughened epoxy (mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A and 1,4-butanediol epoxy resin, DGEBA/DGEBD) and an intrinsic toughened epoxy (ethoxylated bisphenol-A epoxy resin with two oxyethylene units, DGEBAEO-2) using hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) as curing agent and tris-(dimethylaminomethyl) phenol (DMP-30) as accelerator were comparatively studied by non-isothermal DSC with a model-fitting Málek approach and a model-free advanced isoconversional method of Vyazovkin. The dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stabilities of the cured materials were investigated by DMTA and TGA, respectively. The results showed that Šesták–Berggren model can generally simulate well the reaction rates of these two systems. The activation energy of DGEBA/DGEBD/HHPA/DMP-30 at high fractional conversion changed much higher than that of DGEBAEO-2/HHPA/DMP-30, indicating the increased steric hindrance mainly affected the reaction kinetic scheme of DGEBA/DGEBD/HHPA/DMP-30. The T{sub g} and storage moduli of cured DGEBAEO-2/HHPA/DMP-30 were lower than those of cured DGEBA/DGEBD/HHPA/DMP-30 according to DMTA while TGA showed that the thermal stabilities of these two cured systems were similar.

  14. Synthesis of first row transition metal carboxylate complexes by ring opening reactions of cyclic anhydrides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jubaraj Bikash Baruah

    2011-03-01

    Hydrolytic and solvolytic ring opening reactions of phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic dianhydride and 2,3-pyridine dicarboxylic anhydride in the presence of various transition metal salts with or without a ancillary ligands were studied. The reactions were found to be dependent on stoichiometry of ligand and types of anhydride used. In the case of pyromellitic dianhydride selective ring opening reaction by cobalt(II) ions gave 1,3-benzene dicarboxylate derivatives, whereas use of copper(II) ions gave 1,4-benzene dicarboxylate derivatives. Preference for methanolysis was seen in the case of copper (II) promoted reactions of pyromellitic dianhydride in the presence of 1:1 metal to 1,10-phenanthroline ratio.

  15. Crystal structure of 2,3-di-methyl-maleic anhydride: continuous chains of electrostatic attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscons, Ren A; Zeller, Matthias; Rowsell, Jesse L C

    2015-08-01

    In the crystal structure of 2,3-di-methyl-maleic anhydride, C6H6O3, the closest non-bonding inter-molecular distances, between the carbonyl C and O atoms of neighboring mol-ecules, were measured as 2.9054 (11) and 3.0509 (11) Å, which are well below the sum of the van der Waals radii for these atoms. These close contacts, as well as packing motifs similar to that of the title compound, were also found in the crystal structure of maleic anhydride itself and other 2,3-disubstituted maleic anhydrides. Computational modeling suggests that this close contact is caused by strong electrostatic inter-actions between the carbonyl C and O atoms. PMID:26396764

  16. Solid—Liquid Equilibria of Several Binary and Ternary Systems Containing Meleic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAPeisheng; CHENMingming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibria(SLE) of three binary systems and seven ternary systems containing maleic anhydride(MA) are measured by visual method. The experimental data are compared with the calculated ones with modified universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient(UNIFAC) method in which the interaction parameters between groups come from two sources,dortmund data bank (DDB), if there′s any,and correlations based on our former presented experimental SLE data of twenty binary systems.New groups of MA,ACCOO group,COO group,>C=O group and cy-CH2 group are defined and the SLE data of maleic anhydride in isopropyl acetate in literature are cited in order to assess the new interaction parameters,correlated with Wilson equation and the λh equation.The modified UNIFAC method with these new regressed interaction parameters is also used to predict other three binary systems containing maleic anhydride.

  17. Crystal structure of 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride: continuous chains of electrostatic attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren A. Wiscons

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, C6H6O3, the closest non-bonding intermolecular distances, between the carbonyl C and O atoms of neighboring molecules, were measured as 2.9054 (11 and 3.0509 (11 Å, which are well below the sum of the van der Waals radii for these atoms. These close contacts, as well as packing motifs similar to that of the title compound, were also found in the crystal structure of maleic anhydride itself and other 2,3-disubstituted maleic anhydrides. Computational modeling suggests that this close contact is caused by strong electrostatic interactions between the carbonyl C and O atoms.

  18. Collagen functionalized with unsaturated cyclic anhydrides-interactions in solution and solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potorac, S; Popa, M; Picton, L; Dulong, V; Verestiuc, L; Le Cerf, D

    2014-03-01

    Maleic anhydride (CMA) and itaconic anhydride modified collagen (CITA) were prepared as precursors for production of interpenetrated polymer networks (IPN). Calculated values for Huggins coefficient in aqueous diluted and semi-diluted solutions of modified collagen indicated a slightly tendency of aggregation for itaconic anhydride-modified collagen. In semi-diluted solution collagen (Coll) and CMA present slightly differences in the thixotropic behavior, while CITA has a pronounced thixotropic behavior. Flow and oscillatory measurements revealed an elastic behavior of the collagen solutions, pure and modified with MA or ITA, as the storage modulus (G') has always a superior value compared with the loss modulus (G″). The denaturation temperature (Td) of unmodified collagen increased from 34°C to 40°C for CMA and to 39°C for CITA respectively, by formation of covalent bonds that stabilize the triple helix. PMID:23784667

  19. Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, D.R.; Bonifaz, C. (DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride has been studied over platinum- and palladium-containing zeolites as well as palladium-on-silica (Pd/SiO[sub 2]) catalysts. The results show that although a zeolite support is needed in many systems to effect a kinetic control to improve selectivity, thermodynamic control using Pd([approximately]2-4 ppm)/SiO[sub 2] is sufficient to give the desired selectivities in this system. In addition, a palladium-containing vanadium-phosphate catalyst was prepared that showed complete oxidation of carbon monoxide, conversion of butane to maleic anhydride, and no observable decomposition of the maleic anhydride. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Pinosylvin-Based Polymers: Biodegradable Poly(Anhydride-Esters) for Extended Release of Antibacterial Pinosylvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien-Aime, Stephan; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    Pinosylvin is a natural stilbenoid known to exhibit antibacterial bioactivity against foodborne bacteria. In this work, pinosylvin is chemically incorporated into a poly(anhydride-ester) (PAE) backbone via melt-condensation polymerization, and characterized with respect to its physicochemical and thermal properties. In vitro release studies demonstrate that pinosylvin-based PAEs hydrolytically degrade over 40 d to release pinosylvin. Pseudo-first order kinetic experiments on model compounds, butyric anhydride and 3-butylstilbene ester, indicate that the anhydride linkages hydrolyze first, followed by the ester bonds to ultimately release pinosylvin. An antibacterial assay shows that the released pinosylvin exhibit bioactivity, while in vitro cytocompatibility studies demonstrate that the polymer is noncytotoxic toward fibroblasts. These preliminary findings suggest that the pinosylvin-based PAEs can serve as food preservatives in food packaging materials by safely providing antibacterial bioactivity over extended time periods. PMID:27071713

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Biomaterial:Maleic Anhydride-modified Poly(dl-lactic acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Feng LUO; Yuan Liang WANG; Xu Feng NIU; Jun PAN; Liang Ping SHI

    2004-01-01

    A novel modified poly(dl-lactic acid) (PDLLA) was obtained by covalently grafting of maleic anhydride onto the backbone of PDLLA, attempting to improve PDLLA's hydrophilicity and cell affinity and to provide reactive groups for further chemical modification. FTIR, 13C NMR and DSC were used to characterize the maleic anhydride-modified PDLLA.

  2. Melt Modification of Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with Alcohols in the Presence of 1,3-Oxazolines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruch, Matthias; Mäder, Dietmar; Bauers, Florian; Loontjens, Ton; Mülhaupt, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    Various copolyesteramides were prepared by melt compounding at 220 °C involving reaction of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride), SMA, with 6, 17, and 28 wt % maleic anhydride content, and 1-dodecanol, C12OH, in the presence of 2-undecyl-1,3-oxazoline, C11OXA. Copolymer architectures were examined by m

  3. Influence of the degree of hydrolysis of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) on miscibility with poly(vinyl acetate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, M.; Vorenkamp, E.J.; Brinke, G. ten; Challa, G.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the hydrolysis of anhydride groups in poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) on its miscibility with poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) is investigated. The cloudpoint curves of these blends are determined as a function of the degree of hydrolysis. The miscibility is shown to improve wit

  4. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, from ammonium hydroxide -...

  5. Synthesis of 2,2'-Dipyrryl Ketones from Pyrrole-2-carboxylic Acids with Trifluoroacetic Anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Hee; Lim, Jin Woo; Yu, Jin; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    An efficient synthesis of 2,2'-dipyrryl ketones has been carried out from pyrrole-2-carboxylic acids using trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Simultaneous generation of both mixed anhydride and 2-unsubstituted pyrrole, via facile decarboxylation with in-situ generated TFA, made their cross reaction (intermolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation) possible and efficient.

  6. Solvent-free esterification of poly(vinyl alcohol) and maleic anhydride through mechanochemical reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A solid-state mechanochemical processing, that is, pan-milling, was used to conduct the esterification of poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) with maleic anhydride (MA) through stress-induced reaction. FTIR spectrum study indicated the presence of ester linkages and olefinic double bonds in maleic anhydride cross-linked PVA. Thermal properties of the cross-linked product were characterized by DSC. The results showed its glass transition temperature was 20 ℃ higher than the original linear PVA and the thermal stability was also improved.

  7. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86 wt.-%, respectively) in the two kinds of used PS-co-MA samples afforded a good compatibility between the PS phases of the two polymers. On the other hand, the presence of polar anhydride groups allo...

  8. Enhancement of Adhesion between EPDM and Polyester Fabric by Using Natural Rubber Modified by Maleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. El-Wakil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new method for improving adhesion between ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM rubber and polyester fabric. In this work, natural rubber was modified by maleic anhydride in order to improve the adhesion force between ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber and polyester fabric. The effect of thermal aging and ionizing radiation on the stability of the rubber mix as well as on the peel strength of the rubber-coated fabric was investigated. It was observed that the natural rubber modified by maleic anhydride improved the peel strength of the EPDM rubber-coated polyester fabric.

  9. ULTRASONIC BEHAVIOR OF EPOXY RESINS/POLY (ETHYLENE OXIDE)BLENDS CURED WITH PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Sixun; WANG Haiqian; LUO Xiaolie; ZHANG Naibin; MA Dezhu; ZHU Changfei; HU Jiankai

    1995-01-01

    By means of ultrasonic attenuation apparatus, the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation of anhydride-cured epoxy resins (EP)/poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO)blends were measured on the basis of pulse-echo method. It was found that the sonic velocity of the blends decreased as the temperature increased, but attenuation coefficient increased and possessed a peak value. Larger velocity and smaller attenuation coefficient(α)can be obtained from perfect crosslinking network structures of pure DGEBA cured with phthalic anhydride (PA). As for cured DGEBA/PEO blend systems,sonic velocity decreased as a function of PEO concentration,but attenuation coefficient (α) increased.

  10. CATALYSIS OF POLYSTYRENE N-HYDROXYL SULFONAMIDE FOR ESTERIFICATION OF BUTANOL WITH ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shufeng; LI Qian; YANG Xinlin; HUANG Wenqiang

    2004-01-01

    Polystyrene N-hydroxyl sulfonamide resin 1 was prepared and used to catalyze the esterification of n-butanol and acetic anhydride. The mechanism of catalytic esterification proved by IR spectra of the resins was found that O-H and N-H of the N-hydroxyl sulfonamide resin reacted with the acetic anhydride respectively to form the active intermediate polystyrene N,O-diacetyl sulfonamate which was cleaved by n-butanol to produce butyl acetate. The catalytic esterification by resin 1 was in good agreement with the kinetic model of "bi-bi-ping-pong" mechanism.

  11. Synthesis of Phenyl Acetate from Phenol and Acetic Anhydride over Synthetic TS-1 Containing Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Guowen; Shi Chunfeng; Lin Min; Zhu Bin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, phenyl acetate was synthesized from phenol and acetic anhydride over titanium silicalite-1, in which the organic structure-directing agents were immobilized (TS-1-U). The reaction conditions were speciifed at a phenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio of 1:1.2, a catalyst dosage of 6 m%, and a reaction temperature of 70℃. A total of 96.5%of phenol was converted to phenyl acetate without producing any byproducts after 2.5 h of reaction. Besides, although the catalyst deactivation is inevitable, TS-1-U could be recycled for at least four times.

  12. Grafting of maleic anhydride on polypropylene by reactive extrusion: Effect of maleic anhydride and peroxide concentrations on reaction yield and products characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Berzin, Françoise; Flat, Jean-Jacques; Vergnes, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    International audience A series of polypropylenes (PPs) grafted with maleic anhydride (MA), prepared by reactive extrusion in a twin screw extruder with different contents of peroxide and MA, was characterized. For each sample, the amount of grafted MA, the molecular weight distribution, the viscoelastic properties in small amplitude oscillatory shear and the transition temperatures and enthalpies were measured. The respective influence of initial MA and peroxide concentrations on these pa...

  13. Triflic Anhydride-Mediated Beckmann Rearrangement Reaction of Β-Oximyl Amides: Access to 5-Iminooxazolines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANGFEI YU; QIAN ZHANG; JIA WANG; PENG HUANG; PENGFEI YAN; RUI ZHANG; DEWEN DONG

    2016-06-01

    Facile and efficient synthesis of 5-iminooxazolines fromΑ, Α-disubstituted Β-oximyl amidesmediated by triflic anhydride $(Tf_{2}O)$ in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo(5.4.0)undec-7-ene (DBU) indichloromethane at room temperature is developed, and a mechanism involving tandem Beckmann rearrangementand intramolecular cyclization reaction is proposed.

  14. Molecular characterization of trimellitic anhydride-induced respiratory allergy in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Heijne, W.H.; Dansen, M.; Verhoeckx, K.C.; Boorsma, A.; Radonjic, M.; Bruijntjes, J.; Stierum, R.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    To contribute to the hazard identification of low molecular weight (LMW) respiratory allergens, respiratory allergy induced by trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was characterized by whole genome analysis of lung tissue and blood proteomics in Brown Norway rats. Dermal sensitization (50% and 25% w/v) with

  15. Optimization of the DTPA mixed-anhydride reaction with antibodies at low concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was conjugated with antibody to human serum albumin (Ab) at low concentration (300 μg/ml, 2.0 μM/ via the DTPA carboxycarbonyl mixed-anhydride method. To study parameters determining the balance between the degree of conjugation and the antibody-binding activaty of Ab, a known concentration of the anhydride prepared at isobutylchloroformate (IBC)-to-DTPA ratios of 1, 2.1, or 4.2 was reacted with Ab. The percentage yields of the anhydride were determined by spectrophotometric and gravimetric titration. By the former method the percentage yields, based on DTPA concentration, were 18, 24, and 220, respectively, when the IBC-to-DTPA ratios were 1, 2.1, and 4.2. The corresponding percentage yields were 17, 39, and 262 when determined by the latter method. When the anhydride was prepared at an IBC-to-DTPA ratio of 2.1, an optimum conjugation giving three indium atoms per Ab was obtained, wtih 64% retention of antibody-binding activity. For an IBC-to-DTPA ratio of 1, the antibody retained almost 100% binding activity but the number of indium atoms incorporated (0.2) was too small. For an IBC-to-DTPA ratio of 4.2, up to 22 indium atoms were incorporated but antibody-binding activity was completely destroyed

  16. Nano-encapsulation of coenzyme Q10 using octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch (OSA-ST) was used to encapsulate Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). CoQ10 was dissolved in rice bran oil (RBO), and incorporated into an aqueous OSA-ST solution. High pressure homogenization (HPH) of the mixture was conducted at 170 MPa for 5-6 cycles. The resulting ...

  17. Charge-Transfer Complex of p-Aminodiphenylamine with Maleic Anhydride: Spectroscopic, Electrochemical, and Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Erhan; Kaplan Can, Hatice; Bozkaya, Uğur; Özçiçek Pekmez, Nuran

    2016-07-01

    A new charge-transfer complex and the amide formed by the interaction between the electron donor of the p-aminodiphenylamine and the electron acceptor of maleic anhydride are investigated by spectroscopic methods. The amidation reaction is caused by proton and charge transfer between the maleic anhydride and p-aminodiphenylamine molecules. The Benesi-Hildebrand equation is used to determine the formation constant, the molar extinction coefficient and the standard Gibbs free energy of the complex by using UV/Vis spectroscopy. To reveal the electronic and spectroscopic properties of these molecules, theoretical computations are performed on the structures of maleic anhydride, p-aminodiphenylamine and the conformers of their charge-transfer complex. The charge-transfer complex and amidation reaction mechanism are also confirmed by IR and NMR spectroscopy and HRMS. The nature of the maleic anhydride-p-aminodiphenylamine complex is characterized by cyclic voltammetry, thermogravimetric analysis, XRD and SEM. Solid microribbons of this complex show higher thermal stability than p-aminodiphenylamine. PMID:26990700

  18. THE GRAFTING OF MALEIC-ANHYDRIDE ON HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE IN AN EXTRUDER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    1992-01-01

    The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on high density polyethylene in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder has been studied. As the reaction kinetics appear to be affected by mass transfer, good micro mixing in the extruder is important. Due to the competing mechanisms of increasing mixing and de

  19. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86 w

  20. Maleic anhydride based copolymer dispersions for surface modification of polar substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunbas, I.D.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Hendrix, M.M.R.M.; Benthem, R.A.T.M. van; Koning, C.E.; Noordover, B.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the modification of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) with monofunctional amine-terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS-NH2) by thermal imidization, followed by the preparation and characterization of a surfactant-free artificial latex thereof and application of t

  1. Respiratory Allergy to Trimellitic Anhydride in Rats: Concentration-Response Relationships during Elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Koning, M.W. de; Bloksma, N.; Kuper, C.F.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated whether airway responses of sensitized rats to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) were concentration dependent and whether these were related to irritation by TMA. Groups of BN and Wistar rats were sensitized by two dermal applications of TMA (50% w/v, followed by 25% w/v in

  2. Production Base for Maleic Anhydride in Turpan-Hami Basin Under Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ In February this year, the State Planning Commission,on behalf of the Chinese Government officially approved the proposed project on establishing Turpan-Hami Oil & Gas Chemical Plant. After the completion of the first stage construction, an annual productive capability of 40 000tons of maleic anhydride and 20 000 tons of 1,4-butynediol will be formed in the plant.

  3. Actinic-radiation curable polymers prepared from a reactive polymer, halogenated cyclic anhydride and glycidyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel class of photosensitive polymers are disclosed which are prepared by the reaction, preferably in the presence of a catalyst, of a reactive polymer, a halogenated cyclic anhydride and glycidyl ester of an alpha, beta-unsaturated carboxylic acid. These polymers are capable of undergoing vinyl-type polymerization when exposed to actinic radiation

  4. A new process for the valorisation of a bio-alcohol. The oxidehydration of 1-butanol into maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldarelli, A.; Cavani, F.; Garone, O.; Pavarelli, G. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; Bologna Univ. (Italy). CIRCC, Research Unit; Dubois, J.L. [ARKEMA, Colombes (France); Mitsova, I.; Simeonova, L. [JSC, Russe (Bulgaria). Orgachim

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with a study on the gas-phase transformation of 1-butanol into maleic anhydride, using different types of catalysts. Indeed, catalytic acid properties are needed to dehydrate 1-butanol into 1-butene, whereas redox-type properties are required for the oxidation of the olefin into maleic anhydride. The two types of active sites can be combined in bifunctional systems, showing both acid and redox-type properties. We found that vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyzes the one-pot reaction, giving a maximum selectivity to maleic anhydride of 28%. In fact, various side reactions contributed to the formation of by-products, eg, 1-butanol (oxidative) dehydrogenation into butyraldehyde, formation of light carboxylic acids and carbon oxides, and condensation of unsaturated C{sub 4} intermediates (butenes and butadiene) with the formed maleic anhydride to yield heavier compounds. (orig.)

  5. Polyamide 11/Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Vinyl Acetate-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer as Novel Blends Flexible Materials for Capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Dongliang Kuang; Rui Li; Jianzhong Pei

    2014-01-01

    A novel all-polymeric blend with high dielectric constant (K) has been developed by blending polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyamide (PA11) via co-melt-pressing technology with a compatilizer vinyl acetate-maleic anhydride (VA-MA) copolymer. Adding a copolymer of vinyl acetate and maleic anhydride decreased the dielectric loss (tan δ ≈ 0.057) and increased the dielectric constant (Kblend = 15). The blends show high dielectric constants, which give better frequency stability, and excelle...

  6. Effect of Hyperbranched Polyester on Modification of Epoxy Resins Cured with Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Xia WANG; Zhi Gang JIANG; Yi Feng ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of hyperbranched polyester (HBP) with different molecular weight are studied. The effect of HBP on the modification of epoxy resins cured with anhydride is mainly discussed. The characteristics of HBP and the morphologies of cured system are determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The impact strength of cured system is detected and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements were used to pursue the curing process. The investigation shows that HBP can improve the toughness by forming copolymer networks between epoxy resins, HBP and anhydride. Moreover, when the molecular weight of HBP is 1342g/mol the toughening effect is the best, and the changes of toughness are small with the increase of molecular weight of HBP to 3500 g/mol.

  7. Graft Copolymers of Maleic Anhydride and Its Isostructural Analogues: High Performance Engineering Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rzayev, Zakir M O

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the main advances published over the last 15 years outlining the different methods of grafting, including reactive extruder systems, surface modification, grafting and graft copolymerization of synthetic and natural polymers with maleic anhydride and its isostructural analogues such as maleimides and maleates, and anhydrides, esters and imides of citraconic and itaconic acids, derivatives of fumaric acid, etc. Special attention is spared to the grafting of conventional and non-conventional synthetic and natural polymers, including biodegradable polymers, mechanism of grafting and graft copolymerization, in situ grafting reactions in melt by reactive extrusion systems, in solutions and solid state (photo- and plasma-induced graftings), and H-bonding effect in the reactive blend processing. The structural phenomena, unique properties and application areas of these copolymers and their various modifications and composites as high performance engineering materials have been also described.

  8. Physicochemical Characterization and the Comparison of Chitin and Chitin Modified with Maleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Uzun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, chitin was modified via ring-opening reaction with maleic anhydride in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide. Then, both chitin and chitin modified with maleic anhydride (CMA were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD method, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was performed to investigate the thermal stability of chitin and CMA. TGA results showed that chitin is thermally more stable than CMA. In addition, the electrical conductivity of chitin and CMA was also measured. Electrical conductivity measurement results showed that the electrical conductivity of CMA (4.3x10-4 S cm-1 is more than that of chitin (6.5x10-6 S cm-1.

  9. Wheat Gluten Blends with Maleic Anhydride-Functionalized Polyacrylate Cross-Linkers for Improved Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Cheng; Xia, Hongwei; Parnas, Richard S

    2015-10-14

    A family of polyacrylate-based cross-linkers was synthesized to maximize the toughness of high Tg, high modulus wheat gluten blends in the glassy state. Mechanical testing and damping measurements were conducted to provide an example where the work of fracture and strength of the blend substantially exceeds polystyrene while maintaining flexure stiffness in excess of 3 GPa. The new rubbery cross-linkers, polymethyl acrylate-co-maleic anhydride and polyethyl acrylate-co-maleic anhydride, improve WG mechanical properties and reduce water absorption simultaneously. MDSC, FTIR, HPLC, and NMR data confirmed the cross-linking reaction with wheat gluten. Flexural, DMA, and water absorption testing were carried out to characterize the property improvements. DMA was conducted to investigate the relationship between energy damping and mechanical property improvement. If the cross-linker damping temperature is close to the testing temperature, the entire sample exhibits high damping, toughness, and strength. PMID:26394179

  10. Réaction du polyisobutène chloré sur l'anhydride maléique : mécanisme. Catalyse par l'anhydride dichloromaléique Reaction of Chlorinated Polyisobutene on Maleic Anhydride. Mechanism. Catalysis by Dichloromaleic Anhydride

    OpenAIRE

    Sillion B.; Weill J.

    2006-01-01

    Dans cet article le mécanisme de la réaction de condensation du polyisobutène chloré sur l'anhydride maléique, qui sert dans la synthèse d'additif pour lubrifiant, est étudié par une cinétique globale et par un travail sur composés modèles. Il est montré que, dans cette réaction, l'anhydride maléique joue un double rôle : de catalyseur de déshydrochloration par une réactivité de type acide de Lewis organique, de réactif comme diénophile. Grâce à ces résultats, il est proposé une catalyse par ...

  11. Compatibility of anhydride cured epoxies with hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB) and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massis, T.M.; Wischmann, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    The explosives HNAB (hexanitroazobenzene) and HNS (hexanitrostilbene) have compatibility problems with amine-cured epoxy systems. A program was instituted to find compatible polymeric substitutes for use with these explosives. These polymeric materials must have rigid structures after curing for both adhesive and encapsulant applications. A promising class of epoxy materials using anhydride curing agents with various catalysts to trigger the cure reaction were developed. These polymeric systems have very good compatibility with HNS. Of those tested with HNAB, the anhydride epoxy system that used uranyl nitrate as the catalyst was found to be marginally compatible while the others were incompatible. These results indicated further studies are needed. The CRT (chemical reactivity test) was used to evaluate the compatibility of these materials. 6 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Compatibility of anhydride cured epoxies with hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB) and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosives HNAB (hexanitroazobenzene) and HNS (hexanitrostilbene) have compatibility problems with amine-cured epoxy systems. A program was instituted to find compatible polymeric substitutes for use with these explosives. These polymeric materials must have rigid structures after curing for both adhesive and encapsulant applications. A promising class of epoxy materials using anhydride curing agents with various catalysts to trigger the cure reaction were developed. These polymeric systems have very good compatibility with HNS. Of those tested with HNAB, the anhydride epoxy system that used uranyl nitrate as the catalyst was found to be marginally compatible while the others were incompatible. These results indicated further studies are needed. The CRT (chemical reactivity test) was used to evaluate the compatibility of these materials. 6 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  13. Preparation and characterization of poly(styrene/maleic anhydride)/kaolin nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuening; ZHANG Hongtao; YANG Zhizhong; HA Chengyong

    2005-01-01

    The direct exfoliation of in situ intercalative copolymerized styrene/maleic anhydride charge-transfercomplex (PSMA) into the inter lamellar spaces of modified kaolin (Kao-DMSO), which was intercalated and surface modified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), was reported. The nano structure of the composites was investigated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The interaction between kaolin surface and PSMA chain was conformed by FTIR analysis. The XRD results showed that the intercalated polystyrene-maleic anhydride units were arranged in the flattened monolayer arrangements, and the 001 diffraction peak of the original kaolin disappeared. The TEM image showed that the kaolin was exfoliated into nanometer size and dispersed in the polymer matrix. Additionally the thermal stability of the nanocomposites was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and the resulting thermogram indicated that the thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased.

  14. Cure reaction and phase behavior of liquid crystalline epoxides-anhydride systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan Liang; Shao Ping Ren; Yi Quan Zheng; Man Geng Lu

    2007-01-01

    A series of novel liquid crystalline epoxides with lateral substituents were cured with anhydrides and the cure kinetics was investigated by non-isothermal DSC technique. The results showed that the lengths of lateral substituents have great effect on the value of Ea. The curing reaction became less active, when the liquid crystalline epoxides have long lateral substituents and were controlled by diffusion at the late stage of cure. A nematic structure was observed by POM and XRD.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Taro Starch Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Suisui; Dai, Lei; Qin, Yang; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    The polar surface and hydrophilicity of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) result in their poor dispersibility in nonpolar solvent and poor compatibility with hydrophobic polymers, which limited the application in hydrophobic system. To improve their hydrophobicity, SNPs prepared through self-assembly of short chain amylose debranched from cooked taro starch, were modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). Size via dynamic light scattering of OSA-SNPs increased compared with SNPs. Fourier transfo...

  16. Bee venom acupuncture alleviates trimellitic anhydride-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sur, Bongjun; Lee, Bombi; Yeom, Mijung; Hong, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Sunoh; Kim, Seung-Tae; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Bee venom acupuncture (BVA), a novel type of acupuncture therapy in which purified bee venom is injected into the specific acupuncture point on the diseased part of the body, is used primarily for relieving pain and other musculoskeletal symptoms. In the present study, therapeutic potential of BVA to improve atopic dermatitis, a representative allergic dysfunction, was evaluated in the mouse model of trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced skin impairment. Methods Mice were treated wit...

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Organic Impurities in Bortezomib Anhydride Produced by a Convergent Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Andrey S.; Shishkov, Sergey V.; Zhalnina, Anna A.

    2012-01-01

    A profile of impurities in bortezomib anhydride, produced by a recently developed convergent technology, has been characterized. HPLC-MS analysis of the drug essence revealed three impurities: an epimer of bortezomib, resulting from partial racemization of l-phenylalanine’s stereogenic center during the chemical synthesis, and two epimeric products of oxidative degradation of bortezomib, in which boron is replaced by the OH group. The impurities were obtained by chemical synthesis and characterized by physical methods. PMID:22396904

  18. Modification of Poly(maleic anhydride-co-styrene) with Hydroxyl Containing Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    ATICI, Oya GALİOĞLU; RAHIMIAN, Ahmet AKAR and Roshan

    2001-01-01

    Soluble and cross-linked poly(maleic anhydride-co-styrene) copolymers were reacted with hydroxyl containing compounds such as salicylic acid, 2-phenyl ethanol, eugenol and paracetamole in acetone or dioxane solution at 50-80°C. The hydrolytic and controlled release behavior of the copolymers containing these compounds in water was studied. The extent of hydrolysis was found to be affected by the type of polymer support as well as time, temperature and the type of supported compound.

  19. Enhancement of Adhesion between EPDM and Polyester Fabric by Using Natural Rubber Modified by Maleic Anhydride

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. El-Wakil

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new method for improving adhesion between ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber and polyester fabric. In this work, natural rubber was modified by maleic anhydride in order to improve the adhesion force between ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber and polyester fabric. The effect of thermal aging and ionizing radiation on the stability of the rubber mix as well as on the peel strength of the rubber-coated fabric was investigated. It was observed that the natu...

  20. EFFECT OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE ON KENAF DUST FILLED POLYCAPROLACTONE/THERMOPLASTIC SAGO STARCH COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Siang Yee Chang,; Hanafi Ismail,; Qumrul Ashan

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of biodegradable polymers for various applications has been restricted mainly by its high cost. This report aims to study the water absorption and mechanical properties of kenaf dust-filled polycaprolactone/thermoplastic sago starch biodegradable composites as a function of filler loading and treatment with maleic anhydride. While water absorption in untreated biocomposites increased as a function of filler loading, treated biocomposites resulted in weight loss, whereby low mo...

  1. Perylene anhydride fused porphyrins as near-infrared sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-07-15

    Two perylene anhydride fused porphyrins 1 and 2 have been synthesized and employed successfully in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both compounds showed broad incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra covering the entire visible spectral region and even extending into the near-infrared (NIR) region up to 1000 nm, which is impressive for ruthenium-free dyes in DSCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Preparation of chitin nanofibers by surface esterification of chitin with maleic anhydride and mechanical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklog, Yihun Fantahun; Nagae, Tomone; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2016-11-20

    Esterification with maleic anhydride significantly improved the mechanical disintegration of chitin into uniform 10-nm nanofibers. Nanofibers with 0.25° of esterification were homogeneously dispersed in basic water due to the carboxylate salt on the surface. Esterification proceeded on the surface and did not affect the relative crystallinity. A cast film of the esterified chitin nanofibers was highly transparent, since the film was free from light scattering. PMID:27561471

  3. Covalent modification of graphite oxide with acetic anhydride to enhance dispersibility in organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Yang, Anwei; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Feifei; Ma, Ning

    2016-05-01

    Graphite oxide (GO) was modified by acetic anhydride via a catalyzed ring-opening reaction of the attached epoxy groups at very mild condition. The dispersion of the modified GO is thus largely imporved in many organic solvents and the highest GO concentration reaches 2.0mg/mL in alkyl(aryl) chlorides, ethers, alcohols and cyclohexane, which is amongst the highest value for GO in organics.

  4. Reactive blending of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with poly(phenylene oxide) by addition of (alpha)-amino-polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Cor; Ikker, Andreas; Borggreve, Rein; Leemans, Luc; Möller, Martin

    1993-01-01

    -(3-Aminopropyl-l-amino)polystyrene (-amino-PS) was melt-blended with styrene/maleic anhydride copolymers (SMA) containing 28 wt% maleic anhydride groups. The terminal primary amino group can react with the maleic anhydride monomer units in SMA, forming imides. The resulting product turned out to be an efficient emulsifier for SMA blends with poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO). At constant weight fraction of added -amino-PS, the size of the dispersed PPO particles decreased with decreasing molar mas...

  5. A sulfonic anhydride derivative from dibenzyl trisulphide with agro-chemical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L A D; Vasquez, E; Klaiber, I; Kraus, W; Rosner, H

    2003-06-01

    In the present study, the biologically active natural product dibenzyl trisulphide (DTS) which was previously isolated from the sub-tropical shrub Petiveria alliacea was transformed to methyl benzyl sulphonic anhydride (MBSA) using a "one pot" transformation method. The anhydride was evaluated for anti-microbial activities on the bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens and found to be 2.5 fold more effective than the commercial agents isoniazid and ampicillin in inhibiting the growth of B. subtilis, while on P. fluorescens it was 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 fold more inhibitory than isoniazid, ampicillin and dibenzyl trisulphide, respectively. DTS was inactive on B. subtillis. The MIC value (microgram/spot) found for DTS on the plant pathogenic fungus, Cladosporium cucumerinum was 5.0 microgram/spot, while MBSA gave a value of 0.1 microgram/spot, compared with 1.25 and 0.16 microgram/spot for the commercial agents ketoconazole and nystatin, respectively. On the larval nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) MBSA inflicted 97.72% and 57.47% Abbotts nematicidal activities at 125.0 and 62.5 ppm, respectively, while DTS had no effect at 125.0 ppm. Nematodes which were immobilized by the low concentrations of MBSA were unable to re-activate when exposed to 10.0 ppm picrotoxin, thus suggesting that the anhydride nematicidal activity is independent of the GABA-ergic neurophysiological pathway.MBSA demonstrated a strong dose dependent radicular suppression effect (r=0.984), on the radicles of Latuca sativa germinating seeds. DTS was weakly active. PMID:12668029

  6. Lead tetraacetate oxidation of the Diels-Alder adduct of 7-dehydrocholestryl acetate with maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAILO LJ. MIHAILOVIC

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Diels-Alder adduct (3, obtained by cycloaddition of 7-dehydrocholesteryl acetate (1 and maleic anhydride (2, was heated at ca. 90°C with a large excess of lead tetraacetate in pyridine solution for 5 h. Under these conditions, compound 3 underwent lactonization with the participation of the olefinic D6-double bond to give two isomeric monolactone derivatives, 9 and 10 (in a total yield of ca. 6%, and the bislactone product 11 (in 11.5% yield. The starting material was recovered in 36% yield.

  7. Preparation and Crystallization of Carbon Nanotube/maleic Anhydride-grafted Polypropylene Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua CHEN; Jing HU; Lingping ZHOU; Wenhua LI; Zi YANG; Yanguo WANG

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/maleic acid anhydride (MAH)-grafted polypropylene (PP) composites were prepared by in situ grafting method. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the CNTs were linked to PP by MAH grafting. The microstructures and calorimetry analysis indicated that the crystallization behaviors of the filled and unfilled PP were quite different. The addition of CNTs dramatically reduced the spherulite size, increased crystallization rate and improved the thermal stability of PP. These results confirmed the expected nucleant effect of CNT on the crystallization of PP. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that the CNTs were dispersed homogeneously, indicating that the original CNT bundles were separated into individual tubes by the grafting.

  8. Synthesis and paste properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified early Indica rice starch*

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing; Xu, Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified early Indica rice starch was prepared in aqueous slurry systems using response surface methodology. The paste properties of the OSA starch were also investigated. Results indicated that the suitable parameters for the preparation of OSA starch from early Indica rice starch were as follows: reaction period 4 h, reaction temperature 33.4 °C, pH of reaction system 8.4, concentration of starch slurry 36.8% (in proportion to water, w/w), amount of OSA 3% (...

  9. Adsorption of alkenyl succinic anhydride from solutions in carbon tetrachloride on a fine magnetite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmasova, O. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Korolev, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of alkenyl succinic anhydride from a solution in carbon tetrachloride on a fine magnetite surface at a temperature of 298.15 K is studied using fine magnetite, which forms the basis of magnetic fluids, as the adsorbent. An adsorption isotherm is recorded and interpreted in terms of the theory of the volume filling of micropores (TVFM). Adsorption process parameters are calculated on the basis of the isotherm. It is shown that at low equilibrium concentrations, the experimental adsorption isotherm is linear in the TVFM equation coordinates.

  10. POLYMER—SUPPORTED RHODIUM CATALYSTS FOR CARBONYLATION OF METHYL ACETATE TO ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENDean; HUANGShizhuan; 等

    1993-01-01

    Two kinds of rhodium catalysts supported on cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers containing bipyridine or o-phenylene diamine have been prepared and found to display high activity for methyl acetate carbonylation to form acetic anhydride,the activities are even higher than their homogeneous counterparts. XPS analysis was used to characterize the synthetic catalysts.The apparent activation parameters were determined to be Eα=73.3KJ/mol,ΔH≠=66.3KJ/mol,ΔS≠=-28.6eu.These parameters are very close to those in methanol carbonylation and imply to have analogous mechanism in both cases.

  11. SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE TO Y-BUTYROLACTONE OVER PD/AL(2)O(3) CATALYST USING SUPERCRITICAL CO(2) AS SOLVENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A selective hydrogenation of maleic anhydride to either y-butyrolactone or succinic anhydride over simple Pd/Al(2)O(3) catalyst under supercritical CO(2) medium is described for the first time which has considerable promise for obht lab-scale as well as industrial selective hydro...

  12. Controlled Release of Damascone from Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)-based Bioconjugates in Functional Perfumery

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Herrmann; Wolfgang Fieber; Damien L. Berthier; Alain Trachsel; Nicolas Paret

    2013-01-01

    Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)s were modified with poly(propylene oxide (PO)-co-ethylene oxide (EO)) side chains (Jeffamine®) with different EO/PO molar ratios, varying between 0.11 and 3.60. These copolymers were then further functionalized with a β-mercapto ketone of δ-damascone. The obtained poly(maleic acid monoamide)-based β-mercapto ketones were then studied as delivery systems for the controlled release of δ-damascone by retro 1,4-addition. The release of δ-damascone, a volatile, bi...

  13. Crystal structure of 2,3-di­methyl­maleic anhydride: continuous chains of electrostatic attraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wiscons, Ren A.; Zeller, Matthias; Rowsell, Jesse L. C.

    2015-01-01

    In the crystal structure of 2,3-di­methyl­maleic anhydride, C6H6O3, the closest non-bonding inter­molecular distances, between the carbonyl C and O atoms of neighboring mol­ecules, were measured as 2.9054 (11) and 3.0509 (11) Å, which are well below the sum of the van der Waals radii for these atoms. These close contacts, as well as packing motifs similar to that of the title compound, were also found in the crystal structure of maleic anhydride itself and other 2,3-disubstituted maleic anhyd...

  14. Urea- Hydrogen Peroxide (UHP Oxidation of Thiols to the Corresponding Disulfides Promoted by Maleic Anhydride as Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Habibi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Urea-hydrogen peroxide (UHP was used in the presence of maleic anhydride as mediator in a simple and convenient method for the oxidation in high yield of some thiols to the corresponding disulfides. Peroxymaleic acid formed in situ from the reaction of UHP with maleic anhydride has a key role in this oxidation. Performance of the reaction in various solvents showed that methanol was the solvent of choice at 0 oC. The products were isolated by simple filtration on silica gel.

  15. Urea- Hydrogen Peroxide (UHP) Oxidation of Thiols to the Corresponding Disulfides Promoted by Maleic Anhydride as Mediator

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Habibi; M. Montazerozohori; Bahador Karami

    2005-01-01

    Urea-hydrogen peroxide (UHP) was used in the presence of maleic anhydride as mediator in a simple and convenient method for the oxidation in high yield of some thiols to the corresponding disulfides. Peroxymaleic acid formed in situ from the reaction of UHP with maleic anhydride has a key role in this oxidation. Performance of the reaction in various solvents showed that methanol was the solvent of choice at 0 oC. The products were isolated by simple filtration on silica gel.

  16. CHARGE-TRANSFER AND ENERGY-TRANSFER IN THE PHOTO-INDUCED COPOLYMERIZATION OF 2-VINYLNAPHTHALENE WITH MALEIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tong; LUO Bin; LI Shanjun; CHU Guobei

    1990-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of the copolymerization of 2-vinylnaphthalene with maleic anhydride was studied under irradiation of 365 nm. The excited complex was formed from ( 1 ) the local excitation of 2-vinylnaphthalene followed by the charge-transfer interaction with maleic anhydride and ( 2 ) the excitation of the ground state charge-transfer complex, and then it collapsed to 1,4-tetramethylene biradical for initiation. A 1:1 alternating copolymer was formed in different monomer feeds. Addition of benzophenone could greatly enhance the rate of copolymerization through energy-transfer mechanism.

  17. EFFECT OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE ON KENAF DUST FILLED POLYCAPROLACTONE/THERMOPLASTIC SAGO STARCH COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Yee Chang,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of biodegradable polymers for various applications has been restricted mainly by its high cost. This report aims to study the water absorption and mechanical properties of kenaf dust-filled polycaprolactone/thermoplastic sago starch biodegradable composites as a function of filler loading and treatment with maleic anhydride. While water absorption in untreated biocomposites increased as a function of filler loading, treated biocomposites resulted in weight loss, whereby low molecular weight substances were dissolved into the aging medium. The kenaf dust imparts reinforcing effects on the biocomposites, resulting in improved mechanical properties. This is further attested by morphological studies in which kenaf dust was well dispersed in the polycaprolactone/ thermoplastic sago starch blend matrix. The addition of maleic anhydride into the polycaprolactone/thermoplastic sago starch blend resulted in a homogeneous mixture. At low filler loading, strain at break of the maleated polycaprolactone/thermoplastic sago starch blend increased at the expense of tensile strength and modulus. This is most likely due to the excessive dicumyl peroxide content, which caused chain scission of the polycaprolactone backbone. Tensile strength and modulus improved only when high filler loading was employed.

  18. Morphologies and Thermal Variability of Patterned Polymer Films with Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Samyn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patterned films of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride copolymers were deposited by dip-coating from acetone solutions. A qualitative study of the film morphologies shows the formation of polymer spheres with smaller diameters at higher amounts of maleic anhydride (MA, and long-fibrous features at higher molecular weights. Upon heating, the films progressively re-assemble with short- and long-fibrous structures as a function of heating time and temperature. In parallel, the film morphologies are quantified by image processing and filtering techniques. The differential scanning calorimetry confirms the higher glass transition temperatures with increasing amount of MA. The analysis with Raman spectroscopy shows interactions between the molecules in solution and effects of ring-opening (hydrolysis and ring-closure (formation of MA during drying of the films. The water contact angles on the patterned films are within the hydrophilic range. They mainly correlate with the amount of MA moieties calculated from spectroscopy, while the roughness parameters have a minor effect. The variations in film patterns illustrate the self-assemble ability of the copolymers and confirm a heterogeneous molecular structure, as previously assumed.

  19. Cure monitoring of an epoxy-anhydride system by means of fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, D.H.; Kim, D.S.; Lee, J.K. [Kumoh National Univeristy of Technology, Kumi (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    In the present study the cure behavior of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) using an anhydride-based hardener in the presence of N,N-dimethyl benzyl amine (BDMA) or 1-cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4-methyl imidazole (2E4MZ-CN) as an accelerator has been monitored and interpreted from the viewpoint of photophysical properties by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. To do this, 1,3-bis-(1-pyrene)propane (BPP) was well incorporated in the epoxy resin system by mechanical blending. The BPP probe, which is very sensitive to conformational change of the molecule influenced by the surrounding medium, successfully formed intramolecular excimer fluorescence. It is susceptible to the micro-viscosity or local viscosity and molecular mobility according to the epoxy cure. The cure behavior was explained with monomer fluorescence intensity (I{sub M}), excimer fluorescence intensity (I{sub E}) and I{sub M}/I{sub E} ratio as a function of cure time, cure temperature and accelerator. The present work agreed with the previous report on the cure behavior of an epoxy-anhydride system studied using DSc or torsion pendulum method. This study also suggests that the use of fluorescence technique may provide information on cure behavior of a thermosetting resin in a low temperature region, which has not been well interpreted by other analytical methods. (author). 31 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Pomelo peel modified with acetic anhydride and styrene as new sorbents for removal of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Junchen; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Beibei; Yin, Tiantian

    2015-11-01

    Pomelo peel (PP), as one of the well-known agricultural wastes, is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Based on PP, two new kinds of oil sorbents were prepared by using acetic anhydride and styrene. The structures of raw pomelo peel (RP), acetic anhydride-treated pomelo peel (AP) and styrene-treated pomelo peel (SP) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact-angle (CA) measurements. The optimum reaction conditions for preparation of AP and SP were also investigated. The resulting products exhibited better oil sorption capacity than that of RP for diesel and lubricating oil, also SP had better oil sorption capacity than AP, while the oil sorption capacities of SP for diesel and lubricating oil reached 18.91 and 26.36 g/g, respectively. Adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that AP and SP, especially SP could be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials.

  1. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of octenyl succinic anhydride modified inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Ye-Wang; Zhang, Hongyin; Yang, Qiya; Wang, Haiying; Zhang, Guochao

    2015-01-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride modified inulin (In-OSA) was synthesized via chemical modification of inulin with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). The esterification of inulin with OSA was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and degree of substitution (DS) calculation. Antibacterial activity of In-OSA against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition rate determination. The results showed that inhibition rates against both E.coli and S. aureus increased with the increase of the In-OSA concentration. And the MICs against E. coli and S. aureus were 1% and 0.5% (w/v), respectively. The antibacterial mechanism was analyzed with the results of the proteins and nucleic acids leakage, SEM and negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both the leakages of proteins and nucleic acids increased with the increase of the In-OSA concentration. The leakage occurred mainly in the early stage which indicated that cell membrane and wall were destroyed by In-OSA quickly. The images of SEM and negative staining TEM suggested that the cell membranes and cell walls of S. aureus were damaged more severely and even destroyed completely; but only pores appeared on the surface of E. coli.

  2. Anhydrides-Cured Bimodal Rubber-Like Epoxy Asphalt Composites: From Thermosetting to Quasi-Thermosetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present engineering practices show the potential that epoxy asphalt composites (EACs would be a better choice to obtain long life for busy roads. To understand the service performance–related thermorheological properties of prepared bimodal anhydrides-cured rubber-like EACs (REACs, a direct tensile tester, dynamic shear rheometer and mathematical model were used. Tensile tests demonstrate that all the REACs reported here are more flexible than previously reported anhydrides-cured REACs at both 20 and 0 °C. The better flexibility is attributed to the change of bimodal networks, in which cross-linked short chains decreased and cross-linked long chains increased, relatively. Strain sweeps show that all the REACs have linear viscoelastic (LVE properties when their strains are smaller than 1.0% from −35 to 120 °C. Temperature sweeps illustrate that the thermorheological properties of REACs evolve from thermosetting to quasi-thermosetting with asphalt content, and all the REACs retain solid state and show elastic properties in the experimental temperature range. A Cole–Cole plot and Black diagram indicate that all the REACs are thermorheologically simple materials, and the master curves were constructed and well-fitted by the Generalized Logistic Sigmoidal models. This research provides a facile approach to tune the thermorheological properties of the REACs, and the cheaper quasi-thermosetting REAC facilitates their advanced applications.

  3. Grafting of poly (lactic acid) with maleic anhydride using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankrua, R.; Pivsa-Art, S.; Hiroyuki, H.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to modify poly lactic acid (PLA) via free radical grafting with maleic anhydride (MA) by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was used as an initiator. The solubility of MA in SCCO2 was first determined to estimate the suitable grafting conditions and equilibrium. From the solubility study of MA in SCCO2, it was found that the solubility of MA in SCCO2 increased with the increasing pressure and dissolution time. PLA films were first prepared by compression molding. The ratio of MA to BPO was 2:1. The reaction temperature and pressure were 70°C and 100 bar respectively. The grafting reaction and the degree of grafting were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and titration, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique and contact angle were used to confirm the changes in physical properties of PLA film grafted MA. NMR spectrum indicated that the grafting of MA onto PLA was successively achieved. Degree of grafting by using SCCO2 was as high as 0.98%. This provided rather high grafting degree compared with other processes. SEM pictures showed the rough surface structure on modified PLA film. In addition, contact angle results showed an improvement of the hydrophilicity by maleic anhydride grafting onto polymers.

  4. Polycondensation of Tetrahydrofuran with Phthalic Anhydride Induced By a Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belbachir

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: “Maghnite” a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay, exchanged with protons to produce “H-Maghnite” is an efficient catalyst for polymerization of many vinylic and heterocyclic monomers (Belbachir, M. U.S. Patent. 066969.0101 –2001. The structure compositions of both “Maghnite” and “H-Maghnite” have been developed. This catalyst was used for the polycondensation of the tetrahydrofuran with phthalic anhydride. The polymerization was performed under suitable conditions at temperature (40°C, in presence of acetic anhydride. Experiments revealed that polymerization induced by “H-Maghnite”, proceed in bulk and the conversion increases with increasing “H-Maghnite” proportion.

  5. Lysine adducts between methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride and collagen in guinea pig lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, B A; Wishnok, J S; Skipper, P L; Stillwell, W G; Tannenbaum, S R

    1995-11-01

    The formation of adducts between methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA), an important industrial chemical and potent allergen, and collagen from guinea pig lung tissue was investigated. Collagen peptides were obtained from the lung tissue by homogenization, defatting, washing, and digestion with collagenase. In experiments in vitro, lung tissue was exposed to 8.4 mumol (50 microCi) of 14C MTHPA. The amount of adducts was 97 nmol MTHPA/g of wet tissue as determined from the bound radioactivity. In a study in vivo, four guinea pigs were injected intratracheally with 8.4 mumol of 14C MTHPA each. The amount of adducts was 0-1.2 nmol MTHPA/g of wet tissue (determined by bound radioactivity). N epsilon-methyltetrahydrophthaloyl-L-lysine (MTHPL) was synthesized and characterized by NMR, UV, and mass spectrometry (MS). A method to analyze MTHPL, after derivatization with methanol and pentafluorobenzoyl chloride, using gas chromatography-MS was developed. Analysis of Pronase-digested MTHPA-exposed lung tissue showed a concentration of 19 nmol MTHPL/g wet lung in vitro and between 0 and 0.15 nmol MTHPL/g wet lung in vivo. Thus, 20% in vitro and 12-15% in vivo of the bound radioactivity was found as adducts with lysine. These results are a first step toward studies of allergenic epitopes in proteins and methods for biological monitoring of exposure to acid anhydrides.

