WorldWideScience

Sample records for angus-sired beef cattle

  1. Effect of residual feed intake on hypothalamic gene expression and meat quality in Angus-sired cattle grown during the hot season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Marvin, M N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between heat stress, meat quality, and residual feed intake (RFI) is unknown in growing steers. To address this issue, high RFI (HRFI) and low RFI (LRFI) individuals were compared by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70-d feeding trial conducted during July through September to identify steers with calculated RFI at least 2 SD apart. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded every 14 d. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI and HRFI) as the independent variable. The least square means for RFI were -1.2 and 0.99 kg DMI/d, respectively, for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P grade (P meat quality. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti related protein (AGRP), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 3 receptor, and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) mRNA were expressed 280, 185, 202, 183, and 163% greater, respectively (P < 0.01), while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was expressed 42% lower in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.05). Hypothalamic GnRH mRNA expression was 67% lower while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) mRNA was 209% higher in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.01). Pituitary expression of FSHβ and LHβ correlated to hypothalamic GnRH levels (P < 0.05) indicating changes in gene expression within the hypothalamus had functional consequences. Leptin mRNA expression levels were not different between adipose tissue of LRFI or HRFI steers (P < 0.84). These data indicate that animals with superior RFI evaluated during warm conditions have higher expression of orexigenic neuropeptide genes independent of the expression of adipose-derived leptin. Furthermore, the gonadotropin axis may

  2. Residual feed intake studies in Angus-sired cattle reveal a potential role for hypothalamic gene expression in regulating feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying variation in residual feed intake (RFI), a heritable feed efficiency measure, are poorly understood while the relationship between RFI and meat quality is uncertain. To address these issues, 2 divergent cohorts consisting of High (HRFI) and Low (LRFI) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70 d feeding trial to identify steers with divergent RFI. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded at 14 d intervals. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI, HRFI) as the independent variable. The least-square means (lsmeans) for RFI were -1.25 and 1.51 for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P grade (P meat quality. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and GnRH mRNA expression was 64%, 59%, 58%, 86% lower (P < 0.05), respectively, while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression was 198% and 350% higher (P < 0.01) in the arcuate nucleus of LRFI steers. Expression of agouti-related protein (AGRP), relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), and melanocortin 3 receptor mRNA was similar between LRFI and HRFI animals. Pituitary expression of FSHβ (P < 0.03) and LHβ (P < 0.01) was correlated to hypothalamic GnRH levels suggesting that changes in gene expression within the arcuate nucleus had functional consequences. Leptin mRNA expression was 245% higher in the adipose tissue of LRFI steers consistent with lower levels of NPY and higher expression of POMC in their hypothalami. These data support the hypothesis that differences in hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression underlie variation in feed

  3. Hydrogen and methane emissions from beef cattle and their rumen microbial community vary with diet, time after feeding and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, John A; Wallace, R John; Duthie, Carol-Anne; McKain, Nest; de Souza, Shirley Motta; Hyslop, Jimmy J; Ross, David W; Waterhouse, Tony; Roehe, Rainer

    2014-08-14

    The aims of the present study were to quantify hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) emissions from beef cattle under different dietary conditions and to assess how cattle genotype and rumen microbial community affected these emissions. A total of thirty-six Aberdeen Angus-sired (AAx) and thirty-six Limousin-sired (LIMx) steers were fed two diets with forage:concentrate ratios (DM basis) of either 8:92 (concentrate) or 52:48 (mixed). Each diet was fed to eighteen animals of each genotype. Methane (CH4) and H2 emissions were measured individually in indirect respiration chambers. H2 emissions (mmol/min) varied greatly throughout the day, being highest after feed consumption, and averaged about 0·10 mol H2/mol CH4. Higher H2 emissions (mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet. Higher CH4 emissions (mol/d and mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet (Pbeef cattle. PMID:24780126

  4. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Dyer; Darrel Cerkowniak; Dominique Maxime; Xavier P.C. Vergé; Devon E. Worth; Raymond L. Desjardins

    2012-01-01

    The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO 2 e per kg of live weight (LW) depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of...

  5. Comparisons among Tuli-, Brahman-, and Angus-sired heifers: intake, digesta kinetics, and grazing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, T D; Rouquette, F M; Holloway, J W

    1998-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of Tuli crossbred cattle, forage intake, digesta kinetics, and grazing behavior were estimated in two Texas environments. In humid east Texas, Tuli x Brahman heifers were compared with purebred Angus and Brahman and Angus x Brahman heifers. Fecal output, forage intake, compartmental mass, and compartmental residence time did not differ among breeds. Angus and Brahman heifers had different (P x Brahman or Angus x Brahman heifers. Angus heifers had shorter (P x Brahman (552+/-16.8 min/d and 10+/-.4), Angus x Brahman (507+/-18.4 min/d and 9+/-.5), and Brahman (560-/+ 16.8 min/d and 9+/-.4, respectively) heifers. In semiarid southwest Texas, Tuli x Angus heifers were compared with purebred Angus and Brahman and Brahman x Angus heifers. Fecal output and forage intake were similar in Tuli x Angus and Brahman x Angus heifers (14.2+/-.69 and 14.9+/-.91 g fecal DM/ [d.kg BW] and 24.5+/-1.33 and 25.6+/-1.75 g/d of forage DMI, respectively) but higher (P Brahman heifers (12.2+/-.64 and 20.3+/-1.23 g/[d.kg BW] of fecal DM and forage DMI, respectively). Grazing times did not differ among breeds. We conclude that Tuli-sired heifers are likely to be as productive as Brahman crossbred heifers in Texas, based on the similarities in intake, digesta dynamics, and grazing behavior. PMID:9464902

  6. Pedigree analysis of Italian beef cattle breeds.

    OpenAIRE

    O. Franci; Forabosco, F.; F. Sirtori; Bozzi, R.

    2003-01-01

    Trend in inbreeding is the most frequently used method to quantify the rate of genetic drift but, as pointed out by Maignel et al. (1996), it relies on some assumption that could be not fully satisfied in cattle populations. In fact, trend in inbreeding is very sensitive to the quality of the available pedigree information and some beef cattle populations might have a large amount of missing information. An alternative way to quantify the genetic drift is to utilise the method based on probab...

  7. Range Beef Cattle Productivity in Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Mouslim A.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-six range beef cattle ranches in southern Utah were surveyed by personal interview to obtain production data. The data were used to characterize the level of production efficiency in terms of calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight, and net weaning weight in these operations; and to identify factors associated with differences in productivity. The data revealed that productive efficiency was generally lower than the potential. Mean calving rate of cows exposed for breeding was...

  8. Economic context of beef cattle herd

    OpenAIRE

    Svitáková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the theses was to evaluate the costs and revenues of a particular beef cattle herd (KBTPM) and to estimate their changes when changing production indicators. Basic economic indicators (feed costs, depreciation of fixed assets, depreciation of cows, labor costs, sales, etc.) were evaluated in relation to changes in production parameters (reduction of the herd replacement by 5%, increase in body weight gain for calves 100g per day, an increase of price for kg body weight of calves...

  9. Repeated gentle handling in beef cattle: heart rate and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Westerath, Heike; Probst, Johanna; Gygox, Lorenz; Hillmann, Edna

    2010-01-01

    A good animal-human relationship is one important aspect concerning cattle welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gentle handling at head and neck on behaviour and heart beat parameters in beef cattle.

  10. Role of beef cattle breeding in landscape protection

    OpenAIRE

    Touš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cattle breeding hasn’t a long tradition in the Czech Republic as almost all of the beef cattle were imported to the foothills and mountain areas in 1990’s. The beef cattle aren‘t kept for milk and therefore their breeding can be realized as an extensive breeding in connection with permanent grassland – pastures – in less favourable or protected areas. The cattle are not only used for animal produce but also for maintaining the landscape and ecological stability. The advantage of beef cattl...

  11. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE LAW OF CATTLE AND BEEF TRACEABILITY IN MARKETING CHANNELS ON THE DOMESTIC HANWOO BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Sanggon; Lee, Jungmin; Chai, Sanghyen; Lee, Hyungwoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability in marketing channels on the domestic Hanwoo beef industry. The Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability might affect the demand and supply of Hanwoo beef. After introducing the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability into the marketing channels, the price of Hanwoo beef has increased a lot in the Korean beef market. Domestically produced Hanwoo beef has a price premium compared with the imported b...

  12. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  13. Genetic improvement of beef cattle in the United States: cattle, people and their interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willham, R L

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this essay is to develop a historic perspective of the beef cattle population and the legion of people directing its genetic change so that future leadership can increase the rate of breeding technology assimilation. Use of cattle for beef to feed millions is relatively recent. The beef industry of the United States has a rich, romantic heritage that combined Spanish exploitation with British tradition. Spanish cattle became adapted as the Texas longhorn and the European cattle became indigenous. Breeds developed in Britain replaced both. The Zebu was introduced to produce cattle adapted to the Gulf Coast. Selection for early maturity in the British breeds promoted by livestock shows was ended by the dwarf gene. The Charolais breed demonstrated growth potential. Then in 1967, Continental European breeds were imported, given an array of biological types from which to select. Beef cattle breeding research expanded after the second world war through the three regional projects. Performance Registry International was the focal point for performance. The Beef Improvement Federation produced guidelines for recording beef performance including those for national sire evaluation. U.S. Meat Animal Research Center evaluated the several newly introduced breeds. To date, breeding researchers have developed breeding technology for the use by breeder. The major breed association are keeping and utilizing performance records. The genetic structure of the beef breeds is being altered by the use of AI such that genetic change can be made rapidly by the use of superior sires evaluated on their progeny in many herds. PMID:7085522

  14. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  15. Sequencing and Characterization of Divergent Marbling Levels in the Beef Cattle (Longissimus dorsi Muscle) Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Dong CHEN; Li, Wufeng; Du, Min; Wu, Meng; Cao, Binghai

    2015-01-01

    Marbling is an important trait regarding the quality of beef. Analysis of beef cattle transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extend the genetic information resources and would support further studies on beef cattle. RNA sequencing was performed in beef cattle using the Illumina High-Seq2000 platform. Approximately 251.58 million clean reads were generated from a high marbling (H) group and low marbling (L) group. Approximately 80.12% of the 19,994 bovine genes (protein...

  16. Nutritional and dietary interrelationships with diseases of grazing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikse, S E; Craig, T M; Hutcheson, D P

    1991-03-01

    This article describes current methods of controlling acute bovine pulmonary emphysema (ABPEE) and edema, lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes, and bloat in grazing beef cattle. Success in handling outbreaks of these conditions and in their prevention depends on an understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis. Supplementation with ionophore antibiotics is effective in prevention of ABPEE and bloat and may also prevent other diseases of cattle that graze lush pastures. PMID:1828709

  17. DRY NONHEATED ANAEROBIC BIOGAS FERMENTATION USING AGED BEEF CATTLE MANURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogas production at beef cattle feedlots is hard to justify because of the large amounts of dilution water required and the high cost to design and operate conventional water-based digestion systems. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of producing biogas us...

  18. The U.S. beef cattle industry: The carbon footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    This was an invited 20 minute oral presentation concerning the carbon footprint of the U.S. beef cattle industry. The audience at the workshop (about 30 people) included university professors and graduate students from agriculture and enviornmental sciences. The presentation included a brief revie...

  19. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  20. Soil nutrients, bacterial communities, and veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle backgrounding confinement on karst environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States hosts the world’s largest grain fed beef production. Commercial beef production in the US consists of three tiers that include: cow-calf enterprises, cattle backgrounding/stockering, and feedlot finishing. Beef cattle backgrounding/stockering represents an intermediate between the ...

  1. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma Diwyanto; Atien Priyanti

    2008-01-01

    Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that i...

  2. Alternative programs for synchronizing and resynchronizing ovulation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bó, Gabriel A; de la Mata, José Javier; Baruselli, Pietro S; Menchaca, Alejo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) has been regarded as the most useful method to increase the number of cows inseminated in a given herd. The main treatments for FTAI in beef cattle are based on the use of progesterone-releasing devices and GnRH or estradiol to synchronize follicle wave emergence, with a mean pregnancy per AI (P/AI) around 50%. However, more recent protocols based on GnRH (named 5-day Co-Synch) or estradiol (named J-Synch) that reduce the period of progesterone device insertion and extend the period from device removal to FTAI have been reported to improve P/AI in beef cattle. Furthermore, treatments to resynchronize ovulation for a second FTAI in nonpregnant cows have provided the opportunity to do sequential inseminations and achieve high P/AI in a breeding season, reducing or even eliminating the need for clean-up bulls. In summary, FTAI protocols have facilitated the widespread application of AI in beef cattle, primarily by eliminating the necessity of estrus detection in beef herds. PMID:27180326

  3. PROFIT ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL BEEF CATTLE FARM IN MINAHASA REGENCY, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sahrun DALIE; Erwin WANTASEN; Selvie, D. ANIS; Stevie. P. PANGEMANAN

    2016-01-01

    A traditional beef cattle farm agribusiness needs the development in farmer’s way of thinking, from production for family or market need, to production for higher profit, and this could be achieved by adapting the economic principles. The objective of this study was to find out business information for profitable business. This study was carried out on beef cattle farmers group in Kanonang III Village, Kawangkoan District, Minahasa Regency. Results showed that raising 10 beef cattles resulted...

  4. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  5. Genomics and the global beef cattle industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    After two decades of developing DNA-based tools for selection, we are at an interesting juncture. Genomic technology has essentially eliminated the potentially large negative impact of spontaneous single mutation genetic defects as the management of recent examples of beef defects has demonstrated....

  6. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223

  7. Evaluation of mycotoxins contamination in intensive beef cattle production system

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ronchi; P. P. Danieli; U. Bernabucci; A. Sabatini

    2010-01-01

    Feed samples from 15 intensive beef cattle farms located in Northern Italy (provinces of Verona and Mantova) were checked for mycotoxin contamination [aflatoxins (AF), fumonisins (FB), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenol (ZEN)]. Total mixed rations (TMR) resulted positive for AF and FB contamination. Among feedstuffs corn and corn gluten feed were the only responsible of TMR contamination. Level of contamination was positively related to corn moisture content.

  8. Soybean silage in the diet for beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo Sampaio Rigueira; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Karina Guimarães Ribeiro; Rasmo Garcia; Andreia Santos Cezário

    2015-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of molasses with or without microbial additive on soybean silage regarding the intake, digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four treatments (diets with soybean silage (SS), SS with microbial inoculant, SS with molasses and SS with microbial inoculant and molasses) and seven replications. Animal were feedlot fed for 99 days. Diets contained forage: concentrate ratio of 70:30, the forage...

  9. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  10. Labour in Swedish intensive beef cattle production

    OpenAIRE

    Bostad, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Red veal and young bull production are the two main intensive beef finishing systems in Sweden and utilise practically all male calves from the dairy and suckler cow herds. This thesis examined labour input and physical working conditions in the two systems in order to identify factors influencing these parameters. Data collection was mainly based on questionnaires, complemented by observations and interviews on farm visits, and related to the most common work tasks performed during diffe...

  11. Polymorphisms in calpastatin and mu-calpain genes are associated with beef iron content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Duan, Q; Schneider, M J; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Reecy, J M

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers in the calpastatin and mu-calpain loci with iron in beef cattle muscle. The population consisted of 259 cross-bred steers from Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford and Angus sires. Total iron and heme iron concentrations were measured. Markers in the calpastatin (referred to as CAST) and mu-calpain (referred to as CAPN4751) genes were used to assess their association with iron levels. The mean and standard error for iron and heme iron content in the population was 35.6 ± 1.3 μg and 27.1 ± 1.4 μg respectively. Significant associations (P < 0.01) of markers were observed for both iron and heme iron content. For CAST, animals with the CC genotype had higher levels of iron and heme iron in longissimus dorsi muscle. For CAPN4751, individuals with the TT genotype had higher concentrations of iron and heme iron than did animals with the CC and CT genotypes. Genotypes known to be associated with tougher meat were associated with higher levels of iron concentration. PMID:24303986

  12. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams Brahman calves from Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( Brahman cattle than in three-fourths Angus cattle. Additionally, several differences were observed in i.m. adipose tissue that were

  13. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlquist, Åsa K

    2013-01-01

    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

  14. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    J P.F. Arthur; Herd, R M

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  15. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  16. Hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary bacterial infection in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiuyuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves. Case presentation From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle.

  17. Occurrence of ectoparasiticides in Australian beef cattle feedlot wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 6 ectoparasiticides – 2 synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin) and 4 macrocyclic lactones (abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and eprinomectin) in biosolids. The method was used to investigate the occurrence of these ectoparasiticides in beef cattle feedlot wastes in Australia from 5 commercial feedlot operations which employ varying waste management practices. Deltamethrin and cypermethrin were not detected in any of the samples while abamectin, ivermectin, doramectin and eprinomectin were detected in some of the samples with concentrations ranging from 1 to 36 μg/kg dry weight (d.w.) freeze dried feedlot waste. Levels of macrocyclic lactones detected in the feedlot wastes varied and were dependent on sample type. The effect of seasonal variations and waste management practices were also investigated in this study. -- Highlights: ► A method by LC-MS/MS was developed for a small scale survey of 6 ectoparasiticides in cattle feedlot wastes. ► Pyrethroids were not detected in feedlot samples. ► Macrocyclic lactones were detected in the concentration range 1–36 μg/kg d.w. ► Concentrations varied and were dependent on type of sample. -- The first reported study on concentrations of ectoparasiticides in waste from Australian beef cattle feedlot operations

  18. Characteristics of Fluid Composition of Left Displaced Abomasum in Beef Cattle Fed High-Starch Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; KIKUCHI, Tomoko; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid. PMID:24813464

  19. Comparison of two- and three-way rotational crossing, beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss composite breed production: postweaning growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, J J; Pahnish, O F; Knapp, B W; Reynolds, W L; Milmine, W L

    1989-10-01

    Data collected from steer and bull progeny, fed to a constant final feedlot weight over 11 yr, were used to estimate heterosis in post-weaning feedlot growth and carcass traits in two-way and three-way rotational crossing systems and a breed composite from crossing Hereford, Angus and Charolais breeds. Steer and bull progeny from matings of beef x Brown Swiss-cross sires and dams also were compared with the straight beef breeds and beef crosses. Growth traits evaluated were initial weight on test, 112-d weight, total feedlot average daily gain and total days from initial to final weight. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, yield grade and marbling score. Heterosis estimates for calves of all crossing systems were significant for initial and 112-d weight and for saving of days in the feedlot, but not for average daily feedlot gain. Heterosis estimates were small and nonsignificant for most carcass traits except for fat traits in specific crosses. Males from Hereford and Angus sires mated to Angus x Hereford dams had higher (P less than .10) backfat than did the parental average. Male progeny from Charolais ranked higher (P less than .10 to P less than .01) than calves from Hereford and Angus sires for most growth traits. Progeny from Charolais sires were more desirable (P less than .10 to P less than .01) for traits related to cutability, but they had less (P less than .05 to P less than .01) marbling than calves of Angus sires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2808166

  20. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. PMID:27140297

  1. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  2. U.S. BEEF AND CATTLE IMPORTS AND EXPORTS: DATA ISSUES AND IMPACTS ON CATTLE PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M.

    1999-01-01

    U.S. participation in trade liberalization agreements with Canada and Mexico through the Canada–U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CFTA) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has generated intense debates in agricultural sectors about the benefits and costs of those agreements. The CFTA and NAFTA mandate that live cattle and beef trade among Canada, Mexico, and the United States be based upon competitive factors and include legal safeguards to deal with arbitrary trade restrictions. Nom...

  3. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  4. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farm household consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts were purposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namely Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated by Two Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneously significant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investment with the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. The simulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service per conception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising of price of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and price of beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and 5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concluded that the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farm household consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor and price significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  5. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; McFadin, E L; MacNeil, M D; Grings, E E; Short, R E; Funston, R N; Keisler, D H

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict carcass composition and merit in feedlot finished cattle. Two different groups of crossbred Bos taurus steers and heifers were managed under feedlot conditions near Miles City, MT. The first group consisted of 88 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise composite gene combination steers (CGC) harvested at the ConAgra processing facility in Greeley, CO. The second group (Lean Beef Project; LB) consisted of 91 F2 steers and heifers born to Limousin, Hereford, or Piedmontese by CGC F1 cows crossed to F1 bulls of similar breed composition and harvested at a local processing facility in Miles City, MT. Blood samples were collected approximately 24 h before harvest (CGC) or approximately 3 d before and at harvest (LB). No differences in serum concentrations of leptin were detected (P > 0.10) between Hereford, Limousin, or Piedmontese F2 calves nor between LB steers and heifers. Positive correlations (P grade (r = 0.36 and 0.49) in CGC and LB cattle, respectively. Serum leptin was also positively correlated with calculated yield grade for CGC steers (r = 0. 19; P = 0. 10) and LB cattle (r = 0.52; P 0.10). However, a negative correlation existed between longissimus area and serum leptin in the LB cattle (r = -0.45; P grade in both groups of cattle studied and may provide an additional indicator of fat content in feedlot cattle. PMID:12597366

  6. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 ± 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 ± 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 ± 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 ± 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 ± 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 ± 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues. PMID:26662353

  7. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef. PMID:15080342

  8. Sorption, Leaching, and Surface Runoff of Beef Cattle Veterinary Pharmaceuticals under Simulated Irrigated Pasture Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Inna E.; Bair, Daniel A.; Kenneth W Tate; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle has led to concerns associated with the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Despite the potential negative consequences, data on the transport and mitigation of pharmaceuticals in grazed watersheds with irrigated pasture are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the transport of common beef cattle pharmaceuticals (i.e., oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, ivermectin) vi...

  9. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Seiki; Sukegawa, Shin; Yoshioka, Sachiyo; Takahagi, Youichi; MORITA, Mitsuo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Fujita, Tatsuo; Miyake, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background: Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN) gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression difference in m...

  10. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita Tatsuo; Morimatsu Fumiki; Murakami Hiroshi; Morita Mitsuo; Takahagi Youichi; Yoshioka Sachiyo; Sukegawa Shin; Sasaki Seiki; Yamada Takahisa; Miyake Takeshi; Sasaki Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN) gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression differe...

  11. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  12. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  13. Association of selenocysteine transfer RNA fragments with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to identify transfer RNA fragments (tRFs) associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected...

  14. Epidemiological study on gastrointestinal parasites of beef cattle in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epidemiological study on gastrointestinal parasites of beef cattle was carried out over a period of two years. Thirty-nine chemical 'tracers' and eight permanent 'tracers' were necropsied. The most important parasites found were Cooperia spp., Ostertagia spp., Trichostrongylus axei, Oesophagostomum radiatum and Haemonchus placei. Clinical signs of parasitism were seen and some animals died. The burdens of parasitic genera fluctuated throughout the year and hypobiotic EL4 larvae were found from July to December, with a peak during springtime (August to November). The availability of L3 larvae on pastures was low during summer. Two year old animals developed a strong resistance to infection with Cooperia spp. and T. axei. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taponen Juhani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL were rejected (20.7% while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg. Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130. The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d. Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable.

  16. Prognostic Judgment at Post-Surgery by Biochemical Parameters in Beef Cattle with Left Displaced Abomasum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; TAGUCHI, Kiyoshi; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We examined whether the postoperative prognosis of beef cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA) can be estimated from changes in laboratory parameters. Preoperatively, beef cattle with LDA showed increases in plasma glucose with decreased serum insulin in the glucose tolerance test compared to non-LDA cattle. Postoperatively, the cattle with LDA were retrospectively divided into two groups, good and bad prognoses. Although plasma glucose concentrations significantly increased either pre- or postoperatively, no difference was noted between the good and bad prognosis groups. Serum insulin concentrations in the bad prognosis group significantly decreased, compared to those in the good prognosis group. These findings suggest that beef cattle with LDA elicit disturbed glucose metabolite pre- and postoperatively, and serum insulin levels may predict their prognoses after surgery. PMID:24998331

  17. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

  18. Prediction of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrabb, G.J.; Hunter, R.A. [CSIRO, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Agriculture

    1999-07-01

    The northern beef cattle herd accounts for more than half of Australia's beef cattle population, and is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions for Australia. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory predictions of methane output from Australian beef cattle are based on a predictive equation developed for British breeds of sheep and cattle offered temperate forage-based diets. However, tropical forage diets offered to cattle in northern Australia differ markedly from temperate forage-based diets used in the United Kingdom to develop the predictive equations. The paper reviews recent respiration chamber measurements of daily methane production for Brahman cattle offered a tropical forage or high grain diet, and compares them with values predicted using methodologies of the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It is concluded that a reliable inventory of methane emissions for cattle in northern Australia can only be achieved after a wider range of tropical forage species has been investigated. Some opportunities for reducing methane emissions of beef cattle by dietary manipulation are discussed.

  19. Beta-adrenergic agonists as additive in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vedovatto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The agonists receptor beta-adrenergic (β-AA are present in virtually all types of mammalian cells and are stimulated by catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine produced by the organism itself. The β-AA agonists are synthetic substances with similar structure to these amines. When provided in the diet they alter the body composition of animals, affecting the distribution of nutrients toward to protein deposition, and decreasing lipogenesis. Although the mechanisms of action are not fully understood, these may cause morphological and physiological changes such as increased blood flow decrease in plasma insulin, decreased lipogenesis, and muscle hypertrophy mainly in type II fibers. We also observed changes in motility and secretions grastointestinal tract, beyond the direct influence on the rumen bacteria, altering the digestibility of the diet. The β-AA agonists released in some countries for use in beef cattle are ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride. According to literature data, the inclusion of these additives in the diet of feedlot cattle has been associated with an increase infeed efficiency with the increase in daily weight gain and with equal or lower feed intake. Carcass characteristics improvement was verified in carcass weight, and increased loin eye area, but with the possibility to decrease the subcutaneous fat thickness and marbling. Reviews in sensory panel of meat from animals consuming β-AA agonists showed decreased tenderness and juiciness. Thus β-AA improve performance and carcass characteristics, but more studies are needed to confirm whether they have negative influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the meat.

  20. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  1. Pass-Through in United States Beef Cattle Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Zhao; Xiaodong Du; Hennessy, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Feeder cattle are fattened to become fed live cattle six months later. The U.S. feeder cattle industry is intensively competitive, so that market efficiency suggests feeder cattle prices should fully reflect feed prices and information on future fed cattle prices. Employing a long time series (1979-2004) of feeder cattle futures, live cattle futures, and local corn prices, we test whether complete pass-through occurs. The results indicate that an increase of a dollar per hundred pounds in the...

  2. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI. PMID:10090564

  3. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. F.; Sun, F. F.; Wan, F. C.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (pfermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  4. Animal-to-animal variation in fecal microbial diversity among beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; Desantis, Todd Z; Harhay, Dayna M; Andersen, Gary L; Keen, James E; Laegreid, William W; Clawson, Michael L

    2010-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine taxa are identified. PMID:20472731

  5. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR MANDATORY LABELING OF BEEF FROM CATTLE ADMINISTERED GROWTH HORMONES OR FED GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Jayson L.; Fox, John A.

    2002-01-01

    This study estimates the value of policies that would mandate labeling of beef from cattle produced with growth hormones or fed genetically modified corn. At no cost, 85 percent of resondents desired mandatory labeling of beef produced with growth hormones and 64 percent of respondents preferred mandatory labeling of beef fed genetically modified corn. Estimates suggest that consumers would be willing to pay 17.0 percent and 10.6 percent higher prices for beef on average to obtain information...

  6. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Heriberto Fernández; Marianne Hitschfeld

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.Foi estabelecida a prevalência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos, em bovinos de corte e de leite do sul do Chile. Campylobacter foi estatisticamente mais prevalent...

  7. Genetic selection strategies to improve longevity in Chianina beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piter Bijma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity in beef cattle is an important economic trait. Including this trait in a breeding scheme increases profit and has a positive impact on the well-being and welfare of the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the conse- quences of alternative selection strategies to include longevity in different breeding schemes using deterministic simula- tion. Different schemes were compared and economic (EcW and empirical weights (EmW were used to evaluate the responses. The empirical weights of average daily gain (ADG and muscularity (MU were identical because both traits have an identical importance for the breeders. Economic weights have been derived from profit equations. Traits used in the Basescenarios were: average daily gain pre-performance test (ADG1, average daily gain during the performance test (ADG2 and muscularity (MU; longevity (L was included in the alternative schemes. When longevity was included both in the breeding index and in the breeding goal (scenario A-2, the total longevity response using EmW and EcW was +2.97 d/yr and +4.92 d/yr, respectively. The total economic response for scenario A-2 using EmW and EcW were 3.020 €/yr and 3.342 €/yr, respectively, and the total response in units of Bull Selection Index were +0.699 and +0.678, respectively. Longevity decreased when it was not included in either the breeding goal or in the breeding index (scenario Base, and economic response was the lowest found. The results of the current study indicate that the highest total response using either economic weights or empirical weights was found when information on longevity was included both in the breeding index and in the breeding goal (scenario A-2.

  8. Economic and environmental indicators of Mertolenga beef cattle and Serpentina goat farms in Montado areas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís; Rosado, Maria; Marques, Fernando; Cachatra, António; Pais, José; Henriques, Nuno; Gomes, Patrícia; Agostinho, Fábio; Horta, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Economic and environmental indicators of Mertolenga beef cattle and Serpentina goat farms in Montado areas L Fernandes, M Rosado, F Marques, A Cachatra, J Pais, N Henriques, P Gomes, F Agostinho and P Horta The present study is based upon technical and economic data collected, in the years 2010-2011, in several farms joining the ACBM (Mertolengos Cattle Breeders) and APCRS (Serpentina Goats Breeders) associations. It considers data sets collected at four farms of each of the ab...

  9. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    Igino Andrighetto; Giulio Cozzi; Barbara Contiero; Marta Brscic; Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1) Housing systems and facilities; 2) Health and cleanlines...

  10. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Rini; C Sumantri; A. Anggraeni

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...

  11. The Virginia Beef Cattle Simulation Model: A bio-economic simulation program modeling the interactions among reproduction, forage availability, nutrition, growth, and marketing in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Schick, James Henry

    1999-01-01

    The Virginia Beef Cattle Simulation Model (VBCSM) is a user-friendly, dynamic, stochastic computer program whose objective is to serve as a decision-aid for Virginia cattlemen dealing with complex management issues such as whether to retain weaned calves through the stocker growth stage. Its five source-code modules are reproduction, forage, nutrition, marketing, and a tool that randomly assigns values to variables from appropriate statistical distributions. The VBCSM contains production stat...

  12. Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the southern great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate variability and periodic drought is a defining characteristic of the Southern Great Plains. Beef cattle production, based on a variety of crop, pasture, and native rangeland forages, is the most important economic commodity in this region and dominates the agricultural landscape. Press cov...

  13. Runoff, erosion, and size distribution of sediment from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size distribution of sediment affects erosion rates, settling velocity, and the transport of chemical constituents. Little information is currently available concerning the size distribution of materials transported in runoff from beef cattle feedlots. The objectives of this study were to: a) me...

  14. Soil nutrient dynamics in small beef cattle backgrounding feedlot on karst environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle backgrounding feedlot systems that grow out weaned calves for feedlot finishing can become potential diffuse sources of manure derived soil nutrients. Better understanding of these nutrient concentrations and their distribution will aid in development of effective nutrient management gui...

  15. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Rini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows; as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows, Limousin (14 cows, Brahman (5 cows, and Angus (5 cows. This study used PCR-RFLP method by using HaeIII restriction enzyme. The enzyme cut the GHRH gene at nucleotides of GG|CC at the base positions of 118, 312, and 406 and produced 4 fragments of 118, 194, 94, and 45 bp respectively. Genotyping the GHRH gene produced two types of allele, namely A (312, 94, and 45 bp and B (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotype, namely AA (312, 94, and 45 bp, AB (312, 194, 118, 94, and 45 bp, and BB (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. Frequency of the B allele was dominant to the A allele. Chi-Square analysis showed that all of HF dairy and beef cattle observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2 < X2(0.05. The highest heterozygosity value was 0.471 for HF bulls in LAIC, while the lowest one was for HF bulls in SAIC. Heterozygosity values in Simmental and Limousin cattles were higher than that of in HF cattle. The GHRH gene in HF and beef cattle was polymorphic, the exception was for Brahman with the only B allele. This result will improve the understanding of the polymorphism of GHRH gene in dairy and beef cattle.

  16. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply. PMID:26952213

  17. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli on Bavarian Dairy and Beef Cattle Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, A.; Hörmansdorfer, S.; Messelhäusser, U.; Käsbohrer, A; Sauter-Louis, C.; Van Mansfeld, R.

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains are believed to be widely distributed among humans and animals; however, to date, there are only few studies that support this assumption on a regional or countrywide scale. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy cows and beef cattle in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. The study population included 30 mixed dairy and beef cattle farms and 15 beef cattle farms. Fec...

  18. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  19. DETERMINATION OF LEPTIN EXPRESSION IN BEEF CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USED BY RTQ PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to detect the presence and concentration of leptin in different breeds of cattle by PCR and Real time PCR method. Blood of different breeds of bulls was used as biological material in our experiments: Slovak pied cattle (10 samples, Blondaquitane × Pinzgau breed (10 samples and Holstein breed (10 samples. The presence of leptin was detected in all samples based on the results of molecular-genetic detection of leptin gene. The average concentration of leptinin 30 samples of beef cattle was 22.1477 μg.μl-1. Differences in leptin concentrations were statistically significant between Holstein breed and Slovak pied cattle and between Slovak pied cattle and Blondaquitane × Pinzgau breed.

  20. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Boerner, Vinzent; David J Johnston; Tier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International audience AbstractBackgroundThe major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, B...

  1. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, JL; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S; Benchaar, C; Beauchemin, KA; Nkrumah, JD; France, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent volatile fatty acid (VFA) stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure, to see if prediction improvements could be made for beef cattle. The database used for independent evaluation of methane predictions consisted of 74 animal means from six stu...

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Agustina; M Ali, Hikmah; J. A. Syamsu1

    2014-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS Agustina Abdullah 1*), J. A.Syamsu 1) dan Hikmah M.A 1) 1) Faculty of Animal Agriculture, Hasanuddin University. * Corresponding author : Jl.Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10 Tamalanrea, Makassar - 90245 South Sulawesi. Email address : ABSTRACT Integrated farming systems of beef cattle with paddy is the best strategy to improve the op...

  3. Association of bta-miR-24-3p with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: summer of 2013, after calves were born; fall of the same year at weaning; and spring, 2014. All sera collec...

  4. Current status and its epidemiological consideration of Fasciola and Eurytrema infections in beef cattle of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Jungo; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Eiichi; Nagafuchi, Tsuneyuki; Okajima, Kazue; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate current status of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle of Japan, inspection data of Tokyo Metropolitan Shibaura Slaughterhouse where beef cattle were shipped from all over Japan were analyzed, and questionnaire to farmers was conducted to assess the relationship between recognition of the disease occurrence in one's own farm and attention to the diseases. The occurrence of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle gradually decreased from 18.6% to 0.06% and from 0.58% to 0.02% during the period of 1964 to 2010, respectively. When the current data from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed, the occurrence of fasciolosis was recognized in cattle produced and fattened all over Japan, indicating the disease was prevalent nationwide. While, 97.5% of Eurytrema infection were detected in cattle produced in Okinawa, Shimane and Kagoshima, indicating the disease was endemic in these regions. Higher occurrence (>0.7%) of fasciolosis was observed in minor breeds, such as Japanese Shorthorn. Japanese Black showed 0.09% and 0.05% of occurrence for fasciolosis and eurytremosis, respectively, but F1 crossbred with Japanese Black showed lower occurrence (0.007% and 0.002%, respectively). No tendency of occurrence in the age of cattle at slaughter was recognized, indicating the infections may have occurred at the growing and early fattening stage of cattle. The questionnaire survey revealed that farmers experiencing fasciolosis had more knowledge about the disease, however, factors, such as testing parasite infections and use of anti-Fasciola dewormers, were not affected by the recognition of occurrence. PMID:26822002

  5. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elall, Amr M M; Mohamed, Mohamed E M; Awadallah, Maysa A I

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers) were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds) located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes). The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds): Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%), S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%), S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%), Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%), Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%), K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%), Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%), P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%), P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%), Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%), respectively). Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%), A. niger (20% vs 36.7%), A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%), Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%), P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%), P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%), Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%), Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%), Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%), Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%), Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%), Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%), Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%), Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%), Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4%) and yeast (13.3% vs 20%), respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and

  6. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  7. Estimation of demand and supply relationships for beef cattle in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase in per capita income is followed by an increased demand in number and quality of meat . The purpose of the study was to identify and qualifying factors that influence the demand and supply of beef, and to determine the magnitude of response related to the increase in per capita income. In this study, the time series data from 1970 through 1993 was used and collected from the Directorate General for Livestock Services and Central Bureau of Statistics for the province ofLampung. The parameters observed were production and consumption of beef, retail price, population, per capita income and input price of beef production . A 2SLS method was used to perform the analysis . The results of this study showed that estimated demand and supply relationships using the simultaneous model of2SLS method is appropriate for beef cattle . The results indicated that retail price of beef is determined simultaneously by demand and supply linkages (P<0.01 . In addition, people in Lampung were responsive enough to anticipate changes on per capita income and lead to the potential for developing Lampung as a strategic beef industry area in Indonesia.

  8. The Welfare of Cattle kept for Beef Production

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare,

    2001-01-01

    Content: 1) Introduction 2) State of the Industry 3) Hosing Systems 4) Behaviour of Cattle 5)Effect of Housing on the Welfare of the Animals 6) the effects of Management on Cattle Welfare 7)Futere Research Needed 8) Conclusions 9) Recommodations 10) References 11) Acknowledgements

  9. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  10. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  11. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  12. Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O. M.; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six-month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992, in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the firs...

  13. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  14. Variance components for susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy and beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Ian W.; Bradley, Dan G; Higgins, Isabella M; More, Simon John; et al.

    2014-01-01

    Open Access Research Variance components for susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy and beef cattle Ian W Richardson12, Dan G Bradley1, Isabella M Higgins3, Simon J More3, Jennifer McClure4 and Donagh P Berry2* * Corresponding author: Donagh P Berry Author Affiliations 1 Smurfit Institute of Genetics, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland 2 Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Center, Teagasc, Moore...

  15. SELECTIVE BREEDING, HERITABLE CHARACTERISTICS AND GENETIC-BASED TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE CANADIAN BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, William A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents an examination of genetic-based technological change in the Canadian beef cattle industry. A model of technological change is explicitly developed in characteristics space. Production functions with genetic characteristics as arguments are estimated and two forms of technological change identified. Shadow values for characteristics are then calculated and actual genetic improvements are compared to the improvements suggested by the shadow prices. It is concluded that market...

  16. THE ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE SUBSYSTEM AGRIBUSINESS IMPLEMENTATION IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ekowati; D.H. Darwanto; S. Nurtini; A. Suryantini

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattle farming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri) were purposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ). The study was conducted using quota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM). The results showed that each subsystem agribusiness ha...

  17. Methane emissions and estimates of ruminal fermentation parameters in beef cattle fed different dietary concentrate levels

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio dos Santos Pedreira; Simone Gisele de Oliveira; Odo Primavesi; Magda Aparecida de Lima; Rosa Toyoko Shiraishi Frighetto; Telma Teresinha Berchielli

    2013-01-01

    Using sorghum silage, the effect of roughage/concentrate ratios was evaluated on nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters and methane production by beef cattle. Three treatments (0, 30 and 60% of concentrate in DM of the diet) were distributed in three Latin squares, with nine animals and three periods. Dry matter intake increased as the grain concentration in diet increased; pH showed opposite behavior. Methane emissions were lower for animals fed the diet exclusively with sorghum ...

  18. Understanding beef-cattle farming management strategies by identifying motivations behind farmers’ priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Cerf, Marianne; Ingrand, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and better understand management strategies that help livestock farmers adapt to changes in their production contexts, a fundamental challenge. A total of nine beef-cattle farmers were interviewed three times over 1 year to discuss 13 dimensions of livestock farming (e.g. reproduction, feeding, sales, etc.). Characterisation of management strategies rested on three main factors: (i) ranking of the dimensions according to the degree to which farmers desired to cont...

  19. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Tatsuo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1 gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus TTN was considered as a positional functional candidate for the gene responsible for marbling. In this study, we explored SNP in TTN and analyzed association of the SNP with marbling. Findings A SNP in the promoter region of TTN, referred to as g.231054C>T, was the only difference detected between high- and low-marbled steer groups. The SNP was associated with marbling in 3 experiments using 101 sires (P = 0.004, 848 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 5 sires heterozygous for the g.231054C>T (P = 0.046, and 820 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 3 sires homozygous for C allele at the g.231054C>T (P = 0.051, in Japanese Black beef cattle. The effect of genotypes of the SNP on subcutaneous fat thickness was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion These findings suggest that in addition to the EDG1 SNPs, the TTN SNP polymorphism is associated with marbling and may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. Further replicate studies will be needed to confirm the allelic association observed here, and to expand the results to evaluate all possible genotypic combinations of alleles.

  20. A meta-analytic assessment of a Thyroglobulin marker for marbling in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Ian A; Moser, Gerhard; Burrell, Daniel L; Mengersen, Kerrie L.; Hetzel, D Jay S

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis was undertaken reporting on the association between a polymorphism in the Thyroglobulin gene (TG5) and marbling in beef cattle. A Bayesian hierarchical model was adopted, with alternative representations assessed through sensitivity analysis. Based on the overall posterior means and posterior probabilities, there is substantial support for an additive association between the TG5 marker and marbling. The marker effect was also assessed across various breed groups, with each gro...

  1. A meta-analytic assessment of a Thyroglobulin marker for marbling in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mengersen Kerrie L; Burrell Daniel L; Moser Gerhard; Wood Ian A; Hetzel D Jay S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis was undertaken reporting on the association between a polymorphism in the Thyroglobulin gene (TG5) and marbling in beef cattle. A Bayesian hierarchical model was adopted, with alternative representations assessed through sensitivity analysis. Based on the overall posterior means and posterior probabilities, there is substantial support for an additive association between the TG5 marker and marbling. The marker effect was also assessed across various breed groups, with...

  2. The Pancreatic lipase Gene is Associated with Marbling in Japanese Black Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Tanomura, Hideki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Muramatsu, Youji; Ohta, Takeshi; Kose, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takahisa

    2011-01-01

    Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat so-called Shimofuri is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The Pancreatic lipase (Pnlip) gene involved in energy income and fat regulation has been previously shown to be regarded as possible candidate for a rat Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) responsible for intramuscular fat content. It is located within the genomic region of a bovine QTL for marbling and thus was considered as a positional functional c...

  3. Liver transcriptomic networks reveal main biological processes associated with feed efficiency in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Pamela A.; Kogelman, Lisette; Santana, Miguel H. A.; Passarelli, Danielle; Pulz, Lidia H.; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Silva, Paulo L.; Leme, Paulo R; Strefezzi, Ricardo F.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Ferraz, José B. S.; Eler, Joanie P.; Kadarmideen, Haja; Fukumasu, Heidge

    2015-01-01

    Background The selection of beef cattle for feed efficiency (FE) traits is very important not only for productive and economic efficiency but also for reduced environmental impact of livestock. Considering that FE is multifactorial and expensive to measure, the aim of this study was to identify biological functions and regulatory genes associated with this phenotype. Results Eight genes were differentially expressed between high and low feed efficient animals (HFE and LFE, respectively). Co-e...

  4. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  5. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  6. Neonatal diarrhea by bovine coronavirus (BCoV in beef cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Lorenzetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is the second most important viral agent involved in neonatal diarrhea in calves worldwide. The reports on the frequency of BCoV infection in beef cattle herds under extensive management are uncommon in Brazil. The present study analyzed 93 diarrheic fecal samples of calves up to 60 days of age from 13 commercial beef cattle herds located in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Rondônia. The fecal samples were collected during 2009-2012 and were previously analyzed for the presence of bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA, with negative results. The presence of BCoV in the fecal samples was evaluated by the partial amplification of the N gene by using the semi-nested PCR technique. The expected products of 251 bp length were amplified 33.3% (31/93 of the analyzed diarrheic fecal samples. The results revealed that coronaviruses has important participation in the neonatal diarrhea complex of beef cattle herds reared extensively from the different geographical regions of Brazil.

