Angular velocity discrimination
Kaiser, Mary K.
1990-01-01
Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.
Van Essen, H.
2004-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to th...
Liebe, Wolfgang
1944-01-01
In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.
Fluidic angular velocity sensor
Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.
Essén, H
2003-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to three parts: center of mass, rotational, plus the remaining internal energy relative to an optimally translating and rotating frame.
Factors influencing perceived angular velocity
Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.
1991-01-01
Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).
The integration of angular velocity
Boyle, Michael
2016-01-01
A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical...
Turbodrill rod angular velocity indicator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogachev, O.K.; Belozerova, L.P.; Konenkov, A.K.
1984-01-01
This paper outlines shortcomings of existing types of telemetry systems which resulted in production of the IChT-1 unit. Unit is intended for control of angular velocity of serially produced turbodrill rods, during drilling of wells up to 5000 m deep, and bottomhole temperatures to 100C. The paper provides a detailed description and diagrams for installing this unit.
The integration of angular velocity
Boyle, Michael
2016-01-01
A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical problem of precessing black-hole binaries. It is shown that a straightforward solution directly using quaternions is most efficient and accurate, and that the norm of the quaternion is irrelevant. Integration of the generator of the rotation can also be made roughly as efficient as integration of the rotation. Both methods will typically be twice as efficient naive vector- or matrix-based methods. Implementation by means of standard general-purpose numerical integrators is stable and efficient, so that such problems can ...
Integrating rotation from angular velocity
Zupan, Eva; Saje, Miran
2011-01-01
Abstract The integration of the rotation from a given angular velocity is often required in practice. The present paper explores how the choice of the parametrization of rotation, when employed in conjuction with different numerical time-integration schemes, effects the accuracy and the computational efficiency. Three rotation parametrizations – the rotational vector, the Argyris tangential vector and the rotational quaternion – are combined with three different numerical time-integration ...
On the relation between angular momentum and angular velocity
Silva, J. P.; Tavares, J. M.
2007-01-01
Students of mechanics usually have difficulties when they learn about the rotation of a rigid body. These difficulties are rooted in the relation between angular momentum and angular velocity, because these vectors are not parallel, and we need in general to utilize a rotating frame of reference or a time dependent inertia tensor. We discuss a series of problems that introduce both difficulties.
Integrating rotation and angular velocity from curvature
Saje, Miran; Treven, Anita
2016-01-01
The problem of integrating the rotational vector from a given angular velocity vector is met in such diverse fields as the navigation, robotics, computer graphics, optical tracking and non-linear dynamics of flexible beams. For example, if the numerical formulation of non-linear dynamics of flexible beams is based on the interpolation of curvature, one needs to derive the rotation from the assumed curvature field. The relation between the angular velocity and the rotation is described by the ...
Angular velocity nonlinear observer from vector measurements
Magnis, Lionel; Petit, Nicolas
2015-01-01
The paper proposes a technique to estimate the angular velocity of a rigid body from vector measurements. Compared to the approaches presented in the literature, it does not use attitude information nor rate gyros as inputs. Instead, vector measurements are directly filtered through a nonlinear observer estimating the angular velocity. Convergence is established using a detailed analysis of the linear-time varying dynamics appearing in the estimation error equation. This equation stems from t...
Angular velocity: a new dimension in nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.
1984-08-09
Nuclei can be studied from their ground states (approx.O(h/2..pi..)) up to angular momenta of order 100 (h/2..pi..), where they are literally pulled apart by centrifugal effects. This range of angular momenta can be viewed as resulting from cranking the nucleus around a rotation axis, where the critical variable is the cranking velocity. The calculated response of nuclei to such an imposed angular velocity corresponds well with recent observations, and includes a rich and varied interplay of collective and single-particle phenomena.
Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum
Burr, A. F.
1974-01-01
Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)
A neural circuit for angular velocity computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel B Snider
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly-tunable wing-steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuro-mechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob.
A neural circuit for angular velocity computation.
Snider, Samuel B; Yuste, Rafael; Packer, Adam M
2010-01-01
In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly tunable wing steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuromechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob. PMID:21228902
Contactless Measurement of Angular Velocity using Circularly Polarized Antennas
Sipal, Vit; Narbudowicz, Adam; Ammann, Max
2014-01-01
An innovative method to measure the angular velocity using circularly polarized antennas is proposed. Due to the properties of circular polarization, the angular velocity is frequency modulated (FM) on a wireless carrier. This enables a low-cost precise continuous measurement of angular velocity using a standard FM demodulator. The hardware can be easily adapted for both high and low angular velocity values. The precise alignment angle between the antennas can be determined if the initial ant...
All-fiber sensor of angular velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, A.TS.; Vlasenko, O.A.; Dianov, E.M.; Diankov, G.L.; Zafirova, B.S.
1989-06-01
The paper reports the construction of an all-fiber optical sensor of angular velocity whose operation is based on the Sagnac effect in a fiber ring interferometer. An all-fiber system does not require the use of external discrete optical elements; division, polarization, and modulation functions are performed by the fiber waveguide itself. The fiber elements and sensor are constructed on the basis of slightly anisotropic fiber waveguides. The sensitivity of the device was 0.0077 deg/sq rt hr, while the zero drift was 0.5 deg/hr. 6 refs.
Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.
Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U
2010-06-01
After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus. PMID:20371254
Angular velocity and centripetal acceleration relationship
Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.; Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen
2014-05-01
During the last few years, the growing boom of smartphones has given rise to a considerable number of applications exploiting the functionality of the sensors incorporated in these devices. A sector that has unexpectedly taken advantage of the power of these tools is physics teaching, as reflected in several recent papers. In effect, the use of smartphones has been proposed in several physics experiments spanning mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, oscillations, and waves, among other subjects. Although mechanical experiments have received considerable attention, most of them are based on the use of the accelerometer. An aspect that has received less attention is the use of rotation sensors or gyroscopes. An additional advance in the use of these devices is given by the possibility of obtaining data using the accelerometer and the gyroscope simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to consider the relation between the centripetal acceleration and the angular velocity. Instead of using a formal laboratory setup, in this experiment a smartphone is attached to the floor of a merry-go-round, found in many playgrounds. Several experiments were performed with the roundabout rotating in both directions and with the smart-phone at different distances from the center. The coherence of the measurements is shown.
Angular velocity gradients in the solar convection zone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilman, P.A.; Foukal, P.V.
1979-05-01
We test the hypothesis that the weak influence of rotation upon solar supergranulation, resulting in fluid particles conserving their angular momentum while moving radially, is responsible for the outward decrease in angular velocity inferred from the difference between photospheric plasma and sunspot rotation rates. This test is performed using numerical integrations of a Boussinesq spherical convection model for a thin shell at small Taylor number (implying weak influence of rotation). We find that the convection does maintain an outward decrease in angular velocity, which approaches the limit implied by angular momentum conservation as the Rayleigh number or driving for convection is increased.By examining the energetics of the motion, we verify that the dominant process maintaining the calculated angular velocity profile against viscous diffusion is the inward transport of angular momentum by the convection. Axisymmetric meridional circulation plays virtually no role in this process. We further find there is no tendency for convection weakly influenced by rotation to form an equatorial acceleration. We argue from these and earlier calculations that the origin of the Sun's latitudinal gradient of angular velocity is deep in the convection zone. At these depths there may be a strong tendency for angular velocity to be constant on cylinders, implying a positive radial gradient of angular velocity. The latitude gradient is transmitted to the photosphere by supergranulation which locally produces the negative radial gradient in the top layers. We suggest from the rotation of various magnetic features that the transition from negative to positive radial angular velocity gradient occurs near the bottom of the supergranule layer. We argue that angular momentum conservation in radially moving fluid particles should produce a similar angular velocity profile in compressible convecting fluid layers.
Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion
Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan
2015-01-01
Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics…
Angular velocity nonlinear observer from single vector measurements
Magnis, Lionel; Petit, Nicolas
2015-01-01
The paper proposes a technique to estimate the angular velocity of a rigid body from single vector measurements. Compared to the approaches presented in the literature, it does not use attitude information nor rate gyros as inputs. Instead, vector measurements are directly filtered through a nonlinear observer estimating the angular velocity. Convergence is established using a detailed analysis of a linear-time varying dynamics appearing in the estimation error equation. This equation stems f...
Angular-velocity control approach for stance-control orthoses.
Lemaire, Edward D; Goudreau, Louis; Yakimovich, Terris; Kofman, Jonathan
2009-10-01
Currently, stance-control knee orthoses require external control mechanisms to control knee flexion during stance and allow free knee motion during the swing phase of gait. A new angular-velocity control approach that uses a rotary-hydraulic device to resist knee flexion when the knee angular velocity passes a preset threshold is presented. This angular-velocity approach for orthotic stance control is based on the premise that knee-flexion angular velocity during a knee-collapse event, such as a stumble or fall, is greater than that during walking. The new hydraulic knee-flexion control device does not require an external control mechanism to switch from free motion to stance control mode. Functional test results demonstrated that the hydraulic angular-velocity activated knee joint provided free knee motion during walking, engaged upon knee collapse, and supported body weight while the end-user recovered to a safe body position. The joint was tested to 51.6 Nm in single loading tests and passed 200,000 repeated loading cycles with a peak load of 88 Nm per cycle. The hydraulic, angular velocity activation approach has potential to improve safety and security for people with lower extremity weakness or when recovering from joint trauma. PMID:19497821
Measurement of angular velocity in the perception of rotation.
Barraza, José F; Grzywacz, Norberto M
2002-09-01
Humans are sensitive to the parameters of translational motion, namely, direction and speed. At the same time, people have special mechanisms to deal with more complex motions, such as rotations and expansions. One wonders whether people may also be sensitive to the parameters of these complex motions. Here, we report on a series of experiments that explore whether human subjects can use angular velocity to evaluate how fast a rotational motion is. In four experiments, subjects were required to perform a task of speed-of-rotation discrimination by comparing two annuli of different radii in a temporal 2AFC paradigm. Results showed that humans could rely on a sensitive measurement of angular velocity to perform this discrimination task. This was especially true when the quality of the rotational signal was high (given by the number of dots composing the annulus). When the signal quality decreased, a bias towards linear velocity of 5-80% appeared, suggesting the existence of separate mechanisms for angular and linear velocity. This bias was independent from the reference radius. Finally, we asked whether the measurement of angular velocity required a rigid rotation, that is, whether the visual system makes only one global estimate of angular velocity. For this purpose, a random-dot disk was built such that all the dots were rotating with the same tangential speed, irrespectively of radius. Results showed that subjects do not estimate a unique global angular velocity, but that they perceive a non-rigid disk, with angular velocity falling inversely proportionally with radius. PMID:12367744
Variation in Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration of a Particle in Rectilinear Motion
Mashood, K. K.; Singh, V. A.
2012-01-01
We discuss the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) associated with a particle in rectilinear motion with constant acceleration. The discussion was motivated by an observation that students and even teachers have difficulty in ascribing rotational motion concepts to a particle when the trajectory is a…
Alignment of angular velocity sensors for a vestibular prosthesis
DiGiovanna Jack; Carpaneto Jacopo; Micera Silvestro; Merfeld Daniel M
2012-01-01
Abstract Vestibular prosthetics transmit angular velocities to the nervous system via electrical stimulation. Head-fixed gyroscopes measure angular motion, but the gyroscope coordinate system will not be coincident with the sensory organs the prosthetic replaces. Here we show a simple calibration method to align gyroscope measurements with the anatomical coordinate system. We benchmarked the method with simulated movements and obtain proof-of-concept with one healthy subject. The method was r...
Alignment of angular velocity sensors for a vestibular prosthesis.