  6. Gelatin-based biomaterial engineering with anhydride-containing oligomeric cross-linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Tina; Hötzel, Rudi; Kascholke, Christian; Anderegg, Ulf; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    Chemically cross-linked gelatin hydrogels are versatile cell-adhesive hydrogel materials that have been established for a variety of biomedical applications. The most prominent cross-linker is glutaraldehyde, which, however, has been described to cause compatibility problems and loss of microscopic but relevant structural features. A recently developed oligomeric cross-linker that contains anhydride functionalities was evaluated as cross-linker for the fabrication of gelatin-based hydrogels and microparticles. In a fast curing reaction, hydrogels composed of gelatin and oligomeric cross-linker were fabricated with good conversion over a wide concentration range of constituents and with cross-linkers of different anhydride contents. Hydrogel properties, such as dry weight and mechanics, could be controlled by hydrogel composition and rheological properties correlated to elastic moduli from 1 to 10 kPa. The gels were shown to be cytocompatible and promoted cell adhesion. In soft formulations, cells migrated into the hydrogel bulk. Gelatin microparticles prepared by a standard water-in-oil emulsion technique were also treated with the novel oligomers, and cross-linking degrees matching those obtained with glutaraldehyde were obtained. At the same time, fewer interparticular cross-links were observed. Fluorescein-derivatized cross-linkers yielded labeled microparticles in a concentration-dependent manner. The oligomeric cross-linkers are presented as an efficient and possibly more functional and compatible alternative to glutaraldehyde. The engineered hydrogel materials hold potential for various biomedical applications.

  7. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  8. Synthesis and properties of starch-g-poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch-g-poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate (SMV was synthesized via the esterification reaction of starch with the copolymer of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate. The carboxylic unit percentage (CUP of SMV was tailored with reaction conditions, and it ranged from 29.8 to 46.9%. The structure and the morphology of the copolymers were characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that SMV could form complex with some metal cations such as Ca2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+ or cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan, and precipitate from the solution. The weight of precipitation increases with an increase of the CUP of SMV. In addition, a physically cross-linked hydrogel of SMV/poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA was obtained by freeze/thaw technique. Scanning electron microscopy exhibited the hydrogel was uniform. The gel exhibited pH-responsive re-swelling. The maximum swelling-ratio values of SMV/PVA (9:1, wt/wt gel were 3.29 and 5.34 in HCl (pH 1.0 and phosphate-buffer saline (PBS (pH 12 respectively.

  9. EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION POSITION OF HYDROXY GROUP AT BENZOIC ACID ON THE LUMINESCENT AND DEGRADATION PROPERTIES OF POLY[DI(CARBOXYPHENYL) SUCCINATE-co-SEBACIC ANHYDRIDE]S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Fan; Hong-liang Jiang; Kang-jie Zhu

    2007-01-01

    In this work, two new diacids, di(m-carboxyphenyl) succinate (m-dCPS) and di(o-carboxyphenyl) succinate (o-dCPS), were synthesized by reaction of m-, o-hydroxy benzoic acid with succinic chloride, respectively. Their corresponding copolymers with sebacic acid (SA), P(m-dCPS:SA) and P(o-dCPS:SA), were prepared by melt copolycondensation and characterized by NMR, UV and DSC methods. Compared with inherently fluorescent poly[di(p-carboxyphenyl) succinateco-sebacic anhydride] (P(p-dCPS:SA)), P(m-dCPS:SA) and P(o-dCPS:SA) displayed different luminescent properties. P(m-dCPS:SA) could emit fluorescence under the excitation of both visible and UV light, while P(o-dCPS:SA) could only emit fluorescence when excited with UV light. Degradation rate of the two new copolyanhydrides increased with the increase of SA fraction in the copolymers. In addition, P(o-dCPS:SA) degraded more rapidly than P(m-dCPS:SA) with the same composition. Typical surface-degradation characteristics of these copolyanhydrides were observed.

  10. One-pot conversion of levan prepared from Serratia levanicum NN to difructose anhydride IV by Arthrobacter nicotinovorans levan fructotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroto; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Nagura, Taizo; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi

    2010-03-01

    The newly established difructose anhydride IV (DFA IV) production system is comprised of the effective production of levan from sucrose by Serratia levanicum NN, the conversion of the levan into DFA IV by levan fructotransferase from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans GS-9, which is highly expressed in an Escherichiacoli transformant, and a practical purification step. The chemical properties of DFA IV were also investigated. PMID:20159571

  11. Morphology and activity of vanadium-containing catalysts for the selective oxidation of benzene to maleic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosumov, K.; Ergazieva, G. E.

    2012-11-01

    The morphology and activity of vanadium catalysts are studied using a number of physicochemical methods: electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and infrared spectroscopy. It is found that the active agent of the conversion of benzene to maleic anhydride over modified vanadium catalysts is the V4+ ion in the vanadyl configuration.

  12. RAFT copolymerization of itaconic anhydride and 2-methoxyethyl acrylate: a multifunctional scaffold for preparation of “clickable” gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Kasama, Takeshi; Jankova, Katja Atanasova;

    2013-01-01

    RAFT copolymerization of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate and itaconic anhydride – a monomer derived from renewable resources – is carried out in a controlled fashion. The copolymer allows preparation of gold nanoparticles with abundant surficial carboxyl and alkyne functional groups that are dendronized ...... via Cu(i)-mediated “click” reaction....

  13. Perfluorosulfonic acid membrane catalysts for optical sensing of anhydrides in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyadurai, Subasri M; Worrall, Adam D; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Angelopoulos, Anastasios P

    2010-07-15

    Continuous, on-site monitoring of personal exposure levels to occupational chemical hazards in ambient air is a long-standing analytical challenge. Such monitoring is required to institute appropriate health measures but is often limited by the time delays associated with batch air sampling and the need for off-site instrumental analyses. In this work, we report on the first attempt to use the catalytic properties of perfluorosulfonic acid (PSA) membranes to obtain a rapid, selective, and highly sensitive optical response to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) in the gas phase for portable sensor device application. TMA is used as starting material for various organic products and is recognized to be an extremely toxic agent by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Resorcinol dye is shown to become immobilized in PSA membranes and diffusionally constrain an orange brown product that results from acid-catalyzed reaction with more rapidly diffusing TMA molecules. FTIR, UV/vis, reaction selectivity to TMA versus trimellitic acid (TMLA), and homogeneous synthesis are used to infer 5,7- dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid as the acylation product of the reaction. The color response has a sensitivity to at least 3 parts per billion (ppb) TMA exposure and, in addition to TMLA, excludes maleic anhydride (MA) and phthalic anhydride (PA). Solvent extraction at long times is used to determine that the resorcinol extinction coefficient in 1100 EW PSA membrane has a value of 1210 m(2)/g at 271.01 nm versus a value of 2010 m(2)/g at 275.22 nm in 50 vol% ethanol/water solution. The hypsochromic wavelength shift and reduced extinction coefficient suggest that the polar perfluorosulfonic acid groups in the membrane provide the thermodynamic driving force for diffusion and immobilization. At a resorcinol concentration of 0.376 g/L in the membrane, a partition coefficient of nearly unity is obtained between the membrane and solution concentrations and a

  14. Designing maleic anhydride-{alpha}-olifin copolymeric combs as wax crystal growth nucleators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Hemant P. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002 (India); Kiranbala; Bharambe, D.P. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 001 (India); Agrawal, K.S. [Department of Petrochemical Technology, Polytechnic, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002 (India); Nagar, A. [MH ASSET, ONGC, Mumbai (India)

    2010-09-15

    Modification of the wax crystal habit is of great practical interest during transportation and processing of crude oil at low temperature. Various pour point depressant (PPD) additives can facilitate this modification by different mechanisms. Comb shaped polymer additives are known to depress the pour point of crude oil by providing different nucleation sites for the precipitation of wax. This paper describes performance based design, synthesis, characterization and evaluation of comb shaped polymeric diesters. Copolymers of maleic anhydride with different unsaturated C{sub 22} esters were synthesized and copolymers then reacted with two unsaturated fatty alcohols. All products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Rheological properties of crude (with and without additive) were studied by Advance Rheometer AR-500. In this study the additive based on oleic acid was evaluated as good PPD and rheology modifier. (author)

  15. Oil recovery with sulfomethylated poly (lower alkyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-05-22

    Lower alkyl vinyl ether e.g., methyl vinyl ether, propyl vinyl ether, isopropyl vinyl ether, hexyl vinyl ether, is copolymerized conventionally with maleic anhydride, the resulting copolymer is treated with ammonia or ammonium hydroxide to form the partial amide-ammonium salt, and this salt is in turn treated with formaldehyde and thereafter or simultaneously with ammonium or alkali metal salt sulfite (including bisulfites, etc.) to form an at least partially sulfomethylated copolymer. Aqueous solutions of the sulfomethylated copolymer are useful in increasing the viscosity of drive fluids used in the supplemented recovery of petroleum from subterranean formations. In general, enhancing the polyionic character of mobility control agents used in supplemented recovery of petroleum provides enhanced recovery. Achieving this enhancement of polyionic character through use of sulfonate groups provides a mobility control agent with good ability to sustain viscosity in the presence of brine and lime, usually present in the connate waters of petroleum-bearing formations. (7 claims)

  16. Terpolymerization of 2-ethoxy ethylmethacrylate, styrene and maleic anhydride: determination of the reactivity ratios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Sanmathi; S Prasannakumar; B S Sherigara

    2004-06-01

    Terpolymerization of 2-ethoxyethyl methacrylate (2-EOEMA), styrene (St) and maleic anhydride (Ma) initiated by benzoyl peroxide was carried out in acetone as common solvent for three monomers. The structure and composition of terpolymer were determined by FTIR spectroscopy by recording analytical absorption bands for St (3002 cm-1), Ma (1781 cm-1) and 2-EOEMA (1261 cm-1) units, respectively. The reactivity ratios for the monomers were calculated according to the general copolymerization equations following the Finnemann–Ross and Kelen–Tudos models. The results show that terpolymerization were carried out through primary ``complex" mechanism at near-binary copolymerization of [St...Ma] complex with 2-EOEMA. Structure of the resulting terpolymer illustrated by 1H-NMR and differential scanning calorimeter showed reduction in g value.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Taro Starch Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Suisui; Dai, Lei; Qin, Yang; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    The polar surface and hydrophilicity of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) result in their poor dispersibility in nonpolar solvent and poor compatibility with hydrophobic polymers, which limited the application in hydrophobic system. To improve their hydrophobicity, SNPs prepared through self-assembly of short chain amylose debranched from cooked taro starch, were modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). Size via dynamic light scattering of OSA-SNPs increased compared with SNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data indicated the OSA-SNPs had a new absorption peak at 1727 cm-1, which was the characteristic peak of carbonyl, indicating the formation of the ester bond. The dispersibility of the modified SNPs in the mixture of water with nonpolar solvent increased with increasing of degree of substitution (DS). OSA-SNPs appear to be a potential agent to stabilize the oil-water systems. PMID:26918568

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Taro Starch Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suisui Jiang

    Full Text Available The polar surface and hydrophilicity of starch nanoparticles (SNPs result in their poor dispersibility in nonpolar solvent and poor compatibility with hydrophobic polymers, which limited the application in hydrophobic system. To improve their hydrophobicity, SNPs prepared through self-assembly of short chain amylose debranched from cooked taro starch, were modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA. Size via dynamic light scattering of OSA-SNPs increased compared with SNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data indicated the OSA-SNPs had a new absorption peak at 1727 cm-1, which was the characteristic peak of carbonyl, indicating the formation of the ester bond. The dispersibility of the modified SNPs in the mixture of water with nonpolar solvent increased with increasing of degree of substitution (DS. OSA-SNPs appear to be a potential agent to stabilize the oil-water systems.

  19. Molecular and crystal structure of n-hexyloxybenzoic anhydride at low and room temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal and molecular structures of n-hexyloxybenzoic anhydride, C6H13-O-C6H4-C(O)-O-C(O)-C6H4-C6H13, at low (120 K) and room (296 K) temperatures have been investigated. The molecule has an asymmetric bent structure. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring planes is 48.5 deg. The aliphatic chain on one side of the molecule has a transoid orientation with respect to the 'internal' C4 atom of the closest benzene ring, whereas the aliphatic chain on the other side has a cissoid orientation with respect to the analogous C(4A) atom. The crystal packing does not exhibit any pronounced separation of the crystal space into closely packed aromatic or loosely packed aliphatic regions. No weak directional interactions are observed in the packing; this fact explains the absence of liquid-crystal properties for this compound.

  20. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Yaoqi

    2016-05-01

    Biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch was investigated using ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media. Waxy maize starch was pretreated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chlorine and then esterified with OSA in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate by using Novozyme 435 as catalyst. The degree of substitution of OSA starch reached 0.0130 with 5 wt% starch concentration and 1 wt% lipase dosage based on ILs weight at 50 °C for 3h. The formation of OSA starch was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that the morphology and crystal structure of starch were significantly destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that esterification decreased the thermal stability of starch. The successful lipase-catalyzed synthesis of OSA starch in ILs suggests that ILs are potential replacement of traditional organic solvents for starch ester biosynthesis. PMID:26797225

  1. Polycondensation of Tetrahydrofuran with Phthalic Anhydride Induced By a Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Belbachir; Mohammed Issam Ferrahi

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: “Maghnite†a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay, exchanged with protons to produce “H-Maghnite†is an efficient catalyst for polymerization of many vinylic and heterocyclic monomers (Belbachir, M. U.S. Patent. 066969.0101 –2001). The structure compositions of both “Maghnite†and “H-Maghnite†have been developed. This catalyst was used for the polycondensation of the tetrahydrofuran with phthalic anhydride. The polymerization was performed un...

  2. Annealing improves tribological property of poly(octadecene-alt-maleic anhydride) self-assembled film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Shiyong, E-mail: sysong0827@gmail.com [Pharmaceutic College of Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Liu Lei [Pharmaceutic College of Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang Junyan [Pharmaceutic College of Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A poly(octadecene-alt-maleic anhydride) (POMA) film was covalently immobilized on N-[3-(trimethoxylsilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine self-assembled monolayer modified silicon surface. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the chemical bonding. Water contact angles and ellipsometric thicknesses were measured before and after annealing treatment. Atomic force microscopy was applied for top morphology, surface adhesion force and friction force. Anti-wear properties of the films were also evaluated on a ball-on-plate tribometer. It was found that annealing treatment which would evoke a conformation transform thermodynamically, was a critical step in the preparation of anti-wear films, especially for polymer ones. The correlation between structure and tribological property was revealed, which has profound meaning in designing excellent anti-wear nano-coatings used in microelectronic mechanical systems (MEMS).

  3. Versatile colorant syntheses by multiple condensations of acetyl anilines with perylene anhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, Daniel; Li, Chen; Chen, Long; Wagner, Manfred; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    We report a key step forward in rylene chemistry: the transformation of rylenes into novel chromophore families. The imidization of rylene anhydrides with 2-acetyl anilines could be controlled by the choice of the solvent, thus causing a transformation into either a 4-hydroxyquinoline (4-HQ) or a 4-oxoquinoline (4-OQ) unit. The 4-OQ motif contains an aminoenone group formed by intramolecular aldol condensation and is the first vinylogous rylene imide. The concept of vinylogy was further developed by utilizing 2,6-diacetyl aniline leading to an 3a-aza-1,6-phenalenedione-extended rylene skeleton fully embracing the nitrogen atom. By functionalization of the aminoenone motifs, for example, malononitrile addition at the carbonyl groups, the optical and electronic properties could be further tuned. PMID:25586519

  4. Reaction and characterization of crosslinking hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) with succine anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ling; WEI Xiuzhen; ZHU Baoku

    2007-01-01

    Basing on hydroxyl terminated hyperbranched poly(amine-ester)s (HPAEs),the cross-linking reactions and preparation of ester-crosslinked HPAE films were investigated using succine anhydride (SA) as crosslink reagent.It was proved that the cross-linking reaction between HPAE and SA followed a two-step mechanism.This mechanism provides an efficient route to prepare HPAE/SA cross-linked films,in which,the precursor films were prepared by casting HPAE/SA solution at a lower temperature,and then curing the films at a higher temperature.By varying SA content,the solid HPAE/SA films with different cross-linking degrees were prepared successfully.The highest tensile strength of the cross-linked film could reach 59.60 MPa.With all water contact angle smaller than 74.3°,the crosslinked films demonstrated good hydrophilic properties.

  5. Synthesis of Poly(aryl amide imide)s Derived from o-diphenyltrimellitic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of novel poly(aryl amide imide)s based on o-diphenyltrimellitic anhydride are described.The poly(aryl amide-imide)s having inherent viscosities of 0.39-1.43dL/g in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone at 30℃,were prepared by polymerization with aromatic diamines in N,N-dimethylacetamide and subsequent chemical imidization.All the polymers were amorphous,readily soluble in aprotic polar solvents such as DMAC,NMP,DMF,DMSO,and m-cresol,and could be cast to form flexible and tough films.The glass trsanition temperatures were in the range of 284-336℃,and the temperatures for 5% weight loss in nitrogen were above 468℃.

  6. Functionalization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces with maleic anhydride copolymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ana L; Zschoche, Stefan; Janke, Andreas; Nitschke, Mirko; Werner, Carsten

    2009-02-01

    Combining advantageous bulk properties of polymeric materials with surface-selective chemical conversions is required in numerous advanced technologies. For that aim, we investigate strategies to graft maleic anhydride (MA) copolymer films onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) precoatings. Amino groups allowing the covalent attachment of the MA copolymer films to the PDMS (Sylgard 184) surface were introduced either by low-pressure ammonia plasma treatment, or by attachment of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) onto air plasma-treated PDMS. The resultant coatings were extensively characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), contact angle measurements, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the impact of the plasma treatment on the physical properties on the topmost surface of the PDMS is critically important for the characteristics of the layered coatings.

  7. Substituted Phthalic Anhydrides from Biobased Furanics: A New Approach to Renewable Aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; Genuino, Homer C; Śliwa, Michał; van der Waal, Jan C; de Jong, Ed; van Haveren, Jacco; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; van Es, Daan S

    2015-09-21

    A novel route for the production of renewable aromatic chemicals, particularly substituted phthalic acid anhydrides, is presented. The classical two-step approach to furanics-derived aromatics via Diels-Alder (DA) aromatization has been modified into a three-step procedure to address the general issue of the reversible nature of the intermediate DA addition step. The new sequence involves DA addition, followed by a mild hydrogenation step to obtain a stable oxanorbornane intermediate in high yield and purity. Subsequent one-pot, liquid-phase dehydration and dehydrogenation of the hydrogenated adduct using a physical mixture of acidic zeolites or resins in combination with metal on a carbon support then allows aromatization with yields as high as 84 % of total aromatics under relatively mild conditions. The mechanism of the final aromatization reaction step unexpectedly involves a lactone as primary intermediate.

  8. Enhanced Activity of Nanocrystalline Beta Zeolite for Acylation of Veratrole with Acetic Anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha Mahmood Abdulkareem, Al-Turkustani; Selvin, Rosilda

    2016-04-01

    Friedel-Craft acylation of veratrole using homogeneous acid catalysts such as AlCl3, FeCl3, ZnCl2, and HF etc. produces acetoveratrone, (3',4'-dimethoxyacetophenone), which is the intermediate for synthesis of papavarine alkaloids. The problems associated with these homogeneous catalysts can be overcome by using heterogeneous solid catalysts. Since acetoveratrone is a larger molecule, large pore Beta zeolites with smaller particle sizes are beneficial for the liquid-phase acylation of veratrole, for easy diffusion of reactants and products. The present study aims in the acylation of veratrole with acetic anhydride using nanocrystalline Beta Zeolite catalyst. A systematic investigation of the effects of various reaction parameters was done. The catalysts were characterized for their structural features by using XRD, TEM and DLS analyses. The catalytic activity of nanocrystalline Beta zeolite was compared with commercial Beta zeolite for the acylation and was found that nanocrystalline Beta zeolite possessed superior activity.

  9. Synthesis and paste properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified early Indica rice starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiao-yan; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui; HE Guo-qing; XU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified early Indica rice starch was prepared in aqueous slurry systems using response surface methodology. The paste properties of the OSA starch were also investigated. Results indicated that the suitable parameters for the preparation of OSA starch from early Indica rice starch were as follows: reaction period 4 h, reaction temperature 33.4 ℃, pH of reaction system 8.4, concentration of starch slurry 36.8% (in proportion to water, w/w), amount of OSA 3% (in proportion to starch, w/w). The degree of substitution was 0.0188 and the reaction efficiency was 81.0%. The results of paste properties showed that with increased OSA modification, the starch derivatives had higher paste clarity, decreased retrogradation and better freeze-thaw stability.

  10. The influence of tertiary amine accelerators on the curing behaviors of epoxy/anhydride systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Chongfeng; Zhang, Junying, E-mail: zjybuct@gmail.com; Cheng, Jue

    2014-02-10

    Highlights: • The influences of two types of accelerators (BDMA and DMP-30) on curing reaction of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems were studied comparatively. • The activation energy and kinetic parameters of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems with accelerator content of 0.2 phr and 0.5 phr were calculated, respectively. • The dependence of autocatalytic and non-autocatalytic curing reaction on the loading of accelerators was discussed. • The non-catalytic curing reaction dominated absolutely in the curing process of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems when the accelerator contents were 0.2 phr. - Abstract: Accelerators have significant effects on the curing behaviors of epoxy/anhydride (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F/methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride, DGEBF/MeHHPA) systems. Non-isothermal DSC was used to investigate the influence of dimethyl benzylamine (BDMA, 0.2 phr/0.5 phr) and Tris-(dimethyl aminomethyl) phenol (DMP-30, 0.2 phr/0.5 phr) on the curing behaviors of DGEBF/MeHHPA systems, respectively. When the amount of accelerators was kept constant, the activation energy calculated by Kissinger method changed slightly in the presence of either BDMA or DMP-30. And, with increasing the accelerator content from 0.2 phr to 0.5 phr, the value of activation energy decreased from 115 kJ/mol to 85 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the calculation results of Málek method identified that all systems in this study fitted Sesták–Berggren (SB) model and the corresponding model parameters, m and n, were obtained. It was found that the contribution of autocatalytic reaction with low accelerator content (0.2 phr) was far less than that with high accelerator content (0.5 phr)

  11. Interactions of poly (anhydride) nanoparticles with macrophages in light of their vaccine adjuvant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, C; Bussmann, H; Giemsa, S; Camacho, A I; Unsihuay, Daisy; Martín-Arbella, N; Irache, J M

    2015-12-30

    Understanding how nanoparticles are formed and how those processes ultimately determine the nanoparticles' properties and their impact on their capture by immune cells is key in vaccination studies. Accordingly, we wanted to evaluate how the previously described poly (anhydride)-based nanoparticles of the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (NP) interact with macrophages, and how this process depends on the physicochemical properties derived from the method of preparation. First, we studied the influence of the desolvation and drying processes used to obtain the nanoparticles. NP prepared by the desolvation of the polymers in acetone with a mixture of ethanol and water yielded higher mean diameters than those obtained in the presence of water (250nm vs. 180nm). In addition, nanoparticles dried by lyophilization presented higher negative zeta potentials than those dried by spray-drying (-47mV vs. -35mV). Second, the influence of the NP formulation on the phagocytosis by J774 murine macrophage-like cell line was investigated. The data indicated that NPs prepared in the presence of water were at least three-times more efficiently internalized by cells than NPs prepared with the mixture of ethanol and water. Besides, lyophilized nanoparticles appeared to be more efficiently taken up by J744 cells than those dried by spray-drying. To further understand the specific mechanisms involved in the cellular internalization of NPs, different pharmacological inhibitors were used to interfere with specific uptake pathways. Results suggest that the NP formulations, particularly, nanoparticles prepared by the addition of ethanol:water, are internalized by the clathrin-mediated endocytosis, rather than caveolae-mediated mechanisms, supporting their previously described vaccine adjuvant properties.

  12. Interactions of poly (anhydride) nanoparticles with macrophages in light of their vaccine adjuvant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, C; Bussmann, H; Giemsa, S; Camacho, A I; Unsihuay, Daisy; Martín-Arbella, N; Irache, J M

    2015-12-30

    Understanding how nanoparticles are formed and how those processes ultimately determine the nanoparticles' properties and their impact on their capture by immune cells is key in vaccination studies. Accordingly, we wanted to evaluate how the previously described poly (anhydride)-based nanoparticles of the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (NP) interact with macrophages, and how this process depends on the physicochemical properties derived from the method of preparation. First, we studied the influence of the desolvation and drying processes used to obtain the nanoparticles. NP prepared by the desolvation of the polymers in acetone with a mixture of ethanol and water yielded higher mean diameters than those obtained in the presence of water (250nm vs. 180nm). In addition, nanoparticles dried by lyophilization presented higher negative zeta potentials than those dried by spray-drying (-47mV vs. -35mV). Second, the influence of the NP formulation on the phagocytosis by J774 murine macrophage-like cell line was investigated. The data indicated that NPs prepared in the presence of water were at least three-times more efficiently internalized by cells than NPs prepared with the mixture of ethanol and water. Besides, lyophilized nanoparticles appeared to be more efficiently taken up by J744 cells than those dried by spray-drying. To further understand the specific mechanisms involved in the cellular internalization of NPs, different pharmacological inhibitors were used to interfere with specific uptake pathways. Results suggest that the NP formulations, particularly, nanoparticles prepared by the addition of ethanol:water, are internalized by the clathrin-mediated endocytosis, rather than caveolae-mediated mechanisms, supporting their previously described vaccine adjuvant properties. PMID:26468037

  13. Fluorescence and Judd-Ofelt analysis of rare earth complexes with maleic anhydride and acrylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Shipeng; ZHANG Xiaoping; HU Shui; ZHANG Liqun; LIU Li

    2008-01-01

    Two kinds of Eu-complexes, Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(AA) and Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(MA) (HTFA=2-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone, Phen=1,10-phenanthroline, AA=acrylic acid, MA=Maleic anhydride), which combined the excellent fluorescence properties of Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(H2O) and the reactivity of acrylic acid and maleic anhydride with radicals, were synthesized. The two complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the data shown from the fluorescent spectra of the Eu-MA and Eu-AA complexes, the Ωλ (λ=2 and 4) experimental intensity parameters were calculated. The results demonstrated that the Ω2 intensity parameters for the two complexes were smaller than those for the Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(H2O) complex, indicating that a less symmetri-cal chemical environment existed in the complexes. It implied that the radiative efficiency of the 5D0 of these two complexes could be en-hanced by ligand of MA and AA, respectively. The luminescent lifetime of the Eu-AA (τ=7.26×10-4 s) or Eu-MA complex (τ=-8.12×10-4 s) was higher than that of the Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(H2O) complex, which was attributed to the substitution of the water molecule (H2O) in Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(H2O) by the MA or AA ligand.

  14. Novel 4-Arm Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Block-Poly(Anhydride-Esters) Amphiphilic Copolymer Micelles Loading Curcumin: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Li Lv; Yuanyuan Shen; Min Li; Xiaofen Xu; Mingna Li; Shengrong Guo; Shengtang Huang

    2013-01-01

    A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(anhydride-esters) amphiphilic copolymer (4-arm PEG-b-PAE) was synthesized by esterization of 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(anhydride-esters) which was obtained by melt polycondensation of α -, ω -acetic anhydride terminated poly(L-lactic acid). The obtained 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was characterized by 1H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micelle concentration of 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was 2.38  μ g/mL. The curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PA...

  15. Effect of maleic anhydride-aniline derivative buffer layer on the properties of flexible substrate heterostructures: Indium tin oxide/nucleic acid base/metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanculescu, A., E-mail: sanca@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, Universite d' Angers, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045, Angers (France); Preda, N. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Albu, A.-M. [Department of Polymer Science, University ' Politehnica' of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Stanculescu, F. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Str. Atomistilor nr.405, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 (Romania)

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the properties of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) based heterostructures deposited on flexible substrates. The effects of two types of maleic anhydride-aniline derivatives (maleic anhydride-cyano aniline or maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline) buffer layer, deposited between indium tin oxide and (G) or (C) layer, on the optical and electrical properties of the heterostructures have been identified. The heterostructures containing a film of maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline have shown a good transparency and low photoluminescence in visible range. This buffer layer has determined an increase in the conductance only in the heterostructures based on (G) and (C) deposited on biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate substrate.

  16. Maleic anhydride-modified chicken ovalbumin as an effective and inexpensive anti-HIV microbicide candidate for prevention of HIV sexual transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Xi; Zhang Xiujuan; Lu Hong; Tan Suiyi; Lu Lu; Yang Jie; Qiao Pengyuan; Li Lin; Wu Shuguang; Jiang Shibo; Liu Shuwen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride (HP)-modified bovine milk protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), is a promising microbicide candidate. However, concerns regarding the potential risk of prion contamination in bovine products and carcinogenic potential of phthalate derivatives were raised. Here we sought to replace bovine protein with an animal protein of non-bovine origin and substitute HP with another anhydride for the development of anti-HIV microbi...

  17. Grafting amino drugs to poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) as a potential method for drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, Ardeshir; Saednia, Shahnaz; Saien, Javad; Abbasi, Fatemeh, E-mail: Khazaei_1326@yahoo.com, E-mail: ssaednia@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazem-Rostami, Masoud [Young Researchers Club and Elite, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghpour, Mahdieh [Department of Chemistry, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borazjani, Maryam Kiani [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Bushehr Payame Noor University (PNU), Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Drug delivery systems based on polymer-drug conjugates give an improved treatment with lower toxicity or side effects and be used for the treatment of different diseases. Conjugates of biodegradable poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA), with a therapeutic agents such as amantadine hydrochloride, amlodipine, gabapentin, zonisamide and mesalamine, were afforded by the formation of the amide bonds of the amino drugs that reacted with the PSMA anhydride groups. The amounts of covalently conjugated drugs were determined by a {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic method, and the in vitro release rate in buffer solution (pH 1.3) was studied at body temperature 37 Degree-Sign C. In kinetic studies, different dissolution models were examined to obtain drug release data and the collected data were well-fitted to the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation, revealing a dominant Fickian diffusion mechanism for drug release under the in vitro conditions. (author)

  18. A NOVEL COPOLYMER-BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX FOR THE CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Yuying; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    A series of porous microspheres of linear and ethylene diacrylate (M ') cross-linked copolymers of 2 - vinylpyridine (V) and methyl acrylate (M) reacted with tetracarbonyldichlorodirhodium to form a series of cis-dicarbonylrhodium chelate complex (MVRh and MVM 'Rh). They are thermally stable yet very reactive in the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid, and of methanol - acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride with a selectivity of 100% under relatively mild and anhydrous conditions.

  19. Relationship between global indices of reactivity, electrodonating and electroaccepting powers, and the hammet constant in isatoic anhydride derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Durand-Niconoff; L Cruz-Kuri; M H Matus; J Correa-Basurto; J S Cruz-Sánchez; F R Ramos-Morales

    2011-09-01

    The possible correlation between Hammett’s constant (p), a characteristic parameter of functional groups with electrodonating or electroaccepting properties, and two indices of global reactivity were calculated in the gas phase. Parameters associated to a set of 22 structural variants of isatoic anhydride (2-3, 1-benzoxazin-2,4(1)-dione, ISA), replaced with diverse functional groups, were explored applying linear and quadratic statistical models for numerical analysis of the results.

  20. Determination of the parameters of crystallization of maleic anhydride modified polypropylene in model composites with glass fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Janevski, Aco; Bogoeva-Gaceva, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal and nonisothermal crystallizations of maleic anhydride-modified iPP in glass fibres model composites with unsized and sized glass fibres were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), to evaluate the influence of glass fibres on crystallization behavior. Isothermal crystallization was followed in the temperature range from 391 K to 403 K, and the rate constant and Avrami exponents were determined. Nonisothermal crystallization was carried out at different cooling rates (1...

  1. Amphiphilic graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with low molecular weight polyethylenimine for efficient gene delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Duan XP; Xiao JS; Yin Q; Zhang ZW; Mao SR; Li YP

    2012-01-01

    Xiaopin Duan,1,2 Jisheng Xiao,2 Qi Yin,2 Zhiwen Zhang,2 Shirui Mao,1 Yaping Li21School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Center of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, ChinaBackground and methods: A new amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer (SP) was synthesized by conjugating poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with low molecular weight polyethyleneimine for gene delivery. Fourier transform infrared spectrum, 1H nuclea...

  2. Effects of maleic anhydride grafted ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) on the properties of EVA/silica nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Thai; Chinh, Nguyen Thuy; Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hang, To Thi Xuan; Thanh, Dinh Thi Mai; Hung, Dang Viet; Ha, Chang-Sik; Aufray, Maëlenn

    2013-01-01

    International audience Ternary nanocomposites based on ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), maleic anhydride-grafted EVA (EVAgMA), and nanosilica were prepared in a Haake Rheomixer. The structure of the EVA/EVAgMA/silica nanocomposites was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The blending sequence was found to have a significant effect on the microstructure of EVA/EVAgMA/silica nanocomposites and the dispersion behavio...

  3. The Electrical Performance of Polyamide 66/Poly(vinylidene fluoride) with Vinyl Acetate-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Li; Zhiliang Shi; Dongliang Kuang; Jianzhong Pei

    2016-01-01

    The electric performance of the PA66/PVDF blends filled with various amount of copolymer synthesized from vinyl acetate-maleic anhydride (VAMA) was investigated. PA66/VAMA/PVDF blends show high dielectric constants, low dielectric loss, and excellent breakdown strength, which were important indexes in the actual application of dielectric material. The VAMA copolymer improves the dielectric and piezoelectric performance of the PA66/PVDF blends. Meanwhile, the addition of VAMA obviously decreas...

  4. Reactive blending of thermoplastic starch and polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride with chitosan as compatibilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantanasakulwong, Kittisak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Wongsuriyasak, Somchai; Techapun, Charin; Ougizawa, Toshiaki

    2016-11-20

    Cassava starch was melt-blended with glycerol (70/30wt%/wt%) at 140°C to prepare thermoplastic starch (TPS). Chitosan (CTS) was premixed with starch and glycerol, in acidified water (lactic acid 2wt%), at 1, 5 and 10wt%/wt%. TPS/CTS was then melt-blended (160°C) with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-MAH). Phase determination and scanning electron microscopy indicated TPS/PE-MAH/CTS had a co-continuous morphology and CTS-induced phase inversion to give dispersed PE-MAH particles in a TPS matrix. Tensile strength at break and elongation, melt viscosity, fracture toughness and water contact angle of TPS/PE-MAH were improved by CTS incorporation. TPS/PE-MAH/CTS blends decreased the melting temperature of TPS and PE-MAH compared to the neat polymers. FTIR confirmed a reaction had occurred between amino groups (NH2) of CTS and the MAH groups of PE-MAH. This reaction and the enhanced miscibility between TPS and CTS improved the mechanical properties of the TPS/PE-MAH/CTS blend, particularly at 5wt%/wt% CTS. PMID:27561475

  5. Separation of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene using multidimensional high-temperature liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, K N; Macko, T; Brüll, R; Remerie, K; Tacx, J; Garg, P; Ginzburg, A

    2016-04-01

    Functionalization addresses a property gap of polyolefins and opens new perspectives due to improved surface properties in applications like composites (e.g., glass fiber reinforced polypropylene) and anti-corrosive coatings for metals. Various techniques have been developed to characterize functionalized polyolefins, yet no analytical approach addressing their chemical heterogeneity exists. Using High Temperature Size Exclusion Chromatography (HT-SEC) coupled to infrared spectroscopy we could show for two model samples of polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA), differing in their nominal MA content, that the grafting density increases with decreasing molar mass. Crystallization Analysis Fractionation (CRYSTAF) does not enable to separate these samples according to their composition to the extent required. Yet, when using High Temperature High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HT-HPLC), with either silica gel or Mica as stationary phase and a gradient mobile phase, a deformulation into a grafted and a non-grafted fraction could be achieved. This was confirmed by analyzing the eluted fractions by infrared spectroscopy. Hyphenating the separation according to composition with a separation according to molar mass (HT-HPLC x HT-SEC) enabled for the first time to reveal the bivariate distribution of PP-g-MA with regard to the molar mass and composition. Using on-line infrared detection quantitative information on the compositional and molar mass parameters of the individual fractions could be obtained.

  6. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-06-15

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had β-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the β-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends.

  7. An efficient acetylation of dextran using in situ activated acetic anhydride with iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD A. HUSSAIN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A facile, efficient, cost-effective and solvent-free acetylation method has been developed for the acetylation of dextran. Dextran acetates were successfully synthesized using different molar ratios of acetic anhydride in the presence of iodine as a catalyst without the use of any solvent. The reactions were realized at 50 °C for 3 h under stirring and nitrogen. This efficient method yielded highly pure and organosoluble dextran esters. The reaction appears highly effective for obtaining higher degrees of substitution (DS with great efficiency. Under solvent-free conditions, dextran triacetates were efficiently synthesized. It was also observed that the molar ratio can easily control the DS of pendant groups onto the polymer backbone. Hence, a range of products with varying DS were successfully designed, purified and characterized. Covalent attachment of the pendant groups onto the polymer backbone was verified by spectroscopic techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the obtained dextran esters were thermally as stable as dextran. The DS of the pendant groups onto the polymer backbone was calculated using standard acid base titration after saponification. Furthermore, all products were thoroughly characterized by thermal analysis (TG and DTG, and FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic analysis.

  8. Granular size of potato starch affects structural properties, octenylsuccinic anhydride modification and flowability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chan; Tang, Chuan-He; Fu, Xiong; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Native potato starch (PS) granules were separated into three size fractions: larger than 30μm (P-L), 15-30μm (P-M), and smaller than 15μm (P-S). The morphological and crystalline structure of fractionated potato starches were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The P-L fraction showed ellipsoidal shape and B-type X-ray pattern, whereas the P-S fraction had spherical shape and A-type pattern. The fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis data showed that the P-L fraction had more B2 chains and less short A and B1 chains than the P-S counterparts. Smaller granules with larger specific surface area had higher degree of substitution when reacted with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA), and showed more uniform distribution of octenylsuccinate substituents. Both OSA modified and unmodified P-S samples showed higher flowability compared with the P-L counterparts. PMID:27374555

  9. Radiation grafting of maleic anhydride onto polypropylene in solid state via ultrafine blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiumin

    2014-05-01

    A novel method to prepare maleic anhydride grafting onto poly (propylene) (PP-g-MAH) was described. It was performed by γ-irradiation in solid state via ultrafine blend in the absence of any initiator and the grafting mechanism was proposed based on the experimental results. First, ultrafine blend of MAH and PP was prepared through ultrasonic initiation in melt state and then cooled rapidly. Second, the blend was radiated by γ-irradiation in the circumstance of atmosphere. Effects of irradiation dose and MAH concentration on the amount of grafted MAH were investigated. Compared with the conventional solid-state radiation grafting method, PP-g-MAH obtained via this method shows a higher graft rate of MAH. This novel method also has the advantages of solventless, energy efficient, low cost and simple operation. Furthermore, it is very easy to get purified products. The molecular structures of grafted copolymer were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscope were used to determine the degree of crystallinity and crystalline structure.

  10. Morphology, rheology and electrical resistivity of PLLA/HDPE/CNT nanocomposites: Effect of maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Li-na; Chen, Jie; Dai, Jian; Chen, Hai-ming; Yang, Jing-hui [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, Yong, E-mail: yongwang1976@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhang, Chao-liang [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-02-15

    As a part of serial work about tuning the selective location of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in immiscible polymer blends, this work reports the effects of component polarity and viscosity ratio between components on the selective location of CNTs and the resultant electrical resistivity of the nanocomposites. To achieve the research aim, maleic anhydride (MA) was grafted onto poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) main chain through a reactive compounding processing. After that, different contents of CNTs were incorporated into blends of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and PLLA (or PLLA-g-MA). The morphologies of the ternary nanocomposites and the selective location of CNTs in the nanocomposites were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The microstructure of nanocomposites and the dispersion of CNTs were further proved by rheological measurement. Finally, the electrical resistivity of nanocomposites containing different CNT contents was measured. The results showed that through increasing the polarity of PLLA and decreasing the melt viscosity, CNTs were kinetically trapped at the blend interface region. Consequently, largely decreased percolation threshold was achieved for the PLLA-g-MA/HDPE/CNT nanocomposites. The morphological changes as well as the rheological properties were also comparatively analyzed. - Highlights: • PLLA/HDPE/CNT and PLLA-g-MA/HDPE/CNT composites were prepared. • Different selective location states of CNTs were achieved in different composites. • Selectively located CNTs at the interface resulted in lower percolation threshold.

  11. MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE MODIFIED RICE HUSK FILLED PVC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Chand

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmodified and modified rice husk powder filled PVC composites were prepared having different amounts of rice husk powder. Mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of these composites were determined. The tensile strength of rice husk powder PVC composites having 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 weight percent of rice husk powder was found to be 33.9, 19.4, 18.1, 14.6, and 9.5 MPa, respectively. Adding of maleic anhydride- modified rice husk powder improved the tensile strength of rice husk powder PVC composites. Flexural strength and flexural modulus of composites increased on treatment of rice husk powder due to the improved bonding between rice husk powder and PVC matrix. Arc-resistance of rice husk powder PVC composites was not affected on increasing loading of the powder. Volume resistivity and surface resistivity decreased with increasing loading due to the presence of impurities and water molecules. Vicat softening temperature increased with rice husk powder loading. Addition of rice husk increased the melting temperature of the composite matrix as compared to pure PVC.

  12. Separation of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene using multidimensional high-temperature liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, K N; Macko, T; Brüll, R; Remerie, K; Tacx, J; Garg, P; Ginzburg, A

    2016-04-01

    Functionalization addresses a property gap of polyolefins and opens new perspectives due to improved surface properties in applications like composites (e.g., glass fiber reinforced polypropylene) and anti-corrosive coatings for metals. Various techniques have been developed to characterize functionalized polyolefins, yet no analytical approach addressing their chemical heterogeneity exists. Using High Temperature Size Exclusion Chromatography (HT-SEC) coupled to infrared spectroscopy we could show for two model samples of polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA), differing in their nominal MA content, that the grafting density increases with decreasing molar mass. Crystallization Analysis Fractionation (CRYSTAF) does not enable to separate these samples according to their composition to the extent required. Yet, when using High Temperature High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HT-HPLC), with either silica gel or Mica as stationary phase and a gradient mobile phase, a deformulation into a grafted and a non-grafted fraction could be achieved. This was confirmed by analyzing the eluted fractions by infrared spectroscopy. Hyphenating the separation according to composition with a separation according to molar mass (HT-HPLC x HT-SEC) enabled for the first time to reveal the bivariate distribution of PP-g-MA with regard to the molar mass and composition. Using on-line infrared detection quantitative information on the compositional and molar mass parameters of the individual fractions could be obtained. PMID:26961914

  13. Dinuclear Zinc Salen Catalysts for the Ring Opening Copolymerization of Epoxides and Carbon Dioxide or Anhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Arnaud; Garden, Jennifer A; White, Andrew J P; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-12-21

    A series of four dizinc complexes coordinated by salen or salan ligands, derived from ortho-vanillin and bearing (±)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (L1) or 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine (L2) backbones, is reported. The complexes are characterized using a combination of X-ray crystallography, multinuclear NMR, DOSY, and MALDI-TOF spectroscopies, and elemental analysis. The stability of the dinuclear complexes depends on the ligand structure, with the most stable complexes having imine substituents. The complexes are tested as catalysts for the ring-opening copolymerization (ROCOP) of CO2/cyclohexene oxide (CHO) and phthalic anhydride (PA)/CHO. All complexes are active, and the structure/activity relationships reveal that the complex having both L2 and imine substituents displays the highest activity. In the ROCOP of CO2/CHO its activity is equivalent to other metal salen catalysts (TOF = 44 h(-1) at a catalyst loading of 0.1 mol %, 30 bar of CO2, and 80 °C), while for the ROCOP of PA/CHO, its activity is slightly higher than other metal salen catalysts (TOF = 198 h(-1) at a catalyst loading of 1 mol % and 100 °C). Poly(ester-block-carbonate) polymers are also afforded using the most active catalyst by the one-pot terpolymerization of PA/CHO/CO2. PMID:26605983

  14. Analysis of octenylsuccinate rice and tapioca starches: Distribution of octenylsuccinic anhydride groups in starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kristin; Reuhs, Bradley L; Ovando Martinez, Maribel; Simsek, Senay

    2016-11-15

    Characterization of the fine structure of octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) starch would lead to a better understanding of functional properties. OSA rice and tapioca starches were analyzed using microscopy, liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Chain length distribution of amylopectin changed significantly (P<0.05) after OSA esterification. Weight averaged degree of polymerization (DPw) decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 16.47 to 13.29 and from 14.87 to 12.47 in native and OSA rice and tapioca starches, respectively. The chain length distribution of pure amylopectin fractions suggested that OSA groups were not present in the amylopectin portion of the starch. (1)H NMR analysis of pure amylose and amylopectin fractions indicated that OSA substitution was present only in amylose fractions of rice and tapioca starches. Esterification with 3% OSA results in starch that has OSA substituted mainly on amylose chains or possibly on amylopectin chains that have been hydrolyzed from the amylopectin molecules during esterification. PMID:27283674

  15. RING OPENING COPOLYMERIZATION OF SUCCINIC ANHYDRIDE-ETHYLENE OXIDE BY Al (Ⅲ) ORGANOMETALLIC CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xianhai; ZHANG Yifeng; SHEN Zhiquan

    1997-01-01

    Ring opening copolymerization of succinic anhydride (SA) with ethylene oxide (EO)was successfully carried out by using a series of aluminum-based catalyst in 1,4-dioxane at 62±2℃. The results showed that in-situ AlR3-H2O (R=ethyl, iso-butyl) catalysts gave higher molecular weight ((-M)w ~ 104), while Al(OR)3 catalysts gave the higher alternating copolymer structure with slightly lower molecular weight. The in-situ AlR3-H2O systems have been evaluated in more detail for the reaction which showed the optimum H2O/Al molar ratio to be 0.5. The copolymers with different composition (FSA/FEO = 36/64 to 45/55 mol/mol) were synthesized by using different monomer feed ratio. The melting point (Tm), glass transition temperature (Tg) and enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of these copolymers are depended on the copolymer composition and in the range of 87~ 102℃,-12 ~ -18℃, and 37 ~ 66J/g, respectively. The second heating scan of DSC also indicated that the higher alternating copolymer was more easily recrystallized. The onset decomposition temperature was more than 300℃ under nitrogen and influenced by the copolymer composition.

  16. Kaolinite Nanocomposite Platelets Synthesized by Intercalation and Imidization of Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Samyn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis route is presented for the subsequent intercalation, exfoliation and surface modification of kaolinite (Kln by an imidization reaction of high-molecular weight poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride or SMA in the presence of ammonium hydroxide. In a first step, the intercalation of ammonolyzed SMA by guest displacement of intercalated dimethylsulfoxide has been proven. In a second step, the imidization of ammonolyzed SMA at 160 °C results in exfoliation of the kaolinite layers and deposition of poly(styrene-co-maleimide or SMI nanoparticles onto the kaolinite surfaces. Compared with a physical mixture of Kln/SMI, the chemically reacted Kln/SMI provides more efficient exfoliation and hydrogen bonding between the nanoparticles and the kaolinite. The kaolinite nanocomposite particles are synthesized in aqueous dispersion with solid content of 65 wt %. The intercalation and exfoliation are optimized for a concentration ratio of Kln/SMI = 70:30, resulting in maximum intercalation and interlayer distance in combination with highest imide content. After thermal curing at 135 °C, the imidization proceeds towards a maximum conversion of the intermediate amic acid moieties. The changes in O–H stretching and kaolinite lattice vibrations have been illustrated by infrared and FT-Raman spectroscopy, which allow for a good quantification of concentration and imidization effects.

  17. Acetylation of Wood Flour from Four Wood Species Grown in Nigeria Using Vinegar and Acetic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Azeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of acetylation on pretreated wood flour of four different wood species, Boabab (Adansonia digitata, Mahoganny (Daniella oliveri, African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa and Beech wood (Gmelina arborea, had been investigated. The first batch of wood species were acetylated using acetic anhydride while the second batch were acetylated with commercial vinegar. Both experiments were conducted in the presence of varying amount of CaCl2 as catalyst and at temperature of 120°C for 3 h. The success of acetylation was determined based on Weight Percent Gain for each sample treated with either chemicals used. FT-IR, a veritable tool was used for the analysis of both treated and untreated samples to further investigate the success of acetylation. The results showed the presence of important band such as carbonyl absorptions at 1743, 1744, 1746, 1731, 1718 and 1696 cm−1 as appeared separately in the spectra of acetylated samples, confirming esterification occurred. The purpose of this work was to investigate the applicability of vinegar for acetylation of lignocellulosic fibers. Blends/composites were prepared by solution casting and their kinetics investigated in distilled water. The results indicated they could be used in outdoor applications such as, decking and packaging.

  18. Radical coupling of maleic anhydride onto graphite to fabricate oxidized graphene nanolayers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatemeh Samadaei; Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi; Hossein Roghani-Mamaqani

    2016-02-01

    Radical coupling was used to modify graphite with maleic anhydride (MAH). Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as radical generator activated MAH radically and it was reacted with defects at the surface of nanolayers. A set of batches with different reaction times (24, 48 and 72 h) were performed to obtain fully-modified nanolayers (GMA1, GMA2 and GMA3, respectively). Fourier transform infrared results approved the synthesis of MAHgrafted graphite. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that 5.9, 11.1 and 13.2 wt% of MAH was grafted onto the surface of GMA1, GMA2 and GMA3, respectively, and that was approved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. Also, X-ray diffraction patterns showed that $d$-spacing increased from 0.34 nm for graphite to 1.00 nm for all modified samples. However, GMA1 showed a weak peak related to graphite structure that disappeared when reaction time was increased. After modification with MAH, lamella flake structure of graphite was retained whereas the edges of sheets became distinguishable as depicted by scanning electron microscopy images. According to Raman spectra, modification progression resulted in more disorder structure of nanolayers due to grafting of MAH. Also, transmission electron microscopy images showed graphite as transparent layers while after modification, surface of nanolayers became folded due to the opposite effects of $\\pi$-conjugated domains and electrostatic repulsion of oxygen-containing groups.