  7. Effect of type of floor and space at the manger on growth performance and feeding behaviour of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ravarotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no regulation in force concerning the welfare of beef cattle in Europe likely because of the large differences existing among the fattening systems adopted by different countries. The fattening system mainly adopted in Italy must be consider intensive due to the high cattle stocking rate and the indoor housing with lack of pasture. In these rearing conditions the main factors affecting beef cattle welfare are the space allowance, the number of animals/pen, the type of floor, and the space at the manger (EU-SCAHAW, 2001...

  8. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  9. Studies on the value of incorporating the effect of dominance in genetic evaluations of dairy cattle, beef cattle and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tassel CP.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonadditive genetic effects are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of farm animals because of ignorance of thelevel of dominance variance for traits of interest and the difficult computational problems involved. Potential gains fromincluding the effects of dominance in genetic evaluations include “purification” of additive values and availability ofpredictions of specific combining abilities for each pair of prospective parents. This study focused on making evaluation withdominance effects feasible computationally and on ascertaining benefits of such an evaluation for dairy cattle, beef cattle,and swine. Using iteration on data, computing costs for evaluation with dominance effects included costs could be less thantwice expensive as with only an additive model. With Method Â, variance components could be estimated for problemsinvolving up to 10 millions equations. Dominance effects accounted for up to 10% of phenotypic variance; estimates werelarger for growth traits. As a percentage of additive variance, the estimate of dominance variance reached 78% for 21-d litterweight of swine and 47% for post weaning weight of beef cattle. When dominance effects are ignored, additive evaluationsare “contaminated”; effects are greatest for evaluations of dams in a single large family. These changes in ranking wereimportant for dairy cattle, especially for dams of full-sibs, but were less important for swine. Specific combining abilitiescannot be included in sire evaluations and need to be computed separately for each set of parents. The predictions of specificcombining abilities could be used in computerized mating programs via the Internet. Gains from including the dominanceeffect in genetic evaluations would be moderate but would outweigh expenditures to produce those evaluations.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of ruminally-dosed sodium chlorate in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recently recognized potential of sodium chlorate as a possible pre-harvest food safety tool in meat animals has spurred interest in the pharmacokinetics of intraruminally-dosed chlorate. Six Loala cattle were assigned (one heifer and one steer per treatment) to one of three intraruminal doses of...

  11. Management Strategies to Reduce Embryonic Loss in Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanisms involved in pregnancy establishment and maintenance in cattle are complex. Approximately 95% of matings, regardless of whether they are by artificial insemination or natural service, result in fertilization. However, rarely do 70% of these matings result in a pregnancy that is maintaine...

  12. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40) was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1). RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group), was validated in the groups of

  13. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  14. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (PMethane emissions constitute an adverse environmental impact of grazing by cattle but the contribution of cattle to ecosystem management (i.e. promoting biodiversity) should also be considered when evaluating the usefulness of different breeds for grazing semi-natural or unimproved grassland. PMID:25167210

  15. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  16. Competitiveness of Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: Domestic Resources Cost Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Abdul Rouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Beef demand in Indonesian people is supplied from the domestic and import production, including Australia and New Zealand. Domestic Resources Cost (DRC is one of the indicators in free trade that is defined as one of the competitiveness criteria. The competitiveness is determined by several factors, including resource, labor, technology and market demand. Based on the previous research results, it was obtained that: (1 The availability of abundant feed through the grazing system and crops livestock system can provide comparative advantage (DRC = 0.08-0.54; (2 The type of beef cattle kept had a good competitiveness (DRC = 0.08-0.94; (3 The labor’s wage can simultaneously create competitiveness (DRC<1; (4 The technological factor on farm level showed that the higher Average Daily Gain (ADG will make the competitiveness increased; and (5 The number of cattle had a positive causality on the competitiveness with a coefficient of 0.510. The smallholder farmer with the average farming scale of three heads per farmer had a lower competitiveness (DRC = 0.08 compared to the cattle fattening company (DRC = 0.01-0.02. The existing research showed that the beef cattle farming in several places in Indonesia had good competitiveness (DRC<1, but in some areas, its value was close to one (less competitive. Therefore, in order to improve the competitiveness, the formulation and implementation of the farm subsector policy should be regarded as a system including upstream to downstream subsystems so it is expected that the coordination and synergy policy among stakeholder and economic actor will be better.

  17. Replicated association of the single nucleotide polymorphism in EDG1 with marbling in three general populations of Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sukegawa, Shin; Miyake, Takeshi; Takahagi, Youichi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Background: Marbling, defined by the amount and the distribution of intramuscular fat and measured as beef marbling score (BMS), is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We recently reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), namely, c.-312A>G, in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene was associated with the BMS level in the Japanese Black beef cattle population of Oita prefecture, with the G allele being associate...

  18. Replicated association of the single nucleotide polymorphism in EDG1 with marbling in three general populations of Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada Takahisa; Morimatsu Fumiki; Murakami Hiroshi; Takahagi Yoichi; Miyake Takeshi; Sukegawa Shin; Sasaki Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Marbling, defined by the amount and the distribution of intramuscular fat and measured as beef marbling score (BMS), is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We recently reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), namely, c.-312A>G, in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene was associated with the BMS level in the Japanese Black beef cattle population of Oita prefecture, with the G allele being a...

  19. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified. PMID:18681794

  20. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y F; Sun, F F; Wan, F C; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L

    2016-05-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (psilage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  1. Present situation and future challenges of beef cattle production in Italy and the role of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at describing the current features and the future challenges of the beef cattle production systems in Italy. The first part of the article analyzes the main domestic production systems of veal calves and more adult beef cattle in terms of farm size and location, housing structures, feeding plans and cattle genotypes. The second part is address towards the analysis of a set of issues related to the current systems of production which could become important critical points in the short future. Potential solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the beef farms, to improve the animal welfare and to limit the import of foreign young livestock to be finished in our fattening units are proposed and discussed in the light of the more recent advances of the scientific research.

  2. Influence of wet distillers grains diets on beef cattle fecal bacterial community structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice William C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high demand for ethanol in the U.S. has generated large stocks of wet distillers grains (DG, a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Little is known, however, about the potential influence of dietary DG on fecal microbial community structure. A better understanding of the microbial population in beef cattle feces could be an important monitoring tool to facilitate goals of improving nutrient management, increasing animal growth performance and decreasing odors and/or shedding of pathogens. Five diets consisting of a traditional diet fed to finishing beef cattle in the Southern High Plains of Texas-CON (steam-flaked corn control with 0% DG, and four concentrations of DG in the dietary dry matter; 10 C (10% corn-based DG, 5S (5% sorghum-based DG, 10S (10% sorghum DG, and 15S (15% sorghum DG were fed to steers at the Texas Tech University Burnett Animal Center. Diets were essentially isonitrogenous with a formulated crude protein value of 13.5%. Results Fecal grab samples were obtained from 20 steers (n = 4 per diet and the barcoded DNA pyrosequencing method was used to generate 127,530 16S operational taxonomic units (OTUs. A total of 24 phyla were observed, distributed amongst all beef cattle on all diets, revealing considerable animal to animal variation, however only six phyla (core set were observed in all animals regardless of dietary treatment. The average abundance and range of abundance, respectively of the core phyla were as follows: Firmicutes (61%, 19 to 83%, Bacteroidetes (28%, 11 to 63%, Proteobacteria (3%, 0.34 to 17.5%, Tenericutes (0.15%, 0.0 to 0.35%, Nitrospirae (0.11%, 0.03 to 0.22%, and Fusobacteria (0.086%, 0.017 to 0.38%. Feeding DG-based diets resulted in significant shifts in the fecal microbial community structure compared with the traditional CON. Four low abundance phyla significantly responded to dietary treatments: Synergistetes (p = 0.01, WS3 (p = 0

  3. A potential association between the BM 1500 microsatellite and fat deposition in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, C J; Schmutz, S M; Bergen, R D; McKinnon, J J

    1998-06-01

    The obese gene was hypothesized as a candidate gene for fat characteristics in beef cattle. The BM 1500 microsatellite, near the obese gene, was characterized in 158 purebred beef bulls for which carcass trait information was available. Four breeds were included in the analyses-Angus, Charolais, Hereford, and Simmental. Four alleles were found. Lengths were approximately 138, 147, 149, and 140 bp with genotypic frequencies of 0.47, 0.44, 0.09, and 0.003 respectively. The carcass traits %rib fat, %rib lean, average fat, and grade fat were found to be significantly associated with the different alleles. The presence of the 138-bp allele in the genotype of an animal is correlated with higher levels of fat, whereas the 147-bp allele has the opposite effect. The 149-bp allele was found in low numbers, and a homozygote was never identified. Hereford and Angus bulls had the greatest frequencies of 138-bp alleles (Hereford = 0.57, Angus = 0.59), while Charolais and Simmental had a greater proportion of 147-bp alleles (Charolais = 0.54, Simmental = 0.58). This information may aid cattle producers in selecting cattle for markets that differ in the amount of fat required. PMID:9585429

  4. Nutrient digestibility and beef cattle performance fed by lerak (Sapindus rarak meal in concentrate ration

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    S. Suharti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the use of Lerak fruit meal to improve performance and feed digestibility of beef cattle. The research consisted of two trials (in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro trial was screening of bioactive compounds (saponin, tanin, dan diosgenin in Lerak fruit (including seed and continued to evaluate the effectivity of these compounds against ruminal protozoa. The in vivo study was done using 12 Ongole Crossbreed cattle which received 1of 3 different treatments: 1 concentrate without Lerak as control, 2 concentrate containing 2.5% Lerak, and 3 concentrate containing 5% Lerak. Anti protozoal activity, daily gain, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle were measured. Results showed that saponin concentration in Lerak extracted by methanol was higher than that in Lerak extracted by water and Lerak meal, 81.5%; 8.2% and 3.85% respectively. Lerak extracted by methanol have higher antiprotozoal activity in vitro than Lerak extracted by water. In vivo experiment showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05 of nutrient intake and digestibility in all treatments, that means the ration had good palatability and quality. Average daily gain of PO fed 2.5% Lerak was 20% higher than that of control diet (0.9 kg/day.

  5. Experiential learning in the animal sciences: effect of 13 years of a beef cattle management practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T T; Hoover, T S; Reiling, B A; Downs, K M

    1998-11-01

    As the source of students shifts from rural to urban and suburban communities, students entering agricultural programs have less practical livestock experience. The career goals indicated by most of these students require knowledge of and experience with practical applications of their course work. The objective of this study was to examine the profile of students enrolled in an experiential beef cattle course 1) to describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of students enrolled and 2) to assess the perceived value of course activities to graduates completing the course as related to their skill attainment and career development. The questionnaire was sent to all 312 students who were enrolled in the course from 1983 to 1996. Over 61% of the respondents indicated they had enrolled in the course to gain experience working with beef cattle. Over 39% took the course to enhance their application to the College of Veterinary Medicine. When asked to rate the value of the course, as it related to skill development, they noted it was most helpful in teaching cattle handling skills, growth performance measurement, live animal evaluation, nutritional management, carcass and meat product value determination, and breed identification. PMID:9856406

  6. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  7. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. PMID:25937315

  8. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC-Cr DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRESS RESPONSE IN TRANSPORT-STRESSED BEEF CATTLE

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    U. H. Tanuwiria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportation over long distances resulted in stress at animal. Under these circumstances, animal usually manifest depression and the impact on physiological condition changes and loss of body weight. The objectives of the research were to examine effect supplementation of organic-Cr type into diets in transport-stress beef cattle on physiological condition, haematochemical (included were haematological condition and blood chemical and body weight changes. The experiment was conducted using 16 beef cattle those were transported by truck for a distance of 400 km from Malangbong to Tangerang. The experiment was arranged by Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications. The dietary treatments consisted of R0 (basal diet without Cr supplemented, R1 (R0+3ppm organic-Cr resulted of alkali hydrolysis, R2 (R0+3 ppm organic-Cr resulted from bioprocess, R3 (R0+3 ppm organic-Cr resulted from bioremediation. The result indicated that type of organic-Cr supplementation at 3 ppm in diet did not influence physiological condition, haematochemical and body weight at beef cattle transported for seven hours. There was indication that beef cattle fed on control diet (without Cr showed a stress symptom, their loss of body weight were higher (5.41% compared to beef given diet contains organic-Cr (3.72%, 5.04% and 4.83%, respectively for R1, R2 and R3.

  9. Possible Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Titin Gene with Growth-Related Trait in Japanese Black Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Seiki; Sukegawa, Shin; Takahagi, Youichi; MORITA, Mitsuo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Fujita, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Growth performance as well as marbling is the main breeding objectives in Japanese Black cattle, the major beef breed in Japan. The researchers have recently reported that a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), referred to as g.231054C>T in promoter region of the Titin (TTN) gene was associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle with the T allele being associated with a high level of marbling. The TTN is known to be involved in myofibrillogenesis and has been previously shown to be ...

  10. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

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    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A

  11. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshio; Nishimura, Shota; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    [Background]Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleoti...

  12. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshio; Nishimura, Shota; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleotid...

  13. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ranga Niroshan Appuhamy, JAD; Strathe, AB; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J; Kebreab, E.

    2013-01-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity...

  14. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd - 1st case in 27 years: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Granberg Malin; Andersson Ann-Christin; Englund Stina; Knutsson Rickard; Ehrs Sara; Norström Agneta; Hartzell Lisbeth; Westermark Therese; Elvander Marianne; Lewerin Susanna; Bäckman Stina; Wikström Per; Sandstedt Karin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The c...

  15. Effect of Temperature and Retention Time on Methane Production from Beef Cattle Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Varel, V. H.; Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y R

    1980-01-01

    The effect of temperature and retention time on the rate of methane production from waste of beef cattle fed a finishing diet was investigated by using continuously mixed 3-liter working volume anaerobic fermentors. The temperatures ranged from 30 to 65°C with 5°C increments between fermentors. The fermentors were fed once per day with 6% volatile solids (organic matter). Retention time for each temperature was varied from 18 to 2.5 days. After 3-volume turnovers, samples were obtained on 4 c...

  16. Genome-wide association analyses for growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Miller, S; Sargolzaei, M; Kelly, M; Vander Voort, G; Caldwell, T; Wang, Z; Plastow, G; Moore, S

    2013-08-01

    A genome-wide association study using the Illumina 50K BeadChip included 38,745 SNP on 29 BTA analyzed on 751 animals, including 33 purebreds and 718 crossbred cattle. Genotypes and 6 production traits: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), ADG, DMI, midtest metabolic BW (MMWT), and residual feed intake (RFI), were used to estimate effects of individual SNP on the traits. At the genome-wide level false discovery rate (FDR impact them in same direction. In terms of the size of SNP effect, the significant SNP (P information to further assist the identification of chromosome regions and subsequently genes affecting growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle. PMID:23851991

  17. Effects of CSN3 and LGB gene polymorphisms on production traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII gene polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups, and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in these animals, which are submitted to an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 79 Nelore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu and 275 crossbred cattle originating from the crosses of Simmental (n = 30 and Angus (n = 245 sires with Nelore females. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the GLM procedure, and least square means of the genotypes were compared by the F test. The results showed that the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII polymorphisms did not have any effect on growth or carcass traits (p > 0.05.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms at the leptin receptor gene in three beef cattle breeds

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    Sabrina E.M. Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the exon 20 (T945M of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR and of three short tandem repeats (STRs BM7225, BMS694, and BMS2145 linked to LEPR was investigated in three beef cattle herds (Brangus Ibagé, Charolais, and Aberdeen Angus. A cheap and effective new method to analyze the T945M polymorphism in cattle populations was developed and the possible role of these polymorphisms in reproduction and weight gain of postpartum cows was evaluated. High levels of genetic diversity were observed with the average heterozygosity of STRs ranging from 0.71 to 0.81. No significant association was detected between LEPR markers and reproductive parameters or daily weight gain. These negative results suggest that the LEPR gene polymorphisms, at least those herein described, do not influence postpartum cows production.

  19. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria. PMID:23076819

  20. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  1. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of serum leptin concentration with performance, efficiency of gain, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Keisler, D H; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Moore, S S

    2007-09-01

    Leptin is the hormone product of the obese gene that is synthesized and predominantly expressed by adipocytes. This study estimated the genetic variation in serum leptin concentration and evaluated the genetic and phenotypic relationships of serum leptin concentration with performance, efficiency of gain, and carcass merit. There were 464 steers with records for serum leptin concentration, performance, and efficiency of gain and 381 steers with records for carcass traits. The analyses included a total of 813 steers, including those without phenotypic records. Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimates were obtained using SAS and ASREML, respectively. Serum leptin concentration was moderately heritable (h2 = 0.34 +/- 0.13) and averaged 13.91 (SD = 5.74) ng/mL. Sire breed differences in serum leptin concentration correlated well with breed differences in body composition. Specifically, the serum leptin concentration was 20% greater in Angus-sired steers compared with Charolais-sired steers (P Charolais- than Angus-sired steers (P yield (P Charolais- compared with Angus-sired steers. Steers with greater serum leptin concentration also had greater DMI (P 0.10). Serum leptin concentration was correlated phenotypically with ultrasound backfat (r = 0.41; P yield (r = -0.38; P yield grade (r = 0.32; P yield (r = -0.59 +/- 0.22), and yield grade (r = 0.39 +/- 0.26). Serum leptin concentration can be a valuable tool that can be incorporated into appropriate selection programs to favorably improve the carcass merit of cattle. PMID:17468416

  2. Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; V. Muchenje

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes...

  3. Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets

    OpenAIRE

    Carberry, CIara A.; Kenny, David A.; Kelly, Alan K.; Waters, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    Background Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) ...

  4. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of...

  5. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Ramos; Luiza Pires Portella; Fernando de Souza Rodrigues; Caroline Zamperete Reginato; Luciana Pötter; Alfredo Skrebsky Cezar; Luís Antônio Sangioni; Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul...

  6. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Ren; Bo Zhou; Fengshua Shi; Xiangxue Xie; Qingxaing Meng

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental) and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan) cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71) were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two...

  7. The role of geographical labelling in inserting extensive cattle systems into beef marketing channels. Evidence from three Spanish case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ramos, Almudena; Bardají Azcaráte, Isabel; Atance Muñiz, Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    The beef cattle sector is adapting to increasing demand-side requirements. Customers are looking for a differentiated product of constant quality in a market that is beginning to be dominated by major distribution companies. In this background, mechanisms to differentiate production are being implemented to co-ordinate both production and marketing processes and integrate livestock farmers into the commercial system. Extensive cattle systems carry an important weight in Spain because of their...

  8. Evaluating dispersion modeling options to estimate methane emissions from grazing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Sean M; Flesch, Thomas K; Coates, Trevor W; Charmley, Ed; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Bishop-Hurley, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Enteric methane (CH) emission from cattle is a source of greenhouse gas and is an energy loss that contributes to production inefficiency for cattle. Direct measurements of enteric CH emissions are useful to quantify the magnitude and variation and to evaluate mitigation of this important greenhouse gas source. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of stocking density of cattle and source configuration (i.e., point source vs. area source and elevation of area source) on CH emissions from grazing beef cattle in Queensland, Australia. This was accomplished using nonintrusive atmospheric measurements and a gas dispersion model. The average measured CH emission for the point and area source was between 240 and 250 g animal d over the entire study. There was no difference ( > 0.05) in emission when using an elevated area source (0.5 m) or a ground area source (0 m). For the point-source configuration, there was a difference in CH emission due to stocking density; likewise, some differences existed for the area-source emissions. This study demonstrates the flexibility of the area-source configuration of the dispersion model to estimate CH emissions even at a low stocking density. PMID:25602324

  9. Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Barge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

  10. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN. This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec, soya bean waste sauce (SBWs, wheat pollard (WP and WP bypass protein (WPBp. It has also been developed using medicated block (MB. The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG, milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively. On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/(animal d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56% respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05.The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces.

  11. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM) and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec), soya bean waste sauce (SBWs), wheat pollard (WP) and WP bypass protein (WPBp). It has also been developed using medicated block (MB). The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG), milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively). On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/head/d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56%, respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05. The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces. (author)

  12. Replicated association of the single nucleotide polymorphism in EDG1 with marbling in three general populations of Japanese Black beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Takahisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling, defined by the amount and the distribution of intramuscular fat and measured as beef marbling score (BMS, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We recently reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, namely, c.-312A>G, in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1 gene was associated with the BMS level in the Japanese Black beef cattle population of Oita prefecture, with the G allele being associated with a high level of the BMS. Thus, the c.-312A>G SNP seems to be a candidate marker for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we investigated whether this association could be replicated in 3 other independent Japanese Black cattle populations and analyzed the effect of the SNP genotypes on the carcass traits other than the BMS. Findings Statistically significant differences in the BMS level were detected among the genotypes of the c.-312A>G SNP in the Japanese black beef cattle populations of Miyazaki (P = 0.0377 and Nagasaki (P = 0.0012 prefectures, and marginal difference was detected in the Kagoshima prefecture population (P = 0.0786. The G allele in the SNP was associated with an increase in the BMS level. The G allele also seemed to have a favorable influence, if any, on the carcass weight, rib eye area and rib thickness of the cattle populations. Conclusions These findings suggest that the association of the c.-312A>G SNP with the BMS level in the Japanese Black beef cattle population was replicated in other beef cattle populations, and revealed favorable effects of the G allele on the beef productivity in the general Japanese Black beef cattle population. Thus, we concluded that the c.-312A>G SNP is useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the BMS level in Japanese Black beef cattle.

  13. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  14. Genetic variation of the weaning weight of beef cattle as a function of accumulated heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the genetic variation in the weaning weight (WW) of beef cattle as a function of heat stress. The WWs were recorded at approximately 205 days of age in three Brazilian beef cattle populations: Nelore (93,616), Brangus (18,906) and Tropical Composite (62,679). In view of the cumulative nature of WW, the effect of heat stress was considered as the accumulation of temperature and humidity index units (ACTHI) from the animal's birth to weaning. A reaction norm model was used to estimate the (co)variance components of WW across the ACTHI scale. The accumulation of THI units from birth to weaning negatively affected the WW. The definition of accumulated THI units as an environmental descriptor permitted to identify important genetic variation in the WW as a function of heat stress. As evidence of genotype by environment interaction, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the (co)variance components for WW across the environmental gradient. In this respect, the best animals in less stressful environments are not necessarily the best animals in more stressful environments. Furthermore, the response to selection for WW is expected to be lower in more stressful environments. PMID:26061790

  15. Feasibility of the grandprogeny design for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in purebred beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D E; Pomp, D; Buchanan, D S

    1997-04-01

    The grandprogeny design (GPD) was developed for dairy cattle to use existing pedigreed populations for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection. Marker genotypes of grandsires and sons are determined, and trait phenotypic data from grandprogeny are analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of GPD in purebred beef cattle populations. Pedigree structures of Angus (n = 123,319), Hereford (n = 107,778), Brangus (n = 14,449), and Gelbvieh (n = 8,114) sire evaluation reports were analyzed to identify potentially useful families. Power of QTL detection was calculated for a range of QTL effects (.1 to .5 SD) and two Type I error rates (.01 and .001). Reasonable power (> .75) could be achieved using GPD in Angus and Hereford for QTL having moderate effects (.3 SD) on weaning weight and large effects (.4 to .5 SD) on birth, yearling, and maternal weaning weights by genotyping 500 animals. Existing Gelbvieh and Brangus families useful for GPD were limited, and reasonable power could be expected only for QTL having large effects on weaning or birth weights. Although family structures suitable for GPD exist in purebred beef populations, large amounts of genotyping would be required to achieve reasonable power, and only QTL having moderate to large effects could be expected to be identified. PMID:9110205

  16. The potential of 3-nitrooxypropanol to lower enteric methane emissions from beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated if 3-nitrooxypropanol reduces enteric methane (CH4) emissions when added to the diet of beef cattle. The effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on related variables including diet digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and ruminal microorganisms were also investigated. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (549 ± 64.3 kg [mean BW ± SD]) were fed a high forage diet (backgrounding diet) supplemented with 4 levels of 3-nitrooxypropanol (0, 0.75, 2.25 and 4.50 mg/kg BW). The experiment was designed as a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 2 groups of heifers and four 28-d periods. Methane emissions were measured during 3 consecutive days using metabolic chambers. Up to a 5.8% reduction in ad libitum DMI was observed when 2.5 mg/kg BW of 3-nitrooxypropanol was fed (P = 0.03). Increasing level of 3-nitrooxypropanol linearly (P beef cattle consuming a backgrounding diet was effective in reducing enteric CH4 emissions without negatively affecting diet digestibility. PMID:25184838

  17. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  18. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  19. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  20. The suitability for organic cattle beef production of mixed farming systems in the highlands of north east Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Jaime; Rodrigues, M. A.; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de; Bernardo, Adelino; Pires, João; Cabanas, J.E.; Resendes, Hugo; Ferreira, Maria; Silva, Infância; Moreira, Nuno

    2005-01-01

    Two beef cattle farms (Farm 1 – “Barrosã” breed – Montalegre and Farm 2 – “Mirandesa” breed – Vinhais) were monitored for a year (autumn 2002-03) – Farm activities, inputs, outputs, yields components and flows were recorde

  1. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S.; Benchaar, C.; Beauchemin, K.; Nkrumah, D.J.; France, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent VFA stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure,

  2. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 pop...

  3. Eye white percentage as a predictor of temperament in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, S; Widowski, T; Mason, G; Miller, S

    2009-06-01

    Accurately evaluating and selecting for calm temperament in beef cattle is important for economic and animal welfare reasons. Previous studies have shown that eye white (EW) can be a predictor of a multitude of emotions across different situations, but there is little research on the relationship between EW and temperament. The objective of this experiment was to assess the accuracy and reliability of using the percentage of exposed EW as a predictor of temperament in beef cattle. Forty-eight heifers (group 1), 39 bulls (group 2), and 60 steers (group 3) were video-recorded while in a squeeze chute, and 2 still digital images from each animal were selected for EW determination. Chute temperament scores were assigned: 1 (calm) to 5 (agitated). Flight speeds were measured blindly and independently during a subsequent test in which the amount of time it took a solitary animal to pass a handler and travel a specified distance was recorded. The EW area in each image was measured using Sigmascan Pro 5 and was expressed as the percentage of exposed eye area. Each image was analyzed twice to determine tracing repeatability. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated among 2 images of the same animal, as well as among duplicate readings of the same image to determine animal and tracing repeatabilities. The mean percentages of EW were 30.14 +/- 14.37, 31.43 +/- 14.77, and 28.57 +/- 12.38, and the average percentage accuracy for duplicate image EW measures was 96, 96, and 93 (P < 0.0001) for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients for EW percentage and chute temperament scores were 0.674 (P < 0.0001), 0.95 (P < 0.0001), and 0.696 (P < 0.0001), whereas the correlations between EW and flight speeds were 0.415 (P < 0.0001), 0.333 (P < 0.05), and 0.294 (P < 0.01) for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Results from this study indicate that percentage EW in cattle could be used as a quantitative tool with minimal equipment to assess temperament

  4. Pathological changes of suspected tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins/tetrachloro dibenzofurans toxication in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of tetrachlorodibenzo-r-dioxins (TCDDs and tetra chlorinated dibenzofurans (TCDFs may affect human or animal health such as cancer, reproductive failure, dermaltoxicities and neurologic effects. The present study describes the effects of TCDD/TCDFs contamination in feed to various tissues of beef cattle to which TCDD/TCDFs were detected byGC MS/MS. The results revealed that POPs (DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin as a precursor for dioxins were detected in all samples except drinking water. The total concentration of OC in soils was Nd – 42.73 mg/kg, grasses (3.30 – 27.66 mg/kg, well water (0.82 – 1.00 mg/kg, feed mill (3.90 mg/kg, sera (Nd – 13.08 mg/kg and meats (Nd – 100.72 mg/kg. Futhermore, the TEQ residues of TCDDs/TCDFs in beef were 4496.66 - 20642.40 pg/g from Yogyakarta, and 717.13pg/g (beef and 0.037 pg/g (brain tissues from Solo (Central Java. The concentration of TCDD/TCDFs residues in beef was above the maximum residue limit (MRL at 2 pg/g. Animal feeds is regarded as the main source of dioxins contamination in meats. Macroscopic changes were general anaemia, cachexia, fibrotic liver, athropic heart, ruminal impaction, constipated intestinal, haemorrhagic kidney, and ptechiae in the brain. Microscopically were depleted spleen vacuolation of interseptum, haemorrhages and accumulation of hemosiderin. Heart shows degeneration, fragmentation and pale cardiac muscle and swollen nuclei. Liver was pale, degeneration of epithelial cells and congestion. Lungs were pneumonia, oedema pulmonum and mild haemorrhage. Intestines showed haemorrhage and infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophyls and eosinophyls. Brain was haemorrhage, perivascular cuffs and intranuclear inclusion bodies. The animal was suffering from haemorrhagic enteritis, encephalitis, and hepatic degeneration.

  5. 法国肉牛业发展经验%French Experience in Development of Beef Cattle Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚宇; 霍云龙[; Jean-François HOCQUETTE; 孟庆翔

    2015-01-01

    近年来我国牛肉生产和消费量增长巨大,肉牛产业发展迅速。如何适应各地生产条件、减少环境污染,并形成可持续发展的生产模式成为肉牛产业发展的关键。法国肉牛生产历史悠久,其肉牛存栏量和牛肉产量目前在欧洲排名第一,肉牛产业有许多经验值得借鉴。本文回顾了法国近几十年来肉牛产业的演变和现状,介绍了法国肉牛业的发展亮点,并结合中国肉牛业发展现状讨论了值得我们借鉴的法国经验。%In recent years, beef production and consumption in China has risen sharply and the beef cattle industry has developed rapidly. How to adapt to local production conditions, to reduce environmental pollution, and to construct a sustainable system has become a crucial point of the Chinese beef industry. France has a long history of beef production, its cattle herds and beef production is currently ranked first in Europe, and its beefindustry has alot of quotable experiences.This paper reviews theevolution of the French beef cattle industry in recent decadesand its current status, anddescribes the highlights ofdevelopment. TheFrench experiences that are useful for the development of the Chinese beef industryare discussed.

  6. Improving rumen ecology and microbial population by dried rumen digesta in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha; Saenkamsorn, Anuthida; Supapong, Chanadol; Anantasook, Nirawan; Gunun, Pongsatorn

    2015-06-01

    Four Thai native beef cattle with initial body weight (BW) of 91.8 ± 4.75 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four concentrates replacement levels of soybean meal (SBM) by dried rumen digesta (DRD) at 0, 33, 67, and 100 % on dry matter (DM) basis. All cattle were fed rice straw ad libitum while additional concentrate was fed at 0.5 % BW daily. The experiment was conducted for four periods of 21 days. Rumen fluid was analyzed for predominant cellulolytic bacterial population by using real-time PCR technique. Increasing levels of DRD did not alter total feed intake, ruminal pH and temperature, and plasma urea nitrogen (P > 0.05). Protozoa and fungal population were not differed by DRD supplementation while population of bacteria at 4 h post feeding was increased when SBM was replaced with DRD at 66 and 100 % DM. Population of total bacteria and R. flavefaciens at 4 h post feeding were significantly highest with inclusion of 100 % of DRD in the ration. The experimental diets has no effect on excretion and absorption of purine derivatives (P > 0.05), while microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial N synthesis were significantly increased with DRD inclusion in the diet and highest with 100 % DRD replacement (P > 0.05). Replacement of SBM by DRD at 100 % DM improved the rumen ecology and microbial population in beef cattle fed on rice straw. PMID:25851930

  7. Quantifying the influence of ambient temperature on dairy and beef cattle mortality in France from a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane

    2015-07-01

    In the context of climate change, the frequency and severity of extreme weather events are expected to increase in temperate regions, and potentially have a severe impact on farmed cattle through production losses or deaths. In this study, we used distributed lag non-linear models to describe and quantify the relationship between a temperature-humidity index (THI) and cattle mortality in 12 areas in France. THI incorporates the effects of both temperature and relative humidity and was already used to quantify the degree of heat stress on dairy cattle because it does reflect physical stress deriving from extreme conditions better than air temperature alone. Relationships between daily THI and mortality were modeled separately for dairy and beef cattle during the 2003-2006 period. Our general approach was to first determine the shape of the THI-mortality relationship in each area by modeling THI with natural cubic splines. We then modeled each relationship assuming a three-piecewise linear function, to estimate the critical cold and heat THI thresholds, for each area, delimiting the thermoneutral zone (i.e. where the risk of death is at its minimum), and the cold and heat effects below and above these thresholds, respectively. Area-specific estimates of the cold or heat effects were then combined in a hierarchical Bayesian model to compute the pooled effects of THI increase or decrease on dairy and beef cattle mortality. A U-shaped relationship, indicating a mortality increase below the cold threshold and above the heat threshold was found in most of the study areas for dairy and beef cattle. The pooled estimate of the mortality risk associated with a 1°C decrease in THI below the cold threshold was 5.0% for dairy cattle [95% posterior interval: 4.4, 5.5] and 4.4% for beef cattle [2.0, 6.5]. The pooled mortality risk associated with a 1°C increase above the hot threshold was estimated to be 5.6% [5.0, 6.2] for dairy and 4.6% [0.9, 8.7] for beef cattle. Knowing the

  8. A new predilection site of Mycoplasma bovis: Postsurgical seromas in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, L; Pilo, P; Valgaeren, B R; Van Driessche, L; Van Loo, H; Bodmer, M; Bürki, S; Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Deprez, P; Pardon, B

    2016-04-15

    Mycoplasma bovis is a highly contagious bacterium, which predominantly causes chronic pneumonia, otitis and arthritis in calves and mastitis in adult cattle. In humans, Mycoplasma species have been associated with post-surgical infections. The present study aimed to identify the bacteria associated with three outbreaks of infected seromas after caesarian section in Belgian Blue beef cattle. A total of 10 cases occurred in three herds which were in close proximity of each other and shared the same veterinary practice. M. bovis could be cultured from seroma fluid in five of the six referred animals, mostly in pure culture and was isolated from multiple chronic sites of infection (arthritis and mastitis) as well. DNA fingerprinting of the isolates targeting two insertion sequence elements suggested spread of M. bovis from chronic sites of infection (udder and joints) to the postsurgical seromas. Identical genetic profiles were demonstrated in two animals from two separate farms, suggesting spread between farms. Mortality rate in the referred animals positive for M. bovis in a seroma was 80% (4/5), despite intensive treatment. A massive increase in antimicrobial use was observed in every affected farm. These observations demonstrate involvement of mycoplasmas in outbreaks of postsurgical seromas in cattle. PMID:27016759

  9. Effect of polymorphisms linked to LEP gene on its expression on adipose tissues in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, D T; Hepp, D; Moraes, J C F; Weimer, T A

    2007-06-01

    In cattle, genetic markers at the leptin (LEP) gene and at those linked to the gene have been described as affecting calving interval (markers LEPSau3AI and IDVGA51), or daily weight gain (BMS1074 and BM1500). This work investigated the effect of these alleles on LEP mRNA levels in cattle subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues. A sample of 137 females of a Brangus-Ibage beef cattle herd was analysed to evaluate the distribution of the polymorphisms; then, animals having at least one of the IDVGA51*181 (allele 181 at marker IDVGA51; six animals), LEPSau3AI*2 (four), BMS1074*151 (13), BM1500*135 (six) alleles and a control group composed of animals without any of these alleles (four animals) were submitted to surgery to obtain omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Leptin mRNA expression was quantified by TaqMan RT-PCR, using 18S rRNA as internal control and adjusted for the effect of body condition score, through regression analysis. Omental fat had LEP gene expression 33% lower than the subcutaneous tissue. Carriers of IDVGA*181 and BMS1074*151 showed subcutaneous fat leptin mRNA levels higher than the controls. Leptin controls feed intake and coordinates reproduction; therefore, animals with higher LEP gene expression will probably have lower daily weight gain than others with similar forage offer and nutritional condition and probably will also have longer calving interval. PMID:17550358

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies loci and candidate genes for meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangwei; Qi, Xin; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2016-06-01

    Improving meat quality is the best way to enhance profitability and strengthen competitiveness in beef industry. Identification of genetic variants that control beef quality traits can help breeders design optimal breeding programs to achieve this goal. We carried out a genome-wide association study for meat quality traits in 1141 Simmental cattle using the Illumina Bovine HD 770K SNP array to identify the candidate genes and genomic regions associated with meat quality traits for beef cattle, including fat color, meat color, marbling score, longissimus muscle area, and shear force. In our study, we identified twenty significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p five meat quality traits. Notably, we observed several SNPs were in or near eleven genes which have been reported previously, including TMEM236, SORL1, TRDN, S100A10, AP2S1, KCTD16, LOC506594, DHX15, LAMA4, PREX1, and BRINP3. We identified a haplotype block on BTA13 containing five significant SNPs associated with fat color trait. We also found one of 19 SNPs was associated with multiple traits (shear force and longissimus muscle area) on BTA7. Our results offer valuable insights to further explore the potential mechanism of meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle. PMID:27126640

  11. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef. PMID

  12. DEMAND FOR BEEF FROM CATTLE ADMINISTERED GROWTH HORMONES OR FED GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN: A COMPARISON OF CONSUMERS IN FRANCE, GERMANY, THE UNITED KINGDOM, AND THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L Lusk; Roosen, Jutta; Fox, John A.

    2001-01-01

    This study compares consumer valuations of beef steaks from cattle produced without growth hormones or genetically modified corn in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In general, European consumers place a higher value on beef from cattle that have not been administered growth hormones and/or fed genetically modified corn than United States consumers. There is a larger divergence between the two cultures with regard to the issue of biotechnology and genetic engineerin...

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

    2014-01-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+hi...

  14. Towards a representative assessment of methane and nitrous oxide emissions and mitigation options from manure management of beef cattle feedlots in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, C; Cerri, C. E. P.,; Dorich, C. D.; Maia, S. M. F.; Bernoux, MARTIAL,; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an inventory to estimate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure in Brazil for the year of 2010. The aim was to determine (CH4) and (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure in Brazil using the IPCC United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach and present a framework that structures priority research for decreasing uncertainties and assessing mitigation scenarios. The analysis consisted of the use of specific farm...

  15. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raies A Mir

    Full Text Available Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260 from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans.

  16. Evidence for pleiotropism and recent selection in the PLAG1 region in Australian Beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Kemper, K; Sasazaki, S; Reverter, A; Pryce, J E; Barendse, W; Bunch, R; McCulloch, R; Harrison, B; Bolormaa, S; Zhang, Y D; Hawken, R J; Goddard, M E; Lehnert, S A

    2013-12-01

    A putative functional mutation (rs109231213) near PLAG1 (BTA14) associated with stature was studied in beef cattle. Data from 8199 Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Tropical Composite cattle were used to test the associations between rs109231213 and various phenotypes. Further, 23 496 SNPs located on BTA14 were tested for association with these phenotypes, both independently and fitted together with rs109231213. The C allele of rs109231213 significantly increased hip height, weight, net food intake, age at puberty in males and females and decreased IGF-I concentration in blood and fat depth. When rs109231213 was fitted as a fixed effect in the model, there was an overall reduction in associations between other SNPs and these traits but some SNPs remained associated (P B. indicus (0.52), B. taurus (0.96) and Tropical Composite (0.68). Most chromosomes carrying the C allele had the same surrounding 10 SNP haplotype, probably because the C allele was introgressed into Brahman from B. taurus cattle. A region of reduced heterozygosity surrounds the C allele; this is small in B. taurus but 20 Mb long in Brahmans, indicating recent and strong selection for the mutant allele. Thus, the C allele appears to mark a mutation that has been selected almost to fixation in the B. taurus breeds studied here and introduced into Brahman cattle during grading up and selected to a frequency of 0.52 despite its negative effects on fertility. PMID:23909810

  17. Methane emissions and estimates of ruminal fermentation parameters in beef cattle fed different dietary concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio dos Santos Pedreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Using sorghum silage, the effect of roughage/concentrate ratios was evaluated on nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters and methane production by beef cattle. Three treatments (0, 30 and 60% of concentrate in DM of the diet were distributed in three Latin squares, with nine animals and three periods. Dry matter intake increased as the grain concentration in diet increased; pH showed opposite behavior. Methane emissions were lower for animals fed the diet exclusively with sorghum silage as compared with those fed 30% of concentrate, but was similar to that of animals receiving 60% of concentrate. Losses of ingested gross energy as methane were reduced by 33% when grain concentration was increased in the diet. Concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were greater in diets with grain concentrate; acetic acid concentration was not affected. Concentrate in diet increases available energy for the metabolism, measured by lower losses of ingested gross energy as ruminal methane.

  18. A meta-analytic assessment of a Thyroglobulin marker for marbling in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengersen Kerrie L

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A meta-analysis was undertaken reporting on the association between a polymorphism in the Thyroglobulin gene (TG5 and marbling in beef cattle. A Bayesian hierarchical model was adopted, with alternative representations assessed through sensitivity analysis. Based on the overall posterior means and posterior probabilities, there is substantial support for an additive association between the TG5 marker and marbling. The marker effect was also assessed across various breed groups, with each group displaying a high probability of positive association between the T allele and marbling. The WinBUGS program code used to simulate the model is included as an Appendix available online at http://www.edpsciences.org/gse.

  19. Real-time PCR genotyping and frequency of the myostatin F94L mutation in beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankan, D M; Waine, D R; Fortes, M R S

    2010-04-01

    This research developed two real-time PCR assays, employing high-resolution melt and allele-specific analysis to accurately genotype the F94L mutation in cattle. This mutation (g.433C > A) in the growth differentiation factor 8 or myostatin gene has recently been shown to be functionally associated with increased muscle mass and carcass yield in cattle. The F94L mutation is not, like other myostatin mutations, associated with reduced fertility and dystocia. It is therefore a candidate for introgression into other breeds to improve retail beef yield and the development of a simple and accurate test to genotype this specific mutation is warranted. Variations in the efficiency of enzyme cleavage compromised the accuracy of genotyping by published methods, potentially resulting in an overestimation of the frequency of the mutant allele. The frequency of the F94L mutation was determined by real-time PCR in 1140 animals from 15 breeds of cattle in Australia. The mutation was present in Simmental (0.8%), Piedmontese (2%), Droughtmaster (4%) and Limousin (94.2%) but not found in Salers, Angus, Poll Hereford, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Charolais, Jersey, Brahman, Holstein, Shorthorn or Maine Anjou. The low prevalence of F94L in all beef breeds except Limousin indicates the significant potential for this mutation to improve retail yield in Australian beef cattle. PMID:22444040

  20. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population. PMID:17686891

  1. Inbreeding effects on postweaning production traits, conformation, and calving performance in Irish beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Kearney, J F; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inbreeding on carcass quality, growth rate, live conformation measures, and calving performance in purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Hereford, and Angus beef cattle using data from Irish commercial and pedigree herds. Variables analyzed are reflective of commercial farming practices. Inbreeding was included in a linear mixed model as either a class variable or a linear continuous variable. Nonlinear effects were nonsignificant across all traits. Inbred animals had decreased carcass weight and less carcass fat. The effects of inbreeding were more pronounced in the British beef breeds. Effects for carcass weight ranged from -0.87 kg (Charolais) to -1.90 kg (Hereford) per 1% increase in inbreeding. Inbred Charolais and Hereford animals were younger at slaughter by 3 and 5 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding, whereas the effect of inbreeding on age at slaughter differed significantly with animal sex in the Limousin and Angus breeds. Inbred Limousin and Angus heifers were younger at slaughter by 5 and 7 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding. Continental animals were more affected by inbreeding for live muscling and skeletal conformational measurements than the British breeds; inbred animals were smaller and narrower with poorer developed muscle. Calf inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford animals. The effects were dependent upon dam parity and calf sex; however, where significant, the association was always unfavorable. Dam inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Limousin and Hereford animals. Effects differed by parity in Limousins. Inbred first-parity Angus dams had a greater incidence of dystocia. Although the effects of inbreeding were some-times significant, they were small and are unlikely to make a large financial effect on commercial beef production in Ireland. PMID

  2. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; de Souza, Marcela Maria

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05) found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  3. Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle reared under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mondragón-Zavala

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies and prevalence of parasite DNA in blood, and estimate the association between seroprevalence and the potential risk of some factors in beef cattle under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico. Materials and methods. Blood samples from 139 cows and only 10 bulls belonging to 13 farms were collected and evaluated by ELISA test to detect antibodies against N. caninum. Furthermore, to determine the presence of parasite DNA, nested PCR probe was performed on blood samples. Association between potential risk factors and seroprevalence was estimated. Results. Overall seroprevalence was 23% (35/149 samples, while the prevalence of parasite DNA in blood was 28% (42/149 samples. Of the 149 animals examined 28 (19% were positive to both tests (25 cows and 3 bulls. Concordance between tests was k = 0.63. All herds had seropositive animals with positive parasite DNA detection in blood. The only risk factor identified was the presence of dogs (OR= 2.65. Conclusions. This study showed that bovine neospososis should be considered as an important infectious disease in north-central Mexico herds. Therefore, an epidemiological control should be taken into consideration to avoid the negative effect of this disease on mexican beef industry.