Digiovanna, Jack; Carpaneto, Jacopo; Micera, Silvestro; Merfeld, Daniel M
2012-01-01
Vestibular prosthetics transmit angular velocities to the nervous system via electrical stimulation. Head-fixed gyroscopes measure angular motion, but the gyroscope coordinate system will not be coincident with the sensory organs the prosthetic replaces. Here we show a simple calibration method to align gyroscope measurements with the anatomical coordinate system. We benchmarked the method with simulated movements and obtain proof-of-concept with one healthy subject. The method was robust to misalignment, required little data, and minimal processing. PMID:22329908
Relaxation of the Angular Velocity of Pulsars after Glitches
Sedrakian, D. M.; Hayrapetyan, M. V.; Baghdasaryan, D.
2014-03-01
The rotational dynamics of superfluid neutron stars is examined in order to study the relaxation of the angular velocity of pulsars after glitches. The motion of the neutron-proton vortex system is investigated taking the sphericity of the superfluid core and vortex pinning and depinning into account. A relaxation solution is obtained for the angular rotation velocity of pulsars after glitches. In order to compare this solution with observational data for the Vela pulsar, the inverse problem of finding the initial distribution of vortices immediately after a glitch is solved.
Angular velocity response of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal
Huang, Pin-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin
2013-06-01
A hybrid material of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal changed capacitance after spinning beyond threshold angular velocity. Once the centrifugal force of nanoparticles overcomes the attractive force between liquid crystals, the nanoparticles begin to move. The order of highly viscous liquid crystals is disturbed by the nanoparticles' penetrative movement, and the dielectric constant of the liquid crystal cell changes as a result. We found that the angular velocity response of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal with higher working temperature and nanoparticles' density provided higher sensitivity. The obtained results are important for the continuous improvement of liquid-crystal-based inertial sensors or nano-viscometers.
Relativistic Rotation in the Large Radius, Small Angular Velocity Limit
Klauber, Robert D.
2002-01-01
Relativistic rotation is considered in the limit of angular velocity approaching zero and radial distance approaching infinity, such that centrifugal acceleration is immeasurably small while tangent velocity remains close to the speed of light. For this case, the predictions of the traditional approach to relativistic rotation using local co-moving Lorentz frames are compared and contrasted with those of the differential geometry based non-time-orthogonal analysis approach. Different predicti...
The velocity and angular momentum of a free Dirac electron
Lin, Lu
1998-01-01
It is shown that, in Dirac theory, there is a spatial velocity of a free electron which commutes with the Hamiltonian, so it is a conserved quantity of the motion. Furthermore, there is a spatial orbital angular momentum which also commutes with the Hamiltonian and is a constant of the motion.
Angular Velocity Operator and Barnett-Pegg Formalism
Johal, R S
1997-01-01
We define a new operator within Barnett-Pegg formalism for phase angle. The physical predictions for this operator correspond to those expected of an angular velocity operator. Examples studied are particle on a circle with and without magnetic field and quantum harmonic oscillator.
Alignment of angular velocity sensors for a vestibular prosthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DiGiovanna Jack
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Vestibular prosthetics transmit angular velocities to the nervous system via electrical stimulation. Head-fixed gyroscopes measure angular motion, but the gyroscope coordinate system will not be coincident with the sensory organs the prosthetic replaces. Here we show a simple calibration method to align gyroscope measurements with the anatomical coordinate system. We benchmarked the method with simulated movements and obtain proof-of-concept with one healthy subject. The method was robust to misalignment, required little data, and minimal processing.
Wu, Tse-Huai; Lee, Taeyoung
2015-01-01
This paper studies a rigid body attitude tracking control problem with attitude measurements only, when angular velocity measurements are not available. An angular velocity observer is constructed such that the estimated angular velocity is guaranteed to converge to the true angular velocity asymptotically from almost all initial estimates. As it is developed directly on the special orthogonal group, it completely avoids singularities, complexities, or discontinuities caused by minimal attitu...
Global Exponential Angular Velocity Observer for Rigid Body Systems
Berkane, Soulaimane; Abdessameud, Abdelkader; Tayebi, Abdelhamid
2016-01-01
We present a uniformly globally exponentially stable hybrid angular velocity observer for rigid body systems designed directly on $SO(3)\\times\\mathbb{R}^3$. The global exponential stability result makes this observer a good candidate for a controller-observer combination with a guaranteed separation property. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid observer as a part of an attitude stabilization scheme.
Adaptive Neural Network Controller for Thermogenerator Angular Velocity Stabilization System
Horvat, Krunoslav; Šoić, Ines; Kuljača, Ognjen
2013-01-01
The paper presents an analytical and simulation approach for the selection of activation functions for the class of neural network controllers for ship’s thermogenerator angular velocity stabilization system. Such systems can be found in many ships. A Lyapunov-like stability analysis is performed in order to obtain a weight update law. A number of simulations were performed to find the best activation function using integral error criteria and statistical T-tests.
GYROLESS BALL: ESTIMATION OF ANGULAR VELOCITY WITHOUT GYROSCOPE
Magnis, L; Petit, Nicolas
2015-01-01
In [MP15a, MP15b], an algorithm is proposed to estimate the angular velocity of a rigid body using only vector measurements (i.e. measurements of unknown but constant directions). The cases of a single and two vectors measurements have been addressed using similarly structured state-observers. In this note, we report experiments conducted on one such rigid body, here a wood ball, which is equipped with a smartphone. The direction sensors of the smartphone (magnetometer and accelerometer) are ...
Black Hole Statistical Mechanics and The Angular Velocity Ensemble
Thomson, Mitchell; Dyer, Charles C.
2012-01-01
An new ensemble - the angular velocity ensemble - is derived using Jaynes' method of maximising entropy subject to prior information constraints. The relevance of the ensemble to black holes is motivated by a discussion of external parameters in statistical mechanics and their absence from the Hamiltonian of general relativity. It is shown how this leads to difficulty in deriving entropy as a function of state and recovering the first law of thermodynamics from the microcanonical and canonica...
Black Hole Statistical Mechanics and The Angular Velocity Ensemble
Thomson, Mitchell
2012-01-01
An new ensemble - the angular velocity ensemble - is derived using Jaynes' method of maximising entropy subject to prior information constraints. The relevance of the ensemble to black holes is motivated by a discussion of external parameters in statistical mechanics and their absence from the Hamiltonian of general relativity. It is shown how this leads to difficulty in deriving entropy as a function of state and recovering the first law of thermodynamics from the microcanonical and canonical ensembles applied to black holes.
Changing law of launching pitching angular velocity of rotating missile
Liu Guang; Xu Bin; Jiao Xiaojuan; Zhen Tiesheng
2014-01-01
In order to provide accurate launching pitching angular velocity (LPAV) for the exterior trajectory optimization design, multi-flexible body dynamics (MFBD) technology is presented to study the changing law of LPAV of the rotating missile based on spiral guideway. An MFBD virtual prototype model of the rotating missile launching system is built using multi-body dynamics modeling technology based on the built flexible body models of key components and the special force model. The built model i...
Relativistic Rotation in the Large Radius, Small Angular Velocity Limit
Klauber, R D
2002-01-01
Relativistic rotation is considered in the limit of angular velocity approaching zero and radial distance approaching infinity, such that centrifugal acceleration is immeasurably small while tangent velocity remains close to the speed of light. For this case, the predictions of the traditional approach to relativistic rotation using local co-moving Lorentz frames are compared and contrasted with those of the differential geometry based non-time-orthogonal analysis approach. Different predictions by the two approaches imply that only the non-time-orthogonal approach is valid.
Radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity
Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.
1988-01-01
The frequency splittings of intermediate-degree (3 to 170 deg) p-mode oscillations obtained from a 16-day subset of observations were analyzed. Results show evidence for both radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity. From 0.6 to 0.95 solar radii, the solar internal angular velocity increases systematically from 440 to 463 nHz, corresponding to a positive radial gradient of 66 nHz/solar radius for that portion of the solar interior. Analysis also indicates that the latitudinal differential rotation gradient which is seen at the solar surface persists throughout the convection zone, although there are indications that the differential rotation might disappear entirely below the base of the convection zone. The analysis was extended to include comparisons with additional observational studies and between earlier results and the results of additional inversions of several of the observational datasets. All the comparisons reinforce conclusions regarding the existence of radial and latitudinal gradients in the internal angular velocity.
Local computation of angular velocity in rotational visual motion.
Barraza, José F; Grzywacz, Norberto M
2003-07-01
Retinal images evolve continuously over time owing to self-motions and to movements in the world. Such an evolving image, also known as optic flow, if arising from natural scenes can be locally decomposed in a Bayesian manner into several elementary components, including translation, expansion, and rotation. To take advantage of this decomposition, the brain has neurons tuned to these types of motions. However, these neurons typically have large receptive fields, often spanning tens of degrees of visual angle. Can neurons such as these compute elementary optic-flow components sufficiently locally to achieve a reasonable decomposition? We show that human discrimination of angular velocity is local. Local discrimination of angular velocity requires an accurate estimation of the center of rotation within the optic-flow field. Inaccuracies in estimating the center of rotation result in a predictable systematic error when one is estimating local angular velocity. Our results show that humans make the predicted errors. We discuss how the brain might estimate the elementary components of the optic flow locally by using large receptive fields. PMID:12868642
Depth and latitude dependence of the solar internal angular velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rhodes, E.J. Jr.; Cacciani, A.; Korzennik, S.; Tomczyk, S.; Ulrich, R.K.; Woodard, M.F. (Southern California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA) JPL, Pasadena, CA (USA) Roma I Universita (Italy) California Univ., Los Angeles (USA))
1990-03-01
One of the design goals for the dedicated helioseismology observing state located at Mount Wilson Observatory was the measurement of the internal solar rotation using solar p-mode oscillations. In this paper, the first p-mode splittings obtained from Mount Wilson are reported and compared with those from several previously published studies. It is demonstrated that the present splittings agree quite well with composite frequency splittings obtained from the comparisons. The splittings suggest that the angular velocity in the solar equatorial plane is a function of depth below the photosphere. The latitudinal differential rotation pattern visible at the surface appears to persist at least throughout the solar convection zone. 43 refs.
Depth and latitude dependence of the solar internal angular velocity
Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.
1990-01-01
One of the design goals for the dedicated helioseismology observing state located at Mount Wilson Observatory was the measurement of the internal solar rotation using solar p-mode oscillations. In this paper, the first p-mode splittings obtained from Mount Wilson are reported and compared with those from several previously published studies. It is demonstrated that the present splittings agree quite well with composite frequency splittings obtained from the comparisons. The splittings suggest that the angular velocity in the solar equatorial plane is a function of depth below the photosphere. The latitudinal differential rotation pattern visible at the surface appears to persist at least throughout the solar convection zone.
ROTATING RINDLER SPACE TIME WITH CONSTANT ANGULAR VELOCITY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG YONG-CHENG
2000-01-01
A new space time metric is derived from Kerr metric if its mass and location approach to infinite in an appropriate way. The new space-time is an infinitesimal neighborhood nearby one of the two horizon poles of an infinite Kerr black hole. In other words, it is the second order infinitesimal neighborhood nearby one of the two horizon poles of a Kerr black hole. It is fiat and has event horizon and infinite red shift surface. We prove that it is a rotating Rindler space time with constant angular velocity.
Unsal, Yasin
2011-01-01
One of the subjects that is confusing and difficult for students to fully comprehend is the concept of angular velocity and linear velocity. It is the relationship between linear and angular velocity that students find difficult; most students understand linear motion in isolation. In this article, we detail the design, construction and…
Phase Resolved Angular Velocity Control of Cross Flow Turbines
Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian
2015-11-01
Cross flow turbines have a number of operational advantages for the conversion of kinetic energy in marine or fluvial currents, but they are often less efficient than axial flow devices. Here a control scheme is presented in which the angular velocity of a cross flow turbine with two straight blades is prescribed as a function of azimuthal blade position, altering the time-varying effective angle of attack. Flume experiments conducted with a scale model turbine show approximately an 80% increase in turbine efficiency versus optimal constant angular velocity and constant resistive torque control schemes. Torque, drag, and lateral forces on one- and two-bladed turbines are analyzed and interpreted with bubble flow visualization to develop a simple model that describes the hydrodynamics responsible for the observed increase in mean efficiency. Challenges associated with implementing this control scheme on commercial-scale devices are discussed. If solutions are found, the performance increase presented here may impact the future development of cross flow turbines.
