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Sample records for anhui province china

  1. Rural-urban Migration in China: Evidence from Anhui Province

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    Chen, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Rural-urban migration in China has long been recognized as circular migration. However, few studies have systematically reviewed when rural workers migrate, what factors affect the length of migration, when they return, if they migrate again, how often they circulate over their life cycle, or how circularity has changed in the past 30 years. This dissertation investigates these questions using a longitudinal dataset from two counties in Anhui province. The empirical analysis shows that ove...

  2. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae).

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    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  3. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

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    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  4. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China.

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    Hu, Yi; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Xia, Congcong; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-06-03

    Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes) into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space.

  5. Current status of contraceptive use among rural married women in Anhui Province of China.

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    Zhang, X-J; Wang, G-Y; Shen, Q; Yu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H; Yu, G-B; Zhao, D; Ye, D-Q

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to explore the current status of married women in regard of their use of contraceptive methods (permanent methods versus non-permanent methods) and to find out factors that affect the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Anhui Province of China. Survey. Anhui, China. A total of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. All women were asked to provide detailed information by completing detailed questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence and influence factors. The total birth control rate of the sample was 95.2%. Samples choosing the permanent and nonpermanent contraceptive methods have taken up 46.7 and 48.5% respectively. Female sterilisation was the first choice with a usage rate of 43.6%, followed by intrauterine device (IUD), which was used by 41.1% of samples. Single-variable analysis showed that the choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age, education level, parity, frequency of sex intercourses in a month, contraceptive knowledge, RTI symptom and the gender of the last child of rural married women. A significant increase in contraceptive use of rural married women in Anhui Province of China. Female sterilisation and IUD still play the dominant role. Effective family planning methods should be advocated through adequate counselling on the correct use and proper management, with consideration of the background of custom and belief.

  6. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

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    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in the 2015 Wheat from Anhui Province, China.

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    Xu, Wenjing; Han, Xiaomin; Li, Fengqin; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-10-26

    The exposure to Alternaria toxins from grain and grain-based products has been reported to be related to human esophageal cancer in China. In this study, a total of 370 freshly harvested wheat kernel samples collected from Anhui province of China in 2015 were analyzed for the four Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid (TeA), tentoxin (TEN), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS). TeA was the predominant toxin detected followed by TEN, AOH and AME. The concentrations of the four Alternaria toxins varied geographically. The samples from Fuyang district showed higher TEN concentration levels than the other regions studied ( p Alternaria toxins. Positive correlation was observed between concentration levels of TeA and TEN, AOH and AME, TeA and AOH, and the total dibenzopyrone derivatives (AOH + AME) and TeA. Results indicate that there is a need to set the tolerance limit for Alternaria toxins in China, and more data on the contamination of these toxins in agro-products is required.

  8. Molecular identification of Paragonimus ohirai and P. westermani from Anhui Province, China

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    Ryu J.S

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region were determined from seven adults of species Paragonimus collected from Jinde and Xiuning Counties, Anhui Province, China. Among these, the nucleotide sequence obtained from one Paragonimus adult (Jinde County was identical to the ITS2 sequence of P. ohirai previously reported. In order to confirm the result, partial regions of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase (COI and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1 from the putative P. ohirai sample were further sequenced. They showed a high level of similarity with those of P. ohirai, COI (99.7 % and ND1 (99.5 %, supporting the result obtained from the ITS2. In addition to this, we designed P. ohirai and P. westermani specific primers (BDW and BD2O H from ITS2 to identify P. westermani and P. ohirai easily and rapidly. After testing utility of the primers, they were applied to identify seven unidentified Paragonimus samples collected from Jinde and Xiuning Counties, China. All the examined samples showed P. westermani band pattern, and it was reconfirmed by sequencing their ITS2 regions that they are P. westermani. This result indicates that the two newly designed specific primers could be quite helpful for easily identifying P. westermani and P. ohirai, that most of Paragonimus in Jinde and Xiuning Counties consist of P. westermani, and that P. ohirai exists in Jinde County with minority.

  9. Peer Support for Diabetes Management in Primary Care and Community Settings in Anhui Province, China.

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    Zhong, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhimin; Fisher, Edwin B; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a peer leader-support program (PLSP) for diabetes self-management in China in terms of acceptability and feasibility; implementation; perceived advantages; disadvantages and barriers; reach and recruitment; effectiveness in terms of diabetes knowledge and clinical impacts; adoption; and sustainability. Within each of 3 cities in Anhui Province, 2 subcommunities were randomly assigned to usual care or PLSP. Peer leaders and staff of Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) co-led biweekly educational meetings. Peer leaders also led biweekly discussion meetings, promoted regular care through the CHSCs, organized informal health promotion activities (eg, walking and tai chi groups), and provided informal individual support to participants through casual contact. Qualitative evaluations indicated acceptance of and positive responses to the program among patients, peer leaders, and CHSC staff. Implementation was successful in 2 of 3 subcommunities, the third failing for lack of staff resources. Reported advantages included peer support as a bridge between CHSCs and their patients. In 2 sites where the PLSP was implemented, analyses controlling for baseline differences and site showed significant benefits for PLSP relative to controls (P management. The PLSP was well accepted, feasible given sufficient administrative and staff resources, effective for those who participated, and generalizable to other sites and health problems. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  10. Trends and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Sustainability in Eastern Anhui Province, China

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    Jian Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes and evaluates the status and long-term trend of regional economic sustainability in eastern Anhui Province, China. Based on the triangle model and the definition of economic sustainable development, this study evaluates the interrelationship among regional economic development, resource-energy consumption, environmental pollution, and ecological performance. The sustainable and comprehensive utilization situation in the study region from 1975–2012 is examined. The results show that in 2012, the comprehensive development in the study region had a general status in terms of sustainability. The sustainable development trend of the seven administrative subunits inside the region had a weak and general status in terms of sustainability, while the status of sustainability in the southeastern part of the region was better than that in the northwest. During the period from 1975–1998, the study region’s comprehensive development presented a trend of general sustainability. In the period from 1998–2012, the region experienced a trend of very strong sustainability in its development. These statuses and trends have a certain relationship with the study region’s strong economic development and environmental protection over the past 37 years. The triangle method, as an intuitive platform for illustrating sustainability status and trends in economic development, seems to hold promise as an analytical management tool given its simplicity, ease of use, and flexibility.

  11. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis

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    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77–7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24–3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04–35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  12. A NEW SAURICHTHYS (ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE SPATHIAN (EARLY TRIASSIC OF CHAOHU (ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA

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    ANDREA TINTORI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Saurichthys, S. majiashanensis , is described. It comes from a series of marine vertebrate-bearing beds of the upper member of the Nanlinghu Formation outcropping in the large quarry at the top of Majiashan (Majia Hill near Chaohu (Hefei City, Anhui Province, China. Its age is Middle Spathian (Olenekian, Early Triassic. This new species deeply differs from the several pre-Spathian species of Saurichthys mainly for having only two longitudinal scale rows together with a reduced grid-like structure for the neural elements in the vertebral column. Further derived characters are in the endoskeleton of the dorsal and anal fin, where radials articulate only to anterior lepidotrichia, the posterior ones being supported by the first scale from the caudal pedicle mid-dorsal and mid-ventral rows, deeply imbedded in the body. In addition, the haemal spines of the caudal region are much enlarged and reversed, with their distal parts pointing forwards. Though the skull is lacking, postcranial characters are enough to justify the erection of a new species. This new Saurichthys species, together with other few actinopterygians, can be considered as the oldest assemblage of the Triassic Middle Fish Fauna, which bloomed probably in the early Anisian and widespread especially all over the Tethys for the Middle Triassic and at least the Carnian in the Late Triassic. This new fish assemblage, together with some of the oldest marine reptiles, is considered as the beginning of the actual Triassic recovery among marine vertebrates.

  13. Hepatitis B virus infections and risk factors among the general population in Anhui Province, China: an epidemiological study

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    Li Xiaoqing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg among the general population and the risk factors associated with HBV infection in Anhui province, China. Methods A provincial serosurvey was conducted in four cities, and selected through stratified clustering sampling. Data on demographics, immunization history, medical history, family medical history, and life history were collected, along with serum tested for HBsAg. Completed surveys were analysed from 8,875 participants. Results Overall prevalence of HBsAg was 7.44%. Using multivariate analysis, older age was a risk factor for HBsAg infection among children younger than 15 years. Among adults 15-59 years old, the risk factors were male gender, a history of surgical operations, at least one HBsAg-positive family member, and non-vaccination. For adults older than 59 years, the risk factor was a blood transfusion history. Conclusions Though Anhui province has already reached the national goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to less than 1% among children younger than 5 years, there are still several risk factors for HBsAg infection among the older population. Immunization programs should continue to focus on adults, and interventions should be taken to reduce risk factors associated with being infected with Hepatitis B.

  14. Satellite-Based Investigation and Evaluation of the Observational Environment of Meteorological Stations in Anhui Province, China

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    Li, Yu-Bin; Shi, Tao; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Wu, Bi-Wen; Wang, La-Bao; Shi, Chun-E.; Guo, Jian-Xia; Ji, Cheng-Li; Wen, Hua-Yang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, by using multi-temporal and high resolution Landsat data and geographic information system techniques, the land use/land cover (LULC) in the 2-km buffer zone of 52 meteorological stations in the Anhui province of China is retrieved and categorized into three types: vegetation (including farmland, forest and grass land), water (including lakes, rivers and pools), and construction (including buildings and roads). Besides, the land surface temperature (LST) in the buffer zone of these stations is also obtained from thermal infrared data. The normalized LST index (NLI) and the heat effect contribution index (HECI) of different LULC types are calculated. Via case studies and statistical analysis, the LULC and thermal environment's temporal-spatial variance in the 2-km buffer zone of these stations are surveyed, and their impacts on the observational environment are investigated. The study shows that the observational environments of the meteorological stations in Anhui province have been greatly influenced by rapid urbanization. The study proposes two new methods to classify the stations' observational environment into three types (urban, sub-urban, and rural). One uses the NLI and the other uses the HECI. The NLI method needs only LST information. The HECI method combines both LULC and LST information and, hence, is considered more reliable. The evaluation methods and criteria can be used conveniently, effectively, and quantitatively, and are especially useful when analyzing observational data from meteorological stations in weather and climate research and when choosing a location for a new meteorological station.

  15. Quantitative analysis of burden of infectious diarrhea associated with floods in northwest of anhui province, china: a mixed method evaluation.

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    Ding, Guoyong; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Lu; Ma, Wei; Li, Xiujun; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2013-01-01

    Persistent and heavy rainfall in the upper and middle Huaihe River of China brought about severe floods during the end of June and July 2007. However, there has been no assessment on the association between the floods and infectious diarrhea. This study aimed to quantify the impact of the floods in 2007 on the burden of disease due to infectious diarrhea in northwest of Anhui Province. A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was firstly conducted to examine the relationship between daily cases of infectious diarrhea and the 2007 floods in Fuyang and Bozhou of Anhui Province. Odds ratios (ORs) of the flood risk were quantified by conditional logistic regression. The years lived with disability (YLDs) of infectious diarrhea attributable to floods were then estimated based on the WHO framework of the calculating potential impact fraction in the Burden of Disease study. A total of 197 infectious diarrheas were notified during the exposure and control periods in the two study areas. The strongest effect was shown with a 2-day lag in Fuyang and a 5-day lag in Bozhou. Multivariable analysis showed that floods were significantly associated with an increased risk of the number cases of infectious diarrhea (OR = 3.175, 95%CI: 1.126-8.954 in Fuyang; OR = 6.754, 95%CI: 1.954-23.344 in Bozhou). Attributable YLD per 1000 of infectious diarrhea resulting from the floods was 0.0081 in Fuyang and 0.0209 in Bozhou. Our findings confirm that floods have significantly increased the risks of infectious diarrhea in the study areas. In addition, prolonged moderate flood may cause more burdens of infectious diarrheas than severe flood with a shorter duration. More attention should be paid to particular vulnerable groups, including younger children and elderly, in developing public health preparation and intervention programs. Findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health impact of floods.

  16. Projections of hepatitis A virus infection associated with flood events by 2020 and 2030 in Anhui Province, China

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    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Wang, Changke; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-12-01

    Assessing and responding to health risk of climate change is important because of its impact on the natural and societal ecosystems. More frequent and severe flood events will occur in China due to climate change. Given that population is projected to increase, more people will be vulnerable to flood events, which may lead to an increased incidence of HAV infection in the future. This population-based study is going to project the future health burden of HAV infection associated with flood events in Huai River Basin of China. The study area covered four cities of Anhui province in China, where flood events were frequent. Time-series adjusted Poisson regression model was developed to quantify the risks of flood events on HAV infection based on the number of daily cases during summer seasons from 2005 to 2010, controlling for other meteorological variables. Projections of HAV infection in 2020 and 2030 were estimated based on the scenarios of flood events and demographic data. Poisson regression model suggested that compared with the periods without flood events, the risks of severe flood events for HAV infection were significant (OR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.05-1.55), while risks were not significant from moderate flood events (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 0.72-1.87) and mild flood events (OR = 1.14, 95 % CI 0.87-1.48). Using the 2010 baseline data and the flood event scenarios (one severe flood event), increased incidence of HAV infection were estimated to be between 0.126/105 and 0.127/105 for 2020. Similarly, the increased HAV infection incidence for 2030 was projected to be between 0.382/105 and 0.399/105. Our study has, for the first time, quantified the increased incidence of HAV infection that will result from flood events in Anhui, China, in 2020 and 2030. The results have implications for public health preparation for developing public health responses to reduce HAV infection during future flood events.

  17. Detection and coexistence of six categories of resistance genes in Escherichia coli strains from chickens in Anhui Province, China

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    Lin Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the prevalence of class 1 integrons and gene cassettes, tetracycline-resistance genes, phenicol-resistance genes, 16S rRNA methylase genes, extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance determinants in 184 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens in Anhui Province, China. Susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials was determined using broth micro-dilution. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to characterise the molecular basis of the antibiotic resistance. High rates of antimicrobial resistance were observed; 131 out of the 184 (72.3% isolates were resistant to at least six antimicrobial agents. The prevalences of class 1 integrons, tetracycline-resistance genes, phenicol-resistance genes, 16S rRNA methylase genes, extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were 49.5, 17.4, 15.8, 0.5, 57.6 and 46.2%, respectively. In 82 isolates, 48 different kinds of coexistence of the different genes were identified. Statistical (χ2 analysis showed that the resistance to amoxicillin, doxycycline, florfenicol, ofloxacin and gentamicin had significant differences (P<0.01 or 0.01

  18. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China

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    Yi Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People’s Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S. japonicum, Ascaris (A. lumbricoides and Trichuris (T. trichiura were 0.43% (range: 0-0.87% at the village level, 2.28% (range: 1.69-2.88%, and 0.21% (range: 0-0.42%, respectively. No hookworm infection was found. With regard to multiparasitism, only a 33-year-old female was found to be co-infected with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Multiparasitism was unexpectedly rare in the study area, which contrasts with results from other studies carried out elsewhere in the country. The long-term usage of albendazole for individuals serologically positive for schistosomiasis may be the main reason, but this needs to be confirmed by future studies.

  19. Examining Childhood Maltreatment and School Bullying Among Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study From Anhui Province in China.

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    Wang, Geng-Fu; Jiang, Liu; Wang, Lu-Han; Hu, Guo-Yun; Fang, Yu; Yuan, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Su, Pu-Yu

    2016-05-03

    Although a body of research has established the relationship between childhood maltreatment and bullying in Western culture backgrounds, few studies have examined the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and bullying in China. Moreover, to date, the relationship between multiple types of childhood maltreatment and cyber bullying is poorly understood. This study examined the association between multiple types of childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) and multiple forms of school bullying (physical, verbal, relational, and cyber). A cross-sectional study using three-stage random cluster-sampling approach was conducted in Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang, in Anhui Province. Self-reported questionnaires were completed by 5,726 middle school students to assess their school bullying involvement and childhood maltreatment experiences. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between each single type of childhood maltreatment and each single form of school bullying. Each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk for involvement in each form of bullying as bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Specifically, both childhood physical neglect and emotional neglect were associated with increased risk for involvement in each form of school bullying. Each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with involvement in cyber bullying. Students who experienced multiple types of childhood maltreatment seem to report more forms of school bullying. Furthermore, multiple forms of school bullying caused the co-occurrence of several forms of school bullying. Our results indicated a significant association between school bullying and childhood maltreatment among adolescents. Interventions to reduce school bullying encompassing prevention toward childhood maltreatment might get better results in China. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Research of expansion strategy of Postal Direct Mail in Anhui Province, China

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    Sun, Zhengxi

    2012-01-01

    DM is “direct mail “, which is generally translated from English, abbreviated as DM. It means the multiform advertisements with the given information that are delivered to the target groups (potential customer, individuals and enterprises) directly by mailing service. DM is ranked a third media abroad following TV network and newspaper. It accounts for 15 - 20 % market share of the advertising market. However, in China, DM only accounts for less than 3 % market share at present, therefor...

  1. Levels and risk assessment of metals in sediment and fish from Chaohu Lake, Anhui Province, China.

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    Fang, Ting; Lu, Wenxuan; Li, Jing; Zhao, Xiuxia; Yang, Kun

    2017-06-01

    Chaohu Lake is the fifth largest freshwater lake in China, which tolerates substantial amount of anthropogenic discharge from surrounding cities that resulting in the degradation of water and damage of aquatic ecosystem. Metal analysis of sediment and aquatic organisms can provide important information on the environmental contamination and potential impact of aquatic food consumption. Thus, the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, and Hg in sediment and fish from Chaohu Lake were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The mean content of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, and Hg in the sediment samples were 27.4 ± 6.3, 40.5 ± 12.3, 136.8 ± 65.5, 68.5 ± 9.1, 0.357 ± 0.141, 10.8 ± 1.7, and 0.117 ± 0.049 mg/kg, respectively. The results were compared with background values and evaluation methods, to characterize the potential ecological risk. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, and Hg in the fish muscle samples were 1.68-5.31, 0.078-0.31, 15.55-372.98, 0.31-0.93, 0.001-0.033, 0.29-1.03, and 0.04-0.197 mg kg -1 of dry mass, respectively. Most of the concentrations of the studied metals in muscles were found to be below the safe limits; however, the concentration of inorganic As (10% of total As) in two specimens exceeded the maximum allowance in fish. The ecological risk evaluation showed that the metals in sediment posed low to medium risk. The health risk assessment suggested that the consumption of fish from Chaohu Lake is currently safe with respect to the metals.

  2. Identification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains causing bacterial canker of kiwifruit in the Anhui Province of China, and determination of their streptomycin sensitivities.

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    Yang, X; Yi, X-K; Chen, Y; Zhang, A-F; Zhang, J-Y; Gao, Z-H; Qi, Y-J; Xu, Y-L

    2015-07-27

    Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, is one of the most severe diseases of kiwifruit. It has become an international pandemic and threatens the sustainable development of kiwifruit production in all main kiwi-growing regions worldwide. Streptomycin has been the major bactericide for the control of kiwifruit canker, especially in Anhui Province, one of the main kiwifruit production regions in China. However, until now, no studies on the baseline sensitivity to streptomycin of field isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae from China have been available. During 2012-2013, a total of 102 single-colony P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains were isolated: 36, 12, 13, 26, and 15 strains from Yuexi, Jinzhai, Huoshan, Qianshan, and Taihu counties, respectively. All strains were confirmed by production of a 280-bp fragment using the specific primers PsaF1/R2 upon polymerase chain reaction amplification, followed by an assay for confirmation of pathogenicity to fulfill Koch's postulates. In this study, the streptomycin sensitivity of the 102 isolated strains was determined. The half-maximal effective concentration values for inhibition of growth by streptomycin were 0.03-0.42 μg/mL (average 0.12 ± 0.06 μg/mL). The baseline sensitivity curve was unimodal, representing range-of-variation factors of 14.0. No resistant subpopulation was identified among the strains used in the study. Thus, these sensitivity data could be used as a baseline for monitoring the shift in sensitivity of P. syringae pv. actinidiae populations to streptomycin in Anhui Province. Continuous resistance monitoring should be carried out, as streptomycin is an at-risk bactericide agent.

  3. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in the coal-bearing aquifer of the Wugou coal mine, northern Anhui Province, China

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    Chen, Song; Gui, Herong

    2017-07-01

    Major ions, trace elements, and isotope concentrations were measured in 11 representative groundwater samples that were collected from a series of aquifers in the Wugou coal mine, Anhui Province. The geochemical characteristics of the groundwater samples were examined using conventional graphical and multivariate statistical approaches, and the results showed that almost all of the groundwater samples collected from the coal-bearing aquifer were the Na-SO4 type, whereas the samples from the Quaternary and the limestone aquifer were the Ca-SO4 and Na-Cl types, respectively. The groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking without treatment because of the higher values of total dissolved solids and other parameters, whereas the lower value of the sodium adsorption ratio indicates that it can be used for irrigation. The total rare earth element concentrations ranged from 0.0398 to 0.1874 mg/L, and had an average of 0.075 mg/L. There were negative cerium and positive europium anomalies in the groundwater. The δD and δ 18O values in groundwater ranged from -9.01 to -8.81 ‰, and from -74.7 to -71.4 ‰, respectively. Meteoric water with variable degrees of evaporation is the main source of the groundwater in the coal-bearing aquifer.

  4. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy on Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Multicenter Cross-sectional Survey in Anhui Province, Eastern China

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    Hu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: DN patients on MHD in Anhui province exhibited different clinical characteristics compared to non-DN hemodialysis patients. They presented higher percentage in TCC use and cardiovascular complication, lower serum albumin and iPTH levels than those in non-DN patients.

  5. Comparative analysis of physical recreation of Chinese youth as a means of Anhui Province sports tourism

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    Cheng Shouling

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the recreational facilities of Anhui Province, contributing to the development of the sports tourism in China. Material and Methods: analysis and generalization of literature and electronic sources, official web-sites, survey. Results: revealed the interest of young people to cultural and leisure activities in Anhui Province and the increase in the number of tourists at different ages. Development of sports tourism indicates an increase in mass and popularity among the population. Conclusions: addressing public interest in the development of sports tourism in China leads to the enhancement of the role of cultural holiday in physical development and rehabilitation of youth.

  6. Low prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Jilin, Henan and Anhui Provinces of the People's Republic of China.

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    Yang, Yurong; Zhang, Qiongfang; Kong, Yangguang; Ying, Yuqing; Kwok, Oliver Chun Hung; Liang, Hongde; Dubey, Jitender Prakash

    2014-12-12

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. N. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are considered as sentinels for this parasite because of their close contact with people and cats; additionally dog meat is also used for human consumption in China. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii infection in dogs from China. A total of 425 countryside dog hearts in Jilin, Henan and Anhui provinces of the People's Republic of China were collected from slaughter houses in two batches; the first batch of 96 in October 2013, and the second batch of 329 in April 2014. Serum samples extracted from 96 dog hearts were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and from 425 dog hearts were tested for T. gondii antibodies in the modified agglutination tests (cut-off 1:25 for both), using respective antigens. Antibodies to N. caninum were 6 of 96 (6.25%) of dogs with titers of 1:25 in 2, 1:50 in 3, and 1:100 in 1. All seropositive dogs were more than 1 year old. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 35 of 425 (8.24%) dogs with titers of 1:25 in 15, 1:50 in 14; and 1:100 in 6. The results of the present study indicated low prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies in dogs of China, compared with Europe and America. Identification of the risk factors that underlie these differences may help prevention of neosporosis and toxoplasmosis. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in dogs from China.

  7. Measuring Rice Farmer’s Pesticide Overuse Practice and the Determinants: A Statistical Analysis Based on Data Collected in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces of China

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    Jianhua Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the extent of pesticide overuse and what drives rice farmers to overuse pesticide in agricultural production theoretically and empirically is imperative to increase farmers’ income, promote agricultural transformation and agricultural sustainable development. In this paper, we examined the phenomenon and pattern of pesticides overuse based on the data collected from 861 rice farmers in Jiangsu and Anhui, two provinces in China. By applying the Cobb-Douglas production function (C-D production function and the damage control model, we estimated the marginal productivity of pesticides. We also adopted the Binary Probit model to further explore factors leading to overuse of pesticide among farmers. Our findings suggested that the marginal productivity of pesticides is close to zero, indicating that there is an excessive use of pesticides in the surveyed areas. According to the Binary Probit model, we also discovered that female farmers, farmers with knowledge about pesticide toxicity, pesticide residue and farmers who hold the view that massive use of pesticide is inimical to the environment, and farmers who participate in pesticide training organized by the government, are more likely to overuse pesticide. On the contrary, experienced farmers have a lower chance of overusing pesticides. Possible explanations to the above findings may be that applying pesticides in accordance with the instructions causes overusing and farmers who are loss-averse, in order to avoid the risk of income loss that may be caused by disease and insect pests, and keep its own income stable, will still increase the amount of pesticide application. It also indicates that farmers are insensitive to increased pesticide overuse.

  8. Petrogenesis, geochronology, and tectonic significance of granitoids in the Tongshan intrusion, Anhui Province, Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, eastern China

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    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Du, Yang-Song; Teng, Chuan-Yao; Zhang, Jing; Pang, Zhen-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Tongshan copper deposit in Anhui Province is a typical mid-sized skarn and porphyry type deposit in the Anqing-Guichi district along the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, eastern China. The Tongshan intrusion is closely related to this mineralization. The intrusion mainly comprises rocks that are quartz diorite porphyry, quartz monzonite porphyry, and granodiorite porphyry. Plagioclase in these rocks is mostly andesine (An = 31.0-42.9), along with minor oligoclase. Biotite is magnesium-rich [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.52-0.67] and aluminum-poor (Al2O3 = 12.32-14.09 wt.%), and can be classified as magnesio-biotite. Hornblende is TiO2-poor ( 0.60], and is magnesio-hornblende or edenite. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of the quartz monzonite porphyry is 145.1 ± 1.2 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Yanshanian period. Whole-rock geochemical results show that the rocks are silica-rich (SiO2 = 60.23-66.23 wt.%) and alkali-rich (K2O + Na2O = 4.97-8.72 wt.%), and low in calcium (CaO = 2.61-5.66 wt.%). Trace element results show enrichments in large ion lithophile element (e.g., K, Rb, and Ba) and depletions in some high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, P, and Ti). The total rare earth element (REE) content of the rocks is low (ΣREE 10] and small positive Eu anomalies (average δEu = 1.16). These mineralogical, geochronological, and geochemical results show that the intrusion has a mixed crust-mantle source. The Tongshan intrusion was formed by multiple emplacements of crustally contaminated basaltic magma generated by varying degrees of partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle and lower crust. Hornblende thermobarometry yielded magmatic crystallization temperatures of 652-788 °C and an average crystallization pressure of 1.4 kbar, which corresponds to a depth of approx. 4.7 km. Biotite thermobarometry yielded similar temperatures and lower pressures of 735-775 °C and 0.6 kbar (depth 2.1 km), respectively. The parental magma had a high oxygen fugacity and was

  9. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of deep groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer of the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China.

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    Lin, Man-Li; Peng, Wei-Hua; Gui, He-Rong

    2016-04-01

    There is little information available about the hydrochemical characteristics of deep groundwater in the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China. In this study, we report information about the physicochemical parameters, major ions, and heavy metals of 17 groundwater samples that were collected from the coal-bearing aquifer. The results show that the concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and potassium and sodium (K(+) + Na(+)) in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Chinese National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749-2006). The groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer was dominated by the HCO3·Cl-K + Na and HCO3·SO4-K + Na types. Analysis with a Gibbs plot suggested that the major ion chemistry of the groundwater was primarily controlled by weathering of rocks and that the coal-bearing aquifer in the Linhuan coal-mining district was a relatively closed system. K(+) and Na(+) originated from halite and silicate weathering reactions, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) originated from the dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum or anhydrite. Ion exchange reactions also had an influence on the formation of major ions in groundwater. The concentrations of selected heavy metals decreased in the order Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb. In general, the heavy metal concentrations were low; however, the Cr, Mn, and Ni concentrations in some of the groundwater samples exceeded the standards outlined by the WHO, the GB 5749-2006, and the Chinese National Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93). Analysis by various indices (% Na, SAR, and EC), a USSL diagram, and a Wilcox diagram showed that both the salinity and alkalinity of the groundwater were high, such that the groundwater could not be used for irrigating agricultural land without treatment. These results will be significant for water resource exploiting and utilization in

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chickens in Anhui province, China.

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    Lin Li

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL genes and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance (PMQR determinants in 202 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens in Anhui Province, China, and to determine whether ESBL and PMQR genes co-localized in the isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility for 12 antimicrobials was determined by broth microdilution. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs, DNA sequencing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were employed to characterize the molecular basis for β-lactam and fluoroquinolone resistance. High rates of antimicrobial resistance were observed, 147 out of the 202 (72.8% isolates were resistant to at least 6 antimicrobial agents and 28 (13.9% of the isolates were resistant to at least 10 antimicrobials. The prevalence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-206 genes was 19.8%, 24.3% and 11.9%, respectively. Seventy-five out of the 202 (37.1% isolates possessed a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant in the form of qnrS (n = 21; this determinant occurred occasionally in combination with aac(6'-1b-cr (n = 65. Coexistence of ESBL and/or PMQR genes was identified in 31 of the isolates. Two E. coli isolates carried blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M and qnrS, while two others carried blaCTX-M, qnrS and aac(6'-1b-cr. In addition, blaTEM-1, qnrS and aac(6'-1b-cr were co-located in two other E. coli isolates. PFGE analysis showed that these isolates were not clonally related and were genetically diverse. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe detection of TEM-206-producing E. coli in farmed chickens, and the presence of blaTEM-206, qnrS and aac(6'-1b-cr in one of the isolates.

  11. [Spatiotemporal trends and the impact factors of acid rain in Anhui Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-E; Qiu, Ming-Yan; Zhang, Ai-Min; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Su; Wang, Zi-Fa

    2010-06-01

    The observational data of acid rain at seven stations in Anhui province operated by China Meteorological Administration (CMA), as well as the coal consumptions in Anhui and some surrounding provinces along with satellite measured tropospheric NO2 columns, were used to analyze the spatiotemporal trends of acid rain in Anhui and the potential reasons of the increasing occurrence frequency of acid rain. In addition, the technique of back-trajectory-cluster analysis was used to examine the impacts of transport patterns on the precipitation acidity in Anhui. The occurrence frequency shows the lowest in summer and the highest in autumn, with 3-year average pH acid rain were the most severe in southern to middle Anhui and mitigated to north. The distributions of pH were concentrative at Fuyang, Tongling and Huangshan, with more than 75% occurred between 6.00-7.50 (Fuyang), 5.00-6.00 (Tongling) and 5.00-6.50 (Huangshan); quite dispersive at other stations, with the maximum at 4.00-4.50 (Hefei and Anqing), 5.00-5.50 (Maanshan) and 5.50-6.00 (Bengbu). The occurrence frequencies of acid rain increased evidently at all stations comparing with those in the end of 1990s. The results of back-trajectories-cluster analysis show that the acid rain is closely related with the regional-range transport of acid rain precursors at each station. The air-masses from southeast and northeast, especially those passing through Jiangsu and Zhejiang, associated with the highest frequencies of acid rain with pH acid rain in Anhui province. In addition, statistics shows that the occurrence frequency of acid rain in Hefei was highly correlated with the trends of the provincial coal consumptions in Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, also tropospheric NO2 column content over Anhui province and surrounding areas with all correlation coefficients > 0.7, suggesting the close relationship between the quick increasing acid rain in Hefei and the regional pollutant emissions.

  12. Multivariate matrix model for source identification of inrush water: A case study from Renlou and Tongting coal mine in northern Anhui province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Yao, Duoxi; Su, Yue

    2018-02-01

    Under the current situation of energy demand, coal is still one of the major energy sources in China for a certain period of time, so the task of coal mine safety production remains arduous. In order to identify the water source of the mine accurately, this article takes the example from Renlou and Tongting coal mines in the northern Anhui mining area. A total of 7 conventional water chemical indexes were selected, including Ca2+, Mg2+, Na++K+, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 - and TDS, to establish a multivariate matrix model for the source identifying inrush water. The results show that the model is simple and is rarely limited by the quantity of water samples, and the recognition effect is ideal, which can be applied to the control and treatment for water inrush.

  13. High risk factors for severe hand, foot and mouth disease: A multicenter retrospective survey in Anhui Province China, 2008-2009

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    Jiahua Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to determine the high risk factors for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective 229 severe HFMD cases from four hospitals in FuYang, HeFei, and BoZhou (Anhui Provincial Hospital, Fuyang City People′s Hospital, No. 2 People′s Hospital of Fuyang and Bozhou city People′s Hospital in 2008-2009 were studied, with 140 mild HFMD cases in the same area. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the high risk factors of HFMD were identified by comparing clinical and laboratory findings between severe cases and mild cases. Results: There was a significant difference in age, total duration of fever, rate of respiratory and heart, shake of limbs, white blood cell count, blood sugar, and CK-MB between the two groups. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that severe cases were associated with age (<3 years, withdrawnness and lethargy, shake of limbs, tachycardia, total leukocyte count (≥17×10 9 /l, blood sugar (≥7 mmol/l, and CK-MB (≥16 mmol/l. Furthermore, age (<3 years, withdrawnness, and lethargy, shake of limbs, WBC (≥17×10 9 /l, and CK-MB (≥16 mmol/l were found to be high risk factors for severe cases after multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Clinicians should give importance to these risk factors. Early recognition of children at risk and timely intervention is the key to reduce acute mortality and morbidity.

  14. Prediction of Industrial Electric Energy Consumption in Anhui Province Based on GA-BP Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajing; Yin, Guodong; Ni, Youcong; Chen, Jinlan

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electrical energy consumption, a prediction model of industrial electrical energy consumption was proposed based on genetic algorithm and neural network. The model use genetic algorithm to optimize the weights and thresholds of BP neural network, and the model is used to predict the energy consumption of industrial power in Anhui Province, to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electric energy consumption in Anhui province. By comparing experiment of GA-BP prediction model and BP neural network model, the GA-BP model is more accurate with smaller number of neurons in the hidden layer.

  15. Evaluation of the Consistency of MODIS Land Cover Product (MCD12Q1 Based on Chinese 30 m GlobeLand30 Datasets: A Case Study in Anhui Province, China

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    Dong Liang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land cover plays an important role in the climate and biogeochemistry of the Earth system. It is of great significance to produce and evaluate the global land cover (GLC data when applying the data to the practice at a specific spatial scale. The objective of this study is to evaluate and validate the consistency of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land cover product (MCD12Q1 at a provincial scale (Anhui Province, China based on the Chinese 30 m GLC product (GlobeLand30. A harmonization method is firstly used to reclassify the land cover types between five classification schemes (International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP global vegetation classification, University of Maryland (UMD, MODIS-derived Leaf Area Index and Fractional Photosynthetically Active Radiation (LAI/FPAR, MODIS-derived Net Primary Production (NPP, and Plant Functional Type (PFT of MCD12Q1 and ten classes of GlobeLand30, based on the knowledge rule (KR and C4.5 decision tree (DT classification algorithm. A total of five harmonized land cover types are derived including woodland, grassland, cropland, wetland and artificial surfaces, and four evaluation indicators are selected including the area consistency, spatial consistency, classification accuracy and landscape diversity in the three sub-regions of Wanbei, Wanzhong and Wannan. The results indicate that the consistency of IGBP is the best among the five schemes of MCD12Q1 according to the correlation coefficient (R. The “woodland” LAI/FPAR is the worst, with a spatial similarity (O of 58.17% due to the misclassification between “woodland” and “others”. The consistency of NPP is the worst among the five schemes as the agreement varied from 1.61% to 56.23% in the three sub-regions. Furthermore, with the biggest difference of diversity indices between LAI/FPAR and GlobeLand30, the consistency of LAI/FPAR is the weakest. This study provides a methodological reference for evaluating the

  16. Epidemiological features and spatio-temporal clusters of hand-foot-mouth disease at town level in Fuyang, Anhui Province, China (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y J; Sun, L; Xie, J G; Yau, K K W

    2016-11-01

    Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is a frequently occurring epidemic and has been an important cause of childhood mortality in China. Given the disease's significant impact nationwide, the epidemiological characteristics and spatio-temporal clusters in Fuyang from 2008 to 2013 were analysed in this study. The disease exhibits strong seasonality with a rising incidence. Of the reported HFMD cases, 63·7% were male and 95·2% were preschool children living at home. The onset of HFMD is age-dependent and exhibits a 12-month periodicity, with 12-, 24- and 36-month-old children being the most frequently affected groups. Across the first 60 months of life, children born in April [relative risk (RR) 8·18], May (RR 9·79) and June (RR 8·21) exhibited an elevated infection risk of HFMD relative to January-born children; the relative risk compared with the reference (January-born) group was highest for children aged 24 months born in May (RR 34·85). Of laboratory-confirmed cases, enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackie A16 (Cox A16) and other enteroviruses accounted for 60·1%, 7·1% and 32·8%, respectively. Spatio-temporal analysis identified one most likely cluster and several secondary clusters each year. The centre of the most likely cluster was found in different regions in Fuyang. Implications of our findings for current and future public health interventions are discussed.

  17. Origin and evolution of ore-forming fluids in the Hemushan magnetite-apatite deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China, and their metallogenic significance

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    Luo, Gan; Zhang, Zhiyu; Du, Yangsong; Pang, Zhenshan; Zhang, Yanwen; Jiang, Yongwei

    2015-12-01

    The Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt in the northern Yangtze Block is one of the most important economic mineral districts in China. The Hemushan deposit is a medium-class Fe deposit located in the southern part of the Ningwu iron ore district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt. The Fe-orebodies are mainly hosted in the contact zone between diorite and Triassic marble. The actinolite-phlogopite-apatite-magnetite ore shows metasomatic/filling textures and disseminated/mesh-vein structures. Based on evidences and petrographic observations, the ore-forming process can be divided into three distinct periods-the early metallogenic period (albite-diopside stage), the middle metallogenic period (magnetite stage and hematite stage), and the late metallogenic period (quartz-pyrite stage and carbonate stage). Fluid inclusion studies show four types of inclusions: type I daughter mineral-bearing three-phase inclusions (L + V + S), type II vapor-rich two-phase inclusions (L + V), type III liquid-rich two phase inclusions (L + V), and minor type IV liquid-phase inclusions (L). Apatites from the magnetite stage contain type I, type II and type III inclusions; anhydrites from the hematite stage mainly contain abundant type II inclusions and relatively less type I inclusions; quartz and calcite from the late metallogenic stage are mainly characterized by type III inclusions. Laser Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry of fluid inclusions show that the ore-forming fluids broadly correspond to unsaturated NaCl-H2O system. From the magnetite stage to the carbonate stage, the ore-forming fluids evolved from moderate-high temperature (average 414 °C), moderate salinity (average 25.01 wt.% NaCl equiv.) conditions to low temperature (average 168 °C), low salinity (average 6.18 wt.% NaCl equiv.) conditions. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic studies indicate that the ore-forming fluid during the early stage of middle metallogenic period was mainly of magmatic

  18. Male marriage squeeze and inter-provincial marriage in central China: evidence from Anhui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lige; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, inter-provincial female migration for marriage has become important in central and eastern rural China. Using survey data from X County in rural Anhui Province, we explore the arrangement of inter-provincial marriages, as well as the characteristics of husbands and wives, marital satisfaction, and marital stability for these marriages. We find that inter-provincial marriage is an important option for local men to respond to the marriage squeeze and the increasing expense of marriage. It helps to relieve the shortage of marriageable women in the local marriage market. Because this kind of marriage is based on economic exchange, but not affection, it is often subject to a higher risk of marriage instability, and can lead to such illegal behaviors as marriage fraud and mercenary marriage. PMID:26594102

  19. Subclinical eating disorders in female medical students in Anhui, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Wei; Nie, Miao; Kang, Yao-Wen; He, Lian-Ping; Jin, Yue-Long; Yao, Ying-Shui

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) and possible associated factors (depressive symptoms, anxiety and BMI, etc) on EDs in female medical students in China. A total of 1,135 students in Wuhu, Anhui Province were sampled to participate in this survey. The survey collected sociodemographic data, depressive symptoms, anxiety and eating behaviors of students. The students at risk for eating disorders were 2.17%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in students with poor parent's relationship, students with poor relationship with parents, students with high body mass index, students who were excessive focus on slimming propaganda, and students whose relatives have a diet. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A multiple linear regression model was produced depicting that depression, anxiety, high level of BMI, focusing on slimming propaganda, and dieting status among relatives were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. A significant fraction of female medical students in Anhui are at high risk of development of eating disorders. A comprehensive intervention focusing on family environment and emotion management should be designed to prevent occurrence of such disorders among medical students that would undoubtedly hamper the availability of dependable medical services in future. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of induced abortion among rural married women: a cross-sectional survey in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo-Peng; Zhang, Ren-Jie; Zhang, Xiu-Jun; Jia, Xiao-Min; Li, Xiu-De; Li, Xiang; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Tong, Fei; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among married women in rural areas of Anhui Province, China. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years in rural areas of Anhui Province, China. All women were interviewed in the form of a standardized questionnaire. We found that 32.0% (16,800) of these women had had at least one induced abortion: 21.1% (11,090) of women had had one; 7.6% (3976) of women had had two; and 4.1% (1734) of women had had at least three. The number of induced abortions per 100 pregnancies was found to be 22.0. Multivariate analysis showed that education, the age of a woman at her first marriage, number of total births, number of total pregnancies, and contraceptive methods were significant predictors for induced abortion after controlling for women's current age, employment and family yearly income. The study shows that the prevalence of induced abortion is still very high among married women in rural China, and highly effective methods of contraception (sterilization, intrauterine device) decrease women's recourse to induced abortion. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. [Trend analysis of schistosomiasis endemic situation in Anhui Province from 2004 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-qing; Gao, Feng-hua; He, Jia-chang; Zhang, Gong-hua; Wang, Hao; Wang, Tian-ping

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation in Anui Province from 2004 to 2014, so as to provide the evidence for formulating "The thirteenth five year" schistosomiasis control plan. The information for schistosomiasis control and the data of the endemic surveillance of schistosomiasis were collected and analyzed for the changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation in Anhui Province from 2004 to 2014. The Oncomelania hupensis snail areas presented on a rising trend, and reached to the largest area with about 3.1 billon m2in 2011. However, the snail areas decreased from 2012, and reduced by 10.55% in 2012 compared with the areas in 2011, and reduced to the lowest level in 2014 in recent 10 years. The density of living snails presented a fluctuation situation from 2004 to 2008, and on a decreasing trend from 2008, and the density of living snails was below 1 snail/0.l i2 after 2011. The infection rate of snails remained stagnant state from 2004 to 2011, and decreased rapidly in 2012, and no schistosome infected snails were found in 2013 and 2014. The schistosome infection rate of residents decreased gradually, and the number of acute schistosomiasis was under 50 cases with scattered distribution after 2006, and no acute cases occurred in 2013 and 2014. The infection rate of livestock was above 1% from 2004 to 2011, and reduced to 0.55% in 2012, and it was the first time that the infection rate of livestock was lower than that of residents in the same year in 2014. The progress for achieving the goal of schistosomiasis transmission control accelerated after 2011, and the number of counties that reached the standard of schistosomiasis transmission controlled from 2012 to 2014 was 4, 9 and 14 and the number of townships was 33, 76 and 32, respectively. Schistosomiasis control has achieved remarkable effectiveness in Anhui Province, but there still exists hard work to consolidate the achievement and reach schistosomiasis transmission interrupted.

  2. Efficiency and Productivity of County-level Public Hospitals Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis Model and Malmquist Index in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian-Nian; Wang, Cun-Hui; Ni, Hong; Wang, Heng

    2017-12-05

    China began to implement the national medical and health system and public hospital reforms in 2009 and 2012, respectively. Anhui Province is one of the four pilot provinces, and the medical reform measures received wide attention nationwide. The effectiveness of the above reform needs to get attention. This study aimed to master the efficiency and productivity of county-level public hospitals based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model and Malmquist index in Anhui, China, and then provide improvement measures for the future hospital development. We chose 12 country-level hospitals based on geographical distribution and the economic development level in Anhui Province. Relevant data that were collected in the field and then sorted were provided by the administrative departments of the hospitals. DEA models were used to calculate the dynamic efficiency and Malmquist index factors for the 12 institutions. During 2010-2015, the overall average relative service efficiency of 12 county-level public hospitals was 0.926, and the number of hospitals achieved an effective DEA for each year from 2010 to 2015 was 4, 6, 7, 7, 6, and 8, respectively, as measured using DEA. During this same period, the average overall production efficiency was 0.983, and the total productivity factor had declined. The overall production efficiency of five hospitals was >1, and the rest are productivity has not been effectively improved. County-level public hospitals need to combine their own reality to find their own deficiencies.

  3. Epidemic of wild-origin H1NX avian influenza viruses in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ye; Yao, Qiu-Cheng; Wang, Xian-Fu; Fan, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Guo-Hua; Chai, Hong-Liang; Chen, Hua-Lan; Hua, Yu-Ping

    2017-07-03

    As the natural hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), aquatic and migratory birds provide a gene pool for genetic transfer among species and across species, forming transient "genome constellations." This work describes the phylogenetic dynamics of H1NX based on the complete molecular characterization of eight genes of viruses that were collected from 2014 to 2015 in Anhui Province, China. Hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests were used to determine the hemagglutination (HA) activity of the HA subtypes. The entire genomes of the viruses were sequenced on an ABI PRISM 3500xl DNA Analyzer. The sequences were genetically analysed to study their genetic evolution using DNASTAR and MEGA 6. The pathogenic effects of the viruses were evaluated using mouse infection models. Seven strains of the H1 subtype avian influenza virus were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis indicated natural recombination of the H1 influenza viruses between the Eurasian lineage and the North American lineage. Some genes had high sequence identity with A/bean goose/Korea/220/2011(H9N2), which is a typical case involving viral reassortment between the Eurasian lineage and the North American lineage. The results of infection experiments in mice showed that the viruses could acquire the ability to multiply in mouse respiratory organs without adaptation. These findings suggest that continued surveillance of wild birds, particularly migratory birds, is important to provide early warning of possible H1 influenza epidemics and to understand the ecology of the virus.

  4. Investigation on Internet addiction disorder in adolescents in Anhui, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Kang, Yaowen; Gong, Weizhi; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Yao, Yingshui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) in adolescents so as to provide a scientific basis for the communities, schools, and families. We conducted a survey by randomized cluster sampling on 5,249 students, grades ranging from 7 to 12, in Anhui province, People's Republic of China. The questionnaire consisted of general information and IA test. Chi-square test was used to compare the status of IA disorder (IAD). In our results, the overall detection rate of IAD and non-IAD in students was 8.7% (459/5,249) and 76.2% (4,000/5,249), respectively. The detection rate of IAD in males (12.3%) was higher than females (4.9%). The detection rate of IAD was statistically different between students from rural (8.2%) and urban (9.3%) areas, among students from different grades, between students from only-child families (9.5%) and non-only-child families (8.1%), and among students from different family types. Prevalence of IA is high among Chinese adolescents. IAD has more effect on male students, single-child families, single-parent families, and higher grade students. We should take more care of male students, only-child students, and students living with their fathers, and related education should be strengthen for susceptible subjects of IDA.

  5. Assessment and distribution of antimony in soils around three coal mines, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kang, Y.; Lam, P.K.S.; Chou, C.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-three soil samples were collected from the Luling, Liuer, and Zhangji coal mines in the Huaibei and Huainan areas of Anhui Province, China. The samples were analyzed for antimony (Sb) by inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The average Sb content in the 33 samples was 4 mg kg-1, which is lower than in coals from this region (6.2 mg kg-1). More than 75% of the soils sampled showed a significant degree of Sb pollution (enrichment factors [EFs] 5-20). The soils collected near the gob pile and coal preparation plant were higher in Sb content than those collected from residential areas near the mines. The gob pile and tailings from the preparation plant were high in mineral matter content and high in Sb. They are the sources of Sb pollution in surface soils in the vicinity of coal mines. The spatial dispersion of Sb in surface soil in the mine region shows that Sb pollution could reach out as far as 350 m into the local environment conditions. Crops in rice paddies may adsorb some Sb and reduce the Sb content in soils from paddyfields. Vertical distribution of Sb in two soil profiles indicates that Sb is normally relatively immobile in soils. ?? 2011 Air & Waste Management Association.

  6. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. INVESTIGATION ON CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INFECTIONS IN WILD ANIMALS IN A ZOO IN ANHUI PROVINCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Youfang; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Cefan; Li, Peiying; Xu, Qianming; Zhao, Changcheng; Liu, Wei; Xu, Wenlong

    2016-09-01

    To assess Cryptosporidium infections among wild animals in a zoo located in Anhui province, we conducted an investigation on the fecal samples collected from 44 primates, 41 herbivores, 44 carnivores and omnivores, and 103 birds in the zoo with the use of Sheather's sugar flotation technique and modified acid-fast staining. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the fecal samples from six primates, two herbivores, four carnivores and omnivores, and seven birds by using Sheather's sugar flotation technique; the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 13.64, 4.88, 9.09, and 6.80%, respectively. Modified acid-fast staining detected the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the fecal samples of one primate, three herbivores, 0 carnivores and omnivores, and one bird, and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 2.27, 7.32, 0.00, and 0.97%, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis with the use of the neighbor-joining (NJ) method based on the aligned partial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences showed that the protozoan pathogen isolated from primates was Cryptosporidium hominis and the pathogen isolated from camels ( Camelus dromedarius ) was Cryptosporidium andersoni. Subtyping the Cryptosporidium hominis by 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene phylogenetic analysis showed the Cryptosporidium hominis belongs to the subtype IdA and IbA.

  8. [Relationship between cyberbullying and the suicide related psychological behavior among middle and high school students in Anhui Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gengfu; Fang, Yu; Jiang, Liu; Zhou, Guiyang; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Xiuxiu; Su, Puyu

    2015-11-01

    To examine the prevalence rate of cyberbullying in middle and high school students in Anhui Province and explore the relationship between cyberbullying and suicide related psychological behavior. A total of 5726 middle and high school students from the 7th to the 12th grades in three regular middle schools and three regular high schools recruited from three cities in the Anhui Province (Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang). Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang are in the south, middle and north of Anhui, respectively. Each city was selected one regular middle school and one regular high school, and 8 classes were selected form each grade from each school. A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to randomly select 5726 participants among the six schools. Self-reports on cyberbullying and suicide related psychological behavior were collected. Among these 5726 adolescents, 46.8% of them involved in cyberbullying. Among them, 3.2% were bullies, 23.8% were victims, and 19.8% were both. Prevalence rates of suicide idea, suicide plan, suicide preparation, suicide implementation were 19.3%, 6.9%, 4.7% and 1.8%, respectively. Cyberbullying involvement, as victims, bullies or bully-victims, increased the risk of four kinds of suicide related psychological behavior (suicide idea, suicide plan, suicide preparation, suicide implementation) (P Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence in middle and high school students. Additionally, cyberbullying is closely related to suicide related psychological behavior among middle and high school students.

  9. Epidemiological characteristics and influential factors of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) reinfection in children in Anhui province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G-P; Wu, J-B; Wang, J-J; Pan, H-F; Zhang, J; Shi, Y-L; Cao, C; Li, F-R; Fan, Y-G; Meng, F-Y; Ye, D-Q

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute contagious condition caused by a spectrum of human enteroviruses. HFMD reinfection is common in the absence of cross-protection from other virus subtypes. This study focused on reinfection in children in Anhui province, China between 2008 and 2013 using surveillance system data. We classified 8960 cases as reinfected, corresponding to a rate of 2·02%. The reinfection rate was higher in boys than in girls [odds ratio (OR) 1·27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·21-1·32, P < 0·001], children aged < 3 years (OR 3·82, 95% CI 3·58-4·07, P < 0·001), and children living in rural areas (OR 1·09, 95% CI 1·04-1·14, P = 0·001). The reinfection rate in children who were originally infected with non-enterovirus A71 (non-EVA71) enteroviruses was higher than those infected with EVA71 (OR 1·36, 95% CI 1·02-1·80, P = 0·034). Influential factors of reinfection rate included annual incidence (β coefficient = 0·715, P = 0·002) and the proportion of EVA71 in patients with mild HFMD (β coefficient = -0·509, P = 0·018). These results demonstrate that boys aged <3 years, especially those in rural areas or regions with a lower EVA71 proportion are more prone to reinfection, and specific health education programmes should be developed to protect these susceptible populations.