  4. Performance of beef cattle bulls in feed lots and fed on diets containing enzymatic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Guimarães de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current paper evaluates the performance of confined beef cattle supplemented with amylolytic enzyme complex produced by fungus Aspergillus awamori and a commercial product containing multienzyme complex, yeast and MOS. Treatments comprised control (basal diet composed of 16% Mombasa grass silage, 66% ground corn, 3% vitamin nuclear mineral and 15% cottonseed meal, amylase treatment (control diet with the addition of 48.7 saccharifying units kg-1 diet and compound treatment (control diet with the addition of enzymatic complex composed of 83.2 saccharifying units, 8.8 fibrolytic units, 0.05 g of mannan oligosaccharides and 0.2 g of inactivated yeast Kg-1 of the dry matter diet. The addition of products did not significantly increase daily weight gain, intake, feed conversion and carcass yield of cattle. There was no difference between in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD in the diets. The percentage of residual fecal starch was not influenced by exogenous amylolytic enzymes of amylase and compound treatments. The tested products were not able to improve animal performance.

  5. Prevalence and Antibiogram of Generic Enterococci in Ready-to-Slaughter Beef Cattle

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    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rectal swabs were collected from 95, systematic randomly selected, apparently healthy beef cattle, in order to isolate generic enterococci in Nsukka Southeast, Nigeria, and thus to determine the antibacterial resistance profile of the isolates. Isolation of enterococci was done using Slanetz-Bartley enterococci selective medium. Phenotypic characterization of the isolates to generic level was done following standard biochemical methods. Phenotypic resistance of the isolates to antibacterial agents was determined using the disc diffusion method. From 95 swabs, 93 (97.89% were positive for enterococci. Of the 93 isolates, 10 (10.75% were haemolytic Enterococcus species, while 83 (89.25% were non-haemolytic Enterococcus species. Out of 75 isolates, all (100% were resistant to cefoxitin, 66 (88% were resistant to ampicillin, 71 (94% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 68(90.7% to ceftriaxone, 42 (56% to streptomycin, 74 (98.67% to gentamicin, 16 (21.3% to tetracycline, 5 (6.7% to vancomycin, 62 (82.7% to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and 1 (1.3% to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. None of the isolate was resistant to imipenem. The enterococcal isolates exhibited 22 resistance patterns. Out of 75 isolates, 1 (1.3% isolate was resistant to 1 class of antibacterial agents, 9 (12% were resistant to 2 classes, and 65 (86.7% to 3 or more classes. This study has shown that cattle slaughtered in Nsukka Southeast Nigeria are potential reservoirs and disseminators of multidrug-resistant enterococci.

  6. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot. PMID:27066712

  7. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  8. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis. PMID:27537842

  9. Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify feed additives that reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. We measured methane emissions, total tract digestibility (using chromic oxide), and ruminal fermentation (4 h after feeding) in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods and was conducted using 16 Angus heifers (initial BW of 260 +/- 32 kg). Treatments were: control (no additive), fumaric acid (175 g/d) with sodium bicarbonate (75 g/d), essential oil and spice extract (1 g/d), or canola oil (4.6% of DMI). The basal diet consisted of 75% whole-crop barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber) were equipped to measure methane emissions for 3 d each period. Adding canola oil to the diet decreased (P = 0.009) total daily methane emissions by 32% and tended (P = 0.09) to decrease methane emissions as a percentage of gross energy intake by 21%. However, much of the reduction in methane emissions was due to decreased (P methane emissions. In contrast, adding fumaric acid to the diet increased total VFA concentration (P = 0.03), increased propionate proportions (P = 0.01), and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.002), but there was no measurable effect on methane emissions. The study demonstrates that canola oil can be used to reduce methane losses from cattle, but animal performance may be compromised due to lower feed intake and decreased fiber digestibility. Essential oils had no effect on methane emissions, whereas fumaric acid caused potentially beneficial changes in ruminal fermentation but no measurable reductions in methane emissions. PMID:16699105

  10. The effects of hair density of beef cattle on Haematobia irritans horn fly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, C D; Brown, M A; Gbur, E E; Tolley, G

    1997-07-01

    We show the relationships that exist between the amount of hair and quantity of sebum on cattle skin and the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 2390 and 1587 hairs per cm2, respectively, significantly more than the mean number of hairs on Angus, Brahman x Angus Crossbred, Charolais, and Red Poll steers. The Chianina steers had > 30% more sebum present on their skin and hair (0.58g/929 cm2) than the Angus, Charolais, and Red Poll steers at the Beef Cattle Research Station Savoy, Arkansas. The Brahman steers had a significantly greater amount of sebum present on the skin (1.51 g/929 cm2) than the Crossbred and purebred Angus steers (0.55 and 0.25 g/929 cm2, respectively) at the South Central Family Farms Research Centre Booneville, Arkansas. The Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 61.9 and 17.0 horn flies per steer, respectively, during the fly season, whereas the Angus, Crossbred, Charolais and Red Poll steers had fly season means that ranged from 76.9 to 265.8 flies per steer. Regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 hairs per cm2, was associated with a reduction of 11 horn flies in the Angus II, 5 in Angus I, 20 in Charolais, 37 in Red Poll, and 0.4 in Chianina steers at the Savoy Station and a reduction of 6.6 horn flies for the Angus, Brahman, and Crossbred steers at the Booneville Centre. Regardless of cattle breed, an increase of 1.0 g of sebum per 929 cm2 output by the steer was associated with 478.5 additional hairs per cm2 on the animal. Each increase of 0.25 g of sebum per 929 cm2 resulted in a decrease of 9.2 horn flies per steer. We conclude that some of the factors responsible for fly-resistance in cattle are hair density and the corresponding amount of sebum present on cattle skin and hair. PMID:9330257

  11. Comparison of ELISA and LC-MS/MS for the measurement of flunixin plasma concentrations in beef cattle after intravenous and subcutaneous administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) with only simple preparation steps to determine flunixin plasma concentrations in healthy beef cattle was explored. Eight cattle (288 ± 22 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin free acid in a cross-over design by subcutaneo...

  12. Cortisol Hormone Concentration and Meat Quality of Beef Cattle Stunned by Captive Bolt Stun Gun before Slaughtering

    OpenAIRE

    K. Maghfiroh; H. Latif; K. Santoso

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to describe cortisol hormone concentration and meat quality which were produced in beef cattle stunned with captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering. Blood and meat samples were taken from Brahman cross steers (n= 11) in two abattoirs located in West Java and Banten. Blood samples were collected immediately after slaughtering. Cortisol hormone concentration in the serum was measured by using radioimmunoassay (RIA). The descriptive, correlation, and regression analyses we...

  13. Comparison of Metabolic Network between Muscle and Intramuscular Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Beef Cattle Using a Systems Biology Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Jeong Lee; Hye-Sun Park; Woonsu Kim; Duhak Yoon; Seongwon Seo

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationship between muscle and adipose tissues plays a major role in determining the quality of carcass traits. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic differences between muscle and intramuscular adipose (IMA) tissues in the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) using the RNA-seq technology and a systems biology approach. The LD sections between the 6th and 7th ribs were removed from nine (each of three cows, steers, and bulls) Hanwoo beef cattle (carc...

  14. The effect of sex and DGAT1 gene polymorphism on fat deposition traits in simmental beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Karolyi D.; Čubrić-Čurik Vlatka; Salajpal K.; Đikić Marija

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene K232A mutation in Simmental cattle and its effects on fat deposition traits. The sample (n=26) consisted of yearling bulls and beef heifers from an intensive rearing system in Croatia. Carcass fatness was assessed by total dissection method, whereas intramuscular fat (m. longissimus dorsi) content was determined using Soxhlet extraction with hydrolysis. Intramuscular fatty acid composit...

  15. Reconciling industry policy and comparative advantage: the regional distribution of China’s cattle and beef industry

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Scott A.; Brown, Colin G.

    2000-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years on ‘local state corporatism’, centre-region relations, government and enterprise reform and on sustainable rural and agricultural development in China. Based on some of the theoretical underpinnings of this literature, and on extensive fieldwork in the full range of administrative levels, this paper presents an institutional approach to one Chinese rural industry. For a number of reasons, the Chinese cattle and beef industry serves as a highly revealing c...

  16. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Marie J. Haskell; John A Rooke; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body ...

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTRIBUTES OF BEEF CATTLE RAISED USING ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY AND PRICES RECEIVED AT THE PACKERS: A HEDONIC PRICE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Perkins, Tommy; Paschal, Joe C.

    2003-01-01

    Sluggish growth in per capita consumption and a downward pressure on beef price at the farm level has required producers to raise cattle that precisely target the meat attributes desired by consumers. Ultrasound technology can help farmers to produce a carcass with an optimal mix of marbling and muscling, and external fat. The results of this study show a high level of accuracy of ultrasound technology in predicting carcass attributes. An estimated hedonic regression model shows that the carc...

  18. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Deobald Heather M; Buchanan Fiona C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield) and quality (degree of marbling) in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) has pre...

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (pcattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan. PMID:24180587

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prasetyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meettheir obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions(5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fatteningand cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage clusterrandom sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang,Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Datawere analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiplelinear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calfoperation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510.Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital,collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capitaland collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effectson credit return.

  1. Progesterone receptor up-regulation: a diagnostic tool for the illicit use of oestrogens in adult beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divari, S; Mulasso, C; Uslenghi, F; Cannizzo, F T; Spada, F; De Maria, R; Brina, N; Biolatti, B

    2011-12-01

    The monitoring of gene regulation via mRNA levels to detect anabolic sex steroid administration in cattle is a novel approach to detecting the illicit treatment of livestock in meat production. A previous study revealed that progesterone receptor (PR) gene expression levels were increased in the bulbourethral glands and prostates of 17β-oestradiol-treated prepubertal calves, suggesting that the PR can be used as a specific molecular biomarker for oestrogen treatment. The aim of this study was to verify the specificity and applicability of the PR to detect the illegal use of 17β-oestradiol in sexually mature beef cattle. Accessory sex glands were sampled from 42 male beef cattle that were divided into six experimental groups, including two control groups, K1 and K2. Group A cattle were treated with 17β-oestradiol (five weekly intramuscular doses of 20 mg), and group B cattle were treated with dexamethasone (40 daily doses of 0.7 mg per os). Group C cattle received an implant of Revalor-200 (200 mg of trenbolone acetate and 20 mg of 17β-oestradiol), and group D cattle received Revalor-200 plus dexamethasone (0.7 mg daily per os). 17β-Oestradiol, either alone or in combination with other steroids, up-regulated the PR gene and protein expression, even in the absence of detectable histological changes in the accessory sex glands, confirming the high sensitivity of PR gene expression as an indirect diagnostic screening tool to detect illicit oestrogen treatment in sexually mature male bovine. PMID:22014147

  2. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management. PMID:26484575

  3. Methane emissions from beef and dairy cattle: quantifying the effect of physiological stage and diet characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P; Rooke, J A; Nevison, I; Waterhouse, A

    2013-11-01

    The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement for a beef farming system of using more specific mathematical models to predict CH4 from cattle at different physiological stages and fed different diet types. A meta-analysis was performed on 211 treatment means from 38 studies where CH4, intake, animal, and feed characteristics had been recorded. Additional information such as type of enterprise, diet type, physiological stage, CH4 measurement technique, intake restriction, and CH4 reduction treatment application from these studies were used as classificatory factors. A series of equations for different physiological stages and diet types based on DMI or GE intake explained 96% of the variation in observed CH4 outputs (Pbeef systems. Observed BW and BW change data from cows with calves at side grazing either hill or lowland grassland, cows and overwintering calves and finishing steers fed contrasting diets were used to predict energy requirements, intake, and CH4 outputs. Compared with using this IPCC equation, NewEqs predicted up to 26% lower CH4 on average from individual lactating grazing cows. At the herd level, differences between equation estimates from 10 to 17% were observed in total annual accumulated CH4 when applied to the 4 diverse beef production systems. Overall, despite the small number of animals used it was demonstrated that there is a biological impact of using more specific CH4 prediction equations. Based on this approach, farm and national carbon budgets will be more accurate, contributing to reduced uncertainty in assessing mitigation options at farm and national level. PMID:24174549

  4. Technical note: Evaluation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Mang, A V; Cook, N; Orsel, K; Timsit, E

    2015-08-01

    Behavioral observations are important to detect illness in beef cattle. However, traditional observation techniques are time and labor intensive and may be subjective. The objective was to validate a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle (Fedometer [FEDO]; ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel). Sixteen steers (initial BW ± SD = 326 ± 46 kg) were fitted with data loggers (FEDO) on their left front leg and housed in a pen with a feedbunk equipped with an antenna emitting an electromagnetic field that reached 30 ± 2 cm in front of the feedbunk. Feedbunk attendance (duration of visit and frequency of meals) measured by FEDO was compared with live observations (27 observational periods lasting between 72 and 240 min; mean 126 min). Lying time and frequency of lying bouts were compared with previously validated accelerometers fitted to the hind leg (10 steers equipped for 10 to 12 d; HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger [HOBO]; Onset Computer Corporation, Pocasset, MA). Step counts were compared with video recordings (15 observations for 6-min intervals in 6 steers). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), accounting for repeated measures, and limits of agreement were computed. Comparison between FEDO and observed time at the feedbunk yielded a CCC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-0.99). All 68 meal events observed were recorded by FEDO. However, FEDO recorded 4 meal events during the 27 observational periods that were not observed. Lying time measured by HOBO and FEDO were highly correlated (CCC = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99). However, frequency of lying bouts measured by FEDO was only moderately correlated to HOBO (CCC = 0.71; 95% CI 0.63-0.77); FEDO underestimating the number of lying bouts (on average, 0.4 fewer bouts per 6 h). Step count by FEDO was moderately correlated to video observations (CCC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49-0.89); FEDO overestimating the number of steps (on average, 5 more steps per 6 min). In conclusion, the FEDO

  5. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Parker, David B. [USDA Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE (United States); Snow, Daniel D. [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhou, Zhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Li, Xu, E-mail: xuli@unl.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3 × 10{sup −1} copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. - Highlights: • Partitioning of antimicrobials between water and sludge is compound specific. • Antimicrobial resistance genes occurred in both water and sludge. • The ARG abundance varied more substantially in swine lagoons than in cattle ponds. • Correlations between ARGs and antimicrobials are system dependent.

  6. A single nucleotide polymorphism in NEUROD1 is associated with production traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, P S N; Tizioto, P C; Malago, W; do Nascimento, M L; Cesar, A S M; Diniz, W J S; de Souza, M M; Lanna, D P D; Tullio, R R; Mourão, G B; de A Mudadu, M; Coutinho, L L; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-01-01

    Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed. By sequencing 14 animals with extreme residual feed intake (RFI) values, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEUROD1 were identified. The investigation of marker effects on the target traits RFI, backfat thickness (BFT), ribeye area (REA), average body weight (ABW), and metabolic body weight (MBW) was performed with a mixed model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. SNP1062, which changes cytosine for guanine, had no significant association with RFI or REA. However, we found an additive effect on ABW (P ≤ 0.05) and MBW (P ≤ 0.05), with an estimated allele substitution effect of -1.59 and -0.93 kg0.75, respectively. A dominant effect of this SNP for BFT was also found (P ≤ 0.010). Our results are the first that identify NEUROD1 as a candidate that affects BFT, ABW, and MBW. Once confirmed, the inclusion of this SNP in dense panels may improve the accuracy of genomic selection for these traits in Nelore beef cattle as this SNP is not currently represented on SNP chips. PMID:27420997

  7. Methane Emissions from a Beef Cattle Feedyard during Winter and Summer on the Southern High Plains of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W; Altman, Miriam B; Cole, N Andy; Waldrip, Heidi M

    2014-07-01

    Methane (CH) emissions from enteric fermentation by livestock account for about 2.1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, with beef and dairy cattle being the most significant sources. A better understanding of CH emissions from beef cattle feedyards can help build more accurate emission inventories, improve predictive models, and meet potential regulatory requirements. Our objective was to quantify CH emissions during winter and summer at a typical beef cattle feedyard on the southern High Plains in Texas. Methane emissions were quantified over 32 d in winter and 44 d in summer using open-path lasers and inverse dispersion analysis. Methane per capita emission rate (PCER) ranged from 71 to 118 g animal d in winter and from 70 to 130 g animal d in summer. Mean CH PCER was similar in January, February, and May (average, 85.0 ± 0.95 g animal d) and increased to 93.4 g animal d during the June-July period. This increase coincided with increased dietary fiber. Methane loss ranged from 9.2 to 11.4 g CH kg dry matter intake, with lower values during winter. Gross energy intake (GEI) ranged from 135.2 to 164.5 MJ animal d, and CH energy loss ranged from 4.5 to 4.9 MJ animal d. Fraction of GEI lost as CH (Y) averaged 2.8% in winter, 3.2% in summer, and 3.0% overall. These values confirm the Y value currently recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for Tier 2 estimates of enteric CH from feedlot fed cattle. PMID:25603061

  8. Effect of beef cattle manure application rate on CH4 and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Parker, David; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Chang-Sang

    2012-12-01

    In a series of field experiments, emissions of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured using a closed chamber technique in summer 2010 to evaluate the effects of solid beef cattle manure land application techniques. The treatments included a control (C: no manure), two manure application rates (40 and 80 T ha-1), and two injection layers (surface vs. subsurface (5 cm)): (1) 40 T ha-1 on surface (S40), (2) 80 T ha-1 on surface (S80), (3) 40 T ha-1 at subsurface (D40), and (4) 80 T ha-1 at subsurface (D80)). The exchange patterns of CH4 and CO2 in the control were variable and showed both emission and deposition. However, only emissions were seen in the manure treatments. Emissions of CH4 were seen systematically on the ascending order of 5.35 (C), 59.3 (S40), 68.7 (D40), 188 (S80), and 208 μg m-2 h-1 (D80), while those of CO2 also showed a similar trend: 12.9 (C), 37.6 (S40), 55.8 (D40), 82.4 (S80), and 95.4 mg m-2 h-1 (D80). The overall results of our study suggest that the emissions of CH4 and CO2 are affected most noticeably by the differences in the amount of manure application.

  9. Comparing Carbon and Water Footprints for Beef Cattle Production in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley G. Ridoutt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone environmental indicators based on life cycle assessment (LCA, such as the carbon footprint and water footprint, are becoming increasingly popular as a means of directing sustainable production and consumption. However, individually, these metrics violate the principle of LCA known as comprehensiveness and do not necessarily provide an indication of overall environmental impact. In this study, the carbon footprints for six diverse beef cattle production systems in southern Australia were calculated and found to range from 10.1 to 12.7 kg CO2e kg−1 live weight (cradle to farm gate. This compared to water footprints, which ranged from 3.3 to 221 L H2Oe kg−1 live weight. For these systems, the life cycle impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water use were subsequently modelled using endpoint indicators and aggregated to enable comparison. In all cases, impacts from GHG emissions were most important, representing 93 to 99% of the combined scores. As such, the industry’s existing priority of GHG emissions reduction is affirmed. In an attempt to balance the demands of comprehensiveness and simplicity, to achieve reliable public reporting of the environmental impacts of a large number of products across the economy, a multi-indicator approach based on combined midpoint and endpoint life cycle impact assessment modelling is proposed. For agri-food products, impacts from land use should also be included as tradeoffs between GHG emissions, water use and land use are common.

  10. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L

    2013-12-01

    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle. PMID

  11. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  12. Farm-level Economic Evaluation of Net Feed Efficiency in Australia’s Southern Beef Cattle Production System: A Multi-period Linear Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Andrew R.; Griffith, Garry R.; Cacho, Oscar J.

    2003-01-01

    Selection of beef cattle for increased net feed efficiency is a current major focus for research. At present the trait seems to be more apparent in Australia’s southern beef production system which is dominated by mixed farming enterprises. Farm-level evaluation of net feed efficiency should take account of the farming system for which it is proposed along with the dynamic nature of genetic selection. Gross margin, linear programming and multi-period linear programming approaches to evaluatio...

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid on nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Guangyong; Lin, Shixin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the trial was to study the effects of dietary supplementation of gallic acid (GA) on nitrogen (N) balance, N excretion pattern and urinary N constituents in beef cattle. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four male 30-month-old Simmental cattle (443 ± 22 kg live weight) received four levels of GA (purity ≥ 98.5%), i.e. 0, 5.3, 10.5, 21.1 g/kg DM, added to a basal ration. Each experimental period lasted 17 d, consisting of 12 d adaptation and 5 d sampling. The results showed that supplementation of GA at 5.3, 10.5 or 21.1 g/kg DM did not affect the N balance but regulated the N excretion pattern by increasing the ratio of faecal N/urinary N and decreasing the ratio of urinary urea N/total urinary N in beef cattle fed at maintenance level. PMID:27494638

  14. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  15. Assessing Sustainability of Smallholder Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: A case study using the FAO SAFA Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Gassó-Tortajada, Vicent; Vaarst, Mette

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to assess the sustainability of smallholder beef cattle farms in Indonesia, where there is a national goal to improve the country’s beef self-sufficiency, and to explore and discuss potential improvement limitations and solutions. This article presents a sustainability assessment...... based on the FAO SAFA (Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems) of six selected family farms representing three types of family farming systems (with only family labour; with hired labour; and with hired labour and a 'middleman in marketing system'). Individual structured interviews...... based on the SAFA guidelines were conducted and the results analysed with the SAFA Tool software. The results showed that the SAFA sustainability performance generally scored better in the farming system with relatively more resources and hired labour, and the household head also working as middleman...

  16. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH4 and N2O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH4 and N2O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH4 and N2O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO2-eq of CH4 and N2O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH4 emissions dominated the CO2-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH4 emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH4 and N2O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO2-eq emissions but tended to grow

  18. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P beef cattle caused a sustained decrease of methanogenesis, with no sign of adaptation, and that these effects were reversed once NOP addition was discontinued PMID:26020199

  19. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in akirin 2 gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahagi Youichi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The c17-25 expressed sequence tag (EST has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus, the akirin 2 (AKIRIN2 gene containing the c17-25 EST sequence was considered as a positional functional candidate for the gene responsible for marbling. In this study, we explored single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the AKIRIN2 and analyzed association of the SNP with marbling. Findings A SNP in the 3' untranslated region of the AKIRIN2, referred to as c.*188G>A, was the only difference detected between high- and low-marbled steer groups. The SNP was associated with marbling in 3 experiments using 100 sires (P = 0.041, 753 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 4 sires heterozygous for the c.*188G>A (P = 0.005, and 730 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 3 sires homozygous for the A allele at the c.*188G>A (P = 0.047, in Japanese Black beef cattle. The effect of genotypes of the SNP on subcutaneous fat thickness was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion These findings suggest that the AKIRIN2 SNP polymorphism is associated with marbling and may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle.

  20. Assessment of progesterone profiles and postpartum onset of luteal activity in spring calving Hereford beef suckler cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldmann Andres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproduction is the single greatest factor limiting beef cattle production. Previous research on beef suckler luteal activity has largely focused on the mechanisms, and duration, of postpartum anoestrus. However, the temporal pattern of luteal activity after resumption of post-partum ovarian activity, and the impact of pattern type on days open (DO in purebred beef suckler cows, are unknown. Methods Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken thrice weekly from 120 lactations, in 87 animals, on 3 farms, over two years. Onset of luteal activity (OLA was defined as the first day milk progesterone concentration exceeded 3 ng/ml for two successive measurements, or exceeded 5 ng/ml once. It was defined as delayed if it occurred more than 61 days postpartum. A short initial luteal phase consisted of progesterone concentrations which exceeded 3 ng/ml for fewer than 4 sequential measurements. Temporal progesterone patterns were classified as: 1 Normal cyclicity; 2 Cessation of luteal activity; 3 Prolonged luteal activity; 4 Erratic phase: failure to conform to 1, 2 or 3. Data concerning parity, previous calving interval, breeding values, calf birth and 200-d weight were obtained from the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System database. Results The mean (SD OLA was 41 d (20. Parity and calf birth weight were inversely correlated with OLA. Delayed OLA occurred in 14.4% of lactations. A short first luteal phase occurred in 61.5% of lactations, but this was unrelated to irregular luteal phase occurrence, pregnancy or DO. Irregular luteal phases occurred in 22% of lactations. The irregularities were: prolonged luteal phase (11%; cessation of luteal activity (5%; erratic luteal activity (6%. Early OLA was associated with prolonged luteal phases. DO was positively correlated with irregular luteal phases and negatively correlated with calf 200-d weight. Conclusions This study demonstrates that irregular luteal phases

  1. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  2. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactam...

  3. Accuracy of genomic predictions for feed efficiency traits of beef cattle using 50K and imputed HD genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Akanno, E C; Crowley, J J; Schenkel, F; Li, H; De Pauw, M; Moore, S S; Wang, Z; Li, C; Stothard, P; Plastow, G; Miller, S P; Basarab, J A

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of genomic predictions can be used to assess the utility of dense marker genotypes for genetic improvement of beef efficiency traits. This study was designed to test the impact of genomic distance between training and validation populations, training population size, statistical methods, and density of genetic markers on prediction accuracy for feed efficiency traits in multibreed and crossbred beef cattle. A total of 6,794 beef cattle data collated from various projects and research herds across Canada were used. Illumina BovineSNP50 (50K) and imputed Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array (HD) genotypes were available for all animals. The traits studied were DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI). Four validation groups of 150 animals each, including Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), Angus-Hereford crosses (ANHH), and a Charolais-based composite (TX) were created by considering the genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the validation groups. Each validation group had 7 corresponding training groups of increasing sizes ( = 1,000, 1,999, 2,999, 3,999, 4,999, 5,998, and 6,644), which also represent increasing average genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the training and validations groups. Prediction of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) was performed using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian method C (BayesC). The accuracy of genomic predictions was defined as the Pearson's correlation between adjusted phenotype and GEBV (), unless otherwise stated. Using 50K genotypes, the highest average achieved in purebreds (AN, CH) was 0.41 for DMI, 0.34 for ADG, and 0.35 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.21 for ADG, and 0.25 for RFI. Similarly, when imputed HD genotypes were applied in purebreds (AN, CH), the highest average was 0.14 for DMI, 0.15 for ADG, and 0.14 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.22 for ADG, and 0.24 for RFI. The of GBLUP predictions were

  4. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in akirin 2 gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Seiki; Yamada, Takahisa; Sukegawa, Shin; Miyake, Takeshi; Fujita, Tatsuo; MORITA, Mitsuo; Ohta, Takeshi; Takahagi, Youichi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background: Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The c17-25 expressed sequence tag (EST) has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus, the akirin 2 (AKIRIN2) gene containing the c17-25 EST sequence ...

  5. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

    2014-05-01

    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as

  6. Genetic analysis of carcass traits in beef cattle using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englishby, T M; Banos, G; Moore, K L; Coffey, M P; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-04-01

    Livestock mature at different rates depending, in part, on their genetic merit; therefore, the optimal age at slaughter for progeny of certain sires may differ. The objective of the present study was to examine sire-level genetic profiles for carcass weight, carcass conformation, and carcass fat in cattle of multiple beef and dairy breeds, including crossbreeds. Slaughter records from 126,214 heifers and 124,641 steers aged between 360 and 1,200 d and from 86,089 young bulls aged between 360 and 720 d were used in the analysis; animals were from 15,127 sires. Variance components for each trait across age at slaughter were generated using sire random regression models that included quadratic polynomials for fixed and random effects; heterogeneous residual variances were assumed across ages. Heritability estimates across genders ranged from 0.08 (±0.02) to 0.34 (±0.02) for carcass weight, from 0.24 (±0.02) to 0.42 (±0.01) for conformation, and from 0.16 (±0.03) to 0.40 (±0.02) for fat score. Genetic correlations within each trait across ages weakened as the interval between ages compared lengthened but were all >0.64, suggesting a similar genetic background for each trait across different ages. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed genetic variability among animals in their growth profiles for carcass traits, although most of the genetic variability was associated with the height of the growth profile. At the same age, a positive genetic correlation (0.60 to 0.78; SE ranged from 0.01 to 0.04) existed between carcass weight and conformation, whereas negative genetic correlations existed between fatness and both conformation (-0.46 to 0.08; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.09) and carcass weight (-0.48 to -0.16; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.14) at the same age. The estimated genetic parameters in the present study indicate genetic variability in the growth trajectory in cattle, which can be exploited through breeding programs and

  7. Methane emissions from beef cattle: Effects of monensin, sunflower oil, enzymes, yeast, and fumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Coates, T; Colombatto, D

    2004-11-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the effects of diet on enteric methane production can help refine GHG emission inventories and identify viable GHG reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane and carbon dioxide emissions, total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives or ingredients. Two experiments, each designed as a 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods, were conducted using 16 Holstein steers (initial BW 311.6 +/- 12.3 kg). In Exp. 1, treatments were control (no additive), monensin (Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN; 33 mg/kg DM), sunflower oil (400 g/d, approximately 5% of DMI), and proteolytic enzyme (Protex 6-L, Genencor Int., Inc., CA; 1 mL/kg DM). In Exp. 2, treatments were control (no additive), Procreatin-7 yeast (Prince Agri Products, Inc., Quincy, IL; 4 g/d), Levucell SC yeast (Lallemand, Inc., Rexdale, Ontario, Canada; 1 g/d), and fumaric acid (Bartek Ingredients Inc., Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada; 80 g/d). The basal diet consisted of 75% barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley grain, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (two animals per chamber) were equipped with lasers and infrared gas analyzers to measure methane and carbon dioxide, respectively, for 3 d each period. Total-tract digestibility was determined using chromic oxide. Approximately 6.5% of the GE consumed was lost in the form of methane emissions from animals fed the control diet. In Exp. 1, sunflower oil decreased methane emissions by 22% (P = 0.001) compared with the control, whereas monensin (P = 0.44) and enzyme had no effect (P = 0.82). However, oil decreased (P = 0.03) the total-tract digestibility of NDF by 20%. When CH(4) emissions were corrected for differences in energy intake, the loss of GE to methane was decreased by 21% (P = 0.002) using oil and by 9% (P = 0.09) using monensin. In Exp. 2

  8. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  9. Effects of chitosan on nutrient digestibility, methane emissions, and in vitro fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D D; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Ciriaco, F M; Kohmann, M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; DiLorenzo, N

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan was evaluated as a feed additive to mitigate in vivo CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Twenty-four crossbred heifers (BW = 318 ± 35 kg) were used in a randomized block design replicated in 2 periods. The design included a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, which included diet (high concentrate [HC] or low concentrate [LC]) and 0.0, 0.5, or 1.0% of chitosan inclusion (DM basis). Diets were offered ad libitum and individual intake was recorded. An in vitro experiment to analyze chitosan’s effect on fermentation parameters and gas production kinetics was performed. A diet effect (P 0.10) by chitosan in HC substrate; however, when incubated with the LC substrate, CH4 production increased quadratically (P < 0.01) as chitosan inclusion increased. A digestibility marker × diet interaction occurred (P < 0.05) for DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. Diet × chitosan interactions (P < 0.05) occurred for DM, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility when Cr2O3 was used. When TiO2 was used, diet × chitosan interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for NDF and ADF. However, using indigestible NDF as an internal marker, DM and OM digestibility were improved (P < 0.05) by 21 and 19%, respectively, when chitosan was included in LC diets. In conclusion, feeding up to 1% of chitosan (DM basis) to heifers consuming a LC diet increased apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by chitosan feeding, regardless of type of diet, and heifers consuming a 36% concentrate diet produced 2.6 times more methane per day than those consuming an 85% concentrate diet. PMID:26440023

  10. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd - 1st case in 27 years: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granberg Malin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The carcasses were reportedly normal in appearance, particularly as regards rigor mortis, bleeding and coagulation of the blood. Subsequently, three more animals died and anthrax was suspected at necropsy and confirmed by culture and PCR on blood samples. The isolated strain was susceptible to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Subtyping by MLVA showed the strain to cluster with isolates in the A lineage of Bacillus anthracis. Environmental samples from the holding were all negative except for two soil samples taken from a spot where infected carcasses had been kept until they were picked up for transport. The most likely source of the infection was concluded to be contaminated roughage, although this could not be substantiated by laboratory analysis. The suspected feed was mixed with soil and dust and originated from fields where flooding occurred the previous year, followed by a dry summer with a very low water level in the river allowing for the harvesting on soil usually not exposed. In the early 1900s, animal carcasses are said to have been dumped in this river during anthrax outbreaks and it is most likely that some anthrax spores could remain in the area. The case indicates that untypical cases in non-endemic areas may be missed to a larger extent than previously thought. Field tests allowing a preliminary risk assessment of animal carcasses would be helpful for increased sensitivity of detection and prevention of further exposure to the causative

  11. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd--1st case in 27 years: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Elvander, Marianne; Westermark, Therese; Hartzell, Lisbeth Nisu; Norström, Agneta Karlsson; Ehrs, Sara; Knutsson, Rickard; Englund, Stina; Andersson, Ann-Christin; Granberg, Malin; Bäckman, Stina; Wikström, Per; Sandstedt, Karin

    2010-01-01

    After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The carcasses were reportedly normal in appearance, particularly as regards rigor mortis, bleeding and coagulation of the blood. Subsequently, three more animals died and anthrax was suspected at necropsy and confirmed by culture and PCR on blood samples. The isolated strain was susceptible to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Subtyping by MLVA showed the strain to cluster with isolates in the A lineage of Bacillus anthracis. Environmental samples from the holding were all negative except for two soil samples taken from a spot where infected carcasses had been kept until they were picked up for transport. The most likely source of the infection was concluded to be contaminated roughage, although this could not be substantiated by laboratory analysis. The suspected feed was mixed with soil and dust and originated from fields where flooding occurred the previous year, followed by a dry summer with a very low water level in the river allowing for the harvesting on soil usually not exposed. In the early 1900s, animal carcasses are said to have been dumped in this river during anthrax outbreaks and it is most likely that some anthrax spores could remain in the area. The case indicates that untypical cases in non-endemic areas may be missed to a larger extent than previously thought. Field tests allowing a preliminary risk assessment of animal carcasses would be helpful for increased sensitivity of detection and prevention of further exposure to the causative agent. PMID:20122147

  12. Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

    2013-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  13. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  14. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding. PMID:27139254

  15. The Use Of Feed Technology Of Local Based Source To Support The Productivity Of Beef Cattle In West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buharman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of feed technology of local based sources to support beef cattle productivity is the key of the successful PSDS/K program in 2014. In 2009, the cattle population in West Sumatra was about 492,272 heads, and the population growth during 2005 – 2009 was about 6.1 percent per year are the growth of cattle slaughtered for local consumption was around 11.0 percent or about 86,028 heads/year. The rate of population growth is much lower than the target of PSDS/K 2014 which around 12.5 percent. The source of feedstuffs come from native grass and by product of agro-industry. These agro-industry by products such as rice, maize, cassava, palm oil, cacao, coffee by products have big potential for feed which account for supporting 1.75 to 2.1 million animal unit. These by-products mostly used for feed supplement by simple process technology. The role of institution like LM3 and SMD can be optimized to support local feed supply which available on location either for local cattle consumption or for commercial use.

  16. Changes in the Microbiological Characteristics of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) Beef Exposed to Ultraviolet (UV) Irradiation Prior to Refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Yong-Jae; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated with regards to the microbial growth inhibitory effect on the shelf life of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) beef prior to refrigerated storage. The Hanwoo samples were exposed to UV radiation (4.5 mW/cm(2)) for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min. The UV-irradiated beef that was exposed for 20 min showed significantly reduced mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial populations to the extent of approximately 3 log cycles, as compared to that of non-irradiated beef. About 2.5 Log CFU/g of mesophilic bacteria were different compared with UV-irradiated and nonirradiated meat. UV irradiation showed the most significant growth inhibition effects on mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. Coliform and Gram-negative bacteria were also reduced by 1 log cycle. The population of L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 decreased significantly to 53.33, 39.68, and 45.76% after 10 min of UV irradiation. They decreased significantly to 84.64, 80.76, and 84.12%, respectively, after 20 min of UV irradiation. The results show that UV irradiation time and the inhibitory effect were proportional. These results verified that UV radiation prior to refrigeration can effectively reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria on the surface of meat and improve the meat's microbial safety. PMID:26761679

  17. Bruising in slaughter cattle and its relationship with creatine kinase levels and beef quality as affected by animal related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpakama, T; Chulayo, A Y; Muchenje, V

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (pquality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  18. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P beef cattle. PMID:27379246

  19. Accuracy of genomic selection for age at puberty in a multi-breed population of tropically adapted beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, M M; Swan, A A; Fortes, M R S; Fonseca, R; Moore, S S; Kelly, M J

    2016-02-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a standard tool in livestock breeding programs, particularly for traits that are hard to measure. Accuracy of genomic selection can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of data and potentially by improving analytical methods. Adding genotypes and phenotypes from additional breeds or crosses often improves the accuracy of genomic predictions but requires specific methodology. A model was developed to incorporate breed composition estimated from genotypes into genomic selection models. This method was applied to age at puberty data in female beef cattle (as estimated from age at first observation of a corpus luteum) from a mix of Brahman and Tropical Composite beef cattle. In this dataset, the new model incorporating breed composition did not increase the accuracy of genomic selection. However, the breeding values exhibited slightly less bias (as assessed by deviation of regression of phenotype on genomic breeding values from the expected value of 1). Adding additional Brahman animals to the Tropical Composite analysis increased the accuracy of genomic predictions and did not affect the accuracy of the Brahman predictions. PMID:26490440

  20. The chemical composition of carcasses can be predicted from proxy traits in finishing male beef cattle: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jammas, M; Agabriel, J; Vernet, J; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2016-09-01

    Management practices can contribute to improving carcass quality if carcass quality could be simply evaluated under a wide range of conditions. The objective of this study was to derive quantitative relationships between the most accurate (but laborious) measurements of carcass chemical composition and proxy traits easily obtainable at slaughter (yield grade, subcutaneous fat thickness, marbling, ribeye area and hot carcass weight) by meta-analysis. Data from 34 publications using male beef cattle were used to develop and validate the models. The breeds were characterized according to origin, rate of maturity, production purpose and frame size. The results indicated that the changes in carcass fat and protein can be predicted from the yield grade or subcutaneous fat thickness, and hot carcass weight, with prediction errors ranging between 9 and 12%. Including the breed characteristics in the models did not improve the fit. The relationships are applicable to group values of male beef cattle having light and fatty carcasses from early-maturing British breeds. PMID:27206053

  1. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  2. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deobald Heather M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield and quality (degree of marbling in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC has previously been associated with hot carcass weight (HCW and shipping weight (Ship wt in beef cattle. Results While developing a commercial real time PCR test for POMC c.288C>T a 12 bp deletion (POMC c.293_304delTTGGGGGCGCGG was identified. The deletion results in the removal of four amino acids (a valine, two glycines, and an alanine. Both the POMC c.288C>T and the deletion were genotyped in 386 crossbred steers and evaluated for associations with carcass traits. The animals with one copy of the deletion had a significantly smaller carcass rib-eye area (7.91 cm2; P = 0.02 in comparison to homozygous normal animals. Significant associations were observed between POMC c.288C>T with start-of-finishing weight (SOF WT; P = 0.04, hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02, average fat and grade fat (both P = 0.05, carcass rib-eye area (REA; P = 0.03 and marbling (P = 0.02. Conclusions These results suggest that it could be beneficial for beef producers to know both the deletion and POMC c.288C>T genotypes when making marketing and culling decisions.

  3. A genome-wide association study identified CYP2J2 as a major gene controlling serum vitamin D in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D is an important modulator of calcium homeostasis and has several eefects on the immune system. The objective of the study was to estimate its heritability, and to identify genomic regions associated with concentration of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in beef cattle. Status of vit...

  4. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola; Tondo, Annalucia; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2011-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics s...

  5. Meta-analysis of the effects of monensin in beef cattle on feed efficiency, body weight gain, and dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, T F; Merrill, J K; Bagg, R N

    2012-12-01

    A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin on growing and finishing beef cattle was conducted after a search of the literature. A total of 40 peer-reviewed articles and 24 additional trial reports with monensin feeding in beef cattle were selected, after meeting apriori quality criteria. Data for each trial were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis software in STATA. Estimated effect size of monensin was calculated for feed efficiency (FE), ADG, and DMI. Monensin use in growing and finishing beef cattle reduced DMI (P 1.17 kg/d) showed less effect of monensin on ADG. Pen-level studies showed a greater monensin increase on ADG than did those conducted on individual animals. Linear effect of monensin dose was observed for FE, DMI, and ADG outcomes, with greater effects on improving FE and reducing DMI with larger doses of monensin but lesser improvement in ADG with increasing dose. These findings confirm that monensin improves FE in growing and finishing beef cattle, and that this effect is linear with dose. PMID:22859759

  6. Current knowledge on the environmental fate, potential impact, and management of growth-promoting steroids used in the US beef cattle industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth promoting steroids and steroid-like compounds (GPSC) used by the US beef cattle industry are potential contaminants to water resources. Manure generated in concentrated animal feeding operations contains GPSCs that may enter the environment. Several studies have focused on off-site impacts of...

  7. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, bovine WGS databases comprised of related influential sires from relatively few breeds tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle. Thus, our ...

  8. OBSERVING OF RADIOACTIVE CAESIUM 137Cs VALUE IN BEEF MEAT (CZECH PIED CATTLE IN LESS-FAVOURED AREAS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Holko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Value of radiocaesium 137Cs as one of Risk Factors in beef meat is very important for human health. Beef meat (m. longissimus lumborum et thoracis from Czech Pied cattle in two less-favoured areas located more then 500 meters above sea level (Bohemian Forest Bohemian and Moravian Highland was dependent on Sex (decrease by female, increase by male, P<1.10-6 and on area (P<1.10-6. Value of radiocaesium 137Cs in beef meat ( = 0,42 Bq.kg-1; sx = 0,28 was less then food standard (600 Bq.kg-1. This observed result are responding to finding another authors and could be used for next more detailed research in optimal utilization of Czech Pied cattle in less-favoured areas.

  9. Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W

    2013-06-01

    The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve

  10. Farm-scale anaerobic digestion of beef and dairy cattle manure for energy cogeneration at two farms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patni, N.; Monreal, C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Li, X. [Highmark Renewables Research, Calgary, AB (Canada); Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C. [Guelph Univ., Alfred Campus, Alfred, ON (Canada); Barclay, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emerging Fuel Issues Div.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in 2003 to 2005 at beef and diary cattle farms in Canada, where cattle manure was anaerobically digested for biogas production. The biogas was used for electrical and thermal energy cogeneration. Manure from about 7500 beef cattle at a feedlot was digested at a thermophilic temperature of 55 degrees C in two 1800 m{sup 3} above-ground digesters with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. The biogas had an average 58 per cent methane content and was combusted in a General Electric Jenbacher 999 kW cogeneration system. At the second farm, manure from about 165 lactating cows, 110 heifers and 40 calves was digested at a mesophilic temperature of 40 degrees C in a 500 m{sup 3} below-ground digester with a HRT of 28 days. The unique feature of this digester was that it was retrofitted in a pre-existing larger slurry storage tank. The biogas had an average 65 per cent methane content and was combusted in a 75 kW Perkins dual fuel diesel engine connected to a 65 kW Schnell generator. In 2007, when fats, oils and grease (FOG) from restaurant waste residue was added to the manure, biogas production increased by about 300 per cent and electrical energy generation increased by 180 per cent. Both systems have operated year-round from December to February at average ambient temperatures that ranged from -9 to -12 degrees Celsius. This paper addressed the long-term sustainability options for animal farm operations in terms of biogas production for electricity and thermal energy cogeneration.