  19. Preparation and characterization of porous titania-grafted poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)/maleic anhydride nanocomposite microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous titania-grafted poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)/maleic anhydride [P(St-DVB)/MA] nanocomposite microspheres were prepared by an open ring reaction method.The titania nanoparticles were first modified by attachment of amino groups to their surface to prevent particle aggregation,and to allow the nanoparticles to covalently bond the polymer microspheres,the surface of which was modified by attachment of MA functional groups to enable the polymer to retain their porous structures and to react with the amino groups on the surface of the titania particles.The porous nanocomposite microspheres were detected by FTIR,SEM,TEM,XRD and UV-Vis spectrophotometry.The results indicated that the nanocomposite microspheres were composed of nanosized titania uniformly distributed on the surface,and exhibited better UV absorbing property than pure polymer microspheres or unmodified titania.Furthermore,compared with pure porous polymer microspheres,the nanocomposite microspheres showed more efficient UV protection and slow release of Parsol-1789(a photo-reactive and cosmetic agent) held inside the porous network of the microspheres.

  20. Locally delivered salicylic acid from a poly(anhydride-ester): impact on diabetic bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keisuke; Yu, Weiling; Elazizi, Mohamad; Barakat, Sandrine; Ouimet, Michelle A; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Fiorellini, Joseph P; Graves, Dana T; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can impair bone repair, including a prolonged inflammatory response. A salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SA-PAE) provides controlled and sustained release of salicylic acid (SA) that locally resolves inflammation. This study investigates the effect of polymer-controlled SA release on bone regeneration in diabetic rats where enhanced inflammation is expected. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: diabetic group induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection or normoglycemic controls injected with citrate buffer alone. Three weeks after hyperglycemia development or vehicle injection, 5mm critical sized defects were created at the rat mandibular angle and treated with SA-PAE/bone graft mixture or bone graft alone. Rats were euthanized 4 and 12weeks after surgery, then bone fill percentage in the defect region was assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometry. It was observed that bone fill increased significantly at 4 and 12weeks in SA-PAE/bone graft-treated diabetic rats compared to diabetic rats receiving bone graft alone. Accelerated bone formation in normoglycemic rats caused by SA-PAE/bone graft treatment was observed at 4weeks but not at 12weeks. This study shows that treatment with SA-PAE enhances bone regeneration in diabetic rats and accelerates bone regeneration in normoglycemic animals.

  1. Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Nylon 6/PBT Blends Compatibilized with Styrene/Maleic Anhydride Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Shu-hao; YU Jie; ZHENG Qiang; HE Min; ZHU Hong

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties and dynamic mechanical properties of blends composed of Nylon 6 and poly( butylenes terephthalate) (PBT), with styrene/maleic anhydride(SMA) as compatibilizer, were studied. The observation on the morphologies of the etched surfaces of the cryogenically fractured specimens via scanning electron microscopy(SEM)demonstrated that in the compatibilized Nylon 6/PBT blends, there exists a finer and more uniform dispersion induced by thein-situ interfacial chemical reactions during the preparation than that in the corresponding uncompatibilized blends. On the other hand, the overall mechanical properties of the compatibilized blends could be remarkably improved compared with those of the uncompatibilized ones. Moreover, increasing the amount of the compatibilizer SMA leads to a more efficient dispersion of the PBT phase in Nylon 6/PBT blends. Furthermore, there exists an optimum level of SMA added to achieve the maximum mechanical properties. As far as the mechanism of this reactive compatibilization is concerned, the enhanced interfacial adhesion is necessary to obtain improved dispersion, stable phase morphology, and better mechanical properties.

  2. Reaction kinetics of piperylene and maleic anhydride%间戊二烯和顺酐反应动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷昊; 杨阿三; 孙勤; 程榕; 郑燕萍

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of C5 and maleic anhydride to synthesize crude methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) is a key step in the production of MTHPA and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA). The reaction kinetics of piperylene and maleic anhydride under the appropriate solvent was studied. Single-factor multilevel experiment was conducted to show the effects of the initial mole ratio (0.4-1. 1 )of maleic anhydride to piperylene, reaction temperature(1545 t), and solvents (MTHPA, toluene and acetone)on the reaction, and the kinetics data of piperylene and maleic anhydride reaction was determined. Based .on the basic mechanisms of Diels-Alder reaction, a kinetics model was established. By regressing experimental data to a linear fitting based on numerical calculation method, the activation energy and pre-exponential factor were obtained with methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, toluene and acetone as solvents. The results show that the reaction process accords with second-order reaction; different solvents have little influence on activation energy, but have great influences on the pre-exponential factor, in which the activation energy and pre-exponential factor approach the highest values when MTHPA is used as solvent.%C5和顺酐反应合成粗甲基四氢苯酐是生产甲基四氢苯酐及甲基六氢苯酐的关键步骤.为了研究C5中间戊二烯与顺酐反应动力学,选择合适溶剂并设计单因素多水平方案,考察了顺酐与间戊二烯摩尔比(0.4-1.1)、反应温度( 15-45℃)、溶剂(甲基四氢苯酐、甲苯和丙酮)等因素对反应的影响,测定了间戊二烯与顺酐反应的动力学数据.依据Diels-Alder反应的基本原理,建立了动力学模型.利用数值计算方法对实验数据进行线性拟合,分别得到了以甲基四氢苯酐、甲苯和丙酮为溶剂时的活化能和指前因子,结果表明反应符合二级反应.不同溶剂对反应的活化能影响较小,对指前因子影响较大,其中以甲基

  3. 丁二酸酐性能及各种生产工艺介绍%The Properties and Various Production Technology of Succinic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玉莹; 李江; 胡利娜; 肖鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    Succinic anhydride was a kind of widely used and important fine chemical raw materials , especially its derivatives of high value -added fine chemical products , succinic anhydride production process in all the world mainly divided into succinic acid dehydration and maleic anhydride hydrogenated to succinic anhydride .The properties, the application and production technology of succinic anhydride , and comparison of production technology , maleic anhydride melting catalytic hydrogenated to succinic anhydride were mainly introduced , which was one of the most competitive and promising development method due to the cost of production and the comprehensive energy consumption was low .%丁二酸酐是一种重要的精细化工原料,用途广泛,尤其它的衍生物更是附加值高的精细化工产品,全球丁二酸酐的生产工艺主要有丁二酸脱水法、顺丁烯二酸酐催化加氢法。本文章主要介绍了丁二酸酐的性能、用途和生产工艺技术,并对生产工艺技术进行了比较,顺丁烯二酸酐熔融催化加氢法由于生产成本和综合能耗较低,是最具竞争力,发展前景看好的一种方法。

  4. Trimellitic anhydride-conjugated serum albumin activates rat alveolar macrophages in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloksma Nanne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposure to airborne low molecular weight chemicals, like trimellitic anhydride (TMA, can result in occupational asthma. Alveolar macrophages (AMs are among the first cells to encounter these inhaled compounds and were previously shown to influence TMA-induced asthma-like symptoms in the Brown Norway rat. TMA is a hapten that will bind to endogenous proteins upon entrance of the body. Therefore, in the present study we determined if TMA and TMA conjugated to serum albumin induced the production of the macrophage mediators nitric oxide (NO, tumour necrosis factor (TNF, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in vitro using the rat AM cell line NR8383 and primary AMs derived from TMA-sensitized and naïve Brown Norway rats. Methods Cells were incubated with different concentrations of TMA, TMA conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA, and BSA as a control for 24 h and the culture supernatant was analyzed for mediator content. Results TMA alone was not able to induce the production of mediators by NR8383 cells and primary AMs from sensitized and sham-treated rats. TMA-BSA, on the contrary, dose-dependently stimulated the production of NO, TNF, and IL-6 by NR8383 cells and of NO and TNF, but not IL-6, by primary AMs independent of sensitization. Conclusion Results suggest that although TMA is a highly reactive compound, conjugation to a suitable protein is necessary to induce mediator production by AMs. Furthermore, the observation that effects of TMA-BSA were independent of sensitization suggests involvement of an immunologically non-specific receptor. In the discussion it is argued that a macrophage scavenger receptor is a likely candidate.

  5. Structural properties of pepsin-solubilized collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Conghu [The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); College of Life Sciences, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011 (China); Tian, Zhenhua; Liu, Wentao [The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Guoying, E-mail: liguoyings@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-10-01

    The structural properties of pepsin-solubilized calf skin collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride were investigated in this paper. Compared with native collagen, acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation, as determined by amino acid analysis, circular dichroism and X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, the thermostability of acylated collagen using thermogravimetric measurements was enhanced as the residual weight increased by 5%. With the temperature increased from 25 to 115 °C, the secondary structure of native and acylated collagens using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements was destroyed since the intensity of the major amide bands decreased and the positions of the major amide bands shifted to lower wavenumber, respectively. Meanwhile, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy revealed that the most sensitive bands for acylated and native collagens were amide I and II bands, respectively. Additionally, the corresponding order of the groups between native and acylated collagens was different and the correlation degree for acylated collagen was weaker than that of native collagen, suggesting that temperature played a small influence on the conformation of acylated collagen, which might be concluded that the hydrophobic interaction improved the thermostability of collagen. - Highlights: • Acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation. • Acylated collagen had stronger thermostability than native collagen. • Amide I was the most sensitive band to the temperature for acylated collagen. • Amide II was the most sensitive band to the temperature for native collagen. • Auto-peak at 1680 cm{sup −1} for acylated collagen disappeared at higher temperature.

  6. Elucidation of substituted ester group position in octenylsuccinic anhydride modified sugary maize soluble starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Huang, Chao; Lu, Keyu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.

  7. Therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis on phthalic anhydride-induced skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Seo, Eun-Ji; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Dong-Seob; Son, Hong-Joo; Lee, Chung-Yeoul; Lee, Hee-Seob; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2016-03-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis has been used to treat various diseases including fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease, while IL-4 cytokine has been considered as key regulator on the skin homeostasis and the predisposition toward allergic skin inflammation. However, few studies have investigated its effects and IL-4 correlation on skin inflammation to date. To quantitatively evaluate the suppressive effects of ethyl acetate extracts of A. cochinchinensis (EaEAC) on phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced skin inflammation and investigate the role of IL-4 during their action mechanism, alterations in general phenotype biomarkers and luciferase-derived signals were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice with PA-induced skin inflammation after treatment with EaEAC for 2 weeks. Key phenotype markers including lymph node weight, immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, epidermis thickness and number of infiltrated mast cells were significantly decreased in the PA+EaEAC treated group compared with the PA+Vehicle treated group. In addition, expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was also decreased in the PA+EaEAC cotreated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the luciferase signal derived from IL-4 promoter was detected in the abdominal region, submandibular lymph node and mesenteric lymph node of the PA+EaEAC treated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC treatment could successfully improve PA-induced skin inflammation of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice, and that IL-4 cytokine plays a key role in the therapeutic process of EaEAC. PMID:27051441

  8. Impact of dual-enzyme treatment on the octenylsuccinic anhydride esterification of soluble starch nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyu; Miao, Ming; Ye, Fan; Cui, Steve W; Li, Xingfeng; Jiang, Bo

    2016-08-20

    The hypothesis of improving the esterification of sugary maize soluble starch through dual-enzyme pretreatment was investigated. Native starch nanoparticle (NSP) was enzymatically pretreated using β-amylase and transglucosidase (ESP) and then esterified with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA). The degree of substitution (DS), reaction efficiency (RE), molecular weight (Mw), molecular density (ρ) and in vitro digestibility were determined. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to analyze starch particle and its OS derivatives. The emulsification properties of OS-NSP and OS-ESP were also compared. The results showed that dual-enzyme modification increased the DS and RE of OSA modified starch particle compared with the control. Enzymatic modification had a thinning effect at the surface of starch particle, resulting in lower Mw. The extent of reduction in ρ of OS-ESP was greater than that of OS-NSP. At equivalent DS, OSA modification of EPS was more effective than that of NPS in reducing digestibility. Also, there was brighter fluorescence spheres of OS-ESP in comparison to OS-NSP at equivalent DS, suggesting more OS groups were substituted on the chains near the branch points at less density areas. OS-ESP with higher DS (0.0197) had lower zeta-potential and average particle size for superior emulsion stabilization properties with high stability. The results revealed the OS-starch prepared under dual-enzyme pretreatment was a Pickering particle stabilizer for potential application in encapsulation and delivery of bioactive components. PMID:27178945

  9. An Examination of the Chemistry of Peroxycarboxylic Nitric Anhydrides and Related Volatile Organic Compounds During Texas Air Quality Study 2000 Using Ground-Based Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, James M.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Murphy, Paul; Williams, Eric; Frost, G. J.; Riemer, D.; Apel, Eric; Stroud, C.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.

    2003-08-19

    Measurements of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) along with related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 Houston study. The PAN mixing ratios ranged up to 6.5 ppbv and were broadly correlated with O3, characteristic of a highly polluted urban environment. The anthropogenic PAN homologue concentrations were generally consistent with those found in other urban environments; peroxypropionic nitric anhydride (PPN) averaged 15%, and peroxyisobutyric nitric anhydride (PiBN) averaged 3% of PAN,. Some periods were noted where local petrochemical sources resulted in anomalous PANs chemistry. This effect was especially noticeable in the case of peroxyacrylic nitric anhydride (APAN) where local sources of 1,3-butadiene and acrolein resulted in APAN as high as 30% of PAN. Peroxymethacrylic nitric anhydride (MPAN) was a fairly minor constituent of the PANs except for two periods on 4 and 5 September when air masses from high biogenic hydrocarbons (BHC) areas were observed. BHC chemistry was not a factor in the highest ozone pollution episodes in Houston but may have an impact on daily average ozone levels in some circumstances.

  10. A New Process for Maleic Anhydride Synthesis from a Renewable Building Block: The Gas-Phase Oxidehydration of Bio-1-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarelli, Giulia; Velasquez Ochoa, Juliana; Caldarelli, Aurora; Puzzo, Francesco; Cavani, Fabrizio; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the synthesis of maleic anhydride by oxidehydration of a bio-alcohol, 1-butanol, as a possible alternative to the classical process of n-butane oxidation. A vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst was used to explore the one-pot reaction, which involved two sequential steps: 1) 1-butanol dehydration to 1-butene, catalysed by acid sites, and 2) the oxidation of butenes to maleic anhydride, catalysed by redox sites. A non-negligible amount of phthalic anhydride was also formed. The effect of different experimental parameters was investigated with chemically sourced 1-butanol, and the results were then confirmed by using genuinely bio-sourced 1-butanol. In the case of bio-1-butanol, however, the purity of the product remarkably affected the yield of maleic anhydride. It was found that the reaction mechanism includes the oxidation of butenes to crotonaldehyde and the oxidation of the latter to either furan or maleic acid, both of which are transformed to produce maleic anhydride.

  11. Preparation of epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride. → The half-ester compound of acid anhydride desorbed from zirconium played as curing agent of epoxy resin. → The zirconia was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale by synchronizing the epoxy curing and sol-gel reactions. → The refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content. - Abstract: Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized using a bisphenol A epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; DGEBA), zirconium(IV)-n-propoxide (ZTNP), and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) via in situ polymerization. HHPA played two roles in this system: it acted as a modifier to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium alkoxide and also as a curing agent - the half-ester compound of HHPA desorbed from zirconium reacted with the epoxy resin to form the epoxy network. As a result, both the sol-gel reaction and epoxy curing occurred simultaneously in a homogeneous solution, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials were readily obtained. Further, the zirconia produced by the in situ polymerization was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale; thus, hybrid materials that exhibited excellent optical transparency were obtained. Furthermore, the heat resistance of the hybrid materials could be improved by hybridization with zirconia. And, the refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content.

  12. Preparation of epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Mitsukazu, E-mail: mochi@ipcku.kansai-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Suita-shi, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Nii, Daisuke; Harada, Miyuki [Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Suita-shi, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride. {yields} The half-ester compound of acid anhydride desorbed from zirconium played as curing agent of epoxy resin. {yields} The zirconia was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale by synchronizing the epoxy curing and sol-gel reactions. {yields} The refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content. - Abstract: Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized using a bisphenol A epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; DGEBA), zirconium(IV)-n-propoxide (ZTNP), and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) via in situ polymerization. HHPA played two roles in this system: it acted as a modifier to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium alkoxide and also as a curing agent - the half-ester compound of HHPA desorbed from zirconium reacted with the epoxy resin to form the epoxy network. As a result, both the sol-gel reaction and epoxy curing occurred simultaneously in a homogeneous solution, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials were readily obtained. Further, the zirconia produced by the in situ polymerization was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale; thus, hybrid materials that exhibited excellent optical transparency were obtained. Furthermore, the heat resistance of the hybrid materials could be improved by hybridization with zirconia. And, the refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content.

  13. Samarium-modified vanadium phosphate catalyst for the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hua-Yi [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Chemical Productions of Alcohols, Ethers and Esters, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hai-Bo [Fushun Res InstPetr& Petrochem, Fushun, 113001 (China); Liu, Xin-Hua; Li, Jian-Hui; Yang, Mei-Hua [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Chemical Productions of Alcohols, Ethers and Esters, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Huang, Chuan-Jing, E-mail: huangcj@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Chemical Productions of Alcohols, Ethers and Esters, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Weng, Wei-Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Chemical Productions of Alcohols, Ethers and Esters, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wan, Hui-Lin, E-mail: hlwan@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Chemical Productions of Alcohols, Ethers and Esters, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: The addition of a small amount of Sm into VPO catalyst brought about great changes in its physicochemical properties such as surface area, surface morphology, phase composition and redox property, thus leading to a higher catalytic performance in the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride, as compared to the undoped VPO catalyst. - Highlights: • The addition of Sm leads to great changes in the structure of VPO catalyst. • Sm improves performance of VPO for oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. • Catalytic performance is closely related to structure of VPO catalyst. - Abstract: A series of samarium-modified vanadium phosphate catalysts were prepared and studied in selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. The catalytic evaluation showed that Sm modification significantly increased the overall n-butane conversion and intrinsic activity. N{sub 2}-adsorption, XRD, SEM, Raman, XPS, EPR and H{sub 2}-TPR techniques were used to investigate the intrinsic difference among these catalysts. The results revealed that the addition of Sm to VPO catalyst can increase the surface area of the catalyst, lead to a significant change in catalyst morphology from plate-like structure into rosette-shape clusters, and largely promote the formation of (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}. All of these were related to the different catalytic performance of Sm-doped and undoped VPO catalysts. The roles of the different VOPO{sub 4} phases and the influence of Sm were also described and discussed.

  14. Effect of maleic anhydride modified MWCNTs on the morphology and dynamic mechanical properties of its PMMA composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yuan-Li [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, 30043, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Ma, Chen-Chi M., E-mail: ccma@che.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, 30043, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Yuen, Siu-Ming; Chuang, Chia-Yi [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, 30043, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Hsu-Chiang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Far East University, 744, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chin-Lung [Department of Industrial Safety and Health, HungKuang University, 433, Tai-Chung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Sheng-Yen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, 30043, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {center_dot} Maleic anhydride that was grafted on MWCNTs can provide additional active species for MMA. {center_dot} The modification resulted in a better adhesion between the MWCNTs and PMMA. {center_dot} The dynamic mechanical properties of PMMA composites were improved significantly. {center_dot} The better properties of MWCNTs composite address the applications regarding MWCNTs. - Abstract: This study successfully grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with maleic anhydride (Mah-g-MWCNTs) via Friedel-Crafts acylation with the aluminum chloride catalyst (AlCl{sub 3}), investigated by Raman and TGA analysis. The covalent bonds and carboxylic groups of maleic anhydride provided additional active species, improving adhesion between the MWCNTs and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). This investigation also studied the morphology and dynamic mechanical properties of pristine MWCNTs (P-MWCNTs) and modified MWCNTs (Mah-g-MWCNTs) reinforced with PMMA. Findings show a homogeneous distribution of MWCNTs throughout the matrix for Mah-g-MWCNTs/PMMA composites, as revealed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The addition of both MWCNTs influenced the molecular arrangement of the PMMA matrix and also increased the dynamic mechanical properties of MWCNTs/PMMA composites. Glass transition temperature (Tg) and storage moduli (E') of the Mah-g-MWCNTs/PMMA composites increased significantly comparing with P-MWCNTs/PMMA composites, attributed to improved interfacial adhesion between the reinforcement and the matrix. DMA studies revealed that adding 4.76 wt% Mah-g-MWCNTs into PMMA generates a 184% enhancement in the storage modulus and a 19 deg. C increase in Tg. However, adding 4.76 wt% P-MWCNTs into PMMA only generates 108% enhancement in the storage modulus and a 14 deg. C increase in Tg.

  15. KINETIC STUDY OF CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE OVER A NOVEL COPOLYMER- BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuying; YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic study of carbonylation of methanol-acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride over a cis-dicarbonylrhodium complex (MVM' Rh)coordinated with the ethylene diacrylate (M')crosslinked copolymer of methyl acrylate (M) and 2 - vinylpyridine (V) shows that the rate of reaction is zero order with respect to both reactants methanol and carbon monoxide, but first order in the concentrations of promoter methyl iodide and rhodium in the complex . Polar solvents can accelerate the reaction .Activation parameters were calculated from the experimental results, being comparable to that of the homogeneous system . A mechanism similar to that of soluble rhodium catalyst was proposed .

  16. Short-chain grafting of tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxane cycles on vinylchloride-maleic anhydride copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass increase of vinylchloride-maleic anhydride (VC-MA copolymer samples aged in tetrahydrofuran (THF or in 1,4-dioxane results from chemical interaction of VC-MA macromolecules with 1,4-dioxane or THF. Microstructure of the products of such modification was proved by infrared spectroscopy (IR- and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR and 1H NMR. Mechanism of modification has been proposed. The results of microstructure research of VC-MA samples aged in THF and in 1,4-dioxane coincide with already known data on the reactions of opening of these and other oxygen-containing cycles under mild conditions.

  17. The Selective Oxidation of n-Butane to Maleic Anhydride : Comparison of Bulk and Supported V-P-O Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Ruitenbeek, M.; van Dillen, A.J.; BARBON, A; Faassen, E.E.H. van; Geus, John W.

    1998-01-01

    V P O catalysts supported on the surface of silica and titania particles were studied and compared with bulk V P O. The catalytic performance was tested in the n-butane oxidation reaction to maleic anhydride, and the structure of the equilibrated catalysts was characterised with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) and (low-temperature) ESR spectroscopy. Our results show considerable differences in catalytic performance between VPO/TiO_{2} on the one hand, and VPO/SiO_{2} and VPO/bulk on the...

  18. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW COMBLIKE POLYMER BASED ON POLY (VINYL METHYL ETHER-ALT-MALEIC ANHYDRIDE) BACKBONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Liming; LIN Yunqing; ZHOU Zinan; NI Jianlong; CHEN Donglin

    1995-01-01

    A new comblike polymer host for polymer electrolyte was synthesized by reacting monomethyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) with poly(vinyl methyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) and endcapping the residual carboxylic acid with methanol. Butanone was selected as a solvent for the esterification in order to obtain a completely soluble product. The synthesis process was traced through by IR. Compared with the model compounds, the presumed structure of this comblike polymer has been proved to be valid by 13C NMR. The comb polymer is a white rubbery solid. It can be dissolved in butanone and THF, and manifests good film forming ability.

  19. SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF WATER—ETHANOL MIXTURE THROUGH COPOLYMERIC MEMBRANES.Ⅱ.ACRYLONITRILE AND MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMERIC MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHangFuyao; ZhangYifeng; 等

    1993-01-01

    Acrylonitrile(AN) and maleic anhydride(MA) copolymer has been synthesized by radical polymerization using ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite as initiator.The pervaporation properties of the copolymeric membranes prepared have been investigated for the first time. The dependences of pervaporation characteristics on coplymer composition,feed concentration and operating temperature have been studied.In order to improve the separation properties of the copolymeric membranes,the membranes were hydrolyzed with 10 wt% soldium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide aqueous solution.The hydrolyzed membranes containing more than 0.069MA mol fraction showed higher tensile strength and separation properties than the original membranes.

  20. CONTROLLED RADICAL COPOLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE AND MALEIC ANHYDRIDE UNDER GAMMA RADIATION IN THE PRESENCE OF BENZYL DITHIOBENZOATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-cheng Wu; Ying-fang Zou; Cai-yuan Pan

    2002-01-01

    The copolymerization of styrene (St) with maleic anhydride (MAh) under gamma radiation at room temperature inthe presence of benzyl dithiobenzoate (BDTB) was found to display "living" nature evidenced by constant concentration ofchain radicals during the copolymerization, linear evolution of molecular weights with conversion and narrow molecularweight distribution (Mw/Mn = 1.23-1.35). The compositional analysis and the sequence structural information of thecopolymers obtained from DEPT (Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer) experiments demonstrate that thecopolymers obtained also possess strictly alternating structure.

  1. New Composition of Maleic-Anhydride-Grafted Poly(Lactic Acid)/Rice Husk with Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate

    OpenAIRE

    Tsou, Chi-Hui; Hung, Wei-Song; Chin-San WU; Chen, Jui-Chin; Chi-Yuan HUANG; Chiu, Shih-Hsuan; Chih-Yuan TSOU; Yao, Wei-Hua; Shang-Ming LIN; Chih-Kuei CHU; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Kueir-Rarn LEE; Suen, Maw-Cherng

    2014-01-01

    Maleic-anhydride-grafted poly(lactic acid) (PLA-g-MAH) was prepared and blended with rice husk (RH). Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was used as the coupling agent for combining RH with PLA-g-MAH, which improved the poor interfacial adhesion between PLA and RH. Various PLA-g-MAH/RH blends, with and without MDI, were prepared by melt processing using a brabender. The effects that inclusion and distribution of MDI had on the mechanical properties and thermal behaviors of the composites wer...

  2. Attachment and phospholipase A2-induced lysis of phospholipid bilayer vesicles to plasma-polymerized maleic anhydride/SiO2 multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifen, Anye N; Förch, Renate; Knoll, Wolfgang; Cameron, Petra J; Khor, Hwei L; Williams, Thomas L; Jenkins, A Toby A

    2007-05-22

    This article describes a method by which intact vesicles can be chemically attached to hydrolyzed maleic anhydride films covalently bound to plasma-polymerized SiO2 on Au substrates. Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) combined with surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) was used to monitor the activation of plasma-deposited maleic anhydride (pp-MA) film with EDC/NHS and the subsequent coupling of lipid vesicles. The vesicles were formed from a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipids, with a water-soluble fluorophore encapsulated within. Vesicle attachment was measured in real time on plasma films formed under different pulse conditions (plasma duty cycle). Optimum vesicle attachment was observed on the pp-MA films containing the highest density of maleic anhydride groups. Phospholipase A2 was used to lyse the surface-bound vesicles and to release the encapsulated fluorophore. PMID:17447800

  3. 琥珀酸酐生产新工艺探讨%The Study of New Technology of Producing Amber Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕杨

    2012-01-01

    It introduced the properties of Amber Anhydride and widely used in every field.Introducing the major technology of producing Amber Anhydride.Reviewing new tecnology of producing Amber Anhydride and comparing the major technology with new technology to explaining the superiority of new technology.%介绍了琥珀酸酐的性质及在各个领域的广泛用途,介绍了目前国内琥珀酸酐的主要生产工艺技术方案,综述了琥珀酸酐生产新技术,并对目前国内琥珀酸酐的主要生产工艺和琥珀酸酐生产新工艺进行了比较,突出了新工艺的优势。

  4. Research Progres s of Process and Re actor of Maleic Anhydride%顺酐生产工艺与反应器研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      阐述了苯氧化法、C4烯烃氧化法、正丁烷氧化法生产顺酐的工艺过程及特点,综述了顺酐生产反应器的要求及类型,展望了顺酐生产工艺与反应器的发展方向。%The paper discusses the benzene oxidation , C4 olefin oxidation, n-butane oxidation maleic anhydride production process and characteristics .It also summarizes the requirements and types of maleic anhydride produc-tion reactor and prospects the development direction of maleic anhydride production process and reactor

  5. Controlled Release of Damascone from Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride-based Bioconjugates in Functional Perfumery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Herrmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydrides were modified with poly(propylene oxide (PO-co-ethylene oxide (EO side chains (Jeffamine® with different EO/PO molar ratios, varying between 0.11 and 3.60. These copolymers were then further functionalized with a β-mercapto ketone of δ-damascone. The obtained poly(maleic acid monoamide-based β-mercapto ketones were then studied as delivery systems for the controlled release of δ-damascone by retro 1,4-addition. The release of δ-damascone, a volatile, bioactive molecule of the family of rose ketones, was studied by dynamic headspace analysis above a cotton surface after deposition of a cationic surfactant containing fabric softening formulation, as a function of the ethylene oxide (EO/propylene oxide (PO molar ratio of the grafted copolymer side chains. The polarity of the EO/PO side chain influenced the release efficiency of the damascone in a typical fabric softening application. PO-rich copolymers and the corresponding poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride without Jeffamine® side chains were found to be less efficient for the desired fragrance release than the corresponding bioconjugate with a EO/PO ratio of 3.60 in the side chain. This copolymer conjugate seemed to represent a suitable balance between hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity to favor the release of the δ-damascone and to improve the deposition of the conjugate from an aqueous environment onto a cotton surface.

  6. Light-Induced C-H Arylation of (Hetero)arenes by In Situ Generated Diazo Anhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, David; Mateos, Carlos; Rincon, Juan A; de Frutos, Oscar; Kappe, C Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Diazo anhydrides (Ar-N=N-O-N=N-Ar) have been known since 1896 but have rarely been used in synthesis. This communication describes the development of a photochemical catalyst-free C-H arylation methodology for the preparation of bi(hetero)aryls by the one-pot reaction of anilines with tert-butyl nitrite and (hetero)arenes under neutral conditions. The key step in this procedure is the in situ formation and subsequent photochemical (>300 nm) homolytic cleavage of a transient diazo anhydride intermediate. The generated aryl radical then efficiently reacts with a (hetero)arene to form the desired bi(hetero)aryls producing only nitrogen, water, and tert-butanol as byproducts. The scope of the reaction for several substituted anilines and (hetero)arenes was investigated. A continuous-flow protocol increasing selectivity and safety has been developed enabling the experimentally straightforward preparation of a variety of substituted bi(hetero)aryls within 45 min of reaction time. PMID:26239967

  7. Using maleic anhydride functionalized graphene oxide for improving the interfacial properties of carbon fiber/BMI composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maleic anhydride functionalized graphene oxide (MAH-GO was synthesized and then introduced into carbon fiber (CF reinforced bismaleimide (BMI composites, with the aim of improving the interfacial adhesion strength between CF and BMI resin. Various characterization techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA demonstrated that the maleic anhydride has been successfully grafted onto the GO surfaces. The study showed that the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS and flexural properties of CF/BMI composites were all improved by the incorporation of GO and MAH-GO, and the MAH-GO showed the substantially improved effect due to the strong interaction between the MAH-GO and the resin matrix. The maximum increment of the ILSS, flexural strength and flexural modulus of composites were 24.4, 28.7 and 49.7%, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM photographs of the fracture surfaces revealed that the interfacial bonding between CF and resin matrix was significantly strengthened by the addition of MAH-GO. The results suggest that this feasible method may be an ideal substitute for the traditional method in the interfacial modification of composites.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of CdS nanoparticle based multiwall carbon nanotube-maleic anhydride-1-octene nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, E. Y.; Altay, M. C.; Muradov, M. B.; Akperov, O. H.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Puskás, R.; Madarász, D.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.

    2015-05-01

    CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by sonication from cadmium chloride and thiourea using a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-maleic anhydride (MA)-1-octene system as the matrix. The matrix was obtained by the "grafting from" approach from oxidized carbon nanotubes and maleic anhydride-1-octene. Multiwall carbon nanotubes used for reinforcing the matrix were synthesized by Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition using Fe-Co/Al2O3 as the catalyst. The obtained nanostructures were characterized by FTIR, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, SEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. The average CdS particle diameter was 7.9 nm as confirmed independently by TEM and XRD. UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that the obtained nanostructure is an appropriate base material for making optical devices. The novelty of this work is the use of the MWCNT-MA-1-octene matrix obtained via the "grafting from" approach for the synthesis of uniformly dispersed CdS nanocrystals by ultrasonic cavitation to obtain a polymer nanocomposite.

  9. Amphiphilic graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride with low molecular weight polyethylenimine for efficient gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan XP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaopin Duan,1,2 Jisheng Xiao,2 Qi Yin,2 Zhiwen Zhang,2 Shirui Mao,1 Yaping Li21School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Center of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, ChinaBackground and methods: A new amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer (SP was synthesized by conjugating poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride with low molecular weight polyethyleneimine for gene delivery. Fourier transform infrared spectrum, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and gel permeation chromatography were used to characterize the graft copolymer.Results: The buffering capability of SP was similar to that of polyethyleneimine within the endosomal pH range. The copolymer could condense DNA effectively to form complexes with a positive charge (13–30 mV and a small particle size (130–200 nm at N/P ratios between 5 and 20, and protect DNA from degradation by DNase I. In addition, SP showed much lower cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine 25,000. Importantly, the gene transfection activity and cellular uptake of SP-DNA complexes were all markedly higher than that of complexes of polyethyleneimine 25,000 and DNA in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cell lines.Conclusion: This work highlights the promise of SP as a safe and efficient synthetic vector for DNA delivery.Keywords: poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride, polyethylenimine, DNA, gene delivery

  10. Grafting of diethyl maleate and maleic anhydride onto styrene-b-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-b-styrene triblock copolymer (SEBS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchioni, F.; Ghetti, S.; Passaglia, E.; Ruggeri, G.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a study of the bulk functionalization of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-b-styrene triblock copolymer (SEBS) with diethyl maleate (DEM) or maleic anhydride (MAH) and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as initiator in a Brabender mixer is described. The determination of the functionalization degre

  11. Synthesizing Process and Application of Methyl Nadic Anhydride%甲基纳迪克酸酐合成工艺及应用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪军; 周飞; 黄勇

    2012-01-01

    Methyl Nadic Anhydride is an important downstream product of methyl cyclopentadiene, which is a high performance liquid anhydride epoxy resin curing agent, and is widely used as electrical insulating material. The synthesizing process and application research of methyl nadie anhydride were introduced, and the market was prospected to provide reference for development of methyl nadie anhydride industry.%甲基纳迪克酸酐是甲基环戊二烯下游重要产品,是一种性能优良的液态酸酐类环氧树脂固化剂,广泛应用于电器绝缘材料。文章对甲基纳迪克酸酐的合成工艺及应用研究进行了介绍,对市场前景进行了展望,以期为甲基纳迪克酸酐产业的发展提供参考。

  12. An atom-economic approach to carboxylic acids via Pd-catalyzed direct addition of formic acid to olefins with acetic anhydride as a co-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Ren, Wenlong; Shi, Yian

    2015-08-21

    An effective Pd-catalyzed hydrocarboxylation of olefins using formic acid with acetic anhydride as a co-catalyst is described. A variety of carboxylic acids are obtained in good yields with high regioselectivities under mild reaction conditions without the use of toxic CO gas.

  13. SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE TO Y-BUTROLACTONE OVER PD/AL2O3 CATALYST USING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogenation of maleic anhydride to g-butyrolactone over Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under supercritical carbondioxide mediumUnnikrishnan R. Pillai and Endalkachew Sahle-DemessieNational Risk Management Research laboratory (NRMRL), Clean Processes Branch, MS 443, United States...

  14. Characterization of differently sized granule fractions of yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reagent type on the properties of acetylated starches was studied for yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate. Samples modified with vinyl acetate showed higher swelling volume and peak viscosity than those acetylated with ace

  15. 利用顺酐渣合成聚羧酸减水剂的研究%Synthesis of polycarboxylate superplasticizer using maleic anhydride slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景华; 张静; 贾吉堂; 段彬; 张培林; 崔洪友; 王惠忠

    2013-01-01

    顺酐渣是顺酐生产过程产生的副产物,其中主要含有顺酐、顺丁烯二酸和反丁烯二酸等,经研究可用于混凝土外加剂的合成,在烯丙基聚氧乙烯醚(APEG)与顺酐渣(MALS)摩尔比为1.0∶3.0(顺酐渣按有效含量90%、平均相对分子质量110计算)条件下,引发剂过硫酸钾(KPS)的用量为单体总质量的6.0%,链转移剂烯丙基磺酸钠(SAS)的用量为单体总质量的3.5%时,合成的减水剂性能最佳.顺酐渣异构化对合成减水剂的性能基本没有影响,活性炭脱色能在一定程度上提高合成减水剂的性能,但成本较高.顺酐渣合成的减水剂可以1.1倍替代顺酐合成的减水剂,能有效提高合成聚羧酸减水剂的性价比.%Maleic anhydride slag is by-products during maleic anhydride production, which mainly contain maleic anhydride, maleic acid and fumaric acid. Experiments show it can be used in the synthesis of concrete admixtures. The optimal performance of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PC) was obtained as the molar ratio of monomers n(APEG) :n(MALS) =1.0:3.0 (Effective content of maleic anhydride slag was 90%,and the average molecular weight was calculated by 110). The dosage of sodium methyl allyl sulfonate and potassium persulfate are 3.5% and 6.0% of total monomers by mass. Isomerization of maleic anhydride slag has no influence on PC,Performance of PC can be improved after decolorization but the cost is higher. The PC using maleic anhydride slag can replace that of using maleic anhydride by 1.1 times,which can improve the performance/cost ratio effectively.

  16. Maleic anhydride-modified chicken ovalbumin as an effective and inexpensive anti-HIV microbicide candidate for prevention of HIV sexual transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride (HP-modified bovine milk protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG, is a promising microbicide candidate. However, concerns regarding the potential risk of prion contamination in bovine products and carcinogenic potential of phthalate derivatives were raised. Here we sought to replace bovine protein with an animal protein of non-bovine origin and substitute HP with another anhydride for the development of anti-HIV microbicide for preventing HIV sexual transmission. Results Maleic anhydride (ML, succinic anhydride (SU and HP at different conditions and variable pH values were used for modification of proteins. All the anhydrate-modified globulin-like proteins showed potent anti-HIV activity, which is correlated with the percentage of modified lysine and arginine residues in the modified protein. We selected maleic anhydride-modified ovalbumin (ML-OVA for further study because OVA is easier to obtain than β-LG, and ML is safer than HP. Furthermore, ML-OVA exhibited broad antiviral activities against HIV-1, HIV-2, SHIV and SIV. This modified protein has no or low in vitro cytotoxicity to human T cells and vaginal epithelial cells. It is resistant to trypsin hydrolysis, possibly because the lysine and arginine residues in OVA are modified by ML. Mechanism studies suggest that ML-OVA inhibits HIV-1 entry by targeting gp120 on HIV-1 virions and also the CD4 receptor on the host cells. Conclusion ML-OVA is a potent HIV fusion/entry inhibitor with the potential to be developed as an effective, safe and inexpensive anti-HIV microbicide.

  17. Deactivation properties of a high-productive vanadia-titania catalyst for oxidation of o-xylene to phthalic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Georgieva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of a high-productive V2O5-TiO2 (anatase supported O 4-28 catalyst for oxidation of o-xylene to phthalic anhydride was investigated in the first three years of its exploitation in industry. By using a suitable mathematical model, an identification problem was solved and activation profiles of the catalyst along a fixed bed located in the tubes of an industrial reactor were determined. Experimental temperature regimes and yields of the main and side products for different periods of the catalyst life were used. The proper technological regimes providing for a maximum yield according to the requirements of the catalyst producer company were defined.

  18. LITHIUM ION CONDUCTING POLYMER ELECTROLYTES BASED ON ALTERNATING MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER WITH OLIGO-OXYETHYLENE SIDE CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Liming

    1996-01-01

    A comb polymer with oligo-oxyethylene side chains of the type -(CH2CH2O)12CH3 was prepared from methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride copolymer and poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether. The polymer can dissolve LiClO4 salt to form homogeneous amorphous polymer electrolyte. The ac ion conduction was measured using the complex impedance method, and conductivities were investigated as functions of temperatures and salt concentration. The complexes were first found to have two classes of glass transition which increase with increasing salt content. The optimum conductivity attained at 25℃ is in the order of 5.50 × 10-6Scm-1. IR spectroscopy was used to study the cation-polymer interaction.

  19. Chitosan: poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-alt-itaconic anhydride) nanocapsules—a promising alternative for the lung cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raţă, Delia Mihaela, E-mail: iureadeliamihaela@yahoo.com [„Apollonia” University of Iasi, Faculty of Medical Dentistry, „Academician Ioan Haulică” Research Institute (Romania); Chailan, Jean-François, E-mail: chailan@univ-tln.fr [University of Sud Toulon-Var, « Matériaux-Polymères-Interfaces-Environnement Marin (MAPIEM) Laboratory (France); Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara, E-mail: catipeptu@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection (Romania); Costuleanu, Marcel, E-mail: mcostuleanu@yahoo.com [University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa”- Iaşi, Department of General Pathology, Faculty of Dental Medicine (Romania); Popa, Marcel, E-mail: marpopa2001@yahoo.fr [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection (Romania)

    2015-07-15

    This study reports the preparation of novel polymeric nanocapsules based on a natural polymer, chitosan and a synthetic one, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-alt-itaconic anhydride) [(poly(NVPAI)] using an interfacial condensation technique. The infrared spectroscopy studies confirmed the crosslinking through the presence of amide bonds, formed between the two polymers chains. The diameter of nanocapsules was found in the range of 126–214 nm and it was determined by dynamic light scattering method. Morphological characterization demonstrated their nano size, the spherical shape of the nanocapsules and the formation of hollow particles. The nanocapsules presented good swelling capacity in aqueous solutions. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) loading and release capacity was studied, the processes being controlled by the drug diffusion through the polymeric membrane. The obtained results were encouraging, showing that 5-FU-loaded nanocapsules had 70 % higher apoptotic effect on A549 tumour cells than the drug in free state or mixed with the nanocapsules.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Maleic Anhydride Cross-Linked Chitosan-Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel Matrix Transdermal Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimal Maji *

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery systems are polymeric patches containing dissolved or dispersed drugs that deliver therapeutic agents at a constant rate to the human body. Matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using alprazolam as a model drug and employing the combinations of chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol (CS-PVA cross linked with Maleic anhydride. The transdermal patches were evaluated for their physicochemical properties like thickness, tensile strength, folding endurance, drug content, swellability, surface pH, water vapour transmission, in vitro permeation and skin irritation studies. FTIR study indicated no interaction between drug and polymers. The permeability of alprazolam was increased with increase in PVA content. The in vitro drug permeation followed Higuchi kinetics as its coefficient of correlation value predominates over zero order and first order kinetics. Also the diffusion coefficient of release profiles had a value of nearly 0.5, which indicated Fickian transport diffusion. The patches were found to be free of any skin irritation.

  1. Chitosan: poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-alt-itaconic anhydride) nanocapsules—a promising alternative for the lung cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the preparation of novel polymeric nanocapsules based on a natural polymer, chitosan and a synthetic one, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-alt-itaconic anhydride) [(poly(NVPAI)] using an interfacial condensation technique. The infrared spectroscopy studies confirmed the crosslinking through the presence of amide bonds, formed between the two polymers chains. The diameter of nanocapsules was found in the range of 126–214 nm and it was determined by dynamic light scattering method. Morphological characterization demonstrated their nano size, the spherical shape of the nanocapsules and the formation of hollow particles. The nanocapsules presented good swelling capacity in aqueous solutions. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) loading and release capacity was studied, the processes being controlled by the drug diffusion through the polymeric membrane. The obtained results were encouraging, showing that 5-FU-loaded nanocapsules had 70 % higher apoptotic effect on A549 tumour cells than the drug in free state or mixed with the nanocapsules

  2. Studies of miscibility and specific interactions of antitumor-active anhydride copolymer and poly(ethylene glycol) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hatice Kaplan; Parvizikhosroshahi, Shahed; Uluışık, Erdem C

    2016-01-01

    The blending of polymers is of great interest, since the modification gives rise to diverse physical properties with the functionality of a polymer, without synthesis. Water-soluble antitumor-active poly(maleic anhydride-alt-acrylic acid) poly(MA-alt-AA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blends were prepared by casting, and compatible properties were investigated by dilute solution viscometry. Viscosity measurements were made on ternary systems of polymer (1)/polymer (2)/solvent (H2O) and p-dioxane, at different concentrations of PEG and poly(MA-alt-AA). The interaction parameters Δβ, μ, Δk, Δb, β and α, which have been proposed, have been obtained using the viscosity data, to probe the miscibility of the polymer blends. The solid blends prepared were characterized with ATR-FTIR, (1)H-NMR, DTA and TGA. PMID:25406735

  3. Improved performance of Nb-doped vanadyl pyrophosphate, catalyst for n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavarelli, G.; Caldarelli, A.; Cavani, F. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale ' Toso Montanari' ; Cortelli, C.; Luciani, S. [Polynt SpA, Scanzorosciate (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    We report here about an investigation on the role of Nb{sup 5+} when used as a promoter for vanadyl pyrophosphate, catalyst for the oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. The effect of Nb was very complex, a function of both its amount and the reaction temperature used. The optimal catalytic behavior was shown for very low Nb contents, i.e., for a V/Nb atomic ratio as low as 150. The main role of Nb was that of accelerating the formation of a limited amount of {gamma}-VOPO{sub 4} on the surface of vanadyl pyrophosphate, by accelerating the oxidation of V{sup 4+} into V{sup 5+} under reaction conditions. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of CdS nanocrystals in Maleic anhydride-Octene-1-Vinylbutyl Ether terpolymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akperov, Oktay H.; Muradov, Mustafa B.; Malikov, Elvin Y.; Akperov, Elchin O.; Mammadova, Rasmiyya E.; Eyvazova, Goncha M.; Kukovecz, Ákos; Kónya, Zoltán

    2016-07-01

    A Maleic anhydride-Octene-1-Vinylbutyl Ether terpolymer was synthesized via the radical terpolymerization method in order to prepare a new matrix for CdS nanocrystal synthesis. CdS nanocrystals were synthesized through the reaction of thiourea with cadmium chloride. The synthesized terpolymer/CdS nanocrystal composites were characterized by several methods. Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis, Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. The room temperature UV-visible absorption spectra show a shift of the absorption edge towards higher energies. The band gap of the CdS nanocomposite is bigger than that of bulk CdS. Raman spectrum exhibits characteristic peaks of CdS. Images of the nanocomposite obtained with Atomic Force Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy are the evidences of CdS nanocrystal formation in the terpolymer. Thermal investigation shows that the nanocomposite is more thermostable than the terpolymer which could be useful for application in thermo aggressive medium.

  5. Synthesis and swelling peculiarities of new hydrogels based on the macromolecular reaction of anhydride copolymers with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Mahir; Can, Hatice Kaplan

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the synthesis and macromolecular reactions of maleic anhydride (MA)-acrylamide (AAm) binary and MA-vinyl acetate (VA)- AAm ternary reactive copolymers with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) as a polyfunctional crosslinker. Swelling parameters such as the start-time of the hydrogel-formation, initial rate of swelling, swelling rate constant, equilibrium swelling, and equilibrium water content (EWC) are determined for polymers/APTS/water systems with certain copolymer/crosslinker ratios (1.4/1 and 9/1). The formation of a hyperbranched network structure by the fragmentation of the side-chain reactive groups in the systems studied has also been confirmed by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) method. PMID:25761627

  6. Acylation Modification of Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin Using Succinic Anhydride and Its Effects on Enzymatic Degradation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation rate of tissue engineering scaffolds should match the regeneration rate of new tissues. Controlling the degradation behavior of silk fibroin is an important subject for silk-based tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin was successfully modified with succinic anhydride and then characterized by zeta potential, ninhydrin method, and FTIR. In vitro, three-dimensional scaffolds prepared with modified silk fibroin were incubated in collagenase IA solution for 18 days to evaluate the impact of acylation on the degradation behavior. The results demonstrated that the degradation rate of modified silk fibroin scaffolds was more rapid than unmodified ones. The content of the β-sheet structure in silk fibroin obviously decreased after acylation, resulting in a high degradation rate. Above all, the degradation behavior of silk fibroin scaffolds could be regulated by acylation to match the requirements of various tissues regeneration.

  7. Kualitas Papan Komposit dari Sekam Padi dan Plastik HDPE Daur Ulang Menggunakan Maleic Anhydride (MAH sebagai Compatibilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Fathanah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of rice husk as raw material on preparation of composite board could be used as alternative and cheap construction material. In this research, the  composite board was prepared by mixing fined rice husk, recycledhigh density polyethylene (HDPE plastic. Maleic Anhydride (MAH was added ascompatibilizer. The objective of this research is to develop an alternative and a cheap technologyon fabrication of composite board by utilizing rice husk waste as filler and plastic from the type of recycled HDPE plastic as matrix. In order to improve the compactness of rice husk and recycled HDPE plastic thus the addition of MAH as compatibilizer is carried out. The research aspect learned is the MAH addition variation as much of 4% and 8% from HDPE plastic weight, and the mixing ratios of filler and matrix which are 30:70; 40:60; 50:50; 60:40; 70:30. Casting process of the homogonized solution was  carried out at casting temperature of 145oC for 20 minutes. The research result obtained indicates that the value of composite board density has fulfilled standard of SNI 03-2105-1996. The maximum water adsorbtion is obtained on composition of filler and matrixof 60:40 where with the addition of MAH 4% and 8% they are 10,1% and 6.9%, respectively. The addition of MAH as much of4% and 8% has resulted composite board with tensile strength value that has fulfilled SNI standard. Whereas the addition of MAH as much of 8% could increase modulus of rapture value of composite board i. e. 82.5 – 85.2 kgf/cm2and they have fulfilled standard of SNI 03-2105-1996. Keywords: Composite board, Maleic Anhydride (MAH, Recycled HDPE plastic, Tensile Strength, modulus of rapture.