  10. A Comparison of Teaching Management Information Systems in Two State-Funded Universities: Anhui, China and Towson, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecky, Richard B.; Li, Yongfang

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the differences in teaching management information systems to business, accounting, and economics students at Towson University in Maryland and economics and accounting students at Anhui University in China; also sought a teaching paradigm for visiting college-level teachers in China. Found differences in student behavior regarding…

  11. [Analysis on physical and mental health and related influential factors among those 'left behind' adolescents in Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ying-Shui; Kang, Yao-Wen; Jin, Yue-Long; Chen, Yan; Gong, Wei-Zhi; Zheng, Li; An, Zhou; Tao, Fang-Biao; Hao, Jia-Hu

    2012-07-01

    To explore the physical and mental health status on the 'left behind' students in Anhui province and the related influential factors. Stratified cluster sampling method was used to investigate the 682 out of 3421 students from 7 middle schools in both south and north Anhui province, using multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescents (MSQA) and mental health test (MHT), for assessment of the general condition, physical and mental health status. 14.22% of the 'left behind' students were in sub-health condition compared to 11.28% among the normal students, and the mental sub-health status represented 13.64% for the former and 10.84% for the latter. In addition, the 'left behind' students appeared less content with their life than those of staying with their parents (P mental health condition among the left behind students was in linear regression relationship with the decreased physical activity (β = 1.456, P = 0.001), emotional problems (β = 1.096, P = 0.000) and problems of social adaptation (β = 1.011, P = 0.006). The status of physical sub-health in the Anhui province showed that there was no significant difference in each of the study group (P > 0.05). Decreased physical activity and emotion aporia as well as difficult social adaptation were major factors leading to degenerated mental health levels in the 'left-behind' adolescents. The findings suggested that the mental health status could be improved in this population through better management on their body-health condition.

  12. [Malaria epidemiologic characteristics in Wuhe County of Anhui Province from 2009 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Mei; Xia, Li-Huan; Fang, Qiang; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Xia, Hui; Sun, Xin

    2013-02-01

    To understand the malaria epidemiologic characteristics in Wuhe County, Anhui Province from 2009 to 2011, so as to provide the evidence for formulating effective malaria control and prevention interventions. The data of malaria cases from the reporting system and malaria epidemiological investigations were collected and analyzed statistically in Wuhe County from 2009 to 2011. The total number of malaria cases was 349 in Wuhe County from 2009 to 2011, and the incidence showed a downtrend. The sex ratio of patients was 1.42: 1 (205 males vs. 144 females). The ranks of patient age groups were 11-20 years old at the first and 31-40 at the second, and the youngest was 1 year old, and the oldest was 100 years old. The seasonal factor was observed clearly, malaria cases were rare during the period of January to March, the case numbers increased in April and reached the peak during the period of June to September, and the cases from November to December accounted for only 2.01% of the total cases. Among the 349 patients, there were only 2 patients (0.57%) living in urban areas and the rest 347 patients (99.43%) all living in rural areas. The incidence of the urban population was 0.08/10 000, and it was significantly lower than that of the rural population (1.78/10,000, P Town and Xiaoxi Town, the annual incidences were 5.53/10,000 and 4.78/10,000, respectively. The cases in hill townships accounted for 36.10% of the total cases. The most patients in these areas lived in brick or cement buildings without mosquito-proof doors or windows. They preferred sleeping outside during summer, and were generally lack of the malaria prevention knowledge. In Wuhe County, the malaria incidence is decreasing year by year, and the epidemiologic factors are related to the living conditions, mosquito-proof facility using, sleeping habit, and malaria awareness of the residents.

  13. [The prevalence and influencing factors of abuse and negligence against elderly in rural areas of Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pu-yu; Hao, Jia-hu; Xiong, Li-ming; Yu, Dan-dan; Cao, Yue-ting; Fang, Yun; Jiang, Xiu-ling; Qian, Qiao-xia; Tao, Fang-biao

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors related to abuse and negligence against the elderly in the rural areas. 975 elderly over 60 years from 41 counties in Anhui province were included. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire including items as: educational background, marital condition, income, child-discipline, rude action to parents, daily activities, physical functions, having chronic illness, abuse and negligence against the elderly, etc. In the last year, rates of common physical abuse, serious physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, negligence, overall abuse and negligence against the elderly were 4.5%, 1.5%, 26.9%, 4.9%, 7.2%, 29.9% respectively. Among the 281 victims, 80.4% reported that they were suffered more than 3 times of abuse and neglect episodes, and 34.9% reported that they were suffered more than 2 forms of abuse and negligence. The primary sadism was carried out by the daughter-in-law or son-in-law (43.2%) of the elderly. Low activity on daily life and having chronic illness were the risk factors causing common physical abuse while better education was the protective factor to it. Low ability in managing daily activity of living was the risk factor causing serious physical abuse. Less active on daily life and having rude action to parents were the risk factors to emotional abuse, but being strict with their children was the protective factor to emotional abuse. Less active on daily life, often beating their children and having rude action to parents were the risk factors related to financial exploitation. Less active on daily life, having rude action to parents and having bad physical functions were the risk factors causing negligence. Less active on daily life and having rude manner to parents were the risk factors of overall elderly abuse and negligence, but being strict with their children was protective factor to the abuse and negligence against the elderly. High prevalence on abuse and

  14. Lead in soil and agricultural products in the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China: levels, distribution, and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Lu, Lanlan

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soil is of great concern, as heavy metals can be finally transferred to the human body through the food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the lead (Pb) levels and distribution in soil, agricultural products (wheat, paddy, and soybean), and fish, in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA), Anhui Province, China, to provide reference information to local inhabitants. The daily intake and target hazard quotients of Pb through food consumption were assessed. Results showed that the mean Pb concentration in soil was higher than the Huainan soil background Pb value but lower than the maximum allowance Pb concentration for agricultural soil (GB 15618-2008). The elevated Pb in soil, especially in rainy months (June to August in Huainan), might be related to Pb leaching from ambient coal gangue piles. Excessive Pb concentration was found in the grains of food crops, which would pose a potential health risk to local inhabitants. Therein, wheat showed higher Pb bioaccumulation ability than other crops. With regard to the Pb levels in muscles, fishes were considered to be safe for consumption. The calculations on daily intake and tolerable hazard quotient of Pb suggest that the potential health hazard posed by Pb is currently insignificant for the inhabitants in the HCMA.

  15. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Variability and Factors Influencing Adaptation: Evidence from Anhui and Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibue, Grace Wanjiru; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Jufeng; zhang, Xuhui; Pan, Genxing; Li, Lianqing; Han, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    Impacts of climate variability and climate change are on the rise in China posing great threat to agriculture and rural livelihoods. Consequently, China is undertaking research to find solutions of confronting climate change and variability. However, most studies of climate change and variability in China largely fail to address farmers' perceptions of climate variability and adaptation. Yet, without an understanding of farmers' perceptions, strategies are unlikely to be effective. We conducted questionnaire surveys of farmers in two farming regions, Yifeng, Jiangsu and Qinxi, Anhui achieving 280 and 293 responses, respectively. Additionally, we used climatological data to corroborate the farmers' perceptions of climate variability. We found that farmers' were aware of climate variability such that were consistent with climate records. However, perceived impacts of climate variability differed between the two regions and were influenced by farmers' characteristics. In addition, the vast majorities of farmers were yet to make adjustments in their farming practices as a result of numerous challenges. These challenges included socioeconomic and socio-cultural barriers. Results of logit modeling showed that farmers are more likely to adapt to climate variability if contact with extension services, frequency of seeking information, household heads' education, and climate variability perceptions are improved. These results suggest the need for policy makers to understand farmers' perceptions of climate variability and change in order to formulate policies that foster adaptation, and ultimately protect China's agricultural assets.

  16. Parental migration and smoking behavior of left-behind children: evidence from a survey in rural Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Li, Cuicui; Zhou, Chengchao; Jiang, Shan; Chu, Jie; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-08-05

    Parental migration is most an important factor affecting children's behaviors. Few studies have addressed the association between parental migration and children's smoking behavior in China. This study aims to estimate the current smoking prevalence among children, evaluate the association of parental migration and the smoking behavior of children and identify factors associated with smoking behavior among left-behind children (LBC). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 cities in Anhui province during July and August, 2012. All participants were interviewed face-to-face using a standardized questionnaire. Only children 10 to 14 years old that live in rural villages for at least 6 months during the previous year were included in the study. A total of 1343 children met the sampling criteria and participated in the study. Of these, 56 % are LBC and 44 % live with both parents. The average rate of smoking is 3.4 %. The rate of smoking is statistically higher for LBC with both parents out (rate = 6.1 %; OR = 5.59, P parents (1.4 %). Similarly, the rate of LBC with father home only (rate = 5.0 %; OR = 5.60, P = 0.005) is also statistically higher than for children living with both parents when controlling other variables. Factors affecting the smoking behavior of LBC, include gender (i.e., boys), (perceived) school performance and primary caregiver. Parental migration is associated with a significant increase in smoking behavior among children. Intervention studies that target LBC would help to develop strategies to reduce smoking among rural children. Gender-specific strategies and anti-smoking education also appears to be needed to reduce tobacco use among rural LBC.

  17. [Influence of three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns treatment in Anhui province on treatment effects of burn children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z G; Zhou, X L; Kong, W C; Li, X Z; Song, J H; Fang, L S; Hu, D L; Cai, C; Tang, Y Z; Yu, Y X; Wang, C H; Xu, Q L

    2018-03-20

    Objective: To explore the influence of three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns in Anhui province on treatment effects of burn children. Methods: The data of medical records of pediatric burn children transferred from Lu'an People's Hospital and Fuyang People's Hospital to the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2014 to December 2015 and January 2016 to September 2017 (before and after establishing three-level collaboration network of pediatric burns treatment) were analyzed: percentage of transferred burn children to hospitalized burn children in corresponding period, gender, age, burn degree, treatment method, treatment result, occurrence and treatment result of shock, and operative and non-operative treatment time and cost. Rehabilitation result of burn children transferred back to local hospitals in 2016 and 2017. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: (1) Percentage of burn children transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 was 34.3% (291/848) of the total number of hospitalized burn children in the same period of time, which was close to 30.4% (210/691) of burn children transferred from January 2016 to September 2017 ( χ (2)=2.672, P >0.05). (2) Gender, age, burn degree, and treatment method of burn children transferred from the two periods of time were close ( χ (2)=3.382, Z =-1.917, -1.911, χ (2)=3.133, P >0.05). (3) Cure rates of children with mild, moderate, and severe burns transferred from January 2016 to September 2017 were significantly higher than those of burn children transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 ( χ (2)=11.777, 6.948, 4.310, P burns transferred from the two periods of time were close ( χ (2)=1.181, P >0.05). (4) Children with mild and moderate burns transferred from the two periods of time were with no shock. The incidence of shock of children with severe burns transferred from January 2014 to December 2015 was 6

  18. Studying and significance of instructing environment about heavy elements of plants by XRF in Zhongshan iron mine, Anhui province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiansheng; Sun Hao; Kang Shixiu; Wu Ziqin; Huang Yuying

    2002-01-01

    By means of SR X-ray fluorescence, the authors have studied the heavy elements in leaves for 8 species of plants in Zhongshan mine, Anhui province. These plants are Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rumex acetosa, Medicago hispida, Viola yedoensis, Eupatorium japonicum, Erigeron annuus and Taraxacum mongolicum. The results of experiments are that the content of Fe element in Eupatorium japonicum is the highest, and the lowest one is in Taraxacum mongolicum. The sequence of the abundance of Fe element from high to low is Eupatorium japonicum, Rumex acetosa, Medicago hispida, Polygonum cuspidatum, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, Viola yedoensis, Erigeron annuus and Taraxacum mongolicum. The content of K element in young leaf of Rumex acetosa is about 7 times, and the one of Fe element is 1.5 times, respectively, as high as that in functional leaf. The contents of Fe element of Medicago hispida and Taraxacum mongolicum in iron mine region are 5 times and about 7 times, respectively, as high as that in non-mine region

  19. Geochemistry of trace elements in coals from the Zhuji Mine, Huainan Coalfield, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zheng, Lingyun; Chou, C.-L.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of nine major elements and thirty-eight trace elements in 520 samples of low sulfur coals from the Zhuji Mine, Huainan Coalfield, Anhui, China, were determined. Samples were mainly collected from 10 minable coal seams of 29 boreholes during exploration. The B content in coals shows that the influence of brackish water decreased toward the top of coal seams; marine transgression and regression occurred frequently in the Lower Shihezi Formation. A wide range of elemental abundances is found. Weighted means of Na, K, Fe, P, Be, B, Co, Ni, Cr, Se, Sb, Ba, and Bi abundances in Zhuji coals are higher, and the remainder elements are either lower or equal to the average values of elements in coals of northern China. Compared to the Chinese coals, the Zhuji coals are higher in Na, K, Be, B, Cr, Co, Se, Sn, Sb, and Bi, but lower in Ti, P, Li, V and Zn. The Zhuji coals are lower only in S, P, V and Zn than average U.S. and world coals. Potassium, Mg, Ca, Mn, Sr, As, Se, Sb and light rare earth elements (LREE) had a tendency to be enriched in thicker coal seams, whereas Fe, Ti, P, V, Co, Ni, Y, Mo, Pb and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) were inclined to concentrate in thinner coal seams. The enrichment of some elements in the Shanxi or Upper Shihezi Formations is related to their depositional environments. The elements are classified into three groups based on their stratigraphic distributions from coal seams 3 to 11-2, and the characteristics of each group are discussed. Lateral distributions of selected elements are also investigated. The correlation coefficients of elemental abundances with ash content show that the elements may be classified into four groups related to modes of occurrence of these elements. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficiency and Productivity of County-level Public Hospitals Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis Model and Malmquist Index in Anhui, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Nian Li

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In 2010–2015, the relative service efficiency of 12 county-level public hospitals in Anhui Province showed a decreasing trend, and the service efficiency of each hospital changed. In the past 6 years, although some hospitals have been effective, the efficiency of the county-level public hospitals in Anhui Province has not improved significantly, and the total factor productivity has not been effectively improved. County-level public hospitals need to combine their own reality to find their own deficiencies.

  1. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  2. Green Barriers for China Tea : A Case Study of Anhui Tea Imports and Exports Co., Ltd Faces Green Barriers in Exporting

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Yanjing

    2014-01-01

    Tea industry is one of the traditional industries in China, and it is an indispensable livelihood industry with obvious competitive advantages in China. As we know, the economy of China has grown quickly after sweeping economic reform. Nowadays, the green barriers have become the most popular topic in the tea exporting area. No country escapes the impact of green barriers. Similarly, green barriers will bring opportunities and challenges. Anhui Tea Imports and Exports Co., Ltd is an i...

  3. The prevalence and influencing factors for child neglect in a rural area of Anhui province: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F; Bi, L; Chen, M-C; Wu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify the change of prevalence and influencing factors for child neglect in a rural area of Anhui province through the 2-year follow-up study. Longitudinal study with 2-year follow-up. Analyses were based on data from a longitudinal study, performed in five elementary schools and three secondary schools in Changfeng County. A total of 816 children aged between 7 and 16 years completed the three assessments during the period of 2009-2011. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were applied to identify the influencing factors of child neglect. The prevalence of child neglect was 67.8%, 56.6%, and 57.7% at the three assessments, respectively. There were 272 children (33.3%) having consistently experiencing neglect during three assessments and 106 (13.0%) children had not suffered from neglect during three assessments. Among 553 participants who experienced neglect at the first assessment, 105 (19.0%) children no longer met the diagnosis at the next two assessments. Fifty-two children who did not suffer from neglect at the first assessment experienced neglect at the final assessment. The results of GEEs showed that child neglect was clearly associated with age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92-0.99, P = 0.016), male gender (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.43, P = 0.047), siblings (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.03-1.55, P = 0.028), parental marital disruption (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.09-3.78, P = 0.027), left-behind status (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.06-1.49, P = 0.008), severe family dysfunction (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.03-2.07, P = 0.035), quality of life (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.98-0.99, P neglect across the three assessments. Additionally, some sociodemographic, psychosocial and family risk factors of child neglect were identified, which will be helpful for child neglect prevention strategies development and implementation in China. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Premature Ejaculation in the Anhui Male Population in China: Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Peng, Dangwei; Zhang, Xiansheng; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Zhang, Yao; Mao, Jun; Dou, Xianming; Liang, Chaozhao

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, new evidence-based definitions of lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) were proposed by the International Society for Sexual Medicine. Based on the new PE definitions, the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE have not been investigated in China. To evaluate the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE in China. From December 2011 to December 2015, a cross-sectional field survey was conducted in five cities in the Anhui province of China. Questionnaire data of 3,579 men were collected in our database. The questionnaire included subjects' demographic information and medical and sexual histories. Men who were not satisfied with their time to ejaculate were accepted as having the complaint of PE. Men with the complaint of PE who met the new definition of PE were diagnosed as having LPE or APE. New definition of LPE and APE. Of 3,579 men who completed the questionnaire, 34.62% complained of PE. Mean age, body mass index, and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time for all subjects were 34.97 ± 9.02 years, 23.33 ± 3.56 kg/m 2 , and 3.09 ± 1.36 minutes, respectively. The prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. LPE and APE were associated with age, body mass index, and smoking and exercise rates (P hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease (P < .001 for all comparisons). In this study, the prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. Patients with APE were older and more likely to smoke, had more comorbidities, and had a higher body mass index than patients with LPE. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Depressive symptoms and related factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province:a two-year longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Linsheng; Chen, Mingchun; Chen, Jian; Lyu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yuhong; Sun, Ying; Sun, Yehuan

    2014-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms, trends on its longitudinal development and related influencing factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province. Through cluster sampling methods, all students from 3 to 9 grades in 5 primary schools and 3 middle schools in Changfeng county of Anhui province were investigated through questionnaire as subjects of baseline survey in December 2009. Subjects of this longitudinal study were students in grades 3, 4 and 7 at the time of the baseline survey and were contacted once a year for two years. At last, a total of 816 students participated in all the three surveys. A structured questionnaire including Children's Depression Inventory, socio-demographic characteristics and some potential influential factors was employed for this study. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to evaluate the related influencing factors of children's depressive symptoms in the longitudinal study. Prevalence rates of depressive symptoms were 11.3% , 10.4% and 8.5% , respectively, at the baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-up studies, among primary and middle school students. Scores on depressive symptoms of total subjects and children who had always been left at home in the follow-up process showed significant differences at the three surveys (F = 13.423, P students who showed depressive symptoms at the baseline survey remained those depressive symptoms at the 1-year follow-up study and 87 percent of the 23 students who had depressive symptoms at the baseline and 1-year follow-up surveys still showing depressive symptoms at the 2-year follow-up study. Results from the GEE program indicated that grade 3 students, having syblings, family with dysfunction or at low level of self-esteem etc., were prone to development while sex and parents' educational level were not correlated with depressive symptoms. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county

  6. Aves, province of Guizhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis, Fujian Flycatcher Niltava davidii, RedtailedLaughingthrush Garrulax milnei, and Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni. These records provide the mostrecent insight into the current status of the habitats and the avian biodiversity of an important, yet sparsely surveyed andreported biogeographic region.

  7. [Field evaluation of a novel plant molluscicide "Luo-wei" against Oncomelania hupensis IV molluscicidal effect in field of river beach in Dongzhi County, Anhui Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Fa; Chen, Sheng-You; Xie, Wei-Ping; Zhou, Ping; Sun, Le-Ping; Jia, Tie-Wu

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the field effect of the plant molluscicide "Luo-wei" (tea-seed distilled saponins, TDS) against the snail Oncomelania hupensis in the river beach in Anhui Province. The immersing and spraying experiments were carried out in the river beach in Dongzhi County, Anhui Province, to assess the molluscicidal effect of 4% TDS comparing with 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN). The chi(2) test or Fish's exact test was used to examine the differences between or among the molluscicidal effects by different environments, molluscicides, application methods, or days after the intervention. Meanwhile, the cost-effectiveness of the two molluscicides was analyzed. After 1, 2 , 3 d and 7 d of the immersion, the snail death rates in both TDS group and WPN group increased gradually, the snail death rates in the two groups after immersing for 7 d were 94.62% and 99.24%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between them ( chi(2) = 3.30, P > 0.05). After 1 , 3 , 7 d and 15 d of spraying, the snail death rates were 70.82%, 79.75%, 85.11% and 91.65% in the TDS group, and 77.71%, 84.27%, 91.90% and 95.58% in the WPN group, respectively, and the differences among the snail death rates of the two groups at each time point were statistically significant (all P values molluscicidal effect of TDS has reached the requirements of national standard on nature source pesticides in the river beach of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. It is necessary to further evaluate its cost-effectiveness in large-scale field experiments in the future.

  8. Characterization of phosphorus in the sedimentary environments of inundated agricultural soils around the Huainan Coal Mines, Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qitao; Xie, Kai; Sun, Pengfei; Kim, Youngchul

    2014-02-15

    Extensive coal mining in the Huainan Coal Mines, Anhui China, in light of the local hydrology and geology, has resulted in extensive land subsidence and submergence around the mines. This has led to the formation of large (>100 km(2)) lakes. Three representative lakes were selected to study the mechanisms of phosphorus (P) unavailability for primary production from the perspective of sedimentary environments, which in turn owe their formation to permanently inundated agricultural soils. Two important issues were considered: (1) potential of P transport from the cultivated soil column toward surface sediments and (2) characterization of P behavior in view of regional ecological rehabilitation and conservation. Accordingly, we conducted field sediment analyses, combined with simulation experiments of soil column inundation/submergence lasting for four months. Enrichment of Fe-(hydr)oxides in surface sediments was verified to be the main reason for limitations in regional P availability in water bodies. Iron (Fe), but not its bound P, moved upward from the submerged soil column to the surface. However, an increasing upward gradient in the contents of organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (TP), and different P fractions was caused by spatial heterogeneity in soil properties. Phosphorus was unable to migrate upward toward the surface sediments as envisioned, because of complex secondary reactions within soil minerals. Phosphorus bound to Fe and/or Al comprised over 50% of TP, which has important implications for local ecological rehabilitation and water conservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Current Recommended Vitamin D Prenatal Supplementation and Fetal Growth: Results From the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rui-Xue; Meng, Deng-Hon; Li, Jing-Jing; Tong, Shi-Lu; Hao, Jia-Hu; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Maternal vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with fetal growth restriction. However, the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation on fetal growth has not been confirmed. To assess the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) during pregnancy on the neonatal vitamin D status and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA). As part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort study, maternal sociodemographic characteristics, food intake, lifestyle, information on vitamin D supplementation, and birth outcomes were prospectively collected. For participants, 600 IU/d of vitamin D3 was routinely advised to take during pregnancy. Cord blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, and phosphorus were measured in 1491 neonates who were divided into three groups based on the duration of maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. Mean cord blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were 3.5 nmol/L higher [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8, 6.2] in neonates (median, 37.9 nmol/L) whose mother took vitamin D supplementation for >2 months during pregnancy compared with those (median, 34.3 nmol/L) whose mother did not take any supplement. These significant differences on cord blood concentrations of 25(OH)D occurred regardless of the season of birth. The adjusted risk of SGA in pregnant women with vitamin D supplementation for >2 months was significantly decreased than that in women without any vitamin D supplementation (11.8% vs 6.9%; adjusted odds ratio = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.32, 0.87). The findings from China suggest that maternal vitamin D supplementation recommended by the IOM results in a slight but significantly higher fetal level of 25(OH)D and improves fetal growth.

  10. Principal Component Analysis of Anhui Agricultural Industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Simulation, Optimization, Monitoring and Control Technology; International audience; This paper is discussed the Anhui agricultural industrialization using the method of principal component analysis. The indexes include per capita net income of farmers in Anhui province, non-agricultural employment rate, urbanization rate, the total power of agricultural mechanization, universal ratio of rural water, car villages, the proportion of industrial waste water by sewage treatment in total e...

  11. [Enterobius vermicularis infection status among children in 9 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Dan; Wang, Ju-Jun; Zhu, Hui-Hui; Zhu, Ting-Jun; Zang, Wei; Qian, Men-Bao; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Chang-Hai; Wang, Guo-Fei; Xu, Long-Qi

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the infection status of Enterobius vermicularis among children in 9 Provinces/Autonomous regions/Municipalities (P/A/M) of China, and analyze its risk factors. From April to December 2011, one provincial capital (prefecture-level city) and one county (city, district) were chosen as investigation spots from Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Chongqing, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Anhui and Guizhou, respectively. Children aged 2 to 12 were examined by using adhesive cellophane anal swab with round-bottom tube. Information of children's family condition, health behavior and school environment were collected by questionnairing. 14 964 children were examined, and 14 582 qualified questionnaires were collected. The total prevalence was 17.8% (2 659/14 964). Of the 9 P/A/M, the prevalence was highest in Hainan Province (51.1%, 869/1 701) and lowest in Anhui Province (0.8%, 13/1 589). The prevalence in urban areas (7.3%, 552/7 581) was lower than that of rural areas (28.5%, 2 107/7 383) (chi2 = 1156.73, P 0.05). The highest prevalence in males (61.2%, 300/490) and females (67.9%, 247/364) was found in children of Wanning City. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that residence, education level of parents, occupation of parents, nail biting, types of classroom ground and type of boarding were the risk factors on E. vermicularis infection. The prevalence of enterobiasis in children is still high in many areas of China, and the prevention and control measures should be taken according to the risk factors.

  12. [Study on an outbreak of echovirus type 6 of meningitis in Liu'an city, Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shu-Chun; Xiong, Chuan-Long; Wu, Jia-Bing; Peng, Da-Yuan; Zhao, Yue-Ping

    2007-07-01

    To understand the epidemiological, clinical and etiological characteristics of an Echovirus type 6 meningitis outbreak in Jinzhai county, Liu'an city in Anhui, and to find out the proper way in controlling the aseptic meningitis outbreak. A surveillance system for aseptic meningitis was established in Jinzhai to confirm the case definition. Stool or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from some cases were collected for entero-viruses isolation and identification. Case-control study was conducted. The case group involved patients while the controls would include: patients' classmate with same gender and the age difference was not over one year. Neutralization antibody in serum specimens were collected and tested in cases and in healthy people. 105 cases were distributed in 17 of the 30 towns in Jinzhai county while 41.0% of the cases were in Banzhuyuan town with an incidence rate of 203/10(5). Cases were clustered by school and classroom with age ranging from 3 to 15 years old and the highest as 10.9/10(5) in the 6 to 10 group. The incidence in males was 24.2/10(5) compared to 8.4/10(5) in females. The main clinic characteristics of cases were: fever, headache and vomiting. Echovirus type 6 from 25 of the 72 CSF samples (35%) was isolated. When comparing the cases group with control group, the OR of drinking home-made beverages was 4.1 (95% CI: 1.4-12.0), especially the beverages sacked by plastic bag: 3.3 (95% CI: 1.3-8.8). 6 out of 7 workers engaging in producing home-made beverages were detected to have carried Echovirus type 6 from their stool specimens. The Echovirus type 6 neutralization antibody positive rate in cases (73.5%) was significantly higher than that in 100 healthy people (46.0%) (X2 = 12. 526, P = 0.000). This episode of meningitis outbreak was caused by Echovirus type 6. The proportion of drinking home-made beverages, especially the beverages sacked by plastic bag in cases group was higher than in control group.

  13. Collectivism culture, HIV stigma and social network support in Anhui, China: a path analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Chunpeng; Guida, Jennifer; Sun, Yehuan; Liu, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    HIV stigma is rooted in culture and, therefore, it is essential to investigate it within the context of culture. The objective of this study was to examine the interrelationships among individualism-collectivism, HIV stigma, and social network support. A social network study was conducted among 118 people living with HIVAIDS in China, who were infected by commercial plasma donation, a nonstigmatized behavior. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups, family members, friends, and neighbors. Path analyses revealed (1) a higher level of family ICIAI was significantly associated with a higher level of HIV self-stigma (β=0.32); (2) a higher level of friend ICIAI was associated with a lower level of self-stigma (β=-035); (3) neighbor ICIAI was associated with public stigma (β=-0.61); (4) self-stigman was associated with social support from neighbors (β=-0.27); and (5) public stigma was associated with social support from neighbors (β=-0.24). This study documents that HIV stigma may mediate the relationship between collectivist culture and social network support, providing an empirical basis for interventions to include aspects of culture into HIV intervention strategies.

  14. [Relationship on the prevalence of physical activity to depressive symptoms and satisfaction of school life among middle school students in Bengbu, Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Qian, Qing-wen; Sun, Ying; Weng, Ting-ting; Wang, Hui; Tao, Fang-biao

    2012-02-01

    To describe the prevalence and relationship between physical activity (PA), depressive symptoms and school life satisfaction among middle school students in Bengbu, Anhui province. A total number of 5268 boys and girls were analyzed from 4 middle schools. Depressive symptoms were assessed, using the Depression Self-rating Scale for Children, school life satisfaction via the School Life Satisfaction Rating Questionnaire. Self-reported PA and sedentary behaviors were also assessed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used. Adolescents self-reported rates of participating in sufficient moderate, vigorous and insufficient PA were 14.7%, 36.0% and 59.1%, respectively. The prevalence rates on depressive symptoms and school life dissatisfaction were 24.4% and 25.9%. After adjusting on sedentary behaviors and other potential confounders, participants who had engaged in sufficient moderate and vigorous PA had odds ratios of 0.73 (0.60 - 0.89), 0.68 (0.59 - 0.79) and 0.76 (0.63 - 0.92), 0.70 (0.61 - 0.81) for likelihood of being depressive and school life dissatisfaction, compared to their counterparts who participating in insufficient moderate and vigorous PA. Insufficient PA was positively associated with depression and dissatisfaction of their school lives [OR (95%CI): 1.42 (1.24 - 1.63) and 1.45 (1.27 - 1.66)]. High prevalence of insufficient PA was seen among adolescents and PA was closely related to the presence of depressive symptoms and school life dissatisfaction among middle school students.

  15. K-Ar chronology of the Luohe iron district, Anhui Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    Twelve samples of rock from the four mapped units or cycles and one of the major intrusive bodies were collected and evaluated for K-Ar age determination. These include specimens from outcrop and from drill core. Biotite from two outcrop and two core samples and hornblende from one outcrop sample were separated from the sample and dated; a sixth sample was dated using crushed, sieved, and acid-treated whole rock. The ages and analytical data to support them are compatible with the observed relationships in the field or from the drill holes. The percent of K2O in all samples is typical of fresh unaltered mineral phases and the percent of radiogenetic 40Ar relative to total 40Ar is high (88.8 to 63.8%) yielding relatively low analytical errors. -from Authors

  16. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  17. A new species of the genus Ctenophora Meigen (Diptera: Tipuloidea: Tipulidae) from China, with a key to the world species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Qiu-Lei; Huang, Min-Yi

    2014-07-29

    One new species of the genus Ctenophora Meigen, 1803, C. fumosa Men, sp. nov. (southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to known species along with a checklist of known species of the genus Ctenophora are provided. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the animal specimen room, School of Life Science, Anqing Normal University, Anqing, Anhui Province, China

  18. Healthcare system responsiveness in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jianqian; Lu, Boyang; Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Liguo; Jin, Hui; Liu, Pei

    2017-01-13

    The perceived responsiveness of a healthcare system reflects its ability to satisfy reasonable expectations of the public with respect to non-medical services. Recently, there has been increasing attention paid to responsiveness in evaluating the performance of a healthcare system in a variety of service settings. However, the factors that affect the responsiveness have been inconclusive so far and measures of improved responsiveness have not always thoroughly considered the factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the responsiveness of the healthcare system in Jiangsu Province, China, the factors that influence responsiveness and the measures of improved responsiveness considering it, as determined by a responsiveness survey. A multistage, stratified random sampling method was used to select 1938 adult residents of Jiangsu Province in 2011. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a self-designed questionnaire modeled on the World Health Organization proposal. The final analysis was based on 1783 (92%) valid questionnaires. Canonical correlation analysis was used to assess the factors that affect responsiveness. The average score of all responsiveness-related domains in the surveyed healthcare system was satisfactory (7.50 out of a maximum 10.0). The two highest scoring domains were dignity and confidentiality, and the two lowest scoring domains choice and prompt attention. The factors affecting responsiveness were age, regional economic development level, and geographic area (urban vs. rural). The responsiveness regarding basic amenities was rated worse by the elderly than by younger respondents. Responsiveness ranked better by those with a poorer economic status. Choice in cities was better than in rural regions. The responsiveness of the Jiangsu healthcare system was considered to be satisfactory but could be improved by offering greater choice and providing more prompt attention. Perceptions of healthcare system responsiveness differ with age

  19. [Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among 2508 college students in 6 provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Qi; Han, Ping; Lian, Guang-Li; Dunne, Michael P

    2010-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in college students and to explore the association of CSA with youth mental health problem. A retrospective survey was conducted among 2508 students (females 1360, males 1148) in Nov. 2003 to Mar. 2004. The students were from 6 colleges/universities in Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, Shaanxi and Anhui provinces of China. Of the 2508 students, 24.8% of females and 17.6% of males reported one or more types of nonphysical contact CSA (females 20.0% vs. males 14.6%) or/and physical contact CSA (females 14.1% vs. males 7.8%) before the age of 16 years. Risk of any CSA was not associated with the existence of siblings (one-child vs. two-or more child families), rural/non-rural residence during childhood, or parental education. Compared with their peers who had no CSA, the students with CSA showed significantly higher mean scores of psychological symptoms of somatization, obsessiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. The problem of CSA was not uncommon and there was a significant correlation between CSA experience and students mental health problems. More attention should be paid on CSA prevention and provision of health services for the victims.

  20. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With ra...

  1. Remediation of Legacy Arsenic Mining Areas in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian H. von Lindern

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The success of the demonstration project was recognized and has provided direction and momentum for a wider effort by the Province to address mining pollution and water contamination challenges. It demonstrates the success of using known techniques for environmental remediation in the US, with local partners in China responding to their communities’ health and environmental problems.

  2. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, P. O. Box 9818, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China. 3Shaanxi Province Institute of ... source of the metal, the physico-chemical charac- ter of the hydrothermal fluid that carries the REE and the geochemical ambience of metal traps, also might indirectly indicate ...

  3. Human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Ren

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The majority of rabies cases occurred among 40–65-year-old male residents of northern, mid-west, and southeast Zhejiang Province. Further health education is needed to increase the coverage of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP in people exposed to possible rabid animals and rabies vaccine use in household animals.

  4. Distribution and assessment of Pb in the supergene environment of the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Yuan, Zijiao; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2014-08-01

    Coal mining area is highly subject to lead (Pb) pollution from coal mining activities. Several decades of coal mining and processing practices in dozens of coal mines in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA) have led to the accumulation of massive amounts of coal gangue, which piled in dumps. In order to investigate the impacts of coal gangue dumps on Pb level in the supergene media of the HCMA, a systematic sampling campaign comprising coal gangue, soil, wheat, and earthworm samples was conducted. The average Pb content in the coal mining area soil is 24 mg/kg, which is slightly higher than the associated coal gangues (23 mg/kg) and markedly higher than reference region soil (12.6 mg/kg). Soil in the HCMA present a slight to moderate Pb contamination, which might be related to the weathering and leaching of coal gangue dumps. Lateral distribution of Pb in HCMA soil differed among individual coal mines. The soil profile distribution of Pb depends on both natural and anthropogenic contributions. Average Pb content is higher in roots than in stems, leaves, and wheat husks, while the Pb level in seeds exceeded the maximum Pb allowance for foods (Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods of China, GB 2762-2012). Earthworms in the selected area are significantly enriched in Pb, suggesting higher bio-available Pb level in soil in the HCMA.

  5. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhicao; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Wu, Dun; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  6. Carbon budget and its response to environmental factors in young and mature poplar plantations along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinxing Zhou; Yuan Wei; Jun Yang; Xiaohui Yang; Zeping Jiang; Jiquan Chen; Asko Noormets; Xiaosong Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Although poplar forest is the dominant plantation type in China, there is uncertainty about the carbon budget of these forests across the country. The observations, performed in 2006, of two eddy covariance flux towers on a young poplar plantation (Yueyang, Hunan province) and a mature poplar plantation (Huaining, Anhui province) provide an opportunity to understand...

  7. Ownership biases and FDI in China: two provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yasheng

    2005-01-01

    Jiangsu and Zhejiang are of two of China most prosperous and dynamic provinces. This paper first presents a factual account of two empirical phenomena: 1) FDI has played a more substantial role in the economic development of Jiangsu than in Zhejiang, and 2) ownership biases against domestic private firms in Jiangsu were more substantial than in Zhejiang. The paper hypothesizes that there is a connection between these two empirical phenomena. Specifically, ownership biases against domestic pri...

  8. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has ... à la terre au Pakistan. L'accès inéquitable aux terres consiste en un obstacle systémique à l'égalité des sexes au Pakistan, ce qui est à la fois la cause et l'effet de la marginalisation des femmes.

  9. Impact of weather factors on hand, foot and mouth disease, and its role in short-term incidence trend forecast in Huainan City, Anhui Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Desheng; Wang, Lulu; Cheng, Jian; Xu, Jun; Xu, Zhiwei; Xie, Mingyu; Yang, Huihui; Li, Kesheng; Wen, Lingying; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Shusi; Su, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is one of the most common communicable diseases in China, and current climate change had been recognized as a significant contributor. Nevertheless, no reliable models have been put forward to predict the dynamics of HFMD cases based on short-term weather variations. The present study aimed to examine the association between weather factors and HFMD, and to explore the accuracy of seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model with local weather conditions in forecasting HFMD. Weather and HFMD data from 2009 to 2014 in Huainan, China, were used. Poisson regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was applied to examine the relationship between weather factors and HFMD. The forecasting model for HFMD was performed by using the SARIMA model. The results showed that temperature rise was significantly associated with an elevated risk of HFMD. Yet, no correlations between relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall, and HFMD were observed. SARIMA models with temperature variable fitted HFMD data better than the model without it (s R 2 increased, while the BIC decreased), and the SARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 0)52 offered the best fit for HFMD data. In addition, compared with females and nursery children, males and scattered children may be more suitable for using SARIMA model to predict the number of HFMD cases and it has high precision. In conclusion, high temperature could increase the risk of contracting HFMD. SARIMA model with temperature variable can effectively improve its forecast accuracy, which can provide valuable information for the policy makers and public health to construct a best-fitting model and optimize HFMD prevention.

  10. Impact of weather factors on hand, foot and mouth disease, and its role in short-term incidence trend forecast in Huainan City, Anhui Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Desheng; Wang, Lulu; Cheng, Jian; Xu, Jun; Xu, Zhiwei; Xie, Mingyu; Yang, Huihui; Li, Kesheng; Wen, Lingying; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Shusi; Su, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is one of the most common communicable diseases in China, and current climate change had been recognized as a significant contributor. Nevertheless, no reliable models have been put forward to predict the dynamics of HFMD cases based on short-term weather variations. The present study aimed to examine the association between weather factors and HFMD, and to explore the accuracy of seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model with local weather conditions in forecasting HFMD. Weather and HFMD data from 2009 to 2014 in Huainan, China, were used. Poisson regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was applied to examine the relationship between weather factors and HFMD. The forecasting model for HFMD was performed by using the SARIMA model. The results showed that temperature rise was significantly associated with an elevated risk of HFMD. Yet, no correlations between relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall, and HFMD were observed. SARIMA models with temperature variable fitted HFMD data better than the model without it (sR 2 increased, while the BIC decreased), and the SARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 0) 52 offered the best fit for HFMD data. In addition, compared with females and nursery children, males and scattered children may be more suitable for using SARIMA model to predict the number of HFMD cases and it has high precision. In conclusion, high temperature could increase the risk of contracting HFMD. SARIMA model with temperature variable can effectively improve its forecast accuracy, which can provide valuable information for the policy makers and public health to construct a best-fitting model and optimize HFMD prevention.

  11. Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4% were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province.

  12. A view of merchant coke in Shanxi Province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Naiyi [Xin Yuan Law Firm, Beijing (China)

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes the production of merchant coke in Shanxi province both before and after 1999. Production by beehive ovens reached a peak in 1995. Despite being banned in 1996 this technology was used until the end of 2000. Since 2000, advanced machinery recovery ovens with carbonization chambers of over 3 or 4 metres have been built, along with non-recovery 'clean beehive ovens'. The supply and demand of merchant coke, from Shanxi is discussed. Recently 75% of China's merchant coke has been produced in Shanxi.

  13. Biology and life history of Argopistes tsekooni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in China, a promising biological control agent of Chinese privet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-Z Zhang; J. Sun; J.L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    The biology and life history of Argopistes tsekooni Chen (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent of Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied under laboratory and outdoor conditions in Huangshan City of Anhui Province, China, in 2006. A. tsekooni larvae are leafminers that...

  14. Migration and Remittances: Evidence from a Poor Province in China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Li, Jiejin; Ma, Zhongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of remittances among migrants from Guizhou province of China. Our research is motivated by three lines of theoretical arguments, namely the new economics of migration, a translocal perspective linking remittances and development, and the culture of remittances. Taking individual, household, and village-level characteristics into account, we estimated multilevel logistic models of the decision to remit and multilevel models of the amount of remittances. Our results show that migrant remittance behaviour is responsive to family needs as well as household economic position in the village.. Migrants who come from entrepreneurial households are more likely to remit a large amount than other types of households. We find some evidence of “culture of remittances” in these villages. Consistent with our expectations, migrants who are from villages with higher amount of average remittances are likely to remit a larger amount than otherwise. PMID:26146509

  15. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  16. Trachoma rapid assessment in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yi; Bi, Hongsheng; Wen, Ying; Li, Chaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at identifying relative interventions on trachoma and testing the effectiveness of control measures adopted by assessing its prevalence and related risk factors in Shandong province of China. Trachoma rapid assessment (TRA) was conducted in 6 sub-districts selected from Shandong province based on primary high risk assessment. Active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years and environmental risk factors of trachoma (unclean faces, absence of running water, and absence of flush toilets) were assessed (TRA 1). Control measures were taken in endemic areas. A second TRA (TRA 2) was conducted after 12 months in the same 6 districts and findings of the two TRAs were compared. In TRA 1, we found trachoma in 3 sub-districts and the detection rate was 4% (95% CI: 0.39%-11.12%), 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%), and 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%) respectively. We could not find trachoma cases in TRA 2. Research data supports that children living with environmental risk factors face an increased risk to active trachoma. However, we could not find statistical evidence for this association, which may be caused by the limited data on prevalence. This research indicates that the TRA methodology is easy to assess trachoma and its related risk factors. Based on the results of this study, we have already achieved the goal of "elimination of trachoma" in Shandong province, as the detection rate of trachomatous inflamation follicular/trachomatous inflammation intense in 1-9-year-old children was less than 5%.

  17. Air pollution characteristics and health risks in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fuzhen; Ge, Xinlei; Hu, Jianlin; Nie, Dongyang; Tian, Li; Chen, Mindong

    2017-07-01

    Events of severe air pollution occurred frequently in China recently, thus understanding of the air pollution characteristics and its health risks is very important. In this work, we analyzed a two-year dataset (March 2014 - February 2016) including daily concentrations of six criteria pollutants (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 ) from 18 cities in Henan province. Results reveal the serious air pollution status in Henan province, especially the northern part, and Zhengzhou is the city with the worst air quality. Annual average PM 2.5 concentrations exceed the second grade of Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (75μg/m 3 ) at both 2014 and 2015. PM 2.5 is typically the major pollutant, but ozone pollution can be significant during summer. Furthermore, as the commonly used air quality index (AQI) neglects the mutual health effects from multiple pollutants, we introduced the aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI) to evaluate the health risks. Results show that based on HAQI, the current AQI system likely significantly underestimate the health risks of air pollution, highlighting that the general public may need stricter health protection measures. The population-weighted two-year average HAQI data further demonstrates that all population in the studied cities in Henan province live with polluted air - 72% of the population is exposed to air that is unhealthy for sensitive people, while 28% of people is exposed to air that can be harmful to healthy people; and the health risks are much greater during winter than during other seasons. Future works should further improve the HAQI algorithm, and validate the links between the clinical/epidemiologic data and the HAQI values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  19. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchao Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China. Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  20. Gendered Responses to Drought in Yunnan Province, China

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    Yufang Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to and perceptions of climate change may be significantly affected by gender. However, in China, gender is rarely addressed in climate adaption or resource management strategies. This paper demonstrates the relevance of gender in responses to climate change in the mountainous province of Yunnan in southwest China. Based on surveys undertaken during a record-breaking drought, the paper explores how women and men in a village in Baoshan Prefecture differ in their perceptions of and responses to drought, and how the changing roles of women and men in the home and the community are influencing water management at the village level. Our results show that despite the increasingly active role of women in managing water during the drought, they are excluded from community-level decision-making about water. The paper argues that given the importance of gender differences in perceptions of and responses to drought, the lack of a gender perspective in Chinese policy may undermine efforts to support local resource management and climate adaptation.

  1. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  2. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsering Ojen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50 were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and consequently maternal and infant morbidity and mortality are likely high. Urgent action is needed to improve access to maternal, neonatal and child health care in these marginalized populations. The reconstruction after the recent earthquake provides a unique opportunity to link this population with the health system.

  3. Gammarus emeiensis, a new species of amphipod crustacean from Sichuan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Zhong-E; Li, Shuqiang; Koenemann, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Specimens of a new species of gammarid Amphipoda, Gammarus emeiensis n. sp., were found on Emei Mt., Sichuan Province, China. A detailed description of this freshwater amphipod is given and differences to related species are discussed.

  4. Diseases and treatment reported by shrimp and tilapia farmers in Guangdong Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture in China that meet demands from both national consumers and export markets. However, the intensified production has brought increased disease problems, antibiotics and other...

  5. The first human infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Shaanxi Province, China

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    Jing Wei

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: SFTSV readily infects humans with outdoor exposure. The results of the serological study indicate that the virus circulates widely in Shaanxi Province. SFTSV represents a public health threat in China.

  6. Complete genome sequence of a street rabies virus isolated from a rabid dog in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fulai; Zhang, Guoqing; Xiao, Shaobo; Fang, Liurong; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Jiaxing; Chen, Huanchun; Fu, Zhen F

    2012-10-01

    A rabies virus (RABV) was isolated from a dog in Anhui Province, China, in 2008. The virus was designated DRV-AH08. Its entire genome was sequenced and found to be closely related to RABV recently isolated in China and other Asian countries (homology of 87 to 98%) but distantly related to RABV in the "cosmopolitan" group (homology of 84 to 85%) in the clade I of RABV.

  7. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  8. Prevalence of vision impairment in older adults in rural China: the China Nine-Province Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Cui, Hao; Ge, Jian; Guan, Huaijin; Lv, Jianhua; Ma, Xianzhi; Yin, Jinglin; Yin, Zheng Qin; Yuan, Yuansheng; Liu, Hu

    2010-03-01

    Describe the prevalence of visual impairment/blindness among older adults in rural populations in China. Population-based, cross-sectional study. We evaluated 45 747 adults > or =50 years of age. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting a cross-section of residents from a representative rural county within each of 9 provinces in mainland China. Participants were enumerated through village registers followed by door-to-door household visits. Eligible persons were invited to local examination sites for visual acuity (VA) testing and eye examination. Presenting and best-corrected distance VA. Of 50 395 enumerated eligible persons, 45 747 (90.8%) were examined and tested for VA. The prevalence of presenting visual impairment or =20/400 in the better eye was 10.8% and blindness (visual impairment ranged from 6.89% to 15.8%, and blindness from 1.27% to 5.40%. With best-corrected VA, the prevalence of visual impairment was 5.30%, and 1.93% for blindness. The ranges across the 9 provinces were 3.13% to 9.51% for visual impairment and 0.74% to 4.95% for blindness. Visual impairment and blindness were associated with older age, female gender, lack of education, and geographic area (province) with both presenting and best-corrected VA. Visual impairment and blindness are important public health problems in rural China, with significant regional variations in prevalence. Blindness prevention programs targeting the rural elderly should be expanded, particularly in areas with limited access and affordability of eye care services. Special emphasis should be given to reaching women and those without education. Greater attention should also be given to correction of refractive error. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces.......The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...

  10. Wang Yongbo & Lothar Ledderose (eds.: Buddhist Stone Sutras in China: Shandong Province, Vol. 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H. Sørensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution offers a review of Wang Yongbo's and Lothar Ledderose's Buddhist Stone Sutras in China: Shandong Province, Vol. 1. Hangzhou and Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz and China Academy of Art Press, 2014. XXIV + 506 pages, hardcover € [D] 158, ISBN 978–3–447–06931–1.

  11. Selected non-timber forest products with medicinal applications from Jilin Province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Ge Huang; Branka Barl; Gerald. Ivanochko

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a brief account of the distribution, production, and use of some non-timber forest products such as medicinal plants, medicinal and nutraceutical mushrooms, pharmaceutical insects, and "wild" vegetables in Jilin Province, China. All materials featured in this paper are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) inside and outside of China...

  12. Evaluation of homologous inactivated influenza vaccine for protection of chickens against the H7N9 virus isolated in Anhui, China during 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent outbreak of avian influenza (AI) H7N9 in humans in China in 2013 has resulted in approximately 30 % mortality. The genetic composition of these H7N9 viruses appears to be solely of avian origin. Although few isolations of these viruses have been demonstrated on poultry farms, the correlat...

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Sows in Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of T. gondii has been reported in many animals in China, little is known of T. gondii infection in sows. Antibodies to T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT. Overall, 31.3% (373/1191 of the examined sows were seropositive for T. gondii. Among 11 representative regions of Hunan province, the seroprevalence ranged from 14.8% to 45.1%. In addition, the T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in summer (37.4% and autumn (34.9% than in spring (24.6% and winter (23.9%. Regarding different antibody titers, the seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% (titer ≥ 1 : 1024 to 17.4% (titer = 1 : 64. The findings of the present investigation revealed the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and animals in this province. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis of pigs in this province. This is the first report of the comprehensive survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in sows in Hunan Province, subtropical China.

  14. The role of live poultry movement and live bird market biosecurity in the epidemiology of influenza A (H7N9): A cross-sectional observational study in four eastern China provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Li, Yin; Wang, Youming; Edwards, John; Guo, Fusheng; Clements, Archie C A; Huang, Baoxu; Magalhaes, Ricardo J Soares

    2015-10-01

    A new reassortant influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged early 2013 in eastern China. Exposure to H7N9 infected poultry at live bird markets (LBM) was implicated as the main risk factor for human infection. We aimed to identify the role of LBM biosecurity indicators and poultry movement in the affected areas. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 24 LBMs at the beginning of H7N9 outbreak in all affected provinces. We used univariable analysis to identify the biosecurity factors associated with the H7N9 presence in LBMs and social network and spatial analysis to quantify the connectivity and geographic variation in the connectivity of poultry movements. Chickens were the predominant poultry species traded by affected LBMs. The presence of H7N9 in LBMs was significantly associated with the type of LBM and with LBMs that sold chicken to other markets. The chicken movements were significantly spatially clustered and was highest in counties from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. LBM biosecurity and chicken movement played an important role in the emergence of H7N9. This study identified highly connected areas in eastern China which continue to report human infections highlighting candidate areas for more detailed epidemiological investigations. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Min; Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. New records of mosses for Zhejiang province,China

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    CHENG Liyuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have found and reported 31 newly recorded species of mosses of Zhejiang province via investigation and specimen identification for bryophytes in the QingliangFeng.Two of them are new genera of Zhejiang province:Trichodon Schimp.and Zygodon Hook.& Taylor.The maintaxonomic characters,habitats and geographical distributions of these species are presented in this paper.