  11. Association of polymorphisms in the leptin and thyroglobulin genes with meat quality and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Dutra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the polymorphisms E2FB (AY138588.1: c.305C> T, located in the leptin gene (LEP, and TG5 (X05380.1:g.-422C>T, located in the thyroglobulin gene (TG, and evaluate the association of these polymorphisms in crossbred cattle of seven distinct genetic groups with the following traits: slaughter weight (SW, hot carcass weight (HCW, hot carcass yield (HCY, carcass fat thickness (CFT, ribeye area (REA, marbling (MARM and shear force (SF. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP (Polymorphism Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique, using 201 products obtained from F1 Caracu × Nellore, Angus × Nellore and Valdostana × Nellore cows, mated to Canchim, Caracu and Red Angus bulls (only Caracu × Nellore cows were used with Red Angus bulls. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared using the Chi-squared test. Associations between the genotype of each polymorphism and the traits were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM of statistical software SAS. The least squares means of genotypes of the polymorphisms were compared using Student's t test. The E2FB polymorphism in the LEP gene was associated with CFT, showing the potential for use in national programs for genetic improvement of beef cattle, through the inclusion of SNP in genotyping commercial tests. The TG5 polymorphism in the TG gene was not associated with any of the evaluated traits and was considered ineffective for selection of beef cattle in Brazilian herds.

  12. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  13. Cortisol Hormone Concentration and Meat Quality of Beef Cattle Stunned by Captive Bolt Stun Gun before Slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maghfiroh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to describe cortisol hormone concentration and meat quality which were produced in beef cattle stunned with captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering. Blood and meat samples were taken from Brahman cross steers (n= 11 in two abattoirs located in West Java and Banten. Blood samples were collected immediately after slaughtering. Cortisol hormone concentration in the serum was measured by using radioimmunoassay (RIA. The descriptive, correlation, and regression analyses were used to interprete data. Meat quality assessment was based on pH, cooking loss, and complete drainage of blood. The average of cortisol hormone concentration was 26.59 ng/mL. Meat pH at 1 h postmortem and 24 h postmortem were 6.65 and 6.21, respectively. Meat cooking loss was 26.77%. Blood drainage in meat samples of each cattle showed complete drainage. There was a significant correlation (P<0.05 between cortisol concentrations and pH at 1 hour postmortem as well as cortisol concentration and cooking loss. There was no significant correlation between pH at 24 h postmortem and cooking loss. Cattle was stunned with a captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering produced meat with complete blood drainage but had high cortisol hormone concentration and pH ultimate.

  14. Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, Monica; Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Favotto, Saida; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-08-01

    The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef. PMID:26998946

  15. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Ciniro, E-mail: cinirojr@hotmail.com [University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Avenida Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000 (Brazil); Cerri, Carlos E.P., E-mail: cepcerri@usp.br [University of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 (Brazil); Pires, Alexandre V., E-mail: pires.1@usp.br [University of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 (Brazil); Cerri, Carlos C., E-mail: cerri@cena.usp.br [University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Avenida Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000 (Brazil)

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope “housing to field application” by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ∼ 80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO{sub 2}eq per kg lwg{sup −1}). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO{sub 2}eq kg lwg{sup −1} or 95% (± 45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (± 47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions

  16. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope “housing to field application” by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ∼ 80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO2eq per kg lwg−1). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO2eq kg lwg−1 or 95% (± 45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (± 47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems

  17. Beef cattle on semi-natural grasslands - production of meat and nature conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hessle, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Beef production is performed in varying systems, with or without grazing, but the common goal is to obtain high-quality carcasses. Semi-natural grasslands are characterized by specific flora and fauna and they are dependent on grazing management to be maintained. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate factors influencing nature conservation, animal performance and meat quality in beef production using semi-natural grasslands in summer. In a first study, effects of breed and season on foraging...

  18. Perceptions of Farmers against Liquid Fertilizer Benefits of Beef Cattle Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Sirajuddin, sitti nurani; kasim, kasim; moh saleh, ikrar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the perception of livestock farmers on the use of liquid organic fertilizer from urine of cattle at Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The choice of location for a farmer group manufactures and markets liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine. This research was conducted in May to July 2013.The population were all livestock farmers who use organic liquid fertilizer from cattle urine samples while livestock farmers who are directly involved in the ma...

  19. Methane emissions, feed intake, and performance of finishing beef cattle offered maize silages harvested at 4 different stages of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Foley, P A; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-04-01

    This experiment aimed to quantify the methane emissions and intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered maize (Zea mays) silages harvested at 1 of 4 sequential stages of maturity and to relate these values to those obtained from animals offered an ad libitum concentrate-based diet. Sixty continental crossbred steers with a mean initial BW of 531 kg (SD 23.8) were blocked (n = 12 blocks) according to BW and allocated from within block to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design: maize silage harvested on September 13 (DM = 277 g/kg), maize silage harvested on September 28 (DM = 315 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 9 (DM = 339 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 23 (DM = 333 g/kg), and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). Diets based on maize silage were supplemented with 2.57 kg of concentrate DM daily, and ALC diets were supplemented with 1.27 kg of grass silage DM daily. Silage and total DMI were greater (P = 0.004) with maize silage harvested on September 28 than with any other treatment, which in turn did not differ. Advancing maize maturity at harvest did not affect BW or carcass gain, with the ALC diet exhibiting greater (P = 0.036) rates of carcass gain than any of the maize silage-based treatments. Apparent in vivo digestibility, determined using the AIA indigestible marker technique, was not affected by harvest maturity, with no linear or quadratic trends being identified. Digestibility of DM from the ALC diet was greater (P Methane emissions, (g/d) measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, were not affected by maize silage maturity. Methane emissions relative to DMI tended (P = 0.05) to decline with advancing maize silage maturity, with a similar decline observed when methane was expressed per kilogram of carcass gain. Advancing maize maturity did not result in significant linear or quadratic responses in methane output proportional to GE intake. The ALC diet

  20. Whole-genome association study of fatty acid composition in a diverse range of beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M J; Tume, R K; Fortes, M; Thompson, J M

    2014-05-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue associated with meat is an important factor for the beef industry because of its implications for human health, processing, meat quality, and palatability. Individual fatty acid composition is a trait under genetic control, so improvement via selective breeding of cattle is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and identify genes associated with this trait in 3 breed types: Bos indicus (Brahman), Bos taurus (4 breeds), and tropically adapted composites (2 breeds). Using high-density data, regions on chromosomes 1, 9, 14, 16, 19, 23, 26, 29, and X were associated with fat composition and quantity traits. Known candidate genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN; chromosome 19) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; chromosome 26), were confirmed in our results. Other candidate genes and regions represent novel association results, requiring further validation. PMID:24782392

  1. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Corva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  2. EFFECTS OF LOW ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS RAW FULL-FAT SOYBEAN ON BEEF CATTLE FEEDING. INFRA-VITAM PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bailoni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effects of different sources of soybean on the infra-vitam performance of fattening beef cattle. The animals (56 Limousine were divided, according to BW (287±17 kg, in 4 experimental groups: LAFS (raw full-fat soybean low in antinutritional factors; SBM (soybean meal; TS (toasted full-fat soybean; NTS (non toasted full-fat soybean. The animals were fed a basal diet (TMR (DM:59.5%; CP:9.3%DM; NDF:33.9%DM; starch:34.9%DM supplemented as top dressing with different sources of soybeans in order to reach the same amount of additional CP (473 g/d. To obtain isoenergetic diets, calcium soap of palm fat (234 g/d was also added to SBM group. Animals were weighed monthly, DM intake was calculated daily and two blood samplings were collected. No metabolic disorders or pathological events were observed during the experiment. The daily gains of the first 6 months were not significantly different among the 4 experimental groups (on the average 1.35 ± 0.25 kg/d. DM intake values in the same period were similar (8.57 ± 0.78 kg/d of DM. The soybean supplementation did not affect the metabolic parameters (calculated as differences between the sampling times except for the γ-glutamyl-transferase (P<0.01, the total plasma protein and globulin (P<0.05. The preliminary results of this experiment can indicate no significant effects of soybean antinutritional factors on the infra-vitam performances of beef cattle during the first fattening period.

  3. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ∼6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL. PMID:26487642

  4. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  5. Fatty acid composition of muscle fat and enzymes of storage lipid synthesis in whole muscle from beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazala, E Chris; Lozeman, Fred J; Mir, Priya S; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Schmutz, Sheila M; Weselake, Randall J

    2006-11-01

    Enhanced intramuscular fat content (i.e., marbling) in beef is a desirable trait, which can result in increased product value. This study was undertaken with the aim of revealing biochemical factors associated with the marbling trait in beef cattle. Samples of longissimus lumborum (LL) and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) were taken from a group of intact crossbred males and females at slaughter, lipids extracted, and the resulting FAME examined for relationships with marbling fat deposition. For LL, significant associations were found between degree of marbling and myristic (14:0, r = 0.55, P muscle were assayed for diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), and phosphatidic acid phosphatase-1 (PAP-1) activity, and the results examined for relationships with degree of intramuscular fat deposition. None of the enzyme activities from PCD displayed an association with marbling fat content, but DGAT specific activity showed significant positive associations with LPAAT (r = 0.54, P muscle tissues provide insight into possible enzyme action associated with the production of specific FA. The increased proportion of oleic acid associated with enhanced lipid content of whole muscle is noteworthy given the known health benefits of this FA. PMID:17263304

  6. The effect of sex and DGAT1 gene polymorphism on fat deposition traits in simmental beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolyi D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1 gene K232A mutation in Simmental cattle and its effects on fat deposition traits. The sample (n=26 consisted of yearling bulls and beef heifers from an intensive rearing system in Croatia. Carcass fatness was assessed by total dissection method, whereas intramuscular fat (m. longissimus dorsi content was determined using Soxhlet extraction with hydrolysis. Intramuscular fatty acid composition was determined by gas liquid chromatography using in situ transesterification. The muscle DNA was extracted and Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCRRFLP analysis of the 411 bp fragment of DGAT1 gene was applied. The DGAT1 K allele was less frequent in heifers than in bulls, with the overall allelic frequency of 17% K allele. Only KA and AA genotypes were obtained, without deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Heifers showed a higher degree of carcass and muscle fattening with more unsaturated intramuscular fat than bulls; however, there was no interaction between sex and DGAT1 gene. Generally, no significant difference between DGAT1 AA and KA animals was observed for any of the examined traits, except the slightly higher carcass share of the fattest beef category and higher intramuscular C14:0 desaturation index in KA heterozygous.

  7. 湿态发酵蛋白饲料肉牛育肥试验%Fattening Experiment of Beef Cattle for Wet Fermented Protein Feeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光勤; 孙志伟; 职承平; 董发明; 王建平; 李元晓; 高可卫

    2012-01-01

    湿态发酵蛋白饲料是玉米经酵母发酵、提取酒精后,又经益生菌发酵、密封包装的产物,其可溶性好、易消化、易吸收、蛋白质含量高。通过对肉牛进行饲喂试验可知,肉牛食用8kg该饲料,平均每头牛日增重1.81kg,比对照组高0.26kg;平均屠宰率为57.1%,比对照组高3.8%;平均售价为21.35元/kg,比对照组高1.52元/kg;平均每日比对照组多收益6.1元。试验结果表明,肉牛饲喂湿态发酵蛋白饲料增重效果好、屠宰率高,经济效益显著提高。%Wet fermented protein feeds are the products of maize which are treated by yeast fermentation, alcohol extraction, probiotics fermentation and sealing packaging. Through fattening experiment of beef cattle, results showed that after one beef cattle was fed with 8 kg wet fermented protein feed, beef cattle growth reached 1.81 kg per beef cattle which was 0.26 kg more than control; the average dressing percentage was 57.1% which was 3.8% more than control; the average selling price was 21.35 yuardkg which was 1.52 yuardkg more than control; there was 6.1 yuardd of income more than control. It was concluded that after beef cattle were fed with wet fermented protein feeds, there were good beef cattle growth and high dressing percentage, and economic benefit was improved significantly.

  8. A Region on BTA6 Is Associated with Feed Intake and Gain in Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic selection for animals that require less feed while still achieving acceptable levels of production could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers with predictive merit for differences among cattle in feed intake and BW gai...

  9. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle. PMID:9535321

  10. Effects of pen floor and class of live weight on behavioural and clinical parameters of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compared behaviour and clinical parameters of beef cattle housed on two different types of floor (fully slatted vs. deep litter considering animals belonging to 2 live weight classes (less vs. more than 350 kg. The assessment of behavioural and clinical parameters was carried out in 20 intensive farms, all rearing imported bulls. Floor type had no effect on cattle behaviour except for the duration of the lying down sequence, which lasted more for bulls kept on slats. Slatted floor increased also the likelihood of occurrence of hair and skin lesions and lameness. On the other hand, bulls cleanliness was more likely to be impaired on bedded floor. Regarding the class of live weight, behavioural observation showed lighter animals performing more antagonistic interactions, while horning resulted more frequent in heavier bulls. Avoidance distance test indicated that bulls >350 kg were more fearful of humans. About health status, light animals were more affected by respiratory disease and hairless patches, likely because they are more sensitive to the stressful situations imposed by their transfer and adaptation to the new housing environment of the fattening unit. The risk of skin lesions and dirtiness increased instead in heavier bulls.

  11. Utilization of organic chromium from tannery waste on reducing transportation stress and shortening recovery period at beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportation increases stress that subtantially decreases body weight and feed comsumption even weight gain loss after arriving at the location of fattening. A research has been conducted to study the effects of organic chromium from tannery wastes on the level of transportation stress and recovery period in beef cattle fattening. Twenty Ongole crossbreed cattles were transported from the Wirasaba Feedlot at Purbalingga in Central Java to the Agro Citra Buana Semesta Feedlot in Malangbong-Garut in West Java for about 18 hours. Completely Randomized Design (CRD was applied, wih four repetitions. The Cr-organic was given seven days before and after transportation. Dose of Cr-organic used was: R0 = control diet without Cr-organic, R1 = R0 + 1.5 ppm, R2 = R0 + 3.0 ppm, R3 = R0 + 4.5 ppm, R4 = R0 + 6.0 ppm. Results showed that 3.0 ppm organic chromium of the dry matter of ration tended to affect physiology and haematological conditions, as well as decreased weight loss, shortened recovery time, improved weight gain. It is concluded that organic chromium supplementation was able to lowered stress levels, shortened recovery time, and increased daily gain for one week recovery process, especially at dose of 3.0 ppm.

  12. Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, M R S; Loretti, A P; Reis, A C F

    2005-10-10

    A sporadic wasting syndrome affecting beef cattle herds parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum is described in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The disease was characterized by progressive weight loss, poor body condition despite plenty of good quality forage available, and death. Annual losses ranged from 1 to 3%. The clinical course of the disease varied from 2 to 10 months after the onset of the first clinical signs. At necropsy, one of the three distinct following patterns of lesions were observed: the pancreas was of normal size and color; small, shrunken, white and markedly and diffusely firm (fibrosis); or slightly enlarged and dark with a shriveled capsular surface. Myriads of leaf-shaped trematodes of the genus Eurytrema were packed inside multiple dilated ducts with thickened, whitish fibrous walls, or the flukes were embedded in the remaining pancreatic parenchyma. Microscopic findings included extensive loss of the pancreatic parenchyma with replacement fibrosis, intralesional flukes and eggs, and ductal hyperplasia. Inflammatory reaction varied from absent to severe with the presence of a granulomatous reaction around the trematode eggs. One affected animal had high plasma amylase concentration (1580U/L) suggesting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Glucose blood levels were not significantly increased. We suggest that diffuse and marked fibrosis of the pancreas induced by the presence of large amounts of pancreatic flukes is the cause of the sporadic cases of chronic wasting and death of cattle in this geographic area. PMID:16046069

  13. Faecal cortisol concentrations as indicator of stress during intensive fattening of beef cattle in a humid tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cruz, Bertha Clementina; Carrasco-García, Apolo Adolfo; Ahuja-Aguirre, Concepción; López-deBuen, Lorena; Rojas-Maya, Susana; Montiel-Palacios, Felipe

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluated the concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) in intensively fattened beef cattle from a feedlot in a humid tropical environment. A total of 360 bulls weighing 271-371 kg were kept confined in pens from the start to the end of the fattening period (FP). At 24 h after arriving at the feedlot, cattle were distributed into the pens according to their live weight: 271-320 kg, 321-370 kg, and >370 kg. At the start of the FP, four pens of each weight group were randomly selected, and in each of them 10 faecal samples were obtained from 10 randomly selected bulls; this sampling was repeated in the same pens and in each weight group at the middle and end of the FP. The FCM were measured through enzyme immunoassay. The 271-320 kg group had higher FCM at the end of the FP (P  0.05), and the >370 kg group showed higher FCM at the start and end of the FP (P middle of the FP in the 321-370 kg group, and at the end of the FP in the 271-320 kg and >370 kg groups (P management in feedlots in humid-tropical regions can provide bulls with a low-stress environment. PMID:26669595

  14. Genetic differences based on a beef terminal index are reflected in future phenotypic performance differences in commercial beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, S M; Cromie, A R; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    The increased demand for animal-derived protein and energy for human consumption will have to be achieved through a combination of improved animal genetic merit and better management strategies. The objective of the present study was to quantify whether differences in genetic merit among animals materialised into phenotypic differences in commercial herds. Carcass phenotypes on 156 864 animals from 7301 finishing herds were used, which included carcass weight (kg), carcass conformation score (scale 1 to 15), carcass fat score (scale 1 to 15) at slaughter as well as carcass price. The price per kilogram and the total carcass value that the producer received for the animal at slaughter was also used. A terminal index, calculated in the national genetic evaluations, was obtained for each animal. The index was based on pedigree index for calving performance, feed intake and carcass traits from the national genetic evaluations. Animals were categorised into four terminal index groups on the basis of genetic merit estimates that were derived before the expression of the phenotypic information by the validation animals. The association between terminal index and phenotypic performance at slaughter was undertaken using mixed models; whether the association differed by gender (i.e. young bulls, steers and heifers) or by early life experiences (animals born in a dairy herd or beef herd) was also investigated. The regression coefficient of phenotypic carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat on their respective estimated breeding values (EBVs) was 0.92 kg, 1.08 units and 0.79 units, respectively, which is close to the expectation of one. Relative to animals in the lowest genetic merit group, animals in the highest genetic merit group had, on average, a 38.7 kg heavier carcass, with 2.21 units greater carcass conformation, and 0.82 units less fat. The superior genetic merit animals were, on average, slaughtered 6 days younger than their inferior genetic merit

  15. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized ...

  16. Effects of camelina meal supplementation on ruminal forage degradability, performance, and physiological responses of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three experiments compared ruminal, physiological, and performance responses of beef steers consuming hay ad libitum and receiving grain-based supplements without (CO) or with (CAM) the inclusion of camelina meal. In Exp. 1, 9 steers fitted with ruminal cannulas received CAM (2.04 kg of DM/d; n = 5)...

  17. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  18. Polymorphisms in positional candidate genes on BTA14 and BTA26 affect carcass quality in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, E; Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Moore, S S

    2009-08-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of carcass quality QTL on BTA14 and BTA26, with no specific genes being conclusively linked as their cause. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in genes known to affect lipid metabolism in other species and to assess their association with carcass quality traits. Two genes located on BTA14, 2,4 dienoyl CoA reductase 1 (DECR1) and core binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2, translocated to 1 gene (CBFA2T1), have been previously evaluated in other species and found to contain polymorphisms influencing lipid metabolism. A gene on BTA26, fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), has in recent studies been linked to several QTL affecting obesity in mice, indicating its potential for regulating adiposity in other species. Sequencing analysis identified 9 polymorphisms in DECR1, 4 in CBFA2T1, and 4 in FGF8. Multiple sequence alignment of DECR1 among cattle, humans, and mice showed that 4 of these mutations lie in conserved regions across these species. Using 464 Angus, Charolais, and crossbred animals produced associations with ultrasound marbling score (CBFA2T1, P = 0.019), ultrasound backfat (DECR1, P = 0.012), carcass backfat (FGF8, P = 0.004), and lean meat yield (FGF8, P = 0.005). Quantitative trait loci analysis including a set of previously genotyped markers on BTA14, and 1 DECR1 polymorphism resulted in several significant QTL peaks: ultrasound backfat (UBF) at 91 cM, lean meat yield at 86 cM, carcass gradefat at 15 cM, and yield grade at 87 cM, all at the P yield at 2 cM and for yield grade at 25 cM, both at P < 0.01, and for carcass backfat at 25 cM (P < 0.05). Removal of FGF8 SNP in further analysis resulted in the disappearance of the carcass backfat QTL. These results suggest that polymorphisms discovered in DECR1, CBFA2T1, and FGF8 may play a role in the lipid metabolism pathway affecting carcass quality traits in beef cattle. However, further studies are needed to confirm that these polymorphisms

  19. Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünerberg, M; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Okine, E K; Harstad, O M; McAllister, T A

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the impact of corn- or wheat-based dried distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS or WDDGS) on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from growing beef cattle and determine if the oil in CDDGS was responsible for any response observed. Effects of CDDGS or WDDGS on total N excretion and partitioning between urine and fecal N were also examined in this replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 16 ruminally cannulated crossbreed heifers (388.5 ± 34.9 kg of initial BW). The control diet contained (DM basis) 55% whole crop barley silage, 35% barley grain, 5% canola meal, and 5% vitamin and mineral supplement. Three dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) diets were formulated by replacing barley grain and canola meal (40% of dietary DM) with CDDGS, WDDGS, or WDDGS plus corn oil (WDDGS+oil). For WDDGS+oil, corn oil was added to WDDGS (4.11% fat DM basis) to achieve the same fat level as in CDDGS (9.95% fat DM basis). All total mixed diets were fed once daily ad libitum. Total collection of urine and feces was conducted between d 11 and 14. Enteric CH4 was measured between d 18 and 21 using 4 environmental chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber). Methane emissions per kilogram of DM intake (DMI) and as percent of GE intake (GEI) among heifers fed WDDGS (23.9 g/kg DMI and 7.3% of GEI) and the control (25.3 g/kg DMI and 7.8% of GEI) were similar (P = 0.21 and P = 0.19) whereas heifers fed CDDGS (21.5 g/kg DMI and 6.6% of GEI) and WDDGS+oil (21.1 g/kg DMI and 6.3% of GEI) produced less (P beef cattle. However, to completely assess the impact of DDGS on greenhouse gas emissions of growing feedlot cattle, the potential contribution of increased N excretion to heightened NH3 and nitrous oxide emissions requires consideration. PMID:23508022

  20. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  1. ESTIMATES OF BREED DIRECT, MATERNAL AND HETEROSIS EFFECTS FOR WEANING AND YEARLING WEIGHTS OF BEEF CATTLE IN THE HUMID TROPICS OF MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Mario M. Osorio-Arce; José C. Segura-Correa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the breed-direct, breed-maternal and heterosis effects for weaning and yearling weights of Brahman cattle and its crosses with Charolais, Simmental and Brown Swiss breeds in a beef cattle system in Tabasco, Mexico. The climate of the region is tropical humid. Data were obtained on 1217 calves born from 1995 to 2007; among the 16 breed-group combinations one was purebred mating (Brahman), 3 two-breed static crosses, 7 three-breed static crosses and ...

  2. Progress on Nutrition and Feed in Beef Cattle abroad in 2011%2011年国外肉牛营养与饲料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉红; 于海川; 顾宪蕊; 李秋风; 卢春莲; 徐敏云; 曹玉凤

    2012-01-01

    The published researches on nutrition of beef cattle abroad in 2011 were collected and analyzed. The review was to discuss the progress on nutrition and feed in beef cattle from five aspects=requirement of protein and energy, exploitation of feed resource, roughage nutrition, nutrition of concentrated feed and regulation of methane emission.%本文总结了国外2011年关于肉牛营养领域的研究成果,主要从肉牛蛋白和能量需要量、饲料资源开发、粗饲料营养、精饲料营养和肉牛甲烷排放调控研究五个方面论述了肉牛营养与饲料的研究进展。

  3. Performance and ruminal metabolism in beef cattle in grazing system in the dry period of year receiving virginiamycin in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Fernandes Ferreira; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes; João Teodoro Pádua; Ubirajara Oliveira Bilego; Marcos Antônio Sales Lima; Aldi Fernandes de Souza França; Elis Aparecido Bento; Leonardo Guimarães Oliveira; Danilo Grandini

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of including virginiamycin (VM) in two levels, the proteinenergy supplement for growing beef cattle diet with the tropical grass base in the dry season. Three treatments were evaluated: control treatment, only Mineral Supplement ME - Production - F.10 proteinenergy (SPE); 100 virginiamycin treatment (VM 100) + SPE 108 mg (Phigrow®) VM / animal / day and treatment virginiamycin 200 (200 MV) + SPE 216 mg (Phigrow®) VM / animal / day. The variables analyz...

  4. Strategy Formulation of Empowering Farmers Capability at Integrated Farming of Beef Cattle and Paddy Base on Zero Waste: Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina Abdullah; Ali, Hikmah M.; Syamsu, Jasmal A.

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to formulate a strategy for strengthening the farmers in the adoption of technology for the development of integrated beef cattle with paddy. Research was conducted in Pinrang South Sulawesi province for seven months. Primary Data obtained by using questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussion. In this study also was involved expert respondents. Flow implementation strategy formulation is done using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) techniques. The results showed that ...

  5. The effect of feeding high fat diet to beef cattle on manure composition and gaseous emission from a feedlot pen surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad; Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Engel, Chanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary manipulation is a common practice to mitigate gaseous emission from livestock production facilities, and the variation of fat level in the diet has shown great influence on ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and enteric methane generation. The changes in dietary fat levels influence rumen chemistry that could modify manure nutrient composition along with odor and gaseous emissions from manure management facilities. Methods A field experiment was carried out on beef cattle f...

  6. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  7. Control Points on Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in a Beef Cattle CAFO and the Cropland that Supports it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwick, N. P.; Tonitto, C.

    2011-12-01

    Although spatially separated in the U.S. agricultural landscape, CAFOs (confined animal feeding operations) and Illinois grain agriculture are interdependent. Therefore, we need to consider both systems to identify methods for reducing inefficiency, GHG losses, and N pollution from them. We construct a budget for an average 30,000 animal beef cattle CAFO. Assuming cattle stay on the CAFO 5 months, we estimate total grain demand at 1.8 M bu yr-1 of corn (21 M kg C) and 0.3 M bu yr-1 of soybean (3.7 M kg C). To grow this feed requires 19,000 acres of cropland (2/3 in corn and 1/3 in soybean). We visualize C and N fluxes for a 4,000 acre farm growing corn and soybeans. Corn and soybeans on this farm fix ˜15 M and 4.5 M kg C yr-1 respectively. Plant and soil respiration return ˜50% of GPP to the atmosphere from the cornfield, and˜70% from the soybean field. Emissions from on-farm equipment are ˜60,000 kg C yr-1. About 5.1 M kg C yr-1 move from this farm to CAFO (4.3 M kg C in corn and 0.8 M kg C in soybean). To meet cattle demand requires 4.75 such farms. Transporting grain from all 19,000 ac releases ˜3 M kg C yr-1. Once at the CAFO, ˜20% of C in grain is converted to steer biomass. Of the remaining grain C (˜20 M kg C), about half leaves the steers as CO2, ˜6.6 M kg C exits the steers as manure, and ˜7% is converted to methane in the rumen. Of the ˜100 M kg C pulled from the atmosphere on the farms, about 2 M kg C exit the CAFO as methane, which increases GWP of the carbon stream by 50%. At typical application rates, a grower adds ˜216,000 kg N yr-1 to the corn field. On the soybean field, we estimate fixation of 64,000 kg N yr-1 and assume no other N additions. Corn and soybeans acquire ˜135,000 and 106,000 kg N respectively. Nitrate leaching from the corn field is ˜43,000 kg N (equivalent to ~20% of fertilizer N) and losses from the soybean field are ˜11,000 kg N. A fraction of N inputs to the fields (˜0.5%) exits as N2O, totaling Cattle convert much

  8. Measuring and modeling nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure management: First assessments under Brazilian condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ciniro; Li, Changsheng; Cerri, Carlos E P; Cerri, Carlos C

    2014-01-01

    Intensive beef production has increased during recent decades in Brazil and may substantially increase both methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from manure management. However, the quantification of these gases and methods for extrapolating them are scarce in Brazil. A case study examines CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from one typical beef cattle feedlot manure management continuum in Brazil and the applicability of Manure-DNDC model in predicting these emissions for better understand fluxes and mitigation options. Measurements track CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from manure excreted in one housing floor holding 21 animals for 78 days, stockpiled for 73 days and field spread (360 kg N ha(-1)). We found total emissions (CH(4) + N(2)O) of 0.19 ± 0.10 kg CO(2)eq per kg of animal live weight gain; mostly coming from field application (73%), followed housing (25%) and storage (2%). The Manure-DNDC simulations were generally within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, differing in -28% in total emission. Large uncertainties in measurements showed the model was more accurate estimating the magnitude of gases emissions than replicate results at daily basis. Modeled results suggested increasing the frequency of manure removal from housing, splitting the field application and adopting no-tillage system is the most efficient management for reducing emissions from manure (up to about 75%). Since this work consists in the first assessment under Brazilian conditions, more and continuous field measurements are required for decreasing uncertainties and improving model validations. However, this paper reports promising results and scientific perceptions for the design of further integrated work on farm-scale measurements and Manure-DNDC model development for Brazilian conditions. PMID:25035919

  9. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: metabolic response to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Broadway, P R; Hughes, H D; Roberts, S L; Richeson, J T; Schmidt, T B; Vann, R C

    2016-07-01

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggest that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 calm and 15 temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 9 AM on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5-mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution), and at 2 PM on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum blood urea nitrogen and insulin sensitivity (calculated using Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index) compared with calm steers. During the GTT, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to calm cattle. During the IST, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum

  10. Welfare and meat quality of beef cattle housed on two types of floors with the same space allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth performance, behaviour, cleanliness, carcass traits and meat quality of 48 Simmental young bulls housed on slattedfloor or on straw bedding with the same space allowance were compared in the study, which lasted 250 days. Theanimals (initial body weight = 321.2 ± 34.1 kg were assigned to 8 balanced groups, according to their initial bodyweight. All the groups were reared in separate pens with a space allowance of 3 m2/head. Four pens had a concrete floorcovered with a straw bedding while the other pens had a fully slatted floor made of concrete slats. All the animals receivedthe same diet provided ad libitum.Type of floor did not affect the bulls’ daily gain, feed intake and feed efficiency. Health status of the animals was satisfactorythroughout the trial and several blood indicators of chronic stress were not modified by the treatment. Behaviouralobservations carried out at d 10, 80, 180 and 240 showed differences only on some behaviours due to the type of floor.In particular, the straw bedding increased eating behaviour and it encouraged the simultaneous presence of more bullsat the manger. Regardless of the type of floor, the progress of the trial showed a linear increase of animals’ inactivity(Presults can be referred to the growth of the animal body frame, which made the space allowance progressively limiting.In the straw bedded pens, clean straw was added weekly and fully renewed every 3 weeks, but this bedding managementdid not allow a satisfactory cleanliness of the animals in comparison with the slatted floor. However, the worsecleanliness of the bulls on the straw did not promote their grooming activity. Young bulls were slaughtered at a finalweight of 614.6 ± 14.7 kg and their carcass traits and meat quality were not affected by the treatment.The straw bedded system cannot always be considered the cleanest solution for the housing of beef cattle and its frequentrenewal must be carried out, particularly when animals are

  11. Factors associated with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Wasdin, J G; Dixon, W P; Jones, J L

    2006-01-01

    Cow and calf genetic and environmental factors were evaluated for their association with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed population of beef cattle. The ELISA scores are a measure of the presence or absence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum. The linear mixed-model analysis used 352 ELISA scores from 238 cows: 51 Angus (A); 34 Brahman (B); 41 (3/4 A 1/4 B); 45 (1/2 A 1/2 B); 34 (1/4 A 3/4 B); and 33 Brangus (5/8 A 3/8 B). Cows were assumed to be unrelated. Year affected (P < 0.001) ELISA scores, but age of cow did not, which was expected to be significant because of the chronic progressive nature of this disease. Important regressions on fixed effects associated with cows were 1) a positive estimate of cow B breed effect (0.59 +/- 0.24; P < 0.017), indicating an upward trend of ELISA scores toward 100% B cows; 2) a negative estimate for weight change from before calving (late November) to the date of the blood sample in May (-0.0062 +/- 0.0019 score/kg; P < 0.002), indicating that poorer maintenance of cow weights was associated with higher ELISA scores; and 3) a positive estimate for days in lactation of cow on the date of the blood sample (0.0086 +/- 0.0034 score/d; P < 0.021), indicating the production of larger amounts of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as lactation progressed. Relevant regressions on fixed effects associated with calves were 1) calf birth weight (-0.022 +/- 0.010 score/kg; P < 0.035), and 2) calf gain from birth to the date of the cow blood sample (-0.0092 +/- 0.0027 score/kg; P < 0.001). These estimates indicate that cows that produced lighter calves at birth and/or calves with slower preweaning growth tended to have greater ELISA scores. Although the sensitivity (percentage of infected animals detected) of ELISA was only 50%, these results suggest that subclinical paratuberculosis may be negatively affecting cows and their offspring. Factors

  12. Use of a bovine genome array to identify new biological pathways for beef marbling in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Da-jeong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling (intramuscular fat is a valuable trait that impacts on meat quality and an important factor determining price of beef in the Korean beef market. Animals that are destined for this high marbling market are fed a high concentrate ration for approximately 30 months in the Korean finishing farms. However, this feeding strategy leads to inefficiencies and excessive fat production. This study aimed to identify candidate genes and pathways associated with intramuscular fat deposition on highly divergent marbling phenotypes in adult Hanwoo cattle. Results Bovine genome array analysis was conducted to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs in m. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling score 2 to 7. Three data-processing methods (MAS5.0, GCRMA and RMA were used to test for differential expression (DE. Statistical analysis identified 21 significant transcripts from at least two data-processing methods (P . All 21 differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR. Results showed a high concordance in the gene expression fold change between the microarrays and the real time PCR data. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analysis demonstrated that some genes (ADAMTS4, CYP51A and SQLE over expressed in high marbled animals are involved in a protein catabolic process and a cholesterol biosynthesis process. In addition, pathway analysis also revealed that ADAMTS4 is activated by three regulators (IL-17A, TNFα and TGFβ1. QRT-PCR was used to investigate gene expression of these regulators in muscle with divergent intramuscular fat contents. The results demonstrate that ADAMTS4 and TGFβ1 are associated with increasing marbling fat. An ADAMTS4/TGFβ1 pathway seems to be associated with the phenotypic differences between high and low marbled groups. Conclusions Marbling differences are possibly a function of complex signaling pathway interactions between muscle and fat. These results suggest that ADAMTS4

  13. Breed and selection line differences in the temperament of beef cattle - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16426

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The temperament of four beef cattle breeds were measured using a flight time test (FT and a behavior score test (BST. FT was defined as the time taken by animals to cross a distance of 2 m after weight scale. The BST used a visual assessment of cattle behavior in which the results of four categories defined the score: movements, breathing intensity, vocalization and kicking. FT and BST coefficients of heritability were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood, considering half siblings. Caracu presented a lower BST value than the other breeds. Nellore presented intermediate results, followed by Guzerat and Gyr with similar and higher means (p p= -0.36; p s = -0.63; p Bos indicus cattle.  

  14. Serological detection of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in beef cattle of the northern and central-western regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of antibodies against Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in beef cattle of the northern and central-western regions of Brazil. A total of 1703 blood samples were collected from cattle from 100 farms distributed among 37 municipalities in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Tocantins. The search for antibodies was conducted using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and antibodies were observed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and A. marginale in cattle from Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Pará at rates of 99%, 90% and 41%; 99%, 70% and 52%; and 97%, 97% and 75%, respectively. The results show that the analyzed regions exhibit enzootic stability for infection with B. bovis and B. bigemina, whereas the same result was not observed with A. marginale.

  15. Phase feeding crude protein to decrease ammonia emissions from finishing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dietary protein requirement of cattle decreases as animals grow, and mature. Thus, it maybe possible to decrease the protein content of finishing diets to conserve nitrogen, and decrease ammonia emissions. This publicatoin gives a brief review of research conducted on phase feeding protein to ...

  16. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  17. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium andersoni in one herd of beef cattle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Vítovec, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2003), s. 451-457. ISSN 0931-1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 122200002 Keywords : cryptosporidiosis * cattle * Cryptosporidium andersoni Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.656, year: 2003

  18. Diet, fecal microbiome and Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding in beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, such as E. coli O157:H7, are foodborne zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe illness and death in humans. The gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals has been identified as a primary habitat for E. coli O157:H7, and in cattle the terminal gastrointestinal tra...

  19. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appuhamy, J.A.D.R.N.; Strathe, A.B.; Jayasundara, S.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2013-01-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summari

  20. Effect of forage energy intake and supplementation on marbling deposition in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose is the primary carbon source for fatty acid synthesis in intramuscular fat, whereas, acetate is primarily utilized by subcutaneous fat. Our objective was to examine the effect of forage energy intake and type of fermentation on marbling deposition by stocker cattle grazing dormant native ra...

  1. Escherichia coli O157:H7, diet, and fecal microbiome in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, such as E. coli O157:H7, are foodborne zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe illness and death in humans. The gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals has been identified as a primary habitat for E. coli O157:H7, and in cattle the terminal gastrointestinal tra...

  2. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different

  3. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were

  4. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  5. Characterization of fungi from ruminal fluid of beef cattle with different ages and raised in tropical lignified pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Vieira, Edvaldo Alves; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; da Silva-Hughes, Alice Ferreira; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Rodrigues, Norberto Mario

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rumen mycobiota from three age groups of Nelore beef cattle reared extensively on lignified pasture. The experiment was randomized and sampled 50 steers, 50 cows, and 50 calves grazed on Brachiaria spp. pasture during the dry season. Rumen fluid in all animals was aromatic, slightly viscous, and greenish-brown in color. Microscopic examination revealed monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi in similar proportions (P > 0.05) in the rumen fluid of cows and steers. However, these microorganisms were not identified in any of the samples from calves. In culture exams, aerobic filamentous population was significantly higher for rumen fluid of cows compared to the other two groups. Microculture and rDNA sequence analyses showed Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent aerobic fungus among the isolates from the three bovine groups evaluated. Biochemical profiles were determined by the growth level of yeast isolates with 44 nutrient sources. Ten different yeast profiles were obtained, and yeast isolates from cow ruminal fluid showed ability to catabolize greater diversity of carbon and nitrogen sources. The differences in the fungal populations observed in this study could be explained by microbial and physiological interactions existing in the ruminal ecosystem of each age bovine group. The present study showed the fungal population of the rumen related with differences among age of cattle raised in lignified pastures. Metabolic capabilities of mycelial fungi or yeast identified in this study may be employed in new probiotics or microbial additives for different bovine categories. PMID:24962597

  6. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small. PMID:3372376

  7. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in an integrated soybean-beef cattle production system under different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on the decomposition of cover crop pasture, dung, and soybean residues, as well as the C and N release rates from these residues in a long-term integrated soybean-beef cattle system under no-tillage. The experiment was initiated in 2001, with soybean cultivated in summer and black oat + Italian ryegrass in winter. The treatments consisted of four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, plus an ungrazed area, as the control. In 2009-2011, residues from pasture, dung, and soybean stems and leaves were placed in nylon-mesh litter bags and allowed to decompose for up to 258 days. With increasing grazing intensity, residual dry matter of the pasture decreased and that of dung increased. Pasture and dung lignin concentrations and C release rates were lower with moderate grazing intensity. C and N release rates from soybean residues are not affected by grazing intensity. The moderate grazing intensity produces higher quality residues, both for pasture and dung. Total C and N release is influenced by the greater residual dry matter produced when pastures were either lightly grazed or ungrazed.

  8. A meta-analysis of lasalocid effects on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Lean, I J

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lasalocid on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits were evaluated using meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to investigate sources of heterogeneity. Ten studies (20 comparisons) were used in the meta-analysis on rumen measures. Lasalocid increased total VFA and ammonia concentrations by 6.46 and 1.44 m, respectively. Lasalocid increased propionate and decreased acetate and butyrate molar percentage (M%) by 4.62, 3.18, and 0.83%, respectively. Valerate M% and pH were not affected. Meta-regression found butyrate M% linearly increased with duration of lasalocid supplementation (DUR; = 0.017). When >200 mg/d was fed, propionate and valerate M% were higher and acetate M% was lower ( = 0.042, = 0.017, and = 0.005, respectively). Beef performance was assessed using 31 studies (67 comparisons). Lasalocid increased ADG by 40 g/d, improved feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) by 410 g/kg, and improved feed efficiency (FE; combined measure of G:F and the inverse of F:G). Lasalocid did not affect DMI, but heterogeneity in DMI was influenced by DUR ( = 0.004) and the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.011). The combination of ≤100 vs. >100 d DUR and entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg showed that cattle ≤275 kg at entry fed lasalocid for >100 d had the lowest DMI. Heterogeneity of ADG was influenced by the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.028) but not DUR. Combining entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg and DUR showed that cattle entering at >275 kg fed ≤100 d had the highest ADG. The FE ( = 0.025) and F:G ( = 0.015) linearly improved with dose, and entry BW >275 kg improved F:G ( = 0.038). Fourteen studies (25 comparisons) were used to assess carcass traits. Lasalocid increased HCW by 4.73 kg but not dressing percentage, mean fat cover, or marbling score. Heterogeneity of carcass traits was low and not affected by DUR or dose. Seven studies (11 comparisons) were used to assess dairy performance but the study power was relatively low and the evidence base is

  9. The Use of Local Mineral Formulas as a Feed Block Supplement for Beef Cattle Fed on Wild Forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out to study the diversity of mineral contents of wild forages and to evaluate the beneficial effect of mineral feed supplement formulated by using locally available materials on the performances of beef cattle. The present research was initiated by analyzing mineral contents of wild forages grown around Limau Manis campus areas. Forage samples were collected at 9 sampling areas scattered at plantation, conservation and idle lands. Samples were then analyzed for macro minerals of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S and micro minerals of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn. Feeding trial was then conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of supplementation of local mineral formulas (LMF produced by using locally available materials on the performances of cattle. Feeding trial was conducted for 6 weeks by using 9 Simmentals cross bred heifers. The trial consisted of 3 treatments, i.e., P1: only grass without supplementation, P2: grass + LMF and P3: grass + mineral premix enriched LMF. Variables measured were: body weight, feed intake, FCR, feed cost and net return. Results showed that the highest macro mineral content of wild forages was Na of about 13.05±2.22 g/kg, varied from 4.1 to 23.8 g/kg, followed by K (11.09±1.43 g/kg and Ca (6.10±1.09 g/kg DM. Three minerals of Mg, P, and S were found in relatively small concentrations of 1.34±0.30, 0.83±0.23, and 0.17±0.01 g/kg, respectively. Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in relatively high concentrations. The highest concentration of micro minerals was Fe of about 613.8±128.9 mg/kg, followed by Mn of 143.9±23.3 mg/kg, while Zn and Cu were found in relatively small amount of about 31.3±5.5 and 13.2±2.5 mg/kg, respectively. Heifers supplemented with LMF (P2 and mineral premix enriched LMF (P3 showed higher body weight gain, lower FCR and net return than those cattle fed only grass (P1. The most profitable feeding strategy was by supplementation of heifers with mineral premix

  10. Effects of 3 Topical Plant Extracts on Wound Healing in Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Lipinski, Leandro Cavalcante; Wouk, Antonio Felipe Paulino de Figueiredo; da Silva, Nilceu Lemos; Perotto, Daniel; Ollhoff, Rüdiger Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Eleven heifers of the Purunã cattle breed were used to evaluate wound healing by second intention. An experimental wound excision model in bovines was created by means of a skin punch of diameter 2cm. The animals were topically treated for 17 days with a saline control or decoctions of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira mansa), Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb (Ipê Roxo), and Casearia sylvestris Sw.(Guaçatonga) mixed with carboxymethyl cellulose. Centripetal retraction, clinical, a...