  8. Blends of nitrile butadiene rubber/poly (vinyl chloride: The use of maleated anhydride castor oil based plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiah Ratna Dewi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based plasticizers, with biodegradable materials, such as biopolymer which offers competitive mechanical properties. In this study, castor oil was modified with maleic anhydride (MAH to produce bioplasticizer named maleated anhydride castor oil (MACO, and used in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/poly vinyl chloride (PVC blend. The effect of MACO on its cure characteristics and mechanical properties of NBR/PVC blend has been determined. The reactions were carried out at different castor oil (CO/xylene ratios, i.e. 1:0 and 1:1 by weight, and fixed CO/MAH ratio, 1:3 by mole. DOP, CO, and MACO were added into each NBR/PVC blend according to the formula. It was found that the viscosity and safe process level of NBR/PVC blend is similar from all plasticizer, however, MACO (1:0 showed the highest cure rate index (CRI. MACO-based plasticizer gave a higher value of the mechanical properties of the NBR/PVC blend as compared to DOP based plasticizer. MACO (1:1 based plasticizer showed a rather significance performance compared to another type of plasticizers both before and after aging. The value of hardness, elongation at break, tensile strength, and tear strength were 96 Shore A, 155.91 %, 19.15 MPa, and 74.47 MPa, respectively. From this result, NBR/PVC blends based on MACO plasticizer can potentially replace the DOP, and therefore, making the rubber blends eco-friendly.

  9. Etude du greffage radicalaire de l'anhydride maléique sur le polyéthylène en milieu fondu et en présence de radicaux nitroxyle et/ou d'alcoxyamines

    OpenAIRE

    Belekian, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with melt grafting of maleic anhydride onto low density polyethylene using radical initiators which are able to abstract hydrogen from the polyolefin backbone. The use of a nitroxide radical as a termination reagent in presence of peroxide allowed to prevent the polyethylene crosslinking during the maleic anhydride grafting. Indeed, the polyethylene crosslinking is the main side reaction but the elimination of a small proportion of the reagents (monomer and nitroxide radical) ...

  10. SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS POLY(STYRENE-co-MALEIC ANHYDRIDE)/SILICA HYBRID MATERIALS VIA A NONSURFACTANT-TEMPLATED SOL-GEL PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-bin Pang; Kun-yuan Qiu; Yen Wei

    2000-01-01

    Mesoporous poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)/silica hybrid materials have been prepared. The synthesis was achieved by the HCl-catalyzed sol-gel reactions of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer in the presence of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a coupling agent and citric acid as a nonsurfactant template or pore-forming agent, followed by ethanol extraction. Characterization results from nitrogen sorption isotherms and powder Xray diffraction indicate that polymer-modified mesoporous materials with large specific surface areas (e.g. 900 m2/g) and pore volumes (e.g. 0.6 cm3/g) could be prepared. As the citric acid concentration is increased, the specific surface areas, pore volumes and pore diameters of the hybrid materials increase.

  11. Investigation of the ageing effects on phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder coated mineral fibres' mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder based mineral fibres exhibited better ageing properties for same duration of ageing. X...... chamber for 7 days at 70 °C and 95% relative humidity. In the case of the PUF binder coated fibres, quantitative XPS measurements showed some significant changes in the atomic composition of the PUF binder coated mineral fibres after ageing, including decreased urea and carbonyl groups concentrations...... of amide, methylene ether and methylene linkages between urea groups present in the PUF binder. In the case of the alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres, both XPS and ToF-SIMS techniques consistently showed that the surface chemical composition of the organic components of the alkanol...

  12. New anhydride/epoxy thermosets based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and 10-undecenoyl modified poly(ethyleneimine) with improved impact resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Acebo Gorostiza, Cristina; Fernández Francos, Xavier; de la Flor López, Sílvia; Ramis Juan, Xavier; Serra Albet, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    New dendritic modifiers have been synthesized by amidation of hyperbranched poly(ethylenimine)(PEIs) with 10-undecenoic acid to obtain hyperbranched polymers (HBPs) with different degree of modification. These HBPs have been used as toughness modifiers in a proportion of 10 and 20% in reference to the epoxy resin in diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)/methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) formulations. The curing process has been studied by dynamic scanning calorimetry and by rheomet...

  13. Enhancement of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) Biocomposites by Matrix Esterification Using Succinic Anhydride

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Siyamak; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Sanaz Abdolmohammadi; Wan Md Zin Bin Wan Yunus; Mohamad Zaki AB Rahman

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) PBAT (EcoflexTM), as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites’ performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH) as a coupling agent in the presence ...

  14. STUDY OF CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE OVER A BIDENTATE POLYMER BOUND CIS-DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX AS CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaojun; LIU Zhongyang; PAN Pinglai; YUAN Guoqing

    1996-01-01

    Copolymer of 2-vinylpyridine and vinylacetate coordinated with dicarbonylrhodium used as a catalyst for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid and anhydride has been studied. The structural characteristics of the copolymer ligand and complex, and the influences of the reaction conditions on the carbonylation catalyzed by this polymer complex have been investigated. In comparison with small molecule catalyst of Rh complex, the bidentate copolymer coordinated complex has better thermal stability. The reaction mechanism of the carbonylation reaction is also illustrated.

  15. Poly(anhydride-ester) and Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) Blends: Salicylic acid-releasing blends with hydrogel-like properties that reduce inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Ouimet, Michelle A.; Fogaça, Renata; Snyder, Sabrina S; Sathaye, Sameer; Luiz H. Catalani; Pochan, Darrin J.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Polymers such as poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) have been used to prepare hydrogels for wound dressing applications but are not inherently bioactive. For enhanced healing, the release of physically admixed therapeutics from hydrogels has been evaluated, but with limited control over drug release profiles. To overcome these limitations, PVP was blended with salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-esters) (SAPAE) and shown to exhibit hydrogel properties upon swelling. In vitro release studies de...

  16. Partial oxidation of Raffinate II and other mixtures of n-Butane and n-Butenes to maleic anhydride in a fixed-bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstädter, Willi Michael

    2008-01-01

    The utilisation of the C4 streams of steamcrackers by converting raffinate II to maleic anhydride was studied. The oxidation reactions were investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor to determine reaction kinetics. The effects of pore diffusional resistance were investigated and explained. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model was used for the simulation of a production-scale fixed-bed reactor. A flow scheme of the reactor section including a recycle was proposed.

  17. Amphiphilic poly{[α-maleic anhydride-ω-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)]-co-(ethyl cyanoacrylate)} graft copolymer nanoparticles as carriers for transdermal drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Anjie

    2009-01-01

    Jinfeng Xing, Liandong Deng, Jun Li, Anjie DongDepartment of Polymer Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, the transdermal drug delivery properties of D,L-tetrahydropalmatine (THP)-loaded amphiphilic poly{[α-maleic anhydride-ω-methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)]-co-(ethyl cyanoacrylate)} (PEGECA) graft copolymer nanoparticles (PEGECAT NPs) were evaluated b...

  18. Absorptive activity of calcium in the isolated cecal epithelium adaptively increased by 2 week's feeding of difructose anhydride III in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amano, Midori; Chiji, Hideyuki; Shigematsu, Norihiro; Tomita, Fusao; Hara, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We compared net Ca absorption and Lucifer Yellow (LY), a paracellular passage dye, permeability in the epithelium isolated from the rat small intestine, cecum, and colon after feeding with control and difructose anhydride (DFA) III diets for 14 days using the Ussing chamber system. Feeding of DFA III increased net Ca transport and LY passage in the cecal but not in small intestinal or colonic epithelium. Ability of paracellular Ca passage via Tight-junction (TJ) in the cecum was changed adapt...

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Styrene- Ethylene-Propylene-Styrene (SEPS Grafted with Maleic Anhydride (MAH for Use as Coupling Agent in Wood Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Acevedo-Morantes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Styrene-Ethylene-Propylene-Styrene (SEPS block copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (MAH by reactive extrusion (SEPS-g-MAH using an organic peroxide as initiator in the grafting. SEPS-g-MAH was synthesized for use as coupling agent in wood polymer composite (WPC. Identification of this compatibilizer was made using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and the grafting degree was determinate with titration. The characteristic peaks in FTIR analysis indicated the presence of MAH in the copolymer.

  20. Synthesis of high molecular weight polylactic acid from aqueous lactic acid co-catalyzed by tin(II)chloride dihydrate and succinic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Ziqiang; BAI Yanbin; WANG Shoufeng

    2005-01-01

    Polylactic acid was synthesized from commercial available cheap aqueous lactic acid (85%―90% w/w) using succinic anhydride and SnCl2·2H2O as catalyst in the absence of organic solvents. As a result, polylactic acid with a molecular weight of 60000 was prepared in 10 h. The new procedure is much simple, cheap and outstanding in that the start material is aqueous lactic acid; the catalytic system is environmentally benign.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL STABILITY OF PMR POLYIMIDES USING 7-OXA-BICYCLO[2,2,1]HEPT-5-ENE-2, 3-DICARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE AS END CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-liang Gong; Yan-feng Li; Hai-xia Yang; Xiao-long Wang; Shu-jiang Zhang; Shi-yong Yanga

    2011-01-01

    An anhydride monomer containing ether oxide bridge,7-oxa-bicyclo[2,2,1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride (ONA),was successfully synthesized by Diels-Alder reaction of furan and maleic anhydride.The ONA was also studied as an end-cap for the polymerization of monomer reactant (PMR) type polyimides.Three molecular weight levels of the ONA end-capped PMR resins were evaluated.The effects of process conditions of these novel PMR resins on thermal and mechanical properties were investigated.It was demonstrated that the imidized prepolymers using the end-cap have good processability,and the cured polyimide specimens exhibited good thermal stability.The initial decomposition temperature,Td (ca.580℃) and glass transition temperature,Tg (330℃) of the novel resin (PI-20),prepared under optimum process conditions,compare favorably with the Td (ca.620℃) and Tg (ca.348℃) of the state-of-the-art resin (PI'-20),respectively.

  2. Storage Stability of Epoxy/Anhydride VPI Impregnating Resin%环氧酸酐VPI浸渍树脂贮存稳定性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄友根; 曾亮; 张浩; 李鸿岩; 赵惠宇

    2011-01-01

    对比测试了不同环氧树脂、液体酸酐、活性稀释剂的基本性能,并对其制备的环氧酸酐浸渍树脂进行了贮存试验.结果表明:环氧树脂的环氧当量和有机氯的含量、液体酸酐的纯度、水分和游离酸含量及活性稀释剂的氯含量是影响环氧酸酐浸渍树脂贮存稳定性的主要因素.%The basic properties of different types of epoxy resin, liquid anhydride and reactive diluent were studied, and the prepared epoxy/anhydride VPI impregnating resin was stored at certain temperature to test the storage stability. The results show that the epoxy equivalent and organic chlorine content of epoxy resin, the purity, water and free acid content of liquid anhydride, the chlorine content of reactive diluent are the main factors affecting the storage stability of the resin.

  3. Butanol Alcoholysis of Succinic Anhydride Under Neutral Condition%中性条件下丁二酸酐的丁醇解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳萍; 张利萍

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholysis of succinic anhydride and n - butyl alcohol takes place without catalysts and the monobutyl succinie forms. The IR and MS spectra of the products are measured respectively. The factors such as the molar radio between succinic anhydride and n - butanol, raction time are discussed. The radio of succinic acid to n - butanol is 1:3 ,the reaction time is 2h, alcoholysis radio is up to 95.8% ;the reaction time is over 2.5h,succinic anhydride has been alcoholyzed and a little amount of dibutyl has formed.%丁二酸酐和正丁醇在无催化剂参与下,直接醇解生成丁二酸正丁单酯。用IR谱和MS谱分别对产物进行了结构表征。反应讨论了物质的量比、反应时间对醇解反应的影响。当酸酐与醇的物质的量比为1:3,反应2h时,酸酐醇解率已达到95.8%;反应2.5h以上时,酸酐完全醇解,并且有少量丁二酸二丁酯生成。

  4. GRAFTING OF PEROXIDE-INITIATED MALEIC ANHYDRIDE ON SPHERICAL PE/PP IN-REACTOR BLEND GRANULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-zhong Zhang; Zhi-qiang Fan; Bai-geng Wu; Jun-ting Xu; Qi Wang

    2004-01-01

    Spherical polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) in-reactor blend granules with various ethylene/propylene molar ratios and high porosity were synthesized using a high yield TiCl4/MgCl2 supported catalyst. A solution of benzoyl peroxide (BPO)/maleic anhydride (MAH)/xylene (interfacial reagent) or BPO/MAH/St (comonomer) was absorbed onto the PE/PP inreactor blend granules, and solid phase graft polymerization of MAH on PE/PP was conducted. The amount of grafted MAH on PE/PP was measured through chemical titration. The results showed that solid phase graft polymerization of MAH in PE/PP in-reactor blend granules produced graft copolymer with high amount of grafted MAH, and the amount of grafted MAH was raised slightly when St was introduced as comonomer. The graft in-reactor blend was fractionated into five fractions through temperature-gradient extraction fractionation (TGEF), and the fractions were analyzed by FTIR. The results revealed that MAH is mainly grafted on the PE segments, whereas MAH was predominantly grafted on the PP segments when St was present in the graft polymerization system. In addition, the final product is still in the form of regular spherical granules, which is beneficial for industrial processing.

  5. Preparation, characterization and luminescent properties of dense nano-silica hybrids loaded with 1,8-naphthalic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinpeng; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Novel luminescent dense nano-silica hybrid materials (DNSS) modified with different amounts of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (NA) were successfully synthesized via two steps combined with post-grafting methods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-sorption analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, as well as time-resolved decays were employed to characterize the resultant hybrid materials. The results revealed that luminescent organic molecules had been successfully loaded onto the amine-modified surface of nano-silica spheres. In addition, their fluorescence intensity and characteristic peak of emission spectra changed with increasing amount of APTES and NA additive. In particular, the characteristic peak showed a red shift from 390 to 450 nm, however, this was inconsistent with results calculated on the basis of the elemental analysis data, most probably because of the dispersion behaviors of NA molecules from the aggregating to the monolayer state. These observations demonstrated the existence of a quantum confinement effectiveness of NA-DNSS samples, and therefore a possible mechanism was put forward.

  6. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  7. Immunosuppression of the Trimellitic Anhydride-Induced Th2 Response by Novel Nonanatural Products Mixture in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jung Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many natural dietary products prevent or cure allergic inflammation; however, the ability of mixtures of these natural medicinals to suppress allergic skin inflammation is unknown. We examined the inhibitory effects of nonanatural products mixture (NPM-9, which provides immunoregulatory activation, on Th2-mediated skin allergic inflammation. Oral administration of NPM-9 in mice reduced ear thickness and specific IgE production in trimellitic anhydride- (TMA-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS. NPM-9 also suppressed IL-4 and IL-1β production in splenocytes but prevented only TMA-induced IL-1β production in inflamed ears. To characterize the mechanism of this effect, we examined NPM-9 immunosuppression on an OVA-induced Th2 allergic state. Oral administration of NPM-9 inhibited Th2-mediated serum IgE overproduction. NPM-9 also downregulated the polarized Th2 response, whereas it upregulated Th1 response in splenocytes. These data suggest that NPM-9 may be a useful therapeutic agent for allergic inflammatory diseases through its suppression of the Th2-mediated allergic response.

  8. Separator Membrane from Crosslinked Poly(Vinyl Alcohol and Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-alt-Maleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Vashisth Rohatgi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report separator membranes from crosslinking of two polymers, such as poly vinyl alcohol (PVA with an ionic polymer poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride (PMVE-MA. Such interpolymer-networked systems were extensively used for biomedical and desalination applications but they were not examined for their potential use as membranes or separators for batteries. Therefore, the chemical interactions between these two polymers and the influence of such crosslinking on physicochemical properties of the membrane are systematically investigated through rheology and by critical gel point study. The hydrogen bonding and the chemical interaction between PMVE-MA and PVA resulted in highly cross-linked membranes. Effect of the molecular weight of PVA on the membrane properties was also examined. The developed membranes were extensively characterized by studying their physicochemical properties (water uptake, swelling ratio, and conductivity, thermal and electrochemical properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The DSC study shows the presence of a single Tg in the membranes indicating compatibility of the two polymers in flexible and transparent films. The membranes show good stability and ion conductivity suitable for separator applications.

  9. Olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer based additives: a novel approach for compatibilizing blends of waste polyethylene and crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Balázs; Varga, Csilla; Bartha, László

    2015-04-01

    In our work processing conditions and mechanical properties of waste polyethylene (PE)/crumb rubber (CR) blends have been improved by new types of compatibilizing additives synthesized from experimental olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymers at our laboratory. Compatibilizing additives have been introduced into the PE/CR blends in 0.2 wt% while CR concentration has been varied between 10 and 50 wt%. For comparison of the effects commercially available MA-g-PO type compatibilizing additives have also been applied. Tensile and Charpy impact tests of the compression moulded samples have been carried out. Several experimental additives have enhanced properties of the PE/CR blends either from the point of view of tensile or Charpy impact strength while commercial additives have had improving effects only on one of the abovementioned mechanical properties but not for both of them simultaneously. Since good mechanical properties could be achieved by our experimental compatibilizers good adhesion in the waste PE/CR samples have been considered and was proven by SEM graphs either.

  10. Adsorption of heavy metal ions and azo dyes by crosslinked nanochelating resins based on poly(methylmethacrylate-co-maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaemy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chelating resins are suitable materials for the removal of heavy metals in water treatments. A copolymer, Poly(MMA-co-MA, was synthesized by radical polymerization of maleic anhydride (MA and methyl methacrylate (MMA, characterized and transformed into multifunctional nanochelating resin beads (80–150 nm via hydrolysis, grafting and crosslink reactions. The resin beads were characterized by swelling studies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The main purpose of this work was to determine the adsorption capacity of the prepared resins (swelling ratio ~55% towards metal ions such as Hg2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ from water at three different pH values (3, 6 and 9. Variations in pH and types of metal ions have not significantly affected the chelation capacity of these resins. The maximum chelation capacity of one of the prepared resin beads (Co-g-AP3 for Hg2+ was 63, 85.8 and 71.14 mg/g at pH 3, 6 and 9, respectively. Approximately 96% of the metal ions could be desorbed from the resin. Adsorption capacity of these resins towards three commercial synthetic azo dyes was also investigated. The maximum adsorption of dye AY42 was 91% for the resin Co-g-AP3 at room temperature. This insures the applicability of the synthesized resins for industrial applications.

  11. USING CATIONIC POLYMERS TO IMPROVE ALKENYL SUCCINIC ANHYDRIDE (ASA SIZING EFFICIENCY IN HIGH-YIELD PULP CONTAINING FURNISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijie Chen,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High-yield pulp (HYP such as bleached chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (BCTMP from aspen wood, is now being used in the production of high-quality fine papers, and this is particularly true in China. In this study, the effect of using cationic polymers such as poly-aluminum chloride (PAC, polyethylenimine (PEI, cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM, and poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC on Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA sizing efficiency in HYP-containing pulp furnish was investigated. The results showed that the addition of only ASA emulsion to the HYP-containing furnish, without any cationic additives, did not yield an appreciable degree of sizing in the paper sheet. PAC (or alum could improve the ASA sizing efficiency. PEI, PDADMAC, CPAM, and NaHCO3 all improved ASA sizing efficiency in the presence of PAC. The charge density of PEI was important for improving the ASA sizing performance. Also, the sequence of adding the cationic polymer affected the ASA sizing performance.

  12. Preparation of High Density Polyethylene/Waste Polyurethane Blends Compatibilized with Polyethylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride by Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. In this study, we developed a recycling method for waste PU that utilizes the radiation grafting technique. Grafting of waste PU was carried out using a radiation technique with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA. The PE-g-MA-grafted PU/high density polyethylene (HDPE composite was prepared by melt-blending at various concentrations (0–10 phr of PE-g-MA-grafted PU. The composites were characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and their surface morphology and thermal/mechanical properties are reported. For 1 phr PU, the PU could be easily introduced to the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender after the radiation-induced grafting of PU with PE-g-MA. PE-g-MA was easily reacted with PU according to the increasing radiation dose and was located at the interface between the PU and the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender, which improved the interfacial interactions and the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. However, the elongation at break for a PU content >2 phr was drastically decreased.

  13. Melt Free-Radical Grafting of Maleic Anhydride onto Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid by Using Styrene as A Comonomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piming Ma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maleic anhydride (MA was grafted onto poly(lactic acid (PLA in the presence of styrene (St by using a free-radical grafting methodology. The grafting degree (Dg of MA was increased from 0.65 wt % to 1.1 wt % with the St/MA ratio up to 2/1, where the grafting efficiency (Eg of MA was 27%. However, both Dg and Eg were decreased with further increasing of the St/MA ratio to 4/1. The Dg of MA increased with MA concentration and showed a maximum at 180 °C in the temperature range of 165 °C–190 °C. The grafting mechanisms of MA in the presence of St are analyzed based on titration, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared results, i.e., MA is grafted onto PLA chains via single monomers and a charge-transfer-complex (CTC at St/MA ratios of ≤ 1/1, while dominantly via St-co-MA oligomers at St/MA ratios of around 2/1. Copolymerization rather than grafting of St and MA occurs at St/MA ratios of around 4/1. The thermal stability of PLA was compromised to a certain extent by the grafting of MA, resulting in reductions in the decomposition temperature (Td-5% and molecular weight of the PLA. In addition, the crystallization and melting temperatures of the PLA were slightly reduced after the grafting.

  14. Inhibition of lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and human erythrocytes by a synthetic anhydride of lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J H; Belt, J A; Dubinsky, W P; Zimniak, A; Racker, E

    1980-08-01

    The synthesis and some of the physical and biological characteristics of a new inhibitor of lactate transport are described. The inhibitor is isobutylcarbonyl lactayl anhydride (iBCLA). It is formed by the condensation of lactic acid and isobutylchloroformate. It inhibits lactate transport 50% at 0.5 microgram/mg of protein in both Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and human erythrocytes. In contrast, 15 microgram of iBCLA/mg of protein is required for 50% inhibition of phosphate transport in erythrocytes, and phosphate transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is unaffected at levels as high as 50 microgram of iBCLA/mg of protein. A time-dependent and concentration-dependent reversal of lactate transport inhibition took place on exposure of iBCLA-treated Ehrlich ascites cells to hydroxylamine or dithiothreitol. These data, along with the observed sensitivity of the lactate transporter to sulfhydryl reagents [Spencer, T. L., & Lehninger, A. L. (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 405-414], suggest that iBCLA acylates an essential sulfhydryl group on the transporter. When glycolyzing Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were treated with concentrations of iBCLA sufficient for complete inhibition of lactate transport, intracellular lactate levels increased, intracellular pH and extra-cellular lactate levels decreased, and overall lactate production was inhibited. PMID:7407072

  15. Anhydride-functional silane immobilized onto titanium surfaces induces osteoblast cell differentiation and reduces bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Guillem-Marti, Jordi; Sevilla, Pablo; Manero, José M; Gil, Francisco J; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial infection in dental implants along with osseointegration failure usually leads to loss of the device. Bioactive molecules with antibacterial properties can be attached to titanium surfaces with anchoring molecules such as silanes, preventing biofilm formation and improving osseointegration. Properties of silanes as molecular binders have been thoroughly studied, but research on the biological effects of these coatings is scarce. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro cell response and antibacterial effects of triethoxysilypropyl succinic anhydride (TESPSA) silane anchored on titanium surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed a successful silanization. The silanized surfaces showed no cytotoxic effects. Gene expression analyses of Sarcoma Osteogenic (SaOS-2) osteoblast-like cells cultured on TESPSA silanized surfaces reported a remarkable increase of biochemical markers related to induction of osteoblastic cell differentiation. A manifest decrease of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation at early stages was observed on treated substrates, while favoring cell adhesion and spreading in bacteria-cell co-cultures. Surfaces treated with TESPSA could enhance a biological sealing on implant surfaces against bacteria colonization of underlying tissues. Furthermore, it can be an effective anchoring platform of biomolecules on titanium surfaces with improved osteoblastic differentiation and antibacterial properties.

  16. In vitro release of clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl from poly adipic anhydride (PAA) and poly trimethylene carbonate (PTMC) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Rassoul; Alimorad, Mohammed Massoud; Amanlou, Massoud; Akbari, Hamid

    2005-10-01

    Controlled drug-delivery technology is concerned with the systematic release of a pharmaceutical agent to maintain a therapeutic level of the drug in the body for modulated and/or prolonged periods of time. This may be achieved by incorporating the therapeutic agent into a degradable polymer vehicle, which releases the agent continuously as the matrix erodes. In this study, poly trimethylene carbonate (PTMC), an aliphatic polycarbonate, and poly adipic anhydride (PAA), an aliphatic polyanhydride, were synthesized via melt condensation and ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate and adipic acid, respectively. The release of clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl from discs prepared with the use of PTMC-PAA blends in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) are also described. Clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl were both used as hydrophilic drug models. Theoretical treatment of the data with the Peppas model revealed that release of clomipramine HCl (5%) in devices containing 70% PTMC or more followed a Fickian diffusion model. However, the releases of buprenorphine HCl (5%) in the same devices were anomalous. For devices containing 50% and more PAA, surface erosion may play a significant role in the release of both molecules.

  17. Intranasal Administration of Maleic Anhydride-Modified Human Serum Albumin for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. Neither vaccine nor effective antiviral therapy is available to prevent and treat RSV infection. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is the only product approved to prevent serious RSV infection, but its high cost is prohibitive in low-income countries. Here, we aimed to identify an effective, safe, and affordable antiviral agent for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP of RSV infection in children at high risk. We found that maleic anhydride (ML-modified human serum albumin (HSA, designated ML-HSA, exhibited potent antiviral activity against RSV and that the percentages of the modified lysines and arginies in ML- are correlated with such anti-RSV activity. ML-HSA inhibited RSV entry and replication by interacting with viral G protein and blocking RSV attachment to the target cells, while ML-HAS neither bound to F protein, nor inhibited F protein-mediated membrane fusion. Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of mice. ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis of RSV infection in children at high risk in both low- and high-income countries.

  18. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  19. New Composition of Maleic-Anhydride-Grafted Poly(Lactic Acid/Rice Husk with Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hui TSOU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maleic-anhydride-grafted poly(lactic acid (PLA-g-MAH was prepared and blended with rice husk (RH. Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI was used as the coupling agent for combining RH with PLA-g-MAH, which improved the poor interfacial adhesion between PLA and RH. Various PLA-g-MAH/RH blends, with and without MDI, were prepared by melt processing using a brabender. The effects that inclusion and distribution of MDI had on the mechanical properties and thermal behaviors of the composites were examined. The results showed that the PLAXRHYMDI specimens had the optimum tensile properties compared with the PLAXRHY, PLA-g-MAHXRHY, and PLA-g-MAHXRHYMDI specimens. The new method of combining MDI and MAH through grafting was expected to be an excellent strategy for mitigating the low functionality of commercial PLA. Possible reasons accounting for the interesting results on tensile strength and thermal properties of the specimens are proposed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6034

  20. Investigation of diode parameters using – and – characteristics of Al/maleic anhydride (MA)/p-Si structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A B Selçuk; S Bilge Ocak; G Kahraman; A H Selçuk

    2014-12-01

    Al/maleic anhydride (MA)/p-Si metal–polymer–semiconductor (MPS) structures were prepared on p-Si substrate by spin coating. Device parameters of Al/MA/p-Si structure have been determined by means of capacitance–voltage (–) and conductance–voltage (–) measurements between 700 kHz and 1.5 MHz and current–voltage (–) measurements at 300 K. The parameters of diode such as the ideality factor, series resistance, barrier height (BH) and flat band barrier height were calculated from the forward bias – characteristics. The investigation of interface states that density and series resistance from – and – characteristics in Al/MA/p-Si device has been reported. The frequency dependence of the capacitance could be attributed to trapping states. Several important device parameters such as the BH $\\phi_{b}$, fermi energy ($E_{F}$), diffusion voltage ($V_{D}$), donor carrier concentration ($N_{D}$) and space charge layer width ($W_{D}$) for the device have been obtained between 700 kHz and 1.5 MHz. The –, –- and –- characteristics confirm that the parameters like the BH, interface state density (it) and series resistance ($R_{s}$) of the diode are strongly dependent on the electrical parameters in the MPS structures.

  1. Linear, Mannitol-Based Poly(anhydride-esters) with High Ibuprofen Loading and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Nicholas D; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2015-11-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as mannitol and xylitol, are biocompatible polyols that have been used to make highly cross-linked polyester elastomers and dendrimers for tissue engineering and drug delivery. However, research that utilizes the secondary hydroxyl groups as sites for pendant bioactive attachment and subsequent polymerization is limited. This work is the first report of a linear, completely biodegradable polymer with a sugar alcohol backbone and chemically incorporated pendant bioactives that exhibits sustained bioactive release and high bioactive loading (∼70%). With four pendant esters per repeat unit, this poly(anhydride-ester) has high loading and biodegrades into three biocompatible products: bioactive, sugar alcohol, and alkyl-based diacid. Ibuprofen serves as a representative bioactive, whereas mannitol is a representative polyol. Polymerization was achieved through reaction with (trimethylsilyl)ethoxyacetylene. Drug release via polymer degradation was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, a cytocompatibility study with fibroblast cells was performed to elucidate the polymer's suitability for in vivo use and a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) assay was performed on the degradation media to ensure that released ibuprofen retained its anti-inflammatory activity. This work enables the future development of novel, biodegradable polymers exhibiting two key features: (i) polymer backbones with easily modified pendant groups, such as targeting moieties, and (ii) high drug loading using a multitude of bioactive classes.

  2. In Vivo Evaluation of Nerve Guidance Conduits Comprised of a Salicylic Acid-based Poly(anhydride-ester) Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Soo

    Unlike the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system can regenerate from injury. However, without surgical intervention, the results are often poor. Autologous nerve grafting is the golden standard for repairing peripheral nerve injury; but limited donor availability and donor site morbidity led researchers to seek alternative methods. Among the many alternative treatment options, synthetic nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have been most actively developed. The goal of NGCs is to serve as a physical scaffold that aids the axonal regeneration process while preventing scar tissue formation that interferes with regeneration. Biocompatible and biodegradable NGCs would provide additional benefits: minimize foreign body reaction and avoid secondary surgeries to remove NGCs. We developed a unique NGC that incorporated the characteristics described above and can release an anti-inflammatory drug, salicylic acid. In this work, in vivo assays were performed to evaluate NGCs fabricated from a poly(anhydride-ester) blend. To further assist in the regeneration process, bovine native collagen type I hydrogel were inserted into the NGCs lumen which was then implanted in femoral nerve of mice for up to 16 weeks. These studies demonstrated in vivo biodegradability, biocompatibility, and axonal regeneration following an injury to the peripheral nerve. These studies provide greater insights into the importance of designing NGCs and how they aid in regeneration and functional recovery of subjects.

  3. Alveolar macrophages have a dual role in a rat model for trimellitic anhydride-induced occupational asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure to low molecular weight chemicals, like trimellitic anhydride (TMA), can result in occupational asthma. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are among the first cells to encounter inhaled compounds. These cells can produce many different mediators that have a putative role in asthma. In this study, we examined the role of AMs in lung function and airway inflammation of rats exposed to TMA. Female Brown Norway rats were sensitized by dermal application of TMA or received vehicle alone on days 0 and 7. One day before challenge, rats received intratracheally either empty or clodronate-containing liposomes to deplete the lungs of AMs. On day 21, all rats were challenged by inhalation of TMA in air. Lung function parameters were measured before, during, within 1 h after, and 24 h after challenge. IgE levels and parameters of inflammation and tissue damage were assessed 24 h after challenge. Sensitization with TMA led to decreased lung function parameters during and within 1 h after challenge as compared to non-sensitized rats. AM depletion alleviated the TMA-induced drop in lung function parameters and induced a faster recovery compared to sham-depleted TMA-sensitized rats. It also decreased the levels of serum IgE 24 h after challenge, but did not affect the sensitization-dependent increase in lung lavage fluid IL-6 and tissue TNF-α levels. In contrast, AM depletion augmented the TMA-induced tissue damage and inflammation 24 h after challenge. AMs seem to have a dual role in this model for TMA-induced occupational asthma since they potentiate the immediate TMA-induced decrease in lung function but tended to dampen the TMA-induced inflammatory reaction 24 h later

  4. A gas chromatograph for quantification of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides calibrated by thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Tokarek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs, molecular formula RC(OO2NO2 can readily be observed by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection (PAN-GC. Calibration of a PAN-GC remains a challenge because the response factors (RF's differ for each of the PANs and because their synthesis in sufficiently high purity is non-trivial, in particular for PANs containing unsaturated side chains. In this manuscript, a PAN-GC and its calibration using diffusion standards, whose output was quantified by blue diode laser thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS, are described. The PAN-GC peak areas correlated linearly with total peroxy nitrate (ΣPN mixing ratios measured by TD-CRDS (r > 0.96. Accurate determination of RF's required the concentrations of PAN impurities in the synthetic standards to be subtracted from ΣPN. The PAN-GC and its TD-CRDS calibration method were deployed during ambient air measurement campaigns in Abbotsford, BC, from 20 July to 5 August, 2012, and during the Fort McMurray Oil Sands Strategic Investigation of Local Sources (FOSSILS campaign at the AMS13 ground site in Fort McKay, AB, from 10 August to 5 September 2013. For the Abbotsford data set, the PAN-GC mixing ratios were compared and agreed with those determined in parallel by thermal dissociation chemical ionization mass spectrometry (TD-CIMS. Advantages and disadvantages of the PAN measurement techniques used in this work and the utility of TD-CRDS as a PAN-GC calibration method are discussed.

  5. Properties Study of Epoxy/Anhydride Impregnating Resin with Low Viscosity%低粘度环氧/酸酐浸渍树脂性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾亮; 黄友根; 朱伟; 高敬民; 姜其斌; 李鸿岩; 李强军

    2014-01-01

    采用不同牌号及纯度的双酚F和双酚A环氧树脂与甲基六氢苯酐制备成环氧/酸酐浸渍树脂,对比研究了不同环氧树脂对环氧/酸酐浸渍体系的粘度、贮存稳定性、固化物力学性能及电性能的影响。结果表明:在无稀释剂条件下,由双酚F配制的浸渍树脂起始粘度低于双酚A环氧配制的浸渍树脂,且环氧树脂纯度越高、有机氯离子含量越少,对浸渍树脂贮存稳定性和固化反应的影响越小,得到的固化物电性能越好。%An epoxy/anhydride impregnating resin was prepared using different types and purity of bisphe-nol F and bisphenol A epoxy resin and methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride, and the effects of different epoxy on the viscosity and storage stability of the epoxy/anhydride impregnating resin, mechanical proper-ties and dielectric properties of the cured resin were studied. The results show that the viscosity of the impregnating resin prepared by bisphenol F epoxy resin is lower than that of the impregnating resin pre-pared by bisphenol A epoxy resin without diluent. The more the purity of epoxy resin and the less the content of organic chlorine, the less the influence on the storage stability and curing reaction of the im-pregnating resin, and the better the electrical properties of the cured resin is.

  6. Utilization of α-olefins obtained by pyrolysis of waste high density polyethylene to synthesize α-olefin-succinic-anhydride based cold flow improvers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norbert MISKOLCZI; Richard SAGI; László BARTHA; Lívia FORCEK

    2009-01-01

    A new route of utilization of α-olefin rich hydrocarbon fractions obtained by waste polymer pyrolysis was investigated. α-olefin-succinic-anhydride intermediate-based pour point depressant additives for diesel fuel were synthesized, in which reactions needed α-olefins were obtained by pyrolysis of waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Fraction of α-olefins was produced by the de-polymerization of plastic waste in a tube reactor at 500℃ in the absence of catalysts and air. C17~22 range of mixtures of olefins and paraffins were separated for synthesis and then, these hydrocarbons were reacted with maleic-anhydride (MA) for formation of α-olefin-succinic-anhydride intermediates. The olefin-rich hydrocarbon fraction contained approximately 60% of olefins, including 90%~95% α-olefins. Other intermediates were produced in the same way by using commercial C20 α-olefin instead of C17~22 olefin mixture. The two different experimental intermediates with number average molecular weights of 1850g/mol and 1760g/mol were reacted with different alcohols: 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, i-butanol, and c-hexanol to produce their ester derivatives. The synthesized ten experimental pour point depressants were added in different concentrations to conventional diesel fuel, which had no other additive content before. The structure and efficiency of experimental additives were followed by different standardized and non-standardized methods. Results showed that the experimental additives on the basis of the product of waste pyrolysis were able to decrease not only the pour but also the cloud point and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of diesel fuel, whose effects could be observed even if the concentration of additives was low. Furthermore, all additives had anti-wear and anti-friction effects in diesel fuel.

  7. Novel 4-Arm Poly(Ethylene Glycol-Block-Poly(Anhydride-Esters Amphiphilic Copolymer Micelles Loading Curcumin: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(anhydride-esters amphiphilic copolymer (4-arm PEG-b-PAE was synthesized by esterization of 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol and poly(anhydride-esters which was obtained by melt polycondensation of α-, ω-acetic anhydride terminated poly(L-lactic acid. The obtained 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was characterized by 1H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micelle concentration of 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was 2.38 μg/mL. The curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles were prepared by a solid dispersion method and the drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency of the micelles were 7.0% and 85.2%, respectively. The curcumin-loaded micelles were spherical with a hydrodynamic diameter of 151.9 nm. Curcumin was encapsulated within 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles amorphously and released from the micelles, faster in pH 5.0 than pH 7.4, presenting one biphasic drug release pattern with rapid release at the initial stage and slow release later. The hemolysis rate of the curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles was 3.18%, which was below 5%. The IC50 value of the curcumin-loaded micelles against Hela cells was 10.21 μg/mL, lower than the one of free curcumin (25.90 μg/mL. The cellular uptake of the curcumin-loaded micelles in Hela cell increased in a time-dependent manner. The curcumin-loaded micelles could induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Hela cells.

  8. Patterning poly(maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) copolymer bioconjugates for controlled release of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Loredana E; Chiriac, Aurica P; Mititelu-Tartau, Liliana; Stoleru, Elena; Doroftei, Florica; Diaconu, Alina

    2015-09-30

    Owing to the special characteristics and abilities polymeric networks have received special interest for a range of biomedical applications especially for drug delivery systems. This study was devoted to preparation of new polymeric compounds based on maleic anhydride and 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane copolymer (poly maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) (PMAU) patterned as a network for bioconjugation and tested as drug carrier systems. The PMAU copolymer was improved in its functionality by opening the maleic anhydride ring with different amounts of erythritol, which is free of side effects in regular use and a multifunctional compound, and also confers antioxidant character for the new compounds. The new polymeric matrices were loaded with acetaminophen, codeine and their fixed dose combinations. The investigation demonstrated the capability of the new structures to be used as polymer networks for linking bioactive compounds and to perform controlled delivery. The physico-chemical investigations--Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, contact angle, zeta potential (ZP - z, PMAU and its derivatives samples loaded with medicines present decreased values of zeta potential attesting the bioconjugate formation and as well their stability), and hydrodynamic radius, near infrared chemical imaging evaluation (new specific bands being registered for bio-conjugate with acetaminophen around of 1150-1200 nm and 1700 nm, and also between 1150 and 1200 nm in case of the codeine bio-conjugate), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, X-ray diffraction analysis--evidenced the formation of the bioconjugates in relation to the chemical composition of the polymer matrices, while in vitro release study and in vivo tests confirm the capacity for drug delivery of the prepared bioactive systems. PMID:26220652

  9. Comparative Study Of The Preparation Of Maleic Anhydride-g-Polypropylene By Two Grafting Processes Using Peroxide; Estudo comparativo de dois processos de graftizacao de polipropileno com anidrido maleico utilizando peroxidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakahara, R.M.; Wang, S.H., E-mail: sakahara@usp.b, E-mail: wangshui@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The Polypropylene grafting with Maleic anhydride is a thoroughly known technique. Its wide application is due, mainly,to the controlled changing in the polarity of this polymer, which increases the interfacial adhesion in blends and compounds. In this study, two grafting processes were compared. In the first, the maleic anhydride was grafted on polypropylene in a solution batch process, carried out in a round-bottom vessel. The second approach was carried out by reactive extrusion of polypropylene in the presence of peroxide and maleic anhydride. The samples thus prepared were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, WAXS, EDS e SEM. It was possible to conclude that the solution technique was more efficient than the reactive extrusion; however the later was easier to accomplish due to the high viscosity of PP. (author)

  10. Solid-Liquid Equilibria of Several Binary and Ternary Systems Containing Maleic Anhydride%顺丁烯二酸酐在单一溶剂和混合溶剂中的固液平衡研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马沛生; 陈明鸣; 董奕

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) of three binary systems and seven ternary systems containing maleic anhydride(MA) are measured by visual method. The experimental data are compared with the calculated ones with modified universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient(UNIFAC) method in which the interaction parameters between groups come from two sources, dortmund data bank(DDB), if there's any, and correlations based on our former presented experimental SLE data of twenty binary systems. New groups of MA, ACCOO group, COO group, >C=O group and cy-CH2 group are defined and the SLE data of maleic anhydride in isopropyl acetate in literature are cited in order to assess the new interaction parameters, correlated with Wilson equation and the λh equation. The modified UNIFAC method with these new regressed interaction parameters is also used to predict other three binary systems containing maleic anhydride.

  11. Supplementation with difructose anhydride III promotes passive calcium absorption in the small intestine immediately after calving in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, M; Wynn, S; Reshalaitihan, M; Kyuno, W; Sato, T; Ohtani, M; Kawashima, C; Hanada, M

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hypocalcemia increases in high-parity dairy cows because resorption of bone Ca is delayed in these animals, and they appear to have a reduced ability to absorb Ca from the intestine during the early postpartum period. Difructose anhydride (DFA) III has been shown to promote the absorption of intestinal Ca via a paracellular pathway. However, past studies have not reported this effect in peripartum dairy cows. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DFA III supplementation on Ca metabolism during the peripartum period to determine whether DFA III promotes intestinal Ca absorption via this route. Seventy-four multiparous Holstein cows were separated into DFA and control groups based on their parity and body weight. The feed of the DFA group was supplemented with 40g/d of DFA III from -14 to 6d relative to calving. The control group did not receive DFA III. At calving (0h relative to calving), serum Ca declined below 9mg/dL in both groups. However, serum Ca concentrations were greater in the DFA group than in the control group at 6, 12, 24, and 48h relative to calving, and the time required for serum Ca to recover to 9mg/dL during the postpartum period was shorter in the high-parity cows in the DFA group than in those in the control group. Parathyroid hormone concentrations increased immediately after calving in both groups and were greater in the control group than in the DFA group at 12 and 24h relative to calving. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations increased at 0 and 12h relative to calving in both groups and were higher in the control group than in the DFA group at 72h relative to calving. Serum concentrations of the bone-resorption marker cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were not different between the groups during peripartum period, and serum NTX in all cows was lower at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h relative to calving than at -21, 4, and 5d relative to calving. Thus, DFA treatment induced faster recovery of serum Ca

  12. Preparation and characterization of new succinic anhydride grafted Posidonia for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadlia, Aguir, E-mail: aguirc@yahoo.ca [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Appliquee et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Mohamed, Khalfaoui [Unite de Recherche de Physique Quantique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Najah, Laribi; Farouk, M' henni Mohamed [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Appliquee et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia)

    2009-12-30

    The present work describes the preparation of new chelating materials derived from Posidonia for adsorption of heavy metal ions and dye in aqueous solution. The first part of this report deals with the chemical modification of Posidonia with succinic anhydride. Thus, we have obtained materials with various succinyl groups contents (from 29.8 to 39.2%). The obtained materials were characterized by infrared and CP/MAS {sup 13}C-RMN spectroscopy. The rate of succinyl content of the modified Posidonia was determined by saponification. The second part is devoted to the evaluation of the adsorption capacity of metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and dye such as direct red 75 (DR75) for raw and modified Posidonia materials. Two possible ways for the adsorption of these pollutants are studied: adsorption of each pollutant alone onto these supports, and cumulative adsorption of both metal ions and dye on the same supports. In the last case, the pollutant is adsorbed successively from two different solutions. The effects of pollutants concentration, support dose, pH, contact time and temperature on adsorption of each pollutant were evaluated. The results showed that the raw and modified Posidonia show a high capacity for Pb{sup 2+} adsorption. The capacity of modified Posidonia saturated with Pb{sup 2+} to adsorb DR75 was found 147.12 mg g{sup -1}. While the adsorption capacity of the nonsaturated modified Posidonia was equal to 81.63 mg g{sup -1}. The pseudo-second-order model was the best to represent adsorption kinetics of DR75. The pseudo-first-order model would be better for fitting the adsorption kinetic process of Pb{sup 2+} onto raw and modified Posidonia. The adsorption isotherms of Pb{sup 2+} could be described by the Jossens equation model. Any of the tested models can describe the adsorption of DR75 onto the studied materials. These results confirm that the adsorption of DR75 from aqueous solution was multilayer.

  13. Mechanosynthesis and mechanochemical treatment of bismuth doped vanadium phosphorus oxide catalysts for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y H.Taufiq-Yap; Y C.Wong; Y Kamiya; W.J.Tang

    2008-01-01

    Three Bi-doped vanadyl pyrophosphate catalysts were prepared via dihydrate route(VPD method),which consisted of different preparation methods including mechanosvnthesis,mechanochemical treatment,and the conventional reflux method.The catalysts produced by the above three methods were characterized by x-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and temperature programmed reduction(TPR).Catalytic evaluation for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride (MA) was also carried out.The XRD patterns of all the Bi-doped catalysts showed the main peaks of pyrophosphate phase.Lower intensity peaks were observed for the mechanochemically treated Bi-doped catalyst(VPDBiMill)with two additional small DeakS corresponding to the presence of a small amount of V5+ phase.The TPR profiles showed that the highest amount of active oxygen species.i.e.V4+-O- pair,responsible for n-butane activation,was removed from VPDBiMill.Furthermore.from the catalytic test results.the graph of selectivity to MA as a function of the conversion of n-butane demonstrated that VPDBiMill was the most selective catalyst.This suggests that the mechanochemical treatment of vanadium phosphate catalyst(VPDBiMill)is a potential method to improve the catalytic properties for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride.

  14. 国内外顺酐的生产与市场%Domestic and overseas market and production of maleic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俐

    2001-01-01

    1999年全球顺酐的生产能力达1 246 kt/a,1998年消费量为220 kt。预计从1998年到2003年全球MAN需求年平均增长率为5.1%,需求持续增长主要是BDO和LPR对顺酐需求快速增长引起的。我国1999年MAN产量为101.90 kt,需求量为75~80 kt,预计2000年国内市场对MAN的需求量为90 kt。%The worldwide production capacity of maleic anhydride(MAN) was 1 246 kt/a in 1999,and the consumption was 220 kt in 1998.It was prefigured that the worldwide average annual growing rate of demand for maleic anhydride would be 5.1% from 1998 to 2003 caused by the rapid increasing demand of MAN from BDO and LPR.The domestic output of MAN was 101.90 kt in 1999,and the demand was 75~80 kt in 1999 and 90 kt in 2000.

  15. Amphiphilic poly{[α-maleic anhydride-ω-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol]-co-(ethyl cyanoacrylate} graft copolymer nanoparticles as carriers for transdermal drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Xing

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Jinfeng Xing, Liandong Deng, Jun Li, Anjie DongDepartment of Polymer Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, the transdermal drug delivery properties of D,L-tetrahydropalmatine (THP-loaded amphiphilic poly{[α-maleic anhydride-ω-methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol]-co-(ethyl cyanoacrylate} (PEGECA graft copolymer nanoparticles (PEGECAT NPs were evaluated by skin penetration experiments in vitro. The transdermal permeation experiments in vitro were carried out in Franz diffusion cells using THP-loaded PEGECAT NPs as the donor system. Transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the receptor fluid. The results indicate that the THP-loaded PEGECAT NPs are able to penetrate the rat skin. Fluorescent microscopy measurements demonstrate that THP-loaded PEGECAT NPs can penetrate the skin not only via appendage routes but also via epidermal routes. This nanotechnology has potential application in transdermal drug delivery. Keywords: poly{[α-maleic anhydride-ω-methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol]-co-(ethyl cyanoacrylate}, nanoparticles, transdermal drug delivery, D,L-tetrahydropalmatine

  16. Cu(II), Zn(II) andMn(II) complexes of poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride). Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamic parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hidayet Mazi; Ali Gulpinar

    2014-01-01

    The complexes of poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (poly(MVE-alt-MA)) with Zn(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions were synthesized from the reaction of the aqueous solution of copolymer and metal(II) chlorides at different temperatures ranging from 25° to 40°C. Elemental analysis of themetal-polymer complexes suggests that the metal to ligand ratio is 1:1. The formation constants of each complex were determined by the mol-ratio method. UV-Vis studies showed that the complex formation tendency increased in the following order: Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Mn(II). This order was confirmed by the Irving-William series and Pearson’s classification. The IR spectral data indicated the metal ions to be coordinated through the hydroxyl groups of the hydrolysed maleic anhydride. The intrinsic viscosity and thermal properties of the copolymer and metal-polymer complexes and their thermal stability are discussed.

  17. The Formation of Polycomplexes of Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-Co-Maleic Anhydride and Bovine Serum Albumin in the Presence of Copper Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karahan Mesut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The binary and ternary complex formations of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride (PMVEMA with copper ions and with bovine serum albumin (BSA in the presence of copper ions in phosphate buffer solution at pH = 7 were examined by the techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy measurements. In the formation of binary complexes of PMVEMA-Cu(II, the addition of copper ions to the solution of PMVEMA in phosphate buffer solution at pH = 7 forms homogeneous solutions when the molar ratio of Cu(II/MVEMA is 0.5. Then the formations of ternary complexes of PMVEMA-Cu(II-BSA were examined. Study analysis revealed that the toxicities of polymer-metal and polymer-metal-protein mixture solutions depend on the nature and ratio of components in mixtures.