  17. Hepatitis C virus genotype diversity among intravenous drug users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, high proportions (15.6%-98.7% of intravenous drug users (IDUs in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV. Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v, of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47% followed by genotypes 3 (41% and 1 (12%. HCV subtypes 6n (30% and 3b (29% were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15% and 6n (11.2% to 30%. In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  19. Web-Based Just-in-Time Information and Feedback on Antibiotic Use for Village Doctors in Rural Anhui, China: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, XingRong; Lu, Manman; Feng, Rui; Cheng, Jing; Chai, Jing; Xie, Maomao; Dong, Xuemeng; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Debin

    2018-02-14

    Excessive use of antibiotics is very common worldwide, especially in rural China; various measures that have been used in curbing the problem have shown only marginal effects. The objective of this study was to test an innovative intervention that provided just-in-time information and feedback (JITIF) to village doctors on care of common infectious diseases. The information component of JITIF consisted of a set of theory or evidence-based ingredients, including operation guideline, public commitment, and takeaway information, whereas the feedback component tells each participating doctor about his or her performance scores and percentages of antibiotic prescriptions. These ingredients were incorporated together in a synergetic way via a Web-based aid. Evaluation of JITIF adopted a randomized controlled trial design involving 24 village clinics randomized into equal control and intervention arms. Measures used included changes between baseline and endpoint (1 year after baseline) in terms of: percentages of patients with symptomatic respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections (RTIs or GTIs) being prescribed antibiotics, delivery of essential service procedures, and patients' beliefs and knowledge about antibiotics and infection prevention. Two researchers worked as a group in collecting the data at each site clinic. One performed nonparticipative observation of the service process, while the other performed structured exit interviews about patients' beliefs and knowledge. Data analysis comprised mainly of: (1) descriptive estimations of beliefs or knowledge, practice of indicative procedures, and use of antibiotics at baseline and endpoint for intervention and control groups and (2) chi-square tests for the differences between these groups. A total of 1048 patients completed the evaluation, including 532 at baseline (intervention=269, control=263) and 516 at endpoint (intervention=262, control=254). Patients diagnosed with RTIs and GTIs accounted for 76.5% (407

  20. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhou, Huan; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Linxiu; Sylvia, Sean; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infa...

  1. Snow Cover Monitoring Using MODIS Data in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang; Yan; Lu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of snow cover monitoring studies in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, using MODIS data. Snow cover plays an important role in both the regional water balance and soil moisture properties during the early spring in northeastern China. In addition, heavy snowfalls commonly trigger hazards such as flooding, caused by rapid snow melt, or crop failure, resulting from fluctuations in soil temperature associated with changes in the snow cover. The latter is a fun...

  2. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Sichuan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Xie, Yue; Hou, Rong; Wu, Qidun; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium spp. have been extensively reported to cause significant diarrheal disease in humans and domestic animals. On the contrary, little information is available on the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium in wild animals in China, especially in giant pandas. The aim of the present study was to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species at the molecular level in both captive and wild giant pandas in Sichuan province, China. Findin...

  3. Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Methods Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors, and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. Results 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney

  4. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the most important gold-mining and production regions in the circum-Pacific metallogenic zone. Research ... Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, P. O. Box 9818, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China. Shaanxi ...

  5. The vegetable cultivation system in two villages in Sichuan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin Chaowen,; Everaarts, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative description was made of the agronomic characteristics of the vegetable cultivation system in two villages, Shengli and Xibei, in the peri-urban area of Pengzhou County, Sichuan Province, China. A great number of different vegetable species are cultivated, of which garlic and lettuce

  6. Internationalization of China's Shanxi Province New Merchants: Implications and Use in Teaching IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juanjuan

    2017-01-01

    The Jin (Jin refers to Shanxi Province) merchants have a very important position in the history of Chinese business. The Jin merchants is a business course that investigates Shanxi businessmen and their business activities. As a local characteristic of the business curriculum of China, this course is taught in a number of universities. Taking the…

  7. Two new species of Willowsia (Collembola: Entomobryidae from Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of Willowsia: W. baoshanensis sp. nov. and W. zhaotongensis sp. nov. This is the first report of Willowsia from Yunnan Province, China. W. baoshanensis sp. nov. is mainly characterized by its chaetotaxy, W. zhaotongensis sp. nov. by its color pattern and chaetotaxy.

  8. Diversity of Penicillium species isolated from heavy metal polluted soil in Guizhou Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qing-Xin, Zhou; Houbraken, J.; Li, Qi-Rui; Hyde, K.D.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seven Penicillium strains were isolated from soil samples polluted by heavy metals in different zones of Guizhou Province, China. Phenotypic identification proved to be difficult and this data was therefore supplemented with ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and partial β-tubulin

  9. Prevalence and characterization of human Shigella infections in Henan Province, China, in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, S.; Xu, B.; Huang, L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, 3531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in Henan Province, China. A total of 467 (13.2%) Shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. Seventy-one Shigella flexneri strains were characterized by MIC determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and detection...

  10. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  11. Eight new species of the genus Sinopotamon from Jiangxi Province, China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ai-Yun, Dai; Xian-Min, Zhou; Wei-Dong, Peng

    1995-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater crabs belonging to the genus Sinopotamon are recorded from Jiangxi Province, S.E. China. Eight species are new to science and these are described: S. xiushuiense, S. jiujiangense, S. wanzaiense, S. anyuanense, S. siguqiaoense, S. linhuanense, S. yushanense and S

  12. Zinc intake and dietary pattern in Jiangsu Province, China: consequences of nutrition transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Jiangsu Province is an economically booming area in East China, where soil zinc concentrations are low. Nutrition transition to a dietary pattern with more animal source foods may have improved zinc intake in this area. However, such a transition may also have

  13. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment Report of the Guandong Province in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans. It proposes...

  14. Rediscovery of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Yingjiang County,Yunnan Province,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zheng, Xi; Jiang, Xue-Long; Chan, Bosco Pui Lok

    2017-07-18

    The sun bear, Helarctos malayanus (Raffles, 1821), is a forest-dependent bear species distributed in tropical Southeast Asia. The species was previously reported from scattered localities in southwestern China, which is at the northeastern edge of its global range. Due to the scarcity of reliable recent records, some authorities cast doubt on the continued existence of sun bear in China. Here we present the rediscovery of this species in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan Province, China, near the international border with Myanmar's Kachin State.

  15. The formation and trace elements of garnet in the skarn zone from the Xinqiao Cu-S-Fe-Au deposit, Tongling ore district, Anhui Province, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhou, Tao-fa; White, Noel C.; Zhang, Le-jun; Fan, Yu; Wang, Fang-yue; Chen, Xue-feng

    2018-03-01

    Xinqiao is a large copper-gold deposit and consists of two major mineralization types: stratabound and skarn. The skarn occurs along the contact between a quartz diorite intrusion and Carboniferous-Triassic limestone. Xinqiao has a strongly developed skarn zone, including endoskarn and exoskarn; the exoskarn is divided into proximal and distal exoskarn. We present systematic major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations for garnets from the skarn zone, discuss the factors controlling the incorporation of trace elements into the garnets, and constrain the formation and evolution of the garnet from skarn zone in Xinqiao deposit. Grossular (Adr20-44Grs56-80) mostly occurs in endoskarn and has typical HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns, with small Eu anomalies and low ∑REE. Garnets from the exoskarn show complex textures and chemical compositions. The composition of garnets range from Al-rich andradite (Adr63-81Grs19-47) to andradite (Adr67-98Grs2-33). Garnet in endoskarn has typical HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns. Al-rich andradite in proximal skarn has small Eu anomalies and moderate ∑REE. Andradite from distal exoskarn shows strong positive Eu anomalies and has variable ∑REE. The U, Y, Fe and Al relationship with ∑REE shows that two mechanisms controlled incorporation of REE into the garnets: crystal chemistry (substitution and interstitial solid solution) mainly controlled in the endoskarn garnet (grossular) and the proximal exoskarn (Al-rich andradite), and fluid and rock chemistry (surface adsorption and occlusion) controlled REEs in the distal exoskarn. Furthermore, Al has a negative relationship with ∑REE indicating that REE3+ did not follow a coupled, YAG-type substitution into the garnets. Variations in textures and trace and rare earth elements of garnets suggest that the garnets in the endoskarn formed by slow crystal growth at low W/R ratios and near-neutral pH in a closed system during periods of diffusive metasomatism. The garnets in the exoskarn formed rapidly from externally derived fluids during advective metasomatism, and adsorption had a major control on the REE patterns in distal exoskarn. With the end of water-rock reaction, the contents of REE decreased in the hydrothermal fluid, and the system became nearly closed.

  16. Low prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Jilin, Henan and Anhui Provinces of the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. N. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are consider...

  17. Assessing the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Pan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Regional disparities in geographical access to hospital care are found throughout China. Understanding variations in the spatial accessibility of hospital care has the potential to provide decision support in healthcare planning. This study examines the hospital system in the Sichuan Province in China, which provides healthcare for more than 80 million people. We examine the impacts of accessibility characterisation via the conventional measurement approach by comparing the results to those derived using a floating catchment area approach. Employing a geographical information system based on population and hospital administrative data, we conducted a provincewide study of the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China. A shortest-path analysis and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA method were implemented. Substantial differences between these two approaches were found, including a roughly 15% difference in the total number of under-served areas. Generally, spatial accessibility was higher in the eastern regions of Sichuan. More than 5.5 million people were found to have limited access, with large variations across the province. These results indicate that the official method used by policy makers in China may not capture the true nature of spatial accessibility throughout the region. We recommend that the E2SFCA method be implemented for health services research in China, providing decision makers with more accurate information when setting healthcare policies.

  18. NPP estimation and seasonal change research of Gansu province in northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Wang, Dawei; Hao, Xiaocui; Jiang, Youyan

    2018-03-01

    Based on GIS and remote sensing technology, this paper estimates the NPP of the 2015 year-round and every season of Gansu province in northwest China by using the CASA(Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) light energy utilization model. The result shows that the total annual NPP of Gansu province gradually decline from southeast to northwest in the space, which is in accordance with the water and heat condition in Gansu province. The results show that the summer NPP in Gansu Province is the maximum in each season. The maximum value of summer NPP in Gansu Province reached 695 (gCm-2•season-1), and the maximum value was 473 in spring, and 288 in the autumn, and the NPP in the winter in Gansu province were under 60. The fluctuation range of NPP value is large, this is due to the diversity of ecosystem types in Gansu province, including desert, grassland, farmland and forest, among them, the grassland area is the largest, and the grassland type is very diverse, the grassland coverage is obviously different, especially the low coverage grassland growth is affected by precipitation and temperature and other meteorological factors obviously.

  19. Occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs from Henan province of China in 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Liu, Huisheng; Ding, Ke; Peng, Chunping; Xue, Qiao; Yu, Zuhua; Xue, Yun

    2016-07-04

    There is no information concerning the genotype of Canine parvovirus (CPV) currently circulating in Henan province, China. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the epidemiology and molecular characterization of CPV circulating in Henan province from 2009 to 2014. Nineteen thousand nine hundred seven dogs from pet hospitals in the cities of Luoyang, Anyang, Jiaozuo, Sanmenxia, Xinxiang, Zhengzhou in Henan province between 2009 and 2014 were investigated. Over the 6-year period, 1169 CPV-positive cases were identified and the morbidity of CPV infection ranged from 4.16 to 8.06 %, although morbidity was not significant (P > 0.05) between 2009 and 2014. Factors associated with morbidity included sampling season, dog age, breed, vaccination status, and sex. CPV co-infection with coccidium (10.00 %), canine distemper virus (4.79 %), hookworm (2.40 %), canine coronavirus (1.11 %), roundworm (1.03 %), tapeworm (0.17 %) and Babesia spp. (0.09 %) were observed. The new CPV-2a variant was more prevalent than the new CPV-2b variant in Henan province. CPV 2c was not observed in this study. The epidemiology of CPV infection and identification of the circulating genotypes in Henan province, China from 2009 to 2014 determined that the new CPV-2a variant was more prevalent.

  20. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure.

  1. The impact of local government investment on the carbon emissions reduction effect: An empirical analysis of panel data from 30 provinces and municipalities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingyun; Yin, Fang; Zhong, Zhangqi; Ding, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Among studies of the factors that influence carbon emissions and related regulations, economic aggregates, industrial structures, energy structures, population levels, and energy prices have been extensively explored, whereas studies from the perspective of fiscal leverage, particularly of local government investment (LGI), are rare. Of the limited number of studies on the effect of LGI on carbon emissions, most focus on its direct effect. Few studies consider regulatory effects, and there is a lack of emphasis on local areas. Using a cointegration test, a panel data model and clustering analysis based on Chinese data between 2000 and 2013, this study measures the direct role of LGI in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction. First, overall, within the sample time period, a 1% increase in LGI inhibits carbon emissions by 0.8906% and 0.5851% through its influence on the industrial structure and energy efficiency, respectively, with the industrial structure path playing a greater role than the efficiency path. Second, carbon emissions to some extent exhibit inertia. The previous year's carbon emissions impact the following year's carbon emissions by 0.5375%. Thus, if a reduction in carbon emissions in the previous year has a positive effect, then the carbon emissions reduction effect generated by LGI in the following year will be magnified. Third, LGI can effectively reduce carbon emissions, but there are significant regional differences in its impact. For example, in some provinces, such as Sichuan and Anhui, economic growth has not been decoupled from carbon emissions. Fourth, the carbon emissions reduction effect in the 30 provinces and municipalities sampled in this study can be classified into five categories-strong, relatively strong, medium, relatively weak and weak-based on the degree of local governments' regulation of carbon emissions. The carbon emissions reduction effect of LGI is significant in the western and central regions of China but not in the

  2. The impact of local government investment on the carbon emissions reduction effect: An empirical analysis of panel data from 30 provinces and municipalities in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun He

    Full Text Available Among studies of the factors that influence carbon emissions and related regulations, economic aggregates, industrial structures, energy structures, population levels, and energy prices have been extensively explored, whereas studies from the perspective of fiscal leverage, particularly of local government investment (LGI, are rare. Of the limited number of studies on the effect of LGI on carbon emissions, most focus on its direct effect. Few studies consider regulatory effects, and there is a lack of emphasis on local areas. Using a cointegration test, a panel data model and clustering analysis based on Chinese data between 2000 and 2013, this study measures the direct role of LGI in carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions reduction. First, overall, within the sample time period, a 1% increase in LGI inhibits carbon emissions by 0.8906% and 0.5851% through its influence on the industrial structure and energy efficiency, respectively, with the industrial structure path playing a greater role than the efficiency path. Second, carbon emissions to some extent exhibit inertia. The previous year's carbon emissions impact the following year's carbon emissions by 0.5375%. Thus, if a reduction in carbon emissions in the previous year has a positive effect, then the carbon emissions reduction effect generated by LGI in the following year will be magnified. Third, LGI can effectively reduce carbon emissions, but there are significant regional differences in its impact. For example, in some provinces, such as Sichuan and Anhui, economic growth has not been decoupled from carbon emissions. Fourth, the carbon emissions reduction effect in the 30 provinces and municipalities sampled in this study can be classified into five categories-strong, relatively strong, medium, relatively weak and weak-based on the degree of local governments' regulation of carbon emissions. The carbon emissions reduction effect of LGI is significant in the western and central regions of China

  3. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Southeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2002-11-01

    This wind energy resource atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in two regions of southeast China. The first region is the coastal area stretching from northern Fujian south to eastern Guangdong and extending approximately 100 km inland. The second region is centered on the Poyang Lake area in northern Jiangxi. This region also includes parts of two other provinces-Anhui and Hubei-and extends from near Anqing in Anhui south to near Nanchang in Jiangxi. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. We created the high-resolution (1-km2) maps in 1998 using a computerized wind resource mapping system developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The mapping system uses software known as a Geographical Information System (GIS).

  4. Paleomagnetic study of Shanwang formation, Shandong Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huangfeng; Shi Nin

    1989-01-01

    The measured direction of the stable remanence of Shanwang Formation, Shandong Province, is D = 355.8 deg., I = 47.1 deg. According to the axial geocentre dipole model, the paleolatitude there during Miocene was 28.3 deg. N. The corrected value based on far-sided effect is 32.4 deg. N. The uncorrected and corrected pole positions were (81.0 deg. N, 323.1 deg. E) and (84.6 deg. N, 339.7 deg. E) separately. Comparing them with paleo-flora shows that the corrected value of paleolatitude is probably reasonable. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  5. Rural-urban differences of neonatal mortality in a poorly developed province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of rural-urban disparities in children's health on neonatal death in disadvantaged areas of China is poorly understood. In this study of rural and urban populations in Gansu province, a disadvantaged province of China, we describe the characteristics and mortality of newborn infants and evaluated rural-urban differences of neonatal death. Methods We analyzed all neonatal deaths in the data from the Surveillance System of Child Death in Gansu Province, China from 2004 to 2009. We calculated all-cause neonatal mortality rates (NMR and cause-specific death rates for infants born to rural or urban mothers during 2004-09. Rural-urban classifications were determined based on the residence registry system of China. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences of infant characteristics and cause-specific deaths by rural-urban maternal residence. Results Overall, NMR fell in both rural and urban populations during 2004-09. Average NMR for rural and urban populations was 17.8 and 7.5 per 1000 live births, respectively. For both rural and urban newborn infants, the four leading causes of death were birth asphyxia, preterm or low birth weight, congenital malformation, and pneumonia. Each cause-specific death rate was higher in rural infants than in urban infants. More rural than urban neonates died out of hospital or did not receive medical care before death. Conclusions Neonatal mortality declined dramatically both in urban and rural groups in Gansu province during 2004-09. However, profound disparities persisted between rural and urban populations. Strategies that address inequalities of accessibility and quality of health care are necessary to improve neonatal health in rural settings in China.

  6. HLA alleles and haplotypes distribution in Dai population in Yunnan province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L; Yao, Y F; Shi, L; Matsushita, M; Yu, L; Lin, Q K; Tao, Y F; Oka, T; Chu, J Y; Tokunaga, K

    2010-02-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) analysis would be a useful tool to trace the origin of modern humans. In this study, we provided the first four digital HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 allele and haplotype data in the Dai ethnic population, which is a unique and representative Kam-Tai-speaking ethnic minority living in the Yunnan province of Southwestern China. Our results showed that the Dai population has unique HLA characteristic that are most closely related to the Southeastern Asia group and similar to the Kam-Tai speaking populations in China and Thailand.

  7. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Lin, Xuhui; Zhang, Longxian; Qi, Nanshan; Liao, Shenquan; Lv, Minna; Wu, Caiyan; Sun, Mingfei

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China, 244 fecal samples were collected from four pigeon breeding farms between June 2012 and March 2013. Cryptosporidium oocysts were purified by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and characterized by DNA sequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Cryptosporidium species were determined by comparison of sequences with corresponding Cryptosporidium sequences in GenBank and phylogenetic analysis using neighbor-joining (NJ) in MEGA5.2. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province was 0.82% (2/244). Two Cryptosporidium species, namely Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis, were identified in Huizhou and Chaozhou farm, respectively. These findings confirmed the existence of C. meleagridis infection in domestic pigeons in China for the first time and provided base-line information for further studies to evaluate the public health risk from pigeon to human.

  8. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs in Henan province, central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, and also infects humans. However, there has been no study on dirofilariasis in dogs in central China. From March 2015 to February 2016, sera from 1176 randomly selected household dogs from Henan province, central China were examined for D. immitis antigen using the Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit. The overall seroprevalence of D. immitis in dogs in Henan province was 13% (155/1176. The prevalence was significantly higher in older dogs and dogs kept outdoors, compared to the younger ones and those sheltered indoors. No significant difference of prevalence was observed between sexes. The results suggest that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in dogs is high in Henan, and prophylaxis against the parasite is advisable to decrease the incidence of canine dirofilariosis in this region.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nian; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Dong; Li, Chaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Yao, Zhijun; Li, Tingting; Xie, Qing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are highly susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In the present study, 779 serum samples from sheep were collected from Henan province, central China from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to T. gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep was 12.71% (99/779). The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the geographical origin, age, presence of cats, and the rearing system. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Henan province, central China, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii with risk factors. © N. Zhang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  10. Evaluation of Urban Infrastructure Investment Efficiency: Empirical Evidence from Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of urban infrastructure investment in China has brought with it some serious problems that cannot be ignored, such as low investment efficiency and faulty investment decision-making. Therefore, based on the latest research findings related to infrastructure efficiency evaluation theory and evaluation methods, this paper uses empirical evidence from Heilongjiang province to analyze urban infrastructure investment efficiency. To analyze investment efficiency in the province, a new infrastructure investment efficiency evaluation model is developed known as the SDEA-Malmquist model. The model reveals that urban infrastructure investment projects in Heilongjiang province are relatively effective and stable but that the efficiency of such investments varies according to the city in which they are made. Overall efficiency is consistent with the TFC (total final consumption index, but the index fluctuates within a narrow range between cities due to technological differences.

  11. Spatial analysis of dengue fever in Guangdong Province, China, 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxiao; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Hualiang; Xin, Benqiang; Nie, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Guangdong Province is the area most seriously affected by dengue fever in China. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangdong Province from 2001 to 2006 with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Annualized incidence at a county level was calculated and mapped to show crude incidence, excess hazard, and spatial smoothed incidence. Geographic information system-based spatial scan statistics was conducted to detect the spatial distribution pattern of dengue fever incidence at the county level. Spatial scan cluster analyses suggested that counties around Guangzhou City and Chaoshan Region were at increased risk for dengue fever (P dengue fever were found in Guangdong Province, which allowed intervention measures to be targeted for maximum effect.

  12. Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hubei Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H.; Ge, L.; Song, L.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-07-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS) is a worldwide fulminant infectious disease. Since the first HFRS cases in Hubei Province were reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of seriously affected areas in China. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS are still not entirely clear. Therefore, a systematic investigation of spatial and temporal distribution pattern of HFRS system is needed. In order to facilitate better prevention and control of HFRS in Hubei Province, in this paper, a GIS spatiotemporal analysis and modeling tool was developed to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the HFRS epidemic, as well as providinga comprehensive examination the dynamic pattern of HFRS in Hubei over the past 30 years (1980-2009), to determine spatiotemporal change trends and the causes of HFRS. This paper describes the experiments and their results.

  13. Higher education and the labour market in China : a case study of three univeristies in Shanxi province

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xing

    2008-01-01

    Along with the transition of Chinese economy, the relationship between graduates and the labor market in China changes accordingly. This thesis is based on a case study in Shanxi province and the data come from three different types of universities in this province. The aim of the study is to trace the trajectories of graduates from higher education institutions to the labor market in Shanxi province so as to gain an understanding of the relationship between higher education and the labor mar...

  14. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Cole, Jessica K.; Williams, Amanda J.; Hou, Weiguo; Zhou, Enmin; Li, Wenjun; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3) provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophil...

  15. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taenii...

  16. Strategic Marketing Plan for Local Characteristic Product : Case: Cheng Farm in Jiangxi Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Peng; Zhong, Xiaonan; Wu, Yunxia

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wei Peng, Wu Yunxia, Zhong Xiaonan 2011. Strategic Marketing Plan for Local Characteristic Product. Case study: Cheng farm in Jiangxi Province, China. Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 62. Appendices 2. The objective of this thesis is to build a strategic marketing plan for the Cheng farm carrying a local characteristic product. We expect that the strategic marketing plan can help the case company extend their business...

  17. Spatiotemporal characteristics of extreme precipitation and temperature: a case study in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Z. X. Xu; Z. X. Xu; X. J. Yang; D. P. Zuo; D. P. Zuo; Q. Chu; W. F. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal characteristics of extreme precipitation and temperature in Yunnan Province, China, were analyzed by using observed daily data at 28 meteorological stations from 1958–2013 in this study. Nine extreme precipitation indices and 6 extreme temperature indices were adopted, and the tendency of those indices was investigated by using Mann–Kendal test method. In order to distinguish the spatial characteristics, the region was divided into 5 regions according to clima...

  18. The development and practices of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Shandong Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shujun; Liu Jian; Ren Lijun; Zhang Kai; Wang Renqing

    2009-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), a newly-developed decision-making support tool, has been used in many developed and developing countries for predicting and evaluating potential environmental impact of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), as well as for providing alternatives to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for these impacts. Unfortunately, due to the complexity and flexibility of SEA, to date there has been no consensus on a system which could be suitable for the contexts of different regions or countries. Different requirements and practices are observed in the different typical stages of SEA. Controversial areas include the appropriate indicators to apply in the early baseline setting stage, suitable methodologies for the impact assessment, and appropriate procedures for the SEA process. Given this, it is important to review and refine the SEA system specific to the context but informed by internationally agreed norms. As an illustration, this study reviews and proposes steps to refine the SEA system in Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, aiming to achieve sustainable development. Supported by the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People's Republic of China, Shandong Province employed SEA to reform the traditionally economy-oriented decision-making and incorporate consideration of environmental consequences into government deliberation on proposed PPPs. This paper illustrates the developmental process, procedures, and legal support for SEA in Shandong Province. By analyzing five SEA cases carried out by Shandong Province Environment Protection Bureau (SEPB) and Shandong University, problems in the SEA system were identified, and recommendations were made for improving the SEA system not only in Shandong Province but also other similar regions or countries.

  19. The epidemic characteristics and changing trend of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Hubei Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is caused by different hantaviruses within the Bunyaviridae family. HFRS is a fulminant, infectious disease that occurs worldwide and is endemic in all 31 provinces of China. Since the first HFRS case in Hubei Province was reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of the seriously affected areas in China with the greatest number of reported HFRS cases in the 1980's. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS in Hubei are still not entirely clear and long-term, systematic investigations of this epidemic area have been very limited. METHODS: The spatiotemporal distribution of HFRS was investigated using data spanning the years 1980 to 2009. The annual HFRS incidence, fatality rate and seasonal incidence between 1980 and 2009 were calculated and plotted. GIS-based spatial analyses were conducted to detect the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of HFRS. A spatial statistical analysis, using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic, was performed to identify clustering of HFRS. RESULTS: A total of 104,467 HFRS cases were reported in Hubei Province between 1980 and 2009. Incidence of and mortality due to HFRS declined after the outbreak in 1980s and HFRS cases have been sporadic in recent years. The locations and scale of disease clusters have changed during the three decades. The seasonal epidemic pattern of HFRS was characterized by the shift from the unimodal type (autumn/winter peak to the bimodal type. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic development has great influence on the transmission of hantaviruses to humans and new epidemic characteristics have emerged in Hubei Province. It is necessary to reinforce preventative measures against HFRS according to the newly-presented seasonal variation and to intensify these efforts especially in the urban areas of Hubei Province.

  20. First survey of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; He, S W; Li, H; Guo, Q C; Pan, W W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Liu, L Z; Liu, W; Liu, Y

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present survey was to reveal the prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China. From July 2010 through February 2013, a total of 479 goats slaughtered in local abattoirs and markets were examined for the presence of helminths using a helminthological approach. Eighty-six percent of the examined goats were infected with at least one species of helminths. In total, 15 genera of helminths were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, and 11 families. Oesophago-stomum, Ostertagia and Haemonchus were the most prevailing nematode genera, Eurytrema was the predominant trematode genus detected, whereas the infection of adult goats with cestodes was not common, with Cysticercus tenuicollis being the most common genus. The worm burdens showed obvious seasonal variation in that nematodes and cestodes were abundant in summer and winter, and the trematodes peaked in winter, which was consistent with the seasonal precipitation of Hunan Province. The geographical distribution of helminths in goats ascended with altitude. Goats in the mountainous areas were more severely infected with helminths than goats in the hilly areas, whereas infection of goats with helminths was much less in the lake areas. The present investigation highlights the high prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China, which provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of future prevention and controlling measures against helminth infection in adult goats in this province and elsewhere.

  1. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  3. Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository and the progress in site characterization at the Beishan potential site in NW China's Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Zhangru; Chen Weiming; Wang Wenguang

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository is summarized in this paper. The distribution and characteristics of granite, tuff, clay stone, salt and loess in China are described, while maps showing the distribution of host rocks are presented. Because of the wide distribution, large scale, good heat conductivity and suitable mechanical properties, granite is considered as the most potential host rock. Some granite bodies distributed in NW China, SW China, South China and Inner Mongolia have been selected as potential areas. Detailed site characterization at Beishan area, Gansu Province NW China is in progress

  4. Trends in infant/child mortality and life expectancy in Indigenous populations in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianghong; Luo, Chun; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-06-01

    The 2000 Census in China registered 55 groups of Indigenous population, including 104.49 million people, making up 8.1% of China's total population. Yunnan Province, located in Southwest China, is the only province where all 55 Indigenous nationalities are represented (14.15 million), making up 33.4% of Yunnan's total population. This study aimed to examine trends in infant and child mortality and life expectancy at birth of the 22 largest Indigenous nationalities and compared these trends with those of the majority Han Chinese in Yunnan and China as a whole. Data sources of mortality and socioeconomic status came from the population censuses of China (1953, 1964, 1982, 1990, and 2000) and Yunnan (1990-2000) and from the Provincial Health Department (1990, 1995, 1996 and 2000). Weighted linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations between infant/child mortality and life expectancy at birth, socioeconomic indicators and the use of preventive health services. In 2000, the infant mortality rate was 26.90 for China and 53.64 for Han Chinese in Yunnan per 1,000 live birth versus 77.75 for the 22 largest minority nationalities in Yunnan, despite improvements in health status indicators since 1990. The inequalities in life expectancy at birth between China as a whole and some minority nationalities remained striking in 2000 (57.18 versus 71.40). Literacy, prenatal examination, hospital deliveries, economic development were important predictors of these health indicators. Efforts to continue to improve these intermediate proximate determinants and to target the most disadvantaged Indigenous groups are likely to further reduce health disparities between the Chinese and Indigenous populations.

  5. Human Cases of Fascioliasis in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lin; Cai, Yu-Chun; Lu, Yan; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2017-02-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic parasitic disease. We report 4 cases occurring in the same family, in whom diagnosis of acute fascioliasis was established after series of tests. One case was hospitalized with fever, eosinophilia, and hepatic lesions. MRI showed hypodense changes in both liver lobes. The remaining 3 cases presented with the symptom of stomachache only. Stool analysis was positive for Fasciola eggs in 2 adult patients. The immunological test and molecular identification of eggs were confirmed at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China. The results of serological detection were positive in all the 4 patients. DNA sequencing of PCR products of the eggs demonstrated 100% homology with ITS and cox1 of Fasciola hepatica . The conditions of the patients were not improved by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drugs until administration of triclabendazole.

  6. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  7. Geotourism Aspects of the Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daněk Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lufeng Dinosaur National Geopark in Yunnan province, China, is important part of geoheritage with a great scientific and aesthetic value. The area has been under scientific research since 1938 when the first dinosaur fossils were discovered here by geologist Bian Meinian and technician Wang Cunyi. Professor Yang announced the discovery of new early Jurassic herbivore prosauropod by Lufeng in 1941, which he gave the name Lufengosaurus huenei. In 2004, the area was listed as the China`s National Geopark. It was opened for visitors in 2008. Besides the high scientific value, the geopark is also an important resource for science based and educational tourism. This paper briefly introduces the history of scientific research, the basic geology of the site and the most important fossils discovered here. The main characteristics, geodiversity, and geotourism of fossil geoheritage in the area are discussed here.

  8. A Novel Workflow for Geothermal Prospectively Mapping Weights-of-Evidence in Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejia Sang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geological faults are highly developed in the eastern Liaoning Province in China, where Mesozoic granitic intrusions and Archean and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are widely distributed. Although the heat flow value in eastern Liaoning Province is generally low, the hot springs are very developed. It is obvious that the faults have significant control over the distribution of hot springs, and traditional methods of spatial data analysis such as WofE (weight of evidence usually do not take into account the direction of the distribution of geothermal resources in the geothermal forecast process, which seriously affects the accuracy of the prediction results. To overcome the deficiency of the traditional evidence weight method, wherein it does not take the direction of evidence factor into account, this study put forward a combination of the Fry and WofE methods, Fry-WofE, based on geological observation, gravity, remote sensing, and DEM (digital elevation model multivariate data. This study takes eastern Liaoning Province in China as an example, and the geothermal prospect was predicted respectively by the Fry-WofE and WofE methods from the statistical data on the spatial distribution of the exposed space of geothermal anomalies the surface. The result shows that the Fry-WofE method can achieve better prediction results when comparing the accuracy of these two methods. Based on the results of Fry-WofE prediction and water system extraction, 13 favorable geothermal prospect areas are delineated in eastern Liaoning Province. The Fry-WofE method is effective in study areas where the geothermal distribution area is obviously controlled by the fault. We provide not only a new method for solving the similar issue of geothermal exploration, but also a new insight into the distribution of geothermal resources in Liaoning Province.

  9. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Dai, Fei-Yan; Huang, Si-Yang; Deng, Zu-Hong; Duan, Gang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Yang, Jian-Fa; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-09-19

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus) and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus) originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64%) peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5). Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74%) and the adult birds (6.67%) (P > 0.05). The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08%) and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91%) (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014). Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05). The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China's southwestern Yunnan Province.

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Goats in Hunan Province, Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi-Feng; Li, Fen; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2018-01-23

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, which can infect animals and human, including goats. However, little information on C. abortus infection is available in goats in Hunan province, subtropical China. To investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in goats in Hunan province, China, a total of 911 goat blood samples were collected randomly from 14 herds having number of goats ranging from 1000 to 3000 from March 2014 to December 2015. Seropositive animals were found in 11 out of 14 (78.57%) goat herds with seroprevalence ranging from 0.00% to 29.94% in individual herds. Overall, the seroprevalence of C. abortus infection was different among regions (southern Hunan: 1.78%; northeast Hunan: 5.47%; and west Hunan: 15.29%), gender (male: 4.58% and female: 9.10%), seasons (spring: 5.97%; summer: 2.61%; autumn: 16.88%; and winter: 10.94%), and ages (year ≤1: 2.39%; 1 3: 17.57%). Risk factors for C. abortus infection were associated with region, season, and age in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first document to demonstrate the existence of C. abortus infection in goats, and the seroprevalence was 8.45% out of 911 goats in Hunan province.

  11. Analysis of an outbreak of human rabies in 2009 in Hanzhong District, Shaanxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Gao, Hongwei; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-01-01

    Between March and August 2009, there was an outbreak of rabies in both humans and dogs in Hanzhong District, Shaanxi province, China. About 7300 humans were bitten by dogs and 20 died of rabies due to failure to perform postexposure prophylaxis. The local authorities therefore conducted a dog slaughter campaign. From a random selection of brains of dogs culled in the campaign, 0/27 tested positive for rabies virus by immunofluorescence. Of two dogs known to have bitten humans, one was shown to contain live rabies virus by immunofluorescence and mouse intracerebral inoculation. Serological studies during the outbreak revealed that only 1/27 dog was antibody positive: after a mass vaccination campaign, 20.8% seroconverted. Lack of canine vaccination was clearly the main reason for dog rabies spread and human infection. Phylogenetic analysis of a virus isolate showed that its genomic sequence was closely related to the clade 1 rabies strains widely circulating in China. The highest homology was found with the isolate circulating in Sichuan province, a neighboring province south of Shaanxi, indicating the spread of rabies from the south to the north.

  12. Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongjie; Yin, Wenwu; Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Hang; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Yansha; Zhang, Yonghui; Wang, Jinfeng; Hu, Wenbiao; Yang, Weizhong

    2012-06-12

    Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk = 7.52, p dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas.

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhongjie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Methods Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. Results 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk = 7.52, p  Conclusions This study demonstrated that the geographic range of imported and indigenous dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas.

  14. Evaluating the impact of decentralising tuberculosis microscopy services to rural township hospitals in gansu province, china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newell James N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, the Ministry of Health issued the policy of decentralising microscopy services (MCs to one third of all township hospitals in China. The study was conducted in Gansu Province, a poor western one in China. Ganzhou was one county in Gansu Province. Ganzhou County was identified as a unique case of further decentralisation of tuberculosis (TB treatment services in township hospitals. The study evaluated the impact of the MC policy on providers and patients in Gansu Province. The second objective was to assess the unique case of Ganzhou County compared with other counties in the province. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. All 523 MCs in the province completed an institutional survey regarding their performance. Four counties were selected for in-depth investigation, where 169 TB suspects were randomly selected from the MC and county TB dispensary registers for questionnaire surveys. Informant interviews were conducted with 38 health staff at the township and county levels in the four counties. Results Gansu established MCs in 39% of its township hospitals. From January 2006 to June 2007, 8% of MCs identified more than 10 TB sputum smear positive patients while 54% did not find any. MCs identified 1546 TB sputum smear positive patients, accounting for 9% of the total in the province. The throughputs of MCs in Ganzhou County were eight times of those in other counties. Interviews identified several barriers to implement the MC policy, such as inadequate health financing, low laboratory capacity, lack of human resources, poor treatment and management capacities, and lack of supervisions from county TB dispensaries. Conclusion Microscopy centre throughputs were generally low in Gansu Province, and the contribution of MCs to TB case detection was insignificant taking account the number of MCs established. As a unique case of full decentralisation of TB service, Ganzhou County presented better

  15. Advances of mutation breeding in Heilongjiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu

    1989-01-01

    more tolerance to salt. (f) dwarf type - The maize mutant 7147 has a short culm of only 150 cm. (g) productive plant architecture - The mutants of maize 8005 and 8007 possess upward leaves and no ligula. 3. Irradiation is also used in connection with distant hybridization. Seeds from off-springs of crossing triticale with common wheat were treated with 60 Co-γ rays or neutrons. By means of induced translocation, some chromosome fragments or genes from genome of rye were introduced into the ABD genome of wheat. Translocation lines with good economic value were selected, such as Harshi 82-14, Harshi 82-1-1, Harshi 82-2-23-1 and Longfu 82nen389. These lines possess long spikes, multiple spikelets, drought tolerance, stem rust and leaf rust resistance, mildew resistance and high yield. Two of them already joined regional tests in Heilongjiang province. Also, the substitution line Longfu 92027 was selected which possesses good disease resistance and productive traits. (author)

  16. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  17. An exploratory survey of money boys and HIV transmission risk in Jilin Province, PR China

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    Lee Zixuan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report represents the first exploratory study of Chinese men who provide commercial sex services to other men ("money boys" in Jilin Province, People's Republic of China, through a convenience sample drawn from Changchun and Jilin City. A total of 86 active money boy participants (Changchun, n = 49; Jilin City, n = 37 were surveyed concerning background and demographics, basic HIV transmission knowledge, and sexual practices. The survey indicated that while Jilin Province money boy behavior matches other studies concerning propensity to high risk behavior and significant bridging potential, the Jilin money boys, unlike previous studies, exhibited a high level of basic HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge. In spite of this level of knowledge, none of the participants reported always using a condom in their sexual activities. They also exhibited a high level of awareness of voluntary counseling and testing available in the province, yet relatively few had availed themselves of these services. These preliminary findings will be used as a baseline and springboard for continuing study in the Jilin Province money boy community. Even now, however, it is becoming clear that the dynamics of male commercial sex work may vary greatly depending upon local influences, and will necessitate that future interventions are highly tailored to area-specific circumstances.

  18. First insight into the genotypic diversity of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Gansu Province, China.

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    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity in China have indicated a significant regional distribution. The aim of this study was to characterize the genotypes of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from Gansu, which has a special geographic location in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 467 clinical M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Gansu Province were genotyped by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. The results showed that 445 isolates belonged to six known spoligotype lineages, whereas 22 isolates were unknown. The Beijing genotype was the most prevalent (87.58%, n = 409, while the shared type 1 was the dominant genotype (80.94%, n = 378. The second most common lineage was the T lineage, with 25 isolates (5.35%, followed by the H lineage with 5 isolates (1.07%, the MANU family (0.64%, 3 isolates, the U family (0.43%, 2 isolates and the CAS lineage with 1 isolate (0.21%. By using the VNTR15China method, we observed 15 groups and 228 genotypes among the 467 isolates. We found no association between the five larger groups (including the Beijing genotype and sex, age, or treatment status, and there was no noticeable difference in the group analysis in different areas. In the present study, seven of the 15 MIRU-VNTR loci were highly or moderately discriminative according to their Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Beijing genotype is the predominant genotype in Gansu province. We confirm that VNTR15China is suitable for typing Beijing strains in China and that it has a better discriminatory power than spoligotyping. Therefore, the use of both methods is the most suitable for genotyping analysis of M. tuberculosis.

  19. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

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    Hong Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28. Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively. Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  20. Estimation of Arable Land Loss in Shandong Province, China based on BFAST Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of national economy and rise of industrialization, China has been one of the countries which has the fastest urbanization process. From 2001 to 2005, China lost over 2000 km2 fertile arable land every year because of urban expansion. Arable land area declining continuously poses a threat to China's food security. Land survey is the direct way to statistic the arable land status, which lasts long time and needs mounts of financial support. Remote sensing is a perfect way to survey land use and its dynamics at large scale. This paper aims to evaluate the detailed status of agricultural land loss of Shandong Province, China by using BFAST (Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend) model. First, the 30m spatial resolution global land cover products GlobeLand30 in 2000 and 2010 are used to locate pixels transforming from agricultural land to artificial cover during this period. Within a MODIS pixel (250m) area, if over half of GlobeLand30 pixels have changed from arable land to artificial cover, then the responding MODIS pixel is classified as changed area, whose phenology reflected by NDVI time series curve will also change. Then, BFAST is used to detect the break point which represents the time of change occurred using MODIS NDVI time series data. From 2002 to 2010, Shandong Province lost its 1063.03 km2 arable land in total. Arable land loss has a declining trend in each year and most loss occurred in 2002 and 2003. Spatially, cities which has higher level of economic development in central and eastern regions lost more arable land. Finally, compare this result with statistical data from China's national Bureau of Statistics, there is a strong positive relationship.

  1. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia during routine physical examination in Guangxi Province, China and related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Peng; Qin, Jin-Qiu; Wei, Ai-Qiu; Huang, Ping; Lai, Zhan-Feng; Lin, Fa-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Studies on homocysteine (Hcy) have mainly focused on the correlation between the homocysteine concentration and disease development. Few epidemiological investigations have been performed. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) during routine physical examination in Guangxi Province, China and the correlation of serum Hcy with gender, age, serum uric acid (UA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood glucose (GLU) to provide evidence for preventing and treating HHcy. Data of 8043 patients who underwent physical examinations at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China from 2015 to 2016 were collected. These data included gender, age, and the serum Hcy, UA, GLU, TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C concentrations. The overall prevalence of HHcy was 50.8% (52.3% in males, 48.1% in females). Age, UA, TC, TG, and LDL-C were significantly higher and HDL-C was significantly lower in patients with than without HHcy, regardless of gender (all Pphysical examination in Guangxi Province, China. HHcy was related to gender, age, high concentrations of UA, TC, TG, and LDL-C; and low concentrations of HDL-C. Strengthening early intervention of HHcy can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus in rural China: results from Shandong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Qian, D; Chen, J; Hu, D; Hou, M; Chen, S; Wang, P

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes in rural areas in Shandong Province, China. The Luxemburg-WHO-Shandong Project on Rural Health Personnel Training and Chronic Disease Control, a cross-sectional study, examined 16 375 rural residents aged 25 years and over using multistage cluster sampling in April 2007. An overnight fasting blood specimen was collected to measure plasma glucose and a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was conducted among people with a fasting blood glucose of ≥ 6.1 mmol/l. Information on the history of diabetes and hypoglycaemic medication was obtained using a standard questionnaire. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Overall, the prevalence rates for diabetes, prediabetes and previously diagnosed diabetes in the rural population were estimated to be 3.5%, 6.0% and 1.2%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 34.8% were aware of their condition, 30.6% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 11.5% achieved glycaemic control. These results indicate that diabetes has become a public health problem in poor rural areas of China and the rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes were relatively low. There is an urgent need for strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes in the rural population in Shandong Province, China. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydiaceae in pet dogs in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China

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    Tian Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chlamydiosis in pet dogs was surveyed in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. A total of 442 serum samples were collected from three districts of Shenzhen, namely the Futian, Nanshan, and Luohu Districts, and assayed for Chlamydiaceae antibodies by indirect haemagglutination assay. The results showed that the mean positive rate was 6.11%, and the positive rate for the Futian District was the highest (9.52%, followed by the Nanshan District (7.08%, and the Luohu District (4.02%. The positive rate for male dogs was 6.08%, and for female dogs 6.16%. Out of all the 38 breeds of dogs examined, 14 breeds were positive. The positive rate for the Cocker Spaniel dog was the highest (14.2%, followed by the Pekinese dog (10.71%, and the Border Collie dog (10.34%. This is the first time that the seroprevalence of Chlamydiaceae infection in pet dogs in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China was reported, and the results indicated that pet dogs may be an important source for human infection by Chlamydiaceae in Shenzhen and other areas of China.

  4. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-12-01

    Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat-mortality associations outside of cities. We investigated whether heat-mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009-2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863-1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204.

  5. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat–mortality associations outside of cities. Objective: We investigated whether heat–mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. Methods: We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009–2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863–1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204 PMID:27152420

  6. Clinical analysis of 1629 newly diagnosed malignant lymphomas in current residents of Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Mei; Bassig, Bryan A; Wen, Jing-Jing; Li, Gan-di; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Yao, Wen-Xiu; Hu, Wei; Wang, Ying; Li, Ji-Man; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Gan, Mao-Zhou; Wang, Chun-Sen; Xu, Gang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Xu, Cai-Gang

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies in other provinces of China (Beijing, Xinjiang, Shanxi, Jiangxi, Shanghai, Guangdong, and Taiwan) suggest that the distributions of lymphoma subtypes differ compared with Western populations. In order to evaluate the characteristics of malignant lymphoma in Sichuan, China, we analyzed case series data from incident lymphoma patients diagnosed in 2008 from three hospitals, including a total of 1629 cases and including only current residents of Sichuan. The median age of diagnosis for cases was 54 years, with a higher proportion of male cases compared with female cases. The most commonly diagnosed subtypes included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (40.4%), NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL; 11.8%), mixed cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma (7.0%), mantle cell lymphoma (4.8%), and marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (3.9%). Differences in demographic characteristics between Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cases were apparent for median age at diagnosis (HL: 34 years; NHL: 57 years), and NHLs accounted for nearly all (99.3%) of the 931 cases of extranodal lymphoma. These findings indicate a higher proportion of NKTCL cases and a lower proportion of follicular lymphoma cases (2.3%) in these hospitals in Sichuan, relative to reports from some other provinces within China (e.g., Shanghai and Shanxi) and the USA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in Cats from Liaoning Province, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Honglie; Cao, Lili; Ren, Wenzhi; Wang, Dansheng; Ding, He; You, Juan; Yao, Xinhua; Dong, Hang; Guo, Yanbing; Yuan, Shuxian; Zhang, Xichen; Gong, Pengtao

    2017-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats from Liaoning province, northeastern China. From October 2014 to September 2016, sera of 651 cats, including 364 domestic cats and 287 feral cats (332 females and 319 males) were assessed. They were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using SNAP Heartworm RT test kit. In this population, the average prevalence was 4.5%. Age and rearing conditions (feral or domestic) were found to be associated with the prevalence of D. immitis. The prevalence was significantly higher in feral cats compared with domestic cats (8.4% vs 1.4%, P0.05), but older cats (≥3 years old) showed a statistically higher prevalence compared with younger cats (cats (2.4% vs 0.51%, P>0.05), all these results suggest that outdoor exposure time may be one of the most important factors for D. immitis prevalence in cats. Results reveal that D. immitis are prevalence in domestic and feral cats in northeastern China, which indicates that appropriate preventive measures should be taken to decrease the incidence of feline heartworm disease in Liaoning province, northeastern China.

  8. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Xie, Yue; Hou, Rong; Wu, Qidun; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-25

    Cryptosporidium spp. have been extensively reported to cause significant diarrheal disease in humans and domestic animals. On the contrary, little information is available on the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium in wild animals in China, especially in giant pandas. The aim of the present study was to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species at the molecular level in both captive and wild giant pandas in Sichuan province, China. Using a PCR approach, we amplified and sequenced the 18S rRNA gene from 322 giant pandas fecal samples (122 from 122 captive individuals and 200 collected from four habitats) in Sichuan province, China. The Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified via a BLAST comparison against published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank followed by phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that both captive and wild giant pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, C. andersoni, at a prevalence of 15.6% (19/122) and 0.5% (1/200) in captive and wild giant pandas, respectively. The present study revealed the existence of C. andersoni in both captive and wild giant panda fecal samples for the first time, and also provided useful fundamental data for further research on the molecular epidemiology and control of Cryptosporidium infection in giant pandas.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  10. Economic development and conservation of biological and cultural diversity in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, R.C.; Johnson, Richard L.; Mosesso, J.P.; Zhang, X.

    2001-01-01

    Chinese and American scientists are co-operating to develop concepts, strategies, agreements, and proposals in support of an economic development and sustainable ecosystems project in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. Yunnan's Provincial Government has initiated a major programme to develop and further utilise its biological resources to help improve economic conditions for its citizens. They are co-operating with the US Geological Survey (USGS) on evaluation and management of biological resources so economic development will be compatible with sustainable ecological systems. Scientists from the USGS and co-operating universities will provide expertise on synthesising biological data, conducting a Gap Analysis for the Province, evaluating innovative economic opportunities, and designing an effective education, training, and outreach programme.

  11. A New Basal Salamandroid (Amphibia, Urodela) from the Late Jurassic of Qinglong, Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Gao, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features, most prominently the presence of a toothed palatine, toothed coronoid, and a unique pattern of the hyobranchium in adults. Comparative study of the new salamander with previously known fossil and extant salamandroids sheds new light on the early evolution of the Salamandroidea, the most species-diverse clade in the Urodela. Cladistic analysis places the new salamander as the sister taxon to Beiyanerpeton, and the two taxa together form the basalmost clade within the Salamandroidea. Along with recently reported Beiyanerpeton from the same geological formation in the neighboring Liaoning Province, the discovery of Qinglongtriton indicates that morphological disparity had been underway for the salamandroid clade by early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) time.

  12. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  13. Reconstituting the epidemic history of mono lineage of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Guizhou province, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haiyan; Sun, Binlian; Li, Lingnuo; Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Yao; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Rongge

    2014-08-01

    Guizhou province, located between border provinces and Central province of China, plays a crucial role in the transmission of HIV-1, implying it is important to monitor the epidemic of HIV-1 in this region. Available HIV-1 infected patients' plasma (n=78) were collected from Tongren city, Eastern Guizhou. Full-length gag, partial pol and env gene sequences were amplified and analyzed using phylogenetic, recombinant and Bayesian molecular clock approaches. Phylogenetic and recombinant analyses showed that CRF01_AE predominated among injecting drug users and heterosexuals in Tongren city with 85.9% proportion, it was followed by B' (5.1%), CRF07_BC (3.8%), CRF08_BC (3.8%), and B (1.3%). Moreover, 98.5% of CRF01_AE strains belonged to the distinct lineage CRF01_AE-v previously found in Guangxi province. To infer the most probable origin of CRF01_AE-v in Guizhou province, we download all available full length of CRF01_AE gag, pol and env gene region sequences from China in Los Alamos HIV sequence database. Phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses revealed that the expanding CRF01_AE-v epidemic in Guizhou province was the result of local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions of CRF01_AE-v strains from Guangxi province in early 2000s. High prevalence of CRF01_AE in Guizhou province may bridge the epidemic to Central China. It provides a new insight for the understanding of HIV-1 epidemic in Guizhou province and makes the evolutionary history of CRF01_AE in China more intact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatiotemporal trends and climatic factors of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome epidemic in Shandong Province, China.