  11. Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  12. Effects of subcutaneous injections of a long acting moxidectin formulation in grazing beef cattle on parasite fecal egg reduction and animal weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleale, R M; Hart, K B; Hutchens, D E; Johnson, E G; Paul, A J; Smith, L L; Tucker, C; Yazwinski, T A; Doscher, M E; Grubbs, S T; Wulster-Radcliffe, M; Amodie, D M

    2004-12-15

    Trials were conducted in Arkansas, Idaho, Illinois and Wisconsin using a common protocol to evaluate effectiveness and safety of a long acting (LA), oil-based injectable formulation of moxidectin in beef cattle grazing spring and/or summer pastures. At each site, 150 cattle (steers and/or heifers) were blocked based on pretreatment fecal strongyle egg counts (EPG) and then randomly assigned to treatments within blocks. Presence of naturally acquired parasitic infections, confirmed by presence of parasite eggs in feces, was a prerequisite for study enrollment. Within each block of three animals, two received moxidectin LA injectable on day 0 at a dosing rate of 1.0 mg moxidectin/kg b.w. into the dorsal aspect of the proximal third of the ear, and one received a placebo control treatment. Cattle were weighed before treatment and on day 55 or 56 (55/56) after treatment. Fecal samples were also collected from 10 randomly selected blocks of animals at each site on days 14, 28 and 55/56 for EPG quantification. Average daily gain (ADG) was computed over the posttreatment period. Data pertaining to ADG and EPG were combined across sites and analyzed by mixed model analysis of variance to assess the fixed effect of treatment and random effects of site, block within site and the treatment by site interaction. Compared to placebo-treated controls, the geometric means of fecal EPG counts from cattle treated with moxidectin LA injectable were reduced 99.8% 14 days after treatment, 99.1% 28 days after treatment and 96.7% 55/56 days after treatment. Rate of weight gain by cattle treated with moxidectin LA injectable was 0.59 kg/day, or 23% (0.11 kg/day) more than placebo-treated controls (P<0.05). None of the cattle treated with moxidectin LA injectable exhibited signs of macrocyclic lactone toxicosis. Summarized across all study sites, proportions of cattle that received concurrent therapeutic treatments were similar among treatment groups. Study results demonstrate that

  13. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  14. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM. PMID:16183219

  15. Use of repellents for honeybees (Apis mellifera L. in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis Deg crop and in confined beef cattle feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nicodemo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Apis mellifera in places such as candy and soft drink factories, restaurants, and ice-cream shops has been a concern to many people. In the yellow passion-fruit crop, Apis mellifera is able to collect all anther pollen but has no active role in pollination. Honeybees also visit animal feeders with chopped sugar cane, preventing the cattle from eating. This work studied the effect of natural and synthetic substances as Apis mellifera repellents in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit crop and in confined beef cattle feeders. There was a repellent effect in vitro with the following substances in decreasing order: tobacco, rue, garlic, parsley, and century plant extracts; average effect was twenty-five minutes. For the yellow passion-fruit, garlic extracts and 2-heptanone were equally efficient with a two and a half hour repellent action. Garlic and citronella extracts were efficient in repelling Apis mellifera from confined beef cattle feeder for six hours. Garlic repellent action was higher than citronella.

  16. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Yimmongkol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

  17. Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Albano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P

  18. Grain Finishing Beef: Alternative Rations, Cattle Performance and Feeding Costs for Small Feeders

    OpenAIRE

    Feuz, Dillon M.; Russell, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In a feeding trial at Utah State University during the summer of 2013, it was found that cattle had higher ADG when fed SFC compared to whole corn. However, when the relative cost of SFC and whole corn were considered, feeding whole corn compared to SFC resulted in nearly identical feed costs per pound of gain. Actual and relative costs of SFC and whole corn can and do vary over time and across geographic regions. Therefore, feeders could use the information in this fact sheet to determine wh...

  19. High Density SNP Chip Impacts Beef Cattle Breeding%高密度SNP芯片及其对肉牛育种影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清峰; 秦巧梅

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in sequencing and genotyping technologies have promoted a rapid revolution in methods for beef cattle selection. Genotyping assays efficiency has been improved greatly, from the past restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers that were low-throughput, time consuming to the newest high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays. As the cattle genome sequence map and SNP map were finished, cattle genome wide selection that was based on the high density SNP chip became a new research hot for cattle breeding. This paper that based on the high density SNP chip on beef cattle breeding effects, reviewed high-density SNP chip technology, next generation sequencing and beef cattle genome wide selection of research. The paper also elucidated the high-density SNP chip for multiple breeds model construction of genome wide selection, and show it was extremely important that accurately predicting genomic breeding value.%近年来先进的测序和基因分型技术促进了肉牛育种方法的革新.从过去低通量、耗时的限制性片段多态标记( RFLP)到如今高通量、高密度的单核苷酸多态性(SNP)标记,基因检测效率大幅提高.随着肉牛基因组序列图谱及SNP图谱的完成,基于高密度SNP标记的牛全基因组选择成了牛育种的新热点.作者立足高密度SNP芯片对肉牛育种的影响,综述高密度SNP芯片及和下一代测定技术及肉牛全基因组选择的研究进展,阐明高密度SNP芯片对多品种全基因组选择的模型的建立及准确的预测基因组育种值极其重要.

  20. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying sensory meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Hocquette, J F; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Journaux, L; Renand, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving the traits that underlie meat quality is a major challenge in the beef industry. The objective of this paper was to detect QTL linked to sensory meat quality traits in 3 French beef cattle breeds. We genotyped 1,059, 1,219, and 947 young bulls and their sires belonging to the Charolais, Limousin, and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds, respectively, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After estimating relevant genetic parameters using VCE software, we performed a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis on 4 meat traits: intramuscular fat content, muscle lightness, shear force, and tenderness score. Heritability coefficients largely ranged between 0.10 and 0.24; however, they reached a maximum of 0.44 and 0.50 for intramuscular fat content and tenderness score, respectively, in the Charolais breed. The 2 meat texture traits, shear force and tenderness score, were strongly genetically correlated (-0.91 in the Charolais and Limousin breed and -0.86 in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed), indicating that they are 2 different measures of approximately the same trait. The genetic correlation between tenderness and intramuscular fat content differed across breeds. Using a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-4) for QTL detection, we found more than 200 significant positions across the 29 autosomal chromosomes for the 4 traits in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds; in contrast, there were only 78 significant positions in the Limousin breed. Few QTL were common across breeds. We detected QTL for intramuscular fat content located near the myostatin gene in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds. No mutation in this gene has been reported for the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed; therefore, it suggests that an unknown mutation could be segregating in this breed. We confirmed that, in certain breeds, markers in the calpastatin and calpain 1 gene regions affect tenderness. We also found new QTL as several QTL on chromosome 3 that are

  1. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

    2016-05-01

    Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

  2. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    ) distance to the spectral centroid of a calibration population of 796 faecal samples collected throughout 2 years in four herds. Seasonal trends in pasture quality and responses to management practices were identified adequately and H<3.0 for 98% of faecal samples collected. We conclude that the development of FNIRS equations with confined animals is not only unexpensive and ethically acceptable, but their predictions are also sufficiently accurate to monitor dietary composition (but not intake) of beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands. PMID:26323211

  3. 肉牛人工授精技术网络服务平台的构建%Construction for Networks Service Platform of Beef Cattle Artificial Insemination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡大辉; 杜治国; 伏彭辉

    2013-01-01

    为了在基层畜牧科技人员中推广肉牛人工授精技术,提高基层畜牧科技人员掌握该项技术的能力,利用计算机网络并结合多媒体技术开发出肉牛人工授精网络服务平台.平台利用SQL Server 2008构建后台数据库系统,使用.NET进行前台框架设计,运用Visual Studio.NET进行客户端程序设计.平台建成后投入实际运行,能帮助基层畜牧科技人员随时随地学习肉牛人工授精技术的相关知识,能随时解决基层畜牧科技人员的技术疑问,以便于基层畜牧科技人员更好地为广大农牧民服务.%In order to promote the application of beef cattle artificial insemination technique in scientific and technical personnel in animal husbandry at grassroot level,improve their capability to master the technique,networks service platform of beef cattle artificial insemination was constructed by use of computer networks combined with multi-media technology.The backend database system of this platform was set up by the SQL Server 2008,the front-end framework system was designed based on.NET,client program was designed by Visual Studio.The platform can help the animal husbandry scientific and technical personnel to learn knowledge of beef cattle artificial insemination technique at anytime in anywhere and solve the technical questions.It also can facilitate the animal husbandry scientific and technqcal personnel to service better for the majority of herdsmen.

  4. The change of sowing structure as a strategy for improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Saša Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of sowing structure on family farm competiveness using the model of family farm directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle in the conditions of unchanged estate size. Applying a partial budget analysis, it was examined whether the decision on buying alfalfa hay or mercantile maize on the market and changing the sowing structure was economically justified and under what conditions using additional procedure of sensitive analysis. Applying this approach, it was investigated to what extent that decision contributed to improving the family farm profitability. The results of the conducted research show that the decision on buying mercantile maize mainly contributes to improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle compared with the decision on buying alfalfa hay. It is the consequence of the fact that buying mercantile maize on the market will enable sowing structure changes, that is, buying mercantile maize will make the area free, which according to some conservative estimations, can be used for the production of sufficient amounts of alfalfa and silage maize for fattening of additional 19 head, whereas buying alfalfa hay will make the area free, which can be used for production of sufficient amounts of mercantile and silage maize for fattening of additional 6 head. In addition, it is shown that more rational way of organizing family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle can additionally use available land resources and in that way increase profitability and improve competitiveness.

  5. Evaluation of thymus morphology and serum cortisol concentration as indirect biomarkers to detect low-dose dexamethasone illegal treatment in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vascellari Marta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticosteroids are illegally used in several countries as growth promoters in veal calves and beef cattle, either alone or in association with sex steroids and β-agonists, especially at low dosages and primarily through oral administration, in order to enhance carcasses and meat quality traits. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the reliability of the histological evaluation of the thymus, as well as the serum cortisol determination, in identifying beef cattle, treated with two different dexamethasone-based growth-promoting protocols and the application of different withdrawal times before slaughter. Results Our findings demonstrate that low dosages of dexamethasone (DXM, administered alone or in association with clenbuterol as growth promoter in beef cattle, induce morphologic changes in the thymus, resulting in increase fat infiltration with concurrent cortical atrophy and reduction of the cortex/medulla ratio (C/M. In fact, the C/M value was significantly lower in treated animals than in control ones, with both the protocols applied. The cut off value of 0.93 for the cortex/medulla ratio resulted to be highly effective to distinguish control and treated animals. The animals treated with DXM showed inhibition of cortisol secretion during the treatment period, as well as at the slaughterhouse, 3 days after treatment suspension. The animals treated with lower doses of DXM in association with clenbuterol, showed inhibition of cortisol secretion during the treatment period, but serum cortisol concentration was restored to physiological levels at slaughterhouse, 8 days after treatment suspension. Conclusions The histological evaluation of thymus morphology, and particularly of the C/M may represent a valuable and reproducible method applicable to large-scale screening programs, due to the easy sampling procedures at slaughterhouse, as well as time and cost-saving of the analysis. Serum cortisol determination could be

  6. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Yimmongkol; Lerchat Boonek; Sukanya Juttupornpong

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP) as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL), concent...

  7. Requirement of energy and protein of beef cattle on tropical pasture - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.21143

    OpenAIRE

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Edenio Detmann; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Javier Enrique Garces Cardenas; Isabela Fernanda Teixeira Dias

    2013-01-01

    Protein and energy requirements of beef cattle, aged between 4 and 18 months old, on tropical pastures, were estimated. Forty-six Nellore calves (138.3 ± 3.4 kg BW and 90-150 days old), kept on pasture, were distributed in a maintenance group (restricted feeding) or in nutritional plans, receiving a supplements with different amounts of protein and carbohydrate or non-supplemented. The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg) was obtained by linear regression of logarithm of retained ener...

  8. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p

  9. Identification of the SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) for Fatty Acid Composition Associated with Beef Flavor-related FABP4 (Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4) in Korean Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Dong-yep; Lee, Yoon-Seok; La, Boo-mi; Yeo, Jung-Sou

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between unsaturated fatty acids influencing beef flavor and four types of SNPs (c.280A>G, c.388G>A, c.408G>C and c.456A>G) located at exon 2, 3 and 4 of the FABP4 gene, which is a fatty acid binding protein 4 in Korean cattle (n = 513). When analyzing the relationship between single genotype, fatty acids and carcass trait, individuals of GG, GG, CC and GG genotypes that are homozygotes, had a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and marblin...

  10. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in akirin 2 gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Takahagi Youichi; Ohta Takeshi; Morita Mitsuo; Fujita Tatsuo; Miyake Takeshi; Sukegawa Shin; Yamada Takahisa; Sasaki Seiki; Murakami Hiroshi; Morimatsu Fumiki; Sasaki Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The c17-25 expressed sequence tag (EST) has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus, the akirin 2 (AKIRIN2) gene containing the c17-25 EST s...

  11. Transportation and lairage environment effects on prevalence, numbers, and diversity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on hides and carcasses of beef cattle at processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Guerini, Michael N; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Shackelford, Steven D; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2007-02-01

    Hide has been established as the main source of carcass contamination during cattle processing; therefore, it is crucial to minimize the amount of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on cattle hides before slaughter. Several potential sources of E. coli O157: H7 are encountered during transportation and in the lairage environment at beef-processing facilities that could increase the prevalence and numbers of E. coli O157:H7 on the hides of cattle. On three separate occasions, samples were obtained from cattle at the feedlot and again after cattle were stunned and exsanguinated at the processing plant (286 total animals). The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on hides increased from 50.3 to 94.4% between the time cattle were loaded onto tractor-trailers at the feedlot and the time hides were removed in the processing plant. Before transport, nine animals had E. coli O157:H7 in high numbers (> 0.4 CFU/cm2) on their hides. When sampled at the slaughter facility, the number of animals with high hide numbers had increased to 70. Overall, only 29% of the E. coli O157:H7 isolates collected postharvest (221 of 764) matched pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types collected before transport. The results of this study indicate that transport to and lairage at processing plants can lead to increases in the prevalence and degree of E. coli O157:H7 contamination on hides and the number of E. coli O157:H7 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types associated with the animals. More study is needed to confirm the mechanism by which additional E. coli O157:H7 strains contaminate cattle hides during transport and lairage and to design interventions to prevent this contamination. PMID:17340859

  12. Relationship between Marketing Strategies and Governance Mechanisms: A Study in Exploration Chain Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Quevedo-Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between actors has been unspoilt by marketing through the bias of Transaction Costs Economics. Some authors suggest that a marketing strategy can directly impact the transactional characteristics and hence the governance mechanisms chosen to coordinate transactions. Studies suggest that future work in the field of marketing include, among other factors, aspects related to the relationship between the actors. In this context, this article aims to analyze how marketing strategies can affect the choice of governance mechanisms. The study object is the chain of beef, view their representation to the national economy. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with various actors in the chain. It was possible to verify the existence of the relationship between marketing strategy and governance structure. In one of the cases, product differentiation, translated into more specific assets, led the producer to perform a relational contract with the fridge and to distribute your product, make an integration with retailers, through the opening of a boutique of meat. Factor that was not observed in transactions involving producers on products without distinction, for which the transactions via spot market are prevalent.  

  13. Life-cycle assessment of the beef cattle production system for the northern great plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, David E; Benning, Jennifer L; Stone, James J

    2013-09-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to estimate the environmental impacts associated with four different U.S. Northern Great Plains (NPG) beef production systems. The LCA model followed a "cradle-to-gate" approach and incorporated all major unit processes, including mineral supplement production. Four distinct operation scenarios were modeled based on production strategies common to the NGP, and a variety of impacts were determined. The scenarios include a normal operation, early weaning of the calf, fast-tack backgrounding, and grassfed. Enteric emissions and manure emissions and handling were consistently the largest contributors to the LCA impacts. There was little variability between production scenarios except for the grassfed, where the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 37% higher due to a longer finishing time and lower finishing weight. However, reductions to GHG emissions (15-24%) were realized when soil organic carbon accrual was considered and may be a more realistic estimate for the NGP. Manure emissions and handing were primary contributors to potential eutrophication and acidification impacts. Mitigation strategies to reduce LCA impacts, including diet manipulation and management strategies (i.e., treatment of manure), were considered from a whole-systems perspective. Model results can be used for guidance by NGP producers, environmental practitioners, and policymakers. PMID:24216416

  14. Comparison of flight speed and exit score as measurements of temperament in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetters, M D D; Engle, T E; Ahola, J K; Grandin, T

    2013-01-01

    Observations were collected for the purpose of comparing exit velocity measurements in the form of exit score (ES; walk, trot, canter, or run) and flight speed (FS) as assessments of cattle temperament. Squeeze chute exit velocity was obtained for 1,181 crossbred yearling steers using ES and FS temperament systems. Flight speed used infrared sensors to determine the time taken for an animal to traverse a fixed distance of 1.83 m after exiting the squeeze chute. Exit score (1=walk, 2=trot, 3=canter, and 4=run) was assigned by 2 different observers when each steer crossed a fixed point between the infrared sensors. All animals were scored with each system (ES and FS) simultaneously on exiting the squeeze chute on d -21 and d -1 of the experiment. Of the 1,181 cattle, 357 were moved to a nearby research feedyard for use in a 140 d feedlot trial. These cattle were scored using both measurement systems and BW was recorded at 35 d intervals throughout the trial. Exit score was assessed for observer reliability, ES and FS were compared for measurement repeatability, and both were assessed on ability to predict ADG. Exit score between observers on a single day showed considerable agreement (weighted Kappa=0.66), indicating the system was reliable between different observers. However, the agreement for a single observer between day was only moderate (weighted Kappa=0.40), indicating a day effect for ES. In addition, although mean velocities for day were not different (P>0.18; FS=2.98±.87 and 3.02±0.87 m/s for day, respectively), the persistence of FS for each animal was low (Spearman rank correlation coefficient=0.25). The frequency that an animal would be placed into the same third of FS or receive the same ES on consecutive weigh days was 50% and 60.0%, respectively, and both were moderate predictors of ADG (R2=0.14 and R2=0.17). These data indicate that ES and FS are reliable instruments for assessment of temperament on a given day, and show moderate repeatability

  15. Accuracy of direct genomic breeding values for nationally evaluated traits in US Limousin and Simmental beef cattle

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    Saatchi Mahdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In national evaluations, direct genomic breeding values can be considered as correlated traits to those for which phenotypes are available for traditional estimation of breeding values. For this purpose, estimates of the accuracy of direct genomic breeding values expressed as genetic correlations between traits and their respective direct genomic breeding values are required. Methods We derived direct genomic breeding values for 2239 registered Limousin and 2703 registered Simmental beef cattle genotyped with either the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip or the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip. For the 264 Simmental animals that were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip, genotypes for markers present on the BovineSNP50 BeadChip were extracted. Deregressed estimated breeding values were used as observations in weighted analyses that estimated marker effects to derive direct genomic breeding values for each breed. For each breed, genotyped individuals were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering, with the aim of increasing within-group and decreasing between-group pedigree relationships. Cross-validation was performed five times for each breed, using four groups for training and the fifth group for validation. For each trait, we then applied a weighted bivariate analysis of the direct genomic breeding values of genotyped animals from all five validation sets and their corresponding deregressed estimated breeding values to estimate variance and covariance components. Results After minimizing relationships between training and validation groups, estimated genetic correlations between each trait and its direct genomic breeding values ranged from 0.39 to 0.76 in Limousin and from 0.29 to 0.65 in Simmental. The efficiency of selection based on direct genomic breeding values relative to selection based on parent average information ranged from 0.68 to 1.28 in genotyped Limousin and from 0.51 to 1.44 in genotyped Simmental animals

  16. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  17. MICROFILTRATION AS ADVANCED TREATMENT PROCESS FOR AN EFFLUENT OF BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Osório da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to clarify an effluent of a cattle slaughter industry by means of polmeric membranes ofmicrofiltration (porosity of 0.4 μm with the purpose of removing its turbidity, COD, total suspended solids,volatile solids, inorganic phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen. And also the characteristics of the flow behaviorand transmembrane pressure, and permeate temperature for this wastewater. It was noted that the efficiencyregarding the removal of physical-chemical parameters was 98%, for Turbidity; 97%, for TSS; 97%, for VSS; 92%, for COD; 9%, for N-NH4- and 49%, for P-PO4 3-. Frequency operation of 35 Hz presented the highest permeate flux (18 L.h-1.m-2, lowest temperature and transmembrane pressure. Result showed that tangentialfiltration process is satisfactory in terms of macromolecules and turbidity removal.

  18. Frequency of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in beef cattle not vaccinated

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    Ermilton Junio Pereira de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1, is responsible for clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, conjunctivitis, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis. This virus has been responsible for major losses in different productive and reproductive herds in the country. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in beef heifers not vaccinated in Microregion of Imperatriz, Maranhao, and identify the age group most affected by the virus, as well as a study of factors associated with virus infection and to evaluate the indirect ELISA using the serum neutralization (SN as a reference standard. The study was conducted in 48 herds, cutting, distributed in 12 counties of Microregion of Imperatriz. The samples were collected from female cattle stratified into three age groups, ? 12 months, between 12 and 36 months and ? 36 months of age. The samples were subjected to two serological tests, ELISA and SN. In each herd, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied in order to obtain information on management and reproductive sanitary, for the study of risk factors. The frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in Microregion of Imperatriz was 63.23%, and the municipalities of Açailândia Buritirana showed the highest frequencies, both with 80.44%, the most affected age group, the Microregion, was animals aged ? 36 months (69.65%. Based on the results we can conclude that the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 is high, between the age groups most affected were the animals aged ? 36 months were considered risk factors for virus transmission, return to estrus (OR=1.874, recovery of animals from other states / region (OR=1.365 and the creation of goat / sheep associated with bovine (OR=1.348, the indirect ELISA technique showed moderate concordance when compared to SN technique, which is the gold standard technique for diagnosis of BoHV-1.

  19. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077759

  20. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. PMID:17093211

  1. Effect of diet on animal performance, lipid composition of subcutaneous adipose and liver tissue of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglou, N; McDowell, L R; Johnson, D D

    1987-01-01

    Two trials were carried out with Brahman beef cattle to study animal performance and carcass characteristics as well as fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose and hepatic tissue, as influence by length of grain feeding period or a pasturing regimen. In trial 1, steers were allotted to three feedlot finishing periods (76, 104 and 146 days) after being backgrounded on pasture. Steers fed 76 days had greater average daily gains (P grades, fat over ribeye, quality yield and per cent kidney, pelvic and heart (KPH) fat than steers fed for 104 and 76 days. The proprortions of certain fatty acid of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were influenced by the length of grain feeding. There was a marked increased in the proportion of oleic acid in both tissues as the steers remained longer in the feedlot and a higher percentage of total saturated fatty acids at 76 days than at the other two times. Quantitative separation of hepatic lipid classes by the Iatroscan revealed that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the main components of the phospholipids. Presents as minor components were cardiolipin and sphingomyelin. No differences (P > 0.·05) in these individual subclasses of liver lipids or in triglycerides were observed between the feedlot groups. Liver polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were higher (P yield grade, quality grade, fat over ribeye and per cent KPH were higher (P < 0·01) for the concentrate group while fat color scores were higher (P < 0·01) for the pasture group. Liver fatty acid analysis of summed ω6 PUFAs of triglyceride, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine were higher for the feedlot than the pasture group. Linoleic acid was higher (P < 0·05) in the TG and PC liver subclass of the feedlot animals while higher (P < 0·05) linolenic acid occurred in the pasture group. PMID:22054497

  2. Incidence and persistence of zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens in a beef cattle feedlot runoff control vegetative treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elaine D; Woodbury, Bryan L; Nienaber, John A; Eigenberg, Roger A; Thurston, Jeanette A; Wells, James E

    2007-01-01

    Determining the survival of zoonotic pathogens in livestock manure and runoff is critical for understanding the environmental and public health risks associated with these wastes. The occurrence and persistence of the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter spp. in a passive beef cattle feedlot runoff control-vegetative treatment system were examined over a 26-mo period. Incidence of the protozoans Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. was also assessed. The control system utilizes a shallow basin to collect liquid runoff and accumulate eroded solids from the pen surfaces; when an adequate liquid volume is attained, the liquid is discharged from the basin onto a 4.5-ha vegetative treatment area (VTA) of bromegrass which is harvested as hay. Basin discharge transported E. coli O157, Campylobacter spp., and generic E. coli into the VTA soil, but without additional discharge from the basin, the pathogen prevalences decreased over time. Similarly, the VTA soil concentrations of generic E. coli initially decreased rapidly, but lower residual populations persisted. Isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from VTA samples was infrequent, indicating differences in sedimentation and/or transport in comparison to bacteria. Isolation of generic E. coli from freshly cut hay from VTA regions that received basin discharge (12 of 30 vs. 1 of 30 control samples) provided evidence for the risk of contamination; however, neither E. coli O157 or Campylobacter spp. were recovered from the hay following baling. This work indicates that the runoff control system is effective for reducing environmental risk by containing and removing pathogens from feedlot runoff. PMID:17965390

  3. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NaHCO3 and trona in beef cattle diets. Trace element (n = 28) analysis revealed no toxicological or safety concerns with the use of trona. Trona was more (P less than .05) soluble in ruminal fluid than Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 and had greater (P less than .05) buffering capacity (9.6 meq/g) than NaHCO3 (6.1 meq/g) but less (P less than .05) than Na2CO3 (11.1 meq/g). Calcium carbonate was insoluble and did not buffer ruminal fluid. Six yearling (avg 272 kg) Hereford X Angus steers, each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas, were fed 50:50 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) or 90:10 concentrate diets with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3 or with 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Propionate (mmol/liter) increased (17.6 vs 13.5; P less than .05) and butyrate decreased (3.5 vs 5.2; P less than .05) with trona in the 90:10 diet as compared with no buffer. Propionate (16.8) increased (P less than .05) with NaHCO3 in the 90:10 diet. Average ruminal pH was greater (P less than .05) in 90:10 diets with trona or NaHCO3 than with no buffer (5.61, 5.61 vs 5.55); duodenal pH was greater (P less than .01) with trona than with no buffer (2.66 vs 2.55). Trona reduced ruminal pH-hours (P less than .05) and pH-area (P less than .12; time and area below mean pH of control) below control for both concentrate levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3038823

  4. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease. PMID:18998232

  5. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dajeong; Strucken, Eva M; Choi, Bong Hwan; Chai, Han Ha; Cho, Yong Min; Jang, Gul Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Gondro, Cedric; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle) and in China (Yanbian). These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN). We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected) in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes), reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes), coat color (2 genes), and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes). We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform) 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val) and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene. PMID:27023061

  6. Evaluation of bovine chemerin (RARRES2 gene variation on beef cattle production traits

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    Amanda K Lindholm-Perry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI in steers (P<0.008. Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P<0.05 and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG and residual feed intake (RFI, respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, adjusted fat thickness (AFT, and marbling (P<0.05. Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit across

  7. Lack of association between the occurrence of Crohn's disease and occupational exposure to dairy and beef cattle herds infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qual, D A; Kaneene, J B; Varty, T J; Miller, R; Thoen, C O

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify associations between Crohn's disease (CD) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) exposure. A questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to cattle infected with Map, and personal and family history of CD in dairy and beef cattle producers with and without Map-infected herds, and in veterinarians who did or did not have contact with Map-infected herds. Cases of CD were selected from respondents and matched 1:4 with controls on occupation, age, and sex. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between Map exposure and CD. There were 3 cases of CD in 702 producers and 4 cases in 774 veterinarians, yielding a prevalence of 0.47%. No association was found between exposure to JD and CD in any phase of the analysis. However, the number of cases of CD is not large and limits the power to detect important differences. PMID:20494145

  8. Performance and ultrasound measurements of beef cattle fed diets based on whole corn or oats grains

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    Hugo M Arelovich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to contrast dietary effects of whole grain oats versus corn included in rations with moderate roughage content on animal performance, beef ultrasound measurements, rumen and blood parameters. Ten Aberdeen Angus steers (203 kg in individual pens were fed twice daily on either whole oats (OD or corn (CD based diets. Measurements were: DM intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, feed to gain ratio (F/G; back fat (BF and rib eye area (RA; blood parameters. Four cannulated steers were used to study rumen pH, NH3-N and grain degradability. Rations dietary components were 55% grain, 30.1% barley straw, and 10.6% whole soybeans. Despite calculated higher ME supply (P = 0.0887 no differences were found for DMI, ADG, or F/G. Metabolizable protein intake (19.4% was larger and degradable protein intake (43.3% smaller for CD compared with OD (P < 0.01. The growth rate (cm² d-1 for RA was 40% grater for OD, but larger BF deposition (P = 0.0787 was found for CD. Blood Mg was higher for OD (p = 0.0564, nevertheless other blood parameters remained unaffected. Rumen pH and NH3-N were not influenced by diet, variations were only observed within time periods. Rumen pH decreased linearly from 7.05 to 6.13 and 7.11 to 6.37 for OD and CD respectively (P < 0.05. Minimum NH3-N concentrations (mg dL-1 were reached 12 and 18 h after morning meal for OD (7.10 and CD (5.82 respectively. Rumen degradation was larger for oats than corn. Whole oats rather than corn fed up to 55% of total DM seems to improve protein deposition, without significant changes in animal performance, rumen environment or blood parameters.

  9. Short communication: Imputation performances of 3 low-density marker panels in beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassonneville, R; Fritz, S; Ducrocq, V; Boichard, D

    2012-07-01

    Low-density chips are appealing alternative tools contributing to the reduction of genotyping costs. Imputation enables researchers to predict missing genotypes to recreate the denser coverage of the standard 50K (∼50,000) genotype. Two alternative in silico chips were defined in this study that included markers selected to optimize minor allele frequency and spacing. The objective of this study was to compare the imputation accuracy of these custom low-density chips with a commercially available 3K chip. Data consisted of genotypes of 4,037 Holstein bulls, 1,219 Montbéliarde bulls, and 991 Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls. Criteria to select markers to include in low-density marker panels are described. To mimic a low-density genotype, all markers except the markers present on the low-density panel were masked in the validation population. Imputation was performed using the Beagle software. Combining the directed acyclic graph obtained with Beagle with the PHASEBOOK algorithm provides fast and accurate imputation that is suitable for routine genomic evaluations based on imputed genotypes. Overall, 95 to 99% of alleles were correctly imputed depending on the breed and the low-density chip used. The alternative low-density chips gave better results than the commercially available 3K chip. A low-density chip with 6,000 markers is a valuable genotyping tool suitable for both dairy and beef breeds. Such a tool could be used for preselection of young animals or large-scale screening of the female population. PMID:22720970

  10. Effects of decreased dietary roughage concentration on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, K E; Brown-Brandl, T M; Freetly, H C

    2014-01-01

    The optimal roughage concentration required in feedlot diets changes continuously for many reasons such as source, availability, price, and interaction with other ingredients in the diet. Wet distillers grains and solubles (WDGS) are common in finishing diets and they contain relatively high amounts of fiber compared with other grains they replace. Therefore, concentration of roughage could be altered when WDGS are included in feedlot diets. There has been very little data published regarding the effects of roughage concentration on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in beef steers. Therefore, the effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing 25% WDGS were evaluated in 8 steers (BW = 362 ± 3.71 kg) using a replicated Latin square. Data were analyzed with the fixed effects of dietary treatment and period and random effects of square and steer within square were included in the model. Diets consisted of 25% WDGS and the balance being DRC and coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH) replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of dietary dry matter. As a proportion of GE intake, fecal energy loss increased linearly (P = 0.02), and DE decreased linearly (P = 0.02) as dietary level of AH increased. Methane energy loss, as a proportion of GE intake, increased linearly (P Neutral detergent fiber and OM excretion also increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing AH in the diet. The increased NDF and OM excretion were likely caused by the difference in digestibility of AH and DRC. PMID:24352959

  11. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

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    Angela Cánovas

    Full Text Available Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver. These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL, first service conception (FSC, and heifer pregnancy (HPG. In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS, RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes. Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP associated with ACL, FSC, and (or HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.. Results from these multi

  12. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L; Ashley, Ryan L; Colgrave, Michelle L; Fortes, Marina R S; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A; Snelling, Warren M; Medrano, Juan F; Thomas, Milton G

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  13. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Commercial Dairy and Beef Cattle in Northern and Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Lv, Wen-Fa; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are important pathogens, commonly responsible for economical loss to cattle farms all over the world, yet their epidemiology in commercial dairy and beef cattle in China is still unknown. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with MAP and BLV infection. The source sample was 3674 cattle from 113 herds in northern and northeastern China. Antibodies against MAP and BLV were detected using ELISA tests. At animal-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 11.79% (433/3674) and 18.29% (672/3674), respectively. At herd-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 20.35% and 21.24% (24/113), respectively. Herd size was identified to be associated with MAP infection while herd size and presence of cattle introduced from other farms were significantly associated with BLV infection. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and improve the knowledge of the epidemiology of these two pathogens in these regions and elsewhere in China. PMID:26504798

  14. Effects of sustained reduction of enteric methane emissions with dietary supplementation of 3-nitrooxypropanol on growth performance of growing and finishing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, D; McGinn, S M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-05-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effects of sustained reduction of enteric methane (CH) emissions with dietary supplementation of the inhibitor 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) on growth rate and feed conversion efficiency of growing and finishing beef cattle. Eighty-four crossbred steers were used in a 238-d feeding study and fed a backgrounding diet for the first 105 d (backgrounding phase) and transition diets for 28 d followed by a finishing diet for 105 d (finishing phase) with 3 doses of NOP (0, 100, and 200 mg/kg DM). The experiment was a completely randomized design using 21 pens (4 cattle/pen) with 7 pens per treatment. When cattle were fed the backgrounding diet, pen DMI was reduced ( Methane yield (g/kg DMI) was reduced whereas hydrogen emissions were increased at the highest dose of NOP supplementation with both backgrounding and finishing diets ( < 0.01). Overall, these results demonstrate efficacy of NOP in reducing enteric CH emissions from cattle fed backgrounding and finishing diets, and these effects were negated once NOP supplementation was discontinued. PMID:27285700

  15. Characterization of biological types of cattle: indicator traits offertility in beef cows

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    R.A. Cushman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status; however, there are clearly genetic components to reproductive efficiency, and breed differences in a number of indicator traits associated with fertility and cow productivity have been identified. Historical indicators of fertility include scrotal circumference, age at puberty, and postpartum interval. Both age at puberty and postpartum interval are laborious traits to collect in heifers and cows because they require many days of detection of behavioral estrus. In recent years, the addition of ultrasonography to management practices has allowed for the collection of female traits such as follicle diameter, antral follicle counts, and fetal age that are not as labor intensive. These additional diagnostic traits provide novel phenotypes for the identification of genetic markers of fertility and cow productivity, which would be the ultimate goal. Genetic markers of the number of follicles in the bovine ovary have the potential to identify heifers that will be highly productive cows. Furthermore, identifying and understanding the genes that control various reproductive traits and the response to stressors, such as temperature and nutrient availability, could improve production efficiency by improving management and breeding decisions in a wide range of production environments.

  16. Relationship of polymorphisms within metabolic genes and carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, L A; Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L

    2012-04-01

    Feed intake has been shown to alter neurological signaling related to feeding behavior and subsequent activation of adipogenic mechanisms. Fat characteristics are pivotal for carcass and meat quality, including marbling score, flavor, and tenderness. The objective of this study was to establish the association of SNP, from genes functionally related to fat metabolism and obesity, with growth, fat, and carcass traits in steers. A total of 33 informative SNP from candidate genes [cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PK), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fat mass and obesity associated (FTO)] were used to genotype crossbred steers (n = 620), and associations with growth and carcass traits were assessed. Five markers within the DNA-PK gene were associated (P grade, and retail product yield. Additionally, 2 unique DNA-PK SNP were associated (P < 0.05) with marbling score. Three haplotypes were observed using these SNP and were significantly (P = 0.0014) associated with marbling score. Slaughter weight, ADG, and HCW were associated (P < 0.05) with SNP from CART, FTO, and FASN. Data from this study indicate that polymorphisms within candidate genes have an indirect relationship with lipogenesis. Replication of these results within other populations will be necessary to establish if these markers will be successful as predictors of fatness components and carcass traits in cattle. PMID:22100592

  17. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, ChangHee; Park, ByungHo; Kim, SiDong; Choi, TaeJung; Yang, BohSuk; Park, SuBong; Song, HyungJun

    2016-08-01

    Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031), while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018), longissimus muscle (LM) area (0.23±0.020), carcass weight (0.28±0.019), yield index (0.20±0.018), yield grade (0.16±0.017), marbling (0.28±0.021), texture (0.14±0.016), quality grade (0.26±0.016) and price/kg (0.24±0.025). Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013) and fat color (0.06±0.012). Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from -0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, -0.43, and -0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were -0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, -0.41, -0.79, and -0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and -0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of productivity and

  18. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

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    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  19. Pregnancy outcome in dairy and beef cattle after artificial insemination and treatment with seminal plasma or transforming growth factor beta-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J F; Poole, D H; Hughes, L; Dejarnette, J M; Inskeep, E K; Dailey, R A

    2009-09-01

    Reduced capability of the uterus to support pregnancy in the absence of its interaction with secretions from male accessory glands has been demonstrated in rodents and to some extent in pigs. However, in cattle, the role of postmating inflammatory response on pregnancy success has not been studied. The current study examined the influence of uterine presensitization with seminal antigens at breeding on pregnancy outcome in cows. Lactating beef (n=1090) and dairy (n=800) cows received 0.5 mL seminal plasma (SP), 40 ng recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta1 (rhTGF-beta1), or 0.5 mL bovine serum albumin (BSA), or were left untreated before or at insemination. Semen was deposited into the anterior cervix using a second insemination gun. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 35 to 40 d postinsemination by transrectal ultrasonography or from records of calves born the subsequent calving season. Pregnancy rates in beef cows did not differ among treatments but differed among trials (69.8%, 52.5% vs. 40.3%; Pplasma on pregnancy outcome in lactating dairy or beef cows but realized marginal improvements when pregnancy rates were below 50% (compromised fertility). PMID:19501392

  20. The Impact of Variable Degrees of Freedom and Scale Parameters in Bayesian Methods for Genomic Prediction in Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Zhu, Miao; Jiang, Jicai; Niu, Hong; Wang, Yanhui; Wu, Yang; Xu, Lingyang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Gao, Huijiang; Liu, Jianfeng; Li, Junya

    2016-01-01

    Three conventional Bayesian approaches (BayesA, BayesB and BayesCπ) have been demonstrated to be powerful in predicting genomic merit for complex traits in livestock. A priori, these Bayesian models assume that the non-zero SNP effects (marginally) follow a t-distribution depending on two fixed hyperparameters, degrees of freedom and scale parameters. In this study, we performed genomic prediction in Chinese Simmental beef cattle and treated degrees of freedom and scale parameters as unknown with inappropriate priors. Furthermore, we compared the modified methods (BayesFA, BayesFB and BayesFCπ) with their corresponding counterparts using simulation datasets. We found that the modified methods with distribution assumed to the two hyperparameters were beneficial for improving the predictive accuracy. Our results showed that the predictive accuracies of the modified methods were slightly higher than those of their counterparts especially for traits with low heritability and a small number of QTLs. Moreover, cross-validation analysis for three traits, namely carcass weight, live weight and tenderloin weight, in 1136 Simmental beef cattle suggested that predictive accuracy of BayesFCπ noticeably outperformed BayesCπ with the highest increase (3.8%) for live weight using the cohort masking cross-validation. PMID:27139889

  1. The Impact of Variable Degrees of Freedom and Scale Parameters in Bayesian Methods for Genomic Prediction in Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhu

    Full Text Available Three conventional Bayesian approaches (BayesA, BayesB and BayesCπ have been demonstrated to be powerful in predicting genomic merit for complex traits in livestock. A priori, these Bayesian models assume that the non-zero SNP effects (marginally follow a t-distribution depending on two fixed hyperparameters, degrees of freedom and scale parameters. In this study, we performed genomic prediction in Chinese Simmental beef cattle and treated degrees of freedom and scale parameters as unknown with inappropriate priors. Furthermore, we compared the modified methods (BayesFA, BayesFB and BayesFCπ with their corresponding counterparts using simulation datasets. We found that the modified methods with distribution assumed to the two hyperparameters were beneficial for improving the predictive accuracy. Our results showed that the predictive accuracies of the modified methods were slightly higher than those of their counterparts especially for traits with low heritability and a small number of QTLs. Moreover, cross-validation analysis for three traits, namely carcass weight, live weight and tenderloin weight, in 1136 Simmental beef cattle suggested that predictive accuracy of BayesFCπ noticeably outperformed BayesCπ with the highest increase (3.8% for live weight using the cohort masking cross-validation.