  18. POLYMERIC IONIC CONDUCTORS MODIFIED WITH POLAR GROUPS: PART Ⅱ. STRUCTURE-IONIC CONDUCTION RELATION IN LI-COMPLEX BASED ON MALEIC ANHYDRIDE- COPOLYMERIZED METHACRYLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kang; ZHOU Tong; DENG Zhenghua; WAN Guoxiang

    1992-01-01

    Ringlike polar monomer maleic anhydride (MAn) was copolymerized with oligo (oxyethylene)methacrylate (MEOn), and its effect on ion conduction property of the corresponding polymer-salt complexes was studied. As a consequence the introduction of MAn onto polymer chain retards crystallization of the ether pendants considerably, and improves the ion conductivity to a larger degree compared with other polar groups once investigated (σmax,25 ℃ = 8.5 × 10-5 S/cm). The structure-ion conduction relation in the polymer- salt matrix is also analyzed macroscopically through the correspondence between composition-dependences of polymerization conversion and isothermal ion conductivity, and microscopically through the measurements of cross polarized light and electron transmission.

  19. Effect of pre-irradiation PPO-grafted maleic anhydride on structure and properties of PPO-g-MAH/PA66 blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfei; Yao, Zhanhai; Yao, Ruixiang; Li, Xuan; Liu, Shumei

    2014-04-01

    The pre-irradiation polyphenylene oxide (PPO)-graft-maleic anhydride (PPO-g-MAH) was carried out by reactive extrusion. The chemical structure of PPO-g-MAH was characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The wettability of PPO-g-MAH was characterized by the contact angle method. The blends of PPO-g-MAH/polyamide 66 (PA66) were prepared. Compared with the PPO/PA66 blends, mechanical properties of PPO-g-MAH/PA66 blends were distinctly improved. Smaller dispersed particle sizes with narrower distribution were found in PPO-g-MAH/PA66 blends, via field-emitted scanning electron microscopy. Rheological properties of PPO-g-MAH/PA66 blends were studied with a rotational rheometer.

  20. Compatibility analysis of Nylon 6 and poly(ethylene-n-butyl acrylate-maleic anhydride) elastomer blends using isothermal crystallization kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylon 6 is a widely used engineering polymer, and has relatively poor impact strength. Ethylene, n-Butyl acrylate, maleic anhydride (E-nBA-MAH) terpolymer is blended with Nylon 6 to enhance its impact strength. Mixture should be compatible to be used in applications. The bare interaction energy between Nylon 6 and E-nBA-MAH terpolymer is calculated according to melting point depression approach using both Flory-Huggins (FH) Theory and Sanchez-Lacombe Equation of State (SL EOS). It demonstrates that blends are thermodynamically favorable to any arrangements. Yet, isothermal crystallization kinetics and WAXS crystallization peaks of blends reveal that mixtures of various compositions have different crystallization behaviors and require alternating crystallization energy due to crystalline structures of individual polymers. Also, SEM images support that after 5% addition of elastomeric terpolymer, interaction loosens due to strong crystalline structure of Nylon 6.

  1. Enhancement of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate Biocomposites by Matrix Esterification Using Succinic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Siyamak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate PBAT (EcoflexTM, as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites’ performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH as a coupling agent in the presence and absence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP and benzoyl peroxide (BPO as initiators. For the composite preparation, several blends were prepared with varying ratios of filler and matrix using the melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (wt % and characterized. The effects of fiber loading and coupling agent loading on the thermal properties of biodegradable polymer composites were evaluated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used for morphological studies. The chemical structure of the new biocomposites was also analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy technique. The PBAT biocomposite reinforced with 40 (wt % of EFB fiber showed the best mechanical properties compared to the other PBAT/EFB fiber biocomposites. Biocomposite treatment with 4 (wt % succinic anhydride (SAH and 1 (wt % dicumyl peroxide (DCP improved both tensile and flexural strength as well as tensile and flexural modulus. The FTIR analyses proved the mechanical test results by presenting the evidence of successful esterification using SAH/DCP in the biocomposites’ spectra. The SEM micrograph of the tensile fractured surfaces showed the improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion after using SAH. The TGA results showed that chemical modification using SAH/DCP improved the thermal stability of the PBAT/EFB biocomposite.

  2. Enhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) biocomposites by matrix esterification using succinic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyamak, Samira; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Abdolmohammadi, Sanaz; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Bin Wan; Rahman, Mohamad Zaki Ab

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) PBAT (Ecoflex™), as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites' performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH) as a coupling agent in the presence and absence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiators. For the composite preparation, several blends were prepared with varying ratios of filler and matrix using the melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (wt %) and characterized. The effects of fiber loading and coupling agent loading on the thermal properties of biodegradable polymer composites were evaluated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used for morphological studies. The chemical structure of the new biocomposites was also analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The PBAT biocomposite reinforced with 40 (wt %) of EFB fiber showed the best mechanical properties compared to the other PBAT/EFB fiber biocomposites. Biocomposite treatment with 4 (wt %) succinic anhydride (SAH) and 1 (wt %) dicumyl peroxide (DCP) improved both tensile and flexural strength as well as tensile and flexural modulus. The FTIR analyses proved the mechanical test results by presenting the evidence of successful esterification using SAH/DCP in the biocomposites' spectra. The SEM micrograph of the tensile fractured surfaces showed the improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion after using SAH. The TGA results showed that chemical modification using SAH/DCP improved the thermal stability of the PBAT/EFB biocomposite. PMID:22343368

  3. 响应面分析优化菊粉的十二烯基琥珀酸酐改性工艺研究%Study on dodecenly succinic anhydride-modified inulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹丹; 曹威; 周杰; 李静鹏

    2013-01-01

    为了研究菊糖的十二烯基琥珀酸酐改性工艺条件,以菊糖、硼氢化钠及十二烯基琥珀酸酐用量、反应时间、反应pH以及反应温度为影响因素,以十二烯基琥珀酸酐的取代度为考察指标,运用Plackett-Burman设计筛选出3个对菊糖的十二烯基琥珀酸酐取代度影响显著因素,即十二烯基琥珀酸酐用量、反应pH和反应时间.用响应面分析实验优化十二烯基琥珀酸菊糖酯改性工艺.十二烯基琥珀酸菊糖酯改性最优工艺:菊糖4g,硼氢化钠0.015g,十二烯基琥珀酸酐0.94g,反应时间为6.8h,反应pH8.5,反应温度35℃,菊糖的十二烯基琥珀酸酐取代度为0.0140±3.33E-05.%In order to study optimum conditions for dodecenly succinic anhydride-modified inulin,effects of the amount of inulin,the dosage of sodium borohydride and dodecenly succinic anhydride (DDSA),pH,time and temperature used on the degree of substitution of dodecenly succinic anhydride-modified inulin were investigated.Plackett-Burman was adopted to screen out the important factors,which were the dosage of dodecenly succinic anhydride,pH and time used.The optimum reaction conditions were obtained by response surface analysis..inulin 4g,sodium borohydride 0.015g,dodecenly succinic anhydride 0.94g,time 6.8h,pH8.5,temperature 35℃,and the degree of substitution of dodecenly succinic anhydride-modified inulin is 0.0140± 3.33E-05.

  4. 降低顺酐溶剂吸收工艺溶剂消耗因素分析与控制%Influencing Factors Analysis and Control on the Solvent Consumption Reduction of Maleic Anhydride Solvent Absorption Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席宗敬

    2014-01-01

    顺酐溶剂吸收法是国外较普遍采用的方法,也是目前顺酐吸收的主要方法。我厂顺酐装置以邻苯二甲酸二丁酯作为溶剂吸收顺酐并形成富溶剂,分离顺酐后的尾气送至焚烧炉进行焚烧。富溶剂送至真空解析塔,将顺酐在真空状态下解析出来,解析后的溶剂经过进一步真空闪蒸以降低顺酐含量,最后送至离心分离、气提干燥形成品质较高的新鲜溶剂实现循环利用。溶剂在循环利用过程中消耗偏高,甚至出现消耗异常上升的状况,本文从溶剂循环各输出端口分析溶剂消耗影响因素,并提出能控制溶剂消耗的措施,为降低溶剂消耗工作提供支持。%Maleic anhydride solvent absorption process is widely used in foreign countries, and is also the main method of maleic anhydride absorpotion. The maleic anhydride unit in our plant takes dibutyl phthalate as solvent to absorp maleic anhydride and form rich solvent, the tail gas after seperation is sent to boiler to set on fire. Rich solvent is sent to the vacuum analytical column and maleic anhydride is resolved under vacuum. Solvent after parsed is carried out further vacuum flash to reduce the maleic anhydride content. Finally, it is sent to the centrifugal for separation, air stripping and dried to form a high-quality fresh solvent to achieve recycling use. The solvent consumption is a little bit high and even occurs abnomal rising during the process of recycling . This paper analyzes the influencing factors of solvent consumption from each solvent circulating output ports and proposes measures to control the solvent consumption which supplies support for the reducing of solvent consumption.

  5. Base-stimulated 1,2-, 1,4-, and 1,6-eliminations in suitably substituted alkylidenesuccinates leading to natural and unnatural conjugated alkenyl(methyl)maleic anhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deore, Prashant S; Argade, Narshinha P

    2014-03-21

    With dimethyl maleate as the starting material, facile stereoselective syntheses of natural and unnatural conjugated alkenyl(methyl)maleic anhydrides have been described. The key reactions were base-endorsed novel 1,2-, 1,4-, and 1,6-eliminations in the corresponding alkylidenesuccinate derivatives. The 1,2-eliminations in cyclic carbonate and sulfite by regioselective abstraction of methine protons with the respective release of CO2 and SO2 provided a conjugated ketone product. The characteristic 1,4- and 1,6-elimination reactions with respective release of acetone and mesylate furnished the corresponding unsaturated alcohols. The obtained allylic alcohols were transformed into conjugated alkenyl(methyl)maleic anhydrides via oxidation followed by a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction pathway in very good yields. The mechanistic aspects involved in these significant elimination reactions have also been described in brief. PMID:24593305

  6. Effect of Solvent and Acid-Base on Palladium(ll)-catalyzed Dicarbonylation of Terminal Acetylenes: a General, Efficient andStereoselective Synthesis of Maleic Diesters and Maleic Anhydrides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG, Huan-Feng; LI, JiN-Heng; CHEN, Ming-Cai

    2001-01-01

    The productions of maleic diesters and maleic anhydrises depend on the effect of solvint and acid-bade of solvent and acid-base in palladium-catalyzed dicarbonylation of terminal acetylenes. For primaryand secondary alcohol in benzene.only maleic diesters wereobtained stereospecifically from the sicabonylation ofacetylenes in the presence of PdCl2,and NaHCO3.For tERTIARy alcohols,maleic anhydrides were synthesized selectively.

  7. 含顺丁烯二酸酐结构化合物抑制黑曲霉性能的研究%Research on Inhibition of the Compound with Maleic Anhydride Structure on the Performance of Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金侃华; 陈小龙

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to research the relationships between the side chain of maleic anhydride structure compounds and inhibition effect on Aspergillus niger. [Method]Choosing 7 kinds of common compounds with maleic anhydride structure and tautomycin, the test of inhibiting Aspergillus niger was carried out by using oxford cup method. [Result]Diphenylmaleic anhydride with the concentration of 10 g/L had a good inhibition on Aspergillus niger, while tautomycin with the lower concentration of 1 g/L also had a considerable inhibition effect. [Conclusions]The side chain of maleic anhydride structure compounds containing chlorine could promote the inhibition effect on Aspergillus niger, and containing benzene couldn't enhance the activity of inhibition on Aspergillus niger.%[目的]研究含顺丁烯二酸酐结构化合物侧链结构与抑制黑曲霉效果的关系. [方法]选取7种常见含顺丁烯二酸酐结构化合物以及变构霉素,用牛津杯法进行抑制黑曲霉试验.[结果]3, 6-二氯邻苯二甲酸酐在10 g/L浓度下对黑曲霉有较好的抑制作用,变构霉素在1 g/L 浓度下仍对黑曲霉有一定的抑制作用. [结论]含顺丁烯二酸酐结构化合物侧链含有氯对抑制黑曲霉有促进作用,而含有苯环则不能增强其对抑制黑曲霉的活性.

  8. In situ preparation of a magnetic composite during functionalization of poly[maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro(5.5)undecane] with erythritol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neamtu, Iordana; Chiriac, Aurica P., E-mail: achiriac1@yahoo.com; Nita, Loredana E.; Tudorachi, Nita; Diaconu, Alina [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania)

    2015-06-15

    New magnetic hybrid composites were prepared, in situ, during the functionalization of poly[maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro(5.5)undecane] copolymer, by opening the anhydride ring with erythritol and by introducing magnetic nanoparticles into the polymeric matrix. The procedure allows for magnetic nanocomposite preparation. More than that, the new polymeric matrices owing to their suitable and specific functionalities are anticipated to be used for further link of biological molecules via the maleic anhydride moiety and the polyol presence. The hybrid composites are analyzed by infrared absorption spectrometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), TG-DTG analysis, X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Examination of the magnetic composites by DLS analysis shows that the material consists mostly of particles with mean sizes between 295 and 342 nm, depending on the magnetite type in synthesis. The obtained results indicate the magnetite encapsulation and the interactions established with the polymeric matrix that lead to carbonyl band shifting in FTIR spectra, composite particle size decreasing, and influence on XRD and magnetic behavior data. The report of magnetization demonstrates that the prepared nanocomposites are superparamagnetic.

  9. Synthesis of Maleic Anhydride and the Exploitation of It's Backward Product%顺丁烯二酸酐的合成及其下游产品开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁彦玲; 董奕; 陈明鸣; 许文

    2001-01-01

    顺酐是一种极为重要的有机化工原料,现在已成为世界第三大有机酸酐。本文综述了顺酐合成工艺的发展概况及顺酐下游产品的开发与利用,对国内围绕顺酐合成及其衍生物的相关研究课题做了讨论,这些课题对我国有机化工行业的长远发展有着重要的意义。%Maleic Anhydride is a kind of raw material which is of muchimportance to organic chemical engineering.The general situation of Maleic Anhydride synthetic technology development and the use of it's backward product have been reviewed. In this paper some discussion of relative researchs about Maleic Anhydride synthesis and it's ramification are given.These researchs are of important significance for our chemical industry to get out of difficult position and have a long-term development.

  10. SUBSTITUTION OF HIGH-YIELD-PULP FOR HARDWOOD BLEACHED KRAFT PULP IN PAPER PRODUCTION AND ITS EFFECT ON ALKENYL SUCCINIC ANHYDRIDE SIZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijie Chen,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using high-yield pulp (HYP as a partial replacement for hardwood bleached kraft pulp (HWBKP in the production of high-quality fine papers as a cost-effective way of improving the product performance. This study investigated the substitution of HYP for HWBKP and its effect on the Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA sizing performance. The results showed that the substitution of an aspen HYP for HWBKP can increase the ASA sizing performance at a HYP substitution as high as 15 to 20%. The ASA addition sequence has an influence on the ASA sizing performance and first adding ASA to the HYP followed by mixing with kraft pulps was the preferred method. Using precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC as a paper filler at a dosage of less than 20% can increase the ASA sizing performance due to the contribution of the calcium soap of the hydrolysed ASA. A PCC dosage greater than 20% resulted in a negative impact on the sizing performance. It was also found that different PCC loading sequences can also affect the ASA sizing performance.

  11. Oligoesters and polyesters produced by the curing of sunflower oil epoxidized biodiesel with cis-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oligoesters and polyesters produced from sunflower oil biodiesel were synthesized and characterized. The polymers were obtained through the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy esters (EE) with cis-1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride (CH) and triethylamine (TEA) as initiator. Some reactions were conducted by adding small amounts of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE). The intermediate products of the synthesis process, including sunflower oil, methyl ester, epoxidised methyl esters, and the oligoesters and polyesters produced, were followed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. The products obtained from the curing of the epoxidised esters with different compositions present similar chemical structures; however, they still depend on the amount of the epoxy resin BDGE that was added in the polymerization reaction. Thermoplastic materials with molecular weights (MW) starting at 3800 g/mol and reaching very high MWs, resulted in cross linked polymers. The thermal behaviour of the different products was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the structure of the materials increases the bonding capacity, resulting in higher molecular weight materials, which present good thermal stability.

  12. Rheological Analysis of Polymer Interactions and Ageing of Poly(Methylvinylether-Co-Maleic Anhydride)/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Binary Networks and Their Effects on Mucoadhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin P; Laverty, Thomas P; Jones, David S

    2015-12-01

    Polymer blends of poly(vinylalcohol, PVA) and poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic anhydride, PMVE/MA) were formulated and their viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties characterised. The viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties were dependent on polymer concentration, molecular weight of PVA and PVA:PMVE/MA ratio. Alteration of these properties allowed platforms to be designed to offer defined rheological and mucoadhesive properties, properties that could not be achieved using monopolymeric platforms. A strong correlation was noted between the modulus of the polymeric blends and mucoadhesion. After storage, the polymeric blends underwent rheological structuring (ageing) with an attendant enhancement of mucoadhesion. In certain blends containing the highest molecular weight of PVA (146-186 kDa), storage ultimately resulted in an increase and then a significant decrease in the rheological and mucoadhesive properties, the latter phenomenon being accredited to polymer recrystallisation. Ageing of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties was modelled using an exponential growth model, allowing predictions of the storage period associated with the maxima in viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties. These observations highlight the possible implications whenever interactive polymeric blends are employed in drug delivery. Caution is therefore urged whenever a formulation strategy based on interactive polymer blends is employed to ensure that ageing is fully understood and mathematically characterised. PMID:26502109

  13. Preparation and characterization of single and dual propylene oxide and octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch carriers for the microencapsulation of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskienė, Renata; Rutkaitė, Ramunė; Pečiulytė, Laura; Kazernavičiūtė, Rita; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-08-10

    Hydroxypropylation with propylene oxide followed by esterification with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) was used to produce modified potato starch derivatives suitable for the encapsulation of essential oils. Caraway essential oil (EO) was encapsulated by spray-drying into enzymatically hydrolyzed dual/single modified and native starches. The EO microencapsulation efficiency in different modified starches, the retention of volatile aroma compounds, the emulsion particle size and the microstructure of the spray-dried encapsulated powdered products, as well as the compositional aroma changes taking place during the processing and storage for up to 8 months have been estimated. The increase of OSA content from 0.97 to 2.52% in the P-native structure and from 0.91% to 2.66% in P-HP resulted in the significant increase in the encapsulating capacity, evaluated as a percentage of the total EO retained, from 61.6 to 88.0% and 73.8% to 84.0%, respectively. However, the compositional changes of the microencapsulated caraway EO constituents were not remarkable. Additionally, the effect of pure and encapsulated caraway EO products on the oxidative stability of commercial rapeseed oil and mayonnaise was evaluated using the instrumental Oxipres method and it was shown that they were more effective in emulsion type products by the up to 1.8-fold increase in the oxidative stability of mayonnaise. PMID:27465989

  14. Uptake and phytotoxicity of the herbicide metsulfuron methyl in corn root tissue in the presence of the safener 1,8-naphthalic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth of Zea mays L. cv Potro roots was inhibited by the herbicide metsulfuron methyl (MSM) at the lowest concentration tested: 5 nanomoles per liter. Pretreatment of corn seeds with commercial 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (NA) at 1% (w/w) partially reversed MSM-induced root growth inhibition. MSM at a concentration of 52 nanomoles per liter was taken up rapidly by roots and accumulated in the corn tissue to concentrations three times those in the external medium; the safener NA increased MSM uptake up to 48 hours. The protective effect of NA was related to the ability of the safener to increase the metabolism of MSM; ten-fold increases in the metabolic rates of MSM were observed in NA-pretreated corn seedlings grown for 48 hours on 52 nanomolar [14C]MSM solution. DNA synthesis determined by measurement of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was inhibited by root MSM applications; after a 6-hour application period, 13 nanomolar MSM solution reduced DNA synthesis by 64%, and the same reduction was also observed with NA-treated seedlings. Pretreatment of corn seeds with safener NA did not increase the acetolactate synthase activity in the roots and did not change, up to 13 micromoles per liter, the in vitro sensitivity of roots to MSM

  15. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R

    2016-01-01

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant.

  16. ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols, phenols and amines with acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Farhadi; Kosar Jahanara

    2014-01-01

    A ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was prepared from metal nitrates and tetraethyl orthosilicate by the sol-gel process, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The nanocomposite was tested as a heterogeneous catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols, phenols, and amines under solvent-free conditions. Under optimized conditions, efficient acetylation of these substrates with acetic anhy-dride over the ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was obtained. Acetylation of anilines and primary aliphatic amines proceeded rapidly at room temperature, while the reaction time was longer for the acetylation of alcohols and phenols, showing that an amine NH2 group can be selectively acetylated in the presence of alcoholic or phenolic OH groups. The catalyst can be reused without obvious loss of catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of the ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was higher than that of pure ZnAl2O4. The method gives high yields, and is clean, cost effective, compatible with sub-strates having other functional groups and it is suitable for practical organic synthesis.

  17. Preparation of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Broken Rice Starch%辛烯基琥珀酸碎米淀粉酯的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟林; 王泽南; 韩堂健; 蒋艳; 徐春泽

    2011-01-01

    Broken rice starch was modified with octenyl succinic anhydride in aqueous slurry system.The modification process was optimized by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods to achieve maximum degree of substitution(DS).The results showed that the optimal process conditions were found to be: starch slurry concentration 30%,pH 8.5,reaction time 5 h,and reaction temperature 35 ℃.Under the optimal conditions,the degree of substitution was 0.01445.%以碎米淀粉为原料,采用湿法制备辛烯基琥珀酸碎米淀粉酯,以取代度为评价指标,确定辛烯基琥珀酸酐添加量为3%,通过单因素与正交试验确定辛烯基琥珀酸碎米淀粉酯的最佳制备工艺。结果显示:淀粉乳质量分数30%、pH8.5、反应时间5h、反应温度35℃为最佳工艺条件,在此条件下所得产品取代度可达0.01445。

  18. Reactive processing of maleic anhydride-grafted poly(butylene succinate and the compatibilizing effect on poly(butylene succinate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Mohd Ishak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, maleic anhydride-grafted poly(butylene succinate (PBS-g-MA was synthesized via reactive meltgrafting process using different initiator contents. The grafting efficiency was increased with the initiator content, manifested by the higher degree of grafting in PBS-g-MA. The grafting reaction was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Then, PBS-g-MA was incorporated into organo-montmorillonite (OMMT filled poly(butylene succinate (PBS nanocomposites as compatibilizer. Mechanical properties of PBS nanocomposites were enhanced after compatibilized with PBS-g-MA, due to the better dispersion of OMMT in PBS matrix and the improved filler-matrix interfacial interactions. This was verifiable through X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC showed that the degree of crystallinity and melting temperature increased after addition of PBS-g-MA. However, the presence of PBS-g-MA did not favor the thermal stability of the nanocomposites, as reported in the thermogravimetry (TGA.

  19. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R

    2016-01-01

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant. PMID:26837840

  20. Preparation of Poly-(Methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic Anhydride Nanoparticles by Solution-Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qiang Kang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical CO2-based technologies have been widely used in the formation of drug and/or polymer particles for biomedical applications. In this study, nanoparticles of poly-(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride (PVM/MA were successfully fabricated by a process of solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SEDS. A 23 factorial experiment was designed to investigate and identify the significance of the processing parameters (concentration, flow and solvent/nonsolvent for the surface morphology, particle size, and particle size distribution of the products. The effect of the concentration of PVM/MA was found to be dominant in the results regarding particle size. Decreasing the initial solution concentration of PVM/MA decreased the particle size significantly. After optimization, the resulting PVM/MA nanoparticles exhibited a good spherical shape, a smooth surface, and a narrow particle size distribution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectra demonstrated that the chemical composition of PVM/MA was not altered during the SEDS process and that the SEDS process was therefore a typical physical process. The absolute value of zeta potential of the obtained PVM/MA nanoparticles was larger than 40 mV, indicating the samples’ stability in aqueous suspension. Analysis of thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC revealed that the effect of the SEDS process on the thermostability of PVM/MA was negligible. The results of gas chromatography (GC analysis confirmed that the SEDS process could efficiently remove the organic residue.

  1. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fiber-Wood-Plastic Composites via Maleic Anhydride Grafted High-Density Polyethylene (MAPE Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanisms, using microscopy and strength testing approaches, by which the addition of maleic anhydride grafted high-density polyethylene (MAPE enhances the mechanical properties of basalt fiber-wood-plastic composites (BF-WPCs. The maximum values of the specific tensile and flexural strengths are achieved at a MAPE content of 5%–8%. The elongation increases rapidly at first and then continues slowly. The nearly complete integration of the wood fiber with the high-density polyethylene upon MAPE addition to WPC is examined, and two models of interfacial behavior are proposed. We examined the physical significance of both interfacial models and their ability to accurately describe the effects of MAPE addition. The mechanism of formation of the Model I interface and the integrated matrix is outlined based on the chemical reactions that may occur between the various components as a result of hydrogen bond formation or based on the principle of compatibility, resulting from similar polarity. The Model I fracture occurred on the outer surface of the interfacial layer, visually demonstrating the compatibilization effect of MAPE addition.

  2. DFT Study of Solvent Effects in Acid-Catalyzed Diels-Alder Cycloadditions of 2,5-Dimethylfuran and Maleic Anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati-fard, Taha; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Doren, Douglas J

    2015-09-24

    Density functional theory electronic structure calculations were used to explore the mechanism for the Diels-Alder reaction between 2,5-dimethylfuran and maleic anhydride (MA). Reaction paths are reported for uncatalyzed and Lewis and Brønsted acid-catalyzed reactions in vacuum and in a broad range of solvents. The calculations show that, while the uncatalyzed Diels-Alder reaction is thermally feasible in vacuum, a Lewis acid (modeled as Na(+)) lowers the activation barrier by interacting with the dienophile (MA) and decreasing the HOMO-LUMO gap of the reactants. A Brønsted acid (modeled as a proton) can bind to a carbonyl oxygen in MA, changing the reaction mechanism from concerted to stepwise and eliminating the activation barrier. Solvation effects were studied with the SMD model. Electrostatic effects play the largest role in determining the solvation energy of the transition state, which tracks the net dipole moment at the transition state. For the uncatalyzed reaction, the dipole moment is largely determined by charge transfer between the reactants, but in the reactions with ionic catalysts, there is no simple relationship between solvation of the transition state and charge transfer between the reactants. Nonelectrostatic contributions to solvation of the reactants and transition state also make significant contributions to the activation energy. PMID:26331220

  3. Preparation and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(maleic anhydride-co-diallyl phthalate) grafted carbon black through γ-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yang; Cui, Jiayang; Cai, Yangben; Xu, Shiai

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and maleic anhydride/diallyl phthalate (MAH/DAP) co-monomer onto the surface of carbon black (CB) were carried out at room temperature and normal pressure by γ-ray irradiation. The surface chemistry of grafted CBs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that there are some remanent polymers on the surface of modified CBs after extract for 48 h, indicating that poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(MAH-co-DAP) have been successfully grafted onto the surface of CB without using initiator due to the high energy of γ-ray irradiation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that the grafted CBs have smaller average aggregate size and better dispersibility than that of CB in absolute ethanol. In addition, it was found that the amount of oxygen groups and the irradiation doses/dose rates have little effect on the grafting degree of CB.

  4. Molecular conformational analysis, vibrational spectra, NBO, NLO analysis and molecular docking study of bis[(E)-anthranyl-9-acrylic]anhydride based on density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Y Sheena; Panicker, C Yohannan; Thiemann, Thies; Al-Azani, Mariam; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Van Alsenoy, C; Raju, K; War, Javeed Ahmad; Srivastava, S K

    2015-01-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of bis[(E)-anthranyl-9-acrylic]anhydride were recorded and analyzed. The conformational behavior is also investigated. The vibrational wave numbers were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculations. The data obtained from wave number calculations are used to assign vibrational bands obtained in Infrared and Raman spectra. Potential energy distribution was done using GAR2PED program. The geometrical parameters are compared with related structures. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using Natural Bonding Orbital (NBO) analysis. The Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) analysis are used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) was performed by the DFT method. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of the title compound is comparable with the reported values of similar derivatives and is 4.23 times that of the standard nonlinear optical (NLO) material urea and the title compound and its derivatives are an attractive object for future studies of nonlinear optical properties. To evaluate the in silico antitumor activity of the title compound molecular docking studies were carried out against protein Bcl-xL. The (1)H-NMR spectrum is also reported. PMID:26143327

  5. Research Progresses of Hyperdispersant Based on Styrene-maleic Anhydride Copolymer%苯乙烯-马来酸系超分散剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖银洪; 廖正福

    2015-01-01

    Styrene-maleic acid( SMA) hyperdispersant are widely applied in practically every profession for its excellent performance. The structure characteristics,dispersant stability mechanism and influence factors of disper-sion stability of styrene-maleic acid hyperdispersant were introduced in this paper. The latest research progresses of the hyperdispersant based on styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer and its derivatives were reviewed in this article. Finally,the advances of styrene-maleic acid hyperdispersant was prospected.%苯乙烯-马来酸系超分散剂因其分子结构特殊,性能优良,应用十分广泛。本文介绍了苯乙烯-马来酸系超分散剂的结构特征、分散稳定机理以及影响分散稳定性能的因素等,综述了苯乙烯-马来酸共聚物( SMA)以及其超支化、官能化的SMA衍生物超分散剂的最新研究进展,并对苯乙烯-马来酸系超分散剂的发展前景进行了展望。

  6. Electrospun poly(bisphenol A-co-4-nitrophthalic anhydride-co-1,3-phenylenediamine fibers: Preparation and potential for use in filtration applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharaporn Thitiwongsawet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(bisphenol A-co-4-nitrophthalic anhydride-co-1,3-phenylenediamine (PEI fibers were successfully prepared byelectrospinning from PEI solutions in dichloromethane (DCM, 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP andcertain mixtures between NMP and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. Electrospinnability of PEI solutions in NMP was greaterthan that in DCM and DCE. The addition of DMF with NMP for the preparation of PEI solutions helped improve electrospinnabilityof the PEI solutions. The effect of solution concentration on morphological appearance and/or size of the obtainedproducts was investigated. At low concentrations of the PEI solutions, discrete beads and/or beaded fibers was formed.Smooth fibers were obtained at the highest concentration investigated, i.e., 20% (w/v. The size of the obtained fibers wasfound to be an increasing function with the solution concentration or, to be exact, the solution viscosity. The water fluxesthrough the electrospun fiber mats prepared from 20% (w/v PEI solutions in 75/25 and 50/50 NMP/DMF mixtures wereinvestigated in comparison with the films prepared by phase immersion-precipitation technique. The fiber mats exhibitedmuch greater fluxes of water than the films, which implied their potential for uses as filtration membranes.

  7. Investigation of the formation of benzoyl peroxide, benzoic anhydride, and other potential aerosol products from gas-phase reactions of benzoylperoxy radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Christen M.; Ziemann, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products of the reaction of benzaldehyde with Cl atoms and with OH radicals in air in the absence of NOx were investigated in an environmental chamber in order to better understand the possible role of organic peroxy radical self-reactions in SOA formation. SOA products and authentic standards were analyzed using mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography, and results show that the yields of benzoyl peroxide (C6H5C(O)OO(O)CC6H5) and benzoic anhydride (C6H5C(O)O(O)CC6H5), two potential products from the gas-phase self-reaction of benzoylperoxy radicals (C6H5C(O)OO·), were less than 0.1%. This is in contrast to results of recent studies that have shown that the gas-phase self-reactions of β-nitrooxyperoxy radicals formed from reactions of isoprene with NO3 radicals form dialkyl peroxides that contribute significantly to gas-phase and SOA products. Such reactions have also been proposed to explain the gas-phase formation of extremely low volatility dimers from autooxidation of terpenes. The results obtained here indicate that, at least for benzoylperoxy radicals, the self-reactions form only benzoyloxy radicals. Analyses of SOA composition and volatility were inconclusive, but it appears that the SOA may consist primarily of oligomers formed through heterogeneous/multiphase reactions possibly involving some combination of phenol, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and peroxybenzoic acid.

  8. Enhancement of mechanical properties, microstructure, and antimicrobial activities of zein films cross-linked using succinic anhydride, eugenol, and citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ashraf A; Deraz, Sahar F; Elrahman, Somia Abd; El-Fawal, Gomaa

    2015-08-18

    Zein constitutes about half of the endosperm proteins in corn. Recently, attempts have been made to utilize zein for food coatings and biodegradable materials, which require better physical properties, using chemical modification of zein. In this study, zein proteins were modified using citric acid, succinic anhydride, and eugenol as natural cross-linking agents in the wet state. The cross-linkers were added either separately or combined in increment concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4%). The effects of those agents on the mechanical properties, microstructure, optical properties, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and antibacterial activities of zein were investigated. The addition of cross-linking agents promoted changes in the arrangement of groups in zein film-forming particles. Regarding the film properties, incorporation of cross-linking agents into zein films prepared in ethanol resulted in two- to three-fold increases in tensile strength (TS) values. According to the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and Hunter parameters there were no remarkable changes in the structure and color of zein films. Transparency of zein films was decreased differentially according to the type and cross-linker concentration. The mechanical and optical properties of zein films were closely related to their microstructure. All cross-linked films showed remarkable antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus ATCC 49064 and Salmonella enterica ATCC 25566. Food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria were affected in a film-dependent manner. Our experimental results show that even with partial cross-linking the mechanical properties and antipathogen activities of zein films were significantly improved, which would be useful for various industrial applications.

  9. PET Modified with Copolyester of Isosorbide/Maleic Anhydride%异山梨醇-马来酸酐聚酯改性PET的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爽; 王鑫; 陈平

    2013-01-01

    PET-c-IS-MA was prepared from PET which modified by copolyester of isosorbide/maleic anhydride through reactive extrusion. PET-c-IS-MA had the similar θg and θm as that of PET and a single phase structure from thermal gravity analysis. PET-c-IS-MA with the maximum amount of 30% IS-MA could remain the thermal properties of PET. PET-c-IS-MA shows higher crystal property than PET for the presence of θc from 125℃ to 130℃ , and hence improved the process characteristics by changing the crystal degree of PET-c-IS-MA. Moreover, PET-c-IS-MA possessed higher water resistance, better stability in acid or alkaline medium and biodegradation.%使用异山梨醇-马来酸酐聚酯改性聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET),通过反应性挤出的方法制备了PET-c-IS-MA.PET-c-IS-MA具有与PET接近的玻璃化温度和熔点,而且为一相结构,在不影响PET热性能的前提下,最大填入量可达30%.PET-c-IS-MA具有优良的结晶性能,θ.为125~130℃,有利于通过控制结晶度改善材料的加工性能.同时,PET-c-IS-MA也具有更好的耐水性能、耐酸碱性和生物降解性.

  10. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA)/fatty acid composites as form stable phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali; Oenal, Adem [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240, Tokat (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    Fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA), palmitic acid (PA), myristic acid (MA) and lauric acid (LA) are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications, but high cost is the major drawback of them, limiting their utility area in thermal energy storage. The use of fatty acids as form stable PCMs will increase their feasibilities in practical applications due to the reduced cost of the LHTES system. In this regard, a series of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA)/fatty acid composites, SMA/SA, SMA/PA, SMA/MA, and SMA/LA, were prepared as form stable PCMs by encapsulation of fatty acids into the SMA, which acts as a supporting material. The encapsulation ratio of fatty acids was as much as 85 wt.% and no leakage of fatty acid was observed even when the temperature of the form stable PCM was over the melting point of the fatty acid in the composite. The prepared form stable composite PCMs were characterized using optic microscopy (OM), viscosimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy methods, and the results showed that the SMA was physically and chemically compatible with the fatty acids. In addition, the thermal characteristics such as melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of the form stable composite PCMs were measured by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique, which indicated they had good thermal properties. On the basis of all the results, it was concluded that form stable SMA/fatty acid composite PCMs had important potential for practical LHTES applications such as under floor space heating of buildings and passive solar space heating of buildings by using wallboard, plasterboard or floors impregnated with a form stable PCM due to their satisfying thermal properties, easy preparation in desired dimensions, direct usability without needing additional encapsulation thereby eliminating the thermal resistance caused by the shell and, thus, reducing the cost of

  11. Synthesis, Characterisation, and Evaluation of a Cross-Linked Disulphide Amide-Anhydride-Containing Polymer Based on Cysteine for Colonic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuanghao Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of disulphide polymers, a low redox potential responsive delivery, is one strategy for targeting drugs to the colon so that they are specifically released there. The objective of this study was to synthesise a new cross-linked disulphide-containing polymer based on the amino acid cysteine as a colon drug delivery system and to evaluate the efficiency of the polymers for colon targeted drug delivery under the condition of a low redox potential. The disulphide cross-linked polymers were synthesised via air oxidation of 1,2-ethanedithiol and 3-mercapto-N-2-(3-mercaptopropionamide-3-mercapto propionic anhydride (trithiol monomers using different ratio combinations. Four types of polymers were synthesised: P10, P11, P151, and P15. All compounds synthesised were characterised by NMR, IR, LC-MS, CHNS analysis, Raman spectrometry, SEM-EDX, and elemental mapping. The synthesised polymers were evaluated in chemical reduction studies that were performed in zinc/acetic acid solution. The suitability of each polymer for use in colon-targeted drug delivery was investigated in vitro using simulated conditions. Chemical reduction studies showed that all polymers were reduced after 0.5–1.0 h, but different polymers had different thiol concentrations. The bacterial degradation studies showed that the polymers were biodegraded in the anaerobic colonic bacterial medium. Degradation was most pronounced for polymer P15. This result complements the general consensus that biodegradability depends on the swellability of polymers in an aqueous environment. Overall, these results suggest that the cross-linked disulphide-containing polymers described herein could be used as coatings for drugs delivered to the colon.

  12. Synthesis, characterisation, and evaluation of a cross-linked disulphide amide-anhydride-containing polymer based on cysteine for colonic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Vuanghao; Peh, Kok Khiang; Sahudin, Shariza

    2013-12-18

    The use of disulphide polymers, a low redox potential responsive delivery, is one strategy for targeting drugs to the colon so that they are specifically released there. The objective of this study was to synthesise a new cross-linked disulphide-containing polymer based on the amino acid cysteine as a colon drug delivery system and to evaluate the efficiency of the polymers for colon targeted drug delivery under the condition of a low redox potential. The disulphide cross-linked polymers were synthesised via air oxidation of 1,2-ethanedithiol and 3-mercapto-N-2-(3-mercaptopropionamide)-3-mercapto propionic anhydride (trithiol monomers) using different ratio combinations. Four types of polymers were synthesised: P10, P11, P151, and P15. All compounds synthesised were characterised by NMR, IR, LC-MS, CHNS analysis, Raman spectrometry, SEM-EDX, and elemental mapping. The synthesised polymers were evaluated in chemical reduction studies that were performed in zinc/acetic acid solution. The suitability of each polymer for use in colon-targeted drug delivery was investigated in vitro using simulated conditions. Chemical reduction studies showed that all polymers were reduced after 0.5-1.0 h, but different polymers had different thiol concentrations. The bacterial degradation studies showed that the polymers were biodegraded in the anaerobic colonic bacterial medium. Degradation was most pronounced for polymer P15. This result complements the general consensus that biodegradability depends on the swellability of polymers in an aqueous environment. Overall, these results suggest that the cross-linked disulphide-containing polymers described herein could be used as coatings for drugs delivered to the colon.

  13. Simultaneous efficient adsorption of Pb2+ and MnO4- ions by MCM-41 functionalized with amine and nitrilotriacetic acid anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyun; Hong, Mingzhu; You, Weijie; Li, Chong; Yu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    A novel adsorbent NH2/MCM-41/NTAA, capable of simultaneous adsorption of cations and anions from aqueous solution, was prepared by immobilization of amine and nitrilotriacetic acid anhydride (NTAA) onto MCM-41. The structures and properties before and after surface modification were systematically investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). They together confirm that the amine and NTAA group were chemically bonded to the internal surface of the mesoporous. The NH2/MCM-41/NTAA were used to adsorb Pb2+ and MnO4- in an aqueous solution in a batch system, and the maximum adsorption efficiency was found to occur at pH 5.0 and 3.0, respectively. NH2/MCM-41/NTAA exhibit preferable removal of Pb2+ through electrostatic interactions and chelation, whereas it captures MnO4- by means of electrostatic interactions. The experimental data are fitted the Langmuir isotherm model reasonably well, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 147 mg/g for Pb2+ and of 156 mg/g for MnO4-. The adsorption rates of both Pb2+ and MnO4- are found to follow the pseudo-second order kinetics. Furthermore, the NH2/MCM-41/NTAA adsorbent performs good recyclability and reusability for 5 cycles use. This study indicates a potential applicability of NH2/MCM-41/NTAA as new absorbents for effective simultaneous adsorption of hazardous metal ions and anions from wastewater.

  14. Optimization and Simultaneous Determination of Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates and Brominated Flame Retardants in Water after SPE and Heptafluorobutyric Anhydride Derivatization followed by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokwe, Tlou B; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Sibali, Linda L; Ncube, Esper J

    2012-10-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was investigated for the simultaneous analysis of two types of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), i.e., alkylphenol ethoxylates and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), by extraction and derivatization followed by GC-MS. Different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (Cleanert PestiCarb, C18, Cleanert-SAX and Florosil), solvents (toluene, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, acetonitrile and ethyl acetate) and bases (NaHCO3, triethylamine and pyridine) were tested and the best chromatographic analysis was achieved by extraction with Strata-X (33 μm, Reverse Phase) cartridge and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride at 55 °C under Na2CO3 base in hexane. It was observed that APE together with lower substituted PBBs (PBB1, PBB10, PBB18 and PBB49), HBCD and TBBPA can be determined simultaneously under the same GC conditions. This simple and reliable analytical method was applied to determining trace amounts of these compounds from wastewater treatment plant samples. The recoveries of the target compounds from simulated water were above 60 %. The limit of detection ranged from 0.01 to 0.15 μg L(-1) and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.66 μg L(-1). There were no appreciable differences between filtered and unfiltered wastewater samples from Leeuwkil treatment plant although concentration of target analytes in filtered influent was slightly lower than the concentration of target analytes in unfiltered influent water. The concentrations of the target compounds from the wastewater treatment were determined from LOQ upwards. PMID:23864736

  15. Safety evaluation of long-term vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride and its non-invasive reversal on accessory reproductive organs in langurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Manivannan; S. S. Bhande; S. Panneerdoss; S. Sriram; N. K. Lohiya

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the safety of the long term vas occlusion with styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) and its non-invasive reversal at the level of accessory reproductive glands (ARGs) in langurs. Methods: The morphology of seminal vesicle and ventral prostate was evaluated by light as well as transmission electron microscopy. Serum clinical chemistry and urine albumin were evaluated in an autoanalyzer using reagent kits. Fructose, acid phosphatase and zinc in the seminal plasma were evaluated spectrophotomet-ically according to the WHO manual. Serum testosterone,prostate specific antigen and sperm antibodies were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)using reagent kits and hematology was estimated according to standard procedures. Results: The morphological features and secretory activity of the seminal vesicle and prostate were normal as evidenced by the presence of welldeveloped mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, secretory granules and normal nuclear characteristics throughout the course of investigation. Serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen remained unaltered and serum antisperm antibodies level presented negative titres. Urine albumin was nil. Total red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood corpuscles (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and red cell indices, serum protein, glucose, cholesterol,creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin, urea, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not show appreciable changes following vas occlusion and after its non-invasive reversal. Although fructose, acid phosphatase (ACP) and zinc in the seminal plasma showed a significant reduction following vas occlusion, it could not be related to the morphology of seminal vesicle and prostate. Conclusion: SMA vas occlusion and its non-invasive reversal do not damage the accessory reproductive organs.

  16. 亚临界水介质回收酸酐固化环氧树脂/碳纤维复合材料%Recycling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin Cured with Anhydride in Subcritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一明; 刘杰; 吴广峰; 唐涛

    2013-01-01

    研究了不同添加剂对碳纤维增强酸酐固化环氧树脂复合材料在亚临界水中降解的影响,通过IR、GC-MS等分析,确定了环氧树脂的分解机理主要为酯键的断裂.结果表明,KOH与苯酚对酸酐固化环氧树脂的分解没有协同效应,碱性物质更有利于酯键的断裂.甲基四氢邻苯二甲酸酐固化的环氧树脂增强碳纤维复合材料在反应温度为250℃、反应时间为60 min、KOH浓度为0.2 mol/L时可完全分解,回收碳纤维的拉伸强度和表面形貌未受影响.%Effect of additives on the decomposition behavior of the carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin cured with anhydride in subcritical water was investigated.IR and GC-MS results show that the decomposition is ascribed to cleavage of ester bond.KOH and phenol does not exhibit the synergetic effect on the decomposition of anhydride cured epoxy resin.Alkaline conditions are found to be favorable to the cleavage of ester linkages.The carbon fiber reinforced methyl-tetrabydrophalic anhydride (MeTHPA) cured epoxy resin composite was totally decomposed with the addition of 0.2 mol/L KOH at 250 ℃ for 60 min.The tensile strength and morphology of the recycled carbon fibers are not influenced.

  17. Validation of an assay for the determination of levoglucosan and associated monosaccharide anhydrides for the quantification of wood smoke in atmospheric aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Rebecca L; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-09-01

    Biomass burning is becoming an increasing contributor to atmospheric particulate matter, and concern is increasing over the detrimental health effects of inhaling such particles. Levoglucosan and related monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) can be used as tracers of the contribution of wood burning to total particulate matter. An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to quantify atmospheric levels of MAs has been developed and, for the first-time, fully validated. The method uses an optimised, low-volume methanol extraction, derivitisation by trimethylsilylation and analysis with high-throughput gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recovery of approximately 90 % for levoglucosan, and 70 % for the isomers galactosan and mannosan, was achieved using spiked blank filters estimates. The method was extensively validated to ensure that the precision of the method over five experimental replicates on five repeat experimental occasions was within 15 % for low, mid and high concentrations and accuracy between 85 and 115 %. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.21 and 1.05 ng m(-3) for levoglucosan and galactosan/mannosan, respectively, where the assay satisfied precisions of ≤20 % and accuracies 80-120 %. The limit of detection (LOD) for all analytes was 0.105 ng m(-3). The stability of the MAs, once deposited on aerosol filters, was high over the short term (4 weeks) at room temperature and over longer periods (3 months) when stored at -20 °C. The method was applied to determine atmospheric levels of MAs at an urban background site in Leicester (UK) for a month. Mean concentrations of levoglucosan over the month of May were 21.4 ± 18.3 ng m(-3), 7.5 ± 6.1 ng m(-3) mannosan and 1.8 ± 1.3 ng m(-3) galactosan. PMID:24948096

  18. Resonance energy transfer from quinolinone modified polystyrene-block-poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) copolymer to terbium(III) metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Výprachtický, Drahomír, E-mail: vyprachticky@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovský Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Mikeš, František [New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, Polymer Research Institute, 6 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Lokaj, Jan; Pokorná, Veronika; Cimrová, Věra [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovský Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Polystyrene-block-poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) was synthesized by nitroxide mediated radical polymerization and modified with 7-amino-4-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (I) and methanol. The formed block polymer ligand contained a quinolinone fluorophore (Ω) and carboxyl (III) or sodium carboxylate (IV) binding sites. The ligand-to-metal resonance energy transfer (RET) and ligand binding properties of [III–Tb{sup 3+}] and [IV–Tb{sup 3+}] complexes were investigated by steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy in tetrahydrofuran/methanol and/or tetrahydrofuran/deuterated methanol mixtures and compared with those of a low-molecular-weight model ligand, i.e. the sodium salt of N-(4-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-7-yl)succinamic acid (II). The long-lived emission intensities of Tb{sup 3+} at 490, 545, 585, and 620 nm corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 6}, {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5}, {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 4}, and {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 3} transitions, respectively, were strongly increased by the addition of ligands in the order [II-Tb{sup 3+}]⪡[III-Tb{sup 3+}]<[IV-Tb{sup 3+}]. The efficiency of energy transfer (E) was evaluated from the emission intensity of the donor (Ω) in the presence or absence of the acceptor (Tb{sup 3+}) depending on the acceptor concentration and ligand neutralization. It was concluded that the macromolecular ligand structural properties (polymer coil and supramolecular structures, e.g. micelles) were responsible for the increase in RET. The time-resolved luminescence measurements revealed that the binding affinity of the ligands II, III, and IV increased in the order II

  19. Multifunctional Poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-graft-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Amphiphilic Copolymer as an Oral High-Performance Delivery Carrier of Tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Pan, Xiaolei; Wang, Shang; Zhai, Yinglei; Guan, Jibin; Fu, Qiang; Hao, Xiaoli; Qi, Wanpeng; Wang, Yingli; Lian, He; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yongjun; Sun, Yinghua; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve oral bioavailability of tacrolimus (FK506), a novel poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-graft-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin amphiphilic copolymer (CD-PVM/MA) is developed, combining the bioadhesiveness of PVM/MA, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and cytochrome P450-inhibitory effect of CD into one. The FK506-loaded nanoparticles (CD-PVM/MA-NPs) were obtained by solvent evaporation method. The physiochemical properties and intestinal absorption mechanism of FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs were characterized, and the pharmacokinetic behavior was investigated in rats. FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs exhibited nanometer-sized particles of 273.7 nm, with encapsulation efficiency as high as 73.3%. FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs maintained structural stability in the simulated gastric fluid, and about 80% FK506 was released within 24 h in the simulated intestinal fluid. The permeability of FK506 was improved dramatically by CD-PVM/MA-NPs compared to its solution, probably due to the synergistic inhibition effect of P-gp and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). The intestinal biodistribution of fluorescence-labeled CD-PVM/MA-NPs confirmed its good bioadhesion to the rat intestinal wall. Two endocytosis pathways, clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, were involved in the cellular uptake of CD-PVM/MA-NPs. The important role of lymphatic transport in nanoparticles' access to the systemic circulation, about half of the contribution to oral bioavailability, was observed in mesenteric lymph duct ligated rats. The AUC0-24 of FK506 loaded in nanoparticles was enhanced up to 20-fold compared to FK506 solutions after oral administration. The present study suggested that the novel multifunctional CD-PVM/MA is a promising efficient oral delivery carrier for FK506, due to its ability in solubilization, inhibitory effects on both P-gp and CYP 3A, high bioadhesion, and sustained release capability. PMID:26024817

  20. Structure and thermal performance of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)-g-alkyl alcohol comb-like copolymeric phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haixia; Shi, Haifeng, E-mail: haifeng.shi@gmail.com; Qi, Miao; Zhang, Lingjian; Zhang, Xingxiang; Qi, Lu

    2013-07-20

    Graphical abstract: SMA-g-CnOH comb-like PCMs exhibit the better thermal stability against 1-alcohols due to the protection of SMA backbones, and the degradation temperature is dependent on the side-chain length, where at 5 wt% weight loss T{sub d} increased from 193 to 257 °C with n changing from 14 to 26. SMA-g-CnOH PCMs can be widely used under 300 °C for preparation of energy-saving products and materials. - Highlights: • The length of alkyl side-chains determines the thermal energy storage ability. • SMA backbone restricts the crystallization of alkyl side groups. • SMA-g-CnOH PCMs have the better thermal stability against 1-alcohols. - Abstract: A series of comb-like copolymeric phase change materials (SMA-g-CnOH) composed of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA) and 1-alcohols CnOH with n = 14, 16, 18 or 26, respectively, was synthesized through grafting reaction. The structure and thermal properties of SMA-g-CnOH were investigated by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The DSC analysis indicates that SMA-g-CnOH exhibit good structure stability with phase change enthalpies changing from 37.9 to 110.7 J g{sup −1}. The results showed that the low thermal efficiency of SMA-g-CnOH was ascribed to the small CH{sub 2} segments of side chains participating in the assembled structure of side-chain crystallites. Their advantageous structural stability and thermal performance of SMA-g-CnOH were favorable for phase change materials in the thermal energy storage systems. Additionally, the influence of side-chain length on thermal properties of SMA-g-CnOH also was discussed in detail in combination with the published results.