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    Li-Qun Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantaviruses. It is endemic in all 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and metropolitan areas in mainland China where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Shandong Province is among the most serious endemic areas. HFRS cases in Shandong Province were first reported in Yutai County in 1968. Since then, the disease has spread across the province, and as of 2005, all 111 counties were reported to have local human infections. However, causes underlying such rapid spread and wide distribution remain less well understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we report a spatiotemporal analysis of human HFRS cases in Shandong using data spanning 1973 to 2005. Seasonal incidence maps and velocity vector maps were produced to analyze the spread of HFRS over time in Shandong Province, and a panel data analysis was conducted to explore the association between HFRS incidence and climatic factors. Results show a rapid spread of HFRS from its epicenter in Rizhao, Linyi, Weifang Regions in southern Shandong to north, east, and west parts of the province. Based on seasonal shifts of epidemics, three epidemic phases were identified over the 33-year period. The first phase occurred between 1973 and 1982 during which the foci of HFRS was located in the south Shandong and the epidemic peak occurred in the fall and winter, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Hantaan virus (HTNV transmission. The second phase between 1983 and 1985 was characterized by northward and westward spread of HFRS foci, and increases in incidence of HFRS in both fall-winter and spring seasons. The human infections in the spring reflected a characteristic pattern of Seoul virus (SEOV transmission. The third phase between 1986 and 2005 was characterized by the northeast spread of the HFRS foci until it covered all counties, and the HFRS incidence in the fall-winter season decreased while it

  15. Industrial occupational exposure in the Taiwan province of the Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, P.-S.; Li, S.-Y.

    1982-01-01

    This paper contains a summary of occupational radiation exposure for industry in the Taiwan Province of the Republic of China over the past two decades. Also included is a survey of radiation sources, radiation workers by age and sex, the category of industry, the accumulated dose equivalent range, and the average dose equivalent. A radiation safety training program was developed to educate radiation workers in the effects of radiation and to prepare them to take a licensing examination. The licensing examination and the status of licensees are also discussed. (author)

  16. Heavy metal pollution in Guangdong Province, China, and the strategies to manage the situation

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    Yutao eWang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Guangdong Province in China runs a risk of gradually increasing pollution of its agricultural land and, as a consequence, toxic agricultural products. We concentrate here on the situation for cadmium, copper and lead. For these metals we describe the toxicology, the current pollution and its sources, and what can be done to improve the situation by cleaning the soil from pollutants, choice of crops which allocate a minimum of the metals to edible parts, and switching to non-food crops when other measures do not guarantee food safety.

  17. Impact of One-Year Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Heroin Users in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Although the effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is well-established in many countries, it is a relatively new therapy for heroin users in China. Jiangsu Province, a relatively wealthy province, set up 4 MMT clinics in February 2006. No previous studies have evaluated the impact of MMT in a wealthy Chinese province. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a 1-year MMT among heroin users in Jiangsu Province. We investigated the impact of the treatment by examining the following outcomes: 1 reduction of heroin use, 2 increase of appropriate sexual intercourse, 3 reduction of antisocial behavior, 4 increase of better social and family relationships, and 5 HIV prevalence among heroin users in MMT clinics. Design and Setting Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after heroin users in Jiangsu Province received at least 1-year of treatment in the MMT clinics. A questionnaire survey was implemented for those who agreed to participate from March to April 2006, before the initiation of MMT (N = 554. The second survey was from August to September 2007 and was administered to those who received MMT for more than 1 year (N = 804. One hundred and ninety-six patients who were investigated in both surveys were included in a longitudinal study to evaluate the factors attributable to behavior change. Results MMT helped in reducing the percentage of heroin injection and also improved social and familial relationships. Antisocial behavior, including theft, prostitution, and dealing in heroin, decreased after 1-year treatment in the MMT clinics. However, the percentage of patients using condoms was not statistically significant. No case was found to be HIV-positive among those who received more than 1 year MMT. In the longitudinal study of 196 patients who participated in both surveys, no specific demographic variables were found to be associated with heroin use, anti-social behaviors after 1-year

  18. Analysis of Climate Change Effect on Camellia Oil Content in Fujian Province of China

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    YU Hui-kang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fujian Province is one of the main camellia oleifera production areas in China. Camellia oleifera is also an important characteristic varieties of woody oil, which can produce the high quality seed oil. By using of 0.5°(E×0.5°(Nlattice data of China ground temperature and precipitation from 1961 to 2010 which came from National Meteorological Information Center in 2013, this paper extracted the corre-sponding decadal climate data of Fujian Province to carry on statistical and variation analysis, applied climate models of the integrated assess-ment for camellia oil content by using of ArcGIS geographic information technology and probability statistics method to regionalize the oil content of camellia oleifera temporal and spatial distribution from 1961s to 2010s in Fujian Province, analyzed the variation relationship be-tween the oil content and climate essential factor of the monthly decadal mean temperature and precipitation in September at the stage of the key growth period of camellia oil fat accumulation and transformation, evaluated the regional characteristics of camellia oil content variation affected by climate factors in Fujian Province from 1961s to 2010s. The results showed that the decadal mean precipitation in September had a positive significant correlation with oil content change and played a major role of camellia oleifera production in Fujian Province; the signif-icant characteristics of that oil content level in high or low followed the decadal alternate change. There were obviously different oil content level between high oil decadal(1960s, 1980s, 2000sand low oil decadal(1970s, 1990s, and its significant variation period was 20 years. The decadal difference was not significant in temperature coefficient of variation (CvT, which affected the oil content was not obvious either. But there had significant change between precipitation coefficient of variation(CvRand oil content coefficient of variation(Cvf, and their

  19. Impact of Manufacturing Transfer on SO2 Emissions in Jiangsu Province, China

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    Ying Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of manufacturing transfer in Jiangsu province, China, on the spatial-temporal variations of SO2 emissions is investigated using estimated sector-specific SO2 emissions, and emissions in the different transfer-in and transfer-out regions were quantified during 2000–2011. Our results show that SO2 emissions had undergone three phases: an increase in the period of 2000–2005, a rapid decline in 2005–2008 and a slow decline in 2008–2011. Emissions from the south dominated the total emissions in the province. Cleaner production generally contributed to the reduced emissions, but rather, at the industrial scale. Pollution abatement was occasional and industrial structure was negligible in some years. The three phases also coincided with the three periods of the manufacturing transfer: transferred to the south from outside the province during 2000–2005, to the central from the south within the province during 2005–2008 and to the north from the south or partly from the inner central within the province during 2008–2011. With the manufacturing transfer, SO2 emission magnitudes and distributions were also changed. In the south, −12.36 and −5.62 Mt of SO2 emissions were transferred out during 2005–2008 and 2008–2011, respectively. Forty-three-point-four percent and 56.4% of the SO2 emissions in the south were transferred to the central and north during 2005–2008, respectively. The north region received 77.7% and 22.1% of SO2 emissions from the south and the central region during 2008–2011, respectively. The paper reveals that structure adjustments should be executed in a timely manner in the manufacturing transfer-in process so that the transfer-in regions can benefit from the economic boom without bearing a deteriorated environment.

  20. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

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    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  1. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

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    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P > 0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  2. Upper lower Cambrian (provisional Cambrian Series 2 trilobites from northwestern Gansu Province, China

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    Jan Bergström†

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upper lower Cambrian (provisional Cambrian Series 2 trilobites are described from three sections through the Shuangyingshan Formation in the Beishan area, northwestern Gansu Province, China. The trilobite fauna is dominated by eodiscoid and corynexochid trilobites, together representing at least ten genera: Serrodiscus, Tannudiscus, Calodiscus, Pagetides, Kootenia, Edelsteinaspis, Ptarmiganoides?, Politinella, Dinesus and Subeia. Eleven species are described, of which seven are identified with previously described taxa and four described under open nomenclature. The composition of the fauna suggests biogeographic affinity with Siberian rather than Gondwanan trilobite faunas, and the Cambrian Series 2 faunas described herein and from elsewhere in northwestern China seem to be indicative of the marginal areas of the Siberian palaeocontinent. This suggests that the Middle Tianshan–Beishan Terrane may have been located fairly close to Siberia during middle–late Cambrian Epoch 2.

  3. Social support and the 'left behind' elderly in rural China: a case study from Jiangxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ka; Yin, Pingjun; Loubere, Nicholas

    2014-08-01

    This study examines the living situation of elderly people in rural China whose children have left to work in other areas [the 'left behind' elderly (LBE)] and explores policy implications associated with their care. Based on survey data and interviews conducted in three villages in Jiangxi Province, China, we compare the living situation of the LBE and the 'non-left behind' elderly (NLBE). The data reveal that the LBE are relatively more isolated and that they spend less time interacting with neighbors and more time watching television. The study shows that the LBE have a much greater need for care services than income maintenance. Also, the LBE group has less social capital than the NLBE group. Based on our findings, it is clear that the proposal to use social capital and informal care cannot effectively meet all the needs of the LBE group. Instead, it is recommended that a comprehensive system of social support is developed.

  4. Impact of Chinese one-child policy on sibling structure: experience from rural areas in three provinces.

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    Hemminki, Elina; Long, Qian; Wu, Zhuochun; Klemetti, Reija

    2012-01-01

    To study the influence of population policy and boy preference on the sibling structure, that is, in which order and combinations boys and girls are born into families. A population-based survey with a representative sample of new mothers in 2008-2009 in rural China. Two provinces (Anhui and Shaanxi) where authorisation for a second child was usually given if the first birth was a daughter and one province (Chongqing) where only one child was authorised. The mothers giving birth in 2008-2009 were identified from family planning and hospital birth registers (including births outside hospitals) (n=5049). Of them, 3673 were interviewed by trained medical university staff members and students using structured questionnaire (response rate 73%). Children's distribution by sex and families' distribution by children's birth order and sex composition were calculated and compared with theoretical values based on the assumption that family planning policy is fully followed. The recommended family policy was varyingly followed in the three provinces. In all provinces, there were more second children than allowed. If the policy allowing a second child only after a first-born girl were fully followed, it would result in a sibling structure in which the one-child family is always with a boy and in the two-child family the first one is always a girl. This sibling structure was partly seen in Anhui but weakly in Shaanxi. The policy allowing only one child would result in an equal number of boys and girls, but in Chongqing, there were more boys. In Anhui, unlike the other provinces, there were many more first-born girls than boys, which the authors could not fully explain. Population policy and boy preference influence the actual and relative number of girls and boys and also sibling structure.

  5. First records of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) in Foshan, Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Guo, Yun-Hai; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zheng-Bin; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Zhu, Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2017-08-15

    Triatomines, also known as kissing bugs, which are found throughout the world and especially in Latin America, are well known natural vectors that transmit American trypanosomiasis, also called Chagas disease. In China, the presence of two species of Triatoma (Triatoma rubrofasciata and T. sinica) was recorded in the past. Due to the growing population and the increasing risk of the global spread of Chagas disease, triatomines became a potential public health nuisance, and in 2016, we started monitoring triatomine activities in southern China. Triatomine specimens were collected by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and identified by their morphological characteristics under a dissecting microscope. In addition to morphological analysis, the genomic DNA of the specimens was extracted, and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA, the cytochrome b (CytB) gene and the nuclear ribosomal 28S rRNA gene were PCR-amplified to analyze and confirm the species genetically. One female adult insect and one male adult insect were collected in a dwelling in the rural area of Shunde County, Foshan City, Guangdong Province, China (22°42'44.63″N, 113°08'45.34″E). The results from the morphological and genetic analyses indicated that these triatomines were T. rubrofasciata. This is the first time that the occurrence of T. rubrofasciata has been confirmed in Foshan City, Guangdong Province in southern China. Further studies are needed to reach a clearer understanding of the ecology of this species of triatomine, since it has been found to be naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. conorhini and there is evidence of its domiciliation capabilities.

  6. Household photovoltaic market in Xining, Qingha province, China: the role of local PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, S.; Boardman, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the present and future market for household photovoltaic (PV) systems in rural Northwest China, especially from the PV commerce at Xining, Qinghai Province. This unsubsidised free market is now met by the emerging PV industry in China, which includes cell and module manufacturers, and PV system distributors and assemblers. For widespread deployment of such a renewable energy technology, the development of a local free market seems more successful than donor- or 'government subsidy'-driven programmes. Presently, there is a thriving infant PV industry in Northwest China, mostly centred in Xining. Xining-based PV sales companies have extensive networks for selling, marketing and servicing household PV systems for rural farmers and nomads. Small systems are now ordinary items on sale in local shops. Based on interviews and fieldwork observations with seven major PV sales companies in Xining, the household PV market is assessed from the present business operations of these companies. Detail of primary sources is given with the aim of archiving seminal progress in the history of photovoltaic power. The results suggest that although the household PV market will continue to grow, current government and international sponsored PV programmes can create both opportunities and barriers for the infant PV market an industry in China. (author)

  7. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China.

  8. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not

  10. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Lin, Xian-Dan [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Wen [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Shi, Mang [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Wen-Ping [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-He [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xing, Jian-Guang [Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  11. A meta-analysis of coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baodi; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Kang, Xiaoming; Pan, Xu; Lei, Yinru

    2018-01-01

    Wetlands are impacted by economic and political initiatives, and their ecosystem services are attracting increasing public attention. It is crucial that management decisions for wetland ecosystem services quantify the economic value of the ecosystem services. In this paper, we aimed to estimate a monetary value for coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province, China. We selected 433 observations from 85 previous coastal wetland economic evaluations (mostly in China) including detailed spatial and economic characteristics in each wetland, then used a meta-analysis scale transfer method to calculate the total value of coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province. Our results demonstrated that, on average, the ecosystem services provided by seven different coastal wetland types were worth US40,648 per ha per year, and the total value was 28,990,439,041 in 2013. Shallow marine waters accounted for the largest proportion (83.97%). Variables with a significant positive effect on the ecosystem service values included GDP per capita, population density, distance from the wetland to the city center and the year of evaluation, while wetland size and latitude had negative relationships.

  12. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites level in urine of general population in eight provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Chunguang; Liu, Cuilan; Wang, Gang; Song, Xinkui; Huang, Hanlin; Zhu, Baoli; Shao, Hua; Zhao, Chunxiang; Han, Changcheng; Peng, Shanzhuo; Jiang, Xianlong; Yu, Shanfa; Ji, Hongrong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Sun, Ran; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2014-02-01

    To assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites in urine of general population in China among 8 provinces, provide the baseline of the metabolites in the general population. From 2009 to 2010, 18 120 subjects of general population aged 6-60 years old were recruited from 24 areas among 8 provinces in east, west and central areas of China mainland by cluster random sampling. The information of the living environment and health condition were collected by questionnaire and spot urine samples were collected, 4 680 urine samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and monohydroxy metabolites distribution in urine among groups of gender and ages were analysed. Geometric means (GM) of 2-naphthol, 1-naphthol, 3-phenanthrol and 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in urine (95%CI) were 1.85 (1.75-1.95), 1.55 (1.50-1.61), 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.82 (0.78-0.85) µg/L, respectively;and median are 2.44, population were significantly different (P population aged 6-12, 13-16, 17-20, 21-30, 31-45 and 46-60 years old were 1.60, 1.56, 1.69, 2.23, 1.91 and 1.86 µg/L (χ(2) = 17.90, P population were different, it provided a basic data for the further study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomonitoring in the population.

  13. Image analysis of Budd-Chiari syndrome in Henan province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Ding Pengxu; Qin Shicheng; Liu Bingyan; Zhao Xin; Zhai Dongzhi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of the obstructive lesion of hepatic vein and inferior cava vein in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome in Henan Province of China. Methods: A total of 231 cases with Budd-Chiari syndrome were diagnosed by combination of three imaging techniques which either included colour Doppler ultrasound, multislice CT and vasography or colour Doppler ultrasound, MR angiography and vasography. All the hepatic veins, accessory hepatic veins and inferior vena cavae were imaged and their obstructions were detected and analysed. Results: Out of the 231 patients there were 5 cases (2.2%) with simple obstruction of inferior vena cava with normal hepatic branches. Thirty-three cases (14.3%) had simple hepatic vein obstruction with normal inferior vena cava. The remaining 193(83.5%) cases had vein obstruction both in hepatic vein and inferior vena cava. Conclusion: The most frequent form of Budd-Chiari syndrome in Henan province of China is the complex obstruction of inferior vena cava and hepatic vein, and simple obstruction of inferior vena cava occurs the least. (authors)

  14. Occurrence of several main antibiotic residues in raw milk in 10 provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi; Han, Rongwei; Xu, Xiaomin; Zhen, Yunpeng; Qu, Xueyin; Sun, Peng; Li, Songli; Yu, Zhongnuo

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, 199 raw milk samples were analysed for beta-lactams, tetracyclines, sulfonamides and quinolones. They were obtained from collection tanks of milk routes in 10 provinces of China. The occurrence and concentration range of the four antibiotics were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. At the detectable level, 0.5%, 47.2% and 20.1% of samples were positive for beta-lactams, quinolones and sulfonamides, respectively. No sample was positive for tetracyclines. Beta-lactams were positive only in Beijing while quinolones and sulfonamides were positive in all provinces. One (0.5%) sample for beta-lactams was above the maximum residue limits (MRLs, regulated by EU, CAC and China). The maximum concentrations for sulfonamides and quinolones were 16.28 µg kg⁻¹ and 23.25 µg kg⁻¹ which were under their maximum residue limits. More precaution should be taken on antibiotic controls because of the high detection rate of some antibiotics.

  15. Coupling between Rural Development and Ecosystem Services, the Case of Fujian Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxiang Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the relationship between rural development and ecosystem services and to assist in efforts to balance these factors, we used a coupling model to carry out a study of the relationship between rural development and ecosystem services in Fujian Province of China during the years 2000 to 2015. First, we characterized the degree of rural development for each county in the province by calculating its index of relative rurality (IRR and classified the counties into rural development types. Second, we calculated the values of three ecosystem services (ES and overlapped them to get the sum of ES for each county. Third, we calculated the coupling and coupling coordination degree and analyzed the correlation between IRR and ES in the study area. The results showed that the mean value of IRR declined over the study period, was positively correlated with ES, and the correlation degree increased year by year. Meanwhile the degree of coupling was in the antagonistic stage, but tended to run in stage with a highly coordinated stage coupling coordination degree, if the business services type-counties were excluded. Although the overall coupling coordination degree was high, it declined yearly, which meant that rural development and ecosystem services increasingly lacked coordination. This paper supports and verifies some achievements of rural development programs in the research area, provides theoretical and decision-making support for coordinated rural development and ecosystem services protection in China, and provides a regional case study that could assist with similar research in other countries.

  16. Host preferences and feeding patterns of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann in three sites of Shandong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxing; Shi, Guihong; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Lijuan; Gong, Maoqing

    2017-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann is a major vector of malaria and is among the dominant species in Shandong province of China. Knowledge of the blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes is crucial for elimination of malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the blood-feeding behaviour of An. sinensis mosquitoes in Shandong province. This study was carried out to compare the blood-feeding behaviour of An. sinensis in malaria-endemic areas of Shandong province China. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three malaria-endemic areas (Jimo, Yinan and Shanxian), during the peak months of mosquito population (August and September) from 2014 to 2015. Indoor-resting mosquitoes and outdoor-resting blood-fed females were sampled in the morning hours (0600 to 0900 hrs) from 10 randomly selected houses using pyrethrum spray catch method, and sweeping with an insect net. ELISA was used for the identification of blood meal. The blood meal of each mosquito was tested against antisera specific to human, pig, dog, cow, goat, horse (mule) and fowl. At all indoor study locations of Jimo, Yinan and Shanxian, 59.4, 68.1 and 98.8% blood-engorged female An. sinensis collected from cattle sheds fed almost exclusively on bovines, respectively. For outdoor locations, at Jimo site, 27.27 and 49.55% An. sinensis fed on cattle and pigs; at Yinan, 30.42% fed on cattle and 36.88% fed both on cattle and goats, while no pig antibodies were detected. At Shanxian, percent of An. sinensis that fed on cattle, pigs and cattle-goat was 20.72, 27.62 and 21.78%, respectively. The analysis of An. sinensis blood meals in all the three studied areas from human houses, cattle sheds, pig sheds and mixed dwellings revealed that An. sinensis prefers cattle hosts, and can feed on other available animal hosts if the cattle hosts are absent, and the mosquitoes readily feed on humans when domestic animals (cattle and pigs) are not nearby for feeding. The analysis of blood meal revealed that An

  17. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A. R. M. Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  18. A meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi Yong; Lin, Chang Cheng; Liu, Jing Xiong; Wu, De Hui; Lian, Dong Ying; Chen, Bin Bin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the acid rain and concurrent meteorological observational data during the past 10 years in Fujian Province, China, the dependence of distribution characteristics of acid rain on season, rain rate, weather pattern and dominant airflow in four regions of Fujian Province is analyzed. On the annual average, the acid rain frequency is the highest (above 40%) in the southern and mid-eastern regions, and the lowest (16.2%) in the western region. The acid rain occurs most frequently in spring and winter, and least frequent in summer. The acid rain frequency in general increases with the increase of precipitation. It also depend on the direction of dominant airflows at 850 hPa. In the mid-eastern region, more than 40% acid rains appear when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW, S and SE. In the southern region, high acid rain occurrence happens when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW and S. In the northern region, 41.8% acid rains occur when the southwesterly is pronounced. In the western region, the southwesterly is associated with a 17% acid rain rate. The examination of meteorological sounding conditions over Fuzhou, Xiamen and Shaowu cities shows that the acid rain frequency increases with increased inversion thickness. Based on the results above, a meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain is established and tested in 2007. The result is encouraging. The model provides an objective basis for the development of acid rain forecasting operation in the province.

  19. Epidemiological characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimin; Chai, Chengliang; Lv, Huakun; Lin, Junfen; Wang, Chengwei; Chen, Enfu; Zhang, Yanjun; Chen, Zhiping; Liu, Shelan; Gong, Zhenyu; Jiang, Jianmin

    2014-08-01

    To summarize the epidemiological characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Zhejiang Province, China. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic features, exposure history, clinical symptoms, and timelines of medical visits. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the characteristics of SFTS. A total of 65 cases of SFTS were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2011 to 2013, of whom 34 were male and 31 were female. The median age was 66 years and 60 cases occurred in persons aged ≥ 50 years. The majority (91%) of SFTS cases occurred between May and August. With regard to exposure history, patients had pursued outdoor activities (63%), had a history of exposure to a tick (68%) or tick bite (29%), bred domestic animals (31%), or had a history of exposure to a mouse (57%), and some patients had a multi-exposure history. Approximately 98.46% of patients were hospitalized, and symptoms of the illness included fever (98%), fatigue (71%), chills (51%), etc. Two family clusters occurred, although there was no person-to-person transmission. In Zhejiang Province, SFTS is prevalent between May and August among elderly persons who live in hilly areas, and clinical features are not specific. More emphasis should be given to this disease and further training of medical personnel should be carried out to prevent misdiagnosis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. Objective To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. Methods This study used the 2005–2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. Results The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (Phepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme. PMID:27093614

  1. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

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    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  2. Spatiotemporal Risk of Bacillary Dysentery and Sensitivity to Meteorological Factors in Hunan Province, China

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    Chengdong Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillary dysentery remains a public health concern in the world. Hunan Province is one of the provinces having the highest risk of bacillary dysentery in China, however, the spatial-temporal distribution, variation of bacillary dysentery and sensitivity to meteorological factors in there are unclear. In this paper, a Bayesian space-time hierarchical model (BSTHM was used to detect space-time variation, and effects of meteorological factors between 2010 and 2015. The risk of bacillary dysentery showed apparent spatial-temporal heterogeneity. The highest risk occurred in the summer season. Economically undeveloped mountainous areas in the west and south of the province had the highest incidence rates. Twenty three (18.9% and 20 (16.4% counties were identified as hot and cold spots, respectively. Among the hotspots, 11 counties (47.8% exhibited a rapidly decreasing trend, suggesting they may become low-risk areas in the future. Of the cold spot counties, six (30% showed a slowly decreasing trend, and may have a higher risk in the future. Among meteorological factors, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed all played a significant role in the spatial-temporal distribution of bacillary dysentery risk. These findings can contribute to the implementation of an early warning system for controlling and preventing bacillary dysentery.

  3. Indicators of child health, service utilization and mortality in Zhejiang Province of China, 1998-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei Fang; Xu, Yan Hua; Yang, Ru Lai; Zhao, Zheng Yan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the levels of primary health care services for children and their changes in Zhejiang Province, China from 1998 to 2011. The data were drawn from Zhejiang maternal and child health statistics collected under the supervision of the Health Bureau of Zhejiang Province. Primary health care coverage, hospital deliveries, low birth weight, postnatal visits, breastfeeding, underweight, early neonatal (mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality and under-5 mortality were investigated. The coverage rates for children under 3 years old and children under 7 years old increased in the last 14 years. The hospital delivery rate was high during the study period, and the overall difference narrowed. There was a significant difference (Pinfant and under-5 mortality rates decreased from 6.66‰, 8.67‰, 11.99‰ and 15.28‰ to 1.69‰, 2.36‰, 3.89‰ and 5.42‰, respectively (Pmortality rates in rural areas were slightly higher than those in urban areas each year, and the mortality rates were lower in Ningbo, Wenzhou, and Jiaxing regions and higher in Quzhou and Lishui regions. Primary health care services for children in Zhejiang Province improved from 1998 to 2011. Continued high rates of low birth weight in urban areas and mortality in rural areas may be addressed with improvements in health awareness and medical technology.

  4. [Distribution of copper and zinc in blood among general population from 8 provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xingfu; Ding, Chunguang; Pan, Yajuan; Zhang, Aihua; Wu, Banghua; Huang, Hanlin; Zhu, Chun; Liu, Deye; Zhu, Baoli; Xu, Guang; Shao, Hua; Peng, Shanzhuo; Jiang, Xianlong; Zhao, Chunxiang; Han, Changcheng; Ji, Hongrong; Yu, Shanfa; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Longlian; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the level of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in whole blood among general population from 8 provinces in China, and to analyze the characteristics of distribution among different regions. This cross-sectional study was performed in 8 provinces from eastern, middle and western China between 2009 and 2010, including 13 110 subjects from 24 regions, and the blood and urine samples were collected. The ICP-MS was applied to test the content of ICP-MS in blood samples, and the results were used to analyze the characteristics of contents and distributions of Zn and Cu among population from different ages, genders and regions groups. Totally, the mean (95%CI) contents of Cu and Zn in blood were 795 (791-799)µg/L and 3 996(3 976-4 015) µg/L, respectively. The characteristics of distribution of Cu content were as followed, the content of males were lower than it of females (male:767 µg/L; female: 822 µg/L, t = -13.302, P aging 6-12, 13-16, 17-20, 21-30, 31-45 and 46-60 years old were separately 860(853-868), 758(748-769), 734(728-734), 782(774-790), 811(795-827) and 820(815-826) µg/L. The differences showed statistical significance (F = 78.77, P China (800µg/L) were also significantly higher than it in middle (774 µg/L)and western China (782 µg/L) (F = 10.94, P aging 6-12, 13-16, 17-20, 21-30, 31-45 and 46-60 years old were separately 3 306 (3 261-3 350), 3 888 (3 839-3 937), 3 948 (3 902-3 994), 4 272(4 228-4 315), 4 231(4 180-4 281) and 4 250 (4 205-4 294)µg/L, which showed significant statistical differences (F = 233.68, P China (3 938 µg/L) were significantly lower than it in middle (4 237 µg/L)and western China (4 105 µg/L) (F = 53.16, P ages, genders and regions. The baseline data of this study provided reliable scientific evidence for further research.

  5. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haiying; Zhang Keli

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: → Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. → An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. → Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  6. Characterizing a large outbreak of dengue fever in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian-Peng; He, Jian-Feng; Deng, Ai-Ping; Lin, Hua-Liang; Song, Tie; Peng, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Liu, Tao; Li, Zhi-Hao; Rutherford, Shannon; Zeng, Wei-Lin; Li, Xing; Ma, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Hui

    2016-05-03

    Dengue cases have been reported each year for the past 25 years in Guangdong Province, China with a recorded historical peak in 2014. This study aims to describe the epidemiological characteristics of this large outbreak in order to better understand its epidemic factors and to inform control strategies. Data for clinically diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases in 2014 were extracted from the China Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System. We analyzed the incidence and characteristics of imported and indigenous cases in terms of population, temporal and spatial distributions. A total of 45 224 dengue fever cases and 6 deaths were notified in Guangdong Province in 2014, with an incidence of 47.3 per 100 000 people. The elderly (65+ years) represented 11.7 % of total indigenous cases with the highest incidence (72.3 per 100 000). Household workers and the unemployed accounted for 23.1 % of indigenous cases. The majority of indigenous cases occurred in the 37(th) to 44(th) week of 2014 (September and October) and almost all (20 of 21) prefecture-level cities in Guangdong were affected. Compared to the non-Pearl River Delta Region, the Pearl River Delta Region accounted for the majority of dengue cases and reported cases earlier in 2014. Dengue virus serotypes 1 (DENV-1), 2 (DENV-2) and 3 (DENV-3) were detected and DENV-1 was predominant (88.4 %). Dengue fever is a serious public health problem and is emerging as a continuous threat in Guangdong Province. There is an urgent need to enhance dengue surveillance and control, especially for the high-risk populations in high-risk areas.

  7. Seroprevalence of Enterovirus A71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in Healthy People in Shandong Province, China.

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    Jian-Xing Wang

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease has become very common in mainland of China in recent years, and enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 are its major etiologic factors. Here we investigated the seroprevalence of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 based on a large group of healthy individuals in Shandong province, China.A total of 1378 healthy individuals were tested for serum neutralizing antibodies against enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 using a micro neutralization test.The overall seroprevalence of enterovirus A71 neutralizing antibodies was 74.75%. It increased significantly from 48.84% in children aged 0-1 years old to 88.64% in those aged 20-29 years (p 40 years old with a significant gender-specific difference (p 40 years without a gender-specific difference. Nearly 50% of the children <1 year were susceptible to enterovirus A71 infection versus 40% to coxsackievirus A16 infection. Sample collection time and place also played a role in the enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 positive rates. The overall rates in January were significantly lower than those in April and August (p < 0.01; enterovirus A71 positive rates in Jinan city (capital city of Shandong province were lower than those in Jining city and Zibo city (p < 0.05; and oxsackievirus A16 positive rates in Jining city were significantly higher than those in Jinan city and Zibo city (p < 0.01.There were significant differences among age groups, locations, and time points in the seroprevalence rates of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 neutralizing antibodies in healthy people in Shandong province.

  8. Impact of Climate Change on Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  9. Snow Cover Monitoring Using MODIS Data in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of snow cover monitoring studies in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, using MODIS data. Snow cover plays an important role in both the regional water balance and soil moisture properties during the early spring in northeastern China. In addition, heavy snowfalls commonly trigger hazards such as flooding, caused by rapid snow melt, or crop failure, resulting from fluctuations in soil temperature associated with changes in the snow cover. The latter is a function of both regional, or global, climatic changes, as well as fluctuations in the albedo resulting from variations in the Snow Covered Area (SCA. These impacts are crucial to human activities, especially to those living in middle-latitude areas such as Liaoning Province. Thus, SCA monitoring is currently an important tool in studies of global climate change, particularly because satellite remote sensing data provide timely and efficient snow cover information for large areas. In this study, MODIS L1B data, MODIS Daily Snow Products (MOD10A1 and MODIS 8-day Snow Products (MOD10A2 were used to monitor the SCA of Liaoning Province over the winter months of November–April, 2006–2008. The effects of cloud masking and forest masking on the snow monitoring results were also assessed. The results show that the SCA percentage derived from MODIS L1B data is relatively consistent, but slightly higher than that obtained from MODIS Snow Products. In situ data from 25 snow stations were used to assess the accuracy of snow cover monitoring from the SCA compared to the results from MODIS Snow Products. The studies found that the SCA results were more reliable than MODIS Snow Products in the study area.

  10. Impact of climate change on heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M; Bader, Daniel A; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-05-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cryptosporidium suis infection in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and microscopy at × 400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China.

  12. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an, Sichuan 625014 (China); Zhang Keli, E-mail: keli@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. {yields} An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. {yields} Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  13. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total

  14. Maternal mortality in Henan Province, China: changes between 1996 and 2009.

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    Fengzhi You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal deaths occur mostly in developing countries and the majority of them are preventable. This study analyzes changes in maternal mortality and related causes in Henan Province, China, between 1996 and 2009, in an attempt to provide a reliable basis for introducing effective interventions to reduce the maternal mortality ratio (MMR, part of the fifth Millennium Development Goal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This population-based maternal mortality survey in Henan Province was carried out from 1996 to 2009. Basic information was obtained from the health care network for women and children and the vital statistics system, from specially trained monitoring personnel in 25 selected monitoring sites and by household survey in each case of maternal death. This data was subsequently reported to the Henan Provincial Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital. The total MMR in Henan Province declined by 78.4%, from 80.1 per 100 000 live births in 1996 to 17.3 per 100 000 live births in 2009. The decline was more pronounced in rural than in urban areas. The most common causes of maternal death during this period were obstetric hemorrhage (43.8%, pregnancy-induced hypertension (15.8%, amniotic fluid embolism (13.9% and heart disease (8.0%. The MMR was higher in rural areas with lower income, less education and poorer health care. CONCLUSION: There was a remarkable decrease in the MMR in Henan Province between 1996 and 2009 mainly in the rural areas and MMR due to direct obstetric causes such as obstetric hemorrhage. This study indicates that improving the health care network for women, training of obstetric staff at basic-level units, promoting maternal education, and increasing household income are important interventional strategies to reduce the MMR further.

  15. Estimates of Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in Liaoning Province of Northeast China: A Review and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J.; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha−1 in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations. PMID:24586881

  16. [Analysis of reports of cases of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2006 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Ding, Bangmei; Shen, Han; Zhu, Baoli; Gao, Qianqian

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for developing effective intervention measures and prevention strategies. The data from report cards of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2013 were arranged using EXCEL tables, and assessed. Statistical analysis was applied to the epidemiological data using SPSS. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 32672 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Jiangsu Province. Most of the cases were caused by non-occupational poisoning (life poisoning) (72.78%). A majority of patients with pesticide poisoning were 35-54 years old (40.85%) or older than 65 years (15.69%). There were more female patients (58.22%) than male patients (41.78%). Among patients with occupational poisoning, male patients (50.90%) were more than female patients. Among patients with non-occupational poisoning, female patients were more than male patients (38.37%). Pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from July to September. The case-fatality rate of occupational poisoning (0.47%) was lower than that of non-occupational poisoning (7.10%). All 13 cities in Jiangsu Province reported cases of pesticide poisoning. There were more cases in the northern regions than in the southern regions. Pesticide poisoning was mainly caused by organophosphorus insecticides including methamidophos, dichlorvos, dimethoate, omethoate, and parathion, which accounted for 65.58%of all cases. Paraquat had the highest case-fatality rate (10.06%) among all pesticides, followed by tetramine (10.00%), dimethoate or omethoate (7.85%), methamidophos (7.79%), and dimehypo (7.68%). Pesticide poisoning cannot be ignored. The management and control should be improved in production and usage of highly toxic pesticides including organophosphorus insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides. More attention should be paid to the protection of vulnerable groups including women, children, and the elderly.

  17. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  18. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiao; Yang, Dandan; Xu, Weiguo; Wang, Jianming; LV, Bing; Shao, Yan; Song, Honghuan; Li, Guoli; Dong, Haiyan; Wan, Kanglin; Wang, Hua

    2011-10-26

    Globally, China is the second place with high burden of tuberculosis (TB). To explore the characteristics of the pathogens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) circulating in this area is helpful for understanding and controlling the spread of the strains. Recent developments in molecular biology have allowed prompt identification and tracking specific strains of MTB spreading through the population. Spacer-oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) were performed in combination to yield specific genetic profiles of 260 MTB strains isolated from 30 counties of Jiangsu province in China between June and July 2010. The spoligotyping results were in comparison to the world Spoligotyping Database of Institute Pasteur de Guadeloupe (SpolDB4). Drug susceptibility test (DST) was performed on all strains by proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture media. Based on the spoligotyping method, 246 strains displayed known patterns and 14 were absent in the database. Predominant spoligotypes belonged to the Beijing family (80.4%). By using the 24-loci VNTR typing scheme, 224 different patterns were identified, including 20 clusters and 204 unique patterns. The largest clade comprised 195 strains belonging to the Beijing family. The combination of spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR demonstrated maximal discriminatory power. Furthermore, we observed a significant association between Beijing family strains and drug-resistant phenotypes. The Beijing family strains presented increased risks for developing multi-drug resistant TB, with the OR (95% CI) of 11.07(1.45-84.50). The present study demonstrated that Beijing family isolates were the most prevalent strains circulating in Jiangsu province of China. The utility of spoligotyping in combination with 24-loci MIRU-VNTR might be a useful tool for epidemiological analysis of MTB transmission.

  19. Epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV from poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China.

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    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8% were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7% in chicken and 282 (9.1% in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11 and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8. The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%. The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.

  20. A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.

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    Nicholas X Tan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province.This study uses linear regression and spatial lag regression to determine county-level (n = 97 socio-demographic characteristics associated with a greater burden of syphilis, gonorrhea, and a combined syphilis/gonorrhea index. Data were obtained from the 2005 China Population Census and published public health data. A range of socio-demographic variables including gross domestic product, the Gender Empowerment Measure, standard of living, education level, migrant population and employment are examined. Reported syphilis and gonorrhea cases are disproportionately clustered in the Pearl River Delta, the central region of Guangdong Province. A higher fraction of employed men among the adult population, higher fraction of divorced men among the adult population, and higher standard of living (based on water availability and people per room are significantly associated with higher STI cases across all three models. Gross domestic product and gender inequality measures are not significant predictors of reported STI in these models.Although many ecological studies of STIs have found poverty to be associated with higher reported STI, this analysis found a greater number of reported syphilis cases in counties with a higher standard of living. Spatially targeted syphilis screening measures in regions with a higher standard of living may facilitate successful control efforts. This analysis also reinforces the importance of changing male sexual behaviors as part of a comprehensive response to syphilis control in China.

  1. Molecular typing of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in Jiangsu Province, China

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    Dong Haiyan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, China is the second place with high burden of tuberculosis (TB. To explore the characteristics of the pathogens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB circulating in this area is helpful for understanding and controlling the spread of the strains. Recent developments in molecular biology have allowed prompt identification and tracking specific strains of MTB spreading through the population. Methods Spacer-oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR were performed in combination to yield specific genetic profiles of 260 MTB strains isolated from 30 counties of Jiangsu province in China between June and July 2010. The spoligotyping results were in comparison to the world Spoligotyping Database of Institute Pasteur de Guadeloupe (SpolDB4. Drug susceptibility test (DST was performed on all strains by proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture media. Results Based on the spoligotyping method, 246 strains displayed known patterns and 14 were absent in the database. Predominant spoligotypes belonged to the Beijing family (80.4%. By using the 24-loci VNTR typing scheme, 224 different patterns were identified, including 20 clusters and 204 unique patterns. The largest clade comprised 195 strains belonging to the Beijing family. The combination of spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR demonstrated maximal discriminatory power. Furthermore, we observed a significant association between Beijing family strains and drug-resistant phenotypes. The Beijing family strains presented increased risks for developing multi-drug resistant TB, with the OR (95% CI of 11.07(1.45-84.50. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that Beijing family isolates were the most prevalent strains circulating in Jiangsu province of China. The utility of spoligotyping in combination with 24-loci MIRU-VNTR might be a useful tool for epidemiological analysis of MTB

  2. Cryptosporidium andersoni as a novel predominant Cryptosporidium species in outpatients with diarrhea in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanyan; Ren, Jinhua; Yuan, Zhongying; Liu, Aiqin; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Hua; Chu, Lei; Pan, Wei; Cao, Jianping; Lin, Yijin; Shen, Yujuan

    2014-10-25

    Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum are usually considered to be the major pathogens responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. However, there have been few studies regarding the molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in human infections in China. Here we investigated Cryptosporidium infection in patients with diarrhea, in Danyang Hospital of Jiangsu Province, China, at the genotype level. A total of 232 stool specimens were collected from outpatients with diarrhea in Danyang Hospital of Jiangsu Province, China, from February 2012 to January 2013. Each specimen was stained from direct fecal smears and examined for Cryptosporidium using modified acid fast staining and microscopy. Moreover, genomic DNA of each fecal sample was screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium with nested PCR, which was genotyped by analyzing the DNA sequences of small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA). The average infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 1.3% (3/232) by microscopy and subjected to PCR amplification of the SSU rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium, with 9.91% (23/232) being positive for Cryptosporidium with a significant peak in autumn. Based on the SSU rRNA gene, two Cryptosporidium spp. were identified, including C. andersoni (n =21) and C. hominis (n =2). Two types of C. andersoni, designated as A370 + and A370 - , were found in the SSU rRNA gene in our present study, which was 100% homologous to C. andersoni infections derived from dairy calves and goats, respectively. The clinical questionnaires showed no significant difference in age, gender and frequency of diarrhea, but duration of diarrhea was shorter for C. andersoni than that of C. hominis (mean, 2 vs. 4 days; p hominis indicated that different Cryptosporidium species might cause different clinical manifestations.

  3. Calamagrostis nyingchiensis, a new combination for Deyeuxia nyingchiensis (Poaceae: Agrostidinae, and its first record from Yunnan Province, SW China

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    Paszko Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deyeuxia nyingchiensis is here recombined as Calamagrostis nyingchiensis comb. nov. as a result of recent studies of worldwide Agrostidinae. A new record of C. nyingchiensis is reported from Shangri-la (Zhongdian County in Yunnan Province, SW China. Previously, C. nyingchiensis was noted from eastern Xizang and southern Sichuan, SW China. It is compared with the morphologically similar species C. scabrescens. A map with all known geographic records of C. nyingchiensis is presented.

  4. [A study on health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in six provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xueqiong; Li, Yinghua; Li, Li; Huang, Xianggang

    2014-07-01

    To understand the status and its influencing factors of health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in China, and to explore the method for improving the health information literacy. From March to May in 2013, residents aged 18-60 years in six provinces in China were investigated with Questionnaire of Health Literacy of Diabetes Mellitus of the Public in China about self-reported health information literacy. The results of the survey were standardized by the 6th national census data. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore influencing factors of health information literacy. A total of 4 416 residents were surveyed, and 4 282 (97.0%) valid questionnaires were collected. After weight adjustments, 30.1% of the residents aged 18-60 years had adequate health information literacy in China, and the 95%CI of the rate was 28.5% - 31.6%. Totally, 70.8% of the residents ever actively searched for health information, 43.7% of the residents could easily retrieve the health information, 49.1% of the residents could easily understand the health information, 41.8% of the residents could confidently differentiate the quality of the health information and 51.1% of the residents ever searched health information on the internet. The results of multi-logistic regression showed that the rural residents, the males, those with lower levels of education, those with poor health had a lower health information literacy. The most trusted health information source was from doctors, and the trust rate reached 97.0%, followed by family members, friends or colleagues. The residents trusted the interpersonal communication more than the mass media and the new media. The level of health information literacy of the residents was generally low in China. To improve the health information literacy, high-quality health information services should be delivered to the residents, and the health education on the internet provided by the medical professionals should also be explored.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus associated with aseptic meningitis in Shandong Province, China, 2006-2012.

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    Zexin Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (HEVs are common causes of acute meningitis. However, there is limited information about HEV associated with aseptic meningitis in mainland China because it has not been classified as a notifiable disease. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the HEVs associated with sporadic aseptic meningitis in China and to analyze their genetic features. STUDY DESIGN: Cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and feces specimens were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis in 5 sentinel hospitals in Shandong Province, China between 2006 and 2012. Virological investigation (viral isolation and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis were performed. RESULTS: A total of 437 hospitalized patients were reported, and enteroviruses were detected in the specimens from 84 patients (19.2% and were identified into 17 serotypes. The nine main serotypes were echovirus (E 30 (27.4%, EV71 (13.1%, coxsackievirus (CV B1 (9.5%, CVB3 (7.1%, CVB5 (7.1%, E6 (7.1%, E9 (7.1%, CVA9 (6.0%, and CVA10 (3.6%. Monthly distribution of isolated enteroviruses revealed a major peak in summer-fall season and a small second peak in winter constituted totally by EV71. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple serotypes were responsible for enterovirus meningitis in mainland China. Aseptic meningitis caused by EV71 and coxsackie A viruses-the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease-is currently an important concern in mainland China.

  6. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

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    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  7. Anemia and feeding practices among infants in rural Shaanxi Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhou, Huan; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Linxiu; Sylvia, Sean; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-12-22

    Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6-11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb). Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6-11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01). The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

  8. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

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    Renfu Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb. Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01, and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01. The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

  9. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  10. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. Methods A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May–June 2015 and December 2015–January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Results Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Conclusions Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of “too low prices.” To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages. PMID:27780218

  11. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

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    Caijun Yang

    Full Text Available Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China.A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities.Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1 let the market decide the drug price; 2 establish an information platform; 3 establish a reserve system; 4 enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5 improve hospital inventory management.Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  12. Effects of the ENSO on rainfall erosivity in the Fujian Province of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shifa; Zha, Xuan

    2018-04-15

    Rainfall erosivity is one important factor that controls soil erosion. The interannual variability of rainfall erosivity in southeast China connected to the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation). Rainfall erosivity across southeast China was assessed using daily rainfall data from 60 meteorological stations during the period from 1980 to 2013. We determined that models of erosivity based on daily rainfall can accurately predict annual rainfall erosivity. This paper presents a study of the effects of Niño3.4 SST (Sea Surface Temperatures) anomalies, the SOI (Southern Oscillation Index) and the MEI (Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index) on rainfall erosivity in the southeast of China. Results indicated that average rainfall erosivity is stronger during El Niño events and weaker during La Niña events. Correlation analyses were applied to rainfall erosivity and Niño3.4 SST anomalies, SOI, and MEI. The effects of Niño3.4 SST and SOI on rainfall erosivity are evident, as demonstrated by a statistically significant correlation (>95% confidence level). MEI was the best indicator (Prainfall erosivity and SST anomalies, SOI, and MEI, respectively. Most of these stations were located in western Fujian Province. The ENSO was determined to exert the strongest influence on rainfall erosivity. This information would be useful in the implementation of new soil conservation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stigmatization of people with drug dependence in China: a community-based study in Hunan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Jing; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Xuyi; Tan, Linxiang; Deng, Qijian; Thakoor, Jaya Prishni Devi; Hao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse remains a serious problem in China, and has become a major threat to public health and social security. Since the issuance and enforcement of the new Anti-Drug law in 2008, the community has become the primary site for drug rehabilitation. However, the attitudes of members in community toward the people with drug use disorders are unclear. A random sample of household respondents was studied in two communities in Hunan province in China. A total of 848 individuals participated (response rate 83.7%). Respondents initially were asked a set of questions about their knowledge about dug dependence, and then were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 vignette conditions. Three vignettes described different type of drug dependence meeting diagnostic criteria, and the fourth depicted a "normal person." Poor knowledge of drug dependence was common. Negative attitudes towards drug dependent people were widespread. Most respondents believed that drug dependence was caused by the person's own weak will (82.0%) and own hedonistic lifestyle (81.3%), and should be punished as illegal behavior (80.4%). The vast majority labeled the person with drug dependence as an addict, rated them as having undesirable characteristics, and expressed a strong desire for social distance. There were few socio-demographic predictors of both poor knowledge and negative attitudes. A community-based rehabilitation program in China should take into account the widespread stigmatization of people with drug dependence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trace elements in two marine fish cultured in fish cages in Fujian province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Ke Caihuan; Wang Xinhong; Wang Kejian; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Two cultured marine fish, the Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and red seabream (Pagrus major) were collected from eight fish cage sites along the coast of Fujian province in China. The concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn in their muscle, stomach and liver tissue were quantified. The risk of these trace elements to humans through fish consumption was then assessed. The highest concentrations of As, Cd, Se and Zn in fish feed from fish cages were found in Dongshan Station. Moreover, the As levels in the muscles of both species at all sites were generally higher than China's national standard (>1.0 μg/g). Trace element concentrations in two marine fish followed the order of livers > stomachs > muscles. Although the As levels in two marine caged fish exceeded the permissible standards, the estimated daily intake of As did not exceed the reference dose guideline established by US EPA. For other trace elements examined in this study, their concentrations did not exceed the permissible concentrations of the international standards. - As levels in two marine caged fish from China exceeded the permissible standards, whereas the levels of others trace elements did not exceed the permissible concentrations.

  15. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs—economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities—on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, p<0.001). The qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, p<0.001) than attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty. PMID:29596517

  16. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in dogs in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fuchun; Qi, Meng; He, Xiaoyi; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Dong, Heping; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-17

    Cryptosporidiosis in dogs has been reported worldwide, involving both asymptomatic and diarrheic dogs. Large-scale surveys of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs have been performed in some countries using different diagnostic methods. But, few data are available on the infection rate and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in China. In this study, 770 fecal samples from 66 locations in Henan Province were examined. The average Cryptosporidium infection rate was 3.8%, with dogs in kennels having the highest rate of 7.0% (χ² = 14.82, P dogs younger than 90 days, which was significantly higher than that in the other age groups (1.1-3.8%;χ² = 18.82, P dogs. Twenty-nine Cryptosporidium-positive samples were amplified at the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and actin loci using PCR. Sequence analysis of these amplicons identified only Cryptosporidium canis, which showed 100% identity with the published sequences of the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin genes. Our results confirm that C. canis is popular in the dog population in China, considering the large number of dogs in China and the close contact between dogs and humans, the role of C. canis in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis warrants attention.

  17. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naminse, Eric Yaw; Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs-economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities-on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, pentrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, pentrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty.

  18. Agricultural water policy reforms in China: a representative look at Zhangye City, Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kharrazi, Ali; Li, Jia; Avtar, Ram

    2017-12-07

    Water resources are essential for agricultural production in the grain-producing region of China, and water shortage could significantly affect the production and international trade of agricultural products. China is placing effort in new policies to effectively respond to changes in water resources due to changes in land use/land cover as well as climatic variations. This research investigates the changes in land, water, and the awareness of farmer vis-à-vis the implementation of water-saving policies in Zhangye City, an experimental site for pilot programs of water resources management in China. This research indicates that the water saved through water-saving programs and changes in cropping structure (2.2 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ) is perhaps lower than the newly increased water withdrawal through corporate-led land reclamation (3.7 × 10 8  m 3  a -1 ). Most critically, the groundwater withdrawal has increased. In addition, our survey suggests that local government is facing a dilemma of water conservation and agricultural development. Therefore, the enforcement of the ban on farmland reclamation and irrigation water quotas in our study area is revealed to be relatively loose. In this vein, the engagement of local stakeholders in water governance is essential for the future sustainable management of water resources.

  19. [Analysis of the epidemiological characteristics of metabolic syndrome among 10-16 adolescents in 7 provinces in China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z H; Zou, Z Y; Wang, S; Dong, Y H; Yang, Z G; Yang, Z P; Wang, X J; Ma, J

    2017-04-06

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among children and adolescents aged 10-16 years old in 7 provinces in China. Methods: Using the method of stratified cluster random sampling, 93 primary and secondary schools were selected from Guangdong, Hunan, Liaoning, Shanghai, Chongqing, Tianjin, and Ningxia provinces in China. A total of 9 296 students aged 10-16 years old with complete physical and biochemical parameters were selected as the subjects of the present study from above 93 primary and secondary schools. MS was determined using the definition of 'guideline of 2010 Chinese children and adolescents MS definition and treatment'. The standardized age-sex composition of the 2010 census was used to standardize the MS detection rate of every province. Chi-square test was used to compare the difference of MS prevalence among participants with different characteristics. Results: The prevalence of MS was 4.1% (384/9 296) among children and adolescents aged 10-16 years old in 7 provinces in China. The prevalence of MS among males was 5.0% (237/4 754), which was significantly higher than females (3.2%) (147/4 542) ( Pmetabolic syndrome was different in different provinces.