  2. Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy

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    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They

  3. Hepatic and duodenal expression of β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase in beef cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Mexico most bovines are finished on pasture: the adipose tissue of those animals shows a yellow pigmentation which results in an important economic loss for the producer, because pg downgrading or even rejection of resulting carcasses. Yellowness of fat is caused by excessive carotenoids in the diet, of which β-carotene is predominant. β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase (β-ox) is the enzyme that cleaves it into two molecules of vitamin A. In cattle not all the absorbed β-carotene is transformed into vitamin A; the excess is transported to the liver where it might be cleaved by the enzyme and stored or packaged with other lipid compounds and carried to different tissues, including the adipose. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of β-ox in duodenal mucosae and hepatic tissue of grass-fed compared with grain-fed cattle. Biological samples were taken at Queretaro's Municipal abattoir from bovines at slaughter. For tRNA assays, intestinal mucosae was taken in Trizol reagent (Gibco BRL cat. 15595- 026), homogenized and transported on ice to the laboratory. For in situ hybridization duodenal and hepatic tissue samples were taken and fixed on 3.5% paraformaldehyde. A partial cDNA for β-ox of 744 nt was obtained by RT-PCR amplification, this product was inserted into TOPO vector 4.0 (Invitrogen cat. K457501) and cloned into E. coli bacteria. Then two sense and antisense digoxygenin labeled probes were synthesized and used for the hybridization of duodenal and hepatic cryosections of 15 μm from four pigmented and four non-pigmented carcasses. The hybridization conditions were a four-hour pre-hybridization at 65 deg. C and a overnight hybridization at the same temperature. The slides were washed and incubated overnight at 4 deg. C with digoxygenin/alkaline phosphatase antibody. The slides were washed and incubated with alkaline phosphatase-nitro blue tetrazolim/5-bromo-4-cloro-3- indoly-phosphate in darkness overnight at room

  4. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  5. New approach for the strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in grazed beef cattle during the growing phase in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, R P; Borges, D G L; Vieira, M C; Conde, M H; Green, M; Amorim, M L; Echeverria, J T; Oliveira, T L; Moro, E; Van Onselen, V J; Borges, F A

    2016-05-15

    We evaluated the effect of different treatment protocols against gastrointestinal nematodes in Nelore beef cattle during the growing phase in the municipality of Terenos, MS, in central Brazil from May 2013 to April 2014 and from May 2014 to April 2015. Ninety-six Nelore calves were kept on Brachiaria brizantha grass during each trial period and were distributed into six experimental groups (replicate paddocks for each group) based on live weight and the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG): T1 (control)-treated in May, July and September with a saline solution; T2-treated in May and November with 700μg/kg doramectin; T3-treated in May (doramectin), July (4.7mg/kg levamisole phosphate) and September (doramectin); T4-treated in May (doramectin), July (200μg/kg moxidectin) and September (doramectin); T5-treated in May (doramectin), August (levamisole phosphate) and November (doramectin) and T6-treated in May (doramectin), August (moxidectin) and November (doramectin). The calves were weighed and feces were collected (for faecal culture and EPG counts) from calves every 28days, concomitantly with the collection of forage samples. The efficacies of doramectin, moxidectin and levamisole were low, at 69.2, 65.9 and 69.4% in the first and 13.8, 92.6, and 76.5% in the second experimental periods, respectively, but only the untreated animals lost weight during the dry season. Final weight gains did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the animals in T2 (120.8kg), T3 (131.4kg), T4 (131.2kg) and T5 (134.4kg). T6 was the only group with a significantly higher final weight gain (140.9kg) compared to the protocol with two annual dosages (T2). The weight gain was 31.9% higher in T6 than in the untreated animals (T1). None of the protocols affected the number of larvae on the pasture. Body weight was significantly and negatively (r=-0.65) correlated with EPG counts, which were significantly lower in June (T2, T3, T4 and T6), August (T3), September (T5 and T6), October (T5

  6. Breed effects, retained heterosis, and estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    Retained heterosis for meat traits was estimated in F3 generation castrate males in three composite populations of beef cattle finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 Mcal of ME and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Breed effects were important (P carcass and meat traits evaluated. Dietary energy density and slaughter group affected (P carcasses. Estimates of heritability were intermediate to high for measures of fatness but were generally low for palatability attributes. The high negative genetic correlation (-.56) between percentage of retail product and marbling score and the relatively low genetic correlations between percentage of retail product and palatability attributes suggests the need for simultaneous attention to percentage of retail product and palatability attributes rather than to marbling score. Correlations among breed group means were generally high for measures of fatness with palatability attributes and were high and negative for percentage of retail product with marbling score and with other measures of fatness. Limited opportunity exists for selecting among breeds to achieve high levels of marbling in the longissimus muscle simultaneously with a high percentage of retail product. These results suggest that the most logical approach to resolution of the genetic antagonism between favorable carcass composition and less favorable palatability attributes is to form composite breeds with breed contributions organized to achieve an optimum balance between favorable carcass composition and desirable

  7. Effects of multi-nutrient feed supplement in beef cattle on methane production, manure quality and rice yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the experiments was to determine the effect of a multi-nutrient feed supplement (MFS) on methane production, and the effect of processing on animal waste to produce compost to improve crop production. Methane is one of the gases that contribute towards global warming and a significant proportion of global methane is produced by rumen fermentation and the breakdown of animal waste. The first of the integrated experimental program carried was the effect of the additional MFS in corn leaf silage with concentrate diet compared to MFS in a low quality of basal diet (rice straw) with a concentrate in beef cattle. Rumen fermentation products including methane gas production were measured along with digestibility, and DLWG. The second phase of the experiment involved the measurement of manures for the nutrient content of the compost and the effect of compost applications on rice yield. The results of the Experiment 1 showed that MFS supplementation increase dry matter digestibility by 15.6%, feed consumption by 7.5%, DLWG by 200% and improve the feed conversion ratio by 187%. The enhanced nutrition improved microbial populations and decreasing methane product from 88.0 to 21.7 mM. The result of the in vitro study found that the feed commonly supplied by farmers to their animal could be improved by the use of MFS with methane production decreasing from 42 ml to 25 ml. An in vivo experiment using the same rations showed an increase of 5.9, 11.4, 6.6, 4.6, 26.4% in DM consumption, CP consumption, GE consumption, DM digestibility and DLWG, respectively, and improving feed efficiency by 21.3%. N total content of compost derived from control and MFS feeding treatments without and with improved manure management was 168, 156, 150 and 146 g/day. Compost application to paddy rice also increased rice yields 76.5% for dried rice harvesting, and 67.4% for dried rice milling. (author)

  8. Effect of estrus synchronization with norgestomet on the integrity of oocytes from persistent follicles in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, K M; Farin, C E; Washburn, S P

    1999-10-01

    Our objective was to determine whether oocyte integrity is compromised when oocytes are recovered from progestogen-induced persistent follicles. Beef cows were presynchronized using PGF2alpha (PGF). Cows detected in estrus after PGF were assigned to either NOR (one 6-mg norgestomet implant for 10 d starting on d 16 of cycle; day 0 = estrus; n = 112) or CON (control, no implant [n = 128] and presynchronized 8 d later than NOR). All cows received 25 mg of PGF at the end of treatment (NOR, d 26; CON, d 18). Treatments produced persistent preovulatory follicles (NOR) or normal preovulatory-size follicles (CON), which were measured via ultrasonography 1 d before slaughter. Ovaries were collected from all animals (NOR, d 27; CON, d 19) along with random (RAN) ovaries from cattle slaughtered on the same days. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were aspirated from the preovulatory follicles with recovery rates of 63% across treatments. Small follicles (2 to 7 mm diameter) from NOR, CON, and RAN cows were also aspirated to recover COC. Preovulatory follicles were larger (19.5+/-.9 vs. 13.6+/-.4 mm, Pdevelopment. A subset (24 NOR, 34 CON) of COC were assigned morphological quality grades. A separate set of recovered COC (10 NOR, 15 CON) was fixed within 1 h after recovery for assessment of the stage of meiosis. Treatments did not differ for oocyte quality grade or stage of meiosis. However, COC from NOR cows had more layers of cumulus cells (PDevelopment of cleaved embryos to the morula and blastocyst stages from preovulatory follicles (22.6% NOR, 18.9% CON) or small follicles (42% NOR, 40% CON, 42% RAN) did not differ with treatment. Oocyte quality and in vitro developmental competence were not compromised for oocytes from induced persistent follicles compared with oocytes from normal preovulatory follicles. Increased expansion of cumulus cells associated with oocytes from progestogen-induced persistent follicles may be relevant to the reduction of in vivo fertility associated

  9. Growth and carcass traits associated with GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I gene polymorphisms in Zebu and crossbred beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in cattle submitted to feedlot management, an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 384 animals, including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu, 30 Simmental x Nellore crossbred and 245 Angus x Nellore crossbred cattle. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, Longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS program and the least square means of the genotypes were compared using the F test. The results showed significant associations between the LL genotype of the GH1/Alu I polymorphism and higher weight gain and body weight at slaughter (p < 0.05. The POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphism did not have any effect on the growth and carcass traits analyzed.

  10. Analyzing changes in the beef cattle ranching communities of acatic and tepatitlan de morelos, jalisco, Mexico related to land cover and climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Pena, Melva B.

    The impacts of climate change on the environment at the global scale can be determined through the use of large-scale circulation models; however, the results from these models are difficult to interpret at the regional or local levels. Regional vulnerability analyses consider the knowledge of locals, which may provide insight into the effects of climate variability on the environment at smaller scales, and most importantly, the effects that these developments are having on society. The objective of this research was to analyze the vulnerability to climate variability of the beef cattle ranching communities of the municipalities of Acatic and of Tepatitlan de Morelos, Jalisco, Mexico. These municipalities are found in a region of the state referred to as "Los Altos". The economy of Los Altos largely relies on agricultural and farming practices; these sectors provide the largest source of employment in the area. In the two municipalities that comprise the study area, the beef cattle industry is one of the strongest economic activities. Climate variability poses great threat on these communities because the main economic activities of the region are highly dependent on natural resources. To have a better understanding of the human-environment interactions in this region, remote sensing methods were applied. Three Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (years: 1985, 1993 and 2000) were employed to generate land use and land cover classification maps of the study area; these maps were then subjected to a change detections analysis. Some of the land use and land cover categories experienced more change than others; among those was the category of water, shrub land and crop land. The area covered by water nearly doubled from 1985 to 1993 and then nearly decreased by half by the year 2000. From 1985 to 1993, here was a decrease in the shrub land of about 1200 ha and concurrently an increase in the crop land of about 1400 ha. From 1993 to 2000 there was an increase in the

  11. Soil-extractable phosphorus and phosphorus saturation threshold in beef cattle pastures as affected by grazing management and forage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Chase, Chad C; Albano, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Grazing can accelerate and alter the timing of nutrient transfer, and could increase the amount of extractable phosphorus (P) cycle from soils to plants. The effects of grazing management and/or forage type that control P cycling and distribution in pasture's resources have not been sufficiently evaluated. Our ability to estimate the levels and changes of soil-extractable P and other crop nutrients in subtropical beef cattle pastures has the potential to improve our understanding of P dynamics and nutrient cycling at the landscape level. To date, very little attention has been paid to evaluating transfers of extractable P in pasture with varying grazing management and different forage type. Whether or not P losses from grazed pastures are significantly greater than background losses and how these losses are affected by soil, forage management, or stocking density are not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grazing management (rotational versus "zero" grazing) and forage types (FT; bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum, Flugge versus rhizoma peanuts, Arachis glabrata, Benth) on the levels of extractable soil P and degree of P saturation in beef cattle pastures. This study (2004-2007) was conducted at the Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service located 7 miles north of Brooksville, FL. Soil (Candler fine sand) at this location was described as well-drained hyperthermic uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. A split plot arrangement in a completely randomized block design was used and each treatment was replicated four times. The main plot was represented by grazing management (grazing vs. no grazing) while forage types (bahiagrass vs. perennial peanut) as the sub-plot treatment. Eight steel exclosures (10 × 10 m) were used in the study. Four exclosures were placed and established in four pastures with bahiagrass and four exclosures were established in four pastures with rhizoma

  12. Use of a bovine genome array to identify new biological pathways for beef marbling in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Da-jeong; Kim Nam-Kuk; Werf Julius; Gondro Cedric; Lee Seung-Hwan; Park Eung-Woo; Oh Sung-Jong; Gibson John P; Thompson John M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Marbling (intramuscular fat) is a valuable trait that impacts on meat quality and an important factor determining price of beef in the Korean beef market. Animals that are destined for this high marbling market are fed a high concentrate ration for approximately 30 months in the Korean finishing farms. However, this feeding strategy leads to inefficiencies and excessive fat production. This study aimed to identify candidate genes and pathways associated with intramuscular ...

  13. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  14. Water quality of the Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odo Primavesi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P<0.01 among sampling points for the mean parameters. True color, hardness, turbidity, electric conductivity, alkalinity, pH, chemical oxygen demand and consumed oxygen explained well differences among sampling points. According to current legislation standards, water quality fitted with most of the established parameters for class 2, with exception of phosphate and iron. The high levels of total phosphorus, except in the forest spring, classified this water in an eutrophic class, even where soil and water conservation practices were considered adequate.

  15. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION CHAIN IN THE STATE OF TOCANTINS, BRAZIL COMPETITIVIDADE DA CADEIA PRODUTIVA DA CARNE BOVINA NO ESTADO DO TOCANTINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Firmino Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this paper is to discuss and analyze the beef cattle chain competitiveness in the State of Tocantins, Brazil, based on some indicators and using as parameters three Brazilian states, which present the largest slaughtering and beef cattle production volume numbers: Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo. The beef cattle chain, in Tocantins, depicts a formation process scenery and, as compared to the other three mentioned states, a still low competitive performance. The detailed examination of the present situation points out that, in all segments studied (livestock production, slaughtering/processing, distribution, and consumption, the indexes indicate a necessity of efforts to reach development factors that bring competitiveness and that will allow the Tocantins results to approach the national sector leaders.

    KEY-WORDS: Beef cattle chain; competitiveness; Tocantins.

    O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a competitividade do sistema agroindustrial da carne bovina do Tocantins, com base em alguns direcionadores, tendo como parâmetro as tr

  16. Genetic correlations between measures of beef quality traits and their predictions by near-infrared spectroscopy in the Piemontese cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carnier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to predict beef quality traits (BQ: colour, shear force, drip and cooking losses of Piemontese cattle using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and to estimate genetic parameters for measured BQ and their predictions by NIRS. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for measured BQ and their predictions based on NIRS were estimated through bivariate Bayesian analyses. Heritability estimates for measured BQ were of intermediate magnitude (from 0.10 to 0.63 and similar to those for NIRS predictions. The genetic correlations between BQ measures and their predictions by NIRS were very high for colour traits, high for drip loss, and nil for shear force and cooking loss. NIRS predictions can be proposed as indicator traits in breeding programs for enhancement of colour traits and drip loss.

  17. Water quality of the Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavesi Odo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P<0.01 among sampling points for the mean parameters. True color, hardness, turbidity, electric conductivity, alkalinity, pH, chemical oxygen demand and consumed oxygen explained well differences among sampling points. According to current legislation standards, water quality fitted with most of the established parameters for class 2, with exception of phosphate and iron. The high levels of total phosphorus, except in the forest spring, classified this water in an eutrophic class, even where soil and water conservation practices were considered adequate.

  18. Stocking rate and monensin supplemental level effects on growth performance of beef cattle consuming warm-season grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramini, J M B; Sanchez, J M D; Cooke, R F; Aguiar, A D; Moriel, P; da Silva, W L; Cunha, O F R; Ferreira, P D S; Pereira, A C

    2015-07-01

    for decreased acetate (P ≤ 0.09) concentrations in the rumen with increasing levels of monensin; however, there was no effect (P ≥ 0.19) of monensin levels on ruminal pH and ruminal concentrations of butyrate and ammonia. In addition, there was no effect (P ≥ 0.73) of monensin levels on plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and PUN. In summary, monensin supplementation effects were not detected at either stocking rate and may not be effective in increasing performance of beef cattle grazing low-quality warm-season grasses with limited supplementation. PMID:26440034

  19. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Corva; Liliana Soria; Alejandro Schor; Edgardo Villarreal; Macarena Pérez Cenci; Mariana Motter; Carlos Mezzadra; Lilia Melucci; Cristina Miquel; Enrique Paván; Gustavo Depetris; Francisco Santini; Juan Grigera Naón

    2007-01-01

    The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G) and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G). We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from cro...

  20. Prevalence of bovine herpes virus type 1 in small herds of young beef cattle in south-eastern Poland – a preliminary study

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    Wernicki Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed on nasal swabs, tracheal samples, and sera obtained from young beef heifers aged between 6 and 12 months, from farms in eastern and south-eastern Poland. The samples were evaluated using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 ELISA kits (ELISA BHV1 antibody and ELISA BHV1 antigen and PCR. Among all the animals examined, 37 (32.2% were positive in the ELISA BHV1 antigen test. The presence of BHV-1 was confirmed by PCR in 42 (36.5% animals. In the ELISA BHV1 antibody test, 39 (33.9% seropositive animals were identified. The presence of BHV-1 positive samples was observed in all the examined breeds of young cattle. There were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 in BHV-1 positive samples. The results indicate that the incidence of BHV-1 infections in feedlot cattle herds studied was 32.2%-36.5%, which suggests that preventive measures should be implemented in order to limit transmission of the virus.

  1. Cattle breed evaluation at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Centre and implications for commercial beef farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1969, 36 sire breeds have been evaluated for topcross performance in a series of experiments (Cycles) in the Germ Plasm Evaluation (GPE) Program. In Cycle VII, the 7 most prominent U.S. beef breeds (3 British breeds: Angus, Hereford, Red Angus; and 4 Continental European breeds: Simmental, ...

  2. Effects of Malate and Yeast Supplementation in Concentrate Containing High Cassava Chip on Rumen Ecology and Digestibility of Nutrients in Beef Cattle

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    Sittisak KHAMPA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four, 1-year old beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2 ´ 2 Factorial arrangement in a 4 ´ 4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 1,000 and 2,000 g in concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip. The treatments were as follows: T1 is supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T2 is supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 2,000 g; T3 is supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T4 is supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1 % BW of dry matter basis and urea-treated rice straw. The results revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. However, the digestibility of nutrients were significantly different for the diets, especially digestible nutrient intake of crude protein (CP which was higher for cows fed cassava-based diets with T4 rather than T3, T2 and T1 (74.3, 72.5, 71.1 and 68.9 %, respectively. In addition, the concentration of volatile fatty acid was significantly different especially the concentration of propionic acid which was slightly higher in cattle receiving T4 than T3, T2 and T1 (23.3, 21.9, 20.9 and 18.0 %, respectively. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate and yeast levels. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip at 70 % DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with urea-treated rice straw as a roughage improved rumen fermentation and digestibility of nutrients in beef cattle.

  3. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm-Perry Amanda K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.003 with average daily gain (ADG and 3 of these were also associated (P ≤ 0.002 with average daily feed intake (ADFI in a population of crossbred beef cattle. The SNP were clustered in a 570 kb region around 38 Mb on the draft sequence of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6, an interval containing several positional and functional candidate genes including the bovine LAP3, NCAPG, and LCORL genes. The goal of the present study was to develop and examine additional markers in this region to optimize the ability to distinguish favorable alleles, with potential to identify functional variation. Results Animals from the original study were genotyped for 47 SNP within or near the gene boundaries of the three candidate genes. Sixteen markers in the NCAPG-LCORL locus displayed significant association with both ADFI and ADG even after stringent correction for multiple testing (P ≤ 005. These markers were evaluated for their effects on meat and carcass traits. The alleles associated with higher ADFI and ADG were also associated with higher hot carcass weight (HCW and ribeye area (REA, and lower adjusted fat thickness (AFT. A reduced set of markers was genotyped on a separate, crossbred population including genetic contributions from 14 beef cattle breeds. Two of the markers located within the LCORL gene locus remained significant for ADG (P ≤ 0.04. Conclusions Several markers within the NCAPG-LCORL locus were significantly associated with feed intake and body weight gain phenotypes. These markers were also associated with HCW, REA and AFT suggesting that they are involved with lean growth and reduced fat deposition. Additionally, the two markers significant for ADG in the validation population of animals may be more robust for the prediction of ADG and possibly the correlated trait ADFI

  4. Methane emissions, feed intake, performance, digestibility, and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle offered whole-crop wheat silages differing in grain content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Hart, K J; Moloney, A P; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the methane emissions and feed intake, performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and rumen fermentation characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages differing in grain content and to rank these relative to diets based on grass silage (GS) and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). In Exp. 1, a total of 90 continental crossbred steers [538 +/- 27.6 kg of BW (mean +/- SD)] were blocked by BW and assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 6 treatments based on 4 WCW silages [grain-to-straw plus chaff ratios of 11:89 (WCW I), 21:79 (WCW II), 31:69 (WCW III), and 47:53 (WCW IV)], GS, and ALC. Increasing grain content in WCW silage resulted in a quadratic (P = 0.01) response in DMI, with a linear (P methane emissions than cattle in any other treatment when expressed relative to DMI. Cattle offered ALC exhibited greater (P methane emissions, irrespective of the unit of expression, compared with cattle in any of the silage-based treatments. In Exp. 2, rumen fermentation parameters were determined using 4 ruminally cannulated Rotbunde-Holstein steers (413 +/- 30.1 kg of BW) randomly allocated among WCW I, the average of WCW II and III (WCW II/III), WCW IV, and GS in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration did not differ across dietary treatments. Molar proportion of acetic acid decreased (P = 0.01), with propionic acid tending to increase (P = 0.06) with increasing grain content. It was concluded that increasing the grain content of WCW silage reduced methane emissions relative to DMI and CG and improved animal performance. However, the relativity of GS to WCW in terms of methane emissions was dependent on the unit of expression used. Cattle offered ALC exhibited decreased methane emissions and greater performance than those offered any of the silage-based treatments. PMID:20382872

  5. Digesta kinetics, energy intake, grazing behavior, and body temperature of grazing beef cattle differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Ellist, W C; Stuth, J W; Forbes, T D; Greene, L W

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether digesta kinetics, energy intake (EI, kcal ME intake x kg(-.75) x d(-1)), grazing behavior, or body temperature differed by breed, lactational state, or season of the year among cattle presumed to vary in adaptability to the subtropics. Two-year-old lactating and nonlactating Brahman x Angus (BA; n = 5, n = 5), Tuli x Angus (TA; n = 5, n = 4), and Angus (A; n = 4, n = 4) cows were used. During both early (ES) and late summer (LS), lactating cattle vs nonlactating cattle had greater gastrointestinal tract load (CM2) and EI (P .48). During LS, lactating cattle had decreased early morning rectal temperatures (P .26) late afternoon rectal temperatures compared with BA and TA. With data pooled over both grazing trials, BA cattle had the smallest CM2 (P .28) early morning rectal temperatures compared with BA during ES and LS. During LS, TA spent more time in the sun and less time in the shade than did either A or BA (P .50). During LS, EI for lactating A was greater than for BA and TA (P x Angus cattle appear to be comparable to BA with respect to heat adaptation. It appears that EI demands are greater in a hot environment. PMID:10875645

  6. Changes in taste compounds, breaking properties, and sensory attributes during dry aging of beef from Japanese black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Fumiko; Miyazaki, Yuki; Tsuyuki, Risako; Kato, Kenichi; Egusa, Ai; Ogoshi, Hiro; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the quality of highly marbled beef during dry aging for 60days after slaughter showed that the changes in some qualities differed from those of conventional meat. The tenderness of these meats did not change during aging for 50days but then gradually increased until day 60. The juiciness of these meats, as determined by sensory evaluation, did not change during aging for 60days, except for a decrease on day 20. The umami intensity of these meats in the sensory evaluation and the value calculated by Glu and IMP quantification were highest on day 40. This high umami intensity was induced by the synergistic effect of umami compounds such as Glu and IMP. These results for tenderness, juiciness, umami intensity, and flavor intensity suggested that the best duration of dry aging for highly marbled beef was 40days. PMID:26519608

  7. Effects of supplemental zinc concentration and source on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum values in finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm-Callis, K J; Duff, G C; Gunter, S A; Kegley, E B; Vermeire, D A

    2000-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the effects of zinc concentration or source in diets of finishing beef steers. In Exp. 1, 108 (British x Continental) beef steers were supplemented with concentrations of added zinc (as ZnSO4) at 20, 100, or 200 mg/kg of dietary DM. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted among treatments for ADG or gain:feed for the 112-d finishing period. However, a linear (P 0.10) were noted in hot carcass weight; dressing percentage; longissimus muscle area; percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat; or marbling score. There were, however, quadratic increases in s.c. fat thickness (P 0.10) were observed in cholesterol or fatty acids among the supplemental zinc levels. In Exp. 3, 84 Brangus- and Angus-sired steers were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing 30 mg of supplemental zinc per kilogram of dietary DM from one of the following sources: 1) ZnSO4, 2) Zn amino acid complex, or 3) a zinc polysaccharide complex. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted for the overall 126-d trial for ADG, DMI, or gain:feed ratio. Percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was increased (P 0.10) among zinc sources. Supplemental zinc concentration in finishing diets did not seem to influence feedlot performance and had a minimal impact on carcass quality. Either the organic or inorganic source can be included in finishing diets without affecting feedlot performance. PMID:11063302

  8. Botulismo em bovinos de corte e leite alimentados com cama de frango Botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveraldo S. Dutra

    2005-06-01

    contaminated food and water. This paper reports the epidemiological, clinical, pathological and laboratorial aspects of 7 outbreaks of botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter, which occurred in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, 1989-2000. Five outbreaks occurred in beef cattle herds, raised in confinement or under pasture conditions and supplemented with poultry litter, and 2 outbreaks occurred in dairy farms. From o total of 1,535 cattle supplemented regularily with poultry litter 455 animals (29.64% died within 2 to 4 weeks. Morbidity and mortality varied from 3.47 to 100% in the 7 outbreaks. In one of the farms the lethality was 60.52%, and in others more than 88.43%, reaching 100% in three farms. Clinical signs were progressive paralysis, difficulties in moving, decubitus, normal alertness, decreased muscular tonus of tongue and tail, sialorrhoe and dyspnoe. At post-mortem examination of 30 cattle no noteable changes were observed. Spores of Clostridium botulinum were found in poultry litter samples collected on 7 farms. In liver, ruminal and intestinal fluid samples from 30 necropsied cattle botulinum toxin of type C (5 and D (9 or of the CD complex (1 were found in at least one of the samples collected from 15 animals, which confirms the clincial, pathological and epidemiological diagnosis of botulism.

  9. Effect of vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation on natural infestations of Boophilus microplus in grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M; Massard, C L; da Fonseca, A H; Ramos, N F; Machado, H; Labarta, V; de la Fuente, J

    1995-12-01

    Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Recent advances have introduced the possibility for the immunological control of the parasite through the use of recombinant vaccines. Recently, it was shown that the recombinant vaccine Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.) is able to control B. microplus populations in artificially infected grazing dairy cattle in Cuba. To assay the effect of the vaccine on a different B. microplus strain and under different ecological conditions, we conducted a trial in Brazil on grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle under natural infestation conditions. A farm in the northeast of the state of Sao Paulo was selected and two groups of animals per breed were included in the experiment and were maintained grazing on separate but similar pastures. For each breed, one group was vaccinated with the vaccine Gavac and the second group was not vaccinated and was employed as a control. In vaccinated cattle, during 36 weeks of experiment, the average infestation rate was maintained below 78 ticks per animal while average infestation peaks (mean +/- S.E.) of 144 +/- 44 ticks per animal (for dairy cross-bred cattle) and 195 +/- 42 ticks per animal (for beef cross-bred cattle) were recorded in the control groups. Tick infestation rates showed statistical significant differences (p = 0.04) between both experimental groups throughout the experiment. These results clearly showed, as in the Cuban study, that the vaccine controlled tick numbers in successive generations in the field. PMID:8701597

  10. Impact of Free Trade Agreements on the Colombian Beef Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Miguel I.; Frank, Julieta; Parra, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Colombia negotiated bilateral Trade Agreements (TAs) with the United States and with the MERCOSUR region (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). Colombian cattle and beef interest groups argue that TAs hurt the local beef supply chain. We employ a partial equilibrium framework to assess the impact of these TAs on the welfare of cattle producers, beef marketers and meat consumers in Colombia. Our results suggest that with free imports of chicken parts from the U.S, beef consumption and ret...

  11. Primary genome scan to identify putative quantitative trait loci for feedlot growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Li, C; Marques, E; Crews, D H; Bartusiak, R; Murdoch, B; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A; Moore, S S

    2007-12-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle are economically relevant traits. The study was conducted to identify QTL for feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle by using genotype information from 100 microsatellite markers and 355 SNP genotyped across 400 progeny of 20 Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls. Traits analyzed include feedlot ADG, daily DMI, feed-to-gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F)], and residual feed intake (RFI). A mixed model with sire as random and QTL effects as fixed was used to generate an F-statistic profile across and within families for each trait along each chromosome, followed by empirical permutation tests to determine significance thresholds for QTL detection. Putative QTL for ADG (chromosome-wise P detected across families on chromosomes 5 (130 cM), 6 (42 cM), 7 (84 cM), 11 (20 cM), 14 (74 cM), 16 (22 cM), 17 (9 cM), 18 (46 cM), 19 (53 cM), and 28 (23 cM). For DMI, putative QTL that exceeded the chromosome-wise P detected on chromosomes 1 (93 cM), 3 (123 cM), 15 (31 cM), 17 (81 cM), 18 (49 cM), 20 (56 cM), and 26 (69 cM) in the across-family analyses. Putative across-family QTL influencing F:G that exceeded the chromosome-wise P detected on chromosomes 3 (62 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (27 cM), 11 (16 cM), 16 (30 cM), 17 (81 cM), 22 (72 cM), 24 (55 cM), and 28 (24 cM). Putative QTL influencing RFI that exceeded the chromosome-wise P detected on chromosomes 1 (90 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (22 cM), 8 (80 cM), 12 (89 cM), 16 (41 cM), 17 (19 cM), and 26 (48 cM) in the across-family analyses. In addition, a total of 4, 6, 1, and 8 chromosomes showed suggestive evidence (chromosome-wise, P RFI QTL, respectively. Most of the QTL detected across families were also detected within families, although the locations across families were not necessarily the locations within families, which is likely because of differences among families in marker informativeness for the different linkage groups. The locations

  12. Genetic relationships among calving ease, gestation length, and calf survival to weaning in the Asturiana de los Valles beef cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the genetic relationships among calving ease (CE), calf survival (CS), and gestation length (GL) to assess the possibility of including this information in beef cattle breeding programs. A total of 35,395 field records were available for CE, 30,684 for GL, and 36,132 for CS from the Asturiana de los Valles beef cattle breed. The 3 traits were analyzed as traits of the calf fitting a multivariate linear mixed model. Estimates of heritability (+/-SE) for the direct genetic effects (CEd, GLd, and CSd) were 0.325 +/- 0.022, 0.331 +/- 0.026, and 0.226 +/- 0.018, respectively, whereas the estimates for maternal genetic effects (CEm, GLm, and CSm) were 0.066 +/- 0.018, 0.066 +/- 0.017, and 0.034 +/- 0.011. The estimates for the ratio of permanent environmental variance to phenotypic variance were CEc 0.090 +/- 0.011, GLc 0.066 +/- 0.011, and CSc 0.024 +/- 0.007. Genetic correlations between direct, maternal genetic, or permanent environmental effects involving CE and GL were, in general, positive and moderate, whereas those involving CE and CS were high. All were significant except for the pair CEm-GLm (0.277 +/- 0.172). Correlations between GL and CS were nonsignificant. Genetic correlations for CEd-CEm, GLd-GLm, and CSd-CSm were negative and high, ranging from -0.461 +/- 0.120 for GLd-GLm to -0.821 +/- 0.145 for CSd-CSm. The genetic correlations for CEd-CSm and for CSd-CEm were negative, significant, and high, whereas that for GLd-CEm was moderate (-0.323 +/- 0.124) and that for GLd-CSm was nonsignificant. The genetic correlations for GLm with the direct effects of the other traits were non-significant. Strong selection for CE will result in a significant correlated response in CS. Therefore, CE can be considered an early indicator of CS performance. The benefit of using GL as a correlated trait in a genetic evaluation with CE and CS seems limited. PMID:19749015

  13. Organic additives in concentrate supplementation of beef cattle grazing Aditivos orgânicos no suplemento concentrado de bovinos de corte mantidos em pastagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vera Martins Franco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic additives have relevant potential for substitution of antibiotic or ionophorus used in supplements of beef cattle on grazing to increase the heard efficiency and also to avoid sanitary and environmental problems. Thirty zebu cattle of Nellore breed with average initial body weight of 228 +/- kg and approximately 12 months of age were designed in a total random experiment, remaining groups of five animals in six areas of 1.0 ha each of Brachiaria brizantha grass to evaluate the performance in grazing beef cattle with the use of organic additives in the protein-energy supplementation. The treatments were three types of supplements (600 g/animal/d: SC = Control supplement, comprehending a commercial supplement, Premiphos Campo Extra; AGE = SC added an organic mix of commercial essential fatty acids, the Fator Premium and AGEF = AGE supplement added with phosphatidylcholine. The experiment was conducted during the rainy season in 87 d with 28 d earlier as adjustment period. There was no significant difference in average weight gain among the animals supplemented with AGE (826.4 g /d and AGEF (863.2 g /d, but they had superior performance (P<0.05 those animals receiving SC (731,0 g /d. The use of organic additive AGE and the same associated with phosphatidylcholine increased the average daily weight gain of 13 and 18%, respectively, in cattle on Brachiaria brizantha grass pasture with protein-energy supplementation during the rainy season period, indicating improvement in the animal performance in these conditions.Aditivos orgânicos apresentam relevante potencial para a substituição de antibióticos ou ionóforos usados em suplementos de bovinos de corte criados em pastagens, visando aumentar a eficiência do rebanho e, também, evitar problemas sanitários e ambientais. Trinta bovinos da raça Nelore com peso vivo inicial médio de 228 kg (228,6 +/- 9,7 e aproximadamente 12 meses de idade foram distribuídos em experimento inteiramente

  14. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentration and emission patterns for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mono-slope buildings are one type of roofed and confined cattle feeding facility that is becoming increasingly popular in the Northern Great Plains. In response to questions and concerns about the barn environment and air quality regulations, the objectives of this study were to determine gas concen...

  15. Identification of Candidate Genes Associated with Beef Marbling Using QTL and Pathway Analysis in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyesun; Seo, Seongwon; Cho, Yong Min; Oh, Sung Jong; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lim, Dajeong

    2012-01-01

    Marbling from intramuscular fat is an important trait of meat quality and has an economic benefit for the beef industry. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping was performed to identify the marbling trait in 266 Hanwoo steers using a 10K single nucleotide polymorphism panel with the combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium method. As a result, we found nine putative QTL regions for marbling: three on BTA6, two on BTA17, two on BTA22, and two on BTA29. We detected candidate genes for ma...

  16. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  17. Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation%甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。%In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.

  18. 甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价%Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.%利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。

  19. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Maciel, Ivan França Smith; da Silva, Matheus Custódio; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05) intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05). These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26820725

  20. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  1. Effects of polymorphic microsatellites in the regulatory region of IGF1 and GHR on growth and carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R A; Oliveira, H N; Silveira, A C; Lopes, C R

    2005-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) and their associated binding proteins and transmembrane receptors (GHR, IGF1R and IGF2R) play an important role in the physiology of mammalian growth. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite markers located in the 5'-regulatory region of the IGF1 and GHR genes in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine effects of these markers on growth and carcass traits in these animals under an intensive production system. For this purpose, genotyping was performed on 384 bulls including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) and 275 crossbred animals originating from crosses of Simmental (1/2 Simmental, n = 30) and Angus (1/2 Angus, n = 245) sires with Nellore females. The effects of substituting L allele for S allele of GHR microsatellite across Nellore, Canchim and 1/2 Angus were significant for weight gain and body weight (P < 0.05). The IGF1 microsatellite allele substitutions of 229 for 225 within Nellore group and of 225 for 229 within 1/2 Angus were not significant for any of the traits. PMID:15670132

  2. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  3. Strategy Formulation of Empowering Farmers Capability at Integrated Farming of Beef Cattle and Paddy Base on Zero Waste: Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Abdullah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to formulate a strategy for strengthening the farmers in the adoption of technology for the development of integrated beef cattle with paddy. Research was conducted in Pinrang South Sulawesi province for seven months. Primary Data obtained by using questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussion. In this study also was involved expert respondents. Flow implementation strategy formulation is done using analytical hierarchy process (AHP techniques. The results showed that to increased optimally capacity of paddy straw processing technologies dairy farmers as feed technology for implementation strategies required waste treatment at the level of the farmers (weighting 0,558. Increased capacity of the farmersin cow waste processing technology as fertilizer can be achieved by applying a strategy of increased knowledge and skills of extension officers in sewage treatment technology (weighting 0,443. In order to increase achievement farmers cow waste processing technology as biogas and development material/methods extension technology based on the needs of ranchers was required a strategy in providing of facilities and infrastructure supporting the application of the technology of sewage treatment (weighted 0.590 and 0,517.

  4. Impact of global warming on beef cattle production cost in Brazil Impacto do aquecimento global no custo de produção de carne bovina no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is affecting agribusiness in its economic aspects. Therefore, the prediction of the evolution of Brazilian beef cattle production cost was made using the IPCC forecast scenario for global warming. The methodology consisted of two steps: (i the development of a fuzzy model that estimated the grazing land capacity (RP decrease risk as a function of the changes in the average total rain index, air temperature and increase in extension of the dry season; and (ii the design of an algorithm for predicting the decrease in production as function of the RPfuzzy model, that results in the impact in beef cattle productivity, and consequent increase in production costs. Historical environmental data from important producing counties in the Cerrado were organized and a set of fuzzy Gaussian functions were developed, and three possible settings (optimistic, medium and pessimistic were considered. The decrease in beef cattle productivity was estimated using the losses in production due to the increase in air temperature and vulnerability of pasture capacity. The boundary settings for the total increase of production cost scenario used the number of animals per area of grazing land, the adoption of grain supplement and its future scenario; and the result output function pointed to a threshold within a variation from an increase in production cost of 80% (optimistic to 160% (pessimistic. Under the optimistic scenario the total cost of Brazilian beef cattle production in the Cerrado became near to US$ 2.88 kg-1, while in the pessimistic scenario this cost reached US$ 4.16 kg-1, challenging the international competitiveness of this economic segment.O aquecimento global afeta o agronegócio em seus aspectos econômicos. Foi feita previsão daevolução do custo de produção de carne bovina brasileira usando a predição de aquecimento global do IPCC. A metodologia consistiu de duas etapas: (i o desenvolvimento de modelo fuzzy que estimou o risco de

  5. Requirement of energy and protein of beef cattle on tropical pasture - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.21143

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    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein and energy requirements of beef cattle, aged between 4 and 18 months old, on tropical pastures, were estimated. Forty-six Nellore calves (138.3 ± 3.4 kg BW and 90-150 days old, kept on pasture, were distributed in a maintenance group (restricted feeding or in nutritional plans, receiving a supplements with different amounts of protein and carbohydrate or non-supplemented. The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg was obtained by linear regression of logarithm of retained energy as a function of logarithm of empty body weight gain. The net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm was estimated by the exponential relation between heat production and metabolizable energy intake. Net protein requirement for weight gain (RP was estimated by multiple linear regression of retained protein in the weight gain of empty body (EBWG and retained energy. The efficiency of metabolizable energy (ME used for maintenance and for weight gain was 0.55 and 0.26, respectively. The ME requirement for maintenance was 124 kcal EBW-0.75. RP decreased in proportion to body weight increase. NEg and RP may be obtained by equations: RE (Mcal kg-1 = 0.044 x EBW0.75 x EBWG1.1302 and RP (g day-1 = -31.45 + 229.69 x EBWG – 8.75 x RE, respectively.  

  6. Farmers’ self-reported perceptions and behavioural impacts of a welfare scheme for suckler beef cattle in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Dwane, Andrea M.; More, Simon John; Blake, Martin; et al.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To date, there have been a limited number of studies on the impact of government-incentivised farm animal welfare programmes or ‘schemes’, and on farmers’ attitudes regarding such schemes. In this study, focus groups were used to gain insight into Irish farmers’ perceptions of such a scheme for suckler cattle and its behavioural impacts on farmers. Results: The findings were categorised into 46 codes and ultimately yielded two Global themes: 1) Beliefs and Evidence and 2) Logic an...

  7. Genetic Variants in SDC3 Gene are Significantly Associated with Growth Traits in Two Chinese Beef Cattle Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Xing-Tang; Song, En-Liang; Chen, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Identification of the genes and polymorphisms underlying quantitative traits, and understanding these genes and polymorphisms affect economic growth traits, are important for successful marker-assisted selection and more efficient management strategies in commercial cattle (Bos taurus) population. Syndecan-3 (SDC3), a member of the syndecan family of type I transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans is a novel regulator of feeding behavior and body weight. The aim of this study is to examine the association of the SDC3 polymorphism with growth traits in Chinese Jiaxian and Qinchuan cattle breeds (). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-4) were detected in 555 cows from three Chinese native cattle breeds by means of sequencing pooled DNA samples and polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. We found one SNP (g.28362A > G) in intron and three SNPs (g.30742T > G, g.30821C > T and 33418 A > G) in exons. The statistical analyses indicated that these SNPs of SDC3 gene were associated with bovine body height, body length, chest circumference, and circumference of cannon bone (P breeding programs. PMID:27119984

  8. Effects of label-dose permethrin administration in yearling beef cattle: I. Reproductive function and embryo quality of superovulated heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlman, Tyler M; Jahnke, Marianna M; West, James K; Phillips, Patrick E; Gunn, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to study the effects of a commercial pyrethroid-based pour-on product, permethrin, on reproductive performance in superovulated beef heifers by assessing steroid biosynthesis and embryo quality. Nonpregnant, yearling beef heifers (n = 10; 418 ± 33 kg; 5.5 ± 0.2 body conditioning scores) were assigned by body weight and breed to either (1) saline control or (2) permethrin pour-on administered at label dose (PYR). Superovulation was achieved on all heifers using a timed, 17-day, CIDR-based protocol with GnRH and PGF2α and decreasing total dosage of 240-mg FSH administered twice daily for 4 days. Heifers were artificially inseminated twice (at onset of estrus and 12 hours later) by same technician with frozen semen from single bull collection. To determine short- and long-term effects of permethrin on embryo quality and steroid biosynthesis, superovulation was initiated twice with collection of embryos occurring at 17 and 51 days after treatment. Embryos were recovered 6.5 days after first artificial insemination via nonsurgical flush and were evaluated by International Embryo Transfer Society standards. Blood was collected at standing estrus and day of embryo recovery. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were analyzed via RIA. MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS were used to analyze continuous and categorical data, respectively. Heifer per flush was the experimental unit. Total embryos recovered did not differ because of treatment (P = 0.30), but did decrease in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.02). Quality grade, total transferable quality embryos, and overall flush success did not differ because of treatment (P ≥ 0.16). However, transferable quality embryos were decreased in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.05). Total unfertilized oocytes were greater in saline control (P = 0.04). The PYR heifers tended to have less total P4 (P = 0.15) and P4 per CL (P = 0.06) at recovery. E2 per ovulated

  9. Calcium and potassium content in beef: influences on tenderness and associations with molecular markers in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita de Araujo; de Souza, Marcela Maria; Mudadu, Maurício de Alvarenga; Tholon, Patricia; Rosa, Antônio do Nascimento; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Medeiros, Sérgio Raposo; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) are essential nutrients in animal nutrition. Furthermore, the Ca content can influence meat tenderness because it is needed by the proteolytic system of calpains and calpastatins, major factors in postmortem tenderization of skeletal muscles. K content, which is needed for muscle contraction, can also affect meat tenderness. This study showed that K positively affects the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), measured at 14days of meat aging, which means that higher levels of K are related to lower meat tenderness. Additionally, a significant effect (P≤0.015) of a SNP in the calcium-activated neutral protease 1 (CAPN1) gene on Ca content was observed. Metal content in beef can affect not only nutritional values but also meat quality traits. Part of this effect may be related to variation in specific genes. PMID:23995697

  10. Triticale dried distillers' grain increases alpha-linolenic acid in subcutaneous fat of beef cattle fed oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M L; Sultana, H; Oba, M; Kastelic, J P; Dugan, M E R; McKinnon, J J; McAllister, T A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of triticale dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS), flax (FS) and sunflower (SS) seed on growth and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous (SQ) fat in individually housed steers (n = 15 per diet) fed ad libitum (DM basis); (1) control (CON) 90% barley grain + 10% barley silage; or substitution of barley grain for: (2) 30% DDGS; (3) 10% FS; (4) 30% DDGS + 8.5% FS; (5) 10% SS and (6) 30% DDGS + 8.5% SS. Oilseeds in the combination diets were reduced to maintain diet lipid levels below 9% DM and to determine if favorable changes in the fatty acid profile could be maintained or enhanced at reduced levels of oilseed. Plasma and SQ fat biopsies were collected at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Inclusion of DDGS decreased (P benefits to the practical cost of favorably manipulating fatty acid profiles in beef. PMID:23054550

  11. The use of gene-based technology to determine the prevalence of dairy and beef cattle with a natural resistance to bovine brucellosis in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and breeding of resistant animals. The frequency of natural resistance to brucellosis when challenging non-vaccinated cattle was 20%. Breeding a naturally resistant bull to naturally resistant cows increased the frequency of natural resistance in their progeny to 58.6%. Bovine NRAMP1, the bovine homologue of the murine gene regulating the priming/activation of macrophages for antimicrobial and tumoricidal activity, has been identified as a major candidate gene determining resistance/susceptibility to bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis. It was decided to employ a probe for this gene in South Africa to determine the prevalence of resistance in dairy cattle in an area with a high incidence of natural brucellosis in both brucella infected and brucella free herds. Furthermore, the prevalence of natural resistance was determined in a local improved beef cattle breed (Bonsmara) and compared to the prevalence in an indigenous Ancoly breed in Rwanda. It is believed that by applying gene-based technologies to identify bovines with natural disease resistance, we can effectively reduce the incidence of brucellosis in cattle herds, providing new approaches to sustainable agriculture and safer pre-harvest foods. Experimental work is in progress and the results will be presented at the symposium. (author)

  12. A microbiological assay to estimate the antimicrobial activity of parenteral tildipirosin against foodborne pathogens and commensals in the colon of beef cattle and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M; Pridmore, A; Shaw, A; Wilhelm, C; Menge, M; Kilp, S; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2016-06-01

    Tildipirosin (TIP) is a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide authorized for the treatment of bovine and swine respiratory disease. The pH dependency of macrolide antimicrobial activity is well known. Considering that the pH in the colon contents of growing beef cattle and pigs is usually below pH 7.0, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of TIP against foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Campylobacter (C.) coli, C. jejuni and Salmonella enterica and commensal species including Enterococcus (E.) faecalis, E. faecium and Escherichia coli were determined under standard (pH 7.3 ± 1) or neutral as well as slightly acidic conditions. A decrease in pH from 7.3 to 6.7 resulted in an increase in MICs of TIP. Except for the MICs > 256 μg/mL observed in the resistant subpopulation of the C. coli and the Enterococcus species, the MIC ranges increased from 2-8 μg/mL to 64-> 256 μg/mL for Salmonella enterica and E. coli, from 8-16 μg/mL to 32-128 μg/mL for the two Campylobacter species, and from 4-32 μg/mL to 128-> 256 μg/mL for both Enterococcus species. To estimate the antimicrobial activity of TIP in the colon contents of livestock during recommended usage of the parenterally administered TIP (Zuprevo(®) ), and to compare this with the increased MICs at the slightly acidic colonic pH, we developed and validated a microbiological assay for TIP and used this to test incurred faecal samples collected from cattle and pigs. Microbiological activity of luminal TIP was determined in aqueous supernatants from diluted faeces, using standard curves produced from TIP-spiked faecal supernatants. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for TIP was 1 μg/mL (ppm). In a cattle study (n = 14), 3 of 28 faecal samples collected 24 and 48 h post-treatment were found to contain TIP above the LOQ (concentrations of 1.3-1.8 ppm). In another cattle study (n = 12) with faecal samples collected at 8, 24 and 48 h post-treatment, TIP concentrations were above the LOQ in 4

  13. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Maciel, Ivan França Smith; da Silva, Matheus Custódio; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05) intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P change the intake of digestible dry matter, average daily gain, final body weight, carcass gain, carcass dressing, gain-to-feed ratio, Longissimus thoracis muscle area, and back and rump fat thicknesses (P > 0.05). These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26820725

  14. Relationships among Ergot Alkaloids, Cytochrome P450 Activity, and Beef Steer Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrans, Charles; Ezell, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Determining a grazing animal’s susceptibility to ergot alkaloids has been a research topic for decades. Our objective was to determine if the Promega™ P450-Glo assay could be used to indirectly detect ergot alkaloids or their metabolites in urine of steers. The first experiment validated the effects of ergot alkaloids [0, 20, and 40 μM of ergotamine (ET), dihydroergotamine (DHET), and ergonovine (EN)] on human CYP3A4 using the P450-Glo assay (Promega™ V9800). With this assay, luminescence is directly proportional to CYP450 activity. Relative inhibition of in vitro cytochrome P450 activity was affected (P experiment 2, urine was collected from Angus-sired crossbred steers (n = 39; 216 ± 2.6 d of age; 203 ± 1.7 kg) after grazing tall fescue pastures for 105 d. Non-diluted urine was added to the Promega™ P450-Glo assay, and observed inhibition (3.7 % ± 2.7 of control). Urine content of total ergot alkaloids (331.1 ng/mg of creatinine ± 325.7) was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urine inhibition of CYP450 activity and total alkaloids were correlated (r = -0.31; P animals that are susceptible to ergot alkaloids. Although, additional research is needed, we demonstrate that the Promega™ P450-Glo assay is sensitive to ergot alkaloids and urine from steers grazing tall fescue. With some refinement the P450-Glo assay has potential as a tool for screening cattle for their exposure to fescue toxins.