Hay, James G.; Wilson, Barry D.
The angular momentum of a human body derived from both the angular velocity and angular displacement, utilizing cinematographic records has not been adequately assessed, prior to this study. Miller (1970) obtained the angular momentum but only during the airborne phase of activity. The method used by Ramey (1973) involved a force platform, but…
Recovering slant and angular velocity from a linear velocity field: modeling and psychophysics.
Domini, Fulvio; Caudek, Corrado
2003-07-01
The data from two experiments, both using stimuli simulating orthographically rotating surfaces, are presented, with the primary variable of interest being whether the magnitude of the simulated gradient was from expanding vs. contracting motion. One experiment asked observers to report the apparent slant of the rotating surface, using a gauge figure. The other experiment asked observers to report the angular velocity, using a comparison rotating sphere. The results from both experiments clearly show that observers are less sensitive to expanding than to contracting optic-flow fields. These results are well predicted by a probabilistic model which derives the orientation and angular velocity of the projected surface from the properties of the optic flow computed within an extended time window. PMID:12818345
Angular velocity sensor based on a ring laser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodloff, R.; Bentlage, H.
1984-02-21
An angular velocity sensor based on a ring laser, wherein at any given time beam components of oppositely directed wave trains can be decoupled, having photo-receivers for the decoupled beam components, and means for the generation of signals which correspond to intensity differences of the decoupled beam components. In accordance with the invention a photo-receiver is provided for each decoupled beam and detector means is provided to analyze the output signals from the photo-receivers both for amplitude and frequency. The detector means may consist of a subtractor, a pulse-former and a counter. A rotation-direction detector may also receive an output signal from the pulse-former and feed this as a plus or minus sign into the counter.
On the Extraction of Angular Velocity from Attitude Measurements
Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Harman, Richard R.; Thienel, Julie K.
2006-01-01
In this paper we research the extraction of the angular rate vector from attitude information without differentiation, in particular from quaternion measurements. We show that instead of using a Kalman filter of some kind, it is possible to obtain good rate estimates, suitable for spacecraft attitude control loop damping, using simple feedback loops, thereby eliminating the need for recurrent covariance computation performed when a Kalman filter is used. This considerably simplifies the computations required for rate estimation in gyro-less spacecraft. Some interesting qualities of the Kalman filter gain are explored, proven and utilized. We examine two kinds of feedback loops, one with varying gain that is proportional to the well known Q matrix, which is computed using the measured quaternion, and the other type of feedback loop is one with constant coefficients. The latter type includes two kinds; namely, a proportional feedback loop, and a proportional-integral feedback loop. The various schemes are examined through simulations and their performance is compared. It is shown that all schemes are adequate for extracting the angular velocity at an accuracy suitable for control loop damping.
Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation
Jian-Zhong Fan; Xia Liu; Guo-Xin Ni
2014-01-01
Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and latissimus dorsi (LD) bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque ...
Changing law of launching pitching angular velocity of rotating missile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Guang; Xu Bin; Jiao Xiaojuan; Zhen Tiesheng
2014-01-01
In order to provide accurate launching pitching angular velocity (LPAV) for the exterior trajectory optimization design, multi-flexible body dynamics (MFBD) technology is presented to study the changing law of LPAV of the rotating missile based on spiral guideway. An MFBD virtual prototype model of the rotating missile launching system is built using multi-body dynamics modeling technology based on the built flexible body models of key components and the special force model. The built model is verified with the frequency spectrum analysis. With the flexible body contact theory and nonlinear theory of MFBD technology, the research is conducted on the influence of a series of factors on LPAV, such as launching angle change, clearance between launching canister and missile, thrust change, thrust eccentricity and mass eccentricity, etc. Through this research, some useful values of the key design parameters which are difficult to be measured in physical tests are obtained. Finally, a simplified mathematical model of the changing law of LPAV is presented through fitting virtual test results using the linear regression method and verified by physical flight tests. The research results have important significance for the exterior trajectory optimization design.
Changing law of launching pitching angular velocity of rotating missile
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Guang
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In order to provide accurate launching pitching angular velocity (LPAV for the exterior trajectory optimization design, multi-flexible body dynamics (MFBD technology is presented to study the changing law of LPAV of the rotating missile based on spiral guideway. An MFBD virtual prototype model of the rotating missile launching system is built using multi-body dynamics modeling technology based on the built flexible body models of key components and the special force model. The built model is verified with the frequency spectrum analysis. With the flexible body contact theory and nonlinear theory of MFBD technology, the research is conducted on the influence of a series of factors on LPAV, such as launching angle change, clearance between launching canister and missile, thrust change, thrust eccentricity and mass eccentricity, etc. Through this research, some useful values of the key design parameters which are difficult to be measured in physical tests are obtained. Finally, a simplified mathematical model of the changing law of LPAV is presented through fitting virtual test results using the linear regression method and verified by physical flight tests. The research results have important significance for the exterior trajectory optimization design.
Form features provide a cue to the angular velocity of rotating objects
Blair, Christopher David; Goold, Jessica; Killebrew, Kyle; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul
2013-01-01
As an object rotates, each location on the object moves with an instantaneous linear velocity dependent upon its distance from the center of rotation, while the object as a whole rotates with a fixed angular velocity. Does the perceived rotational speed of an object correspond to its angular velocity, linear velocities, or some combination of the two? We had observers perform relative speed judgments of different sized objects, as changing the size of an object changes the l...
Task Space Angular Velocity Blending for Real-Time Trajectory Generation
Volpe, Richard A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
The invention is embodied in a method of controlling a robot manipulator moving toward a target frame F(sub 0) with a target velocity v(sub 0) including a linear target velocity v and an angular target velocity omega(sub 0) to smoothly and continuously divert the robot manipulator to a subsequent frame F(sub 1) by determining a global transition velocity v(sub 1), the global transition velocity including a linear transition velocity v(sub 1) and an angular transition velocity omega(sub 1), defining a blend time interval 2(tau)(sub 0) within which the global velocity of the robot manipulator is to be changed from a global target velocity v(sub 0) to the global transition velocity v(sub 1) and dividing the blend time interval 2(tau)(sub 0) into discrete time segments (delta)t. During each one of the discrete time segments delta t of the blend interval 2(tau)(sub 0), a blended global velocity v of the manipulator is computed as a blend of the global target velocity v(sub 0) and the global transition velocity v(sub 1), the blended global velocity v including a blended angular velocity omega and a blended linear velocity v, and then, the manipulator is rotated by an incremental rotation corresponding to an integration of the blended angular velocity omega over one discrete time segment (delta)t.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The possibility of the influence of adiabatic scalar perturbations on the angular velocity spectrum of extragalactic sources is considered. The multipole expansion coefficients of the angular velocity field in terms of vector spherical harmonics are calculated. We show that there is no contribution from adiabatic perturbations to the angular spectrum for a spatially flat Universe at the dusty stage, while there is a contribution only to the electric multiple coefficients at the stage of Λ-term domination. The cases of long-wavelength and short-wavelength perturbations are considered separately. The relationship between the multipole angular velocity spectrum and the primordial scalar perturbation spectrum is discussed.
Marakulin, A. O.; Sazhina, O. S.; Sazhin, M. V.
2012-07-01
The possibility of the influence of adiabatic scalar perturbations on the angular velocity spectrum of extragalactic sources is considered. The multipole expansion coefficients of the angular velocity field in terms of vector spherical harmonics are calculated. We show that there is no contribution from adiabatic perturbations to the angular spectrum for a spatially flat Universe at the dusty stage, while there is a contribution only to the electric multiple coefficients at the stage of Λ-term domination. The cases of long-wavelength and short-wavelength perturbations are considered separately. The relationship between the multipole angular velocity spectrum and the primordial scalar perturbation spectrum is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marakulin, A. O., E-mail: marakulin@physics.msu.ru; Sazhina, O. S.; Sazhin, M. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)
2012-07-15
The possibility of the influence of adiabatic scalar perturbations on the angular velocity spectrum of extragalactic sources is considered. The multipole expansion coefficients of the angular velocity field in terms of vector spherical harmonics are calculated. We show that there is no contribution from adiabatic perturbations to the angular spectrum for a spatially flat Universe at the dusty stage, while there is a contribution only to the electric multiple coefficients at the stage of {Lambda}-term domination. The cases of long-wavelength and short-wavelength perturbations are considered separately. The relationship between the multipole angular velocity spectrum and the primordial scalar perturbation spectrum is discussed.
Busurin, V. I.; Korobkov, V. V.; Htoo Lwin, Naing; Tuan, Phan Anh
2016-08-01
Theoretical and experimental analysis of quasi-linear conversion function of angular velocity and acceleration microoptoelectromechnical (MOEM) transducers based on optical tunneling effect (OTE) are conducted. Equivalent oscillating circuit is developed and dynamic characteristics of angular velocity and acceleration MOEM-transducers are investigated.
Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian-Zhong Fan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and latissimus dorsi (LD bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Conclusion. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity.
Rotational Doppler velocimetry to probe the angular velocity of spinning microparticles
Phillips, D.B.; Lee, M P; Speirits, F. C.; Barnett, S. M.; Simpson, S.H.; Lavery, M.P.J.; Padgett, M.J.; Gibson, G. M.
2014-01-01
Laser Doppler velocimetry is a technique used to measure linear velocity, ranging from that of exhaust gases to blood flow. A rotational analog of laser Doppler velocimetry was recently demonstrated, using a rotationally symmetric interference pattern to probe the angular velocity of a spinning object. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a diffraction-limited structured illumination pattern to measure the angular velocity of a micron-sized particle trapped and spinning at tens of Hz in an...
Edward D. Lemaire, PhD; Reza Samadi, MASc; Louis Goudreau, PEng; Jonathan Kofman, PhD, PEng
2013-01-01
A linear piston hydraulic angular-velocity-based control knee joint was designed for people with knee-extensor weakness to engage knee-flexion resistance when knee-flexion angular velocity reaches a preset threshold, such as during a stumble, but to otherwise allow free knee motion. During mechanical testing at the lowest angular-velocity threshold, the device engaged within 2 degrees knee flexion and resisted moment loads of over 150 Nm. The device completed 400,000 loading cycles without me...
Study of the mode of angular velocity damping for a spacecraft at non-standard situation
Davydov, A. A.; Sazonov, V. V.
2012-07-01
Non-standard situation on a spacecraft (Earth's satellite) is considered, when there are no measurements of the spacecraft's angular velocity component relative to one of its body axes. Angular velocity measurements are used in controlling spacecraft's attitude motion by means of flywheels. The arising problem is to study the operation of standard control algorithms in the absence of some necessary measurements. In this work this problem is solved for the algorithm ensuring the damping of spacecraft's angular velocity. Such a damping is shown to be possible not for all initial conditions of motion. In the general case one of two possible final modes is realized, each described by stable steady-state solutions of the equations of motion. In one of them, the spacecraft's angular velocity component relative to the axis, for which the measurements are absent, is nonzero. The estimates of the regions of attraction are obtained for these steady-state solutions by numerical calculations. A simple technique is suggested that allows one to eliminate the initial conditions of the angular velocity damping mode from the attraction region of an undesirable solution. Several realizations of this mode that have taken place are reconstructed. This reconstruction was carried out using approximations of telemetry values of the angular velocity components and the total angular momentum of flywheels, obtained at the non-standard situation, by solutions of the equations of spacecraft's rotational motion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brady, J.W. Jr.; Doll, J.D.; Thompson, D.L.
1978-10-15
The angular and velocity distributions for gas/solid-surface collisions are examined. It is shown that the envelope of the scattered phase-space distribution is quite sensitive to the gas/surface interaction potential.
Direction and movement angular velocity determining of cloudiness with panoramic images of the sky
Galileiskii, Viktor P.; Elizarov, Alexey I.; Kokarev, Dmitrii V.; Morozov, Aleksandr M.