  20. Detecting spatial-temporal clusters of HFMD from 2007 to 2011 in Shandong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD has caused major public health concerns worldwide, and has become one of the leading causes of children death. China is the most serious epidemic area with a total of 3,419,149 reported cases just from 2008 to 2010, and its different geographic areas might have different spatial epidemiology characteristics at different spatial-temporal scale levels. We conducted spatial and spatial-temporal epidemiology analysis to HFMD at county level in Shandong Province, China. METHODS: Based on the China National Disease Surveillance Reporting and Management System, the spatial-temporal database of HFMD from 2007 to 2011 was built. The global autocorrelation statistic (Moran's I was first used to detect the spatial autocorrelation of HFMD cases in each year. Purely Spatial scan statistics combined with Space-time scan statistic were used to detect epidemic clusters. RESULTS: The annual average incidence rate was 93.70 per 100,000 in Shandong Province. Most HFMD cases (93.94% were aged within 0-5 years old with an average male-to-female sex ratio 1.71, and the incidence seasonal peak was between April and July. The dominant pathogen was EV71 (47.35%, and CoxA16 (26.59%. HFMD had positive spatial autocorrelation at medium spatial scale level (county level with higher Moran's I from 0.31 to 0.62 (P<0.001. Seven spatial-temporal clusters were detected from 2007 to 2011 in the landscape of the whole Shandong, with EV71 or CoxA16 as the dominant pathogen for most hotspots areas. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial-temporal clusters of HFMD wandered around the whole Shandong Province during 2007 to 2011, with EV71 or CoxA16 as the dominant pathogen. These findings suggested that a real-time spatial-temporal surveillance system should be established for identifying high incidence region and conducting prevention to HFMD timely.

  1. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of

  2. Analysis and Potential Application of the Maturity of Growth Management in the Developing Construction Industry of a Province of China: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jingxiao Zhang; Hui Li; Steve Hsueh-Ming Wang

    2017-01-01

    Construction industry is one of the major drivers of the economic sustainability of China’s provinces. An investigation of the status of the construction industry in China is needed to find out its maturity and health. The results of this investigation may help China define the impact factors required in order to promote the growth level of its construction industry. This research assesses the growth level of the construction industry in Shaanxi Province, China. This study utilizes both the o...

  3. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  4. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  5. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dianshu; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Khuong Minh Vu

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  6. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  7. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  8. Geoscience information integration and visualization research of Shandong Province, China based on ArcGIS engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai

    2014-10-01

    To improve the access efficiency of geoscience data, efficient data model and storage solutions should be used. Geoscience data is usually classified by format or coordinate system in existing storage solutions. When data is large, it is not conducive to search the geographic features. In this study, a geographical information integration system of Shandong province, China was developed based on the technology of ArcGIS Engine, .NET, and SQL Server. It uses Geodatabase spatial data model and ArcSDE to organize and store spatial and attribute data and establishes geoscience database of Shangdong. Seven function modules were designed: map browse, database and subject management, layer control, map query, spatial analysis and map symbolization. The system's characteristics of can be browsed and managed by geoscience subjects make the system convenient for geographic researchers and decision-making departments to use the data.

  9. Risks for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia production systems in Guangdong province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

    2013-01-01

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia culture in China. However, it is also an endemic region for fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which pose a risk to human food safety and health. A study was designed to assess the status of trematode parasite infections in tilapia...... aquaculture systems as an indicator of potential risks from FZT associated with consumption of tilapia. Tilapia from nursery and grow-out ponds were sampled from monoculture, polyculture and integrated aquaculture systems. The results from 388 tilapia examined revealed a very low prevalence (1.......5%) of trematode infections (Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae). Integrated systems using animal manure and latrine wastes as fertilizer did not show a higher prevalence of FZT. Because it was not clear whether the low risk of infection was attributable to existing effective pond management practices or a low...

  10. Potential of future seismogenesis in Hebei Province (NE China) due to stress interactions between strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Jin, Xueshen; Liu, Zhihui; Paradisopoulou, Parthena; He, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Northeast China, a densely populated area, is affected by intense seismic activity, which includes large events that caused extensive disaster and tremendous loss of life. For contributing to the continuous efforts for seismic hazard assessment, the earthquake potential from the active faults near the cities of Zhangjiakou and Langfang in Hebei Province is examined. We estimate the effect of the coseismic stress changes of strong (M ⩾ 5.0) earthquakes on the major regional active faults, and mapped Coulomb stress change onto these target faults. More importantly our calculations reveal that positive stress changes caused by the largest events of the 1976 Tangshan sequence make the Xiadian and part of Daxing fault, thus considered the most likely sites of the next strong earthquake in the study area. The accumulated static stress changes that reached a value of up to 0.4 bar onto these faults, were subsequently incorporated in earthquake probability estimates for the next 30 years.

  11. Comparisons of forecasting for hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using three neural networks models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijing Gan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares and evaluates the prediction of hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using back propagation neural networks based genetic algorithm (BPNN-GA, generalized regression neural networks (GRNN, and wavelet neural networks (WNN. In order to compare the results of forecasting, the data obtained from 2004 to 2013 and 2014 were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The results show that when the small data set of hepatitis has seasonal fluctuation, the prediction result by BPNN-GA will be better than the two other methods. The WNN method is suitable for predicting the large data set of hepatitis that has seasonal fluctuation and the same for the GRNN method when the data increases steadily.

  12. Diseases and treatment reported by shrimp and tilapia farmers in Guangdong Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture in China that meet demands from both national consumers and export markets. However, the intensified production has brought increased disease problems, antibiotics and other...... for disease treatment. Tilapia and shrimp farmers obtained more and more technical service from staff in chemical shops, chemical and feed companies on diagnosing and treatment of diseases, and acquired information about prudent and safe application practices of chemicals more easily from different pathways...... antibiotics, in a prudent way. Governments, experts and the aquaculture sector must join efforts to provide education and training that meets the needs of aquaculture farmers to ensure a prudent and effective use of chemical that protect the health of aquatic environments, food safety and humans....

  13. From House Structure to Gender Relations: Exploring the Na (Mosuo of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yunchuan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Architectural features of houses are frequently loaded with meanings expressing fundamental values embedded in social relations. The symbolism of such features is a convenient starting point for exploring the organization of social life. Among the Na of Yunnan province house symbolism raises a range of questions relating to the character of gender relations and the universality of marriage. The qualitative cultural factors structuring gender interactions are analyzed by drawing on perspectives from role analysis. Finally the quantitative behavioral consequences of these interactions are documented. Key words: Na (Mosuo; China; matrilineality; gender relations; house symbolism. DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2780 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 19-40

  14. Geochemistry of the Rehai and Ruidian geothermal waters, Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guoping; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Liu, Hong; Jin, Zhisheng; Han, Guilin; Li, Ling [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002 (China)

    2008-02-15

    The geochemical characteristics of the hot spring waters in the Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, are described and their possible environmental impact assessed. The results show that the alkaline spring waters contain high levels of K, Na, F, Cl, SiO{sub 2}, whereas the only acidic spring water in Rehai geothermal field contains high levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Mn and Fe. As and Sb in the spring waters are in the range 43.6-687 {mu}g/L and 0.38-23.8 {mu}g/L, respectively. As(III) occurs in most spring waters, and constitutes up to 91% of the total As. A fraction of the geothermal As and Sb is trapped in the sinter deposits while most enters the environment. The diffusion of As and Sb into groundwater and downstream crop fields constitutes a threat to the health of the local population. (author)

  15. Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, Hongfang; Yan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Association between BMI and Dental Caries among School Children and Adolescents in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Hussein Musa, Taha; Gao, Rong; Li, Xiao Shan; Wang, Wei Xiang; Hong, Lei; Wei, Ping Min

    2017-10-01

    Obesity and dental caries are increasing epidemics, especially among children and adolescents. This epidemiological observational cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the possible association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries among 111,792 school children and adolescents in Jiangsu Province. We found that 13.14% participants of the study sample were overweight, and 7.37% were obese. The prevalence of dental caries was 12.95% in overweight and 7.89% in obese students. There were significant differences in caries prevalence by sex, region, age group, and BMI. Overweight and obesity statuses were associated with dental caries among the study population. BMI and dental caries present a continuous health problem. Thus, we recommend that oral health promotion be used for caries prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  18. Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency in Shandong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bingjuan; Zou, Hui; Han, Bingchao; Zhu, Weiwei; Cao, Zhiyang; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-06-01

    To summarize the clinical and biochemical data, mutation analysis, treatment, outcome and the follow-up data of patients with BH4 deficiency from 2004 to 2012 in Shandong province, China. We analyzed the clinical, biochemical and treatment data of 40 patients with BH4 deficiency. Urinary neopterin and biopterin were analyzed. Further BH4 loading tests were performed in suspected patients with abnormal urinary pterin profiles. The patients with BH4 deficiency were treated with BH4 and neurotransmitter after diagnosis. Blood phenylalanine level, clinical symptoms and mental development were followed up. 40 cases with BH4 deficiency were identified and all classified as PTPS deficiency between 2004 and 2012 in Shandong province, China. They were diagnosed at the age of 20d - 41m and most patients received treatment with BH4, l-dopa and 5-HTP after diagnosis. Seven different mutations (P87S, K91R, T106M, D96N, N52S, S21R, and L127F) were detected in 11 patients. But outcome assessments were not always available. We obtained 19 records of DQ/IQ assessment. In 9 patients (7 early and 2 late diagnosed) no development delay is observed, while in 10 patients (8 early and 2 late diagnosed) development was delayed. Our study emphasized that screening for BH4 deficiency should be carried out in all patients with HPA in order to minimize misdiagnosis. Although the outcomes of BH4 deficiency are highly variable, early diagnosis and treatment is essential for good outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimations of distribution and zoning for air temperature using satellite data over Liaoning province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Horiguchi, I.; Takeda, T.; Yazawa, M.; Liu, X.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Q.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and zoning of air temperature over Liaoning Province, China were examined using the calculated values of air temperature derived from satellite data (GMS data) as well as from altitude data. The results are summarized as follows. At 02:00 LST the correlation coefficients for the air temperatures calculated from altitude compared with the observed air temperatures were the same as those of the air temperatures derived from GMS data. At 14:00 LST, however, the correlation coefficients for air temperatures calculated from altitude were less than those of the air temperatures derived from GMS data. This fact verifies that the distribution of air temperature in the day-time is affected by other factors than altitude. The distribution of air temperature in a cell of approximately 5'(latitude) x 7.5'(longitude) over Liaoning Province, china was estimated by using the regression equations between surface temperature derived from GMS and the observed air temperature. The distribution of air temperature was classified into 5 types, and the types are obtained at 14:00 LST are seasonal ones but the types at 02:00 LST are not related to season. Also, the regional classification for the air temperature was examined using this distribution of air temperature. This regional classification for the air temperature was similar to the published zoning of the agricultural climate. It became clear that the characteristic distribution of air temperature in a cell unit can be obtained by satellite data. And it is possible to define the zoning of air temperature for a cell unit by the accumulated analyses of satellite data over an extended period

  20. Health and human rights concerns of drug users in detention in Guangxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Elizabeth Cohen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although confinement in drug detoxification ("detox" and re-education through labor (RTL centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to fundamental human rights protections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Chinese government HIV and anti-narcotics legislation and policy documents were reviewed, and in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with 19 injection drug users (IDUs and 20 government and nongovernmental organization officials in Nanning and Baise, Guangxi Province. Significant contradictions were found in HIV and antinarcotics policies, exemplified by the simultaneous expansion of community-based methadone maintenance therapy and the increasing number of drug users detained in detox and RTL center facilities. IDU study participants reported, on average, having used drugs for 14 y (range 8-23 y and had been confined to detox four times (range one to eight times and to RTL centers once (range zero to three times. IDUs expressed an intense fear of being recognized by the police and being detained, regardless of current drug use. Key informants and IDUs reported that routine HIV testing, without consent and without disclosure of the result, was the standard policy of detox and RTL center facilities, and that HIV-infected detainees were not routinely provided medical or drug dependency treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. IDUs received little or no information or means of HIV prevention, but reported numerous risk behaviors for HIV transmission while detained. CONCLUSIONS: Legal and policy review, and interviews with recently detained IDUs and key informants in Guangxi Province, China, found evidence of anti-narcotics policies and practices that appear to violate human rights

  1. Economic analysis of a hypothetical bamboo-biochar plant in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liang, Fang; Hu, Wanhe; Yang, Xiaomeng; Xiang, Hongzhong; Wang, Ge; Fei, Benhua; Liu, Zhijia

    2017-12-01

    Significant quantities of bamboo waste are generated in Zhejiang province, China. Many small businesses in this area convert this waste to biochar for use as a cooking fuel (in residential barbecues). This case study was conducted to evaluate the potential economic benefits of building and operating an industrial-sized plant in this province, yielding 500 tonnes per year. The researchers developed a conceptual design for a hypothetical biochar plant and then calculated net present value (NPV), investment payback period (PBP), internal rate of return (IRR), and sensitivity analysis. Results show that the static investment PBP would be 2.58 years, the IRR would be 38.8%, and the NPV would be US$ 486,700. The IRR would be higher than the forestry industry benchmark (11%), indicating that a production line of bamboo-biochar with the stated yield not only could generate higher profits, but also could achieve a better return on investment. Thus, this study indicates that there are good market prospects for the bamboo-biochar industry in this region. The influence of sales prices on the IRR was more than that of operational costs, indicating that a large-scale plant should be designed to produce a high-quality bamboo-biochar. Supply chain issues such as transportation distances between locations where bamboo wastes are generated and the biochar plant should be considered in advance when siting new bamboo-biochar plants. The results from this research provide guidance to those considering development of bamboo-biochar plants in other parts of China.

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China

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    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin

    2018-01-01

    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  3. Spatiotemporal epidemic characteristics and risk factor analysis of malaria in Yunnan Province, China

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    Dongyang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains an important public health concern in China and is particularly serious in Yunnan, a China’s provincial region of high malaria burden with an incidence of 1.79/105 in 2012. This study aims to examine the epidemiologic profile and spatiotemporal aspects of epidemics of malaria, and to examine risk factors which may influence malaria epidemics in Yunnan Province. Methods The data of malaria cases in 2012 in 125 counties of Yunnan Province was used in this research. The epidemical characteristics of cases were revealed, and time and space clusters of malaria were detected by applying scan statistics method. In addition, we applied the geographically weighted regression (GWR model in identifying underlying risk factors. Results There was a total of 821 cases of malaria, and male patients accounted for 83.9% (689 of the total cases. The incidence in the group aged 20–30 years was the highest, at 3.00/105. The majority (84.1% of malaria cases occurred in farmers and migrant workers, according to occupation statistics. On a space-time basis, epidemics of malaria of varying severity occurred in the summer and autumn months, and the high risk regions were mainly distributed in the southwest counties. Annual average temperature, annual cumulative rainfall, rice yield per square kilometer and proportion of rural employees mainly showed a positive association with the malaria incidence rate, according to the GWR model. Conclusions Malaria continues to be one of serious public health issues in Yunnan Province, especially in border counties in southwestern Yunnan. Temperature, precipitation, rice cultivation and proportion of rural employees were positively associated with malaria incidence. Individuals, and disease prevention and control departments, should implement more stringent preventative strategies in locations with hot and humid environmental conditions to control malaria.

  4. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

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    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012‒2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of- pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  5. Vehicle emission trends and spatial distribution in Shandong province, China, from 2000 to 2014

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    Sun, Shida; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle emissions have become a major source of air pollution in Shandong province, which has experienced a sharp growth of vehicle numbers in recent years and now has the largest vehicle population in China. This paper combines the COPERT IV model with the vehicle age distribution to estimate the temporal trends and map the spatial distributions of vehicle emissions in Shandong province during the period ranging from 2000 to 2014. Both conventional air pollutants and greenhouse gases are included. In addition, a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory at the prefecture level is developed and mapped on a 0.05° × 0.05° grid based on road information. Our results show that the emissions of all of the conventional air pollutants have decreased to various extents over the recent past, but greenhouse gas emissions have continued to increase due to the lack of effective control strategies. The total emissions of CO, NMVOC, NOX, PM10, CO2, CH4 and N2O from the Shandong vehicle fleet changed from 1734.5 Gg, 277.9 Gg, 177.0 Gg, 12.4 Gg, 19239.7 Gg, 11.3 Gg and 0.6 Gg, respectively, in 2000 to 1723.3 Gg, 234.2 Gg, 513.8 Gg, 29.5 Gg, 138,419.5 Gg, 15.3 Gg and 3.9 Gg, respectively, in 2014. Vehicle emissions were mainly concentrated in cities and became more dispersed in Shandong province between 2000 and 2014.

  6. Receptivity to malaria in the China-Myanmar border in Yingjiang County, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianmu; Zhang, Shaosen; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Wang, Xuezhong; Luo, Chunhai; Zeng, Xucan; Guo, Xiangrui; Lin, Zurui; Tu, Hong; Sun, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-11-21

    The re-establishment of malaria has become an important public health issue in and out of China, and receptivity to this disease is key to its re-emergence. Yingjiang is one of the few counties with locally acquired malaria cases in the China-Myanmar border in China. This study aimed to understand receptivity to malaria in Yingjiang County, China, from June to October 2016. Light-traps were employed to capture the mosquitoes in 17 villages in eight towns which were categorized into four elevation levels: level 1, 0-599 m; level 2, 600-1199 m; level 3, 1200-1799 m; and level 4, > 1800 m. Species richness, diversity, dominance and evenness were used to picture the community structure. Similarity in species composition was compared between different elevation levels. Data of seasonal abundance of mosquitoes, human biting rate, density of light-trap-captured adult mosquitoes and larvae, parous rate, and height distribution (density) of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis were collected in two towns (Na Bang and Ping Yuan) each month from June to October, 2016. Over the study period, 10,053 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from the eight towns, and 15 Anopheles species were identified, the most-common of which were An. sinensis (75.4%), Anopheles kunmingensis (15.6%), and An. minimus (3.5%). Anopheles minimus was the major malaria vector in low-elevation areas (town), and An. sinensis in medium-elevation areas (600-1200 m, i.e., Ping Yuan town). In Na Bang, the peak human-biting rate of An. minimus at the inner and outer sites of the village occurred in June and August 2016, with 5/bait/night and 15/bait/night, respectively. In Ping Yuan, the peak human-biting rate of An. sinensis was in August, with 9/bait/night at the inner site and 21/bait/night at the outer site. The two towns exhibited seasonal abundance with high density of the two adult vectors: The peak density of An. minimus was in June and that of An. sinensis was in August. Meanwhile, the peak

  7. Development assessment of leisure agriculture in Henan province of China based on SWOT-AHP method

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    Yichuan Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture in Henan province were systematically analyzed using SWOT method in our study. The aspects including location, resources, traffic, population, economy, urbanization, industrialization, market, policy, capital, product, technology, management, marketing and environment were involved. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat were quantified in this study using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method. Findings and Originality/value: The result showed that the total strength and total opportunity of Henan leisure agriculture are much greater than that of total weakness and total threat, which suggests that the opportunities outweigh threats, and advantage outweigh disadvantage. The growth-oriented strategy combining the external opportunities and its own advantages shall be employed in development of Henan leisure agriculture as indicated by the strategy strength coefficient in strategy quadrangle we have constructed. The barriers to the development need to be overcome while strengthening competitive advantages. Originality/value: New ideas for working out the developmental strategy for Henan leisure agriculture is provided by SWOT-AHP method.

  8. Evaluation of the mass measles vaccination campaign in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhi Qiang; Chen, Wei Shi; He, Qun; Peng, Guo Wen; Wu, Cheng Gang; Xu, Ning; Zhao, Zhan Jie; Shu, Jun; Tan, Qiu; Zheng, Hui Zhen; Lin, Li Feng; Deng, Hui Hong; Lin, Jin Yan; Zhang, Yong Hui

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the mass measles vaccination campaign of 2009 in Guangdong Province, China. Data on the campaign implementation, measles surveillance, and serological surveillance were reviewed and analyzed by statistical methods. Rapid coverage surveys showed that 98.09% of children were vaccinated during the campaign. The coverage of migrant children increased significantly from 67.10% to 97.32% (pcampaign, the number of measles cases was reduced by 93.04% compared with the same period of 2008. The antibody positive rate in children aged less than 15 years reached above 95%. More than 1 million migrant children were identified and vaccinated during the campaign. Flyers, notices of information from doctors, and television programs were the best methods to inform parents of the campaign. Awareness of the campaign by residents increased significantly from 91.86% to 97.10% (pvaccination campaign approach for controlling measles in a developing region like Guangdong Province with a vast migrant population has proved effective. Comprehensive mobilization, communication with the mass media, and support from government departments were critical to the success of the campaign. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae from 1986 to 2012 in Yunnan Province, southwest China bordering Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenpeng; Yin, Jianwen; Yang, Jianbin; Li, Chaoqun; Chen, Yujuan; Yin, Jie; Xu, Wen; Zhao, Shiwen; Liang, Junrong; Jing, Huaiqi; Fu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an important infectious pathogen causing serious human diarrhea. We analyzed 568 V. cholerae strains isolated from 1986 to 2012 in Yunnan province, southwest China bordering Myanmar. Polymerase chain reactions for detecting virulence genes, antibiotic susceptibility tests and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. The results showed all the strains were El Tor biotype from 1986. The ctxB subunit sequence analysis for all strains have shown that cholera between 1986 and 1995 was associated with mixed infections with El Tor and El Tor variants, while infections after 1996 were all caused by El Tor variant strains. All of the strains were sensitive to aminoglycosides and quinolone antibiotics while resistant to β-lactamase and carbapenem antibiotics increased gradually. 568 V. cholerae were divided into 218 PFGE-NotI patterns, and the isolates before 2001 and after 2011 were separated into two groups according to PFGE results. The strains isolated before 2001 were mainly referred to native cholera in Yunnan, and after 2011 were primarily referred to as imported strains from Myanmar, which showed the variation of V. cholerae in this area. The molecular characteristics of V. cholerae indicated regularity in bacterial variation and evolution in Yunnan province. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hui; Yuan, Yuqi; Sun, Na; Bi, Zhenwang; Guan, Bing; Shao, Kun; Wang, Tongzhan; Bi, Zhenqiang

    Cholera continues to be a serious public health issue in developing countries. We analyzed the epidemiological data of cholera from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, an eastern coastal area of China. A total of 250 Vibrio cholerae isolates were selected for PCR analysis of virulence genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis of the virulence genes showed that the positive rates for tcpA and tcpI were the highest among strains from the southwest region, which had the highest incidence rate of cholera. Low positive rates for tcpA, tcpI and ctxAB among isolates from after 2000 may be an influencing factor contributing to the contemporary decline in cholera incidence rates. Spatiotemporal serotype shifts (Ogawa, Inaba, Ogawa, Inaba and O139) generally correlated with the variations in the PFGE patterns (PIV, PIIIc, PIa, PIIIb, PIIIa, PIb, and PII). O1 strains from different years or regions also had similar PFGE patterns, while O139 strains exclusively formed one cluster and differed from all other O1 strains. These data indicate that V. cholerae isolates in Shandong Province have continually undergone spatiotemporal changes. The serotype switching between Ogawa and Inaba originated from indigenous strains, while the emergence of serogroup O139 appeared to be unrelated to endemic V. cholerae O1 strains. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. [Epidemic situation and prevention and control strategy of clonorchiasis in Guangdong Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo-Hui, Deng; Yue-Yi, Fang

    2016-05-24

    Clonorchiasis is one of the food-borne parasitic diseases. Adult parasites live in the human liver and gallbladder tube system, causing serious complications, such as gallstones, cholecystitis and cholangitis, and even bile duct cancer. The disease is very popular in our country, and the population infection rate is high. It is an important public health problem. Guangdong Province is the earliest province being found of clonorchiasis and with serious epidemic. In the second national human parasitic diseases distribution survey, the results showed that the average infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis in the epidemic areas in Guangdong was 16.42%. It is estimated that the population of C. sinensis infection is over 6 million. The prevention and control of clonorchiasis in China is still in the initial stage currently and we face many challenges such as unclear epidemic characteristics and transmission mode, and lack of long-term prevention and control mechanism. This article introduces the epidemic situation of clonorchiasis and prevention and control strategies and measures in Guangdong.

  12. Availability and quality of emergency obstetric care in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Barclay, Lesley

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the availability and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) received by women in a rural Chinese province. The study was conducted in 7 rural counties and townships in Shanxi Province, China. Data sources included interviews with 7 hospital leaders, 5 maternal and child health workers, and 7 obstetricians; 118 records of complicated delivery were audited, 21 Maternal and Child Health Annual Reports analyzed, and observations conducted of facilities and advanced labor care. The number of comprehensive EmOC facilities was adequate in all counties. Three counties had fewer basic EmOC facilities than recommended and only 4 counties reached the recommended level. Most of the existing township hospitals did not provide birthing services. All the county hospitals could perform cesarean deliveries with rates from 6.8%-40.8%. The management of complications was not evidence-based. For example, women with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia were given too little magnesium sulfate; women were not closely monitored for hemorrhage after birth and the partograph was used incorrectly with consequences for obstructed labor. Basic EmOC facilities are not adequate and township hospitals should be upgraded to provide birthing services. The quality of EmOC is poor and needs improvement. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Groundwater Drought and Its Response to Meteorological Drought in Jiangsu Province, China

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    Bo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the temporal and spatial variations of groundwater drought using a Standardized Groundwater Level Index (SGI were analyzed based on 40 monthly groundwater level observation wells from 1989 to 2012 in Jiangsu Province, China. Meteorological drought, calculated by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, was also included to reveal its propagation and impact on the groundwater drought process. Results showed that the southern region of Jiangsu faced more frequent groundwater droughts and lower intensity, while the northern region faced less frequent groundwater drought with higher intensity. Furthermore, the cross-correlation between the spatial average of SGI and SPI for SPI accumulation periods of q = 1 to 12 was computed. The relationship between SGI and SPI varied in different regions. Detailed analysis of the characteristics of groundwater and meteorological drought for each region showed that meteorological droughts happened more frequently than groundwater drought in Jiangsu Province during the study period, while the mean duration and mean magnitude of groundwater droughts were longer and larger than those of meteorological droughts. It is expected that this study will provide useful information for drought monitoring and mitigation in Jiangsu and similar areas.

  14. Economy-wide material input/output and dematerialization analysis of Jilin Province (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, MingSheng; Zhang, HuiMin; Li, Zhi; Tong, LianJun

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, both direct material input (DMI) and domestic processed output (DPO) of Jilin Province in 1990-2006 were calculated and then based on these two indexes, a dematerialization model was established. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) both direct material input and domestic processed output increase at a steady rate during 1990-2006, with average annual growth rates of 4.19% and 2.77%, respectively. (2) The average contribution rate of material input to economic growth is 44%, indicating that the economic growth is visibly extensive. (3) During the studied period, accumulative quantity of material input dematerialization is 11,543 x 10(4) t and quantity of waste dematerialization is 5,987 x10(4) t. Moreover, dematerialization gaps are positive, suggesting that the potential of dematerialization has been well fulfilled. (4) In most years of the analyzed period, especially 2003-2006, the economic system of Jilin Province represents an unsustainable state. The accelerated economic growth relies mostly on excessive resources consumption after the Revitalization Strategy of Northeast China was launched.

  15. Allocation of Energy Consumption among Provinces in China: A Weighted ZSG-DEA Model

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    Siqin Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To realize the sustainable development of energy, the Chinese government has formulated a series of national goals of total energy control and energy structure optimization. Under the national constraints, how to efficiently allocate the constrained total amount of energy consumption to each province is a fundamental problem to be solved. Based on a data envelopment analysis (DEA model and a zero-sum game theory (ZSG, this paper constructs a weighted zero-sum game data envelopment analysis (ZSG-DEA model to allocate the energy consumption quota. Additionally, this paper compares the results with the current administrative targets, to examine the efficiency and feasibility of each allocation mechanism. Finally, this paper employs the proposed model to determine the optimal energy structure for each province in China. The results indicate that by 2020, the national goal of energy structure adjustment will be realized, and energy structure will be diversified in most regions, whereas the coal-dominated status in primary energy consumption will not change. Additionally, the weighted ZSG-DEA model focuses on allocation efficiency while the government considers more regional economic disparity. Therefore, this study suggests a mixture of the two allocation mechanisms in accordance with specific conditions.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology and Prevalence of Echovirus 30 in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2002 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Sun, Yi; Yan, Juying; Miao, Ziping; Xu, Changping; Zhang, Yanjun; Mao, Haiyan; Gong, Liming

    2017-12-28

    Echovirus serotype 30 (ECHO30) has been responsible for several recent worldwide outbreaks of viral meningitis. In Zhejiang Province, China, ECHO30 has been one of the main causes of viral meningitis for years. This study, using phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, was performed to investigate the general molecular epidemiology and genetic patterns of ECHO30 circulating in Zhejiang Province between the years 2002 and 2015. The nucleotide sequences of ECHO30 VP1 showed that they were 64.8% identical with the prototype strain, Bastianni, while the amino acids were 84.9% identical. Phylogenetic analyses showed that ECHO30 in the Zhejiang area has diverged into two genotypes. Genotype I consists of strains isolated since 2002, whereas genotype II includes strains that were mainly isolated during the 2002 to 2004 outbreak. ECHO30 has been endemically circulating in both humans and the environment for a long period of time. Additionally, we evaluated the significance of recombination presented during the years 2005 to 2007 to demonstrate that recombination plays an important role in the prevalence of ECHO30 in the Zhejiang area.

  17. Energy saving and emission reduction: A project of coal-resource integration in Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianjun; Fu Meichen; Geng Yuhuan; Tao Jin

    2011-01-01

    The small or middle coal mines with illegal operations in developing countries or regions can cause bad energy waste and environmental disruption. The project of coal-resource integration in Shanxi Province of China gives a new idea or an approach to energy saving and emission reduction. It is a social- and economic-ecological project. The paper shows the targets of energy saving and emission reduction in Shanxi Province, and analyses the aims, significance, design process and implementation of the integration project. Based on that, the paper discusses the challenges and opportunities the project brings. The analysis shows that the project of coal-resource integration in developing countries or regions can effectively improve mining technologies, collect capital and impel international cooperation and exchange. Finally, the paper analyses the concerns about the future, including the possible problems of implementation period, industrial updating, environmental impact and re-employment. However, the successful integration of coal resources can mitigate energy crisis and climate crisis and promote cleaner production effectively. - Highlights: → Coal-resource integration gives a new idea or an approach to energy saving and emission reduction. → Coal-resource integration mitigates climate crisis and promotes cleaner production. → Coal-resource integration brings challenges and opportunities to traditional mining industries.

  18. Re-emerging of rabies in Shaanxi province, China, from 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaofeng; Hao, Xiaoyun; Deng, Huiling; Wu, Rui; Liu, Jifeng; Yang, Yang; Li, Shen; Han, Yifei; Wei, Mingmin; Zhang, Junjun; Wang, Jingjun; Li, Hengxin; Tian, Huaiyu; Xu, Bing; Yu, Pengbo; Wu, Xiaokang

    2017-09-01

    To explore the epidemiological, phylogeographic, and migration characteristics of human rabies in Shaanxi province, China from 2009 to 2015. The collected data were described and the sequenced glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes were implemented to estimate the evolutionary rates and phylogeographic patterns using BEAST v.1.8.2. A total of 269 rabies cases were reported and 70.26% of the cases were male and 61.71% were between the ages of 19-59. The majority of the cases were farmers (83.27%). The estimated evolutionary rate of the N genes was 2.4 × 10 -4 substitutions/site/year and the G genes was 3.4 × 10 -4 . The time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) was estimated around 1990. We detected viral migration paths from Sichuan, Guizhou, and Hunan to Hanzhong prefecture of Shaanxi and then spreaded to Xi'an and other prefectures. The main population affected by rabies virus was male adult farmers. The evolution rate of rabies viruses in Shaanxi was similar with the prior results reported by others and the ancestor virus should be circulating in neighboring province Sichuan around 1990 and then transmitted to Shaanxi. Promptly standard wound treatment and timely post-exposure prophylaxis should be compulsory for the dog-bitten victims. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assessing Agricultural Drought Vulnerability by a VSD Model: A Case Study in Yunnan Province, China

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    Jiansheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability of agriculture is significant to economic development and sustainable food production. In this paper, we proposed a framework to evaluate the regional agricultural-eco environment in the face of drought caused by climate change. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram (VSD model, we built up a comprehensive system to evaluate the agricultural drought vulnerability of Yunnan Province in China. The model highlights the human-land relationship by considering both natural conditions and human activities. Twelve indicators were generated to construct three components of the model: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. During the construction of the VSD model, the entropy and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP comprehensive analysis method were adopted to generate the weights and to compute the composite index for each section. Furthermore, the factor analysis method was used to determine the dominant factors of different cities and the main indicators driving the system. The results indicated a spatial pattern that the vulnerability value was high on the eastern and western sides, but low in the middle of Yunnan Province. Most of the vulnerable regions were concentrated in remote areas. Indicators such as population density, irrigation level, annual average precipitation, cultivation land ratio, and difficulty of water supply were the main driving factors. This means that there is a deep connection between agricultural drought vulnerability and urbanization. The evaluation system developed during this research will provide guidance for drought mitigation in regions of complex terrain.

  20. Socio-economic factors of bacillary dysentery based on spatial correlation analysis in Guangxi Province, China.

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    Chengjing Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. METHODS: Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. RESULTS: The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

  1. What drives the aerosol distribution in Guangdong--the most developed province in Southern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Wang, Yunpeng

    2014-08-06

    This paper uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Guangdong, the most developed province in China, during 2010-2012. Linear regression and self-organizing maps (SOM) are used to investigate the relationship between AOT and its affecting factors, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), elevation, urbanized land fraction, and several socio-economic variables. Results show that the highest values of τ 0.55 mainly occur over the rapidly-developing Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and the eastern coast. Seasonal averaged AOT is highest in summer (0.416), followed by spring (0.351), winter (0.292), and autumn (0.254). From unary linear regression and SOM analysis, AOT is shown to be strongly negatively correlated to NDVI (R(2) = 0.782) and elevation (R(2) = 0.731), and positively correlated with socio-economic factors, especially GDP, industry and vehicle density (R(2) above 0.73), but not primary industry. Multiple linear regression between AOT and the contributing factors shows much higher R(2) values (>0.8), indicative of the clear relationships between AOT and variables. This study illustrates that human activities have strong impacts on aerosols distribution in Guangdong Province. Economic and industrial developments, as well as vehicle density, are the main controlling factors on aerosol distribution.

  2. What is driving CO2 emissions in a typical manufacturing center of South China? The case of Jiangsu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Investigating CO 2 emissions of China's manufacturing centers contributes to local and global CO 2 mitigation targets. This study considers Jiangsu Province as a representation of manufacturing centers in South China. Effects of material efficiency improvements, technology development, consumption structure changes and consumption volume growth in Jiangsu Province on its CO 2 emissions during 1997-2007 are investigated using structural decomposition analysis based on environmental input-output table. In order to reduce CO 2 emissions, Jiangsu Province should not only rely on material efficiency improvements and technology development, but also rely on consumption structure changes. For consumption structure changes in detail, Jiangsu Province should not only focus on fixed capital formation and urban residential consumption, but also focus on international and intranational imports and exports. For the implementation of material efficiency improvements and technology development, Jiangsu Province should focus on technology innovation and international technology transfer. For the implementation of consumption structure changes, Jiangsu Province should mainly focus on identified sectors for each separate final demand category: five sectors for urban residential consumption, three sectors for fixed capital formation, four sectors for international exports, five sectors for intranational exports, three sectors for international imports and four sectors for intranational imports. - Highlights: → Effects of four factors on Jiangsu Province's CO 2 emission changes are analyzed. → Key factors are identified for Jiangsu Province to achieve CO 2 mitigation targets. → Key areas for consumption structure changes are analyzed. → Technology innovation and technology transfer should be concerned. → Identified sectors for each final demand category should be concerned.

  3. Explaining the evaporation paradox in Jiangxi Province of China: Spatial distribution and temporal trends in potential evapotranspiration of Jiangxi Province from 1961 to 2013

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    Xianghui Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation acts as an important component and a key control factor in land hydrological processes. In order to analyze the trend of change on potential evapotranspiration from 1961 to 2013 and to discuss the existence of the evaporation paradox in Jiangxi province, China, monthly meteorological data spanning the years 1961–2013 were analyzed in this study, where the data were collected from 15 national meteorological stations in Jiangxi Province. The Penman–Monteith equation was employed to compute the potential evapotranspiration (ET0. Spatial interpolation and data mining technology were used to analyze the spatial and temporal changes of ET0 and air temperature, with the effort to explain the evaporation paradox. By solving the total differential and the partial derivatives coefficients of the independent variables in Penman–Monteith equation, the cause of the paradox was quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the annual ET0 had been decreasing significantly in Jiangxi Province since 1979, whereas the air temperature had been rising significantly, presenting the evaporation paradox. The decreases in sunshine duration and wind speed reduced ET0 by 0.207 mm and 0.060 mm, respectively, accounting for 92.3% and 26.7% of the total ET0, respectively. It is concluded that sunshine duration and wind speed are the main causes to the decrease in potential evapotranspiration in Jiangxi Province.

  4. [Hepatitis B prevalence among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Liu, J Y; Lyu, J J; Yan, B Y; Feng, Y; Wu, W L; Song, L Z; Xu, A Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To know the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, providing references to the improvement of HBV control strategy. Methods: The participants were randomly selected by two-stage sampling method from 12 counties which were representative for the whole province. Firstly two townships were selected from each county by probability proportional to size sampling (PPS) method. Then participants aged 1-4 years, 5-14 years, 15-29 years and 30-59 years were selected by stratified random sampling method. The women in child-bearing age (20-49 years) were involved in this study. Questionnaire survey and 5 ml blood collection were conducted among all participants. Blood samples were detected for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Those who were positive for HBsAg were further detected for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg), antibody against HBeAg (anti-HBe) and the load of HBV DNA. The basic information of the participants including age, gender, occupation, nationality and residence place were collected. The prevalence of HBV infection indicators after weight adjustment were calculated and compared between participants with different demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 1 151 women in child-bearing age were involved in this study. Twenty-seven participants were positive for HBsAg and the prevalence rate was 2.10% (95 % CI: 0.97%-3.23%). Five participants were positive for both HBsAg and HBeAg and the prevalence rate was 0.36% (95 % CI: 0-0.84%). There were 567 and 291 participants who were positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc respectively and the corresponding prevalence rates were 47.72% (95 %CI: 41.68%-53.75%) and 24.40% (95 % CI: 18.50%-30.30%). The number of participants susceptible for HBV was 527 and the percentage of HBV susceptible women was 47.55% (95 % CI: 41.63%-53.47%). Conclusion: HBV infection among

  5. Previously unrecognized ornithuromorph bird diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, northwestern China.

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    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history.

  6. Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in Crocidurinae shrews in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Zhou, Run-Hong; Fan, Fei-Neng; Ying, Xu-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-08-30

    The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) and 105 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

  8. Temporal changes in the characteristics of algae in Dianchi Lake, Yunnan Province, China

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    Ruixia SHEN,Chunyan TIAN,Zhidan LIU,Yuanhui ZHANG,Baoming LI,Haifeng LU,Na DUAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Algal blooms have become a worldwide environmental concern due to water eutrophication. Dianchi Lake in Yunnan Province, China is suffering from severe eutrophication and is listed in the Three Important Lakes Restoration Act of China. Hydrothermal liquefaction allows a promising and direct conversion of algal biomass into biocrude oil. In this study, algal samples were collected from Dianchi Lake after a separation procedure including dissolved air flotation with polyaluminum chloride and centrifugation during four months, April, June, August and October. The algal biochemical components varied over the period; lipids from 0.7% to 2.1% ash-free dry weight (afdw, protein from 20.9% to 33.4% afdw and ash from 36.6% to 45.2% dry weight. The algae in June had the highest lipid and protein concentrations, leading to a maximum biocrude oil yield of 24.3% afdw. Biodiversity analysis using pyrosequencing revealed different distributions of microbial communities, specifically Microcystis in April (89.0%, June (63.7% and August (84.0%, and Synechococcus in April (2.2%, June (12.0% and August (1.0%. This study demonstrated remarkable temporal changes in the biochemical composition and biodiversity of algae harvested from Dianchi Lake and changes in biocrude oil production potential.

  9. Ethno-veterinary survey of medicinal plants in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaofei; Tao, Cuixiang; Miao, Xiaolou; Wang, Dongsheng; Tangmuke; Dawa; Wang, Yu; Yang, Yaoguang; Pan, Hu

    2012-07-13

    In this study we aimed to survey and investigate the medicinal plants which are used to treat the veterinary diseases in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China. Meanwhile, the important medicinal plants were collected and identified for the further study. Twenty folk veterinary practitioners from 8 township animal husbandry and veterinary stations in Ruoergai region were investigated and interviewed. The important local medicinal materials, including plants, animals and mineral drugs, were collected by scientific methods and identified by the pharmacognosist of Lanzhou University, China. According to the investigation, only 20 folk veterinary practitioners still used 129 species of traditional medicine to treat the livestock`s diseases. In these medicine, 93 species were native and Ranunculaceae (12, 12.90%), Compositae (11, 11.83%), Papaveraceae (7, 7.53%) were the predominant families. At the same time, herbs (36.56%) are the most widely used part of plant, and respiratory diseases (21.02%) and gastrointestinal diseases (19.89%) were the main animal's diseases in this region. Ethno-veterinary medicine made an extraordinary contribution to the sound development of animal husbandry in Ruoergai. But the inherit, protect and development should be paid more attentions in the future, and the species which have not been studied should be developed priority to find biological activities and new bioactive compounds further. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Morbidity and risk factors for surgical site infection following cesarean section in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shi-Peng; Guo, Hong-Xia; Zhou, Hong-Zhen; Chen, Li; Yu, Yan-Hong

    2012-03-01

    To estimate the incidence of and identify the risk factors for a surgical site infection after a cesarean section. A survey of women who underwent a cesarean section was conducted in eight hospitals in Guangdong Province, China. The rate of surgical site infection was estimated and a nested case control study was then carried out to identify the risk factors. Among 13 798 women surveyed, 96 (0.7%) developed a surgical site infection after a cesarean section. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified six factors independently associated with an increased risk of surgical site infection, which included obesity, premature rupture of membranes, lower preoperative hemoglobin, prolonged surgery, lack of prophylactic antibiotics and excessive anal examinations performed during hospitalization. Surgical site infection occurs in approximately 0.7% of cesarean section cases in the general obstetric population in China. Obesity, premature rupture of membranes, lower preoperative hemoglobin, prolonged surgery, lack of prophylactic antibiotics and excessive anal examinations during hospitalization are considered to be independent risk factors. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Upper gastrointestinal cancer burden in Hebei Province, China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Juan; Liang, Di; Song, Guo-Hui; Li, Yong-Wei; Wen, Deng-Gui; Jin, Jing; He, Yu-Tong

    2017-04-14

    To investigate the incidence and mortality rates of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) in Hebei Province, China, and to identify high-risk populations to improve UGIC prevention and control. Data for UGIC patients were collected from 21 population-based cancer registries covering 15.25% of the population in Hebei Province. Mortality data were extracted from three national retrospective death surveys (1973-1975, 1990-1992 and 2004-2005). The data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender and area (high-risk/non-high-risk areas) for analysis. The age-period-cohort and grey system model were used. The crude incidence rate of UGIC was 55.47/100000, and the adjusted rate (Segi's population) was 44.90/100000. Males in rural areas had the highest incidence rate (world age-standardized rate = 87.89/100000). The crude mortality rate of UGIC displayed a decreasing trend in Hebei Province from the 1970s to 2013, and the adjusted rate decreased by 43.81% from the 1970s (58.07/100000) to 2013 (32.63/100000). The mortality rate declined more significantly in the high-risk areas (57.26%) than in the non-high-risk areas (55.02%) from the 1970s to 2013. The median age at diagnosis of UGIC was 65.06 years in 2013. There was a notable delay in the median age at death from the 1970s (66.15 years) to 2013 (70.39 years), especially in the high-risk areas. In Cixian, the total trend of the cohort effect declined, and people aged 65-69 years were a population at relatively high risk for UGIC. We predicted that the crude mortality rates of UGIC in Cixian and Shexian would decrease to 98.80 and 133.99 per 100000 in 2018, respectively. UGIC was the major cause of cancer death in Hebei Province, and males in rural areas were a high-risk population. We should strengthen early detection and treatment of UGIC in this population.

  12. Rabies trend in China (1990–2007 and post-exposure prophylaxis in the Guangdong province

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    Liu Yu-Ge

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is a major public-health problem in developing countries such as China. Although the recent re-emergence of human rabies in China was noted in several epidemiological studies, little attention was paid to the reasons behind this phenomenon paralleling the findings of the previous reports. The purpose of this study is thus first to characterize the current trends of human rabies in China from 1990 to 2007, and then to define better recommendations for improving the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP schedules delivered to rabies patients. Methods The most updated epidemiological data for 22527 human rabies cases from January 1990 to July 2007, retrieved from the surveillance database of reportable diseases managed by the Ministry of Health of China, were analysed. To investigate the efficiency for the post-exposure treatment of rabies, the details of 244 rabies patients, including their anti-rabies treatment of injuries or related incidents, were ascertained in Guangdong provincial jurisdiction. The risk factors to which the patients were predisposed or the regimens given to 80 patients who received any type of PEP were analysed to identify the reasons for the PEP failures. Results The results from analysis of the large number of human rabies cases showed that rabies in China was largely under control during the period 1990–1996. However, there has been a large jump in the number of reported rabies cases since 2001 up to a new peak (with an incidence rate of 0.20 per 100000 people that was reached in 2004, and where the level has remained until present. Then, we analysed the PEP in 244 rabies cases collected in the Guangdong province in 2003 and 2004, and found that 67.2% of the patients did not seek medical services or did not receive any PEP. Further analysis of PEP for the 80 rabies patients who received any type of PEP indicated that almost all of the patients did not receive proper or timely treatment on the wounds

  13. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

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    Lauritsen Jens M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Objectives Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. Methods A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007 were obtained for comparison. Results A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively. The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Conclusions Characteristics of patients

  14. Who pays for health care in China? The case of Heilongjiang province.

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    Mingsheng Chen

    Full Text Available Health spending by the Chinese government has declined and traditional social health insurance collapsed after economic reforms in the early 1980s; accordingly, the low-income population is exposed to potentially significant healthcare costs. Financing an equitable healthcare system represents a major policy objective in China's current healthcare reform efforts. The current research presents an examination of the distribution of healthcare financing in a north-eastern Chinese province to compare equity status between urban and rural areas at two different times.To analyze the progressivity of healthcare financing in terms of ability-to-pay, the Kakwani index was used to assess four healthcare financing channels: general taxes, social and commercial health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted in 2003 (11,572 individuals in 3841 households and 2008 (15,817 individuals in 5530 households. Household socioeconomic status, healthcare payment, and utilization information were recorded using household interviews.China's healthcare financing equity is unsound. Kakwani indices for general taxation were -0.0212 (urban and -0.0297 (rural in 2002, and -0.0097 (urban and -0.0112 (rural in 2007. Social health insurance coverage has expanded, however different financing distributions were found with respect to urban (0.0969 in 2002 vs. 0.0984 in 2007 and rural (0.0283 in 2002 vs. -0.3119 in 2007 areas. While progressivity of out-of-pocket payments decreased in both areas, the equity of financing was found to have improved among poorer respondents.Overall, China's healthcare financing distribution is unequal. Given the inequity of general taxes, decreasing the proportion of indirect taxes would considerably improve healthcare financing equity. Financial contribution mechanisms to social health insurance are equally significant to coverage extension. The use of flat rate contributions for healthcare funding places a

  15. Meningococcal Disease in China

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    Zhujun Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitides is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis. The epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease varies in different countries and regions. This review summarizes the available data from China describing the burden of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroups, and vaccination programs. Meningococcal serogroup A (MenA was predominant for several decades in China. However, since 2000, invasive meningococcal disease caused by MenC, MenW, or MenB has increased. MenC, belonging to a hyperinvasive clonal sequence type ST-4821 (CC4821, emerged in Anhui Province and was subsequently disseminated over two-thirds of all Chinese provinces. Serogroup W (CC11 is endemic and causes death. Serogroup B (CC4821 originated from serogroup C (CC4821 via a capsular switching mechanism. Polysaccharide A and C meningococcal vaccines have been introduced into national routine immunization programs and have effectively reduced invasive meningococcal disease. However, the vaccination strategy must be revised based on the epidemic trends in meningococcal disease in China.

  16. New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

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    Chen Mingsheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the transition from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy, China’s state funding for health care declined and traditional coverage plans collapsed, leaving China’s poor exposed to potentially ruinous health care costs. In reforming health care for the 21st century, equity in health care financing has become a major policy goal. To assess progress towards this goal, this paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing in a province of northwestern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas at two different points in time. Methods Analysis of whether health care financing contributions were progressive according to income were made using the Kakwani index for each of the four health care financing channels of general taxes, public and private health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted, the first in 2003 (13,619 individuals in 3946 households and the second in 2008 (12,973 individuals in 3958 households. Household socio-economic, health care payment, and utilization information were recorded in household interviews. Results Low-income households have undertaken a larger share of the health care financing burden in recent years, reflected by negative Kakwani indices, which indicate a regressive system. We found that the indices for general taxation were −0.0024 (urban and −0.0281 (rural in 2002, and −0.0177 (urban and −0.0097 (rural in 2007. Public health insurance presented different financing distributions in urban and rural areas (urban: 0.0742 in 2002, 0.0661 in 2007; rural: –0.0615 in 2002,���0.1436 in 2007.. Out-of-pocket payments were progressive but not equitable. Public health insurance coverage has expanded but financing equity has decreased. Conclusions Health care financing policies in China need ongoing reform. Given the inequity of general consumption taxes, elimination of these would improve

  17. Temporal variations in reference evapotranspiration in Hubei Province, China, from 1960 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Xiugui; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yaxin; Han, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays a critical role in irrigation planning and is also important for hydrological cycle, environmental, and other studies. Thus, this research examined the trends in ET0 on seasonal and annual timescales in Hubei Province, China. ET0 was estimated using the Penman Monteith method (P-M) at 16 meteorological stations located in different areas of Hubei Province during the period 1960-2014. The trends in seasonal and annual ET0 were investigated using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. The periodicities of ET0 in different regions were investigated using wavelet analysis. The major meteorological factors affecting ET0 were investigated using partial correlation analysis and the contribution rate method. The results showed, on a seasonal timescale, that in spring, ET0 increased in all geographic zones. In summer, ET0 decreased in all geographic zones. In autumn and winter, ET0 displayed no significant changes in any of the geographic zones. On an annual timescale, ET0 decreased in all geographic zones, and the magnitudes of the negative trend in annual ET0 were 2.58-10.04 mm 10a-1. In the five geographic zones, the periodic characteristics of ET0 were identical; the significant wavelet power spectra of ET0 had 3-7, 13-17, and 24-32-year modulations in variation. Among the meteorological factors, sunshine hours were the major climate element that influenced the variability in ET0. The results will provide important references for scientific planning for agriculture, water resource allocation, and water-saving irrigation.

  18. Human paleodiet and animal utilization strategies during the Bronze Age in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China.

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    Lele Ren

    Full Text Available Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca. 2500 Cal BP in northwest Yunnan Province. The δ13C results for human samples from Shilinggang demonstrate that people's diets were mainly dominated by C3-based foodstuffs, probably due to both direct consumption of C3 food and as a result of C3 foddering of consumed animals. Auxiliary C4 food signals can also be detected. High δ15N values indicate that meat was an important component of the diet. Analysis of faunal samples indicates that people primarily fed pigs and dogs with human food waste, while sheep/goats and cattle were foddered with other food sources. We compare stable isotope and archaeobotanical data from Shilinggang with data from other Bronze Age sites in Yunnan to explore potential regional variation in subsistence strategies. Our work suggests that people adopted different animal utilization and subsistence strategies in different parts of Yunnan during the Bronze Age period, probably as local adaptations to the highly diversified and isolated environments in the region.

  19. Dynamic patterns of circulating influenza virus from 2005 to 2012 in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ti; Li, Zhong; Lin, Yi; Song, Shaoxia; Zhang, Shengyang; Sun, Lin; Wang, Yulu; Xu, Aiqiang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Wang, Xianjun

    2016-11-01

    To identify circulating emerging/reemerging viral strains and epidemiological trends, an influenza sentinel surveillance network was established in Shandong Province, China, in 2005. Nasal and/or throat swabs from patients with influenza-like-illness were collected at sentinel hospitals. Influenza viruses were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or virus isolation. From October 2005 to March 2012, 7763 (21.44 %) of 36,209 swab samples were positive for influenza viruses, including 5221 (67.25 %) influenza A and 2542 (32.75 %) influenza B. While the influenza viruses were detected year-round, their type/subtype distribution varied significantly. Peak influenza activity was observed from November to February. The proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases was highest among participants aged 0-4 years (14.97 %) in the 2005-2009 and 2010-2012 influenza seasons and the positivity rate of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was highest in the 15 to 24 year age group during the 2009-2010 influenza season. Genetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes revealed that the viruses matched seasonal influenza vaccine strains in general, with some amino acid mutations. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strains isolated in Shandong Province were characterized by an S203T mutation that is specific to clade 7 isolates. This report illustrates that the Shandong Provincial influenza surveillance system was sensitive in detecting influenza virus variability by season and by genetic composition. This system will help official public health target interventions such as education programs and vaccines.