  15. The use of progesterone RIA to increase efficiency and quality of artificial insemination services of beef cattle in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of artificial insemination (AI) has been used in Indonesia for several years. The fertility rate resulting from this technique, however, is still lower than that for natural mating. Therefore, two studies were conducted to evaluate the factors that might cause lower efficiency of AI in beef cattle. The first was a survey to evaluate reproductive performance and factors that affect the inefficiency of AI. A total of 652 beef cows inseminated on one large and several small farms were used. Data for farm, cow, inseminator and each insemination were recorded. Serum samples were taken at the day of insemination (day 0), and days 10-12 and 20-22 after AI, and at time of manual pregnancy diagnosis. The second study was conducted to evaluate whether the induction of first postpartum oestrus in suckling cows could be done by hormonal treatments. Two groups of suckling Brahman cows were used, with and without treatment using Controlled Intra-vaginal Drug Release devices (CIDR). CIDR were inserted into the vagina, oestradiol benzoate (OB) was injected, the CIDR were removed after 12 days and two Als were performed at 24 and 72 hr later. The studies were conducted during dry and wet seasons. Mean overall conception rate (CR) for the large and small farms were 23 and 38%, respectively. Season of the year, housing system, type of heat, time of AI, and characteristics of AI technicians (level of education and non-AI work) affected the CR. Oestrus behaviour was detected in 95 and 100% of cows respectively for the first and the second period. However, the proportions of animals showing ovulatory oestrus during the first and second periods were 22 and 48% (P<0.01), and pregnancy rates were 12 and 24%, respectively. These findings show that reproductive rate of cows served by AI in this area is low and that factors related to the cow, farm management and AI technician affect this problem. CIDR treatment can induce oestrus behaviour in suckling cows, but only few of

  16. Expression Marker-Based Strategy to Improve Beef Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Picard, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    For beef cattle research, a main objective is to control concomitantly the development of muscles and the qualities of beef cuts. Beef quality is a complex phenotype that is only detectable after slaughter and is highly variable. The beef industry is in need of tools to estimate beef quality of live cattle or online in abattoirs, with specific attention towards sensory attributes (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, and colour). Identification of relevant genetic and genomic markers is ongoing, especially for tenderness—a top priority quality attribute. In this paper, we describe the steps of an expression marker-based strategy to improve beef sensory quality, from the discovery of biomarkers that identify consistent beef and the biological functions governing beef tenderness to the integration of the knowledge into detection tests for desirable animals. These tools should soon be available for the management of sensory quality in the beef production chain for meeting market's demands and assuring good quality standards. PMID:27066527

  17. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Clostridium difficile isolated from feedlot beef cattle upon arrival and mid-feeding period

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    Costa Marcio C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of indistinguishable strains of Clostridium difficile in humans, food animals and food, as well as the apparent emergence of the food-animal-associated ribotype 078/toxinotype V as a cause of community-associated C. difficile infection have created concerns about the potential for foodborne infection. While studies have reported C. difficile in calves, studies of cattle closer to the age of harvest are required. Four commercial feedlots in Alberta (Canada were enrolled for this study. Fecal samples were collected at the time of arrival and after acclimation ( 71 days on feed. Selective culture for Clostridium difficile was performed, and isolates were characterized by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A logistic regression model was built to investigate the effect of exposure to antimicrobial drugs on the presence of C. difficile. Results Clostridium difficile was isolated from 18 of 539 animals at the time of feedlot arrival (CI = 2.3-6.1 and from 18 of 335 cattle at mid-feeding period (CI = 2.9-13.1. Overall, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of C. difficile shedding on arrival versus mid-feeding period (P = 0.47. No association between shedding of the bacterium and antimicrobial administration was found (P = 0.33. All the isolates recovered were ribotype 078, a toxinotype V strain with genes encoding toxins A, B and CDT. In addition, all strains were classified as NAP7 by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and had the characteristic 39 base pairs deletion and upstream truncating mutation on the tcdC gene. Conclusions It is apparent that C. difficile is carried in the intestinal tracts of a small percentage of feedlot cattle arriving and later in the feeding period and that ribotype 078/NAP7 is the dominant strain in these animals. Herd management practices associated with C. difficile shedding were not identified, however further studies of the potential role of

  18. Southern Section Interdisciplinary Beef Cattle Symposium: Forage and co-product systems for stockers in the South: have fundamental shifts in markets changed the optimal system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, D L; Prevatt, J W

    2013-01-01

    Stockering calves in the southern United States has been an economically viable enterprise for decades. Historically, the system that yielded the best opportunity for profitability was to purchase lightweight calves (130 kg to 220 kg) in autumn, add 100 to 200 kg of BW gain, and sell them in the spring. In most years, the value of the BW gain was worth more than the cost of BW gain in this system. With the exponential price increases in feed, fuel, and fertilizer during 2008 and the significant increase in cattle prices, it is prudent to assess the potential for continued profitability in this segment of the beef industry. Evaluation of 37 grazing experiments indicated that the forage systems most likely to result in inexpensive costs of BW gain for stocker calves involve tall fescue with legumes or ryegrass with small grains. Even with increased input prices, these systems still yield economical BW gain for stocker calves. Likewise, many diets can be blended to produce ADG of 1 kg using co-products that are abundant across the South. With many of these co-products, the most important performance factor in determining their value is G:F. In several experiments, DMI has exceeded 3% of BW in stocker calves, and the resulting G:F has been less than desirable. Several experiments have reported G:F of 0.13 to 0.16, resulting in economical BW gain, whereas some experiments have reported G:F as low as 0.09, which could result in BW gain that costs more to produce than it is worth. From 1979, the value of BW gain for stocker calves in Alabama has averaged US$1.05/kg. However, in the last 3 yr, the value of BW gain has risen to $2.32/kg. Fundamental shifts in feed, fuel, and fertilizer prices experienced in the United States between 2005 and 2010 have markedly changed the amount of capital needed to purchase several hundred stocker calves and to provide adequate feedstuffs for BW gain. However, the value of BW gain associated with producing feeder calves from those stockers

  19. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based finishing diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives were to characterize the effects of supplemental CP concentration and ruminal degradability in barley-based finishing diets on microbial protein synthesis, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion, and route and chemical form of N excretion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (564 ± 18 kg BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 28-d periods (9 d for diet adaptation and 19 d for measurements). The basal diet consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% barley-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (13% CP) or diets containing 14.5% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). Nutrient digestion was determined using Yb as a digesta flow marker and purine N as a microbial marker with the collection of ruminal, duodenal, and fecal samples over 5 d. The next week, total collections of feces and urine were performed for 5 d to quantify route and chemical form of N excretion. Feed offered was restricted (95% of ad libitum) and there was no effect of the dietary treatments on DMI (P = 0.55); therefore, N intake was less (P < 0.05) in heifers fed the 13% CP diets than the 14.5% CP diets. Supplemental RDP and RUP had no effect on ruminal NH3-N (P = 0.17), peptide N (P = 0.46), and VFA (P = 0.62) concentrations, flow of microbial (P = 0.69) and feed (P = 0.22) N, and ruminal and total tract nutrient digestibility (P ≥ 0.18). Nutrient digestion in the rumen and total tract averaged 75.4 ± 3.8% and 84.6 ± 0.9% for OM, 80.8 ± 3.6% and 95.8 ± 0.8% for starch, and 41.2 ± 7.9% and 60.4 ± 3.3% of intake for NDF, respectively. Daily output of N in feces (P = 0.91) and urine (P = 0.14) were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fecal N output averaged 19.9 ± 1.9% (P = 0.30) and urine N output averaged 44.1 ± 2.8% (P = 0.63) of N intake

  20. Macromineral requirements by beef cattle under pasture supplementation Exigências de macrominerais de bovinos de corte sob suplementação a pasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykel Franklin Lima Sales

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine macromineral requirements by Zebu steers grazing Brachiaria decumbens supplemented with concentrate. It was used 24 non-castrated steers, at an average age of 7 months and at initial average weight 180 kg. Eight control animals were slaughtered for determining initial body composition. The 16 remaining animals were divided in four four-animal plots, in a complete random design. Each plot received mineral mixture or supplements at the levels 0.75; 1.50 or 2.25 kg/animal/day. The right half-carcass of eight animals, two per group, was dissected in muscle, fat and bones and all body constituents were weighted for determination of empty body weight and body composition. Net requirements of calcium and phosphorus for an animal at 400 kg body weight were 11.13 g and 5.40 g, respectively. To estimate dietary requirements of maintenance and after, sum them to dietary requirements for gain in order to obtain total dietary requirements, it was adopted endogenous losses and bioavailability present in literature for each mineral macroelement. Total dietary requirement for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium for a 400-kg BW animal with 1.0-kg daily weight gain were 34.59; 17.36; 7.82; 5.19 and 41.11 g/day, respectively. Macromineral requirements by beef cattle under pasture supplementation are similar to those recommended by BR-Corte for beef cattle in feedlots.Objetivou-se determinar as exigências de macrominerais de novilhos zebuínos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens suplementada com concentrado. Foram utilizados 24 novilhos, não-castrados, com idade e pesos médio iniciais de 7 meses e 180 kg. Foram abatidos oito animais-referência para determinação da composição corporal inicial. Os 16 animais restantes foram divididos em quatro lotes de quatro animais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Cada lote recebeu mistura mineral ou suplementos nos níveis de 0,75; 1,50 ou 2,25 kg

  1. Beef Cattle Farms’ Conversion to the Organic System. Recommendations for Success in the Face of Future Changes in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Escribano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehesa is a remarkable agroforestry system, which needs the implementation of sustainable production systems in order to reduce its deterioration. Moreover, its livestock farms need to adapt to a new global market context. As a response, the organic livestock sector has expanded not only globally but also in the region in search for increased overall sustainability. However, conversions to the organic system have been commonly carried out without analyzing farms’ feasibility to do so. This analysis is necessary before implementing any new production system in order to reduce both the diversity of externalities that the variety of contexts leads to and the vulnerability of the DDehesa ecosystem to small management changes. Within this context and in the face of this gap in knowledge, the present paper analyzes the ease of such conversions and the farms’ chances of success after conversion in the face of global changes (market and politics. Different aspects (“areas of action” were studied and integrated within the Global Conversion Index (GCI, and the legal requirement for European organic farming, organic principles, future challenges for ruminants’ production systems, as well as the lines of action for the post-2013 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy and their impacts on the beef cattle sector were taken into account. Results revealed that farms must introduce significant changes before initiating the conversion process, since they had very low scores on the GCI (42.74%, especially with regard to health and agro-ecosystem management (principle of Ecology. Regarding rearing and animal welfare (principle of justice/fairness, farms were close to the organic system. From the social point of view, active participation in manufacturing and marketing of products should be increased.

  2. Modelagem da dinâmica de rebanho de bovino de corte por meio de cadeia de Markov Modeling dynamics of the beef cattle herd through Markov chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Gomes Pinto de Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura etária do rebanho e a estratégia de descarte de matrizes são pontos importantes na avaliação da eficiência do sistema de produção de gado de corte. Neste trabalho foi monitorado o rebanho de cria, cujas matrizes eram mantidas ou descartadas com base em critério técnico, conforme a avaliação do desempenho reprodutivo. Para tanto, foi utilizada a cadeia de Markov com o objetivo de simular a probabilidade de descarte por idade, ao longo da vida, e de calcular a expectativa de vida da matriz no rebanho. Após a introdução da estação de monta, a pressão de descarte foi maior, com aumento da probabilidade de descarte e da diminuição da probabilidade de permanência da matriz no rebanho nas idades mais avançadas. Com a introdução de tecnologias e especialmente da monta controlada, o processo torna-se mais dinâmico com a identificação e descarte de novilhas e matrizes improdutivas, diminuindo a idade média das vacas no rebanho e de descarte das mesmas.The determination of age structure in a herd and the culling strategy in dams are important points to evaluate efficiency of a beef cattle production system. A breeding herd was monitored, where cows were maintained or discard according to technical criterion. Using the Markov chain the culling probability due to age throughout the life time of the cow was simulated. Life expectancy of the dam in the herd was also calculated. After the breeding season, culling pressure was higher and culling probability increased while permanency probability in the herd for older cows decreased, this made the herd more dynamic.

  3. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature. PMID:19392828

  4. Impacts of climate change and climate variability on the competitiveness of wheat and beef cattle production in Emerald, north-east Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, S M; McKeon, G M; Meinke, H; Entel, M; Flood, N

    2001-09-01

    Emerald, north-east Queensland, is at the northern margin of the wheat cropping region of Australia. The Emerald region was previously used predominantly for grazing beef cattle; however, cropping has developed in importance over the past 30 years. We use historical climate records (1890-1998) to simulate and compare wheat yields, grass production and live-weight gain (LWG) over time. The cropping expansion from the 1970s to the early 1990s has occurred in a unique period in the 108-year record with the highest average wheat yields, lowest wheat yield variability and the greatest relative productivity of wheat production against grass production. If this window of opportunity is a result of long-term climate variability, then cropping is likely to decline in the region as conditions return to those experienced earlier in the record. If this increase is related to climate change, then cropping is likely to persist in the region with productivity maintained at current levels particularly through the yield-enhancing effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this persistence will be influenced by the frequencies of El Niño conditions that may increase with global warming. The high relative productivities experienced over the past few decades have probably biased producers' expectations, and applications for drought support need to take into account the longer-term perspective provided by this analysis. Nevertheless, the last 6 years have the lowest simulated mean LWG production on the record. The identification of poor production periods depended on the production element being addressed and the timescale involved. PMID:11697663

  5. Inclusion of crude glycerin with different roughages changes ruminal parameters and in vitro gas production from beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Regina Paschoaloto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The increasing availability of crude glycerin from biodiesel production has generated great stock in the industries. To solve this problem, crude glycerin is being used as an energy source to replace corn in livestock diets. This study evaluated the effects of the association of crude glycerin (10% on DM of diets with different roughages in Nellore cattle diets on ruminal pH and ammonia, degradability, digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, and greenhouse gas production. Six ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were assigned to a 6×6 Latin square design. The following treatments were evaluated: Hydrolyzed Sugarcane associated or not with crude glycerin, Corn Silage associated or not with crude glycerin or Tifton-85 Hay associated or not with crude glycerin. Association of crude glycerin with roughages did not affect the rumen ammonia concentration and pH and dry matter intake, but reduced the intake of NDF for diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane and Corn Silage and reduced the digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CNF and starch and decreased the effective degradation at the rate of 8% h-1 for diets with Tifton-85 Hay. The association crude glycerin with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane reduced the production of CH4 and CO2 in mL g-1 of DM. The inclusion of crude glycerin affects differently nutrient utilization in diets with Corn Silage, Hydrolyzed Sugarcane or Tifton-85 hay. Moreover, promotes mitigation of greenhouse gases in diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane. Association of crude glycerin with Corn Silage in Nellore cattle diets showed better conditions of ruminal fermentation and utilization of nutrients.

  6. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić S.; Fang Sun; Di Liu; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Stanišić N.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Petričević M.; Nikšić D.; Delić N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  7. Designing a Voluntary Beef Checkoff

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, F. Bailey; Winn, Chris; Chung, Chanjin; Ward, Clement E.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court considered whether the mandatory fees imposed by the beef checkoff violates the First Amendment. As a precaution, many states began forming voluntary beef checkoffs, where funds would be raised through voluntary contributions. This study conducted a survey of Oklahoma cattle producers to determine what type ofvoluntary checkoff design would receive the greatest support. The most popular checkoff placed a large emphasis on advertising and a slightly lower check...

  8. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME. Overall, our review and analyses suggested that there is a strong linear

  9. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  10. Propionibacterium acidipropionici P169 and glucogenic precursors improve rumen fermentation of low-quality forage in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, P H; Tracey, L N; Browne-Silva, J; Lodge-Ivey, S L

    2014-04-01

    Cattle grazing dormant western rangelands may have a high ruminal acetate to propionate ratio (A:P) and may have low tissue clearance of acetate. Increasing propionate production could shift this ratio and improve animal performance. In Exp. 1, the effect of Propionibacterium acidipropionici P169 (PA) on forage digestibility and VFA production was evaluated in vitro using 2 substrates: 100% dormant warm-season grass extrusa and 50% sorghum-Sudan hay with 50% ground corn (DM basis). The objective of Exp. 2 was to evaluate the effect of PA or calcium propionate supplementation on digestibility, ruminal fermentation, acetate clearance, and BW change. Twelve 2-yr-old, pregnant Brangus heifers (BW = 416 ± 85 kg) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. All cattle were fed a basal ration of Old World Bluestem hay (Bothriochloa ischaemum; 5.8% CP and 76.5% NDF, DM basis) at 1.5% BW from d -10 to d 49. Treatments included a protein supplement (CON; 36% CP and 35% RUP, DM basis; 454 g/animal fed twice daily), CON plus 6 × 10(10) cfu PA/animal (BACT), and CON plus 80 g calcium propionate (PROP). After initiation of treatments (d 0), rumen fluid was collected via oral lavage every 3 d and analyzed for VFA, pH, and ammonia. Glucogenic potential of treatments was evaluated with an acetate tolerance test on d 49. In Exp. 1, PA addition increased (IVDMD; P < 0.001) and total VFA (P < 0.001) of 100% dormant warm-season grass extrusa but not 50% sorghum-Sudan hay with 50% ground corn (P ≥ 0.28). The addition of P169 decreased (P < 0.001) acetate, increased propionate (P < 0.001), and decreased A:P ratio (P < 0.001) for both substrates. In Exp. 2, total tract OM and NDF digestibility and ruminal pH, total VFA, and acetate did not differ (P ≥ 0.13) among treatments. Propionate concentration was least (P = 0.001) for CON, intermediate for P169, and greatest for PROP. Conversely, A:P ratio was greatest (P < 0.004) for CON, intermediate for P169, and least for PROP. Acetate clearance

  11. Application of Ultrasonic Technology in Evaluation of Beef Cattle Before Slaughter%超声波技术在肉牛宰前评定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 周振勇; 闫向民; 张金山; 李红波; 袁理星; 张杨

    2014-01-01

    为探讨超声波扫描仪在肉牛活体测定中的应用价值,本试验选取30头成年新疆褐牛为研究对象,集中育肥屠宰后,对其中20头牛用超声波测定背膘厚度、眼高、肌间脂肪含量、眼肌面积及体重,建立了牛宰后性状(背膘厚度、眼高、肌间脂肪含量、眼肌面积、高档肉质量、后部位肉质量、优质肉质量、全部肉块质量)回归方程,并对预测模型进行验证。结果表明:通过测定宰前背膘厚度、眼高、肌间脂肪含量、眼肌面积及体重指标,建立宰后膘厚度、眼高、肌间脂肪含量、眼肌面积、高档肉质量、后部位肉质量、优质肉质量、全部肉块质量回归方程。经验证分析,所有模型预测结果与实测结果无显著差异(p>0.05),说明利用超声波技术用宰前肉质性状来预测宰后肉质性状和产肉性状是可行的。同时这些模型可以作为制定新疆褐牛胴体产量标准的参考。%In order to investigate the value of ultrasound scanner in living determination of beef,30 adult Xinjiang Brown Cattle were selected for the study,focusing fattening slaughter. 20 cows were measured backfat thickness,high eye,intramuscular fat,loin eye area and weight with ultrasound. The regression equation was established on traits(backfat thickness,high eye,intramuscular fat content,loin eye area,high-grade meat quality,the parts of the meat quality,excellent quality meat,all meat quality)after the slaughter of cattle,and the prediction model be validated. The results showed thatby backfat thickness,loin eye height,intermuasular fat,eye muscle area and weight measured before slaughter,established the regression equation of fat thickness,muscle height,intermuasular fat,eye muscle area,high-grade meat quality,the parts of the meat quality,excellent quality meat and all meat quality after slaughter. Proven results of the analysis showed that all the model predictions and experimental

  12. Effect of breed, intake, and carcass composition on the status of several macro and trace minerals of adult beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littledike, E T; Wittum, T E; Jenkins, T G

    1995-07-01

    The objective was to determine the association between breed, intake, and carcass composition and the status of liver Cu, Zn, and Fe, and serum Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mg of 118 mature cows representing nine breeds of cattle. Breeds used were Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Poll, Pinzgauer, and Simmental. The cows were fed one of four levels of DMI: 58, 76, 93, and 111 g of DMI.wt-75.d-1. A ground alfalfa, corn, and corn silage diet was fed for up to 5 yr. There was no relationship between liver and serum concentrations of Cu, a negative correlation (P < .05) existed between liver and serum concentrations of Zn and a positive correlation (P < .01) existed between liver concentrations of Cu and Zn. Concentrations of serum Ca were positively correlated (Cu and Zn, P < .01; Mg, P < .05) with serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mg, but negatively correlated (P < .01) with liver Fe. Liver Cu was higher (P < .05) for the Limousin breed than all others, except Angus. Liver Zn concentrations were higher (P < .05) for Limousin than for Pinzgauer, but no other breed differences were observed. Liver Cu concentration was not affected by daily intake, but liver Zn concentration increased (P < .05) with increased daily intake. Liver Fe concentration decreased (P < .01) in a curvilinear manner with increased daily intake. No breed differences in serum concentrations of Cu or Zn were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592099

  13. Partitioning of feed intake into maintenance and gain in growing beef cattle: Evaluation of conventional and Bayesian analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Old, C A; Rossow, H A; Famula, T R

    2015-10-01

    The robustness of efficiency estimates depends on theoretical consistency of models from which those estimates are developed; functional forms of the variables must be globally consistent with theoretical properties regarding feed utilization for maintenance and gain in growing and finishing cattle. Model parameter estimates and their dimensions must be unique or estimates of feed utilization and gain will not reflect reality. A linear equation commonly used to estimate daily DMI by the th individual animal (ADFI), based on mean weight and gain during a feeding period, was evaluated to determine if that model was correctly specified and if the vector predicted ADFI differed from the vector observed ADFI. Three independently gathered data sets were evaluated using a multiple linear regression model; variability described by that model failed to capture observed variability in the data (lack of fit, 0.90. The linear model and, to a lesser degree, the first nonlinear model lacked theoretical and global consistency. A second nonlinear model, which described retained energy as a function of ME intake, best fit the data, and functional forms of variables describing ME intake at maintenance and the efficiency of ME utilization for gain were consistent with theoretical estimates found in the literature. Changes in feed intake and live BW in linear and nonlinear models failed to adequately describe efficiencies of metabolic processes, which are better characterized by changes in retained energy as a function of ME intake in nonlinear models. PMID:26523576

  14. Effects of label-dose permethrin administration in yearling beef cattle: I. Bull reproductive function and testicular histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlman, Tyler M; Phillips, Patrick E; Madson, Darin M; Clark, Christopher A; Gunn, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Pyrethroid administration to a wide variety of laboratory animals has been shown to cause detrimental effects on male fertility, including sperm quality, by means of endocrine disruption. The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of a commercial, permethrin-containing pour-on product on reproductive variables and testicular histopathology of yearling beef bulls. Black Angus bulls (n = 60; aged 369 ± 17 days; 511 ± 33 kg; 6.2 ± 0.5 body condition scores) were assigned to either (1) saline control (CON) or (2) permethrin pour-on administered at label dose (PYR). Blood samples were collected, and industry standard breeding soundness examinations (BSE), via electroejaculation, were performed on all bulls at 5 days before and 14 days after treatment. Progressive sperm motility and eosin-nigrosin-stained sperm were analyzed using high-power phase-contrast microscopy. Plasma testosterone concentrations were analyzed via radioimmunoassay. Bulls were slaughtered at 34 days, and one testicle per bull was randomly collected for histologic examination. Change in sperm motility between BSEs was not different because of treatment; sperm morphology however improved across treatments, but PYR bulls had less improvement in percent of head (P < 0.001) sperm abnormalities compared to CON, resulting in less improvement of primary abnormalities (P = 0.04). Nonetheless, morphological differences did not change the overall outcome for satisfactory breeder status. Change in testosterone concentration did not differ because of treatment. Histopathologic examination identified that testicular degeneration and tubule diameter did not differ as a result of treatment. It should be noted, however, that degeneration score (higher score having more degeneration) was positively correlated with primary abnormalities (P < 0.01; r = 0.35) and negatively correlated with normal sperm cells (P < 0.001; r = -0.43). In summary, these data indicate that a single

  15. Identification and analysis of beef heifers with superior capacity for fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle production is highly dependent upon reproductive efficiency. Early pregnancy loss, estimated to be at least 25% in beef cattle and 45% in dairy cattle, is economically detrimental to both the beef and dairy industries. The majority of embryonic loss occurs between days 8 and 16 of gestation...

  16. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  17. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brito Lopes

    Full Text Available This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs. Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA, back-fat thickness (BF, and rump fat thickness (RF, registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3 (P < 0.001. Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1 were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs. Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms of Mc4R and IGF2 Gene Association with Feed Conversion Efficiency Traits in Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-hua Du§, Cui Chen§, Zheng-rong Yuan, Li-min Zhang, Xiao-jie Chen, Yan-hui Wang, Xue Gao, Lu-pei Zhang, Hui-jiang Gao, Jun-ya Li and Shang-zhong Xu*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R gene is part of the central melanocortin pathway located in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain in which appetite is regulated. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 gene plays a role in muscle growth, myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Thus, they are candidate genes for feed conversion efficiency (FCE. The study was to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MC4R and IGF2 gene on FCE traits including residual feed intake (RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR and average daily gain (ADG. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the two genes in 118 Simmental bulls by DNA-pool sequencing and genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. C1069G locus of MC4R and four SNPs (C2209T, G18587C, A22950T and G26920T of IGF2 were identified in the population. The χ2 test showed that only MC4R-C1069G, IGF2-C2209T and IGF2-G18587C loci fitted with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05. General linear model (GLM was used to analyze differences between genotypes. The results showed that only IGF2-G18587C locus has a significant effect on ADG (P0.05. CC and GG genotypes were the dominant genotypes; individual with CC or GG genotype had a larger ADG than GC (P<0.05.

  19. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  20. Flooding event impacts soil pH, Ca, and P concentration distribution in a cattle backgrounding site on karst topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle backgrounding in US, function as an intermediate between cow-calf enterprises and feedlot finishing. Beef cattle backgrounding receives weaned calves of different growth stages from cow-calf operations and prepare them ready for feed lot finishing. Many beef cattle backgrounding operati...

  1. Effect of covering on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle solid manure stored at different stack heights%覆盖及堆积高度对肉牛粪便温室气体排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 董红敏; 左福元; 袁丰; 饶骏

    2014-01-01

    为了研究覆盖对不同堆积高度肉牛固体粪便温室气体(N2O、CH4和 CO2)排放量的影响,试验采用静态箱的方法研究了20和40 cm堆积高度时覆盖或者不覆盖情况下肉牛粪便温室气体的排放量。结果表明,堆积40 cm的牛粪CH4的累积排放量显著高于20 cm处理,而N2O和CO2累积排放量显著降低。覆盖显著增加了牛粪N2O的排放量和40 cm高度牛粪的CH4排放量,降低了40 cm高度牛粪CO2的排放量,而对20 cm高度牛粪CH4和CO2排放无显著影响。根据CH4和N2O在100 a 尺度上相对CO2的全球增温潜势计算出综合温室效应,无覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(101.07±6.28)和(94.67±3.29)g/kg,覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(104.20±6.78)和(103.43±3.21)g/kg,堆积高度为40 cm且无覆盖的综合温室效应最小。%The greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased in atmospheric concentration since 1 750, attracting more and more attention regarding climate change. Agriculture activities contribute to the increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, resulting in a higher global warming potential, which is estimated to contribute about 47%-58% of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Storage of animal manure is reported to be a significant agricultural source of methane and nitrous oxide. Generally, greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure can be influenced by storage stacking configuration and covering during storage. However, there are large uncertainties in this estimation. In order to quantify N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions from covered beef cattle solid manure compared with uncovered manure stored at different stack heights during storage, four treatments were designed including a stack height of 20 cm without covering (H20), a tack height of 40 cm without covering (H40), a stack height

  2. 覆盖及堆积高度对肉牛粪便温室气体排放的影响%Effect of covering on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle solid manure stored at different stack heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 董红敏; 左福元; 袁丰; 饶骏

    2014-01-01

    为了研究覆盖对不同堆积高度肉牛固体粪便温室气体(N2O、CH4和 CO2)排放量的影响,试验采用静态箱的方法研究了20和40 cm堆积高度时覆盖或者不覆盖情况下肉牛粪便温室气体的排放量。结果表明,堆积40 cm的牛粪CH4的累积排放量显著高于20 cm处理,而N2O和CO2累积排放量显著降低。覆盖显著增加了牛粪N2O的排放量和40 cm高度牛粪的CH4排放量,降低了40 cm高度牛粪CO2的排放量,而对20 cm高度牛粪CH4和CO2排放无显著影响。根据CH4和N2O在100 a 尺度上相对CO2的全球增温潜势计算出综合温室效应,无覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(101.07±6.28)和(94.67±3.29)g/kg,覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(104.20±6.78)和(103.43±3.21)g/kg,堆积高度为40 cm且无覆盖的综合温室效应最小。%The greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased in atmospheric concentration since 1 750, attracting more and more attention regarding climate change. Agriculture activities contribute to the increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, resulting in a higher global warming potential, which is estimated to contribute about 47%-58% of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Storage of animal manure is reported to be a significant agricultural source of methane and nitrous oxide. Generally, greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure can be influenced by storage stacking configuration and covering during storage. However, there are large uncertainties in this estimation. In order to quantify N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions from covered beef cattle solid manure compared with uncovered manure stored at different stack heights during storage, four treatments were designed including a stack height of 20 cm without covering (H20), a tack height of 40 cm without covering (H40), a stack height

  3. Comparison of Slaughter Performance and Beef Quality between Dairy Bull Calves and Fattening Cattle%奶公牛犊与育肥牛的屠宰性能及肉品质比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉杰; 孙芳; 王君才; 李红宇; 王嘉厚

    2011-01-01

    Four 6-month-old fattening dairy bull calves and four fattening cross-breeding adult beef cattle were selected to study the difference of beef production performance and quality between them. The results indicated that the percentage of bone of carcass was 4.45 percentage points higher than fattening cattle; the percentage of top grade parts of the meet was 0.35 percentage points higher than fattening cattle; the percentage of rump and hind legs meet was 1.67 percentage points higher than fattening cattle. The moisture content of calves was 75.39%, and protein content was 19.36%, which were 2.73 and 1.20 percentage points significantly higher than fattening cattle, and the fat content was 0.85%, which was 1.22 percentage points lower than fattening cattle. The shear force of the meet (outside ridge) of 72-hour cooling and 96-hour cooling were significant comparing with fattening cattle(p 〈0.01).The a* of meat color 3.88 lower than fattening cattle, and L* of meat color 6.55 higher than fattening cattle after 72-hour cooling, and the indexes of statistical analysis were significantly different(p〈0.01); the drop loss in indexes of WHC was significant difference(p〈0.05), and the cooked meet percentage was no difference(p〉0.05). Therefore, the percentage of the beef production of fattening calves were lower than adult beef cattle's, and the beef of calves were delicate and soft, fulling of juice, high protein, low fat and the meat color were pale on the beef quality, but the water-binding capacity of calves were significantly poorer than of adult beef cattle's.%选择6月龄育肥奶公牛犊和成年育肥杂交改良肉牛各四头,通过屠宰性能和肉品质比较,研究育肥奶公犊与杂交改良育肥肉牛的产肉性能和牛肉品质差异,为肉牛屠宰企业开发犊牛肉市场提供技术参数。结果表明,屠宰率为55.38%的犊牛胴体较屠宰率56.38%的育肥牛胴体,出肉率低6.25

  4. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based backgrounding diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize the effects of CP concentration and ruminal degradability of barley-based backgrounding diets on route and chemical form of N excretion, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (479 ± 14.6 kg average BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square. The basal diet consisted of 54% barley silage and 46% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (12% CP) or diets formulated to contain 14% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). The amount of feed offered was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. There was no effect of the diets on DMI (P = 0.38), and therefore, N intake was less (P 0.10) on the amount of urine N output. Urine N output was 38.9 and 45.1 ± 5.50% of N intake in heifers fed the 12% CP and 14% CP diets (P < 0.05), respectively. Urea N, the form of N most susceptible to NH3-N volatilization and loss, was the major form of N in urine (75.5% in heifers fed the 12% CP diet and 81.4 ± 1.7% in heifers fed the 14% CP diets; P < 0.05). Supplemental RDP (UREA+CM) and RUP combined with urea (UREA+CGM+xSBM) to provide 14% CP increased (P < 0.05) ruminal NH3-N but had no effect on ruminal peptide N (P = 0.62) and free AA N (P = 0.18) concentration, the flow of microbial (P = 0.34) and feed (P = 0.55) N, and ruminal (starch, P = 0.11; NDF, P = 0.78) and total tract nutrient digestibility (OM, P = 0.21; starch, P = 0.16). Supplementation of barley-based backgrounding diets containing 12% CP with NPN alone or combined with ruminally degradable and undegradable true protein to attain 14% CP had no effect on fecal N output, but urine N and urea N increased irrespective of protein source. In addition, the ruminal degradability of

  5. 青贮甜高粱与玉米秸秆饲喂肉牛效果研究%Study on the Effect of Feeding Beef Cattle by Sweet Sorghum Silage and Cornstalks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元来; 白晶晶

    2014-01-01

    [目的]饲喂青贮甜高粱与玉米秸秆对肉牛增重的效果研究,选择11月龄、体重280Kg 的西门塔尔公牛20头进行饲喂效果对比试验。[结果]显示:对照组、试验组平均每头日增重为0.98 kg、1.45 kg。试验组比对照组平均日多增重0.47 kg,提高47.96%;净收益每头每天比对照组多9.78元。[结论]表明:青贮甜高粱饲喂育肥肉牛增重效果明显,经济效益较好。%Objective]To study on weight increase in beef cattle by feeding sweet sorghum silage and cornstalks.[Method]This study choose a total of 20 bulls in Simmental bulls as the experimental animals which were 1 1 months old (280 kg),which would be used the contrast test on the effect of feeding.[Re-sult]The results showed that the average daily gain of control group was 0.98 kg per cattle,but the aver-age daily gain of the experimental group was 1.45 kg per cattle.Experimental group had more 0.47 kg weight than that of control group in average daily gain (increasing by 47.96%);Moreover,the daily prof-its of experimental group were more 9.78 yuan than those of control group in each cattle.[Conclusion]These resutls showed that feeding by Sweet Sorghum Silage let fatten cattle gain weight distinctly,and had a better economic benefit.

  6. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  7. Development of a Beef Flavor Lexicon and Its Application to Compare Flavor Profiles and Consumer Acceptance of Grain- and Pasture-Finished Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Curtis A

    2011-01-01

    Flavor lexicons are used in sensory evaluation to determine the flavor profile of a food product. The objective of this study was to develop a flavor lexicon for cooked beef, which can then be used in various projects relating to beef quality such as studies investigating animal diet, marinating, ageing, or other enhancements. A descriptive panel of 10 people was used to develop a flavor lexicon of 18 attributes, including astringent, barny, bloody, brothy, browned, gamey, grassy, juicy, fa...

  8. Nutritive Incentives Analysis of Kidney Stones on Beef Cattle in Ningxia%宁夏地区肉牛肾结石的营养学诱因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小可; 李俐; 闫宏

    2012-01-01

    为找出宁夏肉牛患肾结石的营养学诱因,试验对宁夏肉牛患肾结石的日粮营养成分、结石成分和血液生化指标进行测定.结果表明,40头屠宰的肉牛有23头患肾结石,发病率为57.5%;肉牛日粮的精粗比和钙、磷含量均过高,且钙磷比偏低.通过结石能谱分析,结果显示结石的主要化学成分为磷和镁,初步判断为磷酸镁铵或磷酸镁钾;血液中磷和镁偏高而钙偏低,这说明肉牛日粮的高精粗比、高钙高磷日粮、钙磷比偏低是肉牛肾结石的营养学诱因;日粮镁离子含量对肾结石也可能存在着一定的促进作用.%To find the nutritive incentives of kidney stones on beef cattle in Ningxia, the nutrient content of diet, the element of the kidney stone and the blood biochemical index were measured. The results showed that there were 23 beef cattle detected with kidney stones within 40 samples. The incidence of a disease was 57. 5%. The forage to concentrate ratio, calcium content and phosphorus content in the diet were too high, but calcium-phosphorus ratio in the diet was too low. Stone energy spectrum analysis showed that the main chemical components were phosphorus and magnesium, preliminary judgment for ammonium magnesium phosphate or potassium phosphate magnesium. The serum phosphorus and the serum magnesium were higher than reference standard, while the serum calcium was lower. High forage to concentrate ratio, low calcium-phosphorus ratio and diet with high calcium and high phosphorus were the nutritive incentives of kidney stones on beef cattle in Ningxia. The magnesium content in diet might also have a positive effect on formulation of kidney stone.

  9. 皇竹草与玉米秸秆青贮料饲喂肉牛的对比试验%Contrast Test of Pennisetum Hydridum and Corn Straw Mixed Silage Feeding Beef Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹宽文; 唐书辉; 汪庆松; 王海凤; 王兴磊; 贺起凯

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the feeding effect of Pennisetum hydridum and corn straw mixed silage to breeding cattle, fattening cattle, the team con-ducted a comparative feeding experiment, a total of 120 days. The results showed that, two groups of experimental cattle conception rate were:72. 22%, 76. 92% (P>0. 05), that mixed silage can not affect conception rate of breeding cattle; two groups of fattening cattle daily gain are respectively:1 294 g/d, 1 320 g/d (P>0. 05), that mixed silage can not affect the growth of fattening cattle. Conclusion, Pennisetum hydridum long growth period, high yield, easy processing and silage, it is an important source of beef cattle feed low elevation mountains green and coarse fodder, suitable for large area popularization.%利用皇竹草和抽穗期玉米秸秆青贮料作为能繁母牛、育肥牛的主要青粗饲料开展对比试验。通过120 d饲喂对比试验,饲喂2种不同饲料的能繁母牛受胎率分别为70.37%和76.92%,说明皇竹草和抽穗期玉米秸秆青贮料饲养能繁母牛对其受胎率无明显影响(P>0.05);育肥牛的日增重分别为1294 g/d和1320 g/d,表明利用皇竹草和抽穗期玉米秸秆青贮料育肥肉牛,其生长速度无明显差异(P>0.05)。由于皇竹草在低海拔喀斯特山区易于种植,生长期长,产量高,易于加工和青贮,是低海拔喀斯特山区解决肉牛产业发展中青粗饲料来源的有效途径,适宜大面积推广应用。

  10. Reproductive failures in beef cattle breeding herds with emphasis for infectious causes/ Falhas da reprodução na pecuária bovina de corte com ênfase para causas infecciosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri A. Alfieri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive efficiency in beef cattle breeding herds is one of the aspects of greater highlight for the financial success of the investment. In the present revision the main parameters used to evaluate the reproductive performance of cows in extensive management will be approached, as well as the more important infectious causes of the reproductive failures that affect the costs of the production.Na pecuária bovina de corte especializada na cria de bezerros a eficiência da reprodução é um dos aspectos de maior destaque para o sucesso financeiro do investimento. Na presente revisão serão abordados os principais parâmetros utilizados para avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte criadas extensivamente, bem como as principais causas infecciosas de falhas na reprodução que comprometem os custos da produção.

  11. Influences of Adding Different Proportion of Tomato Residue Silage on the Fattening Effect of Beef Cattle%添加不同比例番茄渣青贮对肉牛育肥效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 张凌青; 马振敏; 封元; 冯卫平; 张建勇; 脱征军; 玉贵平; 陈佳尉

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为番茄渣在肉牛养殖中的推广和应用提供科学依据.[方法]以番茄渣青贮代替部分全株玉米青贮,探讨番茄渣对肉牛育肥效果的影响.[结果]经青贮后番茄渣ADF和NDF分别比干渣低2.68%和3.49%,粗蛋白含量高1.27%.经过90d饲养试验,试验Ⅰ组(添加20%番茄渣青贮)和Ⅱ组(添加10%番茄渣青贮)的累计增重分别比对照组高10.9和6.0 kg(P <0.05),而平均日增重分别比对照组高121和66 g(P <0.05).试验Ⅰ和Ⅱ组经济效益分别比对照组高289.40和156.90元.[结论]在育肥肉牛日粮中添加番茄渣青贮代替部分全株玉米青贮,可以促进肉牛生长,提高增重效果,降低饲养成本,增加经济效益.%[Objective] The research aimed to provide scientific basis for the popularization and application of tomato residue in the breeding of beef cattle. [ Method] Tomato residue silage was used to replace part of whole-plant corn silage and discuss the influences of tomato residue on the fattening effect of beef cattle. [ Result] ADF and NDF in tomato residue after silage decreased 2. 68% and 3. 49% respectively than that in dry residue, but crude protein content increased 1. 27% . After 90 days' feeding, the accumulative weight gain in test group Ⅰ ( adding 20% tomato residue silage) and test group H (adding 10% tomato residue silage) increased 10.9 and 6.0 kg respectively than that in control (P<0.05)and the average daily gain in test group Ⅰ and Ⅱ increased 121 and 66 g respectively. And the economic benefits in test group Ⅰ and Ⅱ increased 289.40 and 156.90 RMB respectively. [Conclusion] Tomato residue silage was added in the diet of fattening beef cattle to replace part of whole-plant corn silage, which could promote the growth of beef cattle, enhance the weighting effect, decrease the feeding cost and increase the economic benefits.