  1. Preparation of maleic anhydride modified cassava lees/PVC wood plastic composites%马来酸酐改性木薯酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃宇奔; 胡华宇; 张燕娟; 覃杏珍; 蒋婷; 杨梅; 黄爱民; 黄祖强; 罗袁伟

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation of cassava lees/PVC wood plastic composites ( WPC) by solid phase blending modification.Cassava lees/PVC WPC were prepared by hot press molding technology using cassava lees as reinforced material, PVC as polymer matrix, maleic an-hydride as modifier, internal mixer as synchronous mixing equipment, and plate vulcanizing press as plate-pressing machine.The effects of hot press temperature, pressure, time, dosage of maleic an-hydride, etc.on the properties of the composites were investigated, and the feasibility of synchronous modification of cassava lees and PVC by maleic anhydride was also discussed.The results show that under the conditions of cassava lees content 50%, hot press temperature 180 ℃, pressure 6 MPa, time 7.5 min, and the dosage of maleic anhydride of 1%, the bending strength and tensile strength of the cassava lees/PVC composite were 26.1 MPa and 11.1 MPa, respectively, meeting the re-quirements of the basic mechanics indexes of the composites.The addition of calcium zinc compound heat stabilizer could effectively improve the mechanical properties of the composites.With the dosage of heat stabilizer of 0.8%, the bending strength and tensile strength increased by 7.7% and 19.8%, respectively.Our results indicated that cassava lees and PVC could be modified synchronously by maleic anhydride in solid phase process, which improved the adhesion between fiber and polymer matrix and effectively enhanced the mechanical properties of WPC.%为研究固相共混改性法制备木薯酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料的工艺,探讨马来酸酐同步改性木薯酒糟和PVC的可行性,以木薯酒糟为增强原料,PVC为聚合物基体,马来酸酐为改性剂,密炼机为同步混炼设备,平板硫化机为压板机,采用热压成型技术制备酒糟/PVC木塑复合材料,研究热压成型温度、压力、时间、马来酸酐用量等因素对板材力学性能的影响。结果表明:在酒糟填充量50%

  2. 顺酐加氢产物精制丁二酸的工艺研究%Purifying Technology of Succinic Acid from Product of M aleic Anhydride Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丹; 霍稳周; 吕清林; 乔凯; 孟宪革; 李守田

    2013-01-01

    The process of succinic acid purifying from product of maleic anhydride hydrogenation was studied .The effects of distillation pressure ,temperature and reflux ratio on the process of vacuum distillation were investigated ;it also discussed the effects of reaction time and molar ratio of water to succinic anhydride on hydrolysis ;meanwhile ,the effect of temperature on the crystallization was concerned . The pure succinic acid was acquired through vacuum distillation , hydrolyzation and crystallization .The process conditions of purifying technology of succinic acid were detemined .The results show that the yield of succinic acid is more than 70% and purity of the product can reach 99 .5% even more under the conditions of vaccum distillation temperature 75~85 ℃ ,distillation pressure 200~300 Pa ,hydrolysis temperature 100 ℃ ,molar ratio of water to succinic anhydride 4~5 ,reaction time 2 h .%对顺酐加氢产物精制丁二酸的工艺进行了研究。考察了蒸馏压力、蒸馏温度及回流比对减压蒸馏过程的影响;考察了水解时间、水与酸酐物质的量比对水解过程的影响;考察了结晶温度对结晶过程的影响。确定了顺酐加氢产物减压蒸馏后水解结晶精制丁二酸的方法及工艺条件。结果表明,在减压蒸馏温度为75~85℃,蒸馏压力为200~300 Pa ,水解温度为100℃,水与丁二酸酐物质的量比为4~5,水解时间为2 h的条件下,得到的丁二酸产品收率≥70%,纯度≥99.5%。

  3. Study on the properties of cassava hydroxypropyl and octenyl succinic anhydride compound modified starch%木薯羟丙基化辛烯基琥珀酸酯化复合改性淀粉的性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷欣欣; 张本山; 周雪

    2012-01-01

    以木薯淀粉为原料制备木薯羟丙基化辛烯基琥珀酸酯化复合改性淀粉,采用傅里叶变换红外谱仪、扫描电镜、X射线衍射仪和Brabender黏度仪等对木薯羟丙基化辛烯基琥珀酸酯化复合改性淀粉的物化性质进行了测定和分析.并与木薯原淀粉和木薯辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯进行对比。结果表明,木薯淀粉经复合改性后,在1550-1610cm-1出现新的吸收峰.与原木薯淀粉和木薯SSOS相比,在940、880、730、570cm-1处呈现较弱的吸收峰;复合改性后颗粒表面受损严重.颗粒的形状也发生明显改变,但晶体类型没有发生改变;乳化性能和透明度得到提高;起糊温度、峰值温度降低.糊粘度增大;与单一的辛烯基琥珀酸酯化改性淀粉相比,热糊稳定性升高,凝沉性增强。%The cassava starch was used to prepare cassava hydroxypropyl and octenyl succinic anhydride compound modified starch. The physical properties of cassava hydroxypropyl and octenyl succinic anhydride compound modified starch were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FT-IR),Scanning electron microscop,X-ray diffraction(XRD),Brabender viscometer and so on with the comparison of the native cassava starch and octenyl succinic anhydride(OSA)-modified cassava starch. The results indicated that the FT-IR spectrum of compound modified cassava starch showed new absorption peaks at 1550-1610cm-1. and weaken absorption peak at the 940,880,730 and 570cm-1,compared with the native cassava starch and OSA- modified cassava starch. The starch granule exhibited rougher surface,more irregular shape significantly but the crystalline was not changed. The product showed good emulsifiability and transparency. That gelatinization temperature and the peak temperature all decreased,and paste viscosity was higher as well.The setback capacity was weaker,and hot paste stability increased,compared with single octenyl succinic anhydride

  4. Gatifloxa-polysebacic anhydride local delivery system for prevention of osteomyelitis in rabbits%加替沙星-聚癸二酸酐局部缓释系统预防兔骨髓炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁锋; 严雪征; 马术友; 张鸿图

    2014-01-01

      结果与结论:建模后8周,模型组兔建模后,食欲差,皮毛不光滑,体质量减轻,3只兔于3周内死亡,其他7只X射线片上骨膜反应较重,可见小块死骨形成,解剖学检查均可见脓肿形成,骨培养及组织学检查均可见骨髓炎表现;加替沙星组建模后体质量减轻,2只兔于建模后3周内死亡,解剖学检查可见有4只动物有脓肿形成,X射线片上可见8只动物骨膜反应较轻,未见死骨形成,骨培养及组织学检查6只兔有骨髓炎表现;加替沙星-聚癸二酸酐缓释制剂治疗组兔一般情况好,解剖学检查未见异常,X射线片检查、骨培养和细菌计数、组织学检查均未见骨髓炎表现。结果证实,加替沙星-聚癸二酸酐局部缓释制剂预防股骨骨髓炎感染效果较好。%BACKGROUND:Polyanhydride materials characterized as surface corrosion resistance, biodegradability and adjustable release rate have been used as drug delivery materials for the body, but the application of polysebacic anhydride delivery system has been rarely reported. OBJECTIVE:To study the role of gatifloxa-polysebacic anhydride local delivery system in the prevention of osteomyelitis in rabbits. METHODS:According to Norden method, we made Staphylococcus aureus-induced osteomyelitis models in the femur of 30 rabbits. There were three groups in the study, 10 rats in each group. Gatifloxa-polysebacic anhydride local delivery system and gatifloxa were respectively used in comparison with model group. After modeling, general observation, anatomical observation, X-ray examination, bone culture and bacteria counting, and histological examination were performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After 8 weeks, animals in the model group presented with poor appetite, rough fur, and weight loss. Among these 10 rabbits, 3 rabbits died within 3 weeks, and another 7 rabbits appeared to have severe periosteal reactions on the X-ray films, that is

  5. Influência da estrutura de diferentes copolímeros de etileno e a-olefinas na funcionalização com anidrido maleico Influence of structure of ethylene a-olefins copolymers in functionalization with maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota H. F. Maurano

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A funcionalização de copolímeros de etileno e a-olefinas com anidrido maleico (AM foi realizada em solução de xileno com peróxido de dibenzoíla (DBP como iniciador. Foi estudado o efeito das diferentes estruturas dos copolímeros, como número e comprimento de ramificação, na incorporação do AM. A funcionalização também foi realizada em estado fundido utilizando-se um misturador Rheomix 600 e uma extrusora Rheocord 9000 da Haake. A funcionalidade foi determinada por titulometria de neutralização e os produtos foram caracterizados por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FT-IR e por cromatografia de permeação em gel (GPC. A funcionalidade dos copolímeros de etileno com 1-hexeno aumentou com o aumento do teor de comonômero e dos copolímeros com 1-octeno e 1-deceno aumentou com o aumento do teor de a-olefina até um máximo, decrescendo e mantendo-se constante.Chemical modification of ethylene a-olefins copolymers with maleic anhydride was studied by radical reaction in solution, melt mixing and extrusion. The effect of copolymer structure, as the amount and length of the branches, was evaluated on the MA incorporation. The reactions were also achieved in Rheomix 600 (Haake mixer and Rheocord 9000 (Haake extruder. Functionalization was determinated by titration and modified ethylene a-olefins copolymers were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography. The maleic anhydride incorporation in the ethylene-hexene copolymers increases with the amount of a-olefin. Functionalization of ethylene-octene and ethylene-decene comonomers increases with increasing peroxide concentration until a maximum and then decreases up to a constant value.

  6. Separation and recovery of lead from a low concentration solution of lead(II) and zinc(II) using the hydrolysis production of poly styrene-co-maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xing; Su, Yibing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Yang, Ying, E-mail: Yangying@lzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Qin, Wenwu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation and recovery of Pb(II) from a solution of Pb(II) and Zn(II) was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb(II) can be recovered using the hydrolysis production of poly styrene-co-maleic anhydride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption capacity of the PSMA resin for Pb(II) is 641.62 mg g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb(II) can be recovered through desorption of Pb-PSMA into Pb(II) ion and the solid PSMA resin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resin can be repeatedly used through desorption by an inorganic acid condition (6 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). - Abstract: The Pb-Zn separation/preconcentration technique, based on the complex formation reaction of Pb(II) and Zn(II), using a copolymer poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA), without adding any carrier element was developed. The effects of several experimental parameters such as solution pH, temperature and adsorption time were studied. The experimental results show that the PSMA resin-Pb equilibrium was achieved in 2 min and the Pb(II) loading capacity is up to 641.62 mg g{sup -1} in aqueous solution under optimum conditions, which is much higher than the Zn(II) loading capacity within 80 min. The adsorption test for Pb(II) indicates that PSMA can recover Pb(II) from a mixed solution of Pb(II), Zn(II) and light metals such as Ca(II) and Mg(II) with higher adsorption rate and larger selective coefficient. A further study indicates that PSMA as chelating resins recovering Pb(II) can be regenerated via mineral acid (6 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). PSMA was synthesized by radical polymerization and tested as an adsorbent for the selective recovery of Pb(II). In addition, the formation procedure and structure of Pb-PSMA complex were also studied. Both the PSMA and the Pb-PSMA complex were characterized by means of FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

  7. O emprego de quitosana quimicamente modificada com anidrido succínico na adsorção de azul de metileno The use of chemical modified chitosam with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilauro S. Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption capacity of alpha-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically in L class and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methyene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 ± 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 ± 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 ± 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 ± 0.4 and -21.5 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable.

  8. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ΔHf and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content

  9. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Syuhada; Ahmad, S. H. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan (Malaysia); Ratnam, C. T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Athirah, Nurul [School of Materials and Mineral Resources, USM Engineering Campus (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ΔH{sub f} and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

  10. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Syuhada; Ratnam, C. T.; Ahmad, S. H.; Athirah, Nurul

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ΔHf and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

  11. 水相法氯化聚丙烯用马来酸酐接枝改性与性能研究%Performance research of maleic anhydride-grafted used for a queous-phased chlorinated polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项东升; 王懿华; 秦恒飞; 陆鸿飞

    2013-01-01

    以氯仿为溶剂,偶氮二异丁腈(AIBN)为引发剂,马来酸酐(MAH)为接枝单体,对氯化聚丙烯(CPP)进行接枝改性.优化的工艺条件为:m(AIBN)∶m(CPP) =0.003,m(MAH)∶m(CPP) =0.09,反应温度为108℃,反应时间为2.0h,接枝效率最高.改性产物在部分酮酯类溶剂中的溶解性能优良,对多种塑料材料有良好的附着性.%The chlorinated polypropylene (CPP) was grafted with chloroform as solvent,azobisisobutyroni-trile(AIBN) as initiator and maleic anhydride (MAH) as grafting monomer. The optimum technological conditions:m(AIBN) :m(CPP) = 0. 003,m(MAH) :m(CPP) = 0. 09,reaction temperature 108℃ and reaction time 2.0 h,the graft ratio would be the maximum. The grafted products have good solubility in some ketone or ester solvents,and have excellent adhesiveness on several plastic materials.

  12. 马来酸酐及亚硫酸氢钠改性环氧树脂的研究%MODIFICATION OF EPOXY RESIN WITH MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND SODIUM HYDROGEN SULFITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 张雪梅; 程斌; 杨小平; 董玲

    2013-01-01

    Epoxy resin was modified by maleic anhydride, then reacted with sodium hydrogen sulfite to attach sulfonyl group on it. The effects of reaction temperature, catalyst amount, the concentration of raw materials, and the ratio of mixed solvents on the synthesis process were investigated experimentally during the process of epoxy resin modified by maleic anhydride. The side reaction which produces cross-linked molecular will be significantly enhanced with increasing temperature, concentration of catalyst and raw material. When solvent ratio of methylbenzene and acetone is relative low, acid value is hard to monitor and side reaction with cross-lined products is enhanced, which is not conducive to the reaction. In further reaction with sodium hydrogen, structure of product is examined through elemental analysis to monitor, and particle size distribution of the according modified epoxy emulsion is monitored by Size Distribution Modal Analysis. Particle size of self-emulsifier aqueous dispersion system prepared under optimal conditions is about 100nm, which also shows great stability.%本文首先用马来酸酐对环氧树脂进行改性,并进一步与亚硫酸氢钠反应制备带磺酸基团的水性环氧树脂.系统地研究了马来酸酐改性环氧树脂的反应温度、催化剂用量、原料浓度及混合溶剂比例对反应的影响.随着温度的升高,催化剂用量和原料浓度的增加,生成交联网状产物的副反应都会明显增强,体系易凝胶;溶剂甲苯与丙酮的混合比例较低时,反应体系酸值难于准确监测,并且生成交联网状产物的副反应增强不利于反应的顺利进行.在马来酸酐改性环氧树脂进一步与亚硫酸氢钠反应制备具有水分散性的环氧树脂过程中,用元素分析法测定产物结构中的硫元素含量,并分析了乳液的粒径分布,适宜条件下制备的水性环氧树脂分散体系平均粒径为1 10nm,粒径分布窄,具有良好的分散稳定性.

  13. Studies on the rheological,phase morphologic,thermal and mechanical properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/ethylene propylene diene monomer copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride/metallocene polyethylene blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUN Mingtao; SONG Hongzan; WANG Yingjin; YAO Chenguang; GAO Jungang

    2007-01-01

    s The rheological,phase morphologic,thermal and mechanical properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/metallocene polyethylene(PTT/mPE)blends in the presence of ethylene propylene diene monomer copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride(EPDM-g-MAHl as compatibilizer are studied by means of a capillary rheometer,scanning electron microscopy(SEM),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA).Results suggest that the compatibility of PTT/mPE blends is improved greatly after the addition of a compatibilizer.The radius of the dispersed phase in the system decreases greatly when the compatibilizer is added into the blend.When the amount of compatibilizer exceeds 8 wt-%,the size of dispersed phase becomes larger again.This phenomena could be attributed to the higher viscosity of the EPDM-g-MAH phase,which is dispersed more difficulty in the PTT phase of lower viscosity,thus the mixing efficiency is apparently decreased during the melt blending process.Moreover,the melt viscosity of the blend reaches the maximal value in case of 4 wt-%compatibilizer content,above which it would decrease again.This result is associated with the generation of more and bigger dispersed phase inside the bulk phase,thus the grafting efficiency at the interface is decreased,which could result in lower viscosity.The DSC results suggest that the mPE component shows a nucleating effect,and could increase the overall degree and rate of PTT crystallization,while the addition of a compatibilizer might slightly diminish these effects.In addition,the blend with 4 wt-% compatibilizer shows the best thermal stability.Furthermore,the Izod impact strength and the tensile strength at room temperature of the blend are also markedly improved by the addition of a 4-8 wt-% compatibilizer.

  14. 马来酸酐三元共聚物阻垢剂的合成及性能%Preparation of maIeic anhydride terpoIymer scaIe inhibitor and its capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱胜利; 陈康; 焦莉莉; 冯长春

    2015-01-01

    以马来酸酐(MA)、乙酸乙烯酯(VA)和丙烯酸(AA)为单体,过硫酸铵为引发剂,异丙醇为分子质量调节剂,合成了水溶性马来酸酐三元共聚物阻垢剂PMVA。通过研究各合成条件对聚合物阻垢性能和生物降解性能的影响,得到最佳工艺条件。并对最终产品进行多方面性能测试,结果表明:PMVA具有优良的碳酸钙、硫酸钙阻垢分散性能,较强的稳锌性能和良好的可生物降解性能。%The scale inhibitor,aqueous soluble terpolymer PMVA has been synthesized by using maleic anhydride (MA),vinyl acetate(VA) and acrylic acid(AA) as monomers,ammonium persulphate as initiator and iso-propyl al-cohol as molecular weight regulator. Through the research on the effects of the synthetic conditions on scale inhibi-tion capacity and biodegradation of polymers,the optimal technological conditions have been obtained. The capaci-ties of the final product PMVA are tested in many ways ,and the results show that PMVA has excellent scale inhibit-ing and dispersing capacities for CaCO3 and CaSO4,strong stabilizing capacity for zinc,and good biodegradability.

  15. Preparation and Catalytic Performance of Catalyst for the Oxidation of n-Butane to Maleic Anhydride%正丁烷氧化制顺酐催化剂的制备及其催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊峰; 顾龙勤; 曾炜; 陈亮; 赵欣

    2015-01-01

    A vanadium phosphate (VPO) catalyst with excellent catalytic performance for the oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride was prepared by the organic method. The detailed preparation process of catalyst was investigated by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The phase, valence state, structure and BET surface area of catalyst in the preparation process were analyzed. The reaction conditions for the oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride were studied in a fixed-bed reactor, and the influences of temperature, concentration of n-butane and space velocity on the catalytic performance of catalyst were investigated. The results indicated that the main phase of the precursor is VOHPO4·0.5H2O. The main active phases of catalyst are (VO)2P2O7 (V4+), VOPO4 (V5+) and V/P mica phase (mixed phase of V4+ and V5+). The obtained catalyst has a lamellar structure and a surface area of 24.08 m2/g. The preparation of the catalyst includes drying, calcination and activation, which are all very important to performance of the catalyst. The best reaction condition is as following: the temperature is 395℃, the molar fraction ofn-butane is 1.4%~1.5%, and the space velocity is 2 000 h-1. Then-butane conversion and the selectivity to maleic anhydride are 85%~87% and 59%~60%, respectively.%采用有机相法制备了具有优异催化性能的正丁烷氧化制顺酐钒磷氧(VPO)催化剂。通过X射线衍射(XRD)、傅里叶红外光谱(FT-IR)、扫描电镜(SEM)、氮气吸附脱附、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、热重分析(TG)等方法对催化剂的制备过程进行了研究,分析了催化剂在整个制备过程中物相、价态、形貌和比表面积的变化。在固定床反应器上对正丁烷氧化制顺酐的反应条件进行研究,考察了

  16. Isotopic fractionation of sulphur during the oxidation cf sulphur dioxide in the presence of nitrogen oxides; Fractionnement isotopique du soufre au cours de l'oxydation de l'anhydride sulfureux, en presence d'oxydes d'azote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, P.; Maurette, E.; Ravoire, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The object of this study is to discover whether nitrous fumes can catalyze the sulphur exchange reaction between sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid in this latter medium. During the oxidation of the sulphur dioxide, the vapour phase concentration of heavy sulphur decreases. The experiments carried out with marked sulphuric acid H{sub 2}{sup 35}SO{sub 4} show however that sulphur does not exchange at a measurable rate at ordinary temperatures. The isotopic fractionation observed cannot thus be explained by a movement towards the thermodynamic equilibrium. The absence of any exchange is interpreted in the light of the mechanisms proposed for the catalytic oxidation of sulphur dioxide. (authors) [French] Le but de cette etude est de chercher si les vapeurs nitreuses peuvent catalyser la reaction d'echange du soufre entre l'anhydride sulfureux et l'acide sulfur ique en milieu sulfurique. Au cours de l'oxydation de l'anhydride.la phase vapeur s'appauvrit en soufre lourd. Mais les experiences realisees avec de l'acide sulfurique marque H{sub 2} {sup 35}SO{sub 4} montrent que le soufre n'echange pas avec une vitesse mesurable a temperature ordinaire. Le fractionnement isotopique observe ne peut donc etre explique par une evolution vers l'equilibre thermodynamique. L'absence d'echange est interpretee a la lumiere des mecanismes proposes pour l'oxydation catalytique de l'anhydride sulfureux. (auteurs)

  17. 氨基硅烷/马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯界面化学反应的研究%A Study of Interface Reaction between Amino Silane and Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余剑英; 周祖福; 赵青南; 程景飞; 闻荻江

    2000-01-01

    Through removing polymer physisorbed on the glass fiber surface with solvent extraction to minimize the signal of the polymer in IR and XPS analysis,the interaction was studied by IR and XPS between maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene(MA-g-PP)and an amino silane coupling agent-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane(APS).It is found that the absorption bands of polypropylene still exits in IR spectra of the glass fiber after 72h dimethyl benzene extraction and a new state of N1s at 401.9eV appears in the XPS,which shows that the MA-g-PP and APS have reacted chemically and the reaction product with amido is formed.Although open chain APS and cyclic APS with an internal hydrogen bond coexist on the APS treated glass fiber surface,it is discovered that APS which reacts chemically with MA-g-PP is mainly open chain APS by the quantitative analysis of XPS for N1s in different chemical state.%利用溶剂萃取与红外光谱(IR)、光电子能谱(XPS)技术研究了化学键接在玻璃纤维表面的硅烷偶联剂与接枝聚丙烯间的界面化学反应。结果表明:溶剂萃取可以除去玻璃纤维/树脂界面区物理结合的聚合物基体,减少基体信号的影响,在此基础上,利用IR、XPS可以直接证明氨基硅烷(APS)与马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯(MA-g-PP)间发生了界面化学反应,生成了含酰胺基的反应产物。进一步对不同化学状态的N1s的XPS定量分析发现,尽管APS在玻纤表面以开环直链和以氢键结合的环状两种结构形式存在,但在界面上主要是无环开链结构中的氨基与酸酐发生反应。

  18. Synthesis and Control of Molecular Weight of Fluorinated Polyimide Based on 4, 4′ -(Hexafluorolsopropyhdene)dlphthallc Anhydride%6FDA型聚酰亚胺的合成及其分子量调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍慧雯; 李华; 康红梅; 刘河洲

    2012-01-01

    以4,40(六氟异丙烯)二酞酸酐(6FDA)为二酐单体,2,2-双(3胺基-4-羟基苯)六氟丙烷为二胺单体,采用“溶液缩聚-亚胺化反应”两步合成法,获得了可溶性聚酰亚胺材料。通过傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)、凝胶色谱(GPC)、热重分析(TGA)、X射线衍射(XRD)等分析测试,考察了原料配比、亚胺化温度、亚胺化时间及催化剂等因素对产物重均分子量等特性参量的影响。结果表明:通过调节合成条件,该聚酰亚胺重均分子量可达4.5×10^4,具有优良的热稳定性,其起始分解温度高于490℃,且在NMP、DMF、DMAc、DMSO、THF、丙酮等有机溶剂中具有优良的溶解性能,能于80℃的低温下亚胺化制得,对材料的大批量制备具有重要意义。%4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) was polymerized with 2, 2 bis (3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane (BAPAF). Fluorinated polyimide was obtained via a two- step polycondensaion procedure. The effect of reaction factors like raw materials' ratio, imidization tem- perature, imidization time and catalyst on the molecular weight were studied. Polyimide was characterized by FT-IR, GPC, XRD and solubility test. Results showed that polyimide of 6FDA-BAPAF obtained under imidization temperature (80 ℃) had high molecular weight reaching 4.5 ×10^4 , which displayed excellent thermal properties with Td higher than 490 ℃ and had excellent solubility in polar aprotic organic solvents such as NMP, DMF, DMAc, DMSO, THF and acetone.

  19. Quick analysis method of sulphuric anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Montraveta, J.

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEl clinker de cemento portland molido sin adición alguna da un cemento que fragua inmediatamente, y la escoria de alto horno, molida asimismo sin adición, nos proporciona un producto que fragua muy lentamente. Ambos requieren la adición de un retardador o de un acelerante que les regule su fraguado. El sulfato calcico, ya sea en forma de sulfato cálcico dihidratado o yeso (CaS04.2H20 o como sulfato cálcico anhidro o anhidrita (CaSO4, actúa como regulador de fraguado en los dos casos, y por ello se añade en la molienda de los cementos portland, siderúrgicos, sobresulfatados, puzolánicos, etc.; todo lo cual obliga a que el sulfato cálcico deba considerarse como materia prima para la producción de todos los cementos, a excepción del cemento aluminoso fundido.

  20. Bis(phenyl-phospho-nic) anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Hua, Guoxiong; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2009-10-03

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(12)H(12)O(5)P(2), contains four independent mol-ecules, generating two dimers via pairs of inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming R(2) (2)(8) rings. The two aryl rings of each mol-ecule form dihedral angles of 108.6 (1), 103.2 (1), 12.5 (2) and 8.1 (2)° in the four mol-ecules.

  1. Antiviral activity of 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified ovalbumin against herpes simplex virus 2 in vitro%邻苯二甲酸酐修饰卵清蛋白体外抗单纯疱疹病毒Ⅱ型的活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽丽; 段江曼; 裘佳寅; 于飞; 刘叔文; 李琳

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究邻苯二甲酸酐修饰卵清蛋白(3-Hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified ovalbumin,HP-OVA)体外对抗单纯疱疹病毒Ⅱ型(HSV-2)的活性.方法 采用化学修饰的方法将3-羟基.邻苯二甲酸酐(HP)修饰卵清蛋白(OVA),合成酸酐修饰蛋白HP-OVA;选用HSV-2 333病毒株及非洲绿猴肾细胞(vero 细胞)靶细胞,采用MTT比色法检测HP-OVA的体外抗HSV-2病毒活性及其对Vero细胞的体外细胞毒性;镜检观察HP-OVA对17株阴道收集的乳酸杆菌的抑菌作用.结果 酸酐修饰卵清蛋白HP-OVA对HSV-2病毒具有明显抑制作用,其IC50为23.56±8.33 μg/ml,且其对病毒作用靶细胞毒性较低,CC50>1 mg/ml,对17株阴道乳酸杆菌均无明显抑制作用,MIC>1 mg/ml.结论 酸酐修饰蛋白HP-OVA体外有较好的抗HSV-2病毒的活性,有望被开发为预防性传播性疾病的候选杀微生物剂.%Objective To investigate the antiviral activity of 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified ovalbumin (HP-OVA) against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Methods By chemical modification, ovalbumin (OVA) was treated with 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride (HP) to prepare HP-OVA. The anti-HSV-2 activity against HSV-2 333 virus in vitro and the cytotoxicity of HP-OVA in African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) were detected by MTT colorimetric assay. The inhibitory effects of HP-OVA on 17 strains of vaginal lactobacilli were observed by microscopy. Results Anhydride-modified ovalbumin significantly inhibited the infection by HSV-2 with an Igo of 23.56±8.33 μg/ ml. HP-OVA showed only low cytotoxicity to the host cells with a CC50over 1 mg/ml. HP-OVA did not produce significant inhibitory effect on the 17 strains of vaginal lactobacilli (MIC>1 mg/ml). Conclusion Anhydride-modified protein HP-OVA exhibits potent anti-HSV-2 activity in vitro and can be a good microbicide candidate for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

  2. Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Starch and Its Application in Chicken Sausages%辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯的特性分析及在鸡肉灌肠中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓燕; 董振江; 李真; 杨延超; 裴亚琼

    2012-01-01

    以早籼米淀粉为原料,采用水相体系制备不同黏度的辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯,并对其糊化特性、冻融稳定性及在鸡肉灌肠中的应用进行研究。结果表明:淀粉经酸解和辛烯基琥珀酸酐改性后,可以得到不同黏度的辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯,具有良好的冻融稳定性。在鸡肉灌肠中应用时,加入早籼米辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯的鸡肉灌肠与加入木薯变性淀粉的鸡肉灌肠相比较,其硬度、弹性和咀嚼性都有不同程度的提高(p〈0.05)。扫描电子显微镜分析显示,添加木薯变性淀粉的样品,内部结构比较蓬松,而添加早籼米OSA-H6的样品,其内部组织则相对紧实细腻。该研究表明,辛烯基琥珀酸酐改性淀粉(烯基琥珀酸淀粉酸)可以改善肉制品的质构特性,在肉制品中具有潜在的应用价值。%Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified starches with different viscosities were prepared from early indica rice starch in aqueous slurry systems. The pasting property and freeze-thaw stability of the products were analyzed and their application in chicken sausages was evaluated. The results showed that acid hydrolysis of starch followed by OSA modification produced OSA modified starch, which had better freeze-thaw stability than its native counterpart. The texture of sausages with added OSA modified indica rice starch was improved in hardness, springiness and chewiness when compared to sausages with added modified tapioca starch (P 〈 0.05). SEM observations revealed that sausages with the addition of tapioca modified starch had large pores in its structure and fluffy texture, while sausages with the addition of OSA modified indica rice starch was compact in texture. In summary, OSA modified starch can improve texture characteristics of meat products and consequently holds potential for applications in meat products.

  3. Ação do anidrido naftálico na seletividade de herbicidas aplicados para controle de azevém em aveia-branca Action of naphthalic anhydride on herbicide selected for ryegrass control in oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rizzardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em Passo Fundo-RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do tratamento de sementes de aveia-branca (Avena sativa com o antídoto anidrido naftálico (AN na seletividade de herbicidas utilizados para controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em parcelas subdivididas, em blocos casualizados, repetidos quatro vezes. As parcelas principais foram constituídas pela ausência ou presença do AN (5 g kg-1 no tratamento das sementes de aveia, e nas subparcelas foram alocados cinco tratamentos herbicidas, uma testemunha sem azevém e sem aplicação de herbicida e uma testemunha sem controle de azevém. Os tratamentos herbicidas utilizados foram diclofop (284 e 426 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (52,5 g ha-1 e clomazone (1.000 g ha-1. Foram avaliados o percentual de controle de azevém, a fitotoxicidade visual dos herbicidas e as características associadas à cultura da aveia, como massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, número de plantas e de panículas por área, peso de 1.000 grãos e rendimento de grãos. Os resultados evidenciaram que o tratamento de sementes de aveia com AN não aumentou a seletividade dos herbicidas aplicados, com exceção para massa seca da parte aérea, no caso de sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas que propiciaram os melhores níveis de controle de azevém foram os que ocasionaram maiores danos fitotóxicos à cultura da aveia-branca.An experiment was conducted in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of treatment of oat seeds (Avena sativa with naphthalic anhydride safener (AN on the herbicide selectivity used for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum control. The experimental design used was a split-plot one, in randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of oat seed treated or not with AN (5 g kg-1 seed as main plots, and of five herbicide treatments, one check without ryegrass and herbicide and

  4. Process Optimization for Synthesis of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Oxidized Sweet Potato Starch by Response Surface Analysis%响应面法优化氧化辛烯基琥珀酸甘薯淀粉酯的制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 邬应龙; 何靖柳

    2011-01-01

    以氧化甘薯淀粉(oxidation sweet potato starch,OSPS)为原料,制备氧化辛烯基琥珀酸甘薯淀粉酯(octenylsuccinate anhydride-oxidation sweet potato starch,OSA-OSPS)。运用响应面分析(response surface method analysis,RSA)辛烯基琥珀酸酐(octenyl succinate anhydride,OSA)添加量、pH值、温度和时间对OSA-OSPS取代度(degreeof substitution,DS)的影响,得出最佳制备工艺:酸酐添加量7%、pH8.40、温度40℃,反应时间10h。采用快速黏度分析仪(rapid viscosity analyzer,RVA)分析表明:氧化甘薯淀粉峰值黏度较低,而经过OSA酯化后,峰值黏度又会有一定程度的提高,且随DS的增加呈上升趋势。%Oxidized sweet potato starch was used as the raw material to prepare octenyl succinic anhydride(OSA) modified oxidized sweet potato starch.The effects of OSA amount,pH,temperature and reaction time on degree of substitution(DS) of OSA-modified oxidized sweet potato starch were studied employing response surface analysis.The optimum process conditions determined were as follows: OSA amount 7%,pH 8.40,temperature 40 ℃,and reaction time 10 h.Rapid viscosity analyzer(RVA) analysis showed that the peak viscosity of sweet potato starch decreased after oxidation,and increased after furthermodification with OSA with a positive correlation with DS.

  5. Performance of non-crystal cross-linked octenyl succinic anhydride starch ester synthesized through one-step process%非晶交联辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯的一步法合成及其性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆来仙; 童张法; 石海信; 张友全

    2014-01-01

    Using non-crystal starch (N-NS) as raw material,sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) and Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA) as modification agents,non-crystal cross-linked octenyl succinic anhydride starch ester (N-1-COSAS) was synthesized by one-step process. The properties of N-1-COSAS,such as degree of substitution,combined phosphorus,intrinsic viscosity,transparency, apparent viscosity and blue value,were comparatively studied by the product synthesized by three-step process (N-3-COSAS) to analyze their similarities and differences. The functional groups, morphology,crystal structure and thermostability of the products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the degree of substitution,combined phosphorus and intrinsic viscosity for N-1-COSAS were greater than those by N-3-COSAS. The new absorption peak at 1600 cm-1 appeared in the FT-IR spectrum of the two starch esters demonstrated that the esterification reaction were occurred in both processes. The results of XRD indicated that the dispersion degrees of the peaks in N-1-COSAS and N-3-COSAS were similar to those of N-NS but the crystallinities of N-1-COSAS and N-3-COSAS were lower than that of NS. The particle surfaces of N-1-COSAS and N-3-COSAS were rougher than that of N-NS. Moreover , thermostabilities of N-1-COSAS and N-3-COSAS were better than that of N-NS.%以非晶木薯淀粉(N-NS)为原料,三偏磷酸钠(STMP)和辛烯基琥珀酸酐(OSA)为变性剂,采用一步法合成非晶交联辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯(N-1-COSAS),测定产物的取代度、结合磷含量、透明度、表观黏度、特性黏度和蓝值,并与三步法合成的非晶交联辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯(N-3-COSAS)作对比。同时采用傅里叶红外光谱仪(FT-IR)、扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)和差示扫描量热仪(DSC)

  6. SMA -β-环糊精聚合物制备及其对水中亚甲基蓝的吸附性能%Preparation of Styrene -Maleic Anhydride -β-Cyclodextrin Polymer and Its Application in Adsorption of Methylene Blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛春艳; 陈智欣; 李宏占; 彭成松; 张晓梅

    2015-01-01

    用β-CD 与苯乙烯-马来酸酐交替共聚物(SMA)反应,制备了β-CD 质量分数为49.8%的水不溶性 SMA -β-CD,并用 IR、元素分析及热分析表征。以 SMA -β-CD 为吸附剂,研究了25℃下 SMA -β-CD 对水中亚甲基蓝(MB)的吸附性能。结果表明,吸附性能随体系 pH 升高而提高,吸附在120 min 内达到平衡。固液比为0.25g/L 时,SMA -β-CD 对20 mg/L 的 MB 的吸附率为100%;固液比为0.5 g/L 时,对213.6 mg/L 的 MB 吸附率达98%。SMA -β-CD 对 MB 的吸附符合 Langmuir 模型,由 Langmuir 方程求得的最大吸附量为316.4 mg/g;吸附符合拟二级动力学模型。%Water -insoluble styrene -maleic anhydride -β-cyclodextrin (SMA -β-CD)polymer, which contained 49.8% β-CD,was synthesized by β-Cyclodextrin and styrene -maleic anhydride through alternating copolymer reaction.The structure of the SMA -β-CD polymer was characterized by IR,element and thermal analysis.The effects of the adsorption of SMA -β-CD adsorb methylene blue (MB)in water at room temperature were investigated.The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of SMA -β-CD increased along with the rising of pH value.An equilibrium adsorption could be got within 120 minutes. When the solid -liquid ratio was 0.25g·L -1 ,the rate of SMA -β-CD adsorbing MB approached to 100%with the initial concentration of 20 mg·L -1 .When the solid -liquid ratio was 0.5g·L -1 ,the rate of SMA-β-CD adsorbing MB approached to 98% with the initial concentration of 213.6 mg·L -1 .The adsorp-tion of SMA -β-CD to MB was in accordance with Langmuir model.The maximum adsorption capacity ob-tained from the Langmuir equation was 316.4 mg/g,and the adsorption behavior of SMA -β-CD con-formed to pseudo -second -order kinetic model.

  7. Estudo da capacidade de complexação de íons Cu2+ em solução aquosa usando celulose modificada com anidrido succínico e com poliaminas Study of copper removal from aqueous solutions using modified celluloses with succinic anhydride and polyamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Corti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho foi realizada a preparação de novos materiais, a partir da celulose, para complexar íons de metais pesados em solução aquosa e assim, descontaminar águas poluídas por tais metais. Na primeira parte foi realizada a modificação química da celulose usando o anidrido succínico. As funções carboxílicas introduzidas no material foram usadas para ancorar poliaminas produzindo-se três celuloses modificadas inéditas. Todos os materiais obtidos foram caracterizados por espectroscopia no infravermelho (IV e submetidos à análise elementar. A segunda parte do trabalho foi constituída da avaliação do poder de adsorção das celuloses modificadas obtidas em relação aos íons Cu2+ em solução aquosa. O estudo foi realizado usando a titulometria, um método analítico tradicional. Os vários materiais mostraram uma capacidade máxima de complexação variando entre 141 e 263 mg de Cu2+ por grama do material modificado. A eficiência na complexação dos íons Cu2+ mostrou-se proporcional ao número de funções aminas introduzidas na celulose.This work describes the preparation of new materials, derived from cellulose, to be used as complexing agents for heavy metal ions in aqueous solutions and, hence, to decontaminate waters polluted by such metals. The first part deals with the chemical modification of the cellulose using succinic anhydride. The carboxylic acid functions introduced in the material were used to anchor polyamines resulting in three novel modified celluloses. The materials obtained were characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy (IR. The second part of the work features the evaluation of the adsorption capacity of the modified celluloses in relation to Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. The study was accomplished by titration, a traditional analytical method. The various materials showed a maximum complexing capacity ranging from 141 to 263 mg of Cu2+ per gram of the modified material. The

  8. Fluorescence Properties of Porphyrin Dimers Incorporating an Anhydride Linker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study on a novel free base porphyrin dimer and a zinc prophyrin dimer by comparing their fluorescence properties with those of the corresponding monomers is presented. The fluorescence intensity of the free base dimer is five times higher than that of the monomer, but the fluorescence intensity of the zinc porphyrin dimer is nearly similar to that of the zinc porphyrin monomer. The emission spectra show that energy transfer occurs between the two units.

  9. 高剪切应力对苯乙烯-乙烯/丁烯-苯乙烯三嵌段聚合物马来酸酐化反应的影响%Influence of high shear stress on functionalization of maleic anhydride with styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene terblock polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽; 张玲; 张云灿

    2013-01-01

    The functionalization reaction of styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene terblock polymer (SEBS) with maleic anhydride (MAH) was investigated through the high shear stress-induced initiation by increasing the screw rotation speed of twin-screw extruder.The results showed that the percent of grafting and the melt flow rate of functionalized products (SEBS-g-MAH) increased obviously with the increase of screw rotation speed,indicating that the high shear stress produced by increasing screw rotation speed led to the chain scission and the macro-radical,thus initiating the grafting reaction between SEBS and MAH.The crosslinking reaction could be effectively suppressed through increasing screw rotation speed to prepare the functionalized product SEBS-g-MAH with higher percent of grafting (mass fraction 0.79%-0.89%) and appropriate melt flow rate (1.859-4.398 g/min) and lower gel content (no more than mass fraction 0.32%).Meanwhile,the toughening effect of SEBS-g-MAH on nylon (PA 66) was much better.The Izod notched impact strength of the blend reached up to 94 kJ/m2,which was 30 times more than that of pure PA 66 without significant decrease of tensile and flexural strengthes.%通过提高双螺杆挤出机螺杆转速的应力引发方法,研究了高剪切应力下马来酸酐(MAH)与苯乙烯-乙烯/丁烯-苯乙烯三嵌段聚合物(SEBS)的官能化反应.结果表明,随着双螺杆挤出机螺杆转速的提高,官能化产物的接枝率和熔体流动速率明显增大.高剪切应力的作用引起大分子链断链,形成大分子自由基,从而引发SEBS的接枝反应.通过提高螺杆转速可有效地抑制交联副反应,制得接枝率较高(质量分数0.79%~0.89%)、熔体流动速率适宜(1.859 ~4.398 g/min)和凝胶含量较低(质量分数不大于0.32%)的官能化产物.同时,由应力诱导引发所得官能化产物SEBS-g-MAH对尼龙(PA 66)的增韧效果较好,其共混物的悬臂梁缺口冲击强度能达到约94 kJ/m2,

  10. Synthetic studies of coumarin derivatives from o-hydroxybenzophenones with phenylacetic acid and acetic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Soon Hee; Yang, Sung Yun [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    The 8 coumarin derivatives have been synthesized from 8 starting materials(2-hydroxy-benzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzophenone, 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-4'-dimethoxybenzophenone) with phenylacetic acid and Ac{sub 2}O/TEA in acetone at reflux temperature. The ratio of o-hydroxybenzophenone, phenylacetic acid, Ac{sub 2}O and TEA is 1:1:8:8 in acetone. Our results showed higher products yields of coumarin derivatives than Shama and Ray's method in previous papers. A new intermediate form was proposed to our mechanism of coumarin synthetic method.

  11. 78 FR 76567 - Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... September 12, 2013 (78 FR 56185) (FRL- 9399-7), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408, 21 U.S... review under Executive Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4... Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or Executive Order...

  12. Tetrahydrofuran Unit Adopting Davy's Latest Maleic Anhydride Technology to Come Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 1,4-butanediol (BDO)/tetrahydrofuran (THF) project constructed by the Blue Star (Nanjing) New Chemical Ma-terials Co., Ltd. adopting a whole package of the world's latest patented technology will come on-stream by the end of 2008. It is told that by that time Blue Star will rank among the global leaders in terms of quality of BDO and THF products, which can substitute for around 40% of imported high-quality products.

  13. Hydrolysis and stability of thin pulsed plasma polymerised maleic anhydride coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Joanna Maria; Launay, Héléne; Hansen, Charles M.;

    2008-01-01

    were obtained at constant plasma power by adjusting the polymerisation time. The results show that the hydrolysis resistance of the modified layer is determined by the power used in the plasma polymerisation, while changes in the chemistry of the modified layer are insignificant....

  14. MECHANICAL RELAXATION AND INTERMOLECULAR INTERACTION IN EPOXY RESINS/POLY (ETHYLENE OXIDE)BLENDS CURED WITH PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiaolie; ZHENG Sixun; MA Dezhu; HU Keliang

    1995-01-01

    The miscibility of the blend,composed of a bisphenol A epoxy resins (Diglycidyl etherof bisphenol A) (DGEBA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and crosslinked by phthalicanhydride (PA) was studied using dynamic mechanical method. Single glass transitiontemperatures intermediate between the two pure components were observed for all blendlevels. The secondary relaxation mechanism should relate to not only diester linkage, butalso hydroxyether structural unit in the system. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) is applied to study the curing reaction and intermolecular specific interaction of thesystem. The results indicate the PEO participates the crosslinking reaction, accelerates thecuring reaction and make the reaction more perfect. The shifts of the hydroxyl band andcarbonyl band demonstrate the presence of the intermolecular interaction in the curedblend. Moreover, the molecular interaction between the side hydroxyl in the hydroxyetherunits and the ether bond in PEO macromolecules is stronger.

  15. Attack of carbonic anhydride and hydrogen sulfide on API class H cement slurries exposed to saline formation waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez, G.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the attack of the major ions (sulfate, chloride, and magnesium and sour gases, present in natural gas (CO2 y SH2, on API class H cement, the type used in gas wells under high pressure and temperature. The effects of these chemical agents on this cement was simulated to study the physicochemical changes due to the action of sour gases and formation water. Cement specimens were immersed in neutral solutions containing fixed concentrations of the major ions inside Parr reactors. These solutions were analysed and XRD analyses were conducted for over two months to identify mineralogical variations from 14 to 60 days. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the joint attack of major ions and sour gases on cement pastes. The main effects of both gases, jointly or separately, on cement durability were, respectively, the carbonation process and the leaching of some components.

    Se simuló la acción agresiva de los denominados iones fundamentales (sulfato, cloruro y magnesio y los gases agrios presentes en el gas natural (CO2 y H2S sobre un cemento API clase H utilizado en pozos gasíferos a presión y temperatura elevadas, al objeto de observar sus alteraciones fisicoquímicas por la acción combinada de tales gases y las aguas de formación. Se prepararon varias probetas del material cementante para su inmersión en disoluciones neutras, conteniendo los iones fundamentales en concentraciones fijas, dentro de reactores tipo Parr. Se analizaron durante más de dos meses una serie de disoluciones en contacto con el cemento utilizado; así como, mediante DRX, la evolución de la mineralogía de dicho material entre los 14 y los 60 días. Los principales efectos de ambos gases, en conjunto o por separado, sobre la durabilidad del cemento fueron, respectivamente, la formación de carbonato cálcico y la lixiviación de algunos componentes.

  16. Effect of vanadic anhydride and copper oxide on the development of hard porcelain composite and its antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpan Kool

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A mullite-reinforced porcelain composite with antibacterial properties has been developed using transition metal oxides by solid state sintering. The composite has been characterized in terms of mullite content, hardness, color and antibacterial properties. The physico-chemical properties of the porcelain were substantially increased in the presence of V2O5 and CuO. Well-crystallized needle shaped mullite of average length ∼ 3 μm was observed in the porcelain body at 1300 °C and 1500 °C after the addition of V2O5 and CuO. Vickers hardness of the composite increased 4.2 times for 2% V2O5 at 1500 °C. The porcelain composites showed satisfactory antibacterial activity on gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli with mortality rates of 45% and 22% for V2O5 and CuO doped porcelain respectively.

  17. Preparation and structural characterisation of novel and versatile amphiphilic octenyl succinic anhydride-modified hyaluronic acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eenschooten, Corinne Diane; Guillaumie, Fanny; Kontogeorgis, Georgios;

    2010-01-01

    and structurally characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). The influence of four reaction parameters on the DS of the derivatives was studied by means of an experimental design. The results showed that the OSA/HA molar ratio, the buffer...

  18. Tuning the thermoresponsive properties of Hyperbranched Poly(ester amide)s based on diisopropanolamine and cyclic dicarboxylic anhydrides

    OpenAIRE

    Kelland, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    A range of water-soluble hyperbranched poly(ester amide)s has been synthesized with a view to studying their thermoresponsive behavior in water. Poly(ester amide)s with lower critical solution temperature (LCST) values around physiological temperatures are of interest for biological and medical applications, whereas poly(ester amide)s with high LCST values may be useful as kinetic hydrate inhibitors for high salinity produced fluids in the oil and gas industry. The LCST of these p...

  19. Analysis of the effect of anhydride of trifluoroacetanhydride in the working mixture composition on the operation of iodine photodissociation laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradskii, L. M.; Polozov, A. A.; Khudikov, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of the (CF3CO)2O (trifluoroacetanhydride) buffer additive on the operation of an iodine photodissociation laser is studied experimentally. Comparative experiments for determining the laser energy of the iodine laser with the replacement of the working substance with this buffer additive and without it and with widely used buffer gas SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride) are carried out. Optical inhomogeneities in the working volume, emerging during pumping of working mixtures based on i-C3F7I (perfluoroalkyl iodide) with buffer additives (CF3CO)2O and C6F14 (perfluorohexane), are measured. The results of experiments are analyzed.