  20. [Molecular characteristics of dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofang; Yang, Mingdong; Jiang, Jinyong; Li, Huachang; Zhu, Chongge; Gui, Qin; Bu, Liqun; Zhou, Hongning

    2016-03-01

    To understand the molecular characteristics of a dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015 and provide etiological evidence for the disease control and prevention. Semi-nested RTPCR was conducted to detect the capsid premembrane (CprM) gene of RNA of dengue virus by using dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples collected in Mengdin township, Gengma county, Yunnan province in July, 2015. Some positive samples were then detected by using PCR with specific primers to amplify the full E gene. The positive PCR products were directly sequenced. Then sequences generated in this study were BLAST in NCBI website and aligned in Megalign in DNAstar program. Multiple sequence alignments were carried out by using Mega 5.05 software based on the sequences generated in this study and sequences downloaded from GenBank, including the representative strains from different countries and regions. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Neighbor-Joining tree methods with Mega 5.05 software. Twenty one of 25 local cases and 10 of 14 imported cases from Myanmar were positive for DENV-1. Eight serum samples were negative for dengue virus. A total of 13 strains with E gene (1485 bp), including 8 local strains and 5 imported strains, were sequenced, which shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Twelve strains with CprM gene (406 bp) from 9 local cases and 3 imported cases shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Phylogenetic analyses based on E gene showed that the new 13 strains clustered in genotype I of dengue virus and formed a distinct lineage. This outbreak was caused by genotype I of DENV-1, which had the closest phylogenetic relationships with dengue virus from neighboring Burma area. Comprehensive measures of prevention and control of dengue fever should be strengthened to prevent the spread of dengue virus.

  1. A New Tektite Discovery in the Guangdong Province, China, and the Search for the Source Crater of the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkmann, T.; Maier, R. V.; Sturm, S.; Zhu, Meng-Hua.

    2014-09-01

    A new tektite location in South China is presented that belongs to the Australasian tektite strewnfield. We also investigated a 30 km circular structure in the Guangdong and Guangxi Province that might be related to the Australasian impact event.

  2. Monitoring nuclear application from A to Z in Jilin province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhongyan

    2001-01-01

    Full text: National and Provincial Regulations for Radioactive Waste Management. Nuclear applications are supervised and regulated on low levels in China, implemented by central government and provincial governments respectively. Central government is in charge of examination and approval for major nuclear applications while provincial governments are in charge of medium and small-scale nuclear applications and implementation of all the daily nuclear applications supervision and storage. Approaches for Managing - Monitoring Nuclear Applications from A to Z In Jilin. Radiation Environment Supervision Institute of Jilin Province (RESDP), on behalf of provincial government, is in charge of nuclear applications which entail submit and enrollment. The nuclear application programs cannot be permitted unless the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is up to the standards. The programs should be monitored by RESUP from beginning to the end. In the process of implementing of the programs, the monitoring organization should sample timely. The government must be kept well-informed about radioactive wastes produced in the programs which, should transferred to the radioactive waste storage. Implemented programs supposed to decommission must get the agreement of RRSTJP through EIA to ensure the safety of radiation environment. Waste Storage, Transportation and Disposal Measures in Jilin Province. There is a modem radioactive waste storeroom in Jilin, which stores the radioactive wastes collected from all over Jilin everyday. The storeroom, which is located in a beautiful mountain place with ecological monitoring system is safety. The storeroom, with necessary facilities, becomes an model engineering for urban waste storerooms of China. Achievements of Whole Coarse Supervision of Nuclear Applications Nuclear applications are kept under efficient supervision all the time so that environmental safety is guaranteed. The amount of radioactive waste decreased by the means of economy

  3. [An analysis of eligibility for occupational health inspection agencies in eight provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fang; Wang, Huanqiang; Li, Tao; Lyu, Xiangpei; Zhu, Qiuhong; Yu, Chen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the eligibility and main problems for occupational health inspection agencies in China, and to provide technical references for improvement of occupational health inspection. A survey was performed in occupational health inspection agencies that obtained eligibility before June 2011 in eight provinces: Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, Hubei, Guangxi, Shanghai, Chongqing, and Shenzhen. The survey used the General Information Questionnaire for Occupational Health Inspection Agency made by the project of Occupational Health Surveillance and Diagnosis and Identification of Occupational Diseases in China and Australia. A total of 650 agencies obtained eligibility for occupational health inspection in the eight provinces. These agencies contained 343 centers of disease control and prevention (CDC) or health and epidemic prevention stations (52.8%), 219 hospitals (33.7%), 25 institutes or centers for occupational disease prevention and control (3.8%), 29 community health service centers (4.5%), and 34 other agencies (5.2%) including departments of preventive and health care and preventive medicine outpatient departments. Four hundred and fifty-three agencies completed the questionnaire survey with a response rate of 69.7%. The main types of eligible agencies were different among various regions. A majority of occupational health inspection agencies were hospitals in Shanghai and Zhejiang (67.1%, 62.3%), departments of preventive and health care in Shenzhen (70.0%), and CDCs in Chongqing, Jiangsu, Hubei, and Guangxi. Each agency obtained 3.5 occupational health inspection eligibilities on average. Most of agencies could perform eligible health inspection for dust, harmful physical factors, or harmful chemical factors (84.8%, 87.9%, 87.2%). Moreover, 72.8% of agencies were eligible for all the three types of inspections. A few agencies were able to perform eligible health inspection for harmful biological factors or radiation work (22.5%, 23.0%). An occupational

  4. Lack of exposure of H10N8 avian influenza virus among veterinarians in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingshuang; Wang, Lifang; Zhang, Weidong; Sun, Yankuo; Luo, Yongfeng; Sun, Yao; Yuan, Ziguo; Wang, Heng; Ning, Zhangyong; Jia, Kun; Yuan, Li-Guo

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a retrospective seroepidemiological study for H10N8 avian influenza infection among 400 veterinarians sampled from February 2013 to August 2013 in Guangdong Province, China. None of the veterinarians had evidence of previous infection with the emergent H10N8 AIV. Although there is no evidence of H10N8-infected veterinarian before the first human index case of H10N8 infection in southern China, a more rigorous and long-term surveillance remained essential for early warning of novel reassortant viruses and interspecies transmission events. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Humidity May Modify the Relationship between Temperature and Cardiovascular Mortality in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Xuehai; Yang, Jun; Bao, Junzhe; Xiang, Hao; Dear, Keith; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Shao; Lawrence, Wayne R; Lin, Aihua; Huang, Cunrui

    2017-11-14

    Background : The evidence of increased mortality attributable to extreme temperatures is widely characterized in climate-health studies. However, few of these studies have examined the role of humidity on temperature-mortality association. We investigated the joint effect between temperature and humidity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods : We collected data on daily meteorological and CVD mortality from 11 cities in Zhejiang Province during 2010-2013. We first applied time-series Poisson regression analysis within the framework of distributed lag non-linear models to estimate the city-specific effect of temperature and humidity on CVD mortality, after controlling for temporal trends and potential confounding variables. We then applied a multivariate meta-analytical model to pool the effect estimates in the 11 cities to generate an overall provincial estimate. The joint effects between them were calculated by the attributable fraction (AF). The analyses were further stratified by gender, age group, education level, and location of cities. Results : In total, 120,544 CVD deaths were recorded in this study. The mean values of temperature and humidity were 17.6 °C and 72.3%. The joint effect between low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden over a lag of 0-21 days with a significant AF of 31.36% (95% eCI: 14.79-38.41%), while in a condition of low temperature and low humidity with a significant AF of 16.74% (95% eCI: 0.89, 24.44). The AFs were higher at low temperature and high humidity in different subgroups. When considering the levels of humidity, the AFs were significant at low temperature and high humidity for males, youth, those with a low level of education, and coastal area people. Conclusions : The combination of low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden in Zhejiang Province. This evidence has important implications for developing CVD

  6. Temporal Evolution of Regional Drought Detected from GRACE TWSA and CCI SM in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are one of the most devastating natural disasters, which impose increasing risks to humanity and the environment in the 21st century. The recent and continuous drought in China has led to detrimental effects on the local environment and societies in Yunnan Province, thus there is an urgent need to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the drought. The characteristics of the spatial distribution of drought processes and the impact of droughts on soil moisture and water storage remains unclear. In this study, the direction, magnitude, start time, and duration of droughts were investigated, based on Total Water Storage Anomalies (TWSA of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE, Climate Change Initiative Soil Moisture (CCI SM, and observed precipitation data. The spatial patterns of TWSA trends at each time duration segment suggest that the evolution of drought processes is very complex, and can be clustered into three zones. The spatial distribution of TWSA revealed that the drought status lasted more than one year longer in the north and east parts compared to other parts of Yunnan Province. Water losses occurred in the south part, while water gains were found in the central, north, and east parts of Yunnan Province, from 2002 to 2014, indicating a higher possibility of droughts in the south part in the future. Both de-seasonalized TWSA and CCI SM effectively captured the serious drought from 2009 to 2010 in Yunnan, and their spatial patterns were found to be consistent. The drought detected from CCI SMA had a one-month lag and TWSA had a two-month lag, in comparison to the meteorological drought from precipitation data, which indicates that the drought data derived from CCI SMA and TWSA are better able to represent the impact of droughts, particularly on agriculture. The contribution of surface SM changes in TWSA was determined to be about 41.94%, suggesting that variations in soil moisture only explain less than half of

  7. Humidity May Modify the Relationship between Temperature and Cardiovascular Mortality in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence of increased mortality attributable to extreme temperatures is widely characterized in climate-health studies. However, few of these studies have examined the role of humidity on temperature-mortality association. We investigated the joint effect between temperature and humidity on cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods: We collected data on daily meteorological and CVD mortality from 11 cities in Zhejiang Province during 2010–2013. We first applied time-series Poisson regression analysis within the framework of distributed lag non-linear models to estimate the city-specific effect of temperature and humidity on CVD mortality, after controlling for temporal trends and potential confounding variables. We then applied a multivariate meta-analytical model to pool the effect estimates in the 11 cities to generate an overall provincial estimate. The joint effects between them were calculated by the attributable fraction (AF. The analyses were further stratified by gender, age group, education level, and location of cities. Results: In total, 120,544 CVD deaths were recorded in this study. The mean values of temperature and humidity were 17.6 °C and 72.3%. The joint effect between low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden over a lag of 0–21 days with a significant AF of 31.36% (95% eCI: 14.79–38.41%, while in a condition of low temperature and low humidity with a significant AF of 16.74% (95% eCI: 0.89, 24.44. The AFs were higher at low temperature and high humidity in different subgroups. When considering the levels of humidity, the AFs were significant at low temperature and high humidity for males, youth, those with a low level of education, and coastal area people. Conclusions: The combination of low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden in Zhejiang Province. This evidence has important implications

  8. Indicators of child health, service utilization and mortality in Zhejiang Province of China, 1998-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of primary health care services for children and their changes in Zhejiang Province, China from 1998 to 2011. METHODS: The data were drawn from Zhejiang maternal and child health statistics collected under the supervision of the Health Bureau of Zhejiang Province. Primary health care coverage, hospital deliveries, low birth weight, postnatal visits, breastfeeding, underweight, early neonatal (<7 days mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality and under-5 mortality were investigated. RESULTS: The coverage rates for children under 3 years old and children under 7 years old increased in the last 14 years. The hospital delivery rate was high during the study period, and the overall difference narrowed. There was a significant difference (P<0.001 between the prevalence of low birth weight in 1998 (2.03% and the prevalence in 2011 (2.71%. The increase in low birth weight was more significant in urban areas than in rural areas. The postnatal visit rate increased from 95.00% to 98.45% with a significant difference (P<0.001. The breastfeeding rate was the highest in 2004 at 74.79% and lowest in 2008 at 53.86%. The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years old decreased from 1.63% to 0.65%, and the prevalence was higher in rural areas. The early neonatal, neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality rates decreased from 6.66‰, 8.67‰, 11.99‰ and 15.28‰ to 1.69‰, 2.36‰, 3.89‰ and 5.42‰, respectively (P<0.001. The mortality rates in rural areas were slightly higher than those in urban areas each year, and the mortality rates were lower in Ningbo, Wenzhou, and Jiaxing regions and higher in Quzhou and Lishui regions. CONCLUSION: Primary health care services for children in Zhejiang Province improved from 1998 to 2011. Continued high rates of low birth weight in urban areas and mortality in rural areas may be addressed with improvements in health awareness and medical technology.

  9. [Isolation and identification of the Akabane virus from mosquitoes in Yunnan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun; He, Biao; Fu, Shihong; Yang, Weihong; Zhang, Yuzhen; Tu, Changchun; Liang, Guodong; Zhang, Hailin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of mosquito-borne viruses in Manshi and Ruili (Yunnan Province, China), we collected 2 149 mosquitoes (17 species) in August 2010. Virus isolation was undertaken by the cul- ture of baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21 cells). Two virus-like isolates were obtained: DHL10M117 was isolated from collected in Mangshi; DHL10M110 was obtained from Anopheles vagus collected in Rui- li. Both isolates caused cytopathic effects,illness and death in suckling mice inoculated with these isolates via the intracerebral route. Two positive amplicons, 702-bp from the S segment and 456-bp from the M segment,were obtained using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the Akabane virus (AKV). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that these two virus stains had a distant relation- ship with AKVs from Kenya and Australia,but were genetically close to those from Japan,South Korea, and Taiwan. However,they were separate from other Asian strains and grouped into a small branch. The highest nucleotide and amino-acid sequence identity of the S segment was found with the CY-77 strain from Taiwan (96.6% and 99.6% for DHL10M117 and 96.7% and 100% for DHL10M110,respectively). Com- parison of the M segment showed they shared the highest amino acid identity with CY-77 (99.6% and 100%, respectively), whereas the highest nucleotide identity was found with the Iriki strain from Japan (99.6% and 100%, respectively). Compared with the MP496 strain from Kenya,they displayed lower lev- els of sequence homology, at 69.7% and 70.0% for nucleotide sequences of the two loci,and 91. 0% for a- mino acids. Our results identified that DHL10M117 and DHL10M110 were strains of AKV,and provided molecular biological evidence for the existence of AKV in Yunnan Province. These AKV strains that are circulating in Yunnan Province share a close genetic relationship with strains from the rest of Asia. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles vagus may serve as transmission

  10. Regional-Level Carbon Emissions Modelling and Scenario Analysis: A STIRPAT Case Study in Henan Province, China

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    Pengyan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has brought increased attention to the relationship between carbon emissions and economic development. Research on the driving factors of carbon emissions from energy consumption can provide a scientific basis for regional energy savings, as well as emissions reduction and sustainable development. Henan Province is a major agricultural province in China, and it is one of most populous provinces. Industrial development and population growth are the causes of carbon emissions. The STIRPAT model was conducted for analyzing carbon emissions and the driving factors for future carbon emission in Henan Province. The results show that: carbon emissions and energy consumption in Henan Province presented a rising trend from 1995 to 2014; Energy consumption due to population growth is the main contributor to carbon emissions in Henan Province. As every 1% increase in the population, GDP per-capita, energy intensity, and the level of urbanization development will contribute to the growth of emissions by 1.099, 0.193, 0.043, and 0.542%, respectively. The optimization of the industrial structure can reduce carbon emissions in Henan Province, as suggested by the results, when the tertiary sector increased by more than 1%, the total energy consumption of carbon emissions reduced by 1.297%. The future pattern of carbon emissions in Henan Province is predicted to increase initially and then follows by a decreasing trend, according to scenario analysis; and maintaining a low population growth rate, and a high growth rate of GDP per-capita and technical level is the best mode for social and economic development.

  11. Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.

  12. Spatio-temporal analysis of the relationship between climate and hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shandong province, China, 2008?2012

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Xianjun; Pang, Chunkun; Yuan, Zhongshang; Li, Hongkai; Xue, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is the most common communicable disease in China. Shandong Province is one of the most seriously affected areas. The distribution of HFMD had spatial heterogeneity and seasonal characteristic in this setting. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between climate and HFMD by a Bayesian approach from spatio-temporal interactions perspective. Methods The HFMD data of Shandong Province during 2008?2012 were derived from the China Nat...

  13. Time trends and risk factor associated with premature birth and infants deaths due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China from 2001 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haiqing; Dai, Qiong; Xu, Yusong; Gong, Zhengtao; Dai, Guohong; Ding, Ming; Duggan, Christopher; Hu, Zubin; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutrition and epidemiologic transition has been associated with an increasing incidence of preterm birth in developing countries, but data from large observational studies in China have been limited. Our study was to describe the trends and factors associated with the incidence of preterm birth and infant mortality due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China. Methods: We conducted a population-based survey through the Maternal and Child Health Care Network in Hubei Province fr...

  14. Henan - the model: from hegemonism to fragmentism:portrait of the political culture of China's most populated province

    OpenAIRE

    Heberer, Thomas; Jakobi, Sabine

    2000-01-01

    "Henan is China's most populous province. It has long played a strategic role in Chinese history and in more recent decades has played a prominent part in the country's politics. In this paper we explore aspects of the history and political culture of Henan, particularly the collective memory or consciousness of its people, and trends in its recent political history. We focus in particular on specific cultural features and local patterns of socio-economic development, both to highlight import...

  15. Towards an equitable healthcare in China: evaluating the productive efficiency of community health centers in Jiangsu Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lulin; Xu, Xinglong; Antwi, Henry Asante; Wang, Linna

    2017-05-25

    While the demand for the health service keeps escalating at the grass root or rural areas of China, a substantial portion of healthcare resources remains stagnant in the more developed cities and this has entrenched health inequity in many parts of China. At its conception, the Deepening Health Care Reform in 2012 China was intended to flush out these discrepancies and promote a more equitable and efficient distribution of health resources. Nearly half a decade of this reform, there are uncertainties as to whether the attainment of the objectives of the reform is in sight. We divided Jiangsu Province into 3 zones according to the level of economic and social development i.e. developed, developing, and undeveloped areas. Using a hybrid of Panel data analysis and an augmented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), we model human resources, capital inputs of Community Health Centers to comprehensively determine the technical and scale efficiency of community health resources in 3 zones in Jiangsu Province. We sampled data and analysed efficiency and productivity growth of 75 Community Health Centers in 13 cities of Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2015, which shows that a significant productive growth among Community Health Centers between 2011 and 2015. Mirroring the behavior of Community Health Centers, technological progress was the underlying force for the growth and the deterioration in efficiency change was found. This can be credited partly to the Deepening Health Care Reform measures aimed at improving technology availability in health centers in sub-urban areas. The regional summary of the DEA result shows that the stage of economic development and the efficiency performance of hospital did not necessarily go hand in hand among the 3 zones of Jiangsu. The government of China in general and Jiangsu province in particular could improve the efficiency of health resources allocation by improving the community health service system, rationalizing the allocation of health

  16. The occurrence of an exotic bisexual Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, in two coastal salterns of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Sun, Shichun; Ma, Lin

    2004-10-01

    The alien halophilous Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, was found in Chengkou Saltern and Yangkou Saltern of Shandong Province, P.R. China. Although the indigenous parthenogenetic Artemia is detectable, the exotic species is dominant in both salterns. The cross-breeding tests between the exotic A. franciscana and 5 bisexual Artemia species were conducted. The results of hybridization and morphological observations on the exotic A. franciscana are briefly presented in this short communication.

  17. Exploring the Factors Driving Seasonal Farmland Abandonment: A Case Study at the Regional Level in Hunan Province, Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhonglei; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Hua; Liang, Jinshe

    2017-01-01

    Farmland abandonment, including perennial and seasonal abandonment, is an important process of land use change that matters most to food security. Although there is a great deal of studies on farmland abandonment, seasonal abandonment, which is as serious as perennial abandonment, has attracted little academic attention. This paper takes Hunan Province in central China as its study area and uses a spatial regression model to examine the driving factors of seasonal farmland abandonment at the ...

  18. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peijuan; Xie, Donghui; Zhou, Yuyu; E, Youhao; Zhu, Qijiang

    2014-01-16

    The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable. It is a challenging and sustaining job to keep the ecological structure and improve its ecological function. Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model provides the possibility of NPP modeling in terrestrial ecosystem, but it has some limitations for application in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper we improve the BEPS model, in terms of its water cycle by adding the processes of infiltration and surface runoff, to be applicable in arid and semi-arid regions. We model the NPP of forest, grass, and crop in Gansu Province as an experimental area in Northwest China in 2003 using the improved BEPS model, parameterized with moderate resolution remote sensing imageries and meteorological data. The modeled NPP using improved BEPS agrees better with the ground measurements in Qilian Mountain than that with original BEPS, with a higher R2 of 0.746 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.53 gC/m2 compared to R2 of 0.662 and RMSE of 60.19 gC/m2 from original BEPS. The modeled NPP of three vegetation types using improved BEPS show evident differences compared to that using original BEPS, with the highest difference ratio of 9.21% in forest and the lowest value of 4.29% in crop. The difference ratios between different vegetation types lie on the dependence on natural water sources. The modeled NPP in five geographic zones using improved BEPS are higher than those with original BEPS, with higher difference ratio in dry zones and lower value in wet zones.

  19. Effects of vegetation on debris flow mitigation: A case study from Gansu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyuan; Meng, Xingmin; Chen, Guan; Guo, Peng; Xiong, Muqi; Zeng, Runqiang

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows are traditionally controlled using civil engineering structures such as check dams. However, the misuse of such strategies may sometimes trigger environmental hazards such as the catastrophic landslide in 2010 in Zouqu county, China, and therefore other methods such as the use of vegetation as an eco-engineering tool are increasingly being adopted. The aim of the present research was to investigate the bioengineering effects of vegetation over time in an area prone to debris flows in Gansu province, China. We collected detailed data from 2012 to 2014 on vegetation type, density, and root system morphology, and measured profiles across the valley. In addition, we assessed the increased soil cohesion provided by the root development of three monospecific stands of Robinia pseudoacacia of different ages growing within the debris valley, and on a larger scale, their effects on channel morphology. These data were incorporated into a modified form of BSTEM (Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model) and a cellular braided-stream model. The results indicate that with increasing age, the FOS (factor of safety) of the bank would be significantly increased, and that the flooded area in the valley caused by simulated flood events would be decreased by 18-24%, on average. Subsequently, field data were incorporated into a cellular model to simulate sediment movement and the effects of vegetation on the channel dynamics. The results demonstrate that the stability provided by vegetation could result in a less active valley system and that overall the development of debris-controlling vegetation could make a major contribution to ecosystem restoration. However, careful management is essential for making optimum use of the vegetation.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of hepatitis B vaccination in adults in Jiangsu province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Zhu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B immunization programs for newborns, children, and adolescents in China have shown remarkable results. To establish whether there would be any benefit in extending the program to cover older individuals, we examined both the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and the coverage of hepatitis B vaccinations among adults born before routine vaccinations were implemented. We then evaluated the impact of hepatitis B vaccination in adults aged 20-59 years. A large-scale cross-sectional epidemiological survey of HBV infection was performed in the province of Jiangsu, south-east China, between September 2009 and March 2010. A total of 86,732 adults aged 20-59 years were included, of which 8,615 (9.9%, 95% CI = 9.7-10.1% were HBsAg sero-positive. Self-reported vaccination status suggested that the coverage was approximately 23.7% (95% CI = 23.4-24.0%. It was shown that higher HBV vaccination coverage was associated with a lower rate of HBsAg seropositivity among adults. There was a negative correlation between hepatitis B vaccination coverage and HBsAg prevalence (correlation coefficient = -0.805, p = 0.016, which might demonstrate the combined effects of vaccination and pre-vaccination HBsAg screening. In the unvaccinated group, the HBsAg-positive rate had an obvious upward trend with age growing among 20-39 year-olds (Trend χ2 = 22.605, P<0.001, while the vaccinated group showed no such trend (Trend χ2 = 3.462, P = 0.063. Overall, hepatitis B vaccination in adults might reduce the rate of HBsAg positivity. Therefore, routine immunization of adults aged 20-39 years should be seriously considered.

  1. The characteristics of heterosexual STD clinic attendees who practice oral sex in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiaoqin; Pan, Xiaohong; Cai, Gaofeng; Yan, Jiezhe; Xu, Yun; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of heterosexual attendees who visit sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and practice oral sex have not been revealed in China. This information is important for the development of targeted STD prevention programmes for this population. A self-administered questionnaire survey with a cross-sectional design was administered to consecutive attendees at four STD clinics in Zhejiang Province, China, between October and December in 2007. Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioural factors associated with oral sex over a lifetime were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 872 attendees, 6.9% engaged in oral sex over their lifetimes. Of the oral-sex group, 96.6% also engaged in vaginal sex. The correlates for oral sex over a lifetime as determined by the multivariate analysis were high income (odds ratio [OR] = 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-4.59), high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.26-5.81), early sex initiation (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.37-4.27), multiple sexual partners (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.58-6.06), and sexually active in the previous 6 months (OR = 7.73, 95% CI 1.04-57.39). Though the prevalence of oral sex is low, the heterosexual STD clinic attendees practicing oral sex was found to have higher risks associated with STD/HIV transmission than those not. Behavioural and medical interventions conducted by clinicians in Chinese STD clinics should take into account the characteristics and related risks of those who practice oral sex.

  2. Characteristics of 985 pediatric burn patients in the south of Liaoning province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Zhai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury due to burns is a serious and common, but preventable, occurrence in children. To analyze the characteristics of pediatric burns in the south of Liaoning province of China, a retrospective review was conducted of information, including general characteristics, demographics, etiology of burns, anatomical areas burned, and severity of injuries, obtained from medical records of pediatric burn patients admitted to the Burn Center of Anshan Hospital of the First Hospital of China Medical University from 2002 to 2011. Differences between age-groups and cause and severity of injuries were examined using Cochran-Mantel-Haenzsel ­(C-M-H statistic or chi-square (χ2 analyses where appropriate. A total of 985 pediatric burn cases were included, with only one death. The maximal burn area recorded was 80% and the maximal third-degree burn area was 45%. The majority of burns (637/985, 64.67% were moderate second-degree wounds, encompassing 5-14% of the total body surface area. The infant age-group (<3 years old had the largest representation (622/985, 63.15%, with more males than females affected. Most of the injuries occurred at home in children living in the local region. Scalding accounted for 89.85% (885/985 of all injuries, with a decreasing incidence with age, whereas injuries due to flames and from electrical sources markedly increased with age. Only a minority of guardians (244/985, 24.77% had burn prevention knowledge, and none of them knew how to provide first-aid treatment for burn injuries. These results indicate that the majority of pediatric burns occur in children less than 3 years of age from scalds received while at home. As a large proportion of these cases occurred in rural areas, programs emphasizing burn prevention and treatment knowledge should therefore be made more available to these families.

  3. [Genetic Characteristics of Type 2 Vaccine-derived Poliovirus in Shanxi Province (China) in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongrei; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianfang; Zhu, Shuangli; Wang, Dongyan; Zhang, Chuangye; Zhu, Hui; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization redefined the type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in 2010. To study the genetic characteristics and evolution of type 2 VDPV under this new definition, we conducted genome sequencing and analyses of type 2 VDPVs isolated from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis in Shanxi province (China) in 2014. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the full-length of type 2 VDPV is 7439 bases encoding 2207 amino acids with no insertion or deletion of nucleotides compared with Sabin2. One nucleotide substitution identified as a key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (A-G reversion at nucleotide nt 481 in the 5-end of the untranslated region) had reverted in the Shanxi type 2 VDPV. The other known key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (U-->C reversion at nt2909 in the VP1 coding region that caused a Ile143Thr substitution in VP1) had not reverted in the Shanxi VDPV. The Shanxi type 2 VDPV was S2/S1 recombinant, the crossover site of which mapped to the 3-end of the 3D region (between nt 6247 and nt 6281). A phylogentic tree based on the VP1 coding region showed that evolution of the Shanxi type 2 VDPV was independent of other type 2 VDPVs detected worldwide. We estimated that the strain circulated for approximately = 11 months in the population according to the known evolution rate. The present study confirmed that the Chinese Polio Laboratory Network could discover the VDPV promptly and that it played an important part in maintenance of a polio-free China.

  4. The characteristics of heterosexual STD clinic attendees who practice oral sex in Zhejiang Province, China.

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    Qiaoqin Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The characteristics of heterosexual attendees who visit sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics and practice oral sex have not been revealed in China. This information is important for the development of targeted STD prevention programmes for this population. STUDY DESIGN: A self-administered questionnaire survey with a cross-sectional design was administered to consecutive attendees at four STD clinics in Zhejiang Province, China, between October and December in 2007. Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioural factors associated with oral sex over a lifetime were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of the 872 attendees, 6.9% engaged in oral sex over their lifetimes. Of the oral-sex group, 96.6% also engaged in vaginal sex. The correlates for oral sex over a lifetime as determined by the multivariate analysis were high income (odds ratio [OR] = 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-4.59, high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related knowledge (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.26-5.81, early sex initiation (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.37-4.27, multiple sexual partners (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.58-6.06, and sexually active in the previous 6 months (OR = 7.73, 95% CI 1.04-57.39. CONCLUSIONS: Though the prevalence of oral sex is low, the heterosexual STD clinic attendees practicing oral sex was found to have higher risks associated with STD/HIV transmission than those not. Behavioural and medical interventions conducted by clinicians in Chinese STD clinics should take into account the characteristics and related risks of those who practice oral sex.

  5. Community response to construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China.

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    Liu, Yong; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Skitmore, Martin

    2017-11-01

    As a common source of environmental noise in China and many developing countries worldwide, construction work provokes many complaints and deterioration in acoustic climate quality. This paper describes research to obtain an improved understanding of people's community response to, and evaluation of, construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China. This involved carrying out a social survey using standard questionnaires developed by the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN). A dose-response relationship model is established using a quadratic polynomial regression analysis based on construction noise exposure measurements from 40 construction sites in Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou. The results of the study indicate that the majority of people have a negative attitude to construction noise; the noise ranges between 60 dB and 80 dB (compared with 50 dB-70 dB traffic noise in Tianjin), with the percentage of highly annoyed people affected increasing from 15%-20% to 30%-40% over the range. There also different levels of annoyance depending on the time of day, and the location and activities of those affected. Other cultural differences are also apparent both between Ningbo/Wenzhou and the more urbane citizens of Hangzhou, and the Chinese people and their more noise-tolerant EU and Vietnam counterparts. The findings of this study provide a new perspective for the study of construction noise that can help local governments have an improved understanding of how residents react to construction noise for the purpose of selecting construction noise-mitigation projects and introducing construction noise-control regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province, China: A regional input–output analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okadera, Tomohiro; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zhu; Yoshida, Noboru; Kanazawa, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    Water and energy are important resources for regional economies and are inextricably and reciprocally linked. Global water and energy demand will increase significantly by 2030 while climate change will worsen water availability. Thus, it is important to ensure a sustainable energy supply despite the increasing severity of water resource constraints. Numerous studies have analyzed water requirements to produce energy from production perspectives. However, energy is generally supplied by both internal and external producers. Thus, it is necessary to consider the availability of water to produce energy from consumption perspectives also. We evaluate the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province, China. We apply the standard top-down approach using an input–output framework. We estimate the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province at 854 million m 3 in 2002, with 47% of water used for electricity and heating. Our results reveal that energy supply could depend on water resources in neighboring provinces; external producers met 80% of the water footprint of energy supply, although only 35% of energy supply was imported. If Liaoning Province decreased its external dependency, withdrawal of available water resources within the province would increase from 86% to 91%. To guarantee future regional energy security, it is important to manage water resources effectively through water-efficient electricity generation and by allocating water resources among sectors. - Highlights: • We assess the water footprint of energy supply (WFES) for Liaoning Province, China. • The WFES for 2002 was 854 million m 3 , with 47% used for electricity and heating. • External sources accounted for 80% of the WFES and 47% of the energy supply. • Without energy imports, water resource withdrawal would increase from 86% to 91%. • Effective water resource management is important for regional energy security

  7. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

    2014-01-01

    This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

  8. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Honghuaqiao Formation in SE China

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    Chang, S.; Zhang, H.; Hemming, S. R.; Mesko, G. T.; Fang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Jehol Biota, defined as the characteristic Eosestheria-Ephemeropsis-Lycoptera assemblage (Grabau, 1923, Bulletin of the Geological Survey of China), is widely distributed in eastern and central Asia (Li et al., 1982, Acta Geologica Sinica; Chen, 1988, Acta Palaeontologica Sinica). Abundant and varied fossils of the terrestrial Jehol Biota, including plants, insects, dinosaurs, birds, mammals, and freshwater invertebrates, have been discovered from the Dabeigou, the Yixian and the Jiufotang Formations (or their correlative strata) in northeast China from the Liaoning and Hebei Provinces and Inner Mongolia (Chen and Jin, 1999, Acta Palaeontologica Sinica). In addition, strata that may be correlative with the classic Jehol fossil-bearing formations have been identified extensively in central and eastern China, the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, and Siberia. In the past three decades mollusk, conchostracan, ostracod, insect, fish, and plant fossils from localities in southeastern China, interpreted as related to the Jehol biota of the northeast, have been found (Mateer and Chen, 1986, Cretaceous Research; Li, 2003, Chinese Science Bulletin; Chen, Li and Batten, 2007, Geological Journal). However, a detailed correlation between the classic Jehol outcrops and the more recently found localities to the South and West has yet to emerge. Volcanic rocks from the Honghuaqiao fossil-bearing Formation in Tuzhou City of eastern Anhui Province, southeastern China provide an excellent opportunity to rectify this situation. Preliminary results of a pilot study suggest that the Honghuaqiao Formation is equivalent to the Longwanshan Formation of Anhui Province, southeastern China and the Yixian Formation, northeastern China (Chang et al., 2009, AGU abstract). Initial 40Ar/39Ar results indicate that conchostracans from the upper Honghuaqiao Formation are approximately 130 Ma. Our ongoing work aims to establish a high-resolution chronostratigraphy for Tuzhou City in Anhui Province

  9. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among farmers, veterinarians and control subjects in Jilin province, Shandong province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

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    Kang, Yuan-Huan; Cong, Wei; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2017-05-01

    China is commonly considered to be a HEV-endemic region but limited epidemiological data for HEV among farmers and veterinarians are available. Thus, a case-control study was carried out to detect the seroprevalence and assess potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by farmers and veterinarians in China from July 2013 to May 2015. Three hundred veterinarians and 600 farmers recruited from Jilin province, Shandong province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and 600 control subjects matched by gender, age, and residence were detected for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme immunoassays. The seroprevalences of HEV infection in farmers, veterinarians, and control subjects were 34.8%, 26.7%, and 20.2%, respectively. Farmers (P veterinarians (P = 0.027) have significantly higher seroprevalence than control subjects. The highest seroprevalence of HEV infection was detected in swine farmers (49.1%) and the lowest seroprevalence was found in cattle farmers (26.5%). In veterinarians, farm animal veterinarians have a higher seroprevalence than pet veterinarians, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Residence area, contact with swine and exposure with soil were significantly associated with HEV infection in the study farmers; contact with swine and source of drinking water were significantly associated with HEV infection in the study veterinarians. These results implied the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the dissemination of HEV infection in farmers and veterinarians in China. J. Med. Virol. 89:872-877, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Rubella Epidemics and Genotypic Distribution of the Rubella Virus in Shandong Province, China, in 1999–2010

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    Xu, Qing; Xu, Aiqiang; Fang, Xueqiang; Song, Lizhi; Li, Weixiu; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Background The rubella vaccine was introduced into the immunization program in 1995 in the Shandong province, China. A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented at different stages of measles control in Shandong province. Methodology/Principal Findings The average reported incidence rate of rubella cases remained at a low level in Shandong province after 1999. However, rubella epidemics occurred repeatedly in 2001/2002, 2006, and 2008/2009. The age of the onset of rubella cases gradually increased during 1999–2010, which showed that most cases were found among the 10 years old in 1999 and among the 17 years old in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the World Health Organization standard sequence window for rubella virus isolates. All rubella viruses isolated in Shandong province were divided into 4 genotypes: 1E, 1F, 2A, and 2B. Genotype 1E viruses accounted for the majority (79%) of all these viruses. The similarity of nucleotide and amino acid sequences among genotype 1E viruses was 98.2–100% and 99.1–100%, respectively. All Shandong genotype 1E strains, differed from international genotype 1E strains, belonged to cluster 1 and interdigitated with the viruses from other provinces in mainland China. The effective number of infections indicated by a Bayesian skyline plot remained constant from 2001 to 2009. Conclusions/Significance The gradual shift of disease burden to an older age group occurred after a rubella-containing vaccine was introduced into the childhood immunization schedule in 1995 in Shandong province. Four genotypes, including 1E, 1F, 2A, and 2B, were found in Shandong province during 2000–2009. Genotype 1E, rather than genotype 1F, became the predominant genotype circulating in Shandong province from 2001. All Shandong genotype 1E viruses belong to the genotype 1E/cluster 1; they have constantly circulated, and co-evolved and co-circulated, with those from

  11. Imported Genotype 2B Rubella Virus Caused the 2012 Outbreak in Anqing City, China.

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    Zhen Zhu

    Full Text Available A rubella outbreak occurred in Anqing city of Anhui province, China, from February to July of 2012, and a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported. The highest number of rubella cases during this outbreak was recorded in teenagers between 10 and 19 years of age who had not previously received the rubella vaccine. Genotyping results indicated that the genotype 2B rubella virus (RV was responsible for the outbreak. However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation. After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination. Strengthening rubella surveillance, including the integration of epidemiologic information and laboratory data, is a vital strategy for rubella control and elimination. In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

  12. Imported Genotype 2B Rubella Virus Caused the 2012 Outbreak in Anqing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Pan, Guixia; Zhou, Shujie; Dai, Jingjing; Chen, Xia; Tang, Jihai; Chen, Shuping; Zheng, Yilun; Song, Jie; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    A rubella outbreak occurred in Anqing city of Anhui province, China, from February to July of 2012, and a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported. The highest number of rubella cases during this outbreak was recorded in teenagers between 10 and 19 years of age who had not previously received the rubella vaccine. Genotyping results indicated that the genotype 2B rubella virus (RV) was responsible for the outbreak. However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation. After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination. Strengthening rubella surveillance, including the integration of epidemiologic information and laboratory data, is a vital strategy for rubella control and elimination. In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

  13. Neogene seismites and seismic volcanic rocks in the Linqu area, Shandong Province, E China

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    Tian H.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yishu Fault Zone runs through the centre of Shandong Province (E China; it is a deep-seated large fault system that still is active. Two volcanic faulted basins (the Shanwang and Linqu Basins in the Linqu area, west of the fault zone, are exposed to rifting, which process is accompanied by a series of tectonic and volcanic earthquakes with a magnitude of 5-8. Lacustrine sediments in the basins were affected by these earthquakes so that seismites with a variety of soft-sediment deformation structures originated. The seismites form part of the Shanwang Formation of the Linqu Group. Semi-consolidated fluvial conglomerates became deformed in a brittle way; these seismites are present at the base of the Yaoshan Formation. Intense earthquakes triggered by volcanic activity left their traces in the form of seismic volcanic rocks associated with liquefied-sand veins in the basalt/sand intercalations at the base of the Yaoshan Formation. These palaeo-earthquake records are dated around 14-10 Ma; they are responses to the intense tectonic extension and the basin rifting in this area and even the activity of the Yishu Fault Zone in the Himalayan tectonic cycle.

  14. Estimates of HIV prevalence in a highly endemic area of China: Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Jiangping; Fan, Lu; Song, Duan; Tian, Shuming; Yang, Yuecheng; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin; Sun, Xinhua; Zhang, Sanguo; Kulczycki, Andrzej; Vermund, Sten H

    2008-12-01

    Dehong Prefecture in Yunnan Province, China, borders Myanmar. Its proximity to the 'Golden Triangle', one of the world's largest illicit drug production and distribution centre, contributes to drug trafficking and ready availability of heroin. Dehong's 1.1 million people confront a serious HIV problem fuelled by injection drug use. The aim of this study is to improve the 2005 estimates of the true status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Dehong Prefecture. We estimated the HIV prevalence by synthesizing the results from several data sources (HIV/AIDS case reports, surveys, surveillance activities and epidemiological studies). We applied three different statistical procedures for estimations: (i) The Workbook method, adapted to meet the estimation needs in Dehong Prefecture; (ii) An estimate based on antenatal clinical data; and (iii) a dynamic model based on the local epidemic pattern. We estimated that the population prevalence for HIV infections in Dehong Prefecture is 1.3% (likely range from low/high of three estimates: 0.9-1.7%) such that 13 500 people were living with HIV/AIDS in Dehong Prefecture (likely range: 8,200-18,300) in 2005. Infections remain concentrated among injection drug users, female sex workers and their clients with an uneven geographical distribution of estimated cases. More reliable estimates of HIV prevalence can be made by synthesizing multiple data sources using several procedures. Current HIV prevention, care and treatment challenges are judged substantial in Dehong Prefecture, regardless of what modelling strategy is used.

  15. Azospirillum palatum sp. nov., isolated from forest soil in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Xu; Xu, Lihong; Lai, Ren

    2009-02-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium designated ww 10(T) was isolated by plating dilutions from forest soil in Zhejiang province, China. Strain ww 10(T) was investigated by polyphasic taxonomic study including phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis. Cells of ww 10(T) were Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, motile with peritrichous flagella and rod-shaped. The strain grew optimally at 30-37 masculineC and pH 6.0-8.0. The major fatty acids were C(18:1)omega7C, cyclo-C(19:0) omega8C and C(16:0). The respiratory quinones contained a large amount of Q-10, a moderate component of Q-9 and a minor of Q-8. The G+C content of genomic DNA was about 67.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain ww 10(T) belongs to the phyletic cluster of genus Azospirillum and displayed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity lower than 96.3% to the four closest described species of the genera Azospirillum and Roseomonas. Results of polyphasic taxonomic analysis showed that strain ww 10(T) represents a novel species in the genus Azospirillum, for which the name Azospirillum palatum sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is ww 10(T) (=LMG 24444(T)=KCTC 13200(T)=CCTCC AB 207189(T)).

  16. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Pulang complex, Yunnan province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Zhenshan; Du, Yangsong; Cao, Yi; Gao, Fuping; Wang, Gongwen; Dong, Qian

    2014-01-01

    The Pulang complex is located tectonically at the southern margin of the Yidun-Zhongdian island arc belt in Yunnan province, China, and is closely related to formation of the Pulang copper deposit, which is the largest copper deposit in Asia. The Pulang complex can be divided into three intrusion stages based on contact relationships and petrological characteristics: (1) a first stage of quartz dioritic porphyry; (2) a second stage of quartz monzonitic porphyry; and (3) a third stage of granodioritic porphyry. The crystallization ages of these intrusion stages were determined by single-zircon U-Pb dating, yielding ages of 221.0 ± 1.0, 211.8 ± 0.5, and 206.3 ± 0.7 Ma for the first, second, and third stages, respectively. These dates, integrated with previous geochronological data and field investigations, indicate that the second-stage quartz monzonitic porphyry has a close spatial and temporal relationship with the large Pulang porphyry copper deposit. These age data, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic results suggest that the Pulang complex formed in the Indo-Chinese epoch (257∼ 205 Ma) by multiphase intrusion of a mixture of mantle- and crust-derived magmas. (author)

  17. GNSS Positioning by CORS and EGM2008 in Jilin Province, China

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    Qiong Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS technique has been widely applied in land resource management, surveying, mapping, deformation monitoring, precise navigation, etc. This article analyzed the positioning method using EGM2008 and CORS of Jilin Province, China. The vertical transformation of EGM2008 from WGS84 to China’s CGCS2000 datum and the horizontal coordinate transformation from CGCS2000 to a triangulation coordinate system were discussed. The results indicated that a local geoid with respect to CGCS2000 can be transferred from EGM2008 with the same accuracy, and the geoid correction between CGCS2000 and WGS84 varied from 0.023 m to 0.111 m. The coordinate transformation method based on the curve surface approximation method indicated that the theoretical error was less than 0.09 m in the grid within 10° longitudinal and 5° latitudinal, and less than 0.3 m in large area and 0.1 m in small area in field validation. The method proposed in this article expanded the positioning result and its application for JLCORS and other CORS with local datum.

  18. The costs and benefits of reforestation in Liping County, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Yin, Y; Xu, W; Ji, Z; Caldwell, I; Ren, J

    2007-11-01

    Reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is becoming a pressing issue for the global community. Afforestation and reforestation are promoted worldwide as an effective means of sequestering carbon. For its national interest and global concerns, China has made great efforts to protect its existing forests and develop programs of afforestation and reforestation. Based on two surveys recently conducted in Liping County, Guizhou province, this paper investigates the economic changes associated with the implementation of the "Grain For Green" policy. Based on the analytical framework of benefit cost analysis, this paper concludes that the implementation of the reforestation of sloping agricultural land policy would not be possible if there were no government subsidies for the peasants. The short term economic returns of land and labour from forestation are substantially lower than those generated from grain or cash crop production on the steep slope lands. The government subsidies provide great economic incentives for peasants to take part in the project. The subsidies in fact have elevated peasant income in rural Liping. The estimated potential economic returns of plantations over the long run indicate that the removal of the government financial subsidies would not create an economic crisis for the peasants if the current market conditions continue.

  19. Decomposition Analysis in Decoupling Transport Output from Carbon Emissions in Guangdong Province, China

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    Yalan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With a continuously growing share of the world’s overall energy consumption, the transport sector has been acknowledged as one of the most important contributors to global carbon emissions. This paper applies a complete decomposition and decoupling analysis to investigate and quantitatively analyze the main factors influencing the energy-related carbon emissions of the transport (TCE sector during 1995–2012 in Guangdong, the richest and most populated province in China. Results showed that decoupling level between transport output and TCE was relatively low, especially when compared with year 1995, in which case it remained as expansive coupling. Optimization of tertiary industry structure was the main factor inhibiting TCE increase. However the rapid growth of GDP per capita and population was more powerful at boosting TCE, resulting in elasticity index rising directly. 2005 was a turning point when environmental friendly policies took action, after which decoupling state improved significantly, achieving weak decoupling when comparing adjacent years. By studying TCE and its components, we found that the National 5-Year Plan policy impacts TCE tremendously, which leads to a 5-year periodic pattern of fluctuations. This highlights policy as potentially the most important factor behind Guangdong’s decoupling effort, dwarfing the impact from energy and other inner-drivers.

  20. Resource and environment efficiency analysis of provinces in China: A DEA approach based on Shannon's entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Yiwen; Yang Feng

    2010-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely used in energy efficiency and environment efficiency analysis in recent years. Based on the existing environment DEA technology, this paper presents several DEA models for estimating the aggregated efficiency of resource and environment. These models can evaluate DMUs' energy efficiencies and environment efficiencies simultaneously. However, efficiency ranking results obtained from these models are not the same, and each model can provide some valuable information of DMUs' efficiencies, which we could not ignore. Under this situation, it may be hard for us to choose a specific model in practice. To address this kind of performance evaluation problem, the current paper extends Shannon-DEA procedure to establish a comprehensive efficiency measure for appraising DMUs' resource and environment efficiencies. In the proposed approach, the measure for evaluating a model's importance degree is provided, and the targets setting approach of inputs/outputs for DMU managers to improve DMUs' energy and environmental efficiencies is also discussed. We illustrate the proposed approach using real data set of 30 provinces in China.

  1. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium in yaks in Qinghai Province of China.

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    Rongsheng Mi

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium infecting yaks in the Qinghai Province of Northwestern China. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected by microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 586 fecal samples were collected from yaks in 6 counties, of which 142 (24.2% samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium. The small subunit (SSU rRNA gene of fifty-five samples were amplified and sequenced successfully and demonstrated that Cryptosporidium bovis (31/55, 56.4% was the most common species, followed by C. parvum (16/55, 29.1% and C. ryanae (5/55, 9.0%. Mixed infections of C. parvum and C. bovis (n = 2, C. ryanae and C. bovis (n = 1 were also detected. All three species were found in yaks ranging in age from 2 years. Cryptosporidium was most commonly detected in spring (28.4%, followed by summer (20.9%, then winter (17.5%. Cryptosporidium parvum positive samples were subtyped using the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Subtypes IIaA15G2R1 (n = 8, IIaA16G2R1 (n = 2, IIaA14G1R1 (n = 1, IIaA14G2R1 (n = 1 and IIaA16G3R1 (n = 1 were detected. All of these subtypes are zoonotic, and may pose a potential threat to human health.

  2. Rare earth elements and hypertension risk among housewives: A pilot study in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Lailai; Huo, Wenhua; Lu, Qun; Cheng, Zixi; Zhang, Jingxu; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that residents living near rare earth mining areas have high concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in their hair. However, the adverse effects of REEs on human health have rarely been the focus of epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between REEs in hair and the risk of hypertension in housewives. We recruited 398 housewives in Shanxi Province, China, consisting of 163 women with hypertension (cases) and 235 healthy women without hypertension (controls). We analyzed 15 REEs (lanthanum (La), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu), Yttrium (Y), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd)) and calcium (Ca) accumulated in housewives hair over a period of two years. The results revealed that, with the exception of Eu, concentrations of the REEs in hair were higher in the cases than in the controls. The univariate odds ratios (ORs) of the 14 REEs were >1, and four of the REEs (Dy, Tm, Yb, and Y) also had adjusted ORs > 1. The increasing dose-response trends of the four REEs further indicated the potential for increased hypertension risk. Moreover, the REEs were negatively correlated with Ca content in hair. These results might suggest an antagonistic effect of REEs on Ca in the human body. It was concluded that high intake of REEs might increase the risk of hypertension among housewives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

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    Si-Yuan Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65% samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05. Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1:16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  5. A small short-necked hupehsuchian from the lower Triassic of Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Hupehsuchia is a group of enigmatic Triassic marine reptiles that is known exclusively from two counties in Hubei Province, China. One of the common features of the group was a modestly long neck with nine to ten cervical vertebrae. We report a new species of Hupehsuchia, Eohupehsuchus brevicollis gen. et sp. nov., which for the first time shows a short neck in this group, with six cervicals. The configuration of the skull roof in Eohupehsuchus is also unique among Hupehsuchia, with narrow frontals and posteriorly shifted parietals, warranting recognition of a new species. The taxon superficially resembles Nanchangosaurus in retaining hupehsuchian plesiomorphies, such as low neural spines and small body size. However, its limbs are well-developed, unlike in Nanchangosaurus, although the latter genus is marginally larger in body length. Thus, the individual is unlikely to be immature. Also, Eohupehsuchus shares a suite of synapomorphies with Hupehsuchus, including the second and third layers of dermal ossicles above the dorsal neural spines. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is not the most basal hupehsuchian despite its short neck, and instead forms the sister taxon of Hupehsuchidae. Until recently, Hupehsuchia contained only two monotypic genera. Now there are at least four genera among Hupehsuchia, and the undescribed diversity is even higher. The left forelimb of the only specimen is incomplete, ending with broken phalanges distally. The breakage could only have occurred pre-burial. The individual may have been attacked by a predator and escaped, given that scavenging is unlikely.