2014-11-01
This article gives a short overview to method of direction determining and visible angular velocity of movement determining of cloudiness based on set of panoramic images of cloudy sky, obtained by "Fisheye" wide-angle lens.
Evidence for changes in the angular velocity of the surface regions of the sun and stars
1972-01-01
A round table discussion of problems of solar and stellar spindown and theory is presented. Observational evidence of the angular momentum of the solar wind is included, emphasizing changes in the angular velocity of the surface regions of the sun and stars.
Self-consistent anisotropic oscillator with cranked angular and vortex velocities
Rosensteel, G T
1992-01-01
The Kelvin circulation is the kinematical Hermitian observable that measures the true character of nuclear rotation. For the anisotropic oscillator, mean field solutions with fixed angular momentum and Kelvin circulation are derived in analytic form. The cranking Lagrange multipliers corresponding to the two constraints are the angular and vortex velocities. Self-consistent solutions are reported with a constraint to constant volume.
Modelling the maximum voluntary joint torque/angular velocity relationship in human movement.
Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; Wilson, Cassie
2006-01-01
The force exerted by a muscle is a function of the activation level and the maximum (tetanic) muscle force. In "maximum" voluntary knee extensions muscle activation is lower for eccentric muscle velocities than for concentric velocities. The aim of this study was to model this "differential activation" in order to calculate the maximum voluntary knee extensor torque as a function of knee angular velocity. Torque data were collected on two subjects during maximal eccentric-concentric knee extensions using an isovelocity dynamometer with crank angular velocities ranging from 50 to 450 degrees s(-1). The theoretical tetanic torque/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a four parameter function comprising two rectangular hyperbolas while the activation/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a three parameter function that rose from submaximal activation for eccentric velocities to full activation for high concentric velocities. The product of these two functions gave a seven parameter function which was fitted to the joint torque/angular velocity data, giving unbiased root mean square differences of 1.9% and 3.3% of the maximum torques achieved. Differential activation accounts for the non-hyperbolic behaviour of the torque/angular velocity data for low concentric velocities. The maximum voluntary knee extensor torque that can be exerted may be modelled accurately as the product of functions defining the maximum torque and the maximum voluntary activation level. Failure to include differential activation considerations when modelling maximal movements will lead to errors in the estimation of joint torque in the eccentric phase and low velocity concentric phase.
ANGULAR VELOCITY AND CORIOLIS EFFECT IN TIME-DEPENDENT QUANTUM MECHANICAL SU2 ROTATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN HONG-YI; SUN MING-ZHAI
2001-01-01
Starting from a time-dependent rotation U (t) in SU2 group element space, we derive its corresponding quantum mechanical dynamic Coriolis term and the relationship between U (t) and rotational angular velocity. Throughout our discussion, the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators is fully used, which has the advantage that the correspondence between the classical rotation and the quantum rotation is in a transparent fashion. A new angular-velocity formula is also derived.
Power law in the angular velocity distribution of a granular needle
Piasecki, J.; Viot, P.
2005-01-01
We show how inelastic collisions induce a power law with exponent -3 in the decay of the angular velocity distribution of anisotropic particles with sufficiently small moment of inertia. We investigate this question within the Boltzmann kinetic theory for an elongated granular particle immersed in a bath. The power law persists so long as the collisions are inelastic for a large range of angular velocities provided the mass ratio of the anisotropic particle and the bath particles remains smal...
Angular velocity of gravitational radiation from precessing binaries and the corotating frame
Boyle, Michael
2013-01-01
This paper defines an angular velocity for time-dependent functions on the sphere, and applies it to gravitational waveforms from compact binaries. Because it is geometrically meaningful and has a clear physical motivation, the angular velocity is uniquely useful in helping to solve an important---and largely ignored---problem in models of compact binaries: the inverse problem of deducing the physical parameters of a system from the gravitational waves alone. It is also used to define the cor...
Oegik Soegihardjo
2002-01-01
Displacement and angular velocity analysis for four bar mechanism, usually being done using graphical method. This method could be used easily for displacement and angular velocity analysis of four bar mechanism in one position. If the analysis being carried out is applied for the whole position of four bar mechanism in which the input link rotates 360o, graphical method will be inappropriate and time consuming. For this kind of situation, analytical method with the aid of computer becomes be...
Inertial Vector Based Attitude Stabilization of Rigid Body Without Angular Velocity Measurements
Benziane, L.; Benallegue, A.; Chitour, Y.; Tayebi, A.
2015-01-01
We address the problem of attitude stabilization of a rigid body, in which neither the angular velocity nor the instantaneous measurements of the attitude are used in the feedback, only body vector measurements are needed. The design of the controller is based on an angular velocity observer-like system, where a first order linear auxiliary system based directly on vector measurements is introduced. The introduction of gain matrices provides more tuning flexibility and better results compared...
Wiltshire, R. J.
2003-01-01
Einstein's equations for a Robertson-Walker fluid source endowed with rotation Einstein's equations for a Robertson-Walker fluid source endowed with rotation are presented upto and including quadratic terms in angular velocity parameter. A family of analytic solutions are obtained for the case in which the source angular velocity is purely time-dependent. A subclass of solutions is presented which merge smoothly to homogeneous rotating and non-rotating central sources. The particular solution...
Angular velocity estimation from measurement vectors of star tracker.
Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jun-cai; Yi, Wen-jun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Yang, Jian-kun; Li, Xiu-jian; Tan, Ji-chun
2012-06-01
In most spacecraft, there is a need to know the craft's angular rate. Approaches with least squares and an adaptive Kalman filter are proposed for estimating the angular rate directly from the star tracker measurements. In these approaches, only knowledge of the vector measurements and sampling interval is required. The designed adaptive Kalman filter can filter out noise without information of the dynamic model and inertia dyadic. To verify the proposed estimation approaches, simulations based on the orbit data of the challenging minisatellite payload (CHAMP) satellite and experimental tests with night-sky observation are performed. Both the simulations and experimental testing results have demonstrated that the proposed approach performs well in terms of accuracy, robustness, and performance. PMID:22695598
The validity of an assessment of maximum angular velocity of knee extension (KE) using a gyroscope.
Arai, Takeshi; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shiba, Yoshitaka; Omuro, Kazuya; Inaba, Yasuko; Kojima, Motonaga
2012-01-01
Although it is more important to assess the muscular power of the lower extremities than the strength, no simplified method for doing so has been found. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the assessment of the angular velocity of KE using a gyroscope. Participants included 105 community-dwelling older people (55 women, 50 men, age ± standard deviation (SD) 75±5.3). Pearson correlation coefficients and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between the angular velocity of KE and functional performance measurements, a self-efficacy scale and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The data from the gyroscope were significantly correlated with some physical functions such as muscle strength (r=0.304, p<0.01), and walking velocity (r=0.543, p<0.001). In addition, the joint angular velocity was significantly correlated with self-efficacy (r=0.219-0.329, p<0.01-0.05) and HRQOL (r=0.207-0.359, p<0.01-0.05). The absolute value of the correlation coefficient of angular velocity tended to be greater than that of the muscle strength for mobility functions such as walking velocity and the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test. In conclusion, it was found that the assessment of the angular velocity of the knee joint using a gyroscope could be a feasible and meaningful measurement in the geriatrics field. PMID:22100108
Role of electron-molecule angular scattering in shaping the electron-velocity distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunhardt, E.E.; Tzeng, Y.
1986-09-01
Five models has been studied to elucidate the role of electron-molecule angular scattering in shaping the velocity distribution for electrons in nitrogen at E/N values of 300 and 1500 Td. The angular dependence of the differential scattering cross sections for elastic and inelastic collisions has been observed to have significant effects on the shape of the velocity distribution, the rate coefficients, and the transport parameters. The velocity distribution is most sensitive to the angular dependence of elastic scattering. Moreover, for a given elastic differential scattering cross section, variations in the angular dependence of inelastic scattering cause significant changes in the distribution. The magnitude of these changes depends on the relative action of the inelastic collisions with respect to the elastic collisions for a given energy interval, i.e., whether the scattering by the inelastic collisions is isotropic, forward, or backward in a given energy interval.
Ma, Hongliang; Xu, Shijie
2014-09-01
This paper presents an improved real-time sequential filter (IRTSF) for magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity estimation of spacecraft during its attitude changing (including fast and large angular attitude maneuver, rapidly spinning or uncontrolled tumble). In this new magnetometer-only attitude determination technique, both attitude dynamics equation and first time derivative of measured magnetic field vector are directly leaded into filtering equations based on the traditional single vector attitude determination method of gyroless and real-time sequential filter (RTSF) of magnetometer-only attitude estimation. The process noise model of IRTSF includes attitude kinematics and dynamics equations, and its measurement model consists of magnetic field vector and its first time derivative. The observability of IRTSF for small or large angular velocity changing spacecraft is evaluated by an improved Lie-Differentiation, and the degrees of observability of IRTSF for different initial estimation errors are analyzed by the condition number and a solved covariance matrix. Numerical simulation results indicate that: (1) the attitude and angular velocity of spacecraft can be estimated with sufficient accuracy using IRTSF from magnetometer-only data; (2) compared with that of RTSF, the estimation accuracies and observability degrees of attitude and angular velocity using IRTSF from magnetometer-only data are both improved; and (3) universality: the IRTSF of magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity estimation is observable for any different initial state estimation error vector.
A New Open-Loop Fiber Optic Gyro Error Compensation Method Based on Angular Velocity Error Modeling
Yanshun Zhang; Yajing Guo; Chunyu Li; Yixin Wang; Zhanqing Wang
2015-01-01
With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG) model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage and temperature as the input variables and angular velocity error as the output variable. Firstly, the angular ve...
Form features provide a cue to the angular velocity of rotating objects.
Blair, Christopher David; Goold, Jessica; Killebrew, Kyle; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul
2014-02-01
As an object rotates, each location on the object moves with an instantaneous linear velocity, dependent upon its distance from the center of rotation, whereas the object as a whole rotates with a fixed angular velocity. Does the perceived rotational speed of an object correspond to its angular velocity, linear velocities, or some combination of the two? We had observers perform relative speed judgments of different-sized objects, as changing the size of an object changes the linear velocity of each location on the object's surface, while maintaining the object's angular velocity. We found that the larger a given object is, the faster it is perceived to rotate. However, the observed relationships between size and perceived speed cannot be accounted for simply by size-related changes in linear velocity. Further, the degree to which size influences perceived rotational speed depends on the shape of the object. Specifically, perceived rotational speeds of objects with corners or regions of high-contour curvature were less affected by size. The results suggest distinct contour features, such as corners or regions of high or discontinuous contour curvature, provide cues to the angular velocity of a rotating object. PMID:23750970
Relation between Press Intensity and Angular Velocity at a RPPP Mechanism
Şenay Baydaş; Bülent Karakaş
2011-01-01
We study some properties of RPPP. RPPP is discussed by rising with constant velocity along a given axis. The constant pressure which it stresses on a constant axis is defined by the increasing PPP. Some relations between the increase at PPP and angular velocity at R are analyzed and relations of correlation are investigated at Matlab.
Relation between Press Intensity and Angular Velocity at a RPPP Mechanism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Şenay Baydaş
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We study some properties of RPPP. RPPP is discussed by rising with constant velocity along a given axis. The constant pressure which it stresses on a constant axis is defined by the increasing PPP. Some relations between the increase at PPP and angular velocity at R are analyzed and relations of correlation are investigated at Matlab.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Peng-yue; XIE Shui-sheng; LI Hua-qing; YAN Ming; HUANG Guo-jie; CHENG Lei
2007-01-01
The continuous extrusion forming process for producing large section copper concave bus bar under different extrusion wheel angular velocities was studied by three-dimensional finite element technology based on software DEFORM-3D. The rigid-viscoplastic constitutive equation was employed in the model. The numerical simulation results show that the deformation body flow velocity in the die orifice increases gradually with the increase of the extrusion wheel angular velocity. But slippage between the rod and extrusion wheel occurs when the extrusion wheel angular velocity is high. The effective stress near the die orifice enhances gradually with increasing extrusion wheel angular velocity. High stress is concentrated in adjacent regions of the flash gap. The effective strain gradient is greater near the abutment than that near the die orifice. The effective strain of the product increases gradually with increasing extrusion wheel angular velocity. In the deformation process, the deformation body temperature increases remarkably due to friction and deformation. So the cooling is necessary in the region of the die and tools.