  20. A fully coupled diffusion-reaction scheme for moisture sorption-desorption in an anhydride-cured epoxy resin

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal

    2012-11-01

    Thermoset materials frequently display non-classical moisture sorption behaviors. In this paper, we investigated this issue from an experimental point of view as well as in terms of modeling the water transport. We used the gravimetric technique to monitor water uptake by epoxy samples, with several thicknesses exposed to different levels of humidity during absorption and desorption tests. Our results revealed that the polymer displays a two-stage behavior with a residual amount of water that is desorbed progressively. We proposed a phenomenological reaction-diffusion scheme to describe this behavior. The model describes water transport as a competition between diffusion and the reaction, during which the local diffusivity and solubility depend on the local advancement of the reaction. We then implemented our model using COMSOL Multiphysics and identified it using a MATLAB-COMSOL optimization tool and the experimental data. We discussed the relation between the hydrophilicity of the product of the reaction and the diffusion behavior. We examined the reaction-induced modification of the water concentration field. It is worth noting that part of the phenomenology can be explained by the presence of hydrolyzable groups. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A new method for the preparation of I131-labelled p-iodo-benzenesulphonic acid anhydride (pipsan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I131-labelled pipsan may be used, together with S35-labelled pipsan, in a double-isotope-derivation technique for the analytical determination of various steroids. The preparation of high-specific-activity I131-pipsan involves serious health hazards due to the γ-radiation of I131, and a shielded cell with remote-handling equipment has to be used. Earlier methods, in which I131 is introduced in diazo-benzenesulphonic acid, involve many steps with purification of the intermediary products and necessitate rather complicated equipment. By the introduction of I131 in diazo-benzene and by sulphonation of the labelled iodobenzene with oleum, labelled pipsan is obtained directly. This method has proved feasible for remote handling in a shielded cell. The procedure is based on recent Russian papers. Chemical aspects of the procedure are briefly discussed. Descriptions are given of some of the equipment used in the remote handling, e.g. : a micro steam-distillation apparatus for the preparation of iodobenzene, and a rotating Perspex pipetting station used for the addition of washing liquids, for air-propagation and for removal of supernatants. (author)

  2. PHOTOCHROMIC PROPERTIES OF (E)-DICYCLOPROPYLMETHYLENE-(2,5-DIMETHYL-3-FURYLETHYLIDENE)-SUCCINIC ANHYDRIDE DOPED IN POLYSTYRENE THIN FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abood A. Bahajaj; Abdullah M. Asiri

    2008-01-01

    Fulgide 1-E doped in polystyrene polymer films was heated at various annealing temperatures. Upon irradiation with UV light (366 nm), fulgide 1-E undergoes a conrotatory ring closure to the pink colored closed form 1-C. The later color was switched back to the original color when the films were irradiated with white light. The kinetics of photocoloration and photobleaching processes were followed spectrophotometrically by monitoring the absorbance of the ring closed product 1-C at its λmax of 525 nm. The first-order plots of photocoloration reaction shows two distinct linear lines. The slopes of which corresponding to the first-order rate constants k1 and K2, where k1 is the rate constant at initial reaction times and k2 is that at late reaction times. These results suggest the plausible presence of two conformers of the ring opened form 1-E which reacts in sequence. On the other hand, photobleaching reaction shows a simple first-order reaction rate. It was found that for photocoloration reaction, the rate constant at initial reaction times is slower than that at late reaction times. Similarly, the photocoloration reaction is slower than the photobleaching reaction and both reactions increases with increasing the annealing temperatures. It was found that there was almost complete loss of photochemical fatigue resistance of fulgide 1 doped in polystyrene polymer film irrespective of the annealing temperature.

  3. 双环戊二烯-马来酸酐自由基共聚%Dicyclopentadiene- Maleic Anhydride Freeradical Copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 王小梅; 王芳; 闫卫东

    2005-01-01

    用过氧化苯甲酰(BPO)引发双环戊二烯(DCPD)与马来酸酐(MA)于70℃下进行自由基共聚,控制共聚时间使共聚转化率低于10%.用电位滴定法测定共聚物中MA的含量,测定结果与13C核磁共振(NMR)法的测定结果相吻合,相对偏差为-0.77%.13CNMR法的测定结果表明,参与自由基共聚的DCPD单元中降冰片烯与环戊烯的摩尔比为7.143.采用Fineman-Ross法测定单体的竞聚率(r),rMA=0.006 4,rDCPD=0.676 0.研究了共聚物中DCPD与MA单元的链段序列分布.

  4. Plasma Polymerized Thin Films of Maleic Anhydride and 1,2-methylenedioxybenzene for Improving Adhesion to Carbon Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Joanna Maria; Goutianos, Stergios; Kingshott, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    Low power 2-phase AC plasma polymerization has been used to surface modify glassy carbon substrates that are used as an experimental model for carbon fibers in reinforced composites. In order to probe the role of carboxylic acid density on the interfacial adhesion strength a combination...... acid are present on the MDOB surface as a result of the fragmentation processes in the plasma. Chemical and physical changes were investigated as a function of plasma power at constant polymerization time. Surface chemistry analysis was perfonned with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated...... total veflectanc~ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the thickness of the plasma films and to monitor the surface roughness for the different polymerization conditions. Finally, preliminary results of fracture energy measurements of the plasma modified...

  5. Preparations and applications in UV curing coatings of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces preparations of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl through the reactions of epoxy acrylates with butanedioic anhydride, pentanedioic anhydride, cis-butenedioic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, tetrabromophthalic anhydride and -tetrahydrophthalic anhydride. These epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl have been applied to UV-curing coatings and their effects on properties of UV-curing coatings have been studied

  6. Promotional Effect of Bismuth as Dopant in Bi-Doped Vanadyl Pyrophosphate Catalysts for Selective Oxidation of n-Butane to Maleic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.H.Taufiq-Yap; Y.Kamiya; K.P.Tan

    2006-01-01

    Bismuth-promoted (1% and 3%) vanadyl pyrophosphate catalysts were prepared by refluxing creased the surface area and lowered the overall V oxidation state. Profiles of temperature programmed reduction (TPR) in H2 show a significant shift of the maxima of major reduction peaks to lower temperatures for the Bi-promoted catalysts. A new peak was also observed at the low temperature region for the catalyst with 3% of Bi dopant. The addition of Bi also increased the total amount of oxygen removed from the catalysts. The reduction pattern and reactivity information provide fundamental insight into the catalytic properties of the catalysts. Bi-promoted catalysts were found to be highly active (71% and 81%conversion for 1% and 3% Bi promoted catalysts, respectively, at 703 K), as compared to the unpromoted material (47% conversion). The higher activity of the Bi-promoted catalysts is due to that these catalysts possess highly active and labile lattice oxygen. The better catalytic performance can also be attributed to the larger surface area.

  7. TREATMENT AND COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION OF SACCHARIN WASTEWATER FROM PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE PROCESS%苯酐法糖精废水的治理与综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉民

    2005-01-01

    利用废铁屑与含铜酸性废水作用制备金属铜和聚合硫酸铁,并用聚合硫酸铁作絮凝剂处理酯化废水.实验结果表明,每吨含铜酸性废水可制得8.5kg铜粉及230kg浓度158~160 g/L Fe3+的聚合硫酸铁,处理后的酸性废水中硫酸的含量降低了83.5%,Cu2+的含量降低了85.0%;在优化条件下,沉降30min,酯化废水的COD、色度去除率分别达到86.8%、88.5%.

  8. Researches on the electrolysis of metal oxides dissolved in boric anhydride or in melt borates. New methods of preparation of amorphous boron, borides and some metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the investigation of the electrolysis of alkaline borates, alkaline earth borates and magnesium borate, and the investigation of mixtures containing a metal oxide dissolved in a bath formed by a tetraborate and a fluoride. The author more particularly studies the chemical products separated at the cathode level, i.e. boron (more or less pure), borates and other metals (zinc, tungsten, molybdenum)

  9. Dynamic mechanical analysis of binary and ternary polymer blends based on nylon copolymer/EPDM rubber and EPM grafted maleic anhydride compatibilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic mechanical properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus and damping properties of blends of nylon copolymer (PA6,66 with ethylene propylene diene (EPDM rubber was investigated with special reference to the effect of blend ratio and compatibilisation over a temperature range –100°C to 150°C at different frequencies. The effect of change in the composition of the polymer blends on tanδ was studied to understand the extent of polymer miscibility and damping characteristics. The loss tangent curve of the blends exhibited two transition peaks, corresponding to the glass transition temperature (Tg of individual components indicating incompatibility of the blend systems. The morphology of the blends has been examined by using scanning electron microscopy. The Arrhenius relationship was used to calculate the activation energy for the glass transition of the blends. Finally, attempts have been made to compare the experimental data with theoretical models.

  10. 水洗法脱除CPP-g-MAH中的聚马来酸酐%Removing polymaleic anhydride from graft copolymer CPP-g-MAH with water extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鸿燕; 董雪茹; 刘大壮

    2007-01-01

    用溶液法制备了CPP-g-MAH接枝共聚物,用水洗法脱除了CPP-g-MAH中的副产物--聚马来酸酐,考查了温度对水洗率的影响,证明了水洗法的可行性,并用FT-IR对水洗产物进行了表征.

  11. POLIELECTROLITI PE BAZA DE COPOLIMERI MALEICI
    (Polyélectrolytes à base de copolymères de l'anhydride maléique)

    OpenAIRE

    Aldea, Gabriela

    2005-01-01

    Les polyélectrolytes sont une classe importante de polymères qui ont été étudiés durant plus de 3 décennies. Le domaine des polyélectrolytes subit actuellement une étonnante explosion d'activité dans plusieurs champs scientifique: chimie, biologie, médecine, physique, nanomatériaux, nanotechnologies L'intérêt particulier montré aux polyélectrolytes est dû non seulement au besoin d'une meilleure compréhension de leur comportement, mais aussi à leurs applications commerciales potentielles.La so...

  12. 聚烯烃接枝马来酸酐的反应挤出研究%STUDY ON REACTIVE EXTRUSION OF POLYOLEFIN GRAFTED MALEIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广成

    2002-01-01

    研究了聚乙烯(PE)、聚丙烯(PP)接枝马来酸酐(MAH)的反应挤出,进行了反应体系的热分析,讨论了引发剂过氧化二异丙苯(DCP)对PE/DCP和PP/DCP体系的影响,以及DCP、MAH和电子给予体(EDA)对LDPE/DCP/MAH和PP/DCP/MAH两种接枝体系的影响.

  13. Melt-Grafting of Maleic Anhydride onto Poly(1-Butene) with DCP as Initiator%DCP引发高全同聚丁烯-1熔融接枝马来酸酐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉杰; 赵永仙; 姚薇; 黄宝琛

    2010-01-01

    研究了在双螺杆挤出机中,苯乙烯(St)存在下马来酸酐(MAH)熔融接枝高全同聚丁烯-1(iPB-1)的过程.分别考察了温度、MAH和St用量对接枝率和熔体流动速率(MFIR)的影响.结果表明,双螺杆挤出机反应区的适宜温度为170℃,在此温度下.MAH含量到5%时,接枝率达到最大;MAH含量一定时,MAH:St=1:1时两种单体可以较好地相互作用,并在引发剂的作用下优先生成苯乙烯与马来酸酐的共聚物(SMA),然后再与iPB-1大分子链自由基或链端自由基发生反应,生成接枝物,此时接枝率达到最大.

  14. 改性马来酸酐橡胶接枝物增韧尼龙6的制备及表征%Preparation and characterization of modified maleic anhydride graft rubber toughened nylon 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓华; 张希伟; 曾鹏; 宋雪; 程伟东

    2015-01-01

    为了促进橡胶接枝物与尼龙6(PA6)的相容性并提高增韧效果,利用马来酸酐和对苯二胺合成了一种含酰胺键的二元羧酸,命名为对苯马来二酰胺二酸(改性马来酸酐,MDMA),并将MDMA接枝到三元乙丙橡胶(EPDM)上,制备出不同接枝率的改性马来酸酐橡胶接枝物(EPDM-g-MDMA),以EPDM-g-MDMA与PA6质量比为30∶70,通过共混挤出制备了含不同接枝率接枝物的EPDM-g-MDMA/PA6共混物.通过核磁共振和红外光谱对MDMA进行了测试,表明成功合成了所需要的二元羧酸.对共混物进行了相容性测试、DSC、熔融指数(MI)、SEM、拉伸和冲击力学性能测试.结果表明:随着接枝率的增大,共混物的熔融峰温度略有降低,其熔体黏度不断增大,橡胶接枝物在PA6基体中有良好的分散性,使EPDM-g-MDMA/PA6共混物的冲击强度提高了5.5倍,说明EPDM-g-MDMA对PA6的增韧效果较为明显.

  15. Preparation and Structure Characterization of Non-crystal Crosslinked Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Starch%非晶交联辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯的制备与结构表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆来仙; 童张法; 石海信; 张友全

    2014-01-01

    以木薯淀粉为原料,三偏磷酸钠(STMP)和辛烯基琥珀酸酐(OSA)为变性剂,用乙醇溶剂法合成非晶交联辛烯基琥珀酸淀粉酯(N-COSAS).以结合磷含量(CP)、取代度(DS)、黏度(η)为评价指标,探讨STMP用量(占淀粉干基的质量分数),交联时间、交联温度、交联pH值和酯化时间、酯化温度、酯化pH值等因素对CP或DS和η的影响.通过单因素和正交试验,得出制备低黏度N-COSAS的较佳工艺条件:在加入STMPl.5%时,交联反应的时间、温度和pH值分别为4h,45℃和10.0,酯化反应的时间、温度和pH值分别为3h、35℃和8.5.扫描电镜观察显示N-COSAS颗粒表面有明显裂痕,表面被卷起;X射线衍射图谱显示,N-COSAS的相对结晶度为8.24%,晶型属于Ⅴ型;红外光谱显示,N-COSAS在1570.06 cm-1处出现新的吸收峰,在929.69 cm-1处峰的强度增加,证明在淀粉分子中引入了辛烯基琥珀酸基团和交联键.

  16. Synthesis and Properties of Cardanol-Based UV Curable Resin with Different Kinds of Anhydride%酸酐种类对腰果酚基光固化树脂合成及性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡武; 郑俊超; 杨小熠; 刘仁; 刘晓亚

    2014-01-01

    以甘油、腰果酚缩水甘油醚(CGE)、酸酐及丙烯酸(AA)为主要原料,通过改变酸酐种类制得了一系列腰果酚基光固化树脂(AGC);用傅里叶红外光谱(FT-IR)表征了树脂的结构;用凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)表征了树脂的相对分子质量;同时以AGC树脂为主体制备了UV固化涂料,考察了该涂料在Q-panel铝板上固化后的基本性能;并采用热重分析(TA)和差示扫描量热(DSC)考察了固化膜的热稳定性(Td10)及玻璃化转变温度(T8).结果表明:该UV固化涂料能较好地兼顾高生物基含量与优异综合性能,具有广泛的开发和应用前景.

  17. COMPATIBILIZATION EFFECT OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE GRAFTED POLYPROPYLENE ON MICA FILLED POLYPROPYLENE%马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯对云母填充聚丙烯的增容作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵若飞; 孙斌; 戴干策

    2002-01-01

    以马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯(MPP)为云母填充聚丙烯(PP/mica)的界面相容剂,研究了MPP的添加量对PP/mica的力学性能、微观形态以及PP/mica熔体的流变行为和非等温结晶行为的影响.结果表明,加入MPP使PP/mica的力学性能得以全面的提高,PP/mica样品断面的电镜照片表明,MPP的加入使云母与聚丙烯的界面粘结得到改善;PP/mica熔体的表观粘度明显高于其聚丙烯基体,随着MPP含量的增加,PP/mica的表观粘度下降,幂律指数也发生变化;云母对聚丙烯具有明显的成核作用,但随MPP含量的增加,云母的成核效率逐渐减弱.

  18. Study on Phthalic Anhydride Cured Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Decomposed by Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide%四甲基氢氧化铵降解苯酐固化双酚A型环氧树脂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜坤; 罗炎

    2013-01-01

    将四甲基氢氧化铵(TMAH)降解聚酯的方法移植用于降解苯酐(PA)固化双酚A型环氧树脂(DGEBA),降解生成的邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMP)可被气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)快速检测到,同时通过内标法考察了TMAH用量对降解率的影响,结果表明TMAH降解苯酐固化环氧树脂效率较高,甲酯化率在95%以上.此项研究为剖析毫克级酸酐固化环氧树脂中的固化剂提供了一种快速且有效的方法.

  19. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of ―Methyl Vinyl Ether-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer‖ (chewing gum base ingredient) as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    safety concerns. An estimated daily intake (EDI) for Gantrez SF associated with its use in chewing gum may be calculated based on the maximum concentration (2 %) of Gantrez SF in finished chewing gum, and on the level at which chewing gum is consumed. Based on data from the United Kingdom, a high intake...

  20. Optimization condition of octenyl succinic anhydride hydrolysis starch by enzymolysis%酶法制备辛烯基琥珀酸酐水解淀粉的工艺及其优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建; 刘亚伟

    2011-01-01

    以玉米淀粉为原料,用α-淀粉酶对合成的辛烯基琥珀酸酐淀粉水解,研究酶法制备辛烯基琥珀酸酐水解淀粉的工艺条件,并通过响应面分析实验对工艺进行优化。确定合成的最佳工艺参数为:酶用量115U/g,水解温度95℃,水解时间49min,所得产品辛烯基琥珀酸酐水解淀粉的DE值为8.01。通过响应面方差分析可以得出,三个因素对辛烯基琥珀酸酐水解淀粉的DE值的影响显著,且加酶量与水解温度、水解温度与水解时间之间的交互影响作用也显著。%The synthesis process condition of enzymatic octenyl succinic anhydride(OSA)corn starch was researched.Through hydrolysis response surface analysis,the results showed that the optimum condition of synthesizing enzymatic OSA corn starch(DE=8.01)was enzyme dosage 115U/g,hydrolysis temperature 95℃,hydrolysis time 49 minutes;enzyme dosage and hydrolysis temperature,hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time interacted significantly;DE value increased significantly higher in high temperature than in low temperature.

  1. Predication Model for the Esterification of Cellulose with Succinic Anhydride in LiCl/N, N'-Dimethylacetamide Solvent System%丁二酸纤维素酯合成过程取代度的预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟金锋; 覃小丽; 柴欣生

    2014-01-01

    为了有效监控丁二酸纤维素酯的合成过程中产物取代度(degree of substitution,DS)变化,研究丁二酸纤维素酯均相合成的反应参数(反应时间、反应温度和丁二酸酐/纤维素物质的量比)对产物取代度的变化趋势,探索纤维素酯合成中主要参数的影响,并建立了产物DS预测模型,即:DS =h×ln(1+k0×e-i/T×R×t).结果表明:在本实验条件下,该模型可有效预测反应过程中丁二酸纤维素酯的DS变化(R2=0.945 4),它可为纤维素酯化反应合成丁二酸纤维素酯的生产实践提供很好的指导.

  2. Study of transformations of hydrated high alumina cement by means of ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Influence of carbon anhydride, temperature, humidity and the addition of powdered limestone (continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, T.

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa espectroscopia de absorción I.R. (designada al principio de este trabajo con las siglas E.I. es una técnica de amplia utilización dentro de la Química Orgánica. Tan sólo en los últimos años se ha extendido mucho a la Química Inorgánica. Dentro del campo del cemento y más particularmente del aluminoso, el estudio ha sido realmente restringido. El primer trabajo aparecido fue en el año 1965 y efectuado por A. Braniski (29 que estudió por I.R. la hidratación del AC entre las edades de 1 y 7 días. Mucho más estudiadas han sido las fases individuales, los aluminatos de calcio que componen (o pueden componer el producto anhidro e hidratado del cemento aluminoso; como trabajo de interés en este aspecto, está la Tesis Doctoral de J. Volant (31, que versó sobre la espectrometría infrarroja de los aluminatos de calcio hidratados. El autor, como técnica de preparación de muestras, utiliza la suspensión del producto en un líquido oleaginoso apropiado. En el presente trabajo se ha escogido la técnica de las "pastillas de BrK" como idónea para la conservación de la muestra y la posibilidad, por lo tanto, de repetición del espectro en un futuro. Asimismo facilita el análisis cuantitativo.

  3. Study on maleic anhydride-styrene multi-monomer melt grafting onto EVA%马来酸酐-苯乙烯多单体熔融接枝EVA的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶苗; 谢续明

    2001-01-01

    用单螺杆挤出机研究了马来酸酐(MAH)-苯乙烯(St)多组分单体熔融接枝EVA的反应,考察了温度、引发剂用量、MAH和St用量对接枝率及凝胶率的影响.结果表明:MAH接枝率随DCP用量、St用量的增加、反应温度的降低有最大值;当EVA/MAH/St/DCP质量比为100:4:4:0.4时,MAH接枝率最大,而凝胶率最小;以St作共单体能够显著提高MAH的接枝率,抑制体系交联;St和MAH的相互作用和共聚反应生成的SMA共聚物在接枝反应中起重要作用.

  4. Maleic anhydride proton sponge as a novel MALDI matrix for the visualization of small molecules (<250 m/z) in brain tumors by routine MALDI ToF imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampà, M; Lissel, M B; Patschkowski, T; Fuchser, J; Hans, V H; Gembruch, O; Bednarz, H; Niehaus, K

    2016-08-14

    A novel vacuum stable proton sponge, 4-maleicanhydridoproton sponge (MAPS), was prepared and applied as the matrix in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI) of an aggressive brain tumor tissue (glioblastoma multiforme). Ionic maps of lactate, 2-hydroxyglutarate and chloride anions (m/z 89, 147, 35, respectively) were obtained using a routine MALDI ToF mass spectrometer. PMID:27419250

  5. 双酚-S环氧树脂与琥珀酸酐固化反应动力学%Kinetics of Succinic Anhydride Curing of Bisphenol-S Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊刚; 李燕芳

    2000-01-01

    用差示扫描量热法(DSC)研究了双酚-S环氧树脂(BPSER)与琥珀酸酐固化反应的历程.实验结果表明,固化反应主要分两个阶段,前期由化学动力学控制,服从自催化机理.实验数据利用Kamal方程处理得到两个速率常数k1、k2及两个反应级数m、n.k1、k2的值随反应温度的升高呈增大的趋势,总反应级数m+n在2~2.5之间.当转化率达到40%左右后,由于交联程度增加,分子量迅速增长,分子间扩散较慢,进入反应的第二阶段,主要由扩散作用控制固化速率.

  6. Increasing the electrical discharge endurance of acid anhydride cured DGEBA epoxy resin by dispersion of nanoparticle silica. High Perform. Polym. 11 (1999) pp 281-296 by IOP Publishing Ltd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henk, Peter O; Kortsen, T.W.; Kvarts, T.

    1999-01-01

    A fluid DGEBA/methyl nadicanhydride epoxy system has been filled with inorganic particles, cast as bubble-free plates and cured. The ability of both the pure network polymer and the polymer/particle composites to withstand partial electrical discharges has been investigated. Three types of particle...... electrode arrangement was applied, the test comprising the establishment of partial discharges running perpendicularly onto one face of a plate specimen for a period measured until breakdown.Our results show that the endurance of the pure polymer is low. Increased loading with Aerosil increases...

  7. Preparation and Properties of Polypropylene Grafted Maleic Anhydride/Surface Modiifed Kaolin Composites%PP-g-MAH/改性高岭土复合材料的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张作才; 夏玥; 石晶晶; 马宁; 蔡芳昌; 蒋涛

    2014-01-01

    利用γ-氨丙基三乙氧基硅烷偶联剂(KH550)对高岭土(kaolin)进行表面改性,制备了改性kaolin (M-kaolin),然后将聚丙烯(PP)接枝上顺丁烯二酸酐(MAH),制备了PP-g-MAH,将两者经过熔融共混制备了PP-g-MAH/M-kaolin复合材料,研究了M-kaolin添加量对复合材料力学性能和热稳定性的影响。结果表明,当M-kaolin粒子质量分数为1%时,PP-g-MAH/M-kaolin复合材料的拉伸强度和断裂伸长率达到最大值,与纯PP相比分别提高了10.4%和122%;当M-kaolin粒子质量分数为2%时,复合材料的缺口冲击强度达到最大值,较纯PP提高了96.5%,且热稳定性最好。这表明kaolin粒子经KH550改性且PP经MAH接枝后,PP与kaolin相容性得到优化,从而使复合材料的强度和韧性都得到了提高。%γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH550) was used to modify kaolin for preparing surface modified kaolin (M-kaolin) and polypropylene (PP) was grafted with MAH for preparing PP-g-MAH,then a series of PP-g-MAH/M-kaolin composites were prepared by melt blending method. The results show that when the mass fraction of M-Kaolin is 1%,the tensile strength and elongation at break of the composite reach the maximum and improves by 10.4%and 122%respectively comparing with PP,when the mass fraction of M-Kaolin is 2%,the composite has the highest impact strength and improves by 96.5%comparing with PP, meanwhile,it's thermal stability is best. These indicate that kaolin being modified by KH550 and PP being grafted with MAH can optimize the compatibility of kaolin and PP and improve the strength and toughness of the composite.

  8. 应力诱导引发马来酸酐官能化LLDPE的研究%Functionalization of Linear Low Density Polyethylene with Maleic Anhydride Through Stress-Induced Initiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季卫强; 管祎嗣; 张云灿

    2007-01-01

    采用提高双螺杆挤出机螺杆转速的应力诱导引发方法和添加引发剂与提高螺杆转速的复合引发方法,研究了线型低密度聚乙烯(LLDPE)与马来酸酐(MAH)的官能化反应;考察了官能化产物(LLDPE-g-MAH)对PET/铝箔复合薄膜T型粘合接头剥高强度的影响.结果表明:提高螺杆转速可抑制LLDPE在官能化过程中的交联副反应,制得具有较高接技(嵌段)率、较好熔体流动速率和较低凝胶质量分数的官能化产物(Gd=0.30%-0.65%.MFR=1.0 g/10 min-4.7 g/10 min.凝胶质量分数≤0.4%),与单纯采用引发剂方法相比,高剪切应力诱导引发方法和复合引发方法所得官能化产物均可明显提高PET/铝箔复合薄膜T型粘合接头剥离强度.来酸酐(MAH)的官能化反应;考察了官能化产物(LLDPE-g-MAH)对PET/铝箔复合薄膜T型粘合接头剥高强度的影响.结果表明:提高螺杆转速可抑制LLDPE在官能化过程中的交联副反应,制得具有较高接技(嵌段)率、较好熔体流动速率和较低凝胶质量分数的官能化产物(Gd=0.30%-0.65%.MFR=1.0 g/10 min-4.7 g/10 min.凝胶质量分数≤0.4%),与单采用引发剂方法相比,高剪切应力诱导引发方法和复合

  9. Development and Application of Stearic Acid Diethanolamide Acrylate Ester/Styrene/Maleic Anhydride (SSM) Copolymer as Diesel Depressant%SSM共聚物柴油降凝剂的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓非; 毕立娜; 王晶镱; 田春雨; 李贵学

    2009-01-01

    采用溶液聚合法合成降凝剂,研究了单体配比、引发剂用量、聚合温度和聚合时间对聚合物助滤效果的影响.红外光谱对化合物的分子结构进行了表征,结果表明,合成的分子结构和设计目标分子结构相符.此降凝剂可使大庆0#柴油的凝点降低6℃,对其他柴油也有一定的降凝效果.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydride...... analysis of the modified and native xylans showed a slight lowering of thermal stability with functionalization. Contact angle measurements on spin-coated surfaces of modified xylan films showed a significant increase in hydrophobicity with the introduction of the alkenyl-functionalized succinic anhydride...

  11. Zwitterionic chitosan derivatives for pH-sensitive stealth coating

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peisheng; Bajaj, Gaurav; Shugg, Tyler; Van Alstine, William G.; Yeo, Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Zwitterionic chitosan, a chitosan derivative with a unique pH-dependent charge profile, was employed to create a stealth coating on the cationic surface of drug carriers. Zwitterionic chitosans were synthesized by amidation of chitosan with succinic anhydride. The succinic anhydride-conjugated chitosan had an isoelectric point, which could be easily tuned from pH 4.9 to 7.1, and showed opposite charges below and above the isoelectric point. The succinic anhydride-conjugated chitosan was able ...

  12. Maleik Anhidrit Stiren Kopolimerinin Ester ve Karboksilat Tuz Türevlerinin Sentezi ve Karakterizasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    Koçyiğit, Ümit Muhammet; Zengin, Hacı Bayram

    2014-01-01

    In this study, to increase thermal stability of maleic anhydride styrene copolymers; monoesters and carboxylate salt derivatives of maleic anhydride styrene were obtained by reaction of maleic anhydride styrene copolymer with n-propyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol and ammonia. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for characterization and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used for thermal analysis. As an result of this study, when TGA curves were analyzed, though ester derivat...

  13. Breakdown of N-terminally modified peptides and an isopeptide by rumen microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, R J; Frumholtz, P P; Walker, N. D.

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of Trypticase peptides with acetic anhydride, succinic anhydride, or maleic anhydride inhibited their breakdown to ammonia by rumen microorganisms by an average of 89% after 12 h of incubation in vitro. All three treatments gave similar protection. Acetylation also protected dipeptides containing lysine and methionine from degradation. However, more effective protection was obtained by linking lysine and methionine as N-epsilon-methionyl lysine.

  14. Preparation of Poly(oxybutyleneoxymaleoyl Catalyzed by a Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belbachir

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The polycondensation of tetrahydrofuran with maleic anhydride catalyzed byMaghnite-H+ (Mag-H was investigated. Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicateclay that is exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H [1]. It was found that thepolymerization in bulk is initiated by Mag-H in the presence of acetic anhydride at 40°C.The effects of the amounts of Mag-H and acetic anhydride were studied. Thepolymerization yield increased as the proportions of catalyst and acetic anhydride wereincreased.

  15. Preparation of poly(oxybutyleneoxymaleoyl) catalyzed by a proton exchanged montmorillonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrahi, Mohammed Issam; Belbachir, Mohammed

    2004-01-01

    The polycondensation of tetrahydrofuran with maleic anhydride catalyzed by Maghnite-H+ (Mag-H) was investigated. Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay that is exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H [1]. It was found that the polymerization in bulk is initiated by Mag-H in the presence of acetic anhydride at 40 degrees C. The effects of the amounts of Mag-H and acetic anhydride were studied. The polymerization yield increased as the proportions of catalyst and acetic anhydride were increased.

  16. Preparation of Poly(oxybutyleneoxymaleoyl) Catalyzed by a Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Belbachir; Mohammed Issam Ferrahi

    2004-01-01

    The polycondensation of tetrahydrofuran with maleic anhydride catalyzed byMaghnite-H+ (Mag-H) was investigated. Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicateclay that is exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H [1]. It was found that thepolymerization in bulk is initiated by Mag-H in the presence of acetic anhydride at 40°C.The effects of the amounts of Mag-H and acetic anhydride were studied. Thepolymerization yield increased as the proportions of catalyst and acetic anhydride wereincr...

  17. Novel nonadride, heptadride and maleic acid metabolites from the byssochlamic acid producer Byssochlamys fulva IMI 40021 - an insight into the biosynthesis of maleidrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwalbe, Agnieszka J; Williams, Katherine; O'Flynn, Daniel E; Bailey, Andrew M; Mulholland, Nicholas P; Vincent, Jason L; Willis, Christine L; Cox, Russell J; Simpson, Thomas J

    2015-12-14

    The filamentous fungus Byssochlamys fulva strain IMI 40021 produces (+)-byssochlamic acid 1, its novel dihydroanalogue 2 and four related secondary metabolites. Agnestadrides A, 17 and B, 18 constitute a novel class of seven-membered ring, maleic anhydride-containing (hence termed heptadride) natural products. The putative maleic anhydride precursor 5 for both nonadride and heptadride biosynthesis was isolated as a fermentation product for the first time and its structure confirmed by synthesis. Acid 5 undergoes facile decarboxylation to anhydride 6. The generic term maleidrides is proposed to encompass biosynthetically-related compounds containing maleic anhydride moieties fused to an alicyclic ring, varying in size and substituents. PMID:26452099

  18. Arbejdsbetinget astma udløst af maleinsyreanhydrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Lander, Flemming; Skjold, Tina;

    2014-01-01

    Organic acid anhydrides (OAA) are widely used in the chemical industry. They are irritants and can cause sensitization and asthma. We describe the first documented case of occupational asthma caused by the OAA maleic anhydride (MA) in the production of insecticides. A 60-year-old man developed work...

  19. Water Swollen Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureurg KHONGTONG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of natural rubber by grafting of maleic anhydride yielded a water absorbable substrate. It was found that water contact angles of treated samples declined as the concentrations of maleic anhydride increased reflecting higher water compatibility in grafted samples. Submergence in water of these samples caused dramatic swelling with the water content up to about 60 wt %.

  20. Water Swollen Natural Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Sureurg KHONGTONG; Narong FUNGCHONLAJIT

    2008-01-01

    Modification of natural rubber by grafting of maleic anhydride yielded a water absorbable substrate. It was found that water contact angles of treated samples declined as the concentrations of maleic anhydride increased reflecting higher water compatibility in grafted samples. Submergence in water of these samples caused dramatic swelling with the water content up to about 60 wt %.

  1. Synthesis of segmented PB(SMA-block-PB)(n) block copolymers through a polymeric iniferter technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    A technique is described for the synthesis of segmented block copolymers of polybutadiene and poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) through a polymeric therma iniferter based on polybutadiene, which was used as an initiator for the thermal copolymerization of styrene and maleic anhydride. The polymeric

  2. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  3. Synthesis of unsaturated polyesters for improved interfacial strength in carbon fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamstedt, E.K.; Skrifvars, M.; Jacobsen, T. K.;

    2002-01-01

    . To make better use of the versatility of unsaturated polyesters in a carbon fibre composite, a set of unsaturated polyester resins have been synthesized with different ratios of maleic anhydride, o-phthalic anhydride and 1,2-propylene glycol as precursors. The effective interfacial strength was determined...

  4. 5-(2,5-Dioxooxolan-3-yl-8-methyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-naphtho[1,2-c]furan-1,3-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H14O6, the dihedral angle between the two anhydride rings is 76.01 (8°while the dihedral angles between the benzene and anhydride rings are 42.60 (7 and 68.94 (7°. The cyclohexene ring of the tetrahydronaphthalene unit exhibits an envelope conformation.

  5. Phosphate analogues in the dissection of mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi J. Korhonen; Conway, Louis P.; Hodgson, David R. W.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoryl group transfer is central to genetic replication, cellular signalling and many metabolic processes. Understanding the mechanisms of phosphorylation and phosphate ester and anhydride cleavage is key to efforts towards biotechnological and biomedical exploitation of phosphate-handling enzymes. Analogues of phosphate esters and anhydrides are indispensable tools, alongside protein mutagenesis and computational methods, for the dissection of phosphoryl transfer mechanisms. Hydrolysable...

  6. 马来酸酐改性蓖麻油制备耐光性聚氨酯复鞣剂--乳液性能研究%Preparation of Sunproof Polyurethane Retanning Agents with Maleic Anhydride Modified Castor Oil--Study of the Emulsions Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍利红; 兰云军; 张淑芬

    2006-01-01

    用马来酸酐改性蓖麻油(MCO)合成了一系列不同组成的耐光性聚氨酯复鞣剂水乳液(MC-PUR),研究了复鞣剂中-COOH质量分数、n(NCO)/n(OH)、m(MCO)/m(PEG1000)对乳液电导率、黏度、临界聚沉值(CC.C)、耐酸稳定性的影响.结果表明,随-COOH质量分数从3%增大到7%,电导率从1 556 μs/cm增大到3 435 μs/cm,黏度先从168 mPa · s增大到224 mPa · s,后又降低到85 mPa · s,当w(-COOH)=5%时,黏度达到最大值;随n(NCO)/n(OH)从0.5增大到0.9,电导率从2 943 μs/cm降到2 464 μs/cm,黏度从428 m Pa · s降到224 mPa · s;随m(MCO): m(PEG1000)从1: 1增大到3: 0,黏度从224 mPa · s降到67 mPa · s;CC.C随-COOH质量分数增加和m(MCO)/m(PEG1000)增大而降低;耐酸稳定性结果证明,当w(-COOH)=3%~5%,m(MCO): m(PEG1000)=1: 1,n(NCO)/n(OH)=0.5~0.9时,MC-PUR适用于皮革复鞣工序.

  7. Dynamic Thermal Behavior of Recycled PET Modified with 2, 2-Bis (2-oxazoline) and Phthalic Anhydride%2,2-双(2-(口恶)唑啉)与苯酐联用改性回收PET的动态热性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡长庚; 唐峰; 贾德民

    2005-01-01

    以扩链剂2,2-双(2-(口恶)唑啉)(BOZ)与苯酐(PA)联用改性回收PET,系统地考察了增黏改性后回收PET动态流变性能和动态力学性能的影响.结果表明,BOZ与PA联用的改性效果明显优于单用BOZ改性回收PET体系;但因扩链剂的加入,在PET分子链中引入的柔性链段而导致聚合物弹性模量下降.

  8. 应力诱导引发MAH官能化PE-LD及其对铝箔/PET复合薄膜层间剥离强度的影响%Functionalization of Low-density Polyethylene with Maleic Anhydride Through Stress-induced Initiation and Its Effect on the Peeling Strength of Al/PET Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 张云灿; 傅伟宁

    2010-01-01

    采用提高双螺杆挤出机螺杆转速的应力诱导引发方法和添加引发剂与提高螺杆转速的复合引发方法,研究了高剪切应力作用下马来酸酐(MAH)与低密度聚乙烯(PE-LD)的官能化反应,并且考察了官能化产物PE-LD-g-MAH对铝箔/PET复合薄膜(Al/PET)T形黏合接头剥离强度的影响.结果表明,高剪切应力作用可直接引起大分子链的断链,形成大分子自由基,引发PE-LD的接枝反应;通过改变螺杆转速可有效抑制交联副反应,制得具有较高接枝率、较好熔体流动速率和较低凝胶含量的官能化产物,当螺杆转速为800 r/min时,产物的接枝率为0.71%,熔体流动速率为0.87 g/10 min,凝胶含量为0.40%;高剪切应力诱导引发法所得官能化产物可明显提高Al/PET的T形黏合接头的剥离强度,当反应温度为310℃、螺杆转速为600 r/min、三元乙丙橡胶(EPDM)含量为80%(质量分数,下同)时,可使Al/PET的T形黏合接头的剥离强度达到3.87 N/mm.

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Stearic Acid Diethanolamide Acrylate Ester/Maleic Anhydride/Vinyl Acetate (SMV) Copolymer Diesel Fuel Depressant%硬脂酸二乙醇酰胺丙烯酸单酯-马来酸酐-醋酸乙烯酯共聚物柴油降凝剂制备及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艾秋; 刘侠; 韩艳双

    2011-01-01

    以硬脂酸二乙醇酰胺丙烯酸单酯、马来酸酐、醋酸乙烯酯为单体,采用溶液聚合法合成了硬脂酸二乙醇酰胺丙烯酸单酯-马来酸酐-醋酸乙烯酯降凝剂,考察了单体物质的量比、引发剂用量、聚合温度对降凝效果的影响.通过红外光谱对共聚物分子结构进行了表征,结果表明,合成的分子结构和设计目标分子结构相符.此降凝剂可使东营0#柴油的凝点降低7℃,与AH - BSF216型降凝剂复配后具有较好的降凝效果.

  10. Comparative Kinetic Study and Microwaves Non-Thermal Effects on the Formation of Poly(amic acid 4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidenediphthalic Anhydride (6FDA and 4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidenebis(p-phenyleneoxydianiline (BAPHF. Reaction Activated by Microwave, Ultrasound and Conventional Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Mendoza Tellez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry is the design of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. The use and production of chemicals involve the reduction of waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Green chemistry applies innovative scientific solutions in the use of new reagents, catalysts and non-classical modes of activation such as ultrasounds or microwaves. Kinetic behavior and non-thermal effect of poly(amic acid synthesized from (6FDA dianhydride and (BAPHF diamine in a low microwave absorbing p-dioxane solvent at low temperature of 30, 50, 70 °C were studied, under conventional heating (CH, microwave (MW and ultrasound irradiation (US. Results show that the polycondensation rate decreases (MW > US > CH and that the increased rates observed with US and MW are due to decreased activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. Rate constant for a chemical process activated by conventional heating declines proportionally as the induction time increases, however, this behavior is not observed under microwave and ultrasound activation. We can say that in addition to the thermal microwave effect, a non-thermal microwave effect is present in the system.

  11. Environmentally friendly surface modification of silk fiber: Chitosan grafting and dyeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, Saideh; Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Arami, Mokhtar; Bahrami, Hajir; Mazaheri, Firoozmehr

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the surface modification of silk fiber using anhydrides to graft the polysaccharide chitosan and dyeing ability of the grafted silk were studied. Silk fiber was degummed and acylated with two anhydrides, succinic anhydride (SA) and phthalic anhydride (PA), in different solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)). The effects of anhydrides, solvents, anhydride concentration, liquor ratio (L:R) and reaction time on acylation of silk were studied. The polysaccharide chitosan was grafted to the acylated silk fiber and dyed by acid dye (Acid Black NB.B). The effects of pH, chitosan concentration, and reaction time on chitosan grafting of acylated silk were investigated. The physical properties show sensible changes regardless of weight gain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the presence of foreign materials firmly attached to the surface of silk. FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence that chitosan was grafted onto the acylated silk through the formation of new covalent bonds. The dyeing of the chitosan grafted-acylated silk fiber indicated the higher dye ability in comparison to the acylated and degummed silk samples. The mechanism of chitosan grafting over degummed silk through anhydride linkage was proposed. The findings of this research support the potential production of new environmentally friendly textile fibers. It is worthwhile to mention that the grafted samples have antibacterial potential due to the antibacterial property of chitosan molecules.

  12. Environmentally friendly surface modification of silk fiber: Chitosan grafting and dyeing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davarpanah, Saideh [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Colorants, Paint and Coatings, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir; Arami, Mokhtar [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: arami@aut.ac.ir; Bahrami, Hajir; Mazaheri, Firoozmehr [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    In this paper, the surface modification of silk fiber using anhydrides to graft the polysaccharide chitosan and dyeing ability of the grafted silk were studied. Silk fiber was degummed and acylated with two anhydrides, succinic anhydride (SA) and phthalic anhydride (PA), in different solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)). The effects of anhydrides, solvents, anhydride concentration, liquor ratio (L:R) and reaction time on acylation of silk were studied. The polysaccharide chitosan was grafted to the acylated silk fiber and dyed by acid dye (Acid Black NB.B). The effects of pH, chitosan concentration, and reaction time on chitosan grafting of acylated silk were investigated. The physical properties show sensible changes regardless of weight gain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the presence of foreign materials firmly attached to the surface of silk. FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence that chitosan was grafted onto the acylated silk through the formation of new covalent bonds. The dyeing of the chitosan grafted-acylated silk fiber indicated the higher dye ability in comparison to the acylated and degummed silk samples. The mechanism of chitosan grafting over degummed silk through anhydride linkage was proposed. The findings of this research support the potential production of new environmentally friendly textile fibers. It is worthwhile to mention that the grafted samples have antibacterial potential due to the antibacterial property of chitosan molecules.

  13. Improvement of activity and stability of chloroperoxidase by chemical modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Min

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymes show relative instability in solvents or at elevated temperature and lower activity in organic solvent than in water. These limit the industrial applications of enzymes. Results In order to improve the activity and stability of chloroperoxidase, chloroperoxidase was modified by citraconic anhydride, maleic anhydride or phthalic anhydride. The catalytic activities, thermostabilities and organic solvent tolerances of native and modified enzymes were compared. In aqueous buffer, modified chloroperoxidases showed similar Km values and greater catalytic efficiencies kcat/Km for both sulfoxidation and oxidation of phenol compared to native chloroperoxidase. Of these modified chloroperoxidases, citraconic anhydride-modified chloroperoxidase showed the greatest catalytic efficiency in aqueous buffer. These modifications of chloroperoxidase increased their catalytic efficiencies for sulfoxidation by 12%~26% and catalytic efficiencies for phenol oxidation by 7%~53% in aqueous buffer. However, in organic solvent (DMF, modified chloroperoxidases had lower Km values and higher catalytic efficiencies kcat/Km than native chloroperoxidase. These modifications also improved their thermostabilities by 1~2-fold and solvent tolerances of DMF. CD studies show that these modifications did not change the secondary structure of chloroperoxidase. Fluorescence spectra proved that these modifications changed the environment of tryptophan. Conclusion Chemical modification of epsilon-amino groups of lysine residues of chloroperoxidase using citraconic anhydride, maleic anhydride or phthalic anhydride is a simple and powerful method to enhance catalytic properties of enzyme. The improvements of the activity and stability of chloroperoxidase are related to side chain reorientations of aromatics upon both modifications.

  14. Process for epoxy foam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-23

    An epoxy resin mixture with at least one epoxy resin of between approximately 60 wt % and 90 wt %, a maleic anhydride of between approximately 1 wt % and approximately 30 wt %, and an imidazole catalyst of less than approximately 2 wt % where the resin mixture is formed from at least one epoxy resin with a 1-30 wt % maleic anhydride compound and an imidazole catalyst at a temperature sufficient to keep the maleic anhydride compound molten, the resin mixture reacting to form a foaming resin which can then be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form an epoxy foam.

  15. Karakterisasi Papan Partikel Dari Polipropilena Termodifikasi Maleat Anhidrida Dengan Serbuk Bambu Betung (Dendrocalamus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wulan, Sari

    2012-01-01

    The research of preparation of particle boards from bamboo powder using a maleic anhydride modified polypropylene had been done. The first stage had prepared of bamboo powder. The second stage had processed of grafting of maleic anhydride into polypropylene. The third stage had made of particle board with bamboo powder composition ratio : maleic anhydride modified polypropylene : polypropylene : divinylbenzene : benzoyl peroxide were (80:10:10:10:2)g, (70:20:10:10:2)g, (60:30:10:10:2), (50:40...

  16. Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an eye wash. Boron was used as a food preservative between 1870 and 1920, and during World Wars ... chemical symbol), B (symbole chimique), Borate, Borate de Sodium, Borates, Bore, Boric Acid, Boric Anhydride, Boric Tartrate, ...

  17. Synthese van peroxyacetylnitraat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquemijns M; Zomer G

    1991-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate was synthesised from peracetic acid and sodium nitrate with concentrated acetic acid. Peracetic acid was obtained by treatment of acetic anhydride with concentrated acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

  18. 40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)Phthalate Bisphenol A BTX-Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (Mixed) Butyl Octyl Phthalate Coal Tar *Coal Tar Products... Nitrotoluene Nonylphenol p-Cresol Phthalic Acid Phthalic Anhydride *Tars—Pitches Tert-Butylphenol...

  19. Rapid and Efficient Synthesis of Hydroxytriarylmethanes under Ultra Sonic Irradiation Using Keggin Heteropolyacids and Preyssler Catalysts in Green Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Hamidian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new synthesis of hydroxytriarylmethane derived from the reaction of 2-sulfobenzoic anhydride and phenols in the presence of heteropolyacids as green, reusable, and efficient catalyst (using catalytic amount under ultrasonic irradiation is reported in this paper.

  20. Diels-Alder Reactions of New Methoxysubstituted-6-arylfulvenes

    OpenAIRE

    Öcal, Nüket; BAĞDATLI, Emine; ARSLAN, Mesut

    2005-01-01

    Fulvenes 1, 2 and 3 were prepared and their Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions with maleic anhydride, N-phenylmaleimide and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) as dienophiles leading to endo- and exo- [4+2] adducts shown.

  1. Infrared spectroscopic evidence of a direct addition reaction between palygorskite and pyromellitic dianhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A direct addition reaction between palygorskite and pyromellitic dianhydride. ► The graft of anhydride to the bound water on the external surface of palygorskite. ► Application of palygorskite without organo-modification. - Abstract: Palygorskite covalently grafted with pyromellitic dianhydride was investigated. Untreated and grafted samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Infrared results showed the direct grafting of anhydride onto the bound water molecules on the external surfaces of the palygorskite. The grafting modification makes palygorskite more readily compatible with anhydride, resulting in substantial enhancements in the glass transition temperature and flexural strength of the anhydride-cured epoxy resin/palygorskite nanocomposites.

  2. Infrared spectroscopic evidence of a direct addition reaction between palygorskite and pyromellitic dianhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Wenchang [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Civil Engineering, Anhui University of Architecture, Hefei 230022 (China); Yuan Peng, E-mail: yuanpeng@gig.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Ming [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Linjiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guangxi 541004 (China); Liu Dong [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct addition reaction between palygorskite and pyromellitic dianhydride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The graft of anhydride to the bound water on the external surface of palygorskite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of palygorskite without organo-modification. - Abstract: Palygorskite covalently grafted with pyromellitic dianhydride was investigated. Untreated and grafted samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Infrared results showed the direct grafting of anhydride onto the bound water molecules on the external surfaces of the palygorskite. The grafting modification makes palygorskite more readily compatible with anhydride, resulting in substantial enhancements in the glass transition temperature and flexural strength of the anhydride-cured epoxy resin/palygorskite nanocomposites.

  3. Fatigue mechanisms in unidirectional glass-fibre-reinforced polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamstedt, E.K.; Berglund, L.A.; Peijs, T.

    1999-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene modified with maleic anhydride (MA-PP) reinforced by continuous longitudinal glass fibres have been investigated. The most prominent effect of the modification with maleic anhydride in the composite is a stronger fibre/matrix interface. The effects of interfac......Polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene modified with maleic anhydride (MA-PP) reinforced by continuous longitudinal glass fibres have been investigated. The most prominent effect of the modification with maleic anhydride in the composite is a stronger fibre/matrix interface. The effects...... of interfacial strength on fatigue performance and on the underlying micromechanisms have been studied for these composite systems. Tension-tension fatigue tests (R = 0.1) were carried out on 0 degrees glass-fibre/PP and glass-fibre/ MA-PP coupons. The macroscopic fatigue behaviour was characterized in terms...

  4. 77 FR 40033 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... for submitting comments. Mail: Document Control Office (7407M), Office of Pollution Prevention and... Division (7407M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200... CBI (G) Coating (G) Acid anhydride, additive. polymer with aromatic isocyanate and...

  5. Synthesis of Cyclotetramethlene Tetranitramine by Three Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant Singh

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available A three stage method has been developed for the preparation of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX at 45+- 3 degree centigrade. Hexamine was nitrated to 1,5 methylene-3,7 dinitro-1,3,5,7 tetra aza cyclo octane (DPT in acetic anhydride and acetic acid ammonium nitrate -nitric acid mixture in presence of BF/sub3/ as catalyst, DPT along with reaction mixture was further treated with excess of nitric acid and acetic anhydride in the second stage. The product so obtained was converted into HMX in third stage treating with ammonium nitrate-nitric acid mixture and acetic anhydride. Effect of various concentration of ammonium nitrate, nitric acid and acetic anhydride was also studied on the yield of HMX in final stage.