  6. A small short-necked hupehsuchian from the lower Triassic of Hubei Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hong Chen

    Full Text Available Hupehsuchia is a group of enigmatic Triassic marine reptiles that is known exclusively from two counties in Hubei Province, China. One of the common features of the group was a modestly long neck with nine to ten cervical vertebrae. We report a new species of Hupehsuchia, Eohupehsuchus brevicollis gen. et sp. nov., which for the first time shows a short neck in this group, with six cervicals. The configuration of the skull roof in Eohupehsuchus is also unique among Hupehsuchia, with narrow frontals and posteriorly shifted parietals, warranting recognition of a new species. The taxon superficially resembles Nanchangosaurus in retaining hupehsuchian plesiomorphies, such as low neural spines and small body size. However, its limbs are well-developed, unlike in Nanchangosaurus, although the latter genus is marginally larger in body length. Thus, the individual is unlikely to be immature. Also, Eohupehsuchus shares a suite of synapomorphies with Hupehsuchus, including the second and third layers of dermal ossicles above the dorsal neural spines. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is not the most basal hupehsuchian despite its short neck, and instead forms the sister taxon of Hupehsuchidae. Until recently, Hupehsuchia contained only two monotypic genera. Now there are at least four genera among Hupehsuchia, and the undescribed diversity is even higher. The left forelimb of the only specimen is incomplete, ending with broken phalanges distally. The breakage could only have occurred pre-burial. The individual may have been attacked by a predator and escaped, given that scavenging is unlikely.

  7. A new species of vascular plants from the Xujiachong Formation (Lower Devonian) of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D -M.; Hao, S -G.

    2001-04-01

    A new species of early land vascular plants, Huia gracilis, is described from the Lower Devonian (Pragian-early Emsian) Xujiachong Formation, Qujing district, Yunnan Province, southwestern China. The plant possesses K- or H-type branching in the rhizome and a dichotomously branched erect system. An axillary tubercle is sometimes present at the branching position. Fertile axes terminate in loose spikes comprising terminal and lateral sporangia arranged helically. Sporangia with long stalks are ovate or elongate-ovate and reflex adaxially. The sporangium dehisces longitudinally in the radial plane of the fertile axis into two parts. The xylem is probably centrarch. Tracheids of G-type are characterised by annular secondary thickenings, between which is a sheet with irregular simple perforations. There may be some 'pores' in the enclosing wall of the perforation. H. gracilis differs from the type species H. recurvata mainly in the branching pattern, more slender morphology of the stem, sporangium and stalk. It is suggested that Huia may have originated from the primitive Cooksonia-like plants.

  8. Seasonal patterns in microbial communities inhabiting the hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Brandon R; Brodie, Eoin L; Tom, Lauren M; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wang, Shang; Hou, Weiguo; Wu, Geng; Huang, Liuquin; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2014-06-01

    Studies focusing on seasonal dynamics of microbial communities in terrestrial and marine environments are common; however, little is known about seasonal dynamics in high-temperature environments. Thus, our objective was to document the seasonal dynamics of both the physicochemical conditions and the microbial communities inhabiting hot springs in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The PhyloChip microarray detected 4882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within 79 bacterial phylum-level groups and 113 OTUs within 20 archaeal phylum-level groups, which are additional 54 bacterial phyla and 11 archaeal phyla to those that were previously described using pyrosequencing. Monsoon samples (June 2011) showed increased concentrations of potassium, total organic carbon, ammonium, calcium, sodium and total nitrogen, and decreased ferrous iron relative to the dry season (January 2011). At the same time, the highly ordered microbial communities present in January gave way to poorly ordered communities in June, characterized by higher richness of Bacteria, including microbes related to mesophiles. These seasonal changes in geochemistry and community structure are likely due to high rainfall influx during the monsoon season and indicate that seasonal dynamics occurs in high-temperature environments experiencing significant changes in seasonal recharge. Thus, geothermal environments are not isolated from the surrounding environment and seasonality affects microbial ecology. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms.

  10. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Tibetan monks from Gansu Province, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghui; Cai, Hui; He, Jin; Ramachandran, Devasundaram; Xie, Ping; Huang, Yan; Wang, Hongjing; Liu, Yan; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan monks are a special group in life style and diet customs. We have little information of hypertension about them. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the information on the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in these populations. A cross-sectional study of hypertension was carried out in 984 monks and 1042 Tibetan residents' controls in the same area. All the subjects were selected for interview, and physical examination involved blood pressure (BP) measurement. The overall prevalence of hypertension in monks was significantly lower than those in local residents (19.3% versus 34.1%; p monks were also lower than those in local residents (9.5% versus 16.9%, 4.2% versus 13.2% and 1.6% versus 4.5%; p monks aged 18 years and over in Gannan Tibetan autonomous district of Gansu province in China. We concluded that the relatively healthy diet and ways of life in monks were the major contributing factors to the lower prevalence of hypertension. However, the awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension were also low. The possible reasons were most likely due to the difficult access to quality medical care and poor health education.

  11. Dietary sodium intake: knowledge, attitudes and practices in Shandong Province, China, 2011.

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    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China. METHODS: In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the 'intention to' and 'currently taking action to' reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. CONCLUSION: Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area.

  12. Extreme Weather Impacts on Maize Yield: The Case of Shanxi Province in China

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    Taoyuan Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather can have negative impacts on crop production. In this study, we statistically estimate the impacts of dry days, heat waves, and cold days on maize yield based on household survey data from 1993 to 2011 in ten villages of Shanxi province, China. Our results show that dry days, heat waves, and cold days have negative effects on maize yield, although these effects are marginal if these extreme events do not increase dramatically. Specifically, a one percent increase in extreme-heat-degree-days and consecutive-dry-days results in a maize yield declines of 0.2% and 0.07%, respectively. Maize yield also is reduced by 0.3% for cold days occurring during the growing season from May to September. However, these extreme events can increase dramatically in a warmer world and result in considerable reduction in maize yields. If all the historical temperatures in the villages are shifted up by 2 degrees Celsius, total impacts of these extreme events would lead to a reduction of maize yield by over 30 percent. The impacts may be underestimated since we did not exclude the offset effect of adaptation measures adopted by farmers to combat these extreme events.

  13. Atmospheric mercury emission from artisanal mercury mining in Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Wang, Shaofeng; Meng, Bo

    Mercury (Hg) mining is an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric Hg emissions. The Guizhou Province in Southwestern China is a region with extensive artisanal mercury mining (AMM), but little Hg emission data from this area is available. Using a mass balance method, we estimated emission factors from artisanal mercury mining in Wuchuan mercury mining area (WMMA) and Gouxi area (GX). Average emission factors were 18.2% in WMMA (ranging from 6.9% to 32.1%) and 9.8% in GX (ranging from 6.6% to 14.5%), respectively, which were 2.2-36.4 times higher than the literature values used to estimate Hg emission from Hg mining. Furthermore, the average Hg emission factor of AMM in WMMA was much higher than that in GX, indicating that double condensation processes practiced in GX resulted in higher recoveries and lower emission factors compared to single condensation process applied in WMMA. Atmospheric Hg emission was estimated to be 3.7-9.6 metric tons in 2004 for WMMA and 1.3-2.7 metric tons in 2006 for GX, indicating artisanal Hg mining was an important atmospheric Hg emission source in the study area.

  14. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Du, Liping; Du, Lingzhen

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi Province, China. Data were obtained from the Second National Sampling Survey of Disability conducted in 2006. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as best corrected visual acuity Visual acuity (VA) was measured using a Standard Logarithmic Visual Acuity E chart (Snellen) for subjects aged 7 years and older. Participants younger than 7 years were examined using special experiments or the Childhood Graphical Visual Chart. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi was estimated to be 0.6% (466/75,016) among persons up to 80 years old. The prevalence in rural areas (0.7%; 351/48,137) was significantly higher than that in urban areas (0.4%; 115/26,879) and was higher in females (0.8%; 298/36,933) than in males (0.4%; 168/38,083). The most common cause of visual impairment and blindness was cataract (44.9%), followed by retinopathy and choroidopathy (12.5%), hereditary and developmental disorders (10.3%), corneal disease (5.2%), and refractive error (4.9%). Prevalences of visual impairment and blindness in women and in rural areas were higher than in men and urban areas, and increased with age. Cataract was the most prevalent cause of visual impairment and blindness. Based on the findings from this study, we suggest that provision of support and welfare services should be organized.

  15. Sediment provenance in the Shudu Lake basin, northwest Yunnan Province, China, as revealed by composite fingerprinting

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    Yao, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite fingerprinting represents an effective method of reconstructing sediment-source changes in remote areas where long-term hydrological and sediment accretion records do not exist. A ca. 50-year record of sediment deposition was determined for a small catchment at Shudu, situated in northwest Yunnan Province, China. Woodland, pasture, shrubland and channel bank material are identified as the most likely sediment sources and this was confirmed using a composite sediment fingerprinting approach. Based on the findings of the fingerprinting technique, variations in the geochemical signature associated with lacustrine sediment deposits indicate that 49.2 % of the total catchment sediment yield over an approximate 50-year period originated from channel banks. In contrast, 19.2 % originated from pasture, 18.6 % originated from shrubland, and 13 % from woodland. The relative contributions of eroded sediment from both woodland and shrubland have generally remained stable over the period investigated, whereas the contribution of material from pasture has increased over recent decades. This is tentatively attributed to increased grazing pressure, which is probably due to increased stocking densities which have gradually exceeded the carrying capacity and regenerative capabilities of the available grassland.

  16. [Evaluation of asthma management from the surveys in 30 provinces of China in 2015-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Q; Lin, J T; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the general level of asthma management in urban areas of China and further promote the national asthma management plan. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional survey was carried out in 30 provinces of China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. It's a questionnaire-based face-to-face survey which included asthma management using peak flow meter (PFM) and pulmonary function test, medication choice of maintenance therapy and asthma education. Results: A total of 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited including 2 347(60.6%) females and 1 528(39.4%) males. The mean age was (50.7±16.7) years ranging from 14 to 99. Only 10.1%(388/3 837) patients used PFM as monitoring, whereas 62.1%(2 405/3 874) patients underwent pulmonary function test during the past year. There were 57.4%(2 226/3 875) patients treated with inhaled cortical steroid plus long-acting β(2)-agonist combinations (ICS+LABA) as daily medication. 43.3%(1 661/3 836) patients were followed up by physicians. Among this population, 1 362 asthmatic outpatients were recruited, who also took part in the asthma control survey in 2007-2008 in 10 cities. In this subgroup, 17.9%(244/1 360) were tested by PFM and 66.6%(907/1 362) by pulmonary function test during last year. As to the medication, 63.1%(860/1 362) selected ICS+LABA for daily control. There were 50.4%(685/1 359) patients in the follow-up cohort by physicians. Compared to the similar survey conducted in 2007-2008, the proportion of patients with ICS+LABA regimen and follow-up by physicians were markedly higher, while the rate of PFM use did not have significant improvement. Conclusion: Although the present level of asthma management in China is still far from ideal, asthma management has improved compared to 8 years ago. Yet the use of PFM does not significantly improve. Asthma action plan and application of PFM should be further promoted to improve the level of asthma management.

  17. Traffic violations in Guangdong Province of China: speeding and drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Gong, Xiangpu

    2014-03-01

    The number of speeding- and drunk driving-related injuries in China surged in the years immediately preceding 2004 and then began to decline. However, the percent decrease in the number of speeding and drunk driving incidents (decrease by 22%) is not proportional to the corresponding percent decrease in number of automobile accident-related injuries (decrease by 47%) from the year 2004 to 2010 (Traffic Management Bureau, Ministry of Public Security, Annual Statistical Reports on Road Traffic Accidents). Earlier studies have established traffic violations as one of the major risks threatening road safety. In this study, we examine in greater detail two important types of traffic violation events, speeding and drunk driving, and attempt to identify significant risk factors associated with these types of traffic violations. Risk factors in several different dimensions, including driver, vehicle, road and environmental factors, are considered. We analyze the speeding (N=11,055) and drunk driving (N=10,035) data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, obtained from the Guangdong Provincial Security Department, are extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report and are the only comprehensive and official source of traffic accident data in China. Significant risk factors associating with speeding and drunk driving are identified. We find that several factors are associated with a significantly higher probability of both speeding and drunk driving, particularly male drivers, private vehicles, the lack of street lighting at night and poor visibility. The impact of other specific and unique risk factors for either speeding or drunk driving, such as hukou, road type/grades, commercial vehicles, compulsory third party insurance and vehicle safety status, also require particular attention. Legislative or regulatory measures targeting different vehicle types and/or driver groups with respect to the various driver

  18. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Neural Tube Defects and Detection of Geographical Factors in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yilan; Zhang, Yan; He, Lei; Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Ningxu; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital birth defects that occur in the central nervous system, and they have the highest incidence among all birth defects. Shanxi Province in China has the world's highest rate of NTDs. Since the 1990s, China's government has worked on many birth defect prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, such as pregnancy planning, health education, genetic counseling, antenatal ultrasonography and serological screening. However, the rate of NTDs in Shanxi Province is still higher than the world's average morbidity rate after intervention. In addition, Shanxi Province has abundant coal reserves, and is the largest coal production province in China. The objectives of this study are to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the NTD rate in rural areas of Shanxi Province, China, and identify geographical environmental factors that were associated with NTDs in the risk area. In this study, Heshun County and Yuanping County in Shanxi Province, which have high incidence of NTDs, were selected as the study areas. Two paired sample T test was used to analyze the changes in the risk of NTDs from the time dimension. Ripley's k function and spatial filtering were combined with geographic information system (GIS) software to study the changes in the risk of NTDs from the spatial dimension. In addition, geographical detectors were used to identify the risk geographical environmental factors of NTDs in the study areas, especially the areas close to the coal sites and main roads. In both Heshun County and Yuanping County, the incidence of NTDs was significantly (P<0.05) reduced after intervention. The results from spatial analysis showed that significant spatial heterogeneity existed in both counties. NTD clusters were still identified in areas close to coal sites and main roads after interventions. This study also revealed that the elevation, fault and soil types always had a larger influence on the incidence of NTDs in our study

  19. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Neural Tube Defects and Detection of Geographical Factors in Shanxi Province, China.

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    Yilan Liao

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are congenital birth defects that occur in the central nervous system, and they have the highest incidence among all birth defects. Shanxi Province in China has the world's highest rate of NTDs. Since the 1990s, China's government has worked on many birth defect prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, such as pregnancy planning, health education, genetic counseling, antenatal ultrasonography and serological screening. However, the rate of NTDs in Shanxi Province is still higher than the world's average morbidity rate after intervention. In addition, Shanxi Province has abundant coal reserves, and is the largest coal production province in China. The objectives of this study are to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the NTD rate in rural areas of Shanxi Province, China, and identify geographical environmental factors that were associated with NTDs in the risk area.In this study, Heshun County and Yuanping County in Shanxi Province, which have high incidence of NTDs, were selected as the study areas. Two paired sample T test was used to analyze the changes in the risk of NTDs from the time dimension. Ripley's k function and spatial filtering were combined with geographic information system (GIS software to study the changes in the risk of NTDs from the spatial dimension. In addition, geographical detectors were used to identify the risk geographical environmental factors of NTDs in the study areas, especially the areas close to the coal sites and main roads.In both Heshun County and Yuanping County, the incidence of NTDs was significantly (P<0.05 reduced after intervention. The results from spatial analysis showed that significant spatial heterogeneity existed in both counties. NTD clusters were still identified in areas close to coal sites and main roads after interventions. This study also revealed that the elevation, fault and soil types always had a larger influence on the incidence of NTDs

  20. Bioenergy and Food Supply: A Spatial-Agent Dynamic Model of Agricultural Land Use for Jiangsu Province in China

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    Kesheng Shu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop an agent-based model to explore a feasible way of simultaneously providing sufficient food and bioenergy feedstocks in China. Concerns over the competition for agricultural land resources between food and bioenergy supply hinder the further development of bioenergy, especially in China, the country that needs to feed the world’s largest population. Prior research has suggested the introduction of energy crops and reviewed the resulting agricultural land use change in China. However, there is a lack of quantitative studies which estimate the value, contribution, and impact of bioenergy for specific conditions at the county level and provide adequate information to guide local practices. To fill this gap, we choose the Jiangsu Province in China as a case study, build up a spatial-agent dynamic model of agricultural land use, and perform a sensitivity analysis for important parameters. The simulation results show that straw from conventional crops generally dominates Jiangsu’s biomass supply with a contribution above 85%. The sensitivity analyses reveal severe consequences of bioenergy targets for local land use. For Jiangsu Province, reclaimed mudflats, an alternative to arable lands for energy crop plantation, help to secure the local biomass supply and to alleviate the land use conflict between food and biomass production.

  1. Seroepidemiology of human enterovirus71 and coxsackievirusA16 in Jiangsu province, China

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    Ji Hong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major etiology of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is infection with human enterovirus A (HEV-A. Among subtypes of HEV-A, coxsackievirusA16 (CoxA16 and enterovirus 71 (EV71 are major causes for recurrent HFMD among infants and children in Jiangsu Province, mainland China. Here, we analyzed maternal antibodies between prenatal women and their neonates, to determine age-specific seroprevalence of human EV71 and CoxA16 infections in infants and children aged 0 to 15 years. The results may facilitate the development of immunization against HFMD. Methods This study used cross-section of 40 pairs of pregnant women and neonates and 800 subjects aged 1 month to 15 years old. Micro-dose cytopathogenic effects measured neutralizing antibodies against EV71 and CoxA16. Chi-square test compared seroprevalence rates between age groups and McNemar test, paired-Samples t-test and independent-samples t-test analyzed differences of geometric mean titers. Results A strong correlation between titers of neutralizing antibody against EV71 and CoxA16 in prenatal women and neonates was observed (rEV71 = 0.67, rCoxA16 = 0.56, respectively, p 80% of children between 5 to 15 years of age. However, seroprevalence rates of anti-CoxA16 antibody were very low (0.0–13.0% between 0 to 6 months of age, gradually increased between 7 months to 4 years (15.0–70.0%, and stabilized at 54.0% (108/200 between 5 to 15 years. Seroprevalence rates against EV71 and CoxA16 were low under 1 year (0.0–10.0%, and showed an age dependent increase with high seroprevalence (52.5–62.5% between 4 and10 years of age. Conclusions Concomitant infection of EV71 and CoxA16 was common in Jiangsu Province. Therefore, development of bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CoxA16 is critical. The optimal schedule for vaccination may be 4 to11 months of age.

  2. Renewable energy markets in China: An analysis of renewable energy markets in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces, with updated information from Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaupen, S.B.

    1999-12-13

    The People's Republic of China has undergone many changes over the past decade that have led to new growth and created opportunities for many industries, including the renewable energy industry. China has consistently had one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. This report is a continuation of a market assessment done in 1997, which analyzed six provinces (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shandong, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang) in China. The information contained in this report comes mainly from interviews conducted with central and local government officials, state and local power bureau officials, and various company executives. The report provides valuable market information necessary for any company interested in entering China's renewable energy market. It also details the legal, competitive, sociocultural, technological, geographic, and economic environments of four provinces in China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan. In addition, it outlines the major central government policies and contacts important to renewable energy development within China.

  3. Acute effect of ozone exposure on daily mortality in seven cities of Jiangsu Province, China: No clear evidence for threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-05-01

    Few multicity studies have addressed the health effects of ozone in China due to the scarcity of ozone monitoring data. A critical scientific and policy-relevant question is whether a threshold exists in the ozone-mortality relationship. Using a generalized additive model and a univariate random-effects meta-analysis, this research evaluated the relationship between short-term ozone exposure and daily total mortality in seven cities of Jiangsu Province, China during 2013-2014. Spline, subset, and threshold models were applied to further evaluate whether a safe threshold level exists. This study found strong evidence that short-term ozone exposure is significantly associated with premature total mortality. A 10μg/m 3 increase in the average of the current and previous days' maximum 8-h average ozone concentration was associated with a 0.55% (95% posterior interval: 0.34%, 0.76%) increase of total mortality. This finding is robust when considering the confounding effect of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , NO 2 , and SO 2 . No consistent evidence was found for a threshold in the ozone-mortality concentration-response relationship down to concentrations well below the current Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (CAAQS) level 2 standard (160μg/m 3 ). Our findings suggest that ozone concentrations below the current CAAQS level 2 standard could still induce increased mortality risks in Jiangsu Province, China. Continuous air pollution control measures could yield important health benefits in Jiangsu Province, China, even in cities that meet the current CAAQS level 2 standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic characterizations of Giardia duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province, China and possibility of zoonotic transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhe Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a widespread intestinal protozoan of both humans and mammals. To date, few epidemiological studies have assessed the potential and importance of zoonotic transmission; and the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin is unclear. No information about occurrence and genotyping data of sheep and goat giardiasis is available in China. The aim of the present study was to determine prevalence and distribution of G. duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province, China, and to characterize G. duodenalis isolates and assess the possibility of zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 678 fecal specimens were collected from sheep and goats on six farms ranging in age from one month to four years in Heilongjiang Province, China. The average prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 5.0% (34/678 by microscopy after Lugol's iodine staining, with 5.6% (30/539 for the sheep versus 2.9% (4/139 for the goats. Molecular analysis was conducted on 34 G. duodenalis isolates based on the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi gene. 29 tpi gene sequences were successfully obtained and identified as assemblages A (n = 4, B (n = 2 and E (n = 23. High heterogeneity was observed within assemblage E at the tpi locus, with five novel subtypes found out of seven subtypes. Two subtypes of assemblage A were detected, including subtype AI (n = 3 and a novel subtype (designated as subtype AIV (n = 1. Two assemblage B isolates were identical to each other in the tpi gene sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of G. duodenalis infections in sheep and goats in China. The present data revealed the unique endemicity on prevalence, distribution and genetic characterization of G. duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province. The findings of assemblages A and B in sheep and goats implied the potential of zoonotic transmission.

  5. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from different Province in China

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    Li Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was carried out to provide a reference for monitory of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, zearalenone (ZEN and deoxynivalenol (DON contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds were collected from different Province in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 443 feed ingredients, including 220 corn, 24 wheat, 24 domestic distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS, 55 bran, 20 wheat shorts and red dog, 37 imported DDGS, 34 corn germ meal and 29 soybean meal as well as 127 complete feeds including 25 pig complete feed (powder, 90 pig complete feed (pellet, six duck complete feed and six cattle complete feed were randomly collected from different Province in China, respectively, by high-performance chromatography in combined with UV or fluorescence analysis. Results The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 80.8, 92.3 and 93.9 %, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for DON ranged from 66.7 to 100 %. Domestic DDGS and imported DDGS presented the most serious contamination AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 61.5 to 100 %, indicated that serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. Conclusion The current data provide clear evidence that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds in different Province in China is serious and differs over past 3-year. The use of corn, domestic DDGS, imported DDGS and corn germ meal, which may be contaminated with these three mycotoxins, as animal feed may triggered a health risk for animal. Feeds are most contaminated with DON followed by ZEN and AFB1. Mycotoxins contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds should be monitored routinely in China.

  6. Evaluation of the economic burden of leprosy among migrant and resident patients in Guangdong Province, China.

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    Xiong, Mingzhou; Li, Ming; Zheng, Daocheng; Wang, Xiaohua; Su, Ting; Chen, Yongfeng; Yang, Bin

    2017-12-11

    A lot of time and money was needed during the diagnosis and treatment process of leprosy, the delayed leprosy would also impair the labor capability of patients as well, and these put a heavy burden for the leprosy patients. The migrant leprosy patient is a special group and need more concern. Our goal was to assess the economic burden of leprosy on migrant and resident patient populations in Guangdong province, China. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey from February to July of 2016. A self-designed questionnaire was administered to leprosy patients who: (1) had registered in Leprosy Management Information System in China (LEPMIS) by the end of February 2016, (2) had received multiple drug treatment (MDT) drugs at a local leprosy control institution for three consecutive months or had had at least one physical check in the past half year, and (3) were willing to take part in the investigation and give informed written consent. Demographic characteristics, Financial and disease information, and costs before and after leprosy diagnosis were collected and compared using t-test and χ2 test. A total of 254 participants completed the questionnaires, including 168 males and 86 females. Migrants and residents accounted for 33.9% and 66.1% of patients, respectively. Among migrant patients, the median cost before diagnosis was $131.6 (39.2-450.9), the median yearly cost of leprosy treatment after diagnosis was $300.6 (158.4-868.5), and the median yearly cost of leprosy complications was $69.5 (11-178.4). In comparison, among residents the median yearly costs were $152.4 (30.7-770.9) pre-diagnosis, $309.7 (103.2-1016.7) after diagnosis, and $91.9 (32.6-303.1) for leprosy complications. Base on this, we determined that the median yearly total expense after diagnosis amounted to 15% of migrant and 38% of resident patients' annual income. Leprosy places a heavy economic burden on both migrant and resident leprosy patients and governmental policies and

  7. Seroepidemiology of coxsackievirus B5 in infants and children in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Bian, Lianlian; Hao, Xiaotian; Hu, Yalin; Yao, Xin; Sun, Shiyang; Chen, Pan; Yang, Ce; Du, Ruixiao; Li, Jingxin; Zhu, Fengcai; Mao, Qunying; Liang, Zhenglun

    2018-01-02

    Coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5) is associated with various human diseases such as viral encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, paralysis, herpangina, and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, there is currently no effective vaccine against CV-B5.The seroepidemiologic characteristics of CV-B5 remained unknown. A cohort study was carried out in 176 participants aged 6-35 months from January 2012 to January 2014. The serum samples were collected and tested for CV-B5 neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) four times during these two years. The confirmed enterovirus cases were recorded through the surveillance system, and their throat or rectal swabs were collected for pathogen detection. According to the changes of CV-B5 NtAbs, two CV-B5 epidemics were detected among these participants during the two-year follow-up. Sixty-seven cases out of all participants had seroconversion in CV-B5 NtAbs. During the first epidemic from March 2012 to September 2012, CV-B5 seropositivity rate increased significantly (6.8%, 12/176 vs. 21.6%, 38/176, P = 0.000). The seroconversion rate and geometric mean fold-increase (GMFI) were 18.2% (32/176) and 55.7, respectively; During the second epidemic from September 2012 to January 2014, CV-B5 seropositivity rate also increased (21.6%, 38/176 vs. 38.6%, 68/176, P = 0.000), and the seroconversion rate and GMFI were 19.9% (35/176) and 46.5, respectively. Only one case had CV-B5 associated HFMD during the two-year follow-up, and CV-B5 from the throat swab isolate was GI.D3 subtype, which belonged to the major pandemic strain in mainland China. CV-B5 infection was common in infants and children in Jiangsu province, China. Therefore, it's necessary to strengthen the surveillance on CV-B5 and to understand the epidemic characteristics of CV-B5 infection.

  8. Agrobiodiversity and in situ conservation in ethnic minority communities of Xishuangbanna in Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Li, Diyu; Clements, David Roy; Zhang, Fudou; Jin, Guimei; Wu, Jianyong; Wei, Pingfang; Lin, Song; Xue, Dayuan

    2017-05-15

    Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, southwest of China belongs to a global biodiversity and cultural hotspot. Agrobiodiversity plays an essential role in local livelihoods and traditional culture in the region. However, preliminary studies suggest that diversity of crop plants and livestock species is declining. We hypothesized that agrobiodiversity and traditional means of preserving agrobiodiversity are threatened because of changes in government policy in favor of commercial plantations, land use change and changes in traditional agricultural practices. We investigated whether or not agrobiodiversity was declining, the specific causes, and signs of active biodiversity conservation practices in ethnic minority communities of Xishuangbanna which could form the basis for extensive in situ conservation programmes. A series of field studies to document trends in agrobiodiversity were conducted in different ethnic minority communities in Menghai County, Mengla County and Jinghong City of Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, southwest of China between July 2015 and February 2016. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools. A total of 360 ethnic households provided information on current status, functions, characteristics, changes, and threatened factors of farming crop and livestock resources. Some measures for in situ conservation of agricultural biological resources were also researched using PRA methods. Two hundred twenty-six crop varieties belonging to 31 families, 71 genera and 101 species were identified in Xishuangbanna, which included 83 vegetable crops, 77 food crops, 24 spice crops, 22 fruit crops, 13 cash crops, 6 oil crops, and 1 cloth crop, respectively. There were 15 livestock varieties, belonging to 6 major species: cattle, pigs, goats, chickens, ducks, and geese. Different crop and livestock resources had their own characteristics, functions and threatened factors

  9. [Prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia in a rural population of Henan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J M; Luo, X P; Wang, S; Yin, L; Pang, C; Wang, G A; Shen, Y X; Wu, D T; Zhang, L; Ren, Y C; Wang, B Y; Yang, X Y; Zhang, H Y; Han, C Y; Zhao, Y; Li, L L; Wang, C J; Feng, T P; Zhao, J Z; Hu, D S; Zhang, M

    2016-09-06

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia in a rural population of Henan Province, China. Methods: A total of 20 194 participants aged ≥18 years were selected randomly by cluster sampling from two townships(towns)in Henan Province from July to August 2007 and July to August 2008. Investigations included questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile examination at baseline. A total of 16 155 participants were followed up from July to August 2013 and July to October 2014. Overall, 13 869 participants were included in the study, after excluding 2 286 participants with incomplete dyslipidemia follow-up data. Distributions of the characteristics of dyslipidemia were determined, and prevalence was standardized by age according to data of the 2010 Sixth National Population Census. Risk factors for dyslipidemia were analyzed using a logistic regression model after adjusting for sex, age, education level, marital status, and income status. Results: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 53.72%(7 450/13 869)for residents aged ≥22 years living in rural areas of Henan Province(59.32%(3 069/5 174)for men and 50.39%(4 381/8 695)for women). The adjusted prevalence of dyslipidemia was 50.50%(59.27% for men and 45.53% for women). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and high LDL-C was 4.34%(602/13 868), 20.42%(2 826/13 837), 42.75%(5 927/13 865), and 3.14%(420/13 375), respectively, and the adjusted prevalence was 2.44%, 18.84%, 41.42%, and 1.86%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that alcohol consumption( OR =1.27, 95% CI : 1.05-1.53), family history of hyperlipidemia( OR =1.29, 95% CI : 1.17-1.43), overweight( OR =1.40, 95% CI : 1.22-1.61), obesity( OR = 1.65, 95% CI : 1.39- 1.96), abnormal waist circumference( OR =1.22, 95% CI : 1.04- 1.43), and abnormal waist-height ratio( OR =1.21, 95% CI : 1.01-1.45)were significant

  10. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3 provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophilic bacteria isolated from Rehai belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Deinococcus-Thermus. Firmicutes include neutrophilic or alkaliphilic Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Caldalkalibacillus, Caldanaerobacter, Laceyella, and Geobacillus, as well as thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus and Sulfobacillus. Isolates from the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum include several Meiothermus and Thermus species. Many of these bacteria synthesize thermostable polymer-degrading enzymes that may be useful for biotechnology. The thermoacidophilic archaea Acidianus, Metallosphaera, and Sulfolobus have also been isolated and studied. A few studies have reported the isolation of thermophilic viruses belonging to Siphoviridae (TTSP4 and TTSP10 and Fuselloviridae (STSV1 infecting Thermus spp. and Sulfolobus spp., respectively. More recently, cultivation-independent studies using 16S rRNA gene sequences, shotgun metagenomics, or “functional gene” sequences have revealed a much broader diversity of microorganisms than represented in culture. Studies of the gene and mRNA encoding the large subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA and the tetraether lipid crenarchaeol, a potential biomarker for AOA, suggest a wide diversity, but possibly low abundance, of thermophilic AOA in Rehai. Finally, we introduce the Tengchong Partnerships in International Research and Education (PIRE project, an international collaboration between Chinese and U.S. scientists with

  11. Spatiotemporal variability of temperature and precipitation in Gansu Province (Northwest China) during 1951-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaohu; Wu, Xiaoqing; Gao, Meng

    2017-11-01

    Climate change is potentially challenging the sustainable development in many parts of the world, especially the semi-arid and arid regions on the earth. Northwest China (NWC) is one of the most arid areas in East Asia, and Gansu Province is located at the important climate transition zone in NWC. Spatiotemporal variability of both temperature and precipitation were analyzed based on the daily observation dataset at 29 meteorological stations over Gansu during 1951-2015. The Mann-Kendall trend test was utilized to detect monotonic trends in extreme climate indices, mean temperature, and total precipitation. The results revealed that the warming trends were statistically significant at most stations in Gansu, especially at the high altitude stations; however, the change trends in annual and seasonal precipitation over Gansu were not significant as expected. Furthermore, the 29 stations were spatially grouped using hierarchical clustering method. The regional-averaged temperature anomalies also showed a significant warming trend beginning at the end of 1970s. Spatial variations were also observed in the annual and seasonal precipitation over Gansu. In general, precipitation increased in the western part of Gansu while decreased in the eastern part. Additionally, the wavelet analyses revealed that the teleconnection between large scale circulation and summer precipitation varied not only from region to region, but also was different at different time scale and different time periods. Analysis of large-scale atmospheric circulation changes showed that a strengthening anticyclonic circulation, increasing geopotential height and rapid warming over the Eurasian continent were considered to be attributable to climate change in Gansu and even in NWC.

  12. Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in the Huzhou Region, Zhejiang Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Ying; Shen, Guo-Song; Zhang, Su; He, Ping-Ya

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the frequency of thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies in Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China (PRC), and for the future management of hemoglobinopathies. A total of 8578 pregnant women in the Huzhou region was analyzed for thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies from July 1 2012 to November 30 2015. Complete blood count (CBC), and hemoglobin (Hb) variant analyses were performed with automatic counters and capillary electrophoresis (CE). High resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied for genetic diagnosis of thalassemia. The prevalence of patients with the α-thalassemia (α-thal) trait was 1.01% (87/8578). β-Thalassemia (β-thal) was carried by 112 women with a frequency of 1.3%. The carrier rate of thalassemia genes in the studied samples was nearly 2.32%. We excluded those without iron studies, with 159 cases as our sample, a total of 63/159 cases (39.6%) also had iron deficiencies. Moreover, Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A), and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) were the most common Hb variants after thalassemia trait with frequencies of 0.16 and 0.06%, respectively. Only two Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) carriers were detected in 20 months of screening time. Hb A 1c results could be confidently reported on all cases except the Hb D-Punjab and Hb E variants. This study provided a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of thalassemia in the Huzhou region, and will contribute toward the development of prevention strategies and reducing excessive health care costs in this area, allowing better management of hemoglobinopathies.

  13. Environmental geochemistry of an abandoned mercury mine in Yanwuping, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guangle; Feng, Xinbin; Meng, Bo; Zhang, Chao; Gu, Chunhao; Du, Buyun; Lin, Yan

    2013-08-01

    The distribution of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in paddy soil and rice grain (polished), and Hg in surface waters and gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) in atmosphere at the Yanwuping Hg mining district (YMM), Guizhou Province, China was investigated. Results exhibited high total Hg (Hg(T)) and MeHg concentrations in soil at sites adjacent to calcine pile and tailings, and ranged from 5.6 to 240mgkg(-1) and 0.66 to 7.3μgkg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of Hg(T) in rice ranged from 10 to 45μgkg(-1), and high MeHg concentrations were also observed ranging from 3.2 to 39μgkg(-1). The elevated Hg(T) and MeHg concentrations in soil in the vicinity of calcine pile and tailings reflected in high MeHg concentrations in rice. Those data were significantly correlated with MeHg concentration in soil confirming that soil is the major source of MeHg in rice. The highest Hg concentrations in water, otherwise rather low, ranging from 3.8 to 51ngl(-1) for Hg(T) and of 0.14 to 2.7ngl(-1) for MeHg(T), were found at the proximity of calcine pile suggesting that untreated mine wastes are the principal source of Hg in the nearby area. Huge emissions of GEM were also detected from calcines affecting the whole area, ranging from 12 to 180ngm(-3) with an average of 46±35ngm(-3). The distribution patterns of Hg and MeHg observed in the environmental compartments suggest an elevated contamination of Hg in the region. Elevated high MeHg concentrations in rice might pose a potential health risk to local populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A methodological framework for coastal development assessment: A case study of Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiyan; Lindenmayer, David B; Wong, Gabriel T W; Mao, Zhu; Huang, Yi; Xue, Xiongzhi

    2018-02-15

    Decision-makers often have to make trade-offs between economic growth and environmental conservation when developing and managing coastal environments. Coastal development and management need to be subject to rigorous assessments to determine if they are sustainable over time. We propose a methodological framework - the Coastal Development Index (CDI) for the assessment of the changes in sustainability of coastal development over time. CDI is a modified version of the Ocean Health Index (OHI) but with two new indicators - ecological and environmental indicators (EEI), and social and economic indicators (SEI), both of which comprise three sub-indicators (coastal protection, clean waters and species protection for EEI, and food provision, coastal livelihoods and economies and tourism and recreation for SEI). The six sub-indicators represent key aspects of coastal development and the level of exploitation of natural resources that have previously been missing in other conceptual frameworks. We demonstrate the value of CDI with a detailed case study of Fujian Province in China, 2000-2013. The scores of CDI decreased from 1.01 in 2000 to 0.42 in 2013 suggesting that the Fujian coastal zone has experienced unsustainable development in that time. Meanwhile, the scores of EEI decreased from 22.1 to 20.4 while the scores of SEI increased from 21.9 to 48.1 suggesting that environmental values have been eroded by economic growth. Analysis of the scores of sub-indicators reveals a need to integrate economic growth and social development with environmental conservation on Fujian coastal management. Our case study highlights the potential value of the CDI for improving the ecological sustainability of coastal zone management and development practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rhizobium albus sp. nov., Isolated from Lake Water in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Lei, Xueqian; Xu, Yanting; Zhu, Hong; Xu, Meiying; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Jinli; Zheng, Tianling

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterial strain, designated Y21 T , was isolated from surface lake water in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China. Growth was observed at temperatures from 4 to 37 °C, at salinities from 0 to 7.0 % and at pH from 6.0 to 10.0. Optimum growth was observed at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and with 1.5-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The highest similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence between strain Y21 T and the other strains was 96.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Rhizobium, forming a distinct lineage with R. subbaraonis KCTC 23614 T . The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprising C 18:1 ω7c and/or C 18:1 ω6c), C 18:1 ω7c 11-methyl, which accounted for 78.1 %. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 60.9 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The polar lipids of strain Y21 T were found to consist of five unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified aminolipids. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA sequence data, strain Y21 T should be regarded as a new species of the genus Rhizobium, for which Rhizobium albus sp. nov. is proposed (type strain Y21 T  = MCCC 1F01210 T  = KCTC 42252 T ).

  16. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-Ning

    2015-09-09

    Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010-2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010-2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  17. Prenatal methylmercury exposure through maternal rice ingestion: Insights from a feasibility pilot in Guizhou Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Yu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yumei

    2013-01-01

    Maternal hair and blood were investigated as biomarkers for prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure among seventeen mothers recruited at parturition in Wanshan, Guizhou Province, China, where rice ingestion was the primary MeHg exposure pathway and atmospheric mercury (Hg) levels were elevated. For all three trimesters (n = 51), hair total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.27 to 4.9 μg/g (median: 0.96 μg/g) and 0.077 to 2.3 μg/g (median: 0.43 μg/g), respectively, while blood THg levels ranged from 1.7 to 11 μg/L (median: 3.0 μg/L, n = 17). Despite adequate hair washing procedures, median %MeHg (of THg) was 37% (range: 14–89%, n = 51), indicating exogenous inorganic Hg(II) contamination or incorporation of elemental Hg (Hg o ) into the hair shaft were important. Rice MeHg levels (n = 17) were highly correlated with blood THg (r 2 = 0.66) compared to hair MeHg (r 2 = 0.31) (when variables were log 10 -transformed), suggesting blood THg was a more preferable biomarker for prenatal MeHg exposure within this population. -- Highlights: •Compared maternal hair and blood as biomarkers for prenatal MeHg exposure. •Despite adequate hair washing procedures, median hair %MeHg (of THg) was low. •Rice MeHg levels were more correlated with blood THg compared to hair MeHg. •Blood THg may be a better biomarker for prenatal MeHg exposure in this area. -- Within a population where rice is a staple food, maternal blood may be an appropriate biomarker for prenatal methylmercury exposure

  18. Risks for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia production systems in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Murrell, K Darwin; Liu, Liping; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-11-15

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia culture in China. However, it is also an endemic region for fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which pose a risk to human food safety and health. A study was designed to assess the status of trematode parasite infections in tilapia aquaculture systems as an indicator of potential risks from FZT associated with consumption of tilapia. Tilapia from nursery and grow-out ponds were sampled from monoculture, polyculture and integrated aquaculture systems. The results from 388 tilapia examined revealed a very low prevalence (1.5%) of trematode infections (Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae). Integrated systems using animal manure and latrine wastes as fertilizer did not show a higher prevalence of FZT. Because it was not clear whether the low risk of infection was attributable to existing effective pond management practices or a low risk of spillover of FZT from area sylvatic reservoir hosts, a survey of local wild-caught fish was conducted. Five species of FZT were discovered from a total of 271 wild-caught fish and a mean infection density of 4.0 metacercariae/100g; FZT discovered included intestinal flukes (Haplorchis spp., Procerovum varium, and Metagonimus spp.) and metacercariae tentatively identified as Clonorchis sinenesis. The common occurrence of FZT in wild-caught fish suggests that the presence of FZT in local wild animal reservoirs is substantial, and that although the current aquaculture management systems for tilapia are generally effective in preventing transmission of these parasites into tilapia production systems, the improvement of pond management practices and biosecurity must be maintained at a high level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Postglacial fire history and interactions with vegetation and climate in southwestern Yunnan Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiayun; Haberle, Simon G.; Shen, Ji; Xue, Bin; Burrows, Mark; Wang, Sumin

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution, continuous 18.5 kyr (1 kyr = 1000 cal yr BP) macroscopic charcoal record from Qinghai Lake in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, reveals postglacial fire frequency and variability history. The results show that three periods with high-frequency and high-severity fires occurred during the periods 18.5-15.0, 13.0-11.5, and 4.3-0.8 ka, respectively. This record was compared with major pollen taxa and pollen diversity indices from the same core, and tentatively related to the regional climate proxy records with the aim to separate climate- from human-induced fire activity, and discuss vegetation-fire-climate interactions. The results suggest that fire was mainly controlled by climate before 4.3 ka and by the combined actions of climate and humans after 4.3 ka. Before 4.3 ka, high fire activity corresponded to cold and dry climatic conditions, while warm and humid climatic conditions brought infrequent and weak fires. Fire was an important disturbance factor and played an important role in forest dynamics around the study area. Vegetation responses to fire after 4.3 ka are not consistent with those before 4.3 ka, suggesting that human influence on vegetation and fire regimes may have become more prevalent after 4.3 ka. The comparisons between fire activity and vegetation reveal that evergreen oaks are flammable plants and fire-tolerant taxa. Alnus is a fire-adapted taxon and a nonflammable plant, but density of Alnus forest is a key factor to decide its fire resistance. The forests dominated by Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and/or tropical trees and shrubs are not easy to ignite, but Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and tropical trees and shrubs are fire-sensitive taxa. Fire appears to be unfavourable to plant diversity in the study area.

  20. Traditional beliefs and practices in the postpartum period in Fujian Province, China: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven Joanna H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. Methods We interviewed family members (36 and health workers (8 in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional beliefs and their behaviour postpartum. We used a framework approach to identify main themes. We categorised reported behaviour against their probable effects on health, drawing on Western standards. Results Respondents reported that zuo yuezi was commonly practiced in urban and rural families to help the mother regain her strength and protect her future health. Zuo yuezi included: dietary precautions, such as eating more food and avoiding cold food; behavioural precautions, such as staying inside the home, avoiding housework and limiting visitors; hygiene precautions, such as restricting bathing and dental hygiene; and practices associated with infant feeding, including supplementary feeding and giving honeysuckle herb to the infant. Respondents reported that the main reasons for adhering to these practices were respect for tradition, and following the advice of elders. Categorised against Western medical standards, several zuo yuezi practices are beneficial, including eating more, eating protein rich food, avoiding housework, and daily vulval and perineal hygiene. A few are potentially harmful, including giving honeysuckle herb, and avoiding dental hygiene. Some women reported giving infants supplementary feeds, although zuo yuezi emphasises breast feeding. Conclusion Zuo yuezi is an important ritual in Fujian. In medical terms, most practices are beneficial, and could be used by health staff to promote health in this period. Further research on reported potentially harmful practices, such as supplements to breast feeding, is needed.

  1. Evaluation of Four Methods for Predicting Carbon Stocks of Korean Pine Plantations in Heilongjiang Province, China.

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    Gao, Huilin; Dong, Lihu; Li, Fengri; Zhang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 89 trees of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) were destructively sampled from the plantations in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China. The sample trees were measured and calculated for the biomass and carbon stocks of tree components (i.e., stem, branch, foliage and root). Both compatible biomass and carbon stock models were developed with the total biomass and total carbon stocks as the constraints, respectively. Four methods were used to evaluate the carbon stocks of tree components. The first method predicted carbon stocks directly by the compatible carbon stocks models (Method 1). The other three methods indirectly predicted the carbon stocks in two steps: (1) estimating the biomass by the compatible biomass models, and (2) multiplying the estimated biomass by three different carbon conversion factors (i.e., carbon conversion factor 0.5 (Method 2), average carbon concentration of the sample trees (Method 3), and average carbon concentration of each tree component (Method 4)). The prediction errors of estimating the carbon stocks were compared and tested for the differences between the four methods. The results showed that the compatible biomass and carbon models with tree diameter (D) as the sole independent variable performed well so that Method 1 was the best method for predicting the carbon stocks of tree components and total. There were significant differences among the four methods for the carbon stock of stem. Method 2 produced the largest error, especially for stem and total. Methods 3 and Method 4 were slightly worse than Method 1, but the differences were not statistically significant. In practice, the indirect method using the mean carbon concentration of individual trees was sufficient to obtain accurate carbon stocks estimation if carbon stocks models are not available.

  2. Emergy Evaluation of the Urban Solid Waste Handling in Liaoning Province, China

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    Lixiao Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better treatment results. The aim of a thorough ecological-economic evaluation of different treatment technologies is to extract the maximum practical benefits from investments and to ensure the minimum environmental impacts of wastes. This paper compares four garbage treatment systems, including sanitary landfills systems, fluidized bed incineration system, grate type incineration system and the current landfills system in Liaoning Province, China. By considering the economic and environmental impacts of waste treatment and disposal, impact of emissions, and contribution of wastes input, this paper constructed an emergy-based urban solid waste model for evaluating the sustainability of the holistic systems. The results in Liaoning indicate that the human health losses caused by the harmful air emissions are ranked in this order: fluidized bed incineration > grate type incineration > current landfills > sanitary landfills, while the ecosystem losses are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. The electricity yield ratios are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. Taken together this suggests that in considering the incineration option, decision makers must weigh the benefits of incineration against the significant operating costs, potential environmental impacts, and technical difficulties of operating. Emergy analysis of the urban solid treatment systems can provide a set of useful tools which can be used to compare the comprehensive performances of different waste treatment processes for decision-making and optimizing the whole process.

  3. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Estrogens in Livestock Manure: A Case Study in Jiangsu Province, China.

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    Xu, Pengcheng; Zhou, Xian; Xu, Defu; Xiang, Yanbing; Ling, Wanting; Chen, Mindong

    2018-01-12

    This study investigated the occurrence and contamination risk of estrogens in livestock manure in Jiangsu Province, China. Four estrogens-estriol (E3), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), bisphenol A (BPA), and 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2)-were detected in livestock manure from hens, ducks, swine, and cows. The respective mean concentrations of each estrogen found in these manures were 289.8, 334.1, 330.3, and 33.7 μg/kg for E3; 38.6, 10.9, 52.9, and 38.8 μg/kg for 17β-E2; 63.6, 48.7, 51.9, and 11.7 μg/kg for BPA; and 14.3, 11.3, 25.1, and 21.8 μg/kg for EE2. Estrogens were most frequently detected at high concentrations in the manure of finishing pigs, followed by the manure of growing pigs and piglets. Estrogens can be partially degraded after banking up for seven days; yet, great quantities of estrogens remain in livestock manure. The total estradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ t ) estimated to be present in aquatic environments but originating from livestock waste was 10.5 ng/L, which was greater than the hazard baseline value (1 ng/L) and also higher than the proposed lowest observable effect concentration (10 ng/L) of E2 in aquatic environments. The results of our study demonstrate that livestock waste is an important source of estrogens, which may potentially affect the hormonal metabolism of aquatic organisms.

  4. Prevalence of photodermatosis in four regions at different altitudes in Yunnan province, China.

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    Deng, Danqi; Hang, Yuntao; Chen, Hao; Li, Hanying

    2006-08-01

    Idiopathic photodermatoses are common diseases in dermatology clinics that are associated with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The group includes a few dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD). The prevalence of PLE and CAD in China has not been previously reported. To investigate the population-based prevalence of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) in six minority groups living in four regions with significantly different altitudes in the Yunnan province, a questionnaire survey was administered to 4899 residents of random villages in Yuanjiang county (Dai and Hani minorities), Kunming city (Han people and Yi minority), Lijiang county (Naxi minority), and Shangri-La county (Zang minority). The altitudes of these counties are 380 m, 1870 m, 2410 m and 3280 m a.s.l., respectively. The results showed that, first, there were 2400 males (49.0%) and 2499 females (51.0%). The prevalence of PLE was 0.65% (32/4899), and the prevalence of CAD was 0.18% (9/4899). PLE was higher among females than males (3.8 vs 1, P 0.05). Second, the prevalence of PLE was increased in higher elevations regions compared to lower elevations (P 0.05). Third, the mean times of sun exposure for PLE and CAD were 6.0 and 6.5 h/day, respectively. The mean durations of PLE and CAD were 5.8 years, and 6.6 years, respectively. The study demonstrated that the prevalence of PLE is higher than that of CAD in Yunnan, and that the prevalence of PLE is correlated with altitude.

  5. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

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    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from 50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect.

  6. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

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    Linsheng Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to arsenic (As poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions, who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China, were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs [arsenite (iAsIII and arsenate (iAsV], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  7. An economic evaluation of the use of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in the expanded program of immunization of Guizhou province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zundong; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Zhang, Li; Li, Yixing; Zuo, Shuyan; Hutin, Yvan J; Ning, Guijun; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Cairns, Lisa; Luo, Huiming

    2012-08-10

    Historically, China's Japanese encephalitis vaccination program was a mix of household purchase of vaccine and government provision of vaccine in some endemic provinces. In 2006, Guizhou, a highly endemic province in South West China, integrated JE vaccine into the provincial Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI); later, in 2007 China fully integrated 28 provinces into the national EPI, including Guizhou, allowing for vaccine and syringe costs to be paid at the national level. We conducted a retrospective economic analysis of JE integration into EPI in Guizhou province. We modeled two theoretical cohorts of 100,000 persons for 65 years; one using JE live-attenuated vaccine in EPI (first dose: 95% coverage and 94.5% efficacy; second dose: 85% coverage and 98% efficacy) and one not. We assumed 60% sensitivity of surveillance for reported JE rates, 25% case fatality, 30% chronic disability and 3% discounting. We reviewed acute care medical records and interviewed a sample of survivors to estimate direct and indirect costs of illness. We reviewed the EPI offices expenditures in 2009 to estimate the average Guizhou program cost per vaccine dose. Use of JE vaccine in EPI for 100,000 persons would cost 434,898 US$ each year (46% of total cost due to vaccine) and prevent 406 JE cases, 102 deaths, and 122 chronic disabilities (4554 DALYs). If we ignore future cost savings and only use EPI program cost, the program would cost 95.5 US$/DALY, less than China Gross Domestic Product per capita in 2009 (3741 US$). From a cost-benefit perspective taking into account future savings, use of JE vaccine in EPI for a 100,000-person cohort would lead to savings of 1,591,975 US$ for the health system and 11,570,989 US$ from the societal perspective. In Guizhou, China, use of JE vaccine in EPI is a cost effective investment. Furthermore, it would lead to savings for the health system and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Drivers of spatio-temporal changes in paddy soil pH in Jiangxi Province, China from 1980 to 2010.