The angular velocity of the apsidal rotation in binary stars
Vasilev, B V
2004-01-01
The shape of a rotating star consisting of equilibrium plasma is considered. The velocity of apsidal rotation of close binary stars (periastron rotation) which depends on the star shapes is calculated. The obtained estimations are in a good agreement with the observation data of the apsidal motion in binary systems.
Angular velocity spread of relativistic photoelectrons induced by excimer laser irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawai, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Toyoda, K.
1984-12-15
The angular velocity spread of relativistic photoelectrons induced by a pulsed excimer laser was measured. The energy, the current density, and the pulse duration of the accelerated photoelectron were 0.34 MeV, 0.5 A/cm/sup 2/, and 20 ns, respectively. (The method of measurement is based on measuring Larmor radius which corresponds to the transverse component of the electron velocity.)= The angular velocity spread ..beta../sub perpendicular//..beta../sub parallel/ was found to be less than 8 x 10/sup -3/, which means that the energy component due to ..beta../sub perpendicular/ was as small as < or approx. =17 eV.
Martin, Caroline; Kulpa, Richard; Delamarche, Paul; Bideau, Benoit
2013-03-01
The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships between segmental angular momentum and ball velocity between the following events: ball toss, maximal elbow flexion (MEF), racket lowest point (RLP), maximal shoulder external rotation (MER), and ball impact (BI). Ten tennis players performed serves recorded with a real-time motion capture. Mean angular momentums of the trunk, upper arm, forearm, and the hand-racket were calculated. The anteroposterior axis angular momentum of the trunk was significantly related with ball velocity during the MEF-RLP, RLP-MER, and MER-BI phases. The strongest relationships between the transverse-axis angular momentums and ball velocity followed a proximal-to-distal timing sequence that allows the transfer of angular momentum from the trunk (MEF-RLP and RLP-MER phases) to the upper arm (RLP-MER phase), forearm (RLP-MER and MER-BI phases), and the hand-racket (MER-BI phase). Since sequence is crucial for ball velocity, players should increase angular momentums of the trunk during MEF-MER, upper arm during RLP-MER, forearm during RLP-BI, and the hand-racket during MER-BI. PMID:23724603
Satellite angular velocity estimation based on star images and optical flow techniques.
Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Accardo, Domenico; Grassi, Michele
2013-01-01
An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares method are then used to estimate the angular velocity vector components in the sensor rotating frame. A theoretical error budget is developed to estimate the expected angular rate accuracy as a function of camera parameters and star distribution in the field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is tested by using star field scenes generated by a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility and acquired by a commercial-off-the shelf camera sensor. Simulated cases comprise rotations at different rates. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with theoretical estimates. In particular, very accurate angular velocity estimates are generated at lower slew rates, while in all cases the achievable accuracy in the estimation of the angular velocity component along boresight is about one order of magnitude worse than the other two components. PMID:24072023
Satellite Angular Velocity Estimation Based on Star Images and Optical Flow Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giancarmine Fasano
2013-09-01
Full Text Available An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares method are then used to estimate the angular velocity vector components in the sensor rotating frame. A theoretical error budget is developed to estimate the expected angular rate accuracy as a function of camera parameters and star distribution in the field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is tested by using star field scenes generated by a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility and acquired by a commercial-off-the shelf camera sensor. Simulated cases comprise rotations at different rates. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with theoretical estimates. In particular, very accurate angular velocity estimates are generated at lower slew rates, while in all cases the achievable accuracy in the estimation of the angular velocity component along boresight is about one order of magnitude worse than the other two components.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edward D. Lemaire, PhD
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A linear piston hydraulic angular-velocity-based control knee joint was designed for people with knee-extensor weakness to engage knee-flexion resistance when knee-flexion angular velocity reaches a preset threshold, such as during a stumble, but to otherwise allow free knee motion. During mechanical testing at the lowest angular-velocity threshold, the device engaged within 2 degrees knee flexion and resisted moment loads of over 150 Nm. The device completed 400,000 loading cycles without mechanical failure or wear that would affect function. Gait patterns of nondisabled participants were similar to normal at walking speeds that produced below-threshold knee angular velocities. Fast walking speeds, employed purposely to attain the angular-velocity threshold and cause knee-flexion resistance, reduced maximum knee flexion by approximately 25 degrees but did not lead to unsafe gait patterns in foot ground clearance during swing. In knee collapse tests, the device successfully engaged knee-flexion resistance and stopped knee flexion with peak knee moments of up to 235.6 Nm. The outcomes from this study support the potential for the linear piston hydraulic knee joint in knee and knee-ankle-foot orthoses for people with lower-limb weakness.
Mechanisms underlying the perceived angular velocity of a rigidly rotating object.
Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Tse, P U
2006-09-01
The perceived angular velocity of an ellipse undergoing a constant rate of rotation will vary as its aspect ratio is changed. Specifically, a "fat" ellipse with a low aspect ratio will in general be perceived to rotate more slowly than a "thin" ellipse with a higher aspect ratio. Here we investigate this illusory underestimation of angular velocity in the domain where ellipses appear to be rotating rigidly. We characterize the relationship between aspect ratio and perceived angular velocity under luminance and non-luminance-defined conditions. The data are consistent with two hypotheses concerning the construction of rotational motion percepts. The first hypothesis is that perceived angular velocity is determined by low-level component-motion (i.e., motion-energy) signals computed along the ellipse's contour. The second hypothesis is that relative maxima of positive contour curvature are treated as non-component, form-based "trackable features" (TFs) that contribute to the visual system's construction of the motion percept. Our data suggest that perceived angular velocity is driven largely by component signals, but is modulated by the motion signals of trackable features, such as corners and regions of high contour curvature. PMID:16647733
Lemaire, Edward D; Samadi, Reza; Goudreau, Louis; Kofman, Jonathan
2013-01-01
A linear piston hydraulic angular-velocity-based control knee joint was designed for people with knee-extensor weakness to engage knee-flexion resistance when knee-flexion angular velocity reaches a preset threshold, such as during a stumble, but to otherwise allow free knee motion. During mechanical testing at the lowest angular-velocity threshold, the device engaged within 2 degrees knee flexion and resisted moment loads of over 150 Nm. The device completed 400,000 loading cycles without mechanical failure or wear that would affect function. Gait patterns of nondisabled participants were similar to normal at walking speeds that produced below-threshold knee angular velocities. Fast walking speeds, employed purposely to attain the angular-velocity threshold and cause knee-flexion resistance, reduced maximum knee flexion by approximately 25 degrees but did not lead to unsafe gait patterns in foot ground clearance during swing. In knee collapse tests, the device successfully engaged knee-flexion resistance and stopped knee flexion with peak knee moments of up to 235.6 Nm. The outcomes from this study support the potential for the linear piston hydraulic knee joint in knee and knee-ankle-foot orthoses for people with lower-limb weakness. PMID:23516082
Satellite Angular Velocity Estimation Based on Star Images and Optical Flow Techniques
Giancarmine Fasano; Giancarlo Rufino; Domenico Accardo; Michele Grassi
2013-01-01
An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares...
Ultrashort Laguerre-Gaussian pulses with angular and group velocity dispersion compensation.
Zeylikovich, I; Sztul, H I; Kartazaev, V; Le, T; Alfano, R R
2007-07-15
Coherent optical vortices are generated from ultrashort 6.4 fs pulses. Our results demonstrate angular dispersion compensation of ultrashort 6.4 fs Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) pulses as well as what is believed to be the first direct autocorrelation measurement of 80 fs LG amplified pulses. A reflective-mirror-based 4f-compressor is proposed to compensate the angular and group velocity dispersion of the ultrashort LG pulses. PMID:17632631
Wiltshire, R J
2003-01-01
Einstein's equations for a Robertson-Walker fluid source endowed with rotation Einstein's equations for a Robertson-Walker fluid source endowed with rotation are presented upto and including quadratic terms in angular velocity parameter. A family of analytic solutions are obtained for the case in which the source angular velocity is purely time-dependent. A subclass of solutions is presented which merge smoothly to homogeneous rotating and non-rotating central sources. The particular solution for dust endowed with rotation is presented. In all cases explicit expressions, depending sinusoidally on polar angle, are given for the density and internal supporting pressure of the rotating source. In addition to the non-zero axial velocity of the fluid particles it is shown that there is also a radial component of velocity which vanishes only at the poles. The velocity four-vector has a zero component between poles.
Limiting angular velocity of realistic relativistic neutron star models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Div. of Nuclear Science)
1991-05-01
The Keplerian velocity as well as those frequencies at which instability against gravitational radiation-reaction sets in are calculated for rotating neutron star models of gravitational mass 1.5 M{sub sun}. The investigation is based on four different, realistic neutron star matter equations of state. Our results indicate that the gravitational radiation instability sets in well below (i.e., 63-71% of) the Keplerian frequency, and that young neutron stars are limited to rotational periods greater than about 1 ms. In young and therefore hot (T {approx equal} 10{sup 10} K) neutron stars the m = 5 (+- 1) modes and in old stars after being spun up and reheated by mass accretion, the m = 4 and/or m = 3 modes may set the limit on stable rotation. (orig.).
Domini, F.; Caudek, C.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)
1997-01-01
Accuracy in discriminating rigid from nonrigid motion was investigated for orthographic projections of three-dimension rotating objects. In 3 experiments the hypothesis that magnitudes of angular velocity are misperceived in the kinetic depth effect was tested, and in 4 other experiments the hypothesis that misperceiving angular velocities leads to misperceiving rigidity was tested. The principal findings were (a) the magnitude of perceived angular velocity is derived heuristically as a function of a property of the first-order optic flow called deformation and (b) perceptual performance in discriminating rigid from nonrigid motion is accurate in cases when the variability of the deformations of the individual triplets of points of the stimulus displays favors this interpretation and not accurate in other cases.
Single-axis gyroscopic motion with uncertain angular velocity about spin axis
Singh, S. N.
1977-01-01
A differential game approach is presented for studying the response of a gyro by treating the controlled angular velocity about the input axis as the evader, and the bounded but uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis as the pursuer. When the uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis desires to force the gyro to saturation a differential game problem with two terminal surfaces results, whereas when the evader desires to attain the equilibrium state the usual game with single terminal manifold arises. A barrier, delineating the capture zone (CZ) in which the gyro can attain saturation and the escape zone (EZ) in which the evader avoids saturation is obtained. The CZ is further delineated into two subregions such that the states in each subregion can be forced on a definite target manifold. The application of the game theoretic approach to Control Moment Gyro is briefly discussed.
A Missile-Borne Angular Velocity Sensor Based on Triaxial Electromagnetic Induction Coils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Li
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Aiming to solve the problem of the limited measuring range for angular motion parameters of high-speed rotating projectiles in the field of guidance and control, a self-adaptive measurement method for angular motion parameters based on the electromagnetic induction principle is proposed. First, a framework with type bent “I-shape” is used to design triaxial coils in a mutually orthogonal way. Under the condition of high rotational speed of a projectile, the induction signal of the projectile moving across a geomagnetic field is acquired by using coils. Second, the frequency of the pulse signal is adjusted self-adaptively. Angular velocity and angular displacement are calculated in the form of periodic pulse counting and pulse accumulation, respectively. Finally, on the basis of that principle prototype of the sensor is researched and developed, performance of measuring angular motion parameters are tested on the sensor by semi-physical and physical simulation experiments, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the sensor has a wide measuring range of angular velocity from 1 rps to 100 rps with a measurement error of less than 0.3%, and the angular displacement measurement error is lower than 0.2°. The proposed method satisfies measurement requirements for high-speed rotating projectiles with an extremely high dynamic range of rotational speed and high precision, and has definite value to engineering applications in the fields of attitude determination and geomagnetic navigation.