  6. T3P as an efficient cyclodehydration reagent for the one-pot synthesis of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andivelu Ilangovan; Shanmugasundar Saravanakumar; Siddappa Umesh

    2015-05-01

    A scalable and environmentally friendly one-pot method for the synthesis of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles from acylhydrazides and isocyanates has been achieved with propane phosponic anhydride (T3P) acting as cyclodehydrating reagent.

  7. Poliuretanos elastoméricos obtenidos a partir de aceite de ricino y almidón de yuca original y modificado con anhídrido propiónico: síntesis, propiedades fisicoquímicas y fisicomecánicas Polyurethane elastomers from castor oil and chemically modified yucca starch: synthesis and physical-chemical, physical-mechanical and thermical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel F. Valero; Jorge E. Pulido; Álvaro Ramírez; Luz E. Higuita; Sandra M. Arias; Carlos S. Gonzáles; Leonidas J. Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    Chemical modification of cassava starch was conducted through an acylation reaction by using pyridine and propionic anhydride to replace the functional groups of starch. Polyurethane elastomers were prepared using suspensions of the mixture obtained from castor oil and yucca starch that was modified by a propionic anhydride reaction. The suspensions were characterized by means of tests based on The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and the Hydroxyl Index. The castor oil-AMP suspensions ...

  8. Fuel cell rejuvenation of hygrothermally aged Nafion

    OpenAIRE

    Collette, Floraine,; THOMINETTE, Francette; ESCRIBANO, Sylvie; RAVACHOL, Angèle; MORIN, Arnaud; Gebel, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    International audience Nafion ® membranes stored for long periods at 80 °C under elevated relative humidity up to 95%RH exhibit large modifications of their properties attributed to the sulfonic acid end-group condensation into sulfonic anhydrides. The present study is devoted to the membrane property rejuvenation, namely the hydrolysis of the sulfonic anhydrides under different experimental conditions. Aged membranes were exposed to pure water and to acid solutions or vapors in order to c...

  9. Gamma-irradiation stability of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic polyanhydrides--ricinoleic acid based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teomim, D; Mäder, K; Bentolila, A; Magora, A; Domb, A J

    2001-01-01

    The effect of terminal sterilization by gamma-irradiation on several ricinoleic acid based polyanhydrides was investigated. The following polymers were used: poly(ricinoleic acid maleate) [P(RAM)], poly(ricinoleic acid succinate) [P(RAS)], poly(hydroxy stearic acid succinate) [P(HSAS)], poly(hydroxy stearic acid maleate) [P(HSAM)], and their copolymers with sebacic acid. The polymers were irradiated with an absorbed dose of 2.5 or 10 Mrad by means of a 60Co source under dry ice or at room temperature. No differences were found between samples irradiated under dry ice and at room temperature. Polymers prepared from monomers containing maleate residues, which contain double bonds adjusted to the anhydride linkage along the polymer chain, decreased in molecular weight, became insoluble, and showed fast hydrolytic degradation. For example, p(RAM), p(HSAM), and their copolymers with sebacic acid decreased in Mw from about 10,000 to about 2000, and from about 30,000 to about 5000, respectively, while polymers based on RAS and HSAS remained stable. This phenomenon was explained by an anhydride interchange-self-depolymerization process of the unsaturated anhydride bonds induced by gamma-irradiation. This explanation was supported by the depolymerization of another class of polymers having an anhydride bond between two double bonds, fumaric acid anhydride polymers. The anhydride bond that lies between two double bonds was found to be more sensitive to gamma-irradiation. This anhydride bond may be cleaved to form two radicals that further react with aliphatic anhydride bonds along the polymer chain to form inter- and/or intracyclization products. PMID:11710004

  10. Studi Penggunaan Adsorben Sintetis Kalsium Maleat – Grafting – High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pada Pemisahan Karotenoid Dari Biodiesel Minyak Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Ahmad Husni

    2011-01-01

    Study of using synthetic adsorbent of Calsium Maleic – grafting – HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) has been doing in separating of palm oil biodiesel, where adsorbent was produced by grafting polyethylene with maleic anhydride homogenly with the presence of benzoil peroxide as inisiator. The product was maleic anhydride- grafting – HDPE, then continued by characterization with melting point analysis, evaluation of grafting degree and functional groups analysis by FT-IR spectrophotometer. Male...

  11. Novel nonadride, heptadride and maleic acid metabolites from the byssochlamic acid producer Byssochlamys fulva IMI 40021 – an insight into the biosynthesis of maleidrides† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of any supplementary information available should be included here. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06988b Click here for additional data file.

    OpenAIRE

    Szwalbe, Agnieszka J.; Williams, Katherine; O'Flynn, Daniel E; Andrew M Bailey; Mulholland, Nicholas P.; Vincent, Jason L.; Willis, Christine L.; Cox, Russell J.; Simpson, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Byssochlamys fulva strain IMI 40021 produces (+)-byssochlamic acid 1, its novel dihydroanalogue 2 and four related secondary metabolites. Agnestadrides A, 17 and B, 18 constitute a novel class of seven-membered ring, maleic anhydride-containing (hence termed heptadride) natural products. The putative maleic anhydride precursor 5 for both nonadride and heptadride biosynthesis was isolated as a fermentation product for the first time and its structure confirmed by synthes...

  12. Penentuan Derajat Grafting Dan Fraksi Gel Dari Polipropilena Terdegradasi Yang Difungsionalisasikan Dengan Maleat Anhidrida

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayani, Tengku Rachmi

    2011-01-01

    A research has been done about determination grafting degree and gel fraction on functionalization of degraded polypropylene with maleic anhydride. Degradation reaction is done with reactive processing technique in internal mixer on temperature 170 o C. Composition of polypropylene : benzoyl peroxide which is 90% : 10%. Grafting reaction is done on temperature 160oC. Composition of degraded polypropylene : maleic anhydride : benzoyl peroxide which is : (95%:3%:2%), (92%:6%:2%), (89%:9%:2%), (...

  13. Modifikasi Dan Karakterisasi Karet Alam Siklis (Resiprena 35) Dengan Anhidrida Maleat Sebagai Substituen Bahan Pengikat Cat Sintetis

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Muhammad Said

    2015-01-01

    Modification and characterization of cyclized natural rubber with maleic anhydride has been carried out to enhance its compatiblelity as substituent for synthetic paint binder. Cyclized natural rubber was modified by grafting of maleic anhydride in the melt phase in the internal mixer in the presence of comonomers styrene and benzoyl peroxide. Effect of rotor speed and reaction time were also studied by performing experiment with rotor speeds of 70, 80 and 90 rpm with reaction time: 6, 8 and...

  14. Pembuatan Papan Partikel Dari Serbuk Batang Kelapa Sawit Menggunakan Perekat Polipropilena Difungsionalisasi Dengan Maleat Anhidrat

    OpenAIRE

    Harisandi, Henni

    2010-01-01

    Has been investigated in making particle board form sawdust palm stem using adhesive polypropylene with maleic anhidrad difungsinonalisasi. Polypropylene is degraded by using 2% BPO in the internal mixer at a temperature of 170oC and difungsionalisasi with maleic anhydride then be purified. Particle board is formed by mixing polypropylene degradation difungsionalisasi maleic anhydride with 80 mesh palm stem sawdust and divinyl benzene. Particle board which is formed were obtained in the water...

  15. Comparison of Catalysts Preyssler and Silica-Supported Nano Preyssler in the Synthesis of Acetyl Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari, H.; A. Ahmadpour; Bamoharram, F. F.; M. M. Heravi; Eslami, N.

    2012-01-01

    The extensive demand for cleaner environment is forcing chemical industry to use less hazardous materials. In this regard, heteropolyacids attracted considerable amount of interest due to the less toxic behavior in addition of possessing higher acidity. Heteropoly acids have been used as catalysts for the reaction of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride. The performance of different forms of heteropoly acids in the presence of acetic anhydride as acetylating agent for acetylation of salicylic...

  16. Modification of microneedles using inkjet printing

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, R D; Miller, P R; Hayes, S L; Monteiro-Riviere, N.A.; Narayan, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer microneedles containing quantum dots were fabricated by means of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography-micromolding and inkjet printing. Nanoindentation was performed to obtain the hardness and the Young's modulus of the biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer. Imaging of quantum dots within porcine skin was accomplished by means of multiphoton microscopy. Our results suggest that the combination of visible light dynamic mask m...

  17. Three new compounds from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Hua, Ying; Bao, Yong-Li; Wu, Yin; Sun, Lu-Guo; Yu, Chun-Lei; Huang, Yan-Xin; Wang, En-Bo; Jiang, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Three new compounds, 3,6-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxy-1,8-naphalic anhydride (1), 3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-1,8-naphalic anhydride (2), and methyl (7E,9E)-6,11-dioxononadeca-7,9-dienoate (3), were isolated from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-TOF-MS, and by comparison with the literature data.

  18. STUDY ON THE EPOXY RESIN TOUGHENED BY HYDROXY-TERMINATED BUTADIENE-ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiaozu; LI Shaoying; ZHANG Qingyu

    1990-01-01

    Toughened epoxy resin with excellent properties was obtained by adding organic acid anhydride curing agent and hydroxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (HTBN), which is cheaper than CTBN. The anhydride reacts with both epoxy groups on epoxy resin and hydroxyl groups on HTBN. As a result the soft long chains of HTBN and the rigid chain of epoxy resin form one network, giving the resin toughness. Two-phase structure of the toughened resin was observed by SEM and TEM.

  19. Dicarboxylated ethynylarenes as buffer-dependent chemosensors for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, James T.; Bruck, Brent S.; Deever, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Two dicarboxylated ethynylarenes were prepared efficiently from condensation of 1,3-bis(3-aminoph enylethynyl)benzene with two equivalents of either succinic anhydride or glutaric anhydride. These compounds behave as fluorescent chemosensors selective for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) cations under buffered aqueous conditions, with analyte binding observed as bathochromically shifted, intensified fluorescence. It was noteworthy that the fluorescence responses varied significantly with buffer iden...

  20. Preparation and Application of a Nanocomposite (MPNS/SMA) in Leather Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A nanocomposite of MPNS/(Styrene-maleic anhydride) was prepared by the polymerization of methacryloxypropyl nano SiO2 (MPNS), styrene (ST) and maleic anhydride (MA) with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator in toluene. The prepared samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Meanwhile, the nanocomposite was applied as a tanning agent in leather making and the results showed that leather treated with MPNS/SMA nanocomposite has excellent quality.

  1. Enzyme-catalyzed Synthesis of Vitamin E Succinate Using a Chemically Modified Novozym-435%化学修饰Novozym-435酶催化合成维生素E琥珀酸酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹春华; 张聪; 高明

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin E succinate was synthesized in organic solvents using a modified Novozym-435 as catalyst. In order to improve the catalytic performance of Novozym-435, the enzyme was modified using acetic anhydride, propionic anhydride and succinic anhydride separately. We found that both the hydrolytic activity and the thermal stability of the modified Novozym-435 were enhanced compared with the unmodified enzyme. The modified Novozym-435 catalysts were used to synthesize the succinate derivative of vitamin E. Compared with the native Novozym-435, the catalytic activity of the modified novozym-435 in promoting the synthesis of vitamin E succinate was dramatically increased, with the novozym-435 modified with succinic anhydride (N435-S) as the most active catalyst. Conditions for the synthesis of vitamin E succinate were also optimized. A mixture of tert-butanol and DMSO (volume ratio of 2: 3) was the most suitable medium for the reaction, whereas the appropriate molar ratio of vitamin E to succinic anhydride and reaction temperature were 1: 5 and 40 ℃, respectively. Under these reaction conditions, the yield of vitamin E succinate reached 94.4%. N435-S could be reused for five batches.

  2. Partial oxidation of n- and i-pentane over promoted vanadium-phosphorus oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazhigalov, V.A.; Mikhajluk, B.D.; Komashko, G.A. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii

    1998-12-31

    It is known, that the cost of raw materials for catalytic oxidation processes is about 60% of the product price. Cheap initial compounds to produce variety of products and to replace olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons are paraffins. That is why catalytic systems which could be possibly rather efficient in selective oxidation of paraffin hydrocarbons are under very close investigation now. One of such processes in n-pentane oxidation. The obtained results on n-pentane oxidation over VPO catalysts were quite encouraging in respect of possible reach high selectivity and yield of phthalic anhydride. However, in our work it was shown that the main product of n-pentane oxidation in the presence of VPO catalytic system as well as VPMeO was maleic anhydride. Some later our results were confirmed in, where to grow the selectivity towards phthalic anhydride the Co-additive was introduced. On the basis of the proposal made before on the mechanism of paraffins conversion over the vanadyl pyrophosphate surface with their activation at the first and fourth carbon atoms, we assumed possible methylmaleic (citraconic) anhydride forming at n- and i-pentane oxidation. This assumption has been recently supported by both our and other researchers` experimental results. In it was also hypothized possible mechanistic features for phthalic anhydride forming from n-pentane. The present work deals with the results of n- and i-pentane oxidation over VPO catalysts promoted with Bi, Cs, Te, Zr. (orig.)

  3. STUDIES ON APPARENT KINETICS AND RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF EPOXY/ACRYLATE IPNS AS VACUUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-kuan Duan; Chonung Kim; Ping-kai Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The apparent kinetics and cure behavior of novel interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CER) and tri-functional acrylate have been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectrosccpy (FT-IR). The results of DSC measurements show that the curing reaction of the TMPTMA component is much earlier than that of the CER component, which can lead to the formation of the IPNs. In contrast to neat anhydride-CER system, the anhydride-CER/TMPTMA systems exhibit relatively lower curing temperatures. The activation energy for initiating the reaction of the anhydride-CER system slightly increases, whereas the activation energy for propagating the reaction markedly reduces during the full IPNs formation. The FF-IR spectroscopic changes are interpreted in terms of curing mechanism of CER and TMPTMA components. The extent of reaction is calculated from FT-IR absorption bands, which depends on the reactive group concentration. The experimental results of FT-IR measurements are in good agreements with those of DSC measurements. The theological behavior of anhydride-CER/TMPTMA systems during IPNs formation is studied in this paper. It is confirmed that the introduction of TMPTMA monomer into anhydride-epoxy resin has significant effects on the theological behavior of the system.

  4. Green route to modification of wood waste, cellulose and hemicellulose using reactive extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Alankar A; Gaugler, Marc; Smith, Dawn A

    2016-01-20

    A large volume of wood waste is produced in timber processing industry which traditionally used in low value applications. Here, value addition to the wood waste (Sander dust) and cellulose, hemicellulose isolated thereof by functionalisation using cyclic anhydrides in a solvent-free and green reactive extrusion process is reported. The effect of extrusion temperature, catalyst and different weight ratios of Sander dust (SD):succinic anhydride (SA) on the esterification reaction is evaluated. The esterified products were characterised by the acid value, degree of substitution (DS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), solid state (13)C NMR and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Under optimum extrusion conditions, mixed esters are formed, with highest acid value obtained for succinylation of cellulose (0.122 g/g at DS of 0.350) which is two times higher compared to succinylated SD (0.059 g/g at a weight gain of 0.452) and hemicellulose (0.043 g/g at DS of 0.290). The reactivity trend for individual anhydride was: (1) SA-Cellulose>SD>hemicellulose; (2) maleic anhydride (MA)-SD>hemicellulose>cellulose and (3) dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA)-SD ≈ cellulose ≫ hemicellulose. The pendant free carboxyl groups generated through functionalisation of wood waste, cellulose and hemicellulose without the presence of polymeric carriers will allow more tailored or targeted modification of wood-plastic composites. PMID:26572467

  5. Functional properties of acetylated and succinylated cowpea protein concentrate and effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René; Mbome, Israël Lape

    2011-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to improve functional properties of cowpea protein concentrate by acylation and partial hydrolysis with pepsin. The acylated concentrate showed significant improvement in protein solubility and water solubility index, at neutral pH. In addition, acylation increased fat absorption capacity compared with the untreated concentrate, and the maximum was obtained at 0.75 g succinic anhydride/g concentrate. Acetylation at concentrations of 0.25-0.50 g/g led to the higher emulsifying activity, and a markedly improvement in emulsifying stability was observed at 1.0 g anhydride/g concentrate. Foaming activity increased following acylation, particularly at 0.25 and 1.00 g/g succinic anhydride/g concentrate, while foam stability decreased. At pH 3.5, protein solubility of the acylated concentrates was low ( < 8%). Partial hydrolysis of cowpea protein concentrate with pepsin increased protein solubility at the isoelectric and neutral pH.

  6. A study on the preparation of the exfoliated polyimide nanocomposite and its characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, S.G.; Park, D.Y.; Kim, Y.S. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea); Lee, Y.C. [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Chonan (Korea); Sur, G.S. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    Diamines (p-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine, and n-hexamethylenediamine) were intercalated into sodium montmorillonite for the further reaction with the anhydride end groups of polyamic acid. The anhydride terminated polyamic acid was synthesized using a mole ratio of 4,4'-oxydianilline : 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic dianhydride = 1.50 : 1.53. The modified montmorillonite was reacted with polyamic acid terminated with anhydride group in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (polyamic acid/clay nanocomposite). After imidization, thin films of the polyimide/clay nanocomposite were prepared. From the results of XRD and TEM, we found that mono layered silicated were dispersed in polyimide matrix and those resultants were exfoliated nanocomposites. Mechanical properties of exfoliated polyimide nanocomposite were better than both those of pure polyimide and those of intercalated polyimide nanocomposite. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  7. Study on Preparation of Waterprooifng Agent for Mineral Wool Board from Modiifed C9 Petroleum Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fengyan; Yang Yajun; Dai Danghui; Yuan Yadong

    2013-01-01

    The modiifed petroleum resin emulsion prepared from the C9 petroleum resin was modiifed with maleic anhy-dride. The effects of maleic rosin and maleic anhydride addition level, the modiifcation time and the alkali liquor on the properties of the emulsion were discussed. The results showed that the optimum process conditions covered: a maleic anhy-dride mass fraction of 1.5%, a maleic rosin mass fraction of 10%, a KOH mass fraction of 1%, a petroleum resin modiifca-tion temperature of 200℃, a petroleum resin modification duration of 3 h, and a modified petroleum resin emulsion/wax emulsion mixing ratio of 1:1. The particle size of modified petroleum resin emulsion prepared under these condi-tions was equal to 104.166 μm.

  8. Synthesis and study of MPNS/SMA nano-composite tanning agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Pan; Mei Qi; Zhi Jun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The radical polymerization of maleic anhydride (MA),styrene (ST) with the vinyl groups introduced onto the surface of the nano-sized silica via solution polymerization method was developed.The methacryloxypropyl nano-sized silica (MPNS) was used as macromonomer and polymerized with maleic anhydride and styrene by initiating with BPO in toluene.The structure and properties of MPNS/SMA nano-composite were characterized by FT-IR spectra and TEM.Meanwhile,it was applied as tanning agent compared with the traditional styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer in leather.It was found that the applied leather had better quality characteristics with the addition of the nano-sized silica.

  9. A compatible encapsulant for explosives. [Hexanitrostilbene and hexanitroazobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wischmann, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    Many epoxy resin encapsulants are amine cured; unfortunately, amine cured systems have long-term compatibility problems with certain explosives, i.e., HNS (hexanitrostilbene) and HNAB (hexanitroazobenzene). In response to this problem, an epoxy/anhydride encapsulant was developed that does not rely on amine catalysts. A new catalyst, an organochromium complex, was employed which was found to be compatible with the above explosives. This catalyst provided good cures at temperatures as low as 80)degrees)C; normally epoxy/anhydride systems require curing at temperatures well above 100)degrees)C. Our epoxy/anhydride formulation exhibits low exotherms, long pot life, and can be compounded with glass microballoons to attenuate shock and lower the encapsulant's coefficient of thermal expansion. This paper documents the formulation, physical property characterization, processing, and compatibility studies. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Study of Mechanical Properties of Composite Material Based on Polypropylene and Vietnamese Rice Husk Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duy Tran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the consideration of the environmental impact of polymer products has led to the development of new materials combining polymers and renewable resources. Among these materials, biocomposites have been extensively studied. In the current work, we focused on preparation of biocomposites based on polypropylene and Vietnamese rice husk flour having narrow size distribution (100–125 μm with the presence of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene as a compatibilizer. The effect of rice husk flour and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene content on properties of composites was investigated. The results showed that mechanical parameters as well as thermal stability were significantly improved at relatively high rice husk content by the addition of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene.

  11. Thermoplastic olefin/clay nanocomposites. Effect of matrix composition, and organoclay and compatibilizer structure on morphology/properties relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S M L; López-Manchado, M A; Arroyo, M

    2007-12-01

    The effect of different nanofillers and compatibilizers (maleic anhydride-grafted-polypropylene and maleic anhydride-grafted-ethylene propylene diene terpolymer rubber) on the morphology, mechanical, mechanodynamical and thermal characteristics of thermoplastic olefins based on polypropylene and ethylene propylene diene terpolymer rubber blends has been analysed. A better affinity with the matrix and a better dispersion of the nanoparticles is observed in rubber rich matrices. Organoclay, such as Cloisite C15A and Cloisite C20A, treated with a non-polar surfactant give rise to intercalated nanocomposites, and the lower the concentration of surfactant (C20A) the most noticeable increase in interlayer spacing and consequently better properties in the nanocomposites. The maleic anhydride-grafted-ethylene propylene diene terpolymer rubber is a better compatibilizer for organo-clay nanocomposites based on rubber rich matrices. PMID:18283828

  12. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF POLYMERS ON CARBON FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiasong; WU Renjie

    1983-01-01

    Styrene-co-maleic anhydride, vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride, methyl methacrylate-co-maleic anhydride copolymers were deposited on the surface of carbon fibers by an electrodeposition technique.The anion-free radical mechanism of this process and the physical adhesion to the surface were preliminarily confirmed. The adhesion at fiber-resin matrix interface in carbon fiber reinforced plastics was improved by the electrodeposited polymer interlayer and the shear failure occurred mainly in the matrix.Interlaminar shear strength of the unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite is increased from about 600 kg/cm2 to 1000 kg/cm2 by electrodeposition of polymers and the strength loss of the composite which has been immersed in boiling water for 100 hrs is decreased.

  13. A Simple, Rapid and Mild One Pot Synthesis of Benzene Ring Acylated and Demethylated Analogues of Harmine under Solvent-free Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Bina S.; Syed Imran Hassan; Farhat Farhat; Syed Nawazish Ali; Sabira Begum

    2008-01-01

    A simple, rapid, solvent-free, room temperature one pot synthesis of benzene ring acylated and demethylated analogues of harmine using acyl halides/acid anhydrides and AlCl3 has been developed. Eight different acyl halides/acid anhydrides were used in the synthesis. The resulting mixture of products was separated by column chromatography to afford 10- and 12-monoacyl analogues, along with 10,12-diacyl-11-hydroxy products. In five cases the corresponding 10-acyl-11-hydroxy analogues were also ...

  14. A Simple, Rapid and Mild One Pot Synthesis of Benzene Ring Acylated and Demethylated Analogues of Harmine under Solvent-free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina S. Siddiqui

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, solvent-free, room temperature one pot synthesis of benzene ring acylated and demethylated analogues of harmine using acyl halides/acid anhydrides and AlCl3 has been developed. Eight different acyl halides/acid anhydrides were used in the synthesis. The resulting mixture of products was separated by column chromatography to afford 10- and 12-monoacyl analogues, along with 10,12-diacyl-11-hydroxy products. In five cases the corresponding 10-acyl-11-hydroxy analogues were also obtained. Yields from the eight syntheses (29 products in total were in the 6-34% range and all compounds were fully characterized.

  15. A micro-Raman study of Cu-particulate-filled epoxy matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    S. Tognana; W. Salgueiro; M. B. Valcarce

    2014-01-01

    A micro-Raman study is carried out to investigate the influence of the filler on the curing process of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA)-based epoxy matrix composites. The composites are cured (14 h at 393 K) with an anhydride (methyl tetrahydro phthalic anhydride, MTHPA, 100:90 pbw), catalyzed with a tertiary amine (0.7 pbw) and filled with a 30% volume of Cu particles of approximately 75 µm in diameter. The experimental results are compared with those obtained for the same epoxy resin un...

  16. Tuning and probing interfacial bonding channels for a functionalized organic molecule by surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, G.; Bauer, O.; Willenbockel, M.; Fiedler, B.; Sueyoshi, T.; Weiss, C.; Temirov, R.; Soubatch, S.; Sokolowski, M.; Tautz, F. S.

    2013-03-01

    The potassium-induced missing row reconstruction of Ag(110) is used to selectively modify the local chemical interaction between the functional anhydride groups of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) and Ag(110). We find a significant upward shift of the anhydride groups, while the adsorption height of the perylene core is essentially preserved. This demonstrates an attractive perylene/substrate interaction for PTCDA/K:Ag(110), elucidating also the bonding situation for the potassium-free system.

  17. Stereoselective Synthesis of the Functionalized C2-C10 Fragment of Clavulactone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zuozhong; SUO Dong; YANG Zhenyu; CHEN Lin; HU Taishan; YAO Zhujun

    2009-01-01

    A stereoselective synthesis of all functionalized C2-C10 fragment 13 of the antitumor marine natural product clavulactone was accomplished, starting from the commercially available 3-methylglutaric acid anhydride. De-symmetrization of 3-methylglutaric acid anhydride with (S)-a-phenylethanamine was successfully employed as a key step to embed the isolated C8-methyl group with the correct absolute configuration (99% de). The C3-C4 cis-double bond was stereospecifically furnished by an RCM (ring-closing metathesis) approach. Fragment 13 con-tains all preset functionalities and will be a useful precursor for the convergent total synthesis of clavulactone.

  18. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...

  19. On the use of 3,5-O-benzylidene and 3,5-O-(di-tert-butylsilylene)-2-O-benzylarabinothiofuranosides and their sulfoxides as glycosyl donors for the synthesis of beta-arabinofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crich, David; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Bowers, Albert A;

    2007-01-01

    -(di-tert-butylsilylene)-alpha-arabinofuranosyl sulfoxide donor on activation with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride. The high beta-selectivities obtained by the N-iodosuccinimide/silver trifluoromethanesulfonate and sulfoxide methods are consistent with a common intermediate, most likely to be the oxacarbenium ion. The poor selectivity observed on...... activation of the thioglycosides with the 1-benzenesulfinyl piperidine, or diphenyl sulfoxide, and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride methods appears to be the result of the formation of a complex mixture of glycosyl donors, as determined by low-temperature NMR work....

  20. Synthesis and 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of Chiral Maleimides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubor Fisera

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available New routes to the synthesis of various novel chiral maleimides are described. The oxabicyclic anhydride 2 readily available exo-Diels-Alder adduct of furan and maleic anhydride was used as a vehicle, which in turn reacted with hydrochlorides of amino acids 3a-f in the presence of Et3N with release of furan to give the requisite novel chiral imides 4a-f in good to moderate yields. The stereoselectivity of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides with prepared chiral imides 4a-f is investigated.

  1. PREPARATION OF P(MAH-co-VAc)-b-PSt COPOLYMER BY INITIATION OF PRECURSOR CONTAINING ISOPROPYLTHIOXANTHONE RESIDUES AND ITS APPLICATION IN FABRICATING HONEYCOMB STRUCTURED POROUS FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万泰

    2009-01-01

    A novel,facile method to prepare copolymers by virtue of the reinitiation of precursor containing isopropylthioxanthone(ITX) residues(ITXH) was reported.Using poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate)(P(MAH-co-VAc)) with incorporated ITX residues as a macroinitiator,polymerization of styrene was performed,and poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate)-b-polystyrene(P(MAH-co-VAc)-b-PSt) was produced.Applying the resultant copolymer in a breath figure procedure,honeycomb structure films having pore size around ...

  2. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TITANOCENE POLYMER DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhuting; SUN Shumen

    1988-01-01

    Titanocene polymer derivatives with potential antitumor properties were synthesized by interfacial condensation. The preformed polymers used are PAA (polyacrylic acid), CPSMA (1:1 alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride) and DVEMA (1:2 copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride). The ratio of practical and theoretical titanium content is 73.6%, 92.2% and 86.2% for PAA, CPSMA and DVEMA polymer derivatives respectively. The IR spectra of the polymer derivatives possess the characteristic absorptions of titanocene. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) of O1s and Ti2p3/2 supports the existence of Ti-O bonding.

  3. Gas-Phase Partial Oxidation of Lignin to Carboxylic Acids over Vanadium Pyrophosphate and Aluminum-Vanadium-Molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Samira; Boffito, Daria C; Patience, Gregory S

    2015-10-26

    Lignin is a complex polymer that is a potential feedstock for aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids by cleaving the β-O-4 and 5-5' linkages. In this work, a syringe pump atomizes an alkaline solution of lignin into a catalytic fluidized bed operating above 600 K. The vanadium heterogeneous catalysts convert all the lignin into carboxylic acids (up to 25 % selectivity), coke, carbon oxides, and hydrogen. Aluminum-vanadium-molybdenum mostly produced lactic acid (together with formic acid, acrylic acid, and maleic anhydride), whereas the vanadium pyrophosphate catalyst produced more maleic anhydride. PMID:26361086

  4. 维生素B1催化合成N-苯基马来酰亚胺%Synthesis of N-phenylmaleimide with Using Vitamin B1 as Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许凌子

    2013-01-01

    以苯胺和顺丁烯二酸酐为原料,维生素B1为催化剂,醋酸酐为脱水剂,在丙酮溶剂中采用两步法(醋酐法)合成N-苯基马来酰亚胺.通过对催化剂浓度、反应时间以及脱水剂醋酸酐与顺丁烯二酸酐的配比等工艺条件进行优化,实验结果表明,维生素B1有着很好的催化活性,脱水剂乙酸酐与顺丁烯二酸酐配比为1.6∶1时,催化剂浓度为1.5%(以顺丁烯二酸酐质量计)时,反应时间为4h时为最佳反应条件.在最佳反应条件下,产率可达到63.2%.对丙酮溶剂进行重复使用考察,结果证明溶剂重复使用性好.%N-phenylmaleimide was synthesized from aniline and maleic anhydride with vitamin Bl as catalyst and acetic anhydride as dehydrant in acetone solvent by two-step method (acetic anhydride method). By means of optimizing the technological methods such as the concentration of catalyst, reaction time and the ratio of acetic anhydride as dehydrant to maleic anhydride, the optimal conditions were confirmed. The results of the experiments showed that the vitamin Bl used as catalyst gained a nice result. The optimum reaction conditions were listed as follows: the molar ratio of acetic anhydride as dehydrant to maleic anhydride was 1.6:1, the reaction time was 4h and the concentration of catalyst was 1.5% of mass of maleic anhydride. Under these conditions, the yield of product was up to 63.2%. And the reusage test of acetone solvent showed that it had excellent reusage stability.

  5. PREPARATION OF P(MAH-co-VAc)-b-PSt COPOLYMER BY INITIATION OF PRECURSOR CONTAINING ISOPROPYLTHIOXANTHONE RESIDUES AND ITS APPLICATION IN FABRICATING HONEYCOMB STRUCTURED POROUS FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Meng; Lian-ying Liu; Wan-tai Yang

    2009-01-01

    A novel, facile method to prepare copolymers by virtue of the reinitiation of precursor containing isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) residues (ITXH) was reported. Using poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate) (P(MAH-co-Vac)) with incorporated ITX residues as a macroinitiator, polymerization of styrene was performed, and poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate)-b-polystyrene (P(MAH-co-Vac)-b-PSt) was produced. Applying the resultant copolymer in a breath figure procedure, honeycomb structure films having pore size around 250 nm were prepared under low temperature and relative humidity.

  6. Schleyer hyperconjugative aromaticity and Diels-Alder reactivity of 5-substituted cyclopentadienes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandowski, Brian J; Zou, Lufeng; Houk, K N

    2016-01-01

    Schleyer's discovery of hyperconjugative aromaticity and antiaromaticity in 5-substituted cyclopentadienes further expanded our understanding of the pervasive influence of aromaticity. Acceptors induce antiaromatic character by Schleyer's negative hyperconjugative aromaticity, and donors have the opposite effect. We computationally explored the Diels-Alder reactivity of 5-substituted cyclopentadienes with ethylene and maleic anhydride. The predicted billionfold difference in the computed gas phase rate constants at room temperature for the Diels-Alder reactions of 5-substituted cyclopentadienes with ethylene or maleic anhydride results from differences in the transition state distortion energies, which are directly related to the hyperconjugative aromaticity of these molecules. PMID:26444427

  7. Degradation and contamination of perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane due to swelling-dehydration cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Morgen, Per; Skou, Eivind Morten

    to the membrane degradation in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), where liquid water has direct contact with the electrolyte. An ex-situ experiment was established with swelling-dehydration cycles on the membrane. However, formation of sulfonic anhydride was not detected during the entire treatment; instead......Formation of sulfonic anhydride S-O-S (from the condensation of sulfonic acids) was known one of the important degradation mechanisms [i] for Nafion membrane under hydrothermal aging condition, which is especially critical for hydrogen fuel cells. Similar mechanism would also have be desirable...

  8. 一种新型四元阻垢剂的合成和性能研究%Synthesis and Inhibition Efficiency of a Novel Quadripolymer Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云霞; 吴季怀; 郝三存; 刘明华

    2007-01-01

    A novel quadripolymer scale inhibitor poly-maleic anhydride-acrylic acid-acrylamide-sodium methallyl sulfonate (PMAAS) was synthesized by solution polymerization with maleic anhydride (MA), acrylic acid (AA),acrylamide (AM), sodium methallyl sulfonate (SMAS), etc. IR spectrum shows that PMAAS contains carbonyl,hydroxyl, phosphatic and sulfonic acid group. SEM indicates that PMAAS blocks the normal growth of scale CaCO3 and CaSO4 crystals. The influences of PMAAS concentration, Ca2+ concentration, temperature and pH value of the system on the inhibition efficiency are investigated. The inhibition efficiency of PMAAS is superior to commercial inhibitors T-225 and XF-192.

  9. Optimization of the synthesis of a high specific activity 125 I-labelled hapten for radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this first report it is described the synthesis, separation and purification of the 2-radioiodinated histamine ''125 I-labelled histamine by a mixed anhydride reaction. About 75% incorporation of I''1125, from Na''125, I, was achieved with a molecular ratio of 1:1 mixed anhydride:histamine. The radiochemical purity of the conjugate by TLC was >99% and its theoretical specific activity, 3850 mu Ci/mug. Dissolved in ethanol and held at -20 degree centigree under darkness decomposition on storage did not exceed 1% per month

  10. STUDY ON GEL COAT RESIN%胶衣树脂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建宇

    2001-01-01

    F-Gel coat resin was prepared from propylene glycol,maleic anhydride,phthalic anhydride,m-phthalic acid and styrene and the properties of products met with the requirement of composite material.%以丙二醇、顺酐、邻苯二甲酸酐、间苯二甲酸酐、苯乙烯为原料研制出的F型胶衣树脂,产品性能满足复合材料制品性能要求。

  11. Optimization of the synthesis of a high specific activity 125{sup I}-labelled hapten for radioimmunoassays; Optimizacion de un metodo de preparacion de un radiohapteno-125''I para ria de alta actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suraez, C.; Paz, D.; Simon, M. A.; Romero del Hombrebueno, B.

    1994-07-01

    In this first report it is described the synthesis, separation and purification of the 2-radioiodinated histamine- I-labelled histamine by a mixed anhydride reaction. About 75% incorporation of I{sup -}125, from Na{sup 1}25I, was achieved with a molecular ratio of 1:1 mixed anhydride:histamine. The radiochemical purity of the conjugate by TLC was > 99% and its theoretical specific activity, 3850 {mu}Ci/{mu}g. Dissolved in ethanol and held at -20 degree centigree under darkness decomposition on storage didn't exceed 1% per month. (Author) 13 refs.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of novel chalcone derivatives, containing 4, 7-ethanoisoindole-1,3-dione units

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ceylan; İsa Karaman; Meryem Keçeci Sarıkaya

    2013-01-01

    Novel chalcone derivatives, containing 4, 7-ethanoisoindole-1,3-dione units were synthesized starting from 1,3-cyclohexadine (4) and maleic anhydride (5). Addition of maleic anhydride (5) to 1,3-cyclehexadine (4) gave an endo-adduct, 3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-ethano-2-benzofuran-1,3-dione (6), in 90% yield. Heating the solution of the adduct dione (6) and 1-(4-aminophenyl)ethanone (7) in the presence of Et 3N in toluene at 110 oC for 24 hours afforded 2-(4-acetylphenyl)-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-1H...

  13. Modification of microneedles using inkjet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Boehm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer microneedles containing quantum dots were fabricated by means of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography-micromolding and inkjet printing. Nanoindentation was performed to obtain the hardness and the Young's modulus of the biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer. Imaging of quantum dots within porcine skin was accomplished by means of multiphoton microscopy. Our results suggest that the combination of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography-micromolding and inkjet printing enables fabrication of solid biodegradable microneedles with a wide range of geometries as well as a wide range of pharmacologic agent compositions.

  14. Silica-bonded N-propylsulfamic acid as a recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khodabakhsh Niknam; Nasrolah Jafarpour; Ebrahim Niknam

    2011-01-01

    2,3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives are synthesized via a one-pot,three component reaction of isatoic anhydride and an aromatic aldehyde with ammonium acetate or primary amine catalyzed by silica-bonded N-propylsulfamic acid(SBNPSA)in refluxing ethanol.

  15. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization: Highly efficient synthesis of substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones under microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Bakavoli; O. Sabzevari; M. Rahimizadeh

    2007-01-01

    A highly efficient synthesis of 2-amino-N-substituted-benzamides was performed by the condensation of isatoic anhydride with several amines in solvent-free conditions under microwave irradiation. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization of these products with ortho-esters under similar conditions afforded the relevant substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones in high yields.

  16. Resin adhesif Sebagai Bahan Kaping Pulpa Secara Langsung

    OpenAIRE

    Julitha Dewi

    2008-01-01

    Penggunaan Kalsium Hidroksida sebagai bahan kaping pulpa secara langsung telah terbukti dapat menyebabkan timbulnya celah mikro sehingga mengakibatkan kegagalan perawalan. Berdasarkan beberapa penelitian, bahan resin adhesi yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan kaping pulpa secara langsung adalah yang terdiri dari kombinasi Polyethylene Glycidyl Methacrylate (PEGDMA), Glutaraldehid 5% dan Bisphenol-Glycidyl Methacrylate (13is-GMA), kombinasi 4-Methacryloxyethyl Trimelliatate Anhydride (4-META),...

  17. Preparation of Organic Semiconductor PTCDA and Studies on Its Crystal Structure and the Absorption Spectrum①②

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGFujia; LIUFengmin; 等

    1997-01-01

    Organic semiconductoe3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride(PTCDA)has been synthetized with 1,8-naphthalic anhydride using chemical method.X-ray diffraction spectrum shows that it is monoclinic.Visible absorption spectrum shows that its gap band is 2.2eV with singlet exciton bandwidth of 0.9eV.

  18. The simple synthesis of quinazoline-2,4-dione derivatives using Boc strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Qin Li

    2009-01-01

    Quinazolinediones are particularly attractive pharmacophores because of their wide range of bioactivities. A convenient synthetic pathway to three-substituted quinazoline-2,4-dione derivatives was developed from substituted anthranilamide via carbonylation with Boc anhydride and then cyclization in the presence of the base sodium methoxide. Good to excellent yields have been achieved.

  19. Acetic acid assisted cobalt methanesulfonate catalysed chemoselective diacetylation of aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Zhi Guo Song; Hong Gong; Heng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt methanesulfonate in combination with acetic acid catalysed the chemoselective diacetylation of aldehyde with acetic anhydride at room temperature under solvent free conditions. After reaction, cobalt methanesulfonate can be easily recovered and mused many times. The reaction was mild and efficient with good to high yields.

  20. Improved zein films using polyethylenemaleic anhdyride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing corn protein (zein) articles with improved physical properties and solvent resistance will have a beneficial impact on companies that use corn. The effect of using the crosslinking reagent polyethylenemaleic anhydride (PEMA) on the physical properties and solubility of zein films was stud...

  1. Surface functionalization of metal-organic polyhedron for homogeneous cyclopropanation catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2011-05-01

    A super-paddlewheel (comprised of two paddlewheels) metal-organic polyhedron (MOP) containing surface hydroxyl groups was synthesized and characterized. Condensation reactions with linear alkyl anhydrides lead to new MOPs with enhanced solubility. As a result, the surface-modified MOP 4 was demonstrated as a homogeneous Lewis-acid catalyst.

  2. Radiation compatibilization of polyamide-6/polypropylene blends, enhanced by the presence of compatibilizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adem, E. [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, A. Postal 20-364, Mexico DF, 01000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: esbaide@fisica.unam.mx; Burillo, G. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares UNAM, Mexico, DF, 01000 (Mexico); Avalos-Borja, M. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM. A. Postal 2681, Ensenada, BC, 22800 (Mexico); Carreon, Ma.P. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares UNAM, Mexico, DF, 01000 (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Radiation compatibilization of polyamide-6 (PA6)/polypropylene (PP) blends was obtained by pre-irradiation of PP by gamma or electron beam irradiation, and enhanced in blends with PP-g-MA (maleic anhydride). Thermal behavior and morphological development were determined by DSC, X-ray and SEM. Compatibilization was confirmed by xylene extraction and Molau test.

  3. China's first large-scale MA production unit operational in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Abrainchild of researchers of the CAS Institute of Coal Chemistry, a production unit capable of turning out 20,000 tons of maleic anhydride (MA) per year, the largest of its kind in China, has come into operation recently at the Shanxi Regent Taiming Chemical Co Ltd in Taiyuan, capital of north China's Shanxi Province.

  4. Indium triflate in 1-isobutyl-3-methylimidazolium dihydrogenphosphate: an efficient and green catalytic system for Friedel-Crafts acylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Hoang, Huy Manh; Chau, Duy-Khiem Nguyen;

    2015-01-01

    Indium triflate in the ionic liquid, 1-isobutyl-3-methylimidazolium dihydrogen phosphate ([i-BMIM]H2PO4), was found to show enhanced catalytic activity in the Friedel–Crafts acylation of various aromatic compounds with acid anhydrides. The catalytic system was easily recovered and reused without ...

  5. A simple, effective, green method for regioselective 3-acylation of unprotected indoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Huong; Tran, Hai N.; Hansen, Poul Erik;

    2015-01-01

    A fast and green method is developed for regioselective acylation of indoles in the 3-position without the need for protection of the NH position. The method is based on Friedel-Crafts acylation using acid anhydrides. The method has been optimized, and Y(OTf)3 in catalytic amounts is found...

  6. Facile one-pot synthesis of unsymmetrical ureas, carbamates, and thiocarbamates from Cbz-protected amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Lee, Anna

    2016-07-26

    A novel one-pot synthesis of unsymmetrical ureas, carbamates and thiocarbamates from Cbz-protected amines has been developed. In the presence of 2-chloropyridine and trifluoromethanesulfonyl anhydride, isocyanates are generated in situ, which facilitate rapid reaction with amines, alcohols, and thiols to afford the corresponding ureas, carbamates and thiocarbamates in high yields. PMID:27406041

  7. SCANDIUM TRIFLATE CATALYZED ACETYLATION OF STARCH UNDER MILD CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandium (III) trifluoromethan sulfonate (Sc(OTf)3) was investigated as a catalyst for the acetylation of starch in order to determine the potential for preparing new types of starch esters under mild conditions. At room temperature, dry granular corn starch reacts with acetic anhydride in the pres...

  8. Acyl Radicals from Aromatic Carboxylic Acids by Means of Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bergonzini, Giulia; Cassani, Carlo; Wallentin, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    Simple and abundant carboxylic acids have been used as acyl radical precursor by means of visible-light photoredox catalysis. By the transient generation of a reactive anhydride intermediate, this redox-neutral approach offers a mild and rapid entry to high-value heterocyclic compounds without the need of UV irradiation, high temperature, high CO pressure, tin reagents, or peroxides.

  9. A facile and efficient synthesis of (+)- and (-)-allo-muscarine and analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Jens Chr.; Pedersen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of easily obtainable 1-alkylamino-1,3,6-trideoxyhexitols with hydrogen fluoride in the presence of formic acid gives the corresponding C-5 inverted 2,5-anhydrides in high yields. The synthesis of allo-muscarine and its N-benzyl analog from galactono-1,4-lactone is reported in 30 and 41%...

  10. Iodine Supported on 3-Aminopropyl Silica Gel as Efficient Catalyst for Acetylation of Alcohols under Solvent-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHDAVI Hossein; GHAEMY Mosa; ZERAATPISHEH Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    3-Aminopropyl silica gel (I2/APSG) was found to catalyze the acetylation of alcohols and phenols efficiently with acetic anhydride. The reaction is mild and selective with high yields. A wide variety of alcohols and phenols are selectively converted into the corresponding acetates using I2/APSG under solvent-free conditions at room tem-perature.

  11. Green starch conversions : Studies on starch acetylation in densified CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; Picchioni, Francesco; Heeres, Hero J.; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.

    2010-01-01

    The acetylation of potato starch with acetic anhydride (AAH) and sodium acetate (NaOAc) as catalyst in densified CO2 was explored in a batch reactor setup. The effects of process variables such as pressure (6-9.8 MPa), temperature (40-90 degrees C), AAH to starch ratio (2-5 mol/mol AGU), NaOAc to st

  12. Design and Synthesis of Novel Fluorine-containing Acrylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A series of novel fluorine-containing acrylates 6a-6g were synthesized via the condensation of ethyl cyanoacetate and trifluoroacetic anhydride, followed by chloridization and the coupling reaction with amines. These new compounds exhibited some biological activity as preliminary bioassay indicated. A plausible reaction mechanism was outlined and discussed.

  13. A ratiometric fluorescent probe for detection of biogenic primary amines with nanomolar sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Suman; Chandra, Falguni; Koner, Apurba L

    2016-02-01

    An ultrasensitive ratiometric fluorescent sensor made of an N,N-dimethylaminonaphthalene anhydride moiety for detection of aliphatic primary amines is reported. Biogenic amines at nanomolar concentration is detected with the additional ability to discriminate between primary, secondary and tertiary amines by using both UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:26734688

  14. Improvements in and relating to radiation curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation curable liquid prepolymer for preparing a radiation curable composition is described, the prepolymer comprising the reaction product of a polyamide polyamine and an unsaturated polybasic carboxylic acid or an anhydride or lower alkyl ester of such an acid. (author)

  15. Surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch with acetic anhydride to degrees of substitution 0.04-0.2 was studied by two different approaches. The first approach involved the fractionation of granular starch acetates into five different size classes and analysis of

  16. Effect of comonomer sorption on radiation-induced copolymer grafting onto polyethylene and EVA films in the vapor phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced copolymer grafting of acenaphthylene and maleic anhydride onto polyethylene or EVA film in the vapor phase was carried out and the effect of comonomer sorption on the grafting was studied. When polyethylene film was used as a backbone polymer, the sorption of the binary monomers during the grafting increased linearly as the grafting reaction proceeded. The marked increase was probably caused by the formation of a grafted layer. Particularly, the sorption of maleic anhydride was brought about by the existence of a grafted layer. In grafting onto EVA film, the content of maleic anhydride in the grafted copolymer increased with the increasing content of vinyl acetate in EVA. Continuous measurements of sorption of the comonomers onto EVA and grafted EVA films were carried out by use of an electrobalance. The distinctive feature of the sorption was that the equilibrium sorption of acenaphthylene or maleic anhydride onto the grafted EVA film increased and the diffusion constants for both comonomers decreased markedly with increasing percentage of graft. The copolymer grafting was explained from these results by assuming that the monomer molecules are supplied to the propagating chain ends mostly through a sorbed state on the polymer film

  17. Effect of comonomer sorption on radiation-induced copolymer grafting onto polyethylene and EVA films in the vapor phase. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakita, H.; Hayakawa, K.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-induced copolymer grafting of acenaphthylene and maleic anhydride onto polyethylene or EVA film in the vapor phase was carried out and the effect of comonomer sorption on the grafting was studied. When polyethylene film was used as a backbone polymer, the sorption of the binary monomers during the grafting increased linearly as the grafting reaction proceeded. The marked increase was probably caused by the formation of a grafted layer. Particularly, the sorption of maleic anhydride was brought about by the existence of a grafted layer. In grafting onto EVA film, the content of maleic anhydride in the grafted copolymer increased with the increasing content of vinyl acetate in EVA. Continuous measurements of sorption of the comonomers onto EVA and grafted EVA films were carried out by use of an electrobalance. The distinctive feature of the sorption was that the equilibrium sorption of acenaphthylene or maleic anhydride onto the grafted EVA film increased and the diffusion constants for both comonomers decreased markedly with increasing percentage of graft. The copolymer grafting was explained from these results by assuming that the monomer molecules are supplied to the propagating chain ends mostly through a sorbed state on the polymer film.

  18. Synthesis of (S) and (R)-tilisolol hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Qian; Xiao Juan Ye; Fan Zheng; Li Yang; Yong Wu

    2009-01-01

    Tilisolol hydrochlofide 1, a non-selective β0-adrenoceptor blocker, was developed as a drug for the treatment of hypertension and angina pectofis. The optical active forms of 1, 1a and 1b were synthesized from inexpensive phthalic anhydride 2 in eight steps with 13% (S) and 15% (R) overall yield.

  19. The Characterization of Comblike Polymer Electrolyte by Means of NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The comblike polymers based on poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) backbone with poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether as side chains were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, with the result compared with that of IR.It is found that it is both feasible and simple to synthesize this kind of compounds with the help of 1H NMR.

  20. Sonochemical Synthesis of Maleated Rosin%声化学法合成马来松香

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂园梅; 姚兴东; 雷福厚

    2008-01-01

    The cycloaddition reaction of rosin and maleic anhydride under ultrasonic irradiation has been investigated. The results show that both isomerization and Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions were accelerated remarkably. The sonochemical reaction reached equilibrium in 5-10 min at 110℃, comparing with regular synthesis of 4-5 h over 180℃.