  12. Consumer perception of Brazilian traced beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine consumers understanding of beef traceability, identifying how consumers value this meat and traceability elements to be presented on retail shelves. The method used in this study was a survey through the internet applying the Sphinx software. The sample consisted of 417 consumers, mostly living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Consumers are aware of certified beef, consider it important, but this is not a demand. As to traced beef, most consumers (62.4% are in favor of mandatory traceability of beef cattle in Brazil, but 86.6% disagree with the destination of traced beef only to the foreign market. The majority of people are willing to pay more for traced beef and consider traceability a market opportunity, used as a differentiating tool.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of skeletal muscle from beef cattle exposed to illicit schedules containing dexamethasone: identification of new candidate biomarkers and their validation using samples from a field monitoring trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendy, Ramy; Giantin, Mery; Montesissa, Clara; Dacasto, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Growth promoters (GPs) such as the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) and the β-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol (CLEN) are still used abusively in beef cattle production. Transcriptomic markers for indirect detection of such GPs have been discussed in either experimentally treated animals or commercial samples separately. In the present study we examine the transcriptomic signature of DEX alone or in combination with CLEN in skeletal muscle of experimentally treated beef cattle, and, furthermore, compare them with previously screened commercial samples from a field-monitoring study, as well as with proteomics data representing the same set of samples. Using DNA microarray technology, transcriptomic profiling was performed on 12 samples representing three groups of animals: DEX (0.75 mg/animal/day, n = 4), a combination of DEX (0.66 mg/animal/day) and CLEN (from 2 to 6 mg/animal/day, n = 4) and a control group (n = 4). Analyses showed the differential expression of 198 and 39 transcripts in DEX and DEX-CLEN groups, respectively. Both groups had no common modulated genes in between, neither with the proteomics data. Sixteen candidate genes were validated via qPCR. They showed high correlation with the corresponding microarray data. Principal component analysis (PCA) on both the qPCR and normalised microarray data resulted in the separation of treated animals from the untreated ones. Interestingly, all the PCA plots grouped the DEX-positive samples (experimental or commercial) apart from each other. In brief, this study provides some interesting glucocorticoid-responsive biomarkers whose expression was contradictory to what is reported in human studies. Additionally, this study points out the transcriptomic signature dissimilarity between commercial and experimentally treated animals. PMID:26161592

  14. Competitividade interna na bovinocultura de corte no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Internal competitiveness in beef cattle activity in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pedroso Oaigen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar os principais fatores internos (custos, receitas, viabilidade técnico-econômica e uso de inovações tecnológicas que afetam a competitividade da bovinocultura de corte em um sistema de produção de ciclo completo no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram coletados durante o ano de 2008, a partir de reuniões mensais entre os meses de janeiro e dezembro. Posteriormente, os dados foram analisados em planilhas eletrônicas. Os custos foram subdivididos em desembolsados, operacionais e totais e as receitas por categoria e total. Dentre os custos avaliados, destacaram-se o custo de oportunidade da terra, mão-de-obra e suplementação animal, com valores de 19,9%, 18,3% e 13,6%, respectivamente, em relação ao custo total. Foram calculados os principais indicadores financeiros e técnicos utilizados comumente em análise de sistemas de produção. As margens econômicas (bruta, operacional e líquida, assim como a lucratividade e rentabilidade sobre o patrimônio líquido, foram positivos, o que demonstra a viabilidade econômica da atividade. Ao mesmo tempo, indicadores técnicos, como a taxa de desfrute e a produtividade/ha, apresentaram valores satisfatórios. Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que os fatores internos avaliados foram extremamente competitivos para o sistema em questão.The present research aimed to identify the main internal factors (costs, income, techno-economic feasibility and technologic innovation use which affect the beef cattle activity competitiveness in a complete cycle production system in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The data was collected during the year of 2008 based on monthly meetings between the months of January and December. Later the data was analyzed in eletronic spreadsheets. The costs were subdivided in disbursed, operating and total costs and the income in category and total. Among the evaluated costs, the land opportunity cost, labor force and

  15. Relationships among Ergot Alkaloids, Cytochrome P450 Activity, and Beef Steer Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Rosenkrans

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining a grazing animal’s susceptibility to ergot alkaloids has been a research topic for decades. Our objective was to determine if the Promega™ P450-Glo assay could be used to indirectly detect ergot alkaloids or their metabolites in urine of steers. The first experiment validated the effects of ergot alkaloids [0, 20, and 40 μM of ergotamine (ET, dihydroergotamine (DHET, and ergonovine (EN] on human CYP3A4 using the P450-Glo assay (Promega™ V9800. With this assay, luminescence is directly proportional to CYP450 activity. Relative inhibition of in vitro cytochrome P450 activity was affected (P < 0.001 by an interaction between alkaloids and concentration. That interaction resulted in no concentration effect of EN, but within ET and DHET 20 and 40 µM concentrations inhibited CYP450 activity when compared with controls. In experiment 2, urine was collected from Angus-sired crossbred steers (n = 39; 216 ± 2.6 d of age; 203 ± 1.7 kg after grazing tall fescue pastures for 105 d. Non-diluted urine was added to the Promega™ P450-Glo assay, and observed inhibition (3.7 % ± 2.7 of control. Urine content of total ergot alkaloids (331.1 ng/mg of creatinine ± 325.7 was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urine inhibition of CYP450 activity and total alkaloids were correlated (r = -0.31; P < 0.05. Steers were genotyped at CYP450 single nucleotide polymorphism, C994G. Steer genotype affected (P < 0.03 inhibition of CYP450 activity by urine; heterozygous steers had the least amount of CYP450 inhibition suggesting that genotyping cattle may be a method of identifying animals that are susceptible to ergot alkaloids. Although, additional research is needed, we demonstrate that the Promega™ P450-Glo assay is sensitive to ergot alkaloids and urine from steers grazing tall fescue. With some refinement the P450-Glo assay has potential as a tool for screening cattle for their exposure to fescue toxins.

  16. Impact of reduced marker set estimation of genomic relationship matrices on genomic selection for feed efficiency in Angus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Northcutt Sally L

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular estimates of breeding value are expected to increase selection response due to improvements in the accuracy of selection and a reduction in generation interval, particularly for traits that are difficult or expensive to record or are measured late in life. Several statistical methods for incorporating molecular data into breeding value estimation have been proposed, however, most studies have utilized simulated data in which the generated linkage disequilibrium may not represent the targeted livestock population. A genomic relationship matrix was developed for 698 Angus steers and 1,707 Angus sires using 41,028 single nucleotide polymorphisms and breeding values were estimated using feed efficiency phenotypes (average daily feed intake, residual feed intake, and average daily gain recorded on the steers. The number of SNPs needed to accurately estimate a genomic relationship matrix was evaluated in this population. Results Results were compared to estimates produced from pedigree-based mixed model analysis of 862 Angus steers with 34,864 identified paternal relatives but no female ancestors. Estimates of additive genetic variance and breeding value accuracies were similar for AFI and RFI using the numerator and genomic relationship matrices despite fewer animals in the genomic analysis. Bootstrap analyses indicated that 2,500-10,000 markers are required for robust estimation of genomic relationship matrices in cattle. Conclusions This research shows that breeding values and their accuracies may be estimated for commercially important sires for traits recorded in experimental populations without the need for pedigree data to establish identity by descent between members of the commercial and experimental populations when at least 2,500 SNPs are available for the generation of a genomic relationship matrix.

  17. Moisture enhancement and blade tenderization effects on the shear force and palatability of strip loin steaks from beef cattle fed zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J C; Mehaffey, J M; Collins, J A; Rogers, H R; Legako, J; Johnson, B J; Lawrence, T; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Miller, M F

    2010-05-01

    Two trials investigated zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) feeding duration, enhancement, blade tenderization, and postmortem aging effect on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; trial 1) and consumer sensory ratings (trial 2). For trial 1, USDA Select beef strip loins were obtained from carcasses of beef steers fed ZH (6.8 g/t on 90% DM) the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of the feeding period. One-half of each strip loin was enhanced (110%) with a brine solution, whereas the remaining portion was not enhanced. Both pieces were portioned into steaks, which were aged 7, 14, or 21 d for WBSF analysis. For trial 2, paired USDA Select beef strip loins were obtained from carcasses of beef steers fed ZH the last 0 or 20 d of feeding. Paired strip loins were fabricated into 4 pieces and assigned to control, moisture enhanced, blade tenderized, and blade tenderized + moisture enhanced treatments. Strip loin pieces were then portioned into steaks that were aged 14 or 21 d postmortem. Consumers panelists (n = 458) indicated their like or dislike of tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like of each sample using 8-point, verbally anchored scales, as well as tenderness and overall acceptability. With exception of 20 d ZH-treated steaks, results from trial 1 indicate WBSF values decreased (P tenderness scores (P tenderness, juiciness, and overall like scores and tended (P tenderness and tenderness acceptability scores when compared with controls. PMID:20081069

  18. Fattening Effects of Cassava Dregs and Ammonifying Sugarcane Tip on Feeding Beef Cattle%肉牛饲喂木薯渣及氨化甘蔗梢的育肥效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建勇; 黄必志; 王安奎; 张继才; 李乔仙; 王喆; 张羽; 杨建炆

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】The purpose of this study was to evaluate the slaughter performances,carcass quality and taste score by feeding cassava dregs and ammonifying sugarcane tip for beef cattle to provide an important reference for beef industry.【Methods】The trial was divided into two groups consisting of seven uncastrated bulls(Simmental crossbred beef) based on the diet of cassava dregs(treat 1) and ammonifying sugarcane tip(treat 2) adding 3.0 kg/herd concentrate supplement for a 110-day finishing period,respectively.【Results】After fattening,the results showed that: ① The average live weights and average daily gains(ADGs) of treat 1 and 2 were 434.27 kg and 1 296 g,404.55 kg and 992 g,respectively(P0.01).②The dressing percentage,net meat rate,loin eye area of treat 1 and 2 were 62.22%,50.12%,104.3 cm2 and 60.25%,48.45%,86.5 cm2.The difference between the two groups was significant(P0.01).③ Beef quality of treat 1 was significantly better compared to that of treat 2,which both were up to high-quality standards(P0.05).④ Beef has no peculiar smell,the meat quality was fine and tender,the taste was orthodox and the flavor was preferably heavy by feeding the cassava dregs and ammonifying sugarcane tip diets.【Conclusion】Feeding cassava dregs and ammonifying sugarcane tip on beef cattle,live weight gain were visibly better,and ADGs easily exceed 1 000 g and beef quality were better.The colors of beef and fat looks normally ranked the best grade beef.Beef has no peculiar smell,its meat quality was fine and slender,taste was orthodox,flavor was preferably heavy.%[目的]本试验拟通过木薯渣和甘蔗梢育肥肉牛试验,对屠宰性状、胴体品质评价及品尝评分,为肉牛产业提供参考依据。[方法]试验设以木薯渣为基础日粮(Ⅰ组)和以氨化甘蔗梢为基础日粮(Ⅱ组)2个组,分别补给3.0 kg精料,每组7头未去势西杂公牛,育肥110 d后进行屠宰。[结果]表明

  19. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    different countries. Legal and political issues are also discussed in the report. 2. The consumption of beef in Europe has been stable around 20 kg/head/year since the 1960's with a slightly falling trend. With a steady increase in total meat consumption, this has resulted in a significant decrease in beef...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows are...... instrumental measures of these characteristics has made the sorting int consumer-relevant quality categories impossible. Recently, schemes have been set up in several countries to produce beef under certain controlled conditions with the aim of assuring a certain quality. These schemes involve participation of...

  20. Application of a model of management by macroprocesses to a beef cattle enterprise: a case study Aplicação de modelo de gestão por macroprocessos em empresa de pecuária de corte: um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Garcia Rosado Júnior; José Fernando Piva Lobato

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study that aimed at proposing a management method based on macroprocesses to determine and achieve strategic goals for a beef cattle enterprise in order to maintain or to increase the company's competitiveness. The method suggests using a series of tools mentioned in the literature that were organized providing logical reasons for the managers to build the management system. When mapping the processes of the studied enterprise, four macroprocesses were identified, which were su...

  1. ROMANIAN BEEF & VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being depend...

  2. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being depend...

  3. Reducing Methane Emissions from Cattle Production in Central Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Rolfe, John

    2002-01-01

    Beef cattle contribute about 7% of national greenhouse gas emissions through the release of methane into the atmosphere. Cattle in northern Australia produce more methane per unit of beef produced because of tropical (C4) grasses and slower average growth rates. In this paper the level of emissions from different herds and some strategies to reduce emissions are modelled. The results indicate that few options exist to reduce methane emissions without reducing beef production. The opportunity ...

  4. Prospect of Cattle Development to Support Self Sufficiency of Meat in North Sumatera Province

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmad Rifai Lubis

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of beef supply to meet national needs is also found locally in North Sumatera Province. The trend for beef in this area was triggered by the increasing of population, economic improvement and desire for better nutrient comsumption. Level of beef consumption is increased 17% from year 2004 to 2008, so in the same period the number of cattle entered into the North Sumatera Province also increased. Some efforts had been conducted to develop beef cattle program in North Sumatera Self S...

  5. Canadian beef quality audit 1998-99.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Bygrove, S; Gillis, K; Malchow, D.; McLeod, G.

    2001-01-01

    The second beef quality audit was conducted in Canada in 1998-99 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in slaughtered cattle and to monitor changes since the first audit in 1995. Approximately 0.6% of the number of cattle processed annually in Canada were evaluated. Brands were observed on 49% and tag was observed on 43% of the hides. Both brands and tag had increased from 1995. Seventy percent of the cattle were polled and 5% had full horns; thus, the number of horned cattle had dec...

  6. Tenderness and taste qualification of red brangus beef in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte; Ana María Sifuentes-Rincón; Williams Arellano-Vera; Juan Gabriel Magaña-Monforte; José Alberto Ramírez-De León; Gonzalo Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    Beef tenderness is an important trait in consumer satisfaction and has been considered as the main trait for palatability, for which reason it is important to evaluate its variability in different cattle breeds. An experiment was designed to evaluate the Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) of Red Brangus cattle rib eye steaks and consumer acceptance. The tenderness of beef rib eye steaks was evaluated by the WBSF. A consumer preference evaluation test was carried out to quantitatively estimate...

  7. Validation of Commercial DNA Tests for Beef Quality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR® Quality Grade, GeneSTAR® Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE™) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the independent ver...

  8. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef consum...

  9. Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    Vanleeuwen, John A.; Tiwari, Ashwani; Plaizier, Jan C; Whiting, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    Of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for Bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for Neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres ≥ 1:64 for Bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  10. 日粮阴阳离子平衡(DCAB)对热应激肉牛生产性能的影响%Effects of Dietary Cation-anion Balance on Performance of Heat-stressed Beef Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉凤; 王美美; 李秋凤; 高艳霞; 于海川; 李建国; 冯志华; 陈福音; 崔秋佳; 赵会利

    2012-01-01

    为了研究日粮中不同DCAB对热应激肉牛生产性能、各种生理指标以及外周血淋巴细胞凋亡的影响,选择30头体质量(450±10)kg的西门塔尔牛杂交牛,随机分为3组,每组10头,各组试验日粮分别为I组对照组(DCAB为108 meq· kg 1 DM)、Ⅱ组(228 meq· kg-1 DM)、Ⅲ组(347 meq·kg-1 DM).试验结果表明,日粮中DCAB对热应激肉牛的直肠温度无显著影响,随DCAB的增加线性降低肉牛的呼吸频率(P<0.05).肉牛日增体质量随DCAB的增加而逐渐增加,其中Ⅱ和Ⅲ组分别比对照组提高29% (P<0.05)和25% (P<0.05),料重比分别降低了17.34% (P<0.05)和11.46%(P>0.05),日粮NDF和ADF的表观消化率有增加的趋势,Ca、灰分表观消化率呈现二次变化,蛋白质和脂肪的表观消化率无显著变化.与对照组相比,Ⅱ和Ⅲ组血清T4水平分别增加58.1% (P<0.05)和31.9% (P>0.05),SOD水平分别增加18.98% (P>0.05)和48.18%(P>0.05).日粮中增加DCAB值对血清中血糖、尿素氮、白蛋白等无显著影响.增加DCAB可以显著降低热应激肉牛外周血淋巴细胞早期凋亡率(P<0.01)、晚期凋亡率(P<0.01)和总凋亡率(P<0.01),降低淋巴细胞的比例(P<0.05),提高肉牛抵抗热应激的能力.综合各项指标,在热应激条件下,日粮中适宜的DCAB值为228 meq·kg-1DM.%The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different DCAB on the production performance, blood chemistry and lymphocyte apoptosis of heat-stressed beef cattle. 30 Simmen-tal cattle with similar weight ( (450±10) kg) were randomly divided into three groups, every group contains ten cattle. The diets of three experimental groups was group I (control group, , DCAB, 108 meq o kg-1 DM) , group Ⅱ (228 meq o kg-1 DM ), group Ⅲ (347 meq o kg-1 DM). The results showed that, under the condition of heat stress, different DCAB value in diet didn't influence rectal temperature, while the respiratory rate decreased

  11. Preliminary results on the use of radioimmunoassay to monitor the reproductive performance of dairy and beef cattle on Cheju Island, Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted with the aim of improving the breeding efficiency of dairy and beef cows on Cheju Island through the use of radioimmunoassay techniques. Milk progesterone profiles were characterized in dairy cows throughout an oestrus cycle, at the onset of oestrus and during the gestation period. Plasma progesterone measurements were made in pregnant and non-pregnant beef cows. Progesterone concentrations in milk were very low during oestrus, with a mean value of 2.4 nmol/L at the onset of oestrus, gradually declining to 1 nmol/L4 to 9 h later. In the cycling cow, milk progesterone concentrations in the early part of the cycle ranged from 3 to 5 nmol/L and increased to 6-11.6 nmol/L between days 13 and 21 of the cycle. Milk progesterone concentrations of pregnant cows ranged from 8.0 to 40 nmol/L during gestation; non-pregnant cows had values of <3.5 nmol/L. Plasma progesterone concentrations of beef cows during pregnancy ranged from 3.0 to 33 nmol/L, whereas non-pregnant animals exhibited values of <2.5 nmol/L. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs

  12. 全混合日粮营养水平对肉牛育肥效果的影响%Influence of nutrition level of TMR on fattening effect for beef cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓瑜; 陈志强; 何立荣; 李爱华; 张凌青; 封元

    2011-01-01

    Using completely random block design methods, the trials evaluated the impact on weight gain, meat productivity and economic benefit of fattening beef cattle, when feeding with different nutritional levels of TMR. The results were followed: Improving the nutrition level, weight gain was increased by 8.79% and feed speed was also increased, but average daily intake was reduced by 0.65%. The dressing percentage, the net beef percentage and the meat percentage of carcass were increased by 0.47%, 1.28%, 1.46% respectly. The feed profit was enhanced, and two kind of profit were increased by 159.53 yuan and 385.79 yuan respectly. All these showed that improving the nutrition level could improve weight gain, slaughter performances and economic benefit.%采用完全随机单位组设计方法,设计并开展试验,评价TMR营养水平对肉牛增重效果、产肉性能和经济效益的影响,结果表明:提高TMR营养水平可以提高肉牛日增重8.79%、采食速度、降低采食量0.65%;可以改善屠宰性能,提高肉牛屠宰率0.47%、净肉率1.28%、胴体产肉率1.46%及优质切块肉的比重;可以提高饲料报酬;两种经济效益分别提高159.53元、385.79元.综合以上结果得出,提高TMR营养水平可以提高肉牛增重效果、产肉性能及经济效益.

  13. Alguns aspectos da política creditícia e o desenvolvimento da pecuária de corte no Brasil Some aspects of credit politics and development of the brazilian beef cattle industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso da Costa Carrer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma análise das especificidades dos recursos financeiros públicos destinados à pecuária de corte constitui o objetivo desse trabalho, além de buscar subsídios para a compreensão do processo de modernização e desenvolvimento desta atividade no país. Em primeira instância, estabeleceram-se as relações de causas e efeitos ocorridas durante o processo histórico de conformação do segmento da pecuária de corte do país, procurando-se analisar as particularidades da distribuição do crédito rural. Num segundo momento, para o diagnóstico da situação atual e das perspectivas da produção de carne bovina no Brasil, foram sistematizadas neste trabalho, com o uso da análise de tendências, informações que visam conjugar uma visão sistêmica da atividade, a fim de se detectarem sintomas de mudanças na base técnica e mercadológica da atividade. A política creditícia, que historicamente teve sua importância, deve sofrer substituição por mecanismos alternativos de financiamento da atividade, em que vendas "hedgeadas", adiantamentos à produção e parcerias produtivas se tornarão a tônica do segmento.This paper traces some of the aspects of the public financial resources destined to the Brazilian beef cattle industry, beyond searching subsidies for the understanding of the modernization process and development of this activity in the country. The relations of causes and effects during the historical process of conformation of the segment of the beef cattle of the country, were established, with the particularitities of the distribution of the rural credit being analysed. For the diagnosis of the current situation and the perspectives of the production of bovine meat in Brazil, the information on this activity was systematized in this work, in order to detect symptoms of changes in the technical base and marketing activity. The credit politics, that historically had its importance, must be substituted by alternative

  14. The Effect of Weight Gain by using Forage Sorghum Silage to Feeding Beef Cattle%饲用甜高粱青贮饲喂肉牛的增重效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵通; 王延飞

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the possibility of Forage Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ) for silage and to enrich the silage source , twenty-seven crossbred beef cattles of the same variety ,born at the same birth and similar body weight ,were randomly divided into 3 treatments . The feeding effects of the three groups including forage sorghum silage, corn stover silage and whole corn silage . Results showed that: To campare with the second and the third group The weight was increased 44.37% and 7.8% and the daily revenue of the first group was increased 93.49% and 29.64%. Therefore, forage sorghum could be valuable as an alternative forage crop for beef cattle fattening.It can replace the traditional silage such as corn stover silage and whole corn silage.%为探索饲用甜高粱(Sorghum bicolor ( L.) Moench)用作青贮饲料的可能性,丰富饲料作物来源,该实验选取品种、月龄一致、体质量相近,27头杂交肉牛,随机分为3组进行对比分析,其中1、2和3分别饲喂饲用甜高粱青贮、玉米秸秆青贮和全株玉米青贮。结果表明:1组增质量分别比2和3组提高44.37%和7.8%,头均日收益分别提高93.49%和29.64%。饲用甜高粱用作青贮作物有很大的利用价值,因此完全可以替代目前常用的玉米秸秆和全株玉米等青贮原料用于养牛。

  15. Evaluation of Beef Marbling Grade Based on Advanced Watershed Algorithm and Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangyan Meng; Yonghai Sun; Yuan Ni; Yumiao Ren

    2014-01-01

    As to the problem of inaccurate in traditional grade method of beef marbling, a automatic grading system based on computer vision had been founded and was used to predict the beef quality grade of Chinese yellow cattle. Image processing was used to automatically evaluate the beef marbling grade. Segmentation methods used in rib-eye image of beef carcass was improved watershed algorithm. All grading indicators were obtained by image processing automatically. Four grading indicators, which char...

  16. The changes of hematology and biochemical parameters in the beef cattle with subacute ruminal acidosis%肉牛亚急性瘤胃酸中毒血液学及生化指标变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨旭; 王晓旭; 孙国权; 张良; 陈灰; 杨文涛; 刘兆喜; 王哲; 刘国文

    2013-01-01

    为了解肉牛发生亚急性瘤胃酸中毒时血液学和相应生化指标的变化,对瘤胃液pH在5.2~5.5、5.6~5.8和5.9~6.8之间的24头肉牛进行了血液学及相应生化指标的分析.结果表明:随着pH值的降低,血液中红细胞(RBC)数量、血红蛋白(Hb)浓度、红细胞压积(PCV)均显著增加;白细胞(WBC)总数上升,白细胞分类(WBC-DC)也有相应的变化,嗜酸性粒细胞和淋巴细胞呈下降趋势,中性杆状核粒细胞和中性分叶核粒细胞呈上升趋势,单核细胞略微升高;血气指标pO2显著增加,pCO2、HCO3-浓度显著减少;生化指标Ca2+、Cl-显著减少,Na+和尿素氮显著增加,K+差异不显著.肉牛发生轻度和中度亚急性瘤胃酸中毒时,pCO2以及HCO3-含量显著降低,表明机体碱储备不足,缓冲能力下降,存在代偿性酸中毒;同时根据水合状态和血象指标,表明亚急性瘤胃酸中毒病牛存在轻度脱水和炎性反应.%The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of hematology and biochemical parameters in beef cattle with subacute ruminal acidosis. We analyzed the hematology and biochemical parameters of 24 beef cattle with ruminal pH value in 5. 2-5. 5,5. 6-5. 8 and 5. 9-6. 8. The results showed that red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume(PCV)significant-ly increased with the reducing pH value, the number of white blood celKWBOwas increased. The leukocyte differential count was changed in the different degree, the proportion of eosinophilic leukocyte and lymphocyte was decreased,neutrophilic stab and segmented granulocyte was increased, mononuclear leucocyte was increased slightly. The pO2 was significantly increased. The pCO2 and HCO3- were significantly decreased. The levels of Ca2+ and Cl- were significantly decreased, the levels of Na+ and urea nitrogen were significantly increased,and there was no significant difference in the levels of K+. The decreased pCO2 and HCO3- in the slight and moderate

  17. The effect of administering long-acting oxytetracycline and tilmicosin either by dart gun or by hand on injection site lesions and drug residues in beef cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; VanderKop, M; Salisbury, C.; L. Sears; Holowath, J

    1999-01-01

    Forty yearling cattle were injected intramuscularly with long-acting oxytetracycline and subcutaneously with tilmicosin by dart gun or by hand in a chute 28 days prior to slaughter. The drugs caused injection site lesions and antibiotic residues in the neck and thigh that varied by technique, dose, and site.

  18. A stochastic exposure assessment model to estimate vanadium intake by beef cattle used as sentinels for the South African vanadium mining industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gummow, B.; Kirsten, W.F.A.; Gummow, R.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental exposure assessment model for estimating chronic intake of vanadium (a transition metal) by cattle farmed extensively in areas contaminated by vanadium pollutants. The exposure model differs from most other models in several ways: (1) it does not rely heavily on

  19. Diferenciação por qualidade da carne bovina: a ótica do bem-estar animal Differentiation for beef cattle quality: the view of the animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Balbé de Oliveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca enfatizar como o bem-estar animal pode influenciar nos sistemas produtivos pecuários e no produto final - a carne bovina. Surge da preocupação com as condições que os bovinos são manejados e chegam para abate nos frigoríficos, ocasionando prejuízos a todos os agentes da cadeia produtiva e da necessidade de obtenção de produtos seguros, com qualidade, e produzidos de forma sustentável e ambientalmente correta. Um bom manejo durante todo o sistema de criação se reflete na qualidade da carne. Ao se agregar qualidade, mesmo que por meio de características pouco identificáveis, promove-se a diferenciação do produto. Com certeza, assim como os prejuízos ocasionados pelo manejo inadequado, os ganhos da diferenciação, por meio de práticas de bem-estar animal, poderão ser compartilhados por todos os agentes da cadeia produtiva.This paper aims to emphasize how the animal welfare can influence the cattle productive systems and in the final beef product. The study emerges from the preoccupation with the conditions that the cattle is handled and arrive for slaughter in the cold storage room. Impairing all the productive chain agentes, and the necessity to obtain safe products, with quality and produced in a sustainable and environmentally correct way. A good handling during all the breeding systems reflects in the meat quality. Aggregating quality, though by means of not very identifiable characteristics, the product diferenciation is promoted. For sure, as well as the impairment caused by the inadequate handling, the profits of diferenciation, by means of animal welfare practices, could be shared by all the agents of the productive chain.

  20. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  1. Selenium in Cattle: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Mehdi; Isabelle Dufrasne

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyan...

  2. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Beef production without mature cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, G E; Whittier, J C

    2015-09-01

    Nutrients in animal feed get partitioned to growth, lactation, pregnancy, fat accretion, and/or maintenance. For mature beef cows, >80% of nutrients consumed annually go to unproductive maintenance. Integrated over the entire U.S. beef cattle production system, nearly one-half of the nutrients consumed go to maintenance of cow herds. This accounts for much of the inefficiency of beef production and can be minimized by the single-calf heifer system, in which heifers are fattened and slaughtered after having their first calf. We propose a modification, use of sexed semen, so that most heifers replace themselves with a heifer calf. This greatly decreases the size of the inherently inefficient cow herd required for beef production and greatly increases efficiency of beef production in terms of nutrients consumed and waste produced, such as methane, by increasing the ratio of nutrients used for growth to those used for maintenance. Additional management is required including AI, early weaning, and the attention required when calving 2-yr-old heifers. Low conception rates with sexed semen and less efficient growth of females than males also must be considered. However, these issues seem greatly outweighed by the benefits of increased efficiency from decreasing cow herd size while eliminating the need for breeding back lactating first-calf heifers, the need for castration, and health problems inherent in older cows such as mastitis and lameness. Moreover, the decreased generation interval can greatly accelerate genetic progress. PMID:26440323

  3. Effects of adding urea on fermentation quality of pruned persimmon branch silage and its digestibility, preference, nitrogen balance and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Zang, Yanqing; Lv, Renlong; Takahashi, Toshiyoshi; Yoshida, Norio; Yang, Huanmin

    2014-03-01

    Four cattle were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to study digestibility, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen retention and preference of ensiling pruned persimmon branch (PPB) chips treated with urea. After 60 days of ensiling, urea-treated PPB showed higher (P mold nor yeast was detected in any urea-treated PPB. Urinary and fecal excretion as well as nitrogen retention in cattle fed urea-treated PPB were higher (P  low-urea > no-urea > high-urea. The results suggested that urea treatment of PPB inhibited growth of mold and yeast during silage storage, enhanced its digestibility and had nutritive value almost equivalent to that of rice straw. PMID:24131432

  4. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  5. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  6. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  7. Technology of production of beef of special quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovski Zlatica; Aleksić Stevica; Cmiljanić Ratimir; Škrbić Zdenka; Lukić Miloš; Stojanović Ljiljana

    2004-01-01

    By applying the method of industrial crossing of Domestic spotted cattle of lower production performances with French fattening/meat breeds (Charolais and Limousine) young cattle is obtained with better fattening traits as well as traits of carcass and meat quality. Application of the method of industrial crossing of Domestic spotted cattle of lower production performances, beside significant increase of the quantity of high quality beef meat, would also have positive effect on the economical...

  8. The effects of pre-slaughter restraint (for the purpose of cattle identification) on post-slaughter responses and carcass quality following the electrical stun/killing of cattle in a Jarvis Beef stunner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpamhanga, C J; Wotton, S B

    2015-09-01

    This study compared normal post-Jarvis stun/kill responses and carcass quality with those occurring when crush restraint was not used during pre-slaughter. The carcasses of 1065 cattle slaughtered during one week at a commercial abattoir were evaluated for quality. The post-stun/kill responses of 788 of these animals were also assessed. An additional study of data from the carcasses of 6061 cattle was further evaluated for quality findings. A significant reduction in post-stun/kill limb movement, muscle tone and the expression of brainstem functions was recorded when restraint was not used. Abolishing crush restraint pre-slaughter also produced a significant reduction in the incidence of blood splash. In addition, the study also showed that animal identification post-slaughter could be successfully implemented with no negative consequences to food safety or traceability. It is suggested that abolishing the use of pre-slaughter crush restraint of cattle would enhance animal welfare and operator safety in plants whether electrical, or mechanical stunning was employed. PMID:26002177

  9. Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The χ(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P < 0.05), and the Myf6-ApaLI locus was significantly associated with carcass length (CL) (P < 0.05). Animals with BB and AB genotypes for the MyoD1-BglI locus had larger LMAs compared to animals with AA genotype. Individuals with BB genotype had longer CLs compared to those with AA and AB genotypes. We conclude that the two SNPs might provide useful genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection. PMID:24391012

  10. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  11. Economic feasibility of four grazing intensities of Tanzania grass for beef cattleViabilidade econômica de quatro intensidades de pastejo do capim Tanzânia na pecuária de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Were evaluated the economic effects of four grazing heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm of Tanzânia grass for beef cattle. The total area was 12 acres divided into paddocks of one hectare, with three replications. We used three animals, males, Nelore per paddock, as more animals need additional adjustment to the height you want. The reduction in sward height allowed higher stocking rate, which, even with a reduction in individual performance, there was more beef production per area. The interest rate on capital given the property represented the largest share in the final cost of production. The participation of fixed variables showed a positive linear function of the increase in height from grazing, showing significant reduction of the production scale. A reduction in cost of production per hectare per year with increasing grazing height. No differences were found in certain economic indicators, and the four systems remunerate the capital invested.Foram avaliados os efeitos econômicos de quatro alturas de pastejo (20; 40; 60 e 80 cm do capim Tanzânia para bovinos de corte. A área total foi de 12 hectares divididos em piquetes de um hectare, com três repetições. Foram utilizados três bovinos, machos, Nelore por piquete, mais animais adicionais conforme necessidade de ajuste para as alturas pretendidas. A redução da altura do pasto permitiu maior taxa de lotação, onde, mesmo com redução no desempenho individual, houve maior produção por área. A taxa de juros atribuída sobre o capital do imóvel representou a maior parcela no custo final de produção. A participação das variáveis fixas apresentou comportamento linear positivo em função do aumento na altura dos pastos, se mostrando sensível à redução da escala de produção. Houve redução do custo de produção anual por hectare com aumento da altura de pastejo. Não foram detectadas diferenças nos indicadores econômicos determinados, e os quatro sistemas remuneraram o

  12. Muscle Fiber Characteristics of Beef Samples of Yanbian Yellow Cattle from Different Quality Grades%不同质量等级延边黄牛肉肌纤维的组织特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    羿庆燕; 董玉影; 李官浩; 刘笑笑; 梁成云

    2013-01-01

    选取36月龄延边黄牛的眼肉作为肉样,对剪切力、肌纤维组织特性及各指标的相关性进行分析,结果表明:剪切力整体呈现下降趋势,成熟时间和质量等级对剪切力影响显著(P<0.05).随成熟时间延长,肌纤维密度和肌原纤维小片化指数(MFI)增大,肌纤维直径和肌纤维面积减小,嫩度得到提高.成熟时间和质量等级对肌纤维组织特性影响显著(P<0.05),各质量等级延边黄牛肉嫩度大小为:特级1+>优一级>优二级>普通级,说明成熟对牛肉嫩度有所提高,质量等级越高牛肉嫩度越好.%The shear force and muscle fiber characteristics as well as correlation between both of ribeyes of 36-month-old Yanbian yellow cattle were analyzed.The results obtained showed that the shear force of beef ribeye exhibited an overall downward trend with postmortem aging time,and was affected by both aging time and quality grade significantly (P<0.05).Moreover,with prolonged aging time,the muscle fiber density and myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) were increased,while muscle fiber area and diameter were reduced,thereby improving the tenderness.Both aging time and quality grade had a significant impact on muscle fiber characteristics (P<0.05).Various quality grades were ranked in decreasing order of tenderness:prime 1+ > 1st choice > 2nd choice > ordinary,indicating that beef tenderness can be improved by aging and the higher quality grade,the better tenderness.

  13. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  14. 饲喂湿态发酵蛋白饲料对肉牛育肥屠宰率影响的调查报告%Investigation on the Effects of Wet Fermented Protein Feed on the Fattening Slaughter Rate of Beef Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光勤; 董发明; 李旺; 孙志伟; 职承平; 吴佳

    2012-01-01

    Wet fermented protein feed of maize product with sealed package that was fermented by probiotic bacteria after yeast fermentation and alcohol extraction.Because it had good solubility,strong digestion and absorption abilities,rich and high-quality protein,the growth speed of beef cattle was fast when it was used in the fattening of beef cattle.The slaughter rate of 15 fattening cattle from 2 breeding farms that was fed with wet fermented protein feed was compared with that of 425 fattening cattle from 24 breeding farms that was mot fed with wet fermented protein feed.It was shown that the slaughter rate of beef cattle showed highly positive correlation with the slaughter weight(R2=0.952 8).And the slaughter rate of fattening cattle that was fed with wet fermented protein feed in the whole test period was 3.65 percentage points higher than that of fattening cattle that was fed with conventional feed,and thus the income for each cattle increased 640 yuan.Therefore,the economic benefit of the beef cattle's fattening was significantly enhanced by feeding with wet fermented protein feed.%湿态发酵蛋白饲料是玉米经酵母发酵、提取酒精后,又经益生菌发酵、密封包装的产品。因其可溶性好、易消化吸收、所含的蛋白质量多质优,因此,用于肉牛育肥时,肉牛生长速度较快。通过对饲喂湿态发酵蛋白饲料育肥牛(15头,来自2个饲养场)的屠宰率与饲喂常规饲料育肥牛的屠宰率(425头,来自24个饲养场)进行统计对比可知,肉牛的屠宰率与屠宰时的体重成高度正相关(R2=0.9528),并且全程饲喂湿态发酵蛋白饲料育肥牛的屠宰率比饲喂常规饲料育肥牛的屠宰率平均高3.65个百分点,这样1头牛将多收入640元。因此,饲喂湿态发酵蛋白饲料会使肉牛育肥经济效益显著提高。

  15. Unique cultural values of Madura cattle: is cross-breeding a threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, cross-breeding local cattle with European beef breeds is widely promoted to stimulate beef production. This cross-breeding is threatening local breeds that have often different functions, including cultural roles. This study analysed the cultural values of Madura cattle and the effects

  16. Application of non-parametric bootstrap methods to estimate confidence intervals for QTL location in a beef cattle QTL experimental population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongjoo, Kim; Davis, Scott K; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2002-06-01

    Empirical confidence intervals (CIs) for the estimated quantitative trait locus (QTL) location from selective and non-selective non-parametric bootstrap resampling methods were compared for a genome scan involving an Angus x Brahman reciprocal fullsib backcross population. Genetic maps, based on 357 microsatellite markers, were constructed for 29 chromosomes using CRI-MAP V2.4. Twelve growth, carcass composition and beef quality traits (n = 527-602) were analysed to detect QTLs utilizing (composite) interval mapping approaches. CIs were investigated for 28 likelihood ratio test statistic (LRT) profiles for the one QTL per chromosome model. The CIs from the non-selective bootstrap method were largest (87 7 cM average or 79-2% coverage of test chromosomes). The Selective II procedure produced the smallest CI size (42.3 cM average). However, CI sizes from the Selective II procedure were more variable than those produced by the two LOD drop method. CI ranges from the Selective II procedure were also asymmetrical (relative to the most likely QTL position) due to the bias caused by the tendency for the estimated QTL position to be at a marker position in the bootstrap samples and due to monotonicity and asymmetry of the LRT curve in the original sample. PMID:12220133

  17. Lipogenic activity of intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues from steers produced by different generations of angus sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, S G; Burney, N S; Wilson, J J; Savell, J W; Herring, A D; Lunt, D K; Baker, J F; Sanders, J O; Smith, S B

    1995-05-01

    Simmental and Hereford cows (n = 74) were inseminated with semen from purebred Angus bulls from the 1960s or with semen from purebred Angus bulls from the 1980s. The F1 calves provided the foundation for two investigations, one addressing growth and carcass characteristics, and another measuring the impact of sire generation on lipid metabolism and adiposity. Calves sired by the 1980s-type bulls had greater (P carcass weights. They also had larger (P .05) in any measure of fatness between groups (adjusted fat thickness, kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, or marbling scores), but yield grade was higher numerically (P carcass traits and adipose tissue metabolism. A subset of six steers for each generation type (from Simmental cows) were selected and samples were collected at slaughter for measurements in vitro. For both generation types, intramuscular (i.m.) adipocytes had lesser (P < .05) cell volumes than subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue. Correspondingly. i.m. adipose tissue exhibited lower (P < .05) rates of 14C-labeled acetate incorporation into lipids as measured immediately after slaughter. Intramuscular and s.c. adipocytes from 1980s-type steers were smaller (P < .05) than those from the 1960s-types steers, with correspondingly more cells per gram of tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7665362

  18. Research on Combining Heavy Grazing of Beef Cattle with Supplementary Pasture Seeds on Degenerated Grassland%利用肉牛重牧践踏结合补播牧草改良退化草地的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁福锦; 金显栋; 吴文荣; 李友; 薛世明; 杨国荣; 钟声; 黄必志

    2012-01-01

    Accepting the enlightenment of sheep night penning, relying on electric fence, making use of heavy grazing on trampling the original vegetation, combining pasture supplement seeding, several improving experiments were done on artificial degeneration pasture of mountain red earth areas in July. The crossbreeding beef cattle of BMY were the examination herds. Three experimenting repeats were done according to 7 trampling intensity on the different trampling periods. The trial plots were block designed randomly. The trials showed that notable regression relation (F >F0.05) existed between trampling intensity and supplementing pasture coverage, blocks and pasture output. When the trampling intensity was 2.77 t · h/m2, the pasture output is maximal. The two years' average yield of dry matter was 4 063 kg/hm2, significantly higher than other treatments (P <0.05). It is indicated that the methods of combining with heavy grazing trampling and supplement seeding can achieve the better improved results onartificial degeneration pasture of mountain red earth areas. The experience of the trial is worth using for reference in the small scale pasture improvement for the beef cattle raising farms.%受“绵羊宿营法”的启发,在山地红壤人工退化草地上,以电围栏为辅助,利用肉牛重牧践踏破坏原有植被,结合补播牧草对退化草地开展了改良试验.试验在7月份进行,供试牛群为BMY杂交牛,依据践踏时间的不同设7个践踏强度水平,3次重复,试验小区随机区组排列.结果表明:践踏强度与践踏后补播牧草的盖度、组分、产量间均存在显著的回归关系(F>F0.05).在践踏强度为2.77 t·h/m2时,牧草产量最高,两年的干物质平均产量为4 063 kg/hm2,显著高于其他处理的牧草产量(P<0.05).试验结果表明利用重牧践踏结合牧草补播能取得较好的改良效果,对于开展肉牛养殖的牧场,在小面积草地改良方面值得参考和借鉴.

  19. INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF BEEF CATTLE RECEIVING DIETS CONTAINING UREA IN DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS CONSUMO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DOS NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO DE BOVINOS DE CORTE RECEBENDO DIETAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE URÉIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, daily gain, feed conversion and the carcass yield in beef cattle receiving diets containing 0; 0.5; 1.0 e 1.5% of urea in total dry matter were evaluated. Twenty four crossed steers Holstein x Zebu (HxZ, castrated, with initial mean body weight of 290 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. Sorghum silage was used as roughage adopting relation roughage:concentrate of 70:30 in dry matter basis. In order to determine the fecal excretion, indigestible acid detergent fiber was used as a marker. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were not influenced (P>0.05 by the proportions of urea in the diets. For intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, mean values of 8.42 kg/day or 2.33% of BW and 64.52% were registered, respectively. Mean daily gain (1.05kg, feed conversion (8.07 and carcass yield (48.72% were not influenced (P>0.05 by the proportions of urea in the diets. Levels of 1.5% of urea in dry matter of total diet can be used in the preparation of diets for finishing beef cattle (HxZ, without compromising intake and digestibility of nutrients and the animal performance as well.

    KEY WORDS: Carcass yield, feed conversion, feedlot, sorghum silage.

    Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça em bovinos de corte recebendo dietas contendo 0%; 0,5%; 1,0% e 1,5% de uréia na matéria seca total. Foram utilizados 24 animais mestiços Holandês x Zebu (HxZ, castrados, com peso vivo inicial médio de 290 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Utilizou-se a silagem de sorgo como volumoso numa relação volumoso:concentrado de 70:30, com base na matéria seca. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível como indicador. O consumo e a

  20. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    OpenAIRE

    He Mao L; Mir Priya S; Okine Erasmus K; Napadajlo Helen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synth...