Joint Angular Velocity in Spastic Gait and the Influence of Muscle-Tendon Lengthening*
GRANATA, KEVIN P.; ABEL, MARK F.; DAMIANO, DIANE L.
2006-01-01
Background Joint angular velocity (the rate of flexion and extension of a joint) is related to the dynamics of muscle activation and force generation during walking. Therefore, the goal of this research was to examine the joint angular velocity in normal and spastic gait and changes resulting from muscle-tendon lengthening (recession and tenotomy) in patients who have spastic cerebral palsy. Methods The gait patterns of forty patients who had been diagnosed with spastic cerebral palsy (mean age, 8.3 years; range, 3.7 to 14.8 years) and of seventy-three age-matched, normally developing subjects were evaluated with three-dimensional motion analysis and electromyography. The patients who had cerebral palsy were evaluated before muscle-tendon lengthening and nine months after treatment. Results The gait patterns of the patients who had cerebral palsy were characterized by increased flexion of the knee in the stance phase, premature plantar flexion of the ankle, and reduced joint angular velocities compared with the patterns of the normally developing subjects. Even though muscle-tendon lengthening altered sagittal joint angles in gait, the joint angular velocities were generally unchanged at the hip and knee. Only the ankle demonstrated modified angular velocities, including reduced dorsiflexion velocity at foot-strike and improved dorsiflexion velocity through midstance, after treatment. Electromyographic changes included reduced amplitude of the gastrocnemius-soleus during the loading phase and decreased knee coactivity (the ratio of quadriceps and hamstring activation) at toe-off. Principal component analyses showed that, compared with joint-angle data, joint angular velocity was better able to discriminate between the gait patterns of the normal and cerebral palsy groups. Conclusions This study showed that muscle-tendon lengthening corrects biomechanical alignment as reflected by changes in sagittal joint angles. However, joint angular velocity and
Gasflow style level posture sensor and angular velocity gyroscope assembled inertial sensor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The compensational loop consisting of a gasflow style angular velocity gyroscope and gasflow level posture sensor is proposed to improve the signal of gasflow style tilt. This compensational loop could remove acceleration interfere from the signal of tilt. This assembled gasflow type inertial sensor not only measures static state angular, but also restrains the acceleration which interferes the output signal of level posture sensor in dynamic situations. Therefore, the precision of outputs signal increases greatly. Moreover, the output signal includes the angle velocity signal.
Angular and velocity distributions of NO scattered from the Pt(111) crystal surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guthrie, W.L.; Lin, T.; Ceyer, S.T.; Somorjai, G.A.
1982-06-15
The angular and velocity distributions of NO scattered from the Pt(111) surface have been measured for a crystal temperature range of 475--1200 K and for an incident beam energy range of 265--1390 K. Both angular and velocity distributions confirm the coexistence of inelastic and trapping-desorption scattering processes. For beams with a kinetic energy of
Resolving Two Dimensional Angular Velocity within a Rotary Tumbler
Helminiak, Nathaniel; Helminiak, David; Cariapa, Vikram; Borg, John
2015-11-01
In this study, a horizontally oriented cylindrical tumbler, filled at variable depth with cylindrical media, was rotated at various constant speeds. A monoplane layer of media was photographed with a high-speed camera and images were post processed with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) algorithms in order to resolve both the translational and rotational flow fields. Although the translational velocity fields have been well characterized, contemporary resources enabled the ability to expand upon and refine data regarding rotational characteristics of particles within a rotary tumbler. The results indicate that particles rotate according to intermittent no-slip interactions between the particles and solid body rotation. Particles within the bed, not confined to solid body rotation, exhibited behavior indicative of gearing between particles; each reacting to the tangential component of contact forming rotation chains. Furthermore, it was observed that solid body interactions corresponded to areas of confined motion, as areas of high interaction dissuaded no-slip rotation, while areas of developing flow tended towards no-slip rotation. Special thanks to: NASA Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium Program as well as Marquette University OPUS College of Engineering.
Effect of postural changes on 3D joint angular velocity during starting block phase.
Slawinski, Jean; Dumas, Raphaël; Cheze, Laurence; Ontanon, Guy; Miller, Christian; Mazure-Bonnefoy, Alice
2013-01-01
Few studies have focused on the effect of posture during sprint start. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of the modification of horizontal distance between the blocks during sprint start on three dimensional (3D) joint angular velocity. Nine trained sprinters started using three different starting positions (bunched, medium and elongated). They were equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, and an opto-electronic Motion Analysis system was used to collect the 3D marker trajectories. During the pushing phase on the blocks, norm of the joint angular velocity (NJAV), 3D Euler angular velocity (EAV) and pushing time on the blocks were calculated. The results demonstrated that the decrease of the block spacing induces an opposite effect on the angular velocity of joints of the lower and the upper limbs. The NJAV of the upper limbs is greater in the bunched start, whereas the NJAV of the lower limbs is smaller. The modifications of NJAV were due to a combination of the movement of the joints in the different degrees of freedom. The medium start seems to be the best compromise because it leads, in a short pushing time, to a combination of optimal joint velocities for upper and lower segments. PMID:23062070
A critical regularity condition on the angular velocity of axially symmetric Navier-Stokes equations
Zhang, Qi S.
2015-01-01
Let $v$ be the velocity of Leray-Hopf solutions to the axially symmetric three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown that $v$ is regular if the angular velocity $v_\\theta$ satisfies an integral condition which is critical under the standard scaling. This condition allows functions satisfying \\[ |v_\\theta(x, t)| \\le \\frac{C}{r |\\ln r|^{2+\\epsilon}}, \\quad r
Nonlinear free vibrations of centrifugally stiffened uniform beams at high angular velocity
Bekhoucha, F.; Rechak, S.; Duigou, L.; Cadou, J. M.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we study the bending nonlinear free vibrations of a centrifugally stiffened beam with uniform cross-section and constant angular velocity. The nonlinear intrinsic equations of motion used here are geometrically exact and specific to beams exhibiting large amplitude displacements and rotations associated with small strains. Based on the Timoshenko beam model, these equations are derived from Hamilton's principle, in which the warping is considered. All coupling terms are considered including Coriolis terms. The studied beams are isotropic with clamped-free boundary conditions. By combining the Galerkin method with the harmonic balance method, the equations of motion are converted into a quadratic function treated with a continuation method: the Asymptotic Numerical Method, where the generalized displacement vector is presented as a series expansion. While analysing the effect of the angular velocity, we determine the amplitude versus frequency variations which are plotted as backbone curves. Considering the first lagging and flapping modes, the changes in beam behaviour from hardening to softening are investigated and identified as a function of the angular velocity and the effect of shear. Particular attention is paid to high angular velocities for both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams and the natural frequencies so obtained are compared with the results available in the literature.
Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio
2015-01-01
In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms.
Busurin, V. I.; Lwin, Naing Htoo; Tuan, Pham Anh
In this paper the possibility of microopto-electromechanical (MOEM) angular velocity and acceleration transducers based on optical tunneling effect (OTE) is considered. The generalized model of MOEM transducers with various types of sensing elements (SE) is developed, transfer functions are investigated, and the errors with various design parameters of transducers are estimated.
Reyhanoglu, Mahmut
1996-01-01
There has been much interest over the past decade in the problem of asymptotic stabilization of the angular velocity of a rigid body with only two torque inputs. The smooth feedback laws proposed in the literature provide asymptotic stability with nonexponential convergence rates. This paper propose
State-selective velocity and angular distributions of NO molecules scattered from a graphite surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hager, J.; Shen, Y.R.; Walther, H.
1985-03-01
Laser ionization was used to measure the state-selective angular and velocity distributions of NO molecules scattered from a graphite surface. The data showed that at sufficiently low surface temperatures, the scattered molecules were generally composed of quasispecular reflected part and a diffusive scattered part with different translational and rotational behavior.
Reyhanoglu, Mahmut
1996-01-01
There has been much interest over the past decade in the problem of asymptotic stabilization of the angular velocity of a rigid body with only two torque inputs. The smooth feedback laws proposed in the literature provide asymptotic stability with nonexponential convergence rates. This paper proposes discontinuous feedback laws to achieve asymptotic stability with exponential convergence rates
Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio
2015-01-01
In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms. PMID:26393606
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilaria Pasciuto
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms.
Habituation of self-motion perception following unidirectional angular velocity steps.
Clément, Gilles; Terlevic, Robert
2016-09-01
We investigated whether the perceived angular velocity following velocity steps of 80°/s in the dark decreased with the repetition of the stimulation in the same direction. The perceptual response to velocity steps in the opposite direction was also compared before and after this unidirectional habituation training. Participants indicated their perceived angular velocity by clicking on a wireless mouse every time they felt that they had rotated by 90°. The prehabituation perceptual response decayed exponentially with a time constant of 23.9 s. After 100 velocity steps in the same direction, this time constant was 12.9 s. The time constant after velocity steps in the opposite direction was 13.4 s, indicating that the habituation of the sensation of rotation is not direction specific. The peak velocity of the perceptual response was not affected by the habituation training. The differences between the habituation characteristics of self-motion perception and eye movements confirm that different velocity storage mechanisms mediate ocular and perceptual responses. PMID:27391426
Ebersole, K T; Housh, T J; Weir, J P; Johnson, G O; Evetovich, T K; Smith, D B
2000-01-01
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of leg angular velocity on the mean power frequency (MPF) and amplitude of the mechanomyographic (MMG) signal during maximal concentric (CON) isokinetic muscle actions. Sixteen adult subjects performed maximal CON leg extensions on a calibrated Cybex 6000 dynamometer at leg angular velocities of 60 and 300 degrees.s-1. MMG was detected by a piezoelectric crystal contact sensor placed over the mid-portion of the vastus lateralis muscle. The results indicated a significant (p 0.05) in MMG MPF. These findings did not support our hypothesis that increases across velocity in MMG amplitude were due to decreases in muscle stiffness as a result of a shift in the contribution of slow and fast-twitch muscle fibers to PT production. Future research should examine the potential influence of actin-myosin cycling rate as well as limb movement on the MPF and amplitude of the MMG signal. PMID:10782358
Rotational Doppler velocimetry to probe the angular velocity of spinning microparticles
Phillips, D. B.; Lee, M. P.; Speirits, F. C.; Barnett, S. M.; Simpson, S. H.; Lavery, M. P. J.; Padgett, M. J.; Gibson, G. M.
2014-07-01
Laser Doppler velocimetry is a technique used to measure linear velocity, ranging from that of exhaust gases to blood flow. A rotational analog of laser Doppler velocimetry was recently demonstrated, using a rotationally symmetric interference pattern to probe the angular velocity of a spinning object. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a diffraction-limited structured illumination pattern to measure the angular velocity of a micron-sized particle trapped and spinning at tens of Hz in an optical trap. The technique requires no detailed knowledge of the shape of the particle, or the distribution of scatterers within it, and is independent of the particle's chirality, transparency, and birefringence. The particle is also subjected to Brownian motion, which complicates the signal by affecting the rotation rate and the rotation axis. By careful consideration of these influences, we show how the measurement is robust to both, representing a technique with which to probe the rotational motion of microscale particles.