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    Guo, Xi; Li, Hongyi; Yu, Huimin; Li, Weifeng; Ye, Yingcong; Biswas, Asim

    2018-02-09

    The spatio-temporal distribution soil pH is critical for understanding the productivity and long-term sustainability of our agri-ecosystem. This study quantified the spatio-temporal distribution of paddy soil pH in Jiangxi province, China, and the potential driver of the change between 1980 and 2010. Data from the Soil Survey Information of Jiangxi province (1980s) and Jiangxi Soil Testing and Fertilizer Recommendation study (2010s) were collected and categorized into six pH ranges from strongly-acidic to strongly-alkaline with unit pH differences. Changes were calculated from the maps developed using the Pedological Knowledge base for 1980s data (without geolocation) and geostatistical methods for the 2010s data (geolocated). An overall 0.6-unit decrease and a major shift of soil pH from weakly-acidic (54% → 18%) to acidic (35% → 74%) was observed over the province in a scattered fashion with concentration in the central part and the Poyang Lake area. About half of the area under paddy cultivation went through acidification by at least one pH unit and 7% by at least 2 pH units, while 40% of the area remained unchanged. Excessive fertilizer application and acid-rain intensity contributed to the acidification. Thus, a more knowledge-based and comprehensive fertilizer management should be adopted to make paddy production sustainable in the province.

  9. Adapting the RUSLE and GIS to model soil erosion risk in a mountains karst watershed, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue-Qing, Xu; Xiao-Mei, Shao; Xiang-Bin, Kong; Jian, Peng; Yun-Long, Cai

    2008-06-01

    Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem in Guizhou Province, which is located in the centre of the karst areas of southwestern China. Unfortunately, Guizhou Province suffers from a lack of financial resources to research, monitor and model soil erosion at large watershed. In order to assess the soil erosion risk, soil erosion modeling at the watershed scale are urgently needed to be undertaken. This study integrated the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to estimate soil loss and identify the risk erosion areas in the Maotiao River watershed, which is a typical rural watershed in Guizhou Province. All factors used in the RUSLE were calculated for the watershed using local data. It was classified into five categories ranging from minimal risk to extreme erosion risk depending on the calculated soil erosion amount. The soil erosion map was linked to land use, elevation and slope maps to explore the relationship between soil erosion and environmental factors and identify the areas of soil erosion risk. The results can be used to advice the local government in prioritizing the areas of immediate erosion mitigation. The integrated approach allows for relatively easy, fast, and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion. It thus indicates that RUSLE-GIS model is a useful and efficient tool for evaluating and mapping soil erosion risk at a large watershed scale in Guizhou Province.

  10. Social Sustainability Assessment across Provinces in China: An Analysis of Combining Intermediate Approach with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA Window Analysis

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    Aizhen Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two categories (i.e., radial and non-radial category in conventional DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis. Recently, intermediate approach was put forward as a new third category. Intermediate approach is a newly proposed approach and there are quite limited related studies. This study contributes to the DEA studies by putting forward an analytical framework of combining intermediate approach and DEA window analysis along with the concepts of natural and managerial disposability. Such combination is quite meaningful and this new approach has three important features. To the best of our knowledge, such type of research has never been investigated by the existing studies. As an application, this approach is used to evaluate the performance of provinces in China from 2007 to 2014. Furthermore, this study develops a series of performance indices from different perspectives. This study identifies the three important findings. Firstly, eco-technology advancements can achieve economic prosperity and environmental protection simultaneously, and thus should become a new direction of climate policies. Secondly, considerable differences exist in a series of indices that evaluates the performance of various provinces and pollutants from different respective. Then, sufficient attention should be given to the provinces and the pollutants with poor performance. Finally, the Chinese government should promote efficiency improvement by “catching up” for provinces with poor performance in the short term. In addition, the central government should reduce regional disparity in order to promote the social sustainability in the long term.

  11. Current pesticide profiles in blood serum of adults in Jiangsu Province of China and a comparison with other countries.

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    Chang, Chunxin; Chen, Minjian; Gao, Jiawei; Luo, Jia; Wu, Keqin; Dong, Tianyu; Zhou, Kun; He, Xiaowei; Hu, Weiyue; Wu, Wei; Lu, Chuncheng; Hang, Bo; Meeker, John D; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2017-05-01

    Although various pesticides were used globally, the pesticides profiles in human blood serum remain largely unknown. We determined pesticide exposure profiles using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography tandem with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in 200 human blood serum samples from the adult population in Jiangsu Province, China. A systematic and comprehensive literature review was carried out to identify the articles investigating pesticide exposure and compare exposure data. Of the 88 pesticides, 76 were found in the blood serum of the population in Jiangsu Province. To the best of our knowledge, 58 pesticides were reported in human blood serum for the first time, and among these pesticides, parathion-methyl, pyrimethanil, fluacrypyrim, simazine, cloquintocet-mexyl and barban were debatable in more than half of the samples. By statistical comparison of the blood serum levels of pesticides between this study and other countries, we found the levels of several organochlorine pesticides were significantly higher in the female population of Jiangsu Province. Health risks related to the pesticide profiling were then revealed, which identified higher carcinogenic toxicity and teratogenic toxicity risk in the female adults of Jiangsu Province caused by organochlorine pesticide exposure. This study not only provides a high-throughput pesticide screening method for future studies of the exposome, but also presents the first human data on exposure to a number of pesticides. It may provide a knowledge database for the risk assessment and management of the pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemiological and Etiological Characteristics of Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome in Henan Province, China, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoning; Ma, Hongxia; Wang, Haifeng; You, Aiguo; Kang, Kai; Chen, Haomin; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guohua; Xu, Bianli

    2014-01-01

    The Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome (FTLS) is caused by a bunyavirus known as the FTLS virus (FTLSV), which was recently discovered in China. We examined the epidemiological and etiological features of 637 laboratory-confirmed cases of FTLS with onset from January 2011 to December 2012 in Henan Province, China. The highest incidence of FTLS occurred between May and August: 76.5% of all laboratory-confirmed cases occurred during those four months. Of the laboratory-confirmed cases, 60.9% were in the 46–69 years old age groups; 96.1% (612/637) occurred in farmers; 98.1% (625/637) were reported from Xinyang Prefecture. During the same time period, 2047 cases were reported in China. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of FTLSV strains identified during 2011–2012 in Henan Province were ≥96% identical. This findings provides insight for developing public-health interventions for the control and prevention of FTLS in epidemic area. PMID:24633131

  13. Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome in Henan Province, China, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueyong; Du, Yanhua; Hu, Xiaoning; Ma, Hongxia; Wang, Haifeng; You, Aiguo; Kang, Kai; Chen, Haomin; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guohua; Xu, Bianli

    2014-01-01

    The Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome (FTLS) is caused by a bunyavirus known as the FTLS virus (FTLSV), which was recently discovered in China. We examined the epidemiological and etiological features of 637 laboratory-confirmed cases of FTLS with onset from January 2011 to December 2012 in Henan Province, China. The highest incidence of FTLS occurred between May and August: 76.5% of all laboratory-confirmed cases occurred during those four months. Of the laboratory-confirmed cases, 60.9% were in the 46-69 years old age groups; 96.1% (612/637) occurred in farmers; 98.1% (625/637) were reported from Xinyang Prefecture. During the same time period, 2047 cases were reported in China. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of FTLSV strains identified during 2011-2012 in Henan Province were ≥ 96% identical. This findings provides insight for developing public-health interventions for the control and prevention of FTLS in epidemic area.

  14. Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome in Henan Province, China, 2011-2012.

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    Xueyong Huang

    Full Text Available The Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome (FTLS is caused by a bunyavirus known as the FTLS virus (FTLSV, which was recently discovered in China. We examined the epidemiological and etiological features of 637 laboratory-confirmed cases of FTLS with onset from January 2011 to December 2012 in Henan Province, China. The highest incidence of FTLS occurred between May and August: 76.5% of all laboratory-confirmed cases occurred during those four months. Of the laboratory-confirmed cases, 60.9% were in the 46-69 years old age groups; 96.1% (612/637 occurred in farmers; 98.1% (625/637 were reported from Xinyang Prefecture. During the same time period, 2047 cases were reported in China. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of FTLSV strains identified during 2011-2012 in Henan Province were ≥ 96% identical. This findings provides insight for developing public-health interventions for the control and prevention of FTLS in epidemic area.

  15. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

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    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  16. Prevalence of hyperlipidemia in Shanxi Province, China and application of Bayesian networks to analyse its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinhua; Ren, Zeping; Li, Wenhan; Wei, Zhen; Rao, Huaxiang; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Zhuang; Song, Weimei; He, Yuling; Li, Chenglian; Yang, Xiaojuan; Chen, LiMin; Qiu, Lixia

    2018-02-28

    This study aimed to obtain the prevalence of hyperlipidemia and its related factors in Shanxi Province, China using multivariate logistic regression analysis and tabu search-based Bayesian networks (BNs). A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was adopted to obtain samples among the general population aged 18 years or above. The prevalence of hyperlipidemia in Shanxi Province was 42.6%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that gender, age, region, occupation, vegetable intake level, physical activity, body mass index, central obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus are associated with hyperlipidemia. BNs were used to find connections between those related factors and hyperlipidemia, which were established by a complex network structure. The results showed that BNs can not only be used to find out the correlative factors of hyperlipidemia but also to analyse how these factors affect hyperlipidemia and their interrelationships, which is consistent with practical theory, is superior to logistic regression and has better application prospects.

  17. The survey of serum retinol of the children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, China

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    Wu Lingling

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A can have a positive impact on growth and development of children, but vitamin A deficiency (VAD was found to be a public health problem in Zhejiang Province, China in 1998. There have been no studies on this topic in Zhejiang Province recently. This study was designed to evaluate the serum retinol levels of children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, southeast China. This epidemiological data will help design supplementation strategies for vitamin A in high-risk groups and improve their vitamin A status. Methods Children were randomly recruited for this study using a stratified sampling method. A blood sample was collected from each child. Assessment included C-reactive protein (CRP, serum retinol measured with HPLC and a questionnaire completed providing for family information and nutritional status. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for VAD in children. Results A group of 357 subjects aged 1 day to 4 years were recruited. The mean plasma retinol concentration was 1.653 (sd 0.47 μmol/L. There were 3.08% (11/357 of children affected with VAD, and 7.28% (26/357 of children had low vitamin A status, but none of the children showed any clinical symptoms of VAD. There was no significant difference in the levels of plasma retinol and the incidence rate of VAD between male and female children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living in urban region, having parents with good education and taking vitamin A capsule regularly prevented children from VAD, whereas being young (less than 2 years old was a risk factor. Conclusion Low vitamin A status remains a nutritional problem in Zhejiang Province. The high-risk group in this study were young, dwelled in rural regions, had parents with poor education and did not take a regular vitamin A containing supplement.

  18. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for

  19. Spatial analysis of Schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, China: a GIS-based analysis of Schistosomiasis from 2009 to 2013.

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    Yan-Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic areas are located in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, particularly in areas along the middle and low reach of the Yangtze River. Spatial analytical techniques are often used in epidemiology to identify spatial clusters in disease regions. This study assesses the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and explores high-risk regions in Hubei Province, China to provide guidance on schistosomiasis control in marshland regions.In this study, spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including global Moran's I and local Getis-Ord statistics, were utilized to describe and map spatial clusters and areas where human Schistosoma japonicum infection is prevalent at the county level in Hubei province. In addition, linear logistic regression model was used to determine the characteristics of spatial autocorrelation with time.The infection rates of S. japonicum decreased from 2009 to 2013. The global autocorrelation analysis results on the infection rate of S. japonicum for five years showed statistical significance (Moran's I > 0, P < 0.01, which suggested that spatial clusters were present in the distribution of S. japonicum infection from 2009 to 2013. Local autocorrelation analysis results showed that the number of highly aggregated areas ranged from eight to eleven within the five-year analysis period. The highly aggregated areas were mainly distributed in eight counties.The spatial distribution of human S. japonicum infections did not exhibit a temporal change at the county level in Hubei Province. The risk factors that influence human S. japonicum transmission may not have changed after achieving the national criterion of infection control. The findings indicated that spatial-temporal surveillance of S. japonicum transmission plays a significant role on schistosomiasis control. Timely and integrated prevention should be continued, especially in the Yangtze

  20. Vitamin D status and the prevalence of deficiency in lactating women from eight provinces and municipalities in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhao

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has become prevalent worldwide in recent years. However, less evidence was available for lactating women.The purpose of the study was to understand vitamin D status and prevalence of deficiency in lactating women and associated risk factors for vitamin D deficiency from eight provinces and municipalities in China.Lactating women within 1-10 months postpartum were recruited in 2011-2013 from eight provinces and municipalities in China. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration. Standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on season, living site, ethnicity and socio-demographic characteristics.Totally 2004 lactating women were recruited. The median (p25, p75 of 25(OHD was 15.8 (10.5, 24.0 nmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 85.3% as 25(OHD <30nmol/L. Serum 25(OHD levels of lactating women were significantly lower during October-January (14.0nmol/L than during February-May (18.0nmol/L (P<0.001, and were significantly higher in Dai ethnicity (22.5nmol/L than in Hui ethnicity (Chinese Muslims (9.0nmol/L (P<0.001. For every 10,000 CNY annual income per capita increasing, serum 25(OHD levels significantly increased 1.04 times (P<0.001. The odds of vitamin D deficiency in winter were 2.56 times higher than that in spring (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.91-3.43.Vitamin D deficiency of lactating women was highly prevalent in the eight provinces and municipalities in China. It is urgent to study the strategy and intervention ways for improving vitamin D status of lactating women, especially for certain population groups during low sunlight exposure season.

  1. Dietary intake of zinc in the population of Jiangsu Province, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Boonstra, A.; Shi, Z.; Pan, X.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhao, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Kok, F.J.; Zhou, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dietary zinc and other divalent minerals intake among the population of Jiangsu Province. Methods: 3,867 subjects aged 4-89 years were representatively sampled in two urban and six rural areas of Jiangsu Province. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls on three

  2. Comparison between two population-based hepatitis B serosurveys with an 8-year interval in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaye; Lv, Jingjing; Yan, Bingyu; Feng, Yi; Song, Lizhi; Xu, Aiqiang; Zhang, Li; Yan, Yongping

    2017-08-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention and control in the last 30 years in China, but it continues to be a major public health problem. The most recently reported population-based seroepidemiological survey on HBV in Shandong Province in China was published in 2006, and an updated baseline for HBV prevalence was badly needed in the province to identify the change in HBV epidemiology in the last decade. Two population-based cross-sectional serosurveys were performed among the population aged 1-59 years in the same sample areas in Shandong Province, China in 2006 and 2014, respectively. Data on demographic characteristics were collected. A blood sample was obtained from each person and was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs), and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Overall, the prevalence rates of HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc were 3.39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.51-4.26), 44.96% (95% CI 41.34-48.57), and 24.45% (95% CI 22.19-26.71), respectively, among the population aged 1-59 years in the 2006 serovsurvey; the corresponding prevalence rates were 2.49% (95% CI 1.81-3.17), 48.27% (95% CI 45.63-50.92), and 22.56% (95% CI 20.14-24.97), respectively, in 2014. The prevalence rates of HBsAg and anti-HBc were lower in 2014 than in 2006. Conversely, the prevalence of anti-HBs showed an increase. However, none of these differences were statistically significant (all p>0.05). The prevalence of HBsAg showed an increase among persons aged 20-24 years in 2014 (3.83%) compared with 2006 (2.98%) (t=0.45, p=0.67). Among all occupation groups, the prevalence of HBsAg was lower in 2014 than in 2006, while the prevalence of anti-HBc showed moderate increases in students and farmers (all p>0.05). The prevalence of HBsAg decreased more obviously in urban areas (65.49%) than rural areas (7.07%) from 2006 to 2014. The epidemiology of HBV infection has changed in Shandong Province, China

  3. Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China

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    Marie-Beatrice FOREL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

  4. Mortality Rate for Children under 5 Years of Age in Zhejiang Province, China from 1997 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifang; Chen, Dingwan; Xu, Yanhua; Yang, Rulai; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    This is a population based descriptive study that examined the trends in childhood mortality among under five children and the major causes under five mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. A population-based survey was conducted through a province-level surveillance network. The mortality rate and leading causes of death for children under 5 years of age were analyzed. The trend in the mortality rate for children under five and cause-specific mortality rates were analyzed by chi-square with SPSS 13.0 software. In Zhejiang Province, during 1997-2012, mortality rates in neonates, postneonatal infants, and children under 5 years were reduced by 64.2% (from 7.85 to 2.81 per 1000 livebirths), 66.7% (from 12.73 to 4.24 per 1000 livebirths), and 63% (from 15.76 to 5.85 per 1000 livebirths), respectively. The mortality rates in children under 5 years of age decreased by 59.5% (from 11.09 to 4.49 per 1000 livebirths) and 65.8% (from 19.30 to 6.61 per 1000 livebirths) in urban and rural areas, respectively. Prematurity/low birth weight and congenital heart disease were in the top five causes of death in children under 5 years of age during 1997-2012. Zhejiang province has achieved great progress in the reduction of mortality rates in children under five-years-old during the past two decades. The future tasks on reduction of mortality rate still rely on how to improve the management of premature birth/low birth weight, reduce birth defects and prevent accidental deaths in Zhejiang Province.

  5. Reawakening the dragon: changing patterns of opiate use in Asia, with particular emphasis on China's Yunnan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C B; McCoy, H V; Lai, S; Yu, Z; Wang, X; Meng, J

    2001-01-01

    Asian countries adjacent to the Golden Triangle and their neighbors have witnessed an evolution in "drug abuse" from traditional opium smoking to heroin eating, smoking, and finally heroin injection. A recent study of 630 heroin users was conducted in China's Yunnan Province, located close to the Golden Triangle. Data collected between August 1997 and February 1998 indicate injecting heroin users, in comparison to noninjectors, were more likely to have used drugs for a longer period of time, and to use drugs more frequently everyday. Other major differences existed between urban and rural subjects, especially highlighting differences between men and women. Women comprised a much higher proportion of urban subjects than rural subjects. Rural injectors were much more likely to be male, but urban injectors were almost evenly split between men and women. The emerging epidemic of heroin use in China and the continuing substance abuse problem in the United States provide an opportunity for collaborative research of mutual benefit.

  6. Isolation and sequence analysis of a canine distemper virus from a raccoon dog in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuening; Wang, Jianke; Zhang, Miao; Zhao, Jianjun; Shao, Xiqun; Ma, Zengjun; Zhao, Hang; Lin, Peng; Wu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen not only in raccoon dogs but also in a variety of carnivorous animals, including domesticated animals, particularly if they have not been vaccinated. In this study, a wild-type strain of CDV was isolated from lung tissue from a raccoon dog kept at a fur farm in Jilin Province, China. Cytopathic effects typical of CDV infection were observed after three blind passages in Vero cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(4.6) TCID50/mL. Virus identification was carried out by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and genome sequencing. The results showed that the isolated virus, termed the SY strain, corresponded to the Asia-1 genotype of CDV and has a genome of 15,690 nucleotides. This represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of a CDV strain circulating in raccoon dogs in China.

  7. Differences in reporting of maternal and child health indicators: A comparison between routine and survey data in Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Q

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qing Du,1,2 Øyvind Næss,1,3 Espen Bjertness,1,4 Gonghuan Yang,5 Linhong Wang,6 Bernadette Nirmal Kumar71Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Binzhou Medical College, Yantai, China; 3The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 4Tibet University Medical College, Lhasa, China; 5Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 6National Center for Women and Children's Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 7Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, Oslo, NorwayBackground: The quality of routine data, such as the maternal mortality ratio (MMR, infant mortality rate (IMR, and under-five mortality rate (U5MR is often questioned. The objective of this study was to compare routine and survey data on key maternal and child health indicators, including the MMR, IMR, and U5MR in the Guizhou Province of China.Methods: In 2008, an urban area and a rural area in the Guizhou Province were randomly selected. All households in the selected areas were included and, of the total 5466 households therein, 5459 were visited. The response rate was 99.9%. Survey data were collected from mothers (46.0%, fathers (32.5%, grandmothers (11.1%, grandfathers (9.0%, and other caregivers (1.4%. Data from routine records of the health bureaus in selected areas were reviewed for the same indicators. The Chi-square test was used to study the differences between routine data and survey data.Results: We found the differences between the routine and survey data live births in the survey data (68 was fewer than in the routine data (94 in the rural area, while live births in the survey data (106 was larger than in the routine data (96 in the urban area. The IMR was higher in the survey data (51.7 per thousand as compared with routine data (31.6 per thousand. The U5MR was higher (69.0 per thousand in the survey data than in the routine data (42.1 per thousand. Indicators related to the

  8. Molecular epidemiological survey of hemoglobinopathies in the Wuxi region of Jiangsu Province, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Han, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Yue; Lin, Fen; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Lin, Chun-Ping; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Luo, Zhao-Yun; Liu, Jing-Bo; Yan, Zhi-He; Zheng, Shu-Yan; Zheng, Jia-Kun; Lu, Min; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Xie, Long-Xu; Yang, Li-Ye

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of hemoglobinopathies in the Wuxi region of Jiangsu Province in the People's Republic of China (PRC), a total of 10,297 healthy people selected from a regional hospital were screened. Hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis, complete blood cell (CBC) count, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, reverse dot-blot and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used to detect Hb variants, thalassemias and hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (HPFH). Two thousand and twenty-one adult subjects were screened for thalassemia, five cases were identified as α-thalassemia (α-thal) carriers including three cases of the -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion, one case of the - -(SEA) deletion and one case of β-thal [IVS-II-654 (C>T), (HBB: c.316-197C>T)]. The incidence of Hb variants, thalassemia and HPFH/δβ-thal were 0.136% (14/10,297), 0.25% (5/2021) and 0.0001% (1/10,297), respectively. Eight genotypes of Hb variants were found, including Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.79G>A], Hb J-Bangkok [β56(D7)Gly→Asp (GGC>GAC); HBB; c.170G>A], Hb G-Coushatta [β22(4)Glu→Ala (GAA>GCA); HBB: c.68A>C], Hb Queens [α34(B15)Leu→Arg (CTG>CGG) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.104T>G (or HBA1)], Hb I [α16(A14)Lys→Glu, AAG>GAG (α1); HBA1: c.49A>G], Hb Beijing [α16(A14)Lys→Asn (AAG>AAC or AAT) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.51G>C (or HBA1) or 51G>T (or HBA1)], Hb Ube-2 [α68(E17)Asn→Asp (AAC>GAC) (α2 or α1); HBA2: c.205A>G (or HBA1)] and Hb G-Taipei [β22(B4)Glu→Gly (GAA>GGA); HBB: c.68A>G]. A Sicilian δβ(0)-thal, identified for the first time in Asia, was also found in this survey.

  9. Prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus among a rural population in China: results from Liaoning Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Guan, H; Zheng, L; Li, Z; Guo, X; Yang, H; Yu, S; Sun, G; Li, W; Hu, W; Guo, L; Pan, G; Xing, L; Zhang, Y; Sun, Y

    2015-03-01

    To clarify the diabetes prevalence trends among the rural population in northern China. All eligible permanent residents aged ≥ 35 years in selected rural villages of Liaoning province were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 600 people completed all questionnaires and were included in the study. The response rate was 85.3%. Fasting plasma glucose levels were measured after at least 12 h of fasting and diabetes was diagnosed according to WHO criteria, i.e. fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l and/or being on treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting glucose was defined according to the 1997 and the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria (6.1-6.9 and 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, respectively). Previous diagnoses of diabetes were assessed on the basis of self-reports. The prevalence of diabetes among adults in the rural population was 10.6% (10.0% in men and 11.1% in women). The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 13.0 and 36.1% according to the 1997 and the 2010 ADA criteria, respectively. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 4.3% among the whole population (3.3% in men and 5.1% in women). The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 34.8% in men and 50.2% in women. Only 29.6% of men and 42% of women with diabetes had taken oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin to lower their blood sugar. In multivariate analysis, age, drinking habits, BMI, dyslipidaemia and family history of diabetes were identified as independent risk factors for diabetes, and occupational physical activity, smoking and lean meat intake were identified as independent protective factors for diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose were found to be high in this rural population. Although the rate of treatment of people with diabetes has increased, the glycaemic control rate was still at a low level. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  10. Impact factors on expansion of built-up areas in Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhu, Qiankun; Li, Yan; Gong, Fang

    2017-10-01

    Built-up areas are the results of human activities. Not only are they the real reflection of human and society activities, but also one of the most important input parameters for the simulation of biogeochemical cycle. Therefore, it is very necessary to map the distribution of built-up areas and monitor their changes by using new technologies and methods at high spatiotemporal resolution. By combining technologies of GIS (Geographic Information System) and RS (Remote Sensing), this study mainly explored the expansion and driving factors of built-up areas at the beginning of the 21st century in Zhejiang Province, China. Firstly, it introduced the mapping processes of LULC (Land Use and Land Cover) based on the method which combined object-oriented method and binary decision tree. Then, it analyzed the expansion features of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2010. In addition to these, potential driving factors on the expansion of built-up areas were also explored, which contained physical geographical factors, railways, highways, rivers, urban centers, elevation, and slop. Results revealed that the expansions of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2005 and from 2005 to 2010 were very obvious and they showed high levels of variation in spatial heterogeneity. Except those, increased built-up areas with distance to railways, highways, rivers, and urban centers could be fitted with power function (y = a*xb ), with minimum R2 of 0.9507 for urban centers from 2000 to 2005; the increased permillages of built-up areas to mean elevation and mean slop could be fitted with exponential functions (y = a*ebx), with minimum R2 of 0.6657 for mean slop from 2005 to 2010. Besides, government policy could also impact expansion of built-up areas. In a nutshell, a series of conclusions were obtained through this study about the spatial features and driving factors of evolution of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2010.

  11. Insulin prices, availability and affordability: a cross-sectional survey of pharmacies in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Xinping; Liu, Chaojie; Ewen, Margaret; Zhang, Zinan; Liu, Guoqin

    2017-08-24

    Poor access to affordable insulin results in serious and needless complications and premature deaths for those with diabetes who need this essential medicine. To help address this issue, we assessed insulin availability, prices, affordability and price components in Hubei Province as China has the heaviest burden of diabetes globally. In 2016, insulin availability and price data was collected in the capital and five other cities. A total of 30 public sector outlets (hospitals and primary care institutions) and 30 private pharmacies were sampled, using an adaptation of the World Health Organization/Health Action International methodology, Data was collected for all human and analogue insulins in stock, then analyzed by type (prandial, basal or pre-mixed) and duration of action. Prices were expressed as Median Price Ratios (MPRs) to Australian PBS prices. Price components were tracked for five insulin products in two cities.. Affordability was assessed as the number of days' wages of the lowest paid unskilled government worker needed to purchase 10 ml 100 IU/ml (approximately 30 days' supply). Mean availability was highest in public hospitals for prandial (70%), basal (80%) and pre-mixed insulin (90%). In primary care institutions and private pharmacies mean availability ranged from 10% to 33%. Median prices of all insulin types were higher that Australian PBS prices in all three sectors for human and analogue insulins (ranging from1.36-2.59 times). Patients have to pay 4 to 16 days' wages to purchase a month's treatment depending on the insulin type and sector. The largest component of the patient price was the manufacturers' selling price (60%). Taxes in the form of import duties and VAT are applied in some sectors. The availability of insulin in primary care institutions and private retail pharmacies was very low in Hubei. Only public hospitals had good insulin availability. Insulin prices were high in all sectors making this life-saving medicine unaffordable

  12. Dental and prosthodontic status of an over 40 year-old population in Shandong Province, China

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    Creugers Nico HJ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to (1 describe the dental status using DMFT for the whole dentition and the anterior, premolar and molar regions; (2 determine associations of demographic variables and socio-economic status (SES with DMFT and tooth replacement; (3 analyze to what extent the goal as proposed by the WHO -'the retention of not less than 20 teeth throughout life' is achieved. Methods DMFT and tooth replacement data of 1588 subjects over 40 years from urban and rural sites in Qingdao (Shandong Province, China were collected. Relative D, M, and F scores per dental region were calculated and compared by paired T-tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships with age, gender, place of residence, and SES. Results Mean numbers of D and F were low (1.36 respectively 0.27 at all ages. Molars had highest chance for D and M. For the molar region every additional year of age gave significantly lower chance for D and higher chance for M (OR: 0.98 and 1.02 respectively; both p ≤ 0.01. Mean number of M was associated with age (approximately 1.5 in each jaw at 40 years and 6 at 80 years. Females had higher chance for D (OR: 1.34; p ≤ 0.05 and F (OR: 1.69; p ≤ 0.01, and lower chance for M (OR: 0.60; p ≤ 0.01. Urban and rural subjects had similar chance for D; urban subjects had approximately 5 times more chance for F (p ≤ 0.01. SES had no relationship with D and M, however SES low was associated with F (OR: 0.45; p ≤ 0.01. Replacements were significantly associated with age (all dental regions except anterior region, gender (all dental regions, place of residence (whole dentition and molar region, and SES (whole dentition and premolar and molar regions. Conclusions The majority of subjects presented a reduced dentition. Molars were most frequently affected by D and M. D, M, F and replaced teeth were associated with the background variables, however differently for different dental regions. Above the age

  13. Re-emergence of rabies in the Guangxi province of Southern China.

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    Hai-Bo Tang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human rabies cases in the Guangxi province of China decreased from 839 in 1982 to 24 in 1995, but subsequently underwent a sharp increase, and has since maintained a high level.3,040 brain samples from normal dogs and cats were collected from 14 districts of Guangxi and assessed by RT-PCR. The brain samples showed an average rabies virus (RV positivity rate of 3.26%, but reached 4.71% for the period Apr 2002 to Dec 2003. A total of 30 isolates were obtained from normal dogs and 28 isolates from rabid animals by the mouse inoculation test (MIT. Six representative group I and II RV isolates showed an LD50 of 10-5.35/ml to 10-6.19/ml. The reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to group I and II RV isolates from the Guangxi major epidemic showed that eight anti-G MAbs showed strong reactivity with isolates of group I and II with titers of ≥10,000; however, the MAbs 9-6, 13-3 and 12-14 showed lower reactivity. Phylogenetic analysis based on the G gene demonstrated that the Guangxi RV isolates have similar topologies with strong bootstrap values and are closely bonded. Alignment of deduced amino acids revealed that the mature G protein has four substitutions A96S, L132F, N436S, and A447I specific to group I, and 13 substitutions T90M, Y168C, S204G, T249I, P253S, S289T, V332I, Q382H, V427I, L474P, R463K Q486H, and T487N specific to group II, coinciding with the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates.Re-emergence of human rabies has mainly occurred in rural areas of Guangxi since 1996. The human rabies incidence rate increased is related with RV positive rate of normal dogs. The Guangxi isolates tested showed a similar pathogenicity and antigenicity. The results of phylogenetic analysis coincide with that of alignment of deduced amino acids.

  14. Mountain pastures of Qilian Shan: plant communities, grazing impact and degradation status (Gansu province, NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Alina; Schickhoff, Udo; Shunli, Wang; Ming, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Qilian Mountains are the water source region for the low arid reaches of HeiHe river basin (Gansu province, NW China). Due to overstocking and overgrazing during the last decades adverse ecological ef¬fects, in particular on soil properties and hydrological cycle, are to be expected in growing land areas. Vegetation cover is very important to prevent erosion process and to sustain stable subsurface runoff and ground water flow. The aim of this research is to identify plant communities, detecting grazing-induced and spatially differentiated changes in vegetation patterns, and to evaluate status of pasture land degradation.The study area is located in the spring/autumn pasture area of South Qilian Mountains between 2600-3600 m a.s.l., covering five main vegetation types: spruce forest, alpine shrubland, shrubby grassland, mountain grassland, degraded mountain grassland. In order to analyze gradual changes in vegetation patterns along altitudinal and grazing gradients and to classify related plant communities, quantitative and qualitative relevé data were collected (coverage, species composition, abundance of unpalatable plants, plant functional types, etc.). Vegetation was classified using hierarchical cluster analyses. Indirect Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to analyze variation in relationships between vegetation, environmental factors, and grazing impact. According to DCA results, distribution of the plant communities was strongly affected by altitude and exposition. Grassland floristic gradients showed greater dependence on grazing impact, which correlated contrarily with soil organic content, soil moisture and pH. Highest numbers of species richness and alpha diversity were detected in alpine shrubland vegetation type. Comparing the monitoring data for the recent nine years, a trend of deterioration, species successions and shift in dominant species becomes obvious. Species indicating degrading site environmental conditions were identified

  15. Job-housing imbalance and commuting of coastal industrial town in Liaoning province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Lu, Wei; Cai, Jun; Yang, Qiyao

    2017-11-01

    During the Twelve Five period, China promulgated industrial policies promote the energy-intensive industries relocate to coastal areas in order to utilize marine shipping resources. Consequently, some major state-owned steel and petrochemical enterprises have relocated and resulted in a large scale coastal area development. Restricted by the port construction, most of the coastal industrial areas are located in the outer suburbs. To balance between employment and housing, new industrial coastal towns were constructed. In this paper, we adopt a case-study approach to analysis some typical industrial coastal towns of Liaoning Province situated in the Bohai Bay, which is currently under rapid economic growth. Our investigations reflect the common phenomenon of long distance commuting and massive amount of vacant residences. More specifically, large plant relocation caused hundreds of kilometers of daily commute and enterprises had to provide housing subsidies and education incentives to motivate employees to relocate to coastal areas. Nonetheless, many employees still refuse to relocate due to job stability, diverse needs of family members and access to convenient services. These employees averaged 4 hours of commute daily and some who lived further had to reside in temporary industrial housing units and subject to long-term family separation. As a result, only a small portion of employees purchase new coastal residences but mostly for investment and retirement purposes, leading to massive vacancy and ghost-town phenomenon. In contrast to the low demand, coastal areas tend to develop large amount of residences prior to industrial relocation, which may be directly related to local government finances. Some local governments have sold residential land to developers to general revenue to support the subsequent industrial development. Subject to the strong preference of ocean- view, residential housing developers tend to select coast-line land to construct new residential

  16. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang; Liu, Jing [National Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Institute of Energy Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Ren, Deyi [China University of Mining and Technology, 100083 Beijing (China); Zeng, Rongshu [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100029 Beijing (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 East Peabody Drive, 61820 Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The

  17. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  18. Toxocara Seroprevalence among Clinically Healthy Individuals, Pregnant Women and Psychiatric Patients and Associated Risk Factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Yu, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Li, Bing; Qian, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection. Methodology/Principle Findings Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866) was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445) than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431) and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990) was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05–0.08, PToxocara infection. Conclusions/Significance The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential morbidity associated with Toxocara infection. PMID:25101756

  19. The genus Scaphidium Olivier in East China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scaphidiinae

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    Liang Tang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of 21 species of Scaphidium Olivier from East China is presented, including 6 new species: S. jinmingi sp. n. (Zhejiang, Anhui, Chongqing, S. crypticum sp. n.(Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, S. varifasciatum sp. n. (Zhejiang, An’hui, S. robustum sp. n. (Fujian, Guizhou, Chongqing, Guangxi, Yunnan, S. connexum sp. n. (Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, and S. bayibini sp. n. (An’hui. New province records for S. comes Löbl, S. grande Gestro, S. sauteri Miwa & Mitono, S. formosanum Pic, S. carinense Achard, S. sinense Pic, S. delatouchei Achard, S. biwenxuani He, Tang & Li, S. klapperichi Pic, S. stigmatinotum Löbl, S. wuyongxiangi He, Tang & Li, and S. direptum Tang & Li as well as some biological notes are reported. Habitus and diagnostic characters of all species are photographed and a key to Scaphidium species of East China is provided.

  20. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Drought in China: Reconstructed from Historical Memorials Archives during 1689-1911

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinhong; Yan, Denghua; Fu, Guobin; Hao, Lu; Yue, Yaojie; Li, Ruoxi; Li, Yunpeng; Liu, Jiangang; Deng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In China, Zou Zhe (Memorials to the Throne, or Palace Memorials), an official communication to the emperors of China by local officials, offers an opportunity to reconstruct the spatial-temporal distributions of droughts at a high-resolution. A 223-year, 1689–1911, time series of drought events was reconstructed in this study based on 2494 pieces of Zou Zhe. The results show that: 1) on the temporal scale, the drought affected areas, i.e., number of affected counties, showed three peak periods during the last 223 years and nine extreme drought years with more than 300 counties affected have been identified; 2) on the spatial scale, there existed three drought-prone areas in China, i.e., Gansu province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in Northwest China, Shandong, Hebei, and Henan provinces and Tianjin in the North China, and Anhui and Jiangsu provinces in Jianghuai area, respectively; 3) the drought-prone areas have been expanding from North China to South China since the second half of 19th century; 4) on the seasonal scale, summer witnessed the largest number of drought events. Meanwhile, the uncertainties of the results were also discussed, i.e. what caused the spatial-temporal distribution of drought. The results of this study can be used to mitigate the adverse effects of extreme weather events on food increasing and stable production. PMID:26836807

  1. Retrospective seroepidemiology indicated that human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 circulated wildly in central and southern China before large-scale outbreaks from 2008

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    Jiang Xiaohong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large nationwide outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD occurred in China from 2008; most of the cases were in children under 5 years. This study aims to identify the situation of natural human enterovirus 71 (HEV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 infections in children before 2008 in China. Results Retrospective seroepidemiologic studies of HEV71 and CVA16 were performed with 900 serum samples collected from children ≤5 years of age in 2005. The samples were collected from 6 different geographical areas (Anhui, Guangdong, Hunan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, and Heilongjiang provinces in mainland China. Of the 900 samples, 288 were positive for HEV71; the total positive rate was 32.0% and the geometric mean titer (GMT was 1:8.5. Guangdong (43.7% and 1:10.8, Xinjiang (45.4% and 1:11.1, and Yunnan (43.4% and 1:12.0 provinces had relatively high rates of infection, while Heilongjiang province (8.1% and 1:4.9 had the lowest rate of infection. On the other hand, 390 samples were positive for CVA16; the total positive rate was 43.4% and the GMT was 1:9.5. Anhui (62.2% and 1:16.0 and Hunan (61.1% and 1:23.1 had relatively high rates, while Heilongjiang (8.0% and 1:4.6 had the lowest rate. Although there is a geographical difference in HEV71 and CVA16 infections, low neutralizing antibody positive rate and titer of both viruses were found in all 6 provinces. Conclusions This report confirmed that HEV71 and CVA16 had wildly circulated in a couple provinces in China before the large-scale outbreaks from 2008. This finding also suggests that public health measures to control the spread of HEV71 and CVA16 should be devised according to the different regional characteristics.

  2. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in captive non-human primates in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, Southwestern China.

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    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a common human and animal pathogen. It has been increasingly reported in wild and captive non-human primates (NHPs in recent years. However, multilocus genotyping information for G. duodenalis infecting NHPs in southwestern China is limited. In the present study, the prevalence and multilocus genotypes (MLGs of G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in southwestern China were determined. We examined 207 fecal samples from NHPs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and 16 specimens were positive for G. duodenalis. The overall infection rate was 7.7%, and only assemblage B was identified. G. duodenalis was detect positive in northern white-cheeked gibbon (14/36, 38.9%, crab-eating macaque (1/60, 1.7% and rhesus macaques (1/101, 0.9%. Multilocus sequence typing based on beta-giardin (bg, triose phosphate isomerase (tpi and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh revealed nine different assemblage B MLGs (five known genotypes and four novel genotypes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, one potentially zoonotic genotype of MLG SW7 was identified in a northern white-cheeked gibbon. A high degree of genetic diversity within assemblage B was observed in captive northern white-cheeked gibbons in Southwestern China, including a potentially zoonotic genotype, MLG SW7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using a MLGs approach to identify G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in Southwestern China.

  3. Socio-economic factors affecting the success of tuberculosis treatment in six counties of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Gai, R; Wang, X; Liu, Z; Cheng, J; Zhou, C; Liu, J; Zhang, H; Li, H; Tang, W

    2010-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control in rural China is of high priority in health policy making. To investigate treatment success among rural TB patients and the determinants of patient and case management and to explore the current status of DOTS implementation in rural China. A patient-based study was conducted in six counties of Shandong Province, China. Study sites were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Subjects were rural smear-positive pulmonary TB patients registered with the county TB dispensaries at study sites who completed treatment during the period October 2006 to September 2007. This study observed a success rate of 74.5% among 501 participants. The cure rate, of 50.5%, was much lower than the national level. There was a difference in treatment success rates across counties. Factors independently affecting treatment success were patient income, study site, and home visits and supervision by town and village health workers. Enhancing financial resources for TB control and effective involvement of human resources are crucial to achieving success with the DOTS strategy in rural China.

  4. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiong; Cui, Hao; Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Zhijian; Li, Mingsheng; Yu, Nannan; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 841 individuals aged 50 years or above in 28 basic sample units in Shuangcheng City from September to December 2006. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands four hundreds and eighty-one individuals were enumerated and 5 047 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.08%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.72% (87/5 047) and 4.69% (237/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.90% (96/5 047) and 7.23% (365/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2)=674.44, P impairment. The percentage of the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy was 11.31% among the eyes with blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment. Un-corrected refractive error(13.38%) also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment in

  5. [Antimicrobial susceptibility and drug-resistance genes of Yersinia spp. of retailed poultry in 4 provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z X; Zou, M Y; Xu, J; Guan, W Y; Li, Y; Liu, D R; Zhang, S S; Hao, Q; Yan, S F; Wang, W; Yu, D M; Li, F Q

    2018-04-06

    Objective: To monitor the antimicrobial resistance and drug-resistance genes of Yersinia enterocolitis , Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii recovered from retailed fresh poultry of 4 provinces of China. Methods: The susceptibility of 25 isolated Yersinia spp. to 14 classes and 25 kinds of antibiotics was determined by broth microdilution method according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). The antibiotic resistance genes were predicted with antibiotic resistance genes database (ARDB) using whole genome sequences of Yersinia spp. Results: In all 22 Y. enterocolitis tested, 63.7% (14 isolates), 22.8% (5 isolates), 4.6% and 4.6% of 1 isolates exhibited the resistance to cefoxitin, ampicillin-sulbactam, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. All the 25 isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 3 antibiotics, while 64.0% of isolates were resistant to more than 4 antibiotics. A few Y. enterocolitis isolates of this study were intermediate to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Most Yersinia spp. isolates contained antibiotic resistance genes mdtG, ksgA, bacA, blaA, rosAB and acrB , and 5 isolates recovered from fresh chicken also contained dfrA 1, catB 2 and ant 3 ia . Conclusion: The multi-drug resistant Yersinia spp. isolated from retailed fresh poultry is very serious in the 4 provinces of China, and their contained many kinds of drug-resistance genes.

  6. IKONOS Image-Based Extraction of the Distribution Area of Stellera chamaejasme L. in Qilian County of Qinghai Province, China

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    Jingzhong Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stellera chamaejasme L. (S. chamaejasme is one of the primary toxic grass species (poisonous plants distributed in the alpine meadows of Qinghai Province, China. In this study, according to the distinctive phenological characteristics of S. chamaejasme, the spectral differences between S. chamaejasme in the full-bloom stage and other pasture grasses were analyzed and the red, blue, and near-infrared bands of IKONOS image were determined as the diagnostic bands of S. chamaejasme recognition. Feature indexes related to S. chamaejasme were established using the diagnostic bands, and \\(NDVI_{blue} = (\\rho_{nir} − \\rho_{blue}/(\\rho_{nir} + \\rho_{blue}\\ obtained as S. chamaejasme sensitive index based on the linear regression analysis between the indexes derived from field spectra and the actual cover fraction of S. chamaejasme communities. The distribution area of S. chamaejasme was extracted by using the index \\(NDVI_{blue}\\ derived from IKONOS multispectral image in Qilian County of Qinghai Province, China and the verified result reached an overall accuracy of 90.71%. The study indicated that high resolution multispectral satellite images (such as IKONOS images had significant potential in remote sensing recognition of toxic grass species.

  7. Isolation and identification of cultivable lactic acid bacteria in traditional yak milk products of Gansu Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, QiuHua; Liu, WenJun; Yu, Jie; Wang, Weihong; Qing, ManJun; Chen, Xia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhang, Wenyi; Qiao, Jianmin; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Various traditional fermented yak milk and raw milk foods could be considered as an abundant resource for obtaining novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with unique properties. Eighty-eight samples of yak milk products were collected from Gansu Province in China. Three hundred and nineteen strains of LAB isolated from these samples were identified by phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology. Among the isolates, one hundred and sixty-four isolates (51.41% of the total) were classified under Lactobacilli, and one hundred and fifty-five (48.59%) belonged to cocci. All the isolates were classified to six genera (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Weissella) and twenty-one species. Lactobacillus helveticus (87 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (49 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (39 strains), Lactobacillus casei (31 strains) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (19 strains) were considered as the predominant populations in the yak milk products. The results showed that there were abundant genus and species LAB existing in yak milk products in Gansu Province in China. The obtained LAB pure cultures may be a valuable source for further starter selection.

  8. Isolation and full-length genome analysis of mosquito-borne Manzanilla virus from Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun; Fu, Shi-Hong; Yang, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; He, Biao; Tu, Chang-Chun; Liang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Hai-Lin

    2015-06-23

    There have been four strains on Manzanilla virus (MANV) identified to date. Here, we identify a novel MANV strain (DHL10M107) isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles mosquitoes from Ruili city, Dehong prefecture, Yunnan Province, in the People's Republic of China. The DHL10M107 L, M and S genes were sequenced at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid levels. The L, M and S gene sequences of DHL10M107 clustered with the MANV strains VN04-2108, TRVL3587, SA An 4165, and AV 782. DHL10M107 was most closely related to VN04-2108. Nucleotide homology ranged between 96 and 99% between DHL10M107 and VN04-2108. In terms of amino acid homology, all of the amino acid differences were in the L (96.3% homologous) and M (97.7% homologous) fragments. DHL10M107 is likely a MANV isolated from mosquitos in the Yunnan Province. This is the first reported isolation of MANV in mainland China.

  9. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Tan, Dongfei; Geng, Yue; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-12-10

    Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C₄-C 18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture) were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake) from vegetables should be of concern in China.

  10. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment

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    Yanwei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake from vegetables should be of concern in China.

  11. Prevalence of primary infertility in China: in-depth analysis of infertility differentials in three minority province/autonomous regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Larsen, Ulla; Wyshak, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Following the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, there was a shift in emphasis on women's reproductive health and there emerged a need for more knowledge about levels and differentials of infertility. Using the data from the 1988 National Two-Per-Thousand Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception, this paper estimated the prevalence of primary infertility in China. To determine the predictors of primary infertility, multiple logistic regression analyses were done on three minority province/autonomous regions where primary infertility was the highest. A non-contracepting, sexually active woman was considered to have primary infertility if she had not reported a recognized pregnancy after at least seven years of marriage. The analysis shows that the national level of primary infertility was relatively low (1.3%). Primary infertility was higher in Qinghai (2.3%), Tibet (3.7%) and Xinjiang (3.7%) compared with other provinces. Tibetans in Qinghai and Uygurs in Xinjiang had a higher level of primary infertility than the Han Chinese. Ethnic differences remained after adjusting for other background characteristics. Divorced and remarried women had significantly higher odds of primary infertility compared with first-married women in Qinghai and Xinjiang. The elevated level of primary infertility in Qinghai, Tibet and Xinjiang and its disproportionate prevalence among Tibetans and Uygurs highlight the need for further work to understand the causes and social consequences of infertility for the minority population in China.

  12. Complete genomic characterization of two European-genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in Fujian province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Kui; Wei, Chun-Hua; Dai, Ai-Ling; Fan, Ke-Wei; Yang, Bing-Hui; Huang, Chun-Fang; Li, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, resulting in immense economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is divided into two major genotypes, European (type 1) and the North American (type 2). Type 1 PRRSV have recently emerged in Fujian province (South China), and this might have a significant impact on the Chinese pig industry. From 2013 to 2014, two type 1 PRRSV strains, named FJEU13 and FJQEU14, were isolated from piglets and sows with respiratory problems and reproductive disorders in Fujian province. The full genome length of the two isolates was 14,869-15,062 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(A) tail. These isolates shared 86.0-89.9% sequence identity with the prototypic strains Lelystad virus (LV) and 82.8-92% with Chinese type 1 PRRSV strains, but only 59.9-60.1% with the North American reference strain VR-2332. However, they were 82.9% identical to each other. Nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) and ORF3-ORF5 were the most variable regions when compared to other type 1 PRRSV strains. Nsp2 and ORF3 contained multiple discontinuous deletions and a 204-bp deletion in NSP2 in isolate FJQEU14, which has never been described in other Chinese type 1 PRRSV strains. All of these results might be useful for understanding the epidemic status of type 1 PRRSV in China.

  13. [Risk factors for anemia in infants aged 6-12 months from rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ren-Fu; Liang, Xia; Liu, Cheng-Fang; Zhang, Lin-Xiu; Yue, Ai

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of anemia and related risk factors in infants aged 6-12 months from rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province. A questionnaire survey was used to collect the basic information on infants aged 6-12 months and their families from rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. The content of hemoglobin was measured in these infants. A multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for the development of anemia in infants. A total of 1 802 infants and their families participated in the survey, and there were 1 770 valid samples. A total of 865 infants (865/1 770, 48.87%) were found to have anemia. The multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that breastfeeding after birth (lack of scientific supplementary food) increased the risk of anemia in infants (OR=1.768, Panemia in infants. In the rural areas in southern Shaanxi Province, anemia in infants aged 6-12 months is still a serious public health problem. Improper feeding can increase the risk of anemia in infants, and scientific addition of supplementary food is the key to reducing anemia in infants.

  14. Current halogenated flame retardant concentrations in serum from residents of Shandong Province, China, and temporal changes in the concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yulong; Li, Peng; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qinghua

    2017-05-01

    The residents of Shandong Province, China, are exposed to high concentrations of halogenated flame retardants because large amounts of halogenated flame retardants are produced in the province. We determined the concentrations of eight polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs), seven novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and the two dechlorane plus isomers (DPs) in serum from residents of Shandong Province. The aim was to identify temporal trends in the concentrations of these pollutants. The mean total concentrations of PBDEs, NBFRs and DPs were 41, 2.2 and 2.1ng/g lipid in pooled serum samples collected in 2014, and were 32, 3.5 and 3.1ng/g lipid in pooled serum samples collected in 2015, respectively. Decabromodiphenyl ether was the dominant PBDE congener in all of the samples. The novel brominated flame retardant and dechlorane plus concentrations were between one and two orders of magnitude lower than the PBDE concentrations. The PBDE concentrations in serum decreased significantly between 2007 and 2015, but the pentabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and dechlorane plus concentrations were relatively stable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. First report of sauropod tracks from the Upper Jurassic Tianchihe Formation of Guxian County, Shanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Liu, Yong-Qing; Kuang, Hong-Wei; Peng, Nan; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xue, Pei-Lin; Jia, Lei

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the first report of sauropod tracks from the Upper Jurassic of Shanxi Province, China. Dinosaur tracks appear concentrated in five trackways, in different stratigraphic levels of the Late Jurassic Tianchihe Formation. Tracks are dominantly small and medium-size sauropod tracks and are tentatively assigned to Brontopodus based on preserved track morphology, trackway pattern and statistical analysis. The Tianchihe Formation in which the tracks appear shows a gradual change from meandering fluvial to sandy braided fluvial depositional systems developed in a seasonally arid environment. Comparisons of the evaluated speed of bipedal to quadruped trackways indicate that the slower walk more easily produces pes-dominated overprints. Trackways in the Guxian tracksite appear following different orientations, suggesting that these trackways were produced by different sauropods at different times. An unusual trackway following a curved pattern has been identified in the site and could represent a special locomotion character or a social behavior. The presence of eolian deposits in central Shanxi Province could have acted as a paleogeographic and paleoenvironmental barrier for the dispersion of the Yanliao Biota that survived in northern Hebei-western Liaoning and northestern Shanxi Province to the Ordos Basin during the Late Jurassic.

  16. Special Report on China and Chinese Provinces. Policy and Regulatory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, A.; Hinostroza Parades, J.A.; O' Leary, M.; Owen, G. (ed.); Lemaire, X. (ed.) [Sustainable Energy Regulation Network SERN, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    This review outlines the legislation and policies and roles of institutions involved in sustainable energy (renewable energy and energy efficiency) in China at Central and Provincial Government level.

  17. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  18. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Weizhe; Liu, Aiqin; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Yang, Fengkun; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-01

    Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825) and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16). Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  19. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population