Denis, Romain; Wilkinson, Jennifer; De Vito, Giuseppe
2011-09-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes in angular velocity would alter vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) oxygenation status during maximal isokinetic knee extension exercises. Eleven recreationally active male participants randomly performed ten maximal knee extensions at 30, 60, 120 and 240° s(-1). Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and total haemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) were acquired from the VL and RF muscles by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath-by-breath pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO(2p)) was recorded throughout the tests. Peak torque and VO(2p) significantly decreased as a function of velocity (P<0·05). Interestingly, RF and VL TOI significantly increased as a function of velocity (P<0·05), whereas [tHb] significantly decreased as a function of velocity (P<0·05). A greater number of muscle fibre recruited at slow velocity, where the torque and VO(2p) were the highest, might explain the lower VL and RF TOI observed herein. Furthermore, the increase in local blood flow (suggested by [tHb] changes) during isokinetic knee extension exercises performed at slow angular velocity might have been induced by a higher intramuscular pressure during the contraction phases as well as a greater microcirculatory vasodilatation during relaxation phases. Implementing slow-velocity isokinetic exercises in rehabilitation or other training programmes could delay the short-term anoxia generated by such exercises and result in muscle metabolism enhancement. PMID:21771253
Wang, Yong Tai; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos Dino; Xu, Dali
2008-08-01
The purposes of this study were to examine the consistency of wheelchair athletes' upper-limb kinematics in consecutive propulsive cycles and to investigate the relationship between the maximum angular velocities of the upper arm and forearm and the consistency of the upper-limb kinematical pattern. Eleven elite international wheelchair racers propelled their own chairs on a roller while performing maximum speeds during wheelchair propulsion. A Qualisys motion analysis system was used to film the wheelchair propulsive cycles. Six reflective markers placed on the right shoulder, elbow, wrist joints, metacarpal, wheel axis, and wheel were automatically digitized. The deviations in cycle time, upper-arm and forearm angles, and angular velocities among these propulsive cycles were analyzed. The results demonstrated that in the consecutive cycles of wheelchair propulsion the increased maximum angular velocity may lead to increased variability in the upper-limb angular kinematics. It is speculated that this increased variability may be important for the distribution of load on different upper-extremity muscles to avoid the fatigue during wheelchair racing. PMID:18843158
Relation between the critical spin and angular velocity of a nucleus immediately after backbending
Nosov, V. G.; Kamchatnov, A. M.
2004-01-01
In nonspherical nuclei at $J = J_c + 0$ the relationship between the angular momentum and angular velocity immediately after backbending is the same as in the limiting case $J - J_c\\to\\infty$. This indicates that there is a unique type of cancellation of the deviations from a rigid-body moment of inertia in the upper phase $J>J_c$. An integral relationship is found which expresses this cancellation quantitatively. This formula permits $J_c$ to be calculated for the rotational bands of the eve...
Angular velocity of a sphere in a simple shear at small Reynolds number
Meibohm, J.; Candelier, F.; Rosén, T.; Einarsson, J.; Lundell, F.; Mehlig, B.
2016-01-01
We analyse the angular dynamics of a small neutrally buoyant sphere in a simple shear. When the effect of fluid inertia is negligible the sphere rotates at half the fluid vorticity. We compute how weak fluid inertia reduces the angular velocity, and find $\\omega_3/s \\sim -{1}/{2} +0.0540\\, {\\rm Re}_{\\rm s}^{3/2}$ where $s$ is the shear rate and ${\\rm Re}_{\\rm s}$ is the shear Reynolds number. This result differs from that derived by Lin et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 44 (1970) 1] who obtained a coeff...
A New Open-Loop Fiber Optic Gyro Error Compensation Method Based on Angular Velocity Error Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanshun Zhang
2015-02-01
Full Text Available With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage and temperature as the input variables and angular velocity error as the output variable. Firstly, the angular velocity error is extracted from OFOG output signals, and then the output voltage , temperature and angular velocity error are used as the learning samples to train a Radial-Basis-Function (RBF neural network model. Then the nonlinear mapping model over T, and is established and thus can be calculated automatically to compensate OFOG errors according to and . The results of the experiments show that the established model can be used to compensate the nonlinear OFOG errors. The maximum, the minimum and the mean square error of OFOG angular velocity are decreased by , and relative to their initial values, respectively. Compared with the direct modeling of gyro angular velocity, which we researched before, the experimental results of the compensating method proposed in this paper are further reduced by , and , respectively, so the performance of this method is better than that of the direct modeling for gyro angular velocity.
Jasiewicz, Jan M; Allum, John H J; Middleton, James W; Barriskill, Andrew; Condie, Peter; Purcell, Brendan; Li, Raymond Che Tin
2006-12-01
We report on three different methods of gait event detection (toe-off and heel strike) using miniature linear accelerometers and angular velocity transducers in comparison to using standard pressure-sensitive foot switches. Detection was performed with normal and spinal-cord injured subjects. The detection of end contact (EC), normally toe-off, and initial contact (IC) normally, heel strike was based on either foot linear accelerations or foot sagittal angular velocity or shank sagittal angular velocity. The results showed that all three methods were as accurate as foot switches in estimating times of IC and EC for normal gait patterns. In spinal-cord injured subjects, shank angular velocity was significantly less accurate (p<0.02). We conclude that detection based on foot linear accelerations or foot angular velocity can correctly identify the timing of IC and EC events in both normal and spinal-cord injured subjects. PMID:16500102
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buss, R.J.
1979-04-01
The study of seven radical-molecule reactions using the crossed molecular beam technique with supersonic nozzle beams is reported. Product angular and velocity distributions were obtained and compared with statistical calculations in order to identify dynamical features of the reactions. In the reaction of chlorine and fluorine atoms with vinyl bromide, the product energy distributions are found to deviate from predictions of the statistical model. A similar effect is observed in the reaction of chlorine atoms with 1, 2 and 3-bromopropene. The reaction of oxygen atoms with ICl and CF/sub 3/I has been used to obtain an improved value of the IO bond energy, 55.0 +- 2.0 kcal mol/sup -1/. In all reactions studied, the product energy and angular distributions are found to be coupled, and this is attributed to a kinematic effect of the conservation of angular momentum.
Analyzing angular distributions for two-step dissociation mechanisms in velocity map imaging.
Straus, Daniel B; Butler, Lynne M; Alligood, Bridget W; Butler, Laurie J
2013-08-15
Increasingly, velocity map imaging is becoming the method of choice to study photoinduced molecular dissociation processes. This paper introduces an algorithm to analyze the measured net speed, P(vnet), and angular, β(vnet), distributions of the products from a two-step dissociation mechanism, where the first step but not the second is induced by absorption of linearly polarized laser light. Typically, this might be the photodissociation of a C-X bond (X = halogen or other atom) to produce an atom and a momentum-matched radical that has enough internal energy to subsequently dissociate (without the absorption of an additional photon). It is this second step, the dissociation of the unstable radicals, that one wishes to study, but the measured net velocity of the final products is the vector sum of the velocity imparted to the radical in the primary photodissociation (which is determined by taking data on the momentum-matched atomic cophotofragment) and the additional velocity vector imparted in the subsequent dissociation of the unstable radical. The algorithm allows one to determine, from the forward-convolution fitting of the net velocity distribution, the distribution of velocity vectors imparted in the second step of the mechanism. One can thus deduce the secondary velocity distribution, characterized by a speed distribution P(v1,2°) and an angular distribution I(θ2°), where θ2° is the angle between the dissociating radical's velocity vector and the additional velocity vector imparted to the product detected from the subsequent dissociation of the radical. PMID:23464815
Feasibility study on an angular velocity-based damage detection method using gyroscopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes an angular velocity-based damage detection method using gyroscopes and investigates its feasibility. This study basically intends to enhance the performance of the existing modal flexibility-based methods by replacing accelerations measured from accelerometers with angular velocities measured from gyroscopes. In order to verify the superiority of a gyroscope in damage detection, numerical studies were performed by changing optional parameters such as damage location, severity, and measurement noise. From parametric studies, it was shown that the damage detection results using gyroscopes are more sensitive to damage and more robust to noise generated from the curvature estimation than those using accelerometers. Experimental validations were also carried out to investigate the feasibility of a gyroscope in damage detection. From the results, it was shown that the gyroscope-based damage detection method can successfully identify damage location. In conclusion, it was numerically and experimentally verified that a new damage detection approach using gyroscopes could improve damage detection ability significantly. (paper)
Angular velocity of gravitational radiation from precessing binaries and the corotating frame
Boyle, Michael
2013-05-01
This paper defines an angular velocity for time-dependent functions on the sphere and applies it to gravitational waveforms from compact binaries. Because it is geometrically meaningful and has a clear physical motivation, the angular velocity is uniquely useful in helping to solve an important—and largely ignored—problem in models of compact binaries: the inverse problem of deducing the physical parameters of a system from the gravitational waves alone. It is also used to define the corotating frame of the waveform. When decomposed in this frame, the waveform has no rotational dynamics and is therefore as slowly evolving as possible. The resulting simplifications lead to straightforward methods for accurately comparing waveforms and constructing hybrids. As formulated in this paper, the methods can be applied robustly to both precessing and nonprecessing waveforms, providing a clear, comprehensive, and consistent framework for waveform analysis. Explicit implementations of all these methods are provided in accompanying computer code.
Angular velocity of gravitational radiation from precessing binaries and the corotating frame
Boyle, Michael
2013-01-01
This paper defines an angular velocity for time-dependent functions on the sphere, and applies it to gravitational waveforms from compact binaries. Because it is geometrically meaningful and has a clear physical motivation, the angular velocity is uniquely useful in helping to solve an important---and largely ignored---problem in models of compact binaries: the inverse problem of deducing the physical parameters of a system from the gravitational waves alone. It is also used to define the corotating frame of the waveform. When decomposed in this frame, the waveform has no rotational dynamics and is therefore as slowly evolving as possible. The resulting simplifications lead to straightforward methods for accurately comparing waveforms and constructing hybrids. As formulated in this paper, the methods can be applied robustly to both precessing and nonprecessing waveforms, providing a clear, comprehensive, and consistent framework for waveform analysis. Explicit implementations of all these methods are provided...
A submicron device to rectify a square-wave angular velocity.
Moradian, A; Miri, M F
2011-02-01
We study a system composed of two thick dielectric disks separated by a thin layer of an electrolyte solution. Initially both plates have the same surface charge distribution. The surface charge distribution has no rotational symmetry. We show that the top plate experiences a torque [Formula: see text]([Formula: see text]) if it rotates about its axis by an angle [Formula: see text] . The torque can be controlled by varying the electrolyte concentration, the separation and the surface charge density of the plates. For a specific example of charged rods attached to the plates, we find [Formula: see text]([Formula: see text]) [Formula: see text] sin(4[Formula: see text]) . We also study the dynamics of the system. We consider the case where the angular velocity of the bottom disk is a square-wave signal. We find that the average angular velocity of the top disk is not zero. PMID:21337018
Feasibility study on an angular velocity-based damage detection method using gyroscopes
Sung, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Park, J. W.; Koo, K. Y.; Jung, H. J.
2014-07-01
This paper proposes an angular velocity-based damage detection method using gyroscopes and investigates its feasibility. This study basically intends to enhance the performance of the existing modal flexibility-based methods by replacing accelerations measured from accelerometers with angular velocities measured from gyroscopes. In order to verify the superiority of a gyroscope in damage detection, numerical studies were performed by changing optional parameters such as damage location, severity, and measurement noise. From parametric studies, it was shown that the damage detection results using gyroscopes are more sensitive to damage and more robust to noise generated from the curvature estimation than those using accelerometers. Experimental validations were also carried out to investigate the feasibility of a gyroscope in damage detection. From the results, it was shown that the gyroscope-based damage detection method can successfully identify damage location. In conclusion, it was numerically and experimentally verified that a new damage detection approach using gyroscopes could improve damage detection ability significantly.
Johnson, Michael D; Shiokawa, Hotaka; Chael, Andrew A; Doeleman, Sheperd S
2015-01-01
We show that interferometry can be applied to study irregular, rapidly rotating structures, as are expected in the turbulent accretion flow near a black hole. Specifically, we analyze the lagged covariance between interferometric baselines of similar lengths but slightly different orientations. We demonstrate that the peak in the lagged covariance indicates the direction and angular velocity of the flow. Importantly, measuring the direction of the flow as clockwise or counterclockwise on the sky breaks a degeneracy in accretion disk inclinations when analyzing time-averaged images alone. We explore the potential efficacy using three-dimensional, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations, and we highlight several baseline pairs for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) that are well-suited to this application. These results indicate that the EHT is capable of determining the direction and angular velocity of the emitting material near Sgr A*, even for highly-inclined flows, and they suggest that...
Dowling, Ariel V; Favre, Julien; Andriacchi, Thomas P
2012-09-01
The dynamic movements associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during jump landing suggest that limb segment angular velocity can provide important information for understanding the conditions that lead to an injury. Angular velocity measures could provide a quick and simple method of assessing injury risk without the constraints of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-subject variations and the sensitivity of the thigh and shank segment angular velocity in order to determine if these measures could be used to characterize jump landing mechanisms. Additionally, this study tested the correlation between angular velocity and the knee abduction moment. Thirty-six healthy participants (18 male) performed drop jumps with bilateral and unilateral landing. Thigh and shank angular velocities were measured by a wearable inertial-based system, and external knee moments were measured using a marker-based system. Discrete parameters were extracted from the data and compared between systems. For both jumping tasks, the angular velocity curves were well defined movement patterns with high inter-subject similarity in the sagittal plane and moderate to good similarity in the coronal and transverse planes. The angular velocity parameters were also able to detect differences between the two jumping tasks that were consistent across subjects. Furthermore, the coronal angular velocities were significantly correlated with the knee abduction moment (R of 0.28-0.51), which is a strong indicator of ACL injury risk. This study suggested that the thigh and shank angular velocities, which describe the angular dynamics of the movement, should be considered in future studies about ACL injury mechanisms. PMID:22938373
Ilaria Pasciuto; Gabriele Ligorio; Elena Bergamini; Giuseppe Vannozzi; Angelo Maria Sabatini; Aurelio Cappozzo
2015-01-01
In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude an...
Munk, W. H.; Miller, R. L.
2011-01-01
Fluctuations in the circulation of the atmosphere are associated with very small anomalies in the angular velocity of the earth. The seasonal component of these anomalies has been computed from weather maps, and is found to agree, with respect to magnitude and phase, with anomalies first reported by STOKYO in 1936 on the basis of astronomic observations. The effects of fluctuations in the oceanic circulation, and of shifting of air and water masses, have been estimated to account for not more...
Johnson, Michael D.; Loeb, Abraham; Shiokawa, Hotaka; Chael, Andrew A.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.
2015-01-01
We show that interferometry can be applied to study irregular, rapidly rotating structures, as are expected in the turbulent accretion flow near a black hole. Specifically, we analyze the lagged covariance between interferometric baselines of similar lengths but slightly different orientations. For a flow viewed close to face-on, we demonstrate that the peak in the lagged covariance indicates the direction and angular velocity of the emission pattern from the flow. Even for moderately incline...
Rotating Particle in the Near Field of the Surface at Arbitrary Direction of Angular Velocity Vector
Kyasov, A. A.; Dedkov, G. V.
2016-01-01
We study the fluctuation-electromagnetic interaction between a small rotating particle with an arbitrary direction of angular velocity vector and evanescent field of the heated surface, and obtain the general expressions for the force of attraction, rate of heating and components of torque. The particle rotation dynamics is analyzed. It is shown that during most time of motion the particle slows down provided that a quasiequilibrium thermal state has been reached, while at any initial directi...
Angular velocity distribution of a granular planar rotator in a thermalized bath
Piasecki, J.; Talbot, J.; Viot, P.
2006-01-01
The kinetics of a granular planar rotator with a fixed center undergoing inelastic collisions with bath particles is analyzed both numerically and analytically by means of the Boltzmann equation. The angular velocity distribution evolves from quasi-gaussian in the Brownian limit to an algebraic decay in the limit of an infinitely light particle. In addition, we compare this model with a planar rotator with a free center. We propose experimental tests that might confirm the predicted behaviors.
WIND TURBINE SIMULATION FOR TIME-DEPENDENT ANGULAR VELOCITY, TORQUE, AND POWER
YONGHO LEE
2013-01-01
Albeit the prediction of time-dependent properties of wind turbines is not required for common applications, such time-varying properties may play an important role during transient operations occurring due to various reasons. Unlike the conventional numerical simulations of wind turbine rotations that fix the angular velocity to an assumed value, the present work numerically simulates the time-varying turbine rotation in both unsteady and quasi-steady operation regimes, without specifying th...
Angular velocity distribution of a granular planar rotator in a thermalized bath.
Piasecki, J; Talbot, J; Viot, P
2007-05-01
The kinetics of a granular planar rotator with a fixed center undergoing inelastic collisions with bath particles is analyzed both numerically and analytically by means of the Boltzmann equation. The angular velocity distribution evolves from quasi-Gaussian in the Brownian limit to an algebraic decay in the limit of an infinitely light particle. In addition, we compare this model to that of a planar rotator with a free center and discuss the prospects for experimental confirmation of these results. PMID:17677054
On the relation of Thomas rotation and angular velocity of reference frames
Matolcsi, T.; Matolcsi, M.; Tasnádi, T.
2006-01-01
In the extensive literature dealing with the relativistic phenomenon of Thomas rotation several methods have been developed for calculating the Thomas rotation angle of a gyroscope along a circular world line. One of the most appealing concepts, introduced in \\cite{rindler}, is to consider a rotating reference frame co-moving with the gyroscope, and relate the precession of the gyroscope to the angular velocity of the reference frame. A recent paper \\cite{herrera}, however, applies this princ...
Effect of postural changes on 3D joint angular velocity during starting block phase
Slawinski, Jean; Dumas, Raphaël; CHEZE, Laurence; ONTANON, Guy; BONNEFOY-MAZURE, Alice
2013-01-01
Few studies have focused on the effect of posture during sprint start. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of the modification of horizontal distance between the blocks during sprint start on three dimensional (3D) joint angular velocity. Nine trained sprinters started using three different starting positions (bunched, medium and elongated). They were equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, and an opto-electronic Motion Analysis1 system was used to collect the 3D marker traje...
Cosmic web alignments with the shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities of dark matter haloes
Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Contreras, Sergio; Padilla, Nelson
2014-01-01
We study the alignment of dark matter haloes with the cosmic web characterized by the tidal and velocity shear fields. We focus on the alignment of their shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities. We use a cosmological N-body simulation that allows to study dark matter halos spanning almost five orders of magnitude in mass ($10^{9}$-$10^{14}$) $h^{-1}$$M_{\\odot}$ and spatial scales of $(0.5$-$1.0)$ $h^{-1}$ Mpc to define the cosmic web. We find that the halo shape presents the strongest...
WIND TURBINE SIMULATION FOR TIME-DEPENDENT ANGULAR VELOCITY, TORQUE, AND POWER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YONGHO LEE
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Albeit the prediction of time-dependent properties of wind turbines is not required for common applications, such time-varying properties may play an important role during transient operations occurring due to various reasons. Unlike the conventional numerical simulations of wind turbine rotations that fix the angular velocity to an assumed value, the present work numerically simulates the time-varying turbine rotation in both unsteady and quasi-steady operation regimes, without specifying the angular velocity of the turbine a priori, but by calculating the actual time-dependent angular velocity and aerodynamic torque along with other properties in the course of simulation. In the present work, successful results obtained by an efficient computational fluid dynamics technique are shown, as a demonstration, for a vertical-axis wind turbine with a two-dimensionalSavonius rotor, and the cycle-averaged output powers are compared with experimental power curves and a theory developed on the basis of experimental observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oegik Soegihardjo
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Displacement and angular velocity analysis for four bar mechanism, usually being done using graphical method. This method could be used easily for displacement and angular velocity analysis of four bar mechanism in one position. If the analysis being carried out is applied for the whole position of four bar mechanism in which the input link rotates 360o, graphical method will be inappropriate and time consuming. For this kind of situation, analytical method with the aid of computer becomes best solution for displacement and angular velocity analysis. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Analisis perpindahan serta kecepatan sudut mekanisme empat batang, biasanya dilakukan secara grafis. Untuk mengidentifikasi perpindahan maupun kecepatan sudut mekanisme empat batang di satu posisi, cara grafis bisa dilakukan dengan sederhana dan cepat. Namun bila analisis dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi perpindahan serta kecepatan mekanisme empat batang di seluruh posisi batang input yang berputar 360o, cara grafis akan memakan banyak waktu. Untuk kasus semacam ini, cara analitik dengan bantuan komputer merupakan cara penyelesaian yang tepatKata kunci: mekanisme empat batang, batang (link, perpindahan, kecepatan sudut. Kata kunci: mekanisme empat batang, batang (link, perpindahan, kecepatan sudut.
Johnson, Michael D.; Loeb, Abraham; Shiokawa, Hotaka; Chael, Andrew A.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.
2015-11-01
We show that interferometry can be applied to study irregular, rapidly rotating structures, as are expected in the turbulent accretion flow near a black hole. Specifically, we analyze the lagged covariance between interferometric baselines of similar lengths but slightly different orientations. For a flow viewed close to face-on, we demonstrate that the peak in the lagged covariance indicates the direction and angular velocity of the emission pattern from the flow. Even for moderately inclined flows, the covariance robustly estimates the flow direction, although the estimated angular velocity can be significantly biased. Importantly, measuring the direction of the flow as clockwise or counterclockwise on the sky breaks a degeneracy in accretion disk inclinations when analyzing time-averaged images alone. We explore the potential efficacy of our technique using three-dimensional, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and we highlight several baseline pairs for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) that are well-suited to this application. These results indicate that the EHT may be capable of estimating the direction and angular velocity of the emitting material near Sgr A*, and they suggest that a rotating flow may even be utilized to improve imaging capabilities.
Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Zazulak, Bohdanna T
2008-09-01
Our purpose was to determine if females demonstrate decreased hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque (H/Q) ratios compared to males and if H/Q ratios increase with increased isokinetic velocity in both sexes. Maturation disproportionately increases hamstrings peak torque at high velocity in males, but not females. Therefore, we hypothesised that mature females would demonstrate decreased H/Q ratios compared to males and the difference in H/Q ratio between sexes would increase as isokinetic velocity increased. Studies that analysed the H/Q ratio with gravity corrected isokinetic strength testing reported between 1967 and 2004 were included in our review and analysis. Keywords were hamstrings/quadriceps, isokinetics, peak torque and gravity corrected. Medline and Smart databases were searched combined with cross-checked bibliographic reference lists of the publications to determine studies to be included. Twenty-two studies were included with a total of 1568 subjects (1145 male, 423 female). Males demonstrated a significant correlation between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R=0.634, p<0.0001), and a significant difference in the isokinetic H/Q ratio at the lowest angular velocity (47.8+/-2.2% at 30 degrees /s) compared to the highest velocity (81.4+/-1.1% at 360 degrees /s, p<0.001). In contrast, females did not demonstrate a significant relationship between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R=0.065, p=0.77) or a change in relative hamstrings strength as the speed increased (49.5+/-8.8% at 30 degrees /s; 51.0+/-5.7% at 360 degrees /s, p=0.84). Gender differences in isokinetic H/Q ratios were not observed at slower angular velocities. However, at high knee flexion/extension angular velocities, approaching those that occur during sports activities, significant gender differences were observed in the H/Q ratio. Females, unlike males, do not increase hamstrings to quadriceps torque ratios at velocities that approach those of functional activities. PMID:17875402
Cosmic web alignments with the shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities of dark matter halos
Forero-Romero, Jaime E; Padilla, Nelson
2014-01-01
We study the alignment of dark matter halos with the cosmic web characterized by the tidal and velocity shear fields. We focus on the alignment of their shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities. We use a cosmological N-body simulation that allows to study dark matter halos spanning almost five orders of magnitude in mass ($10^{9}$-$10^{14}$) $h^{-1}$$M_{\\odot}$ and spatial scales of $(0.5$-$1.0)$ $h^{-1}$ Mpc to define the cosmic web. We find that the halo shape presents the strongest alignment along the smallest tidal eigenvector, e.g. along filaments and walls, with a signal that gets stronger as the halo mass increases. In the case of the velocity shear field only massive halos $>10^{12}$ $h^{-1}$$M_{\\odot}$ tend to have their shapes aligned along the largest tidal eigenvector; that is, perpendicular to filaments and walls. For the angular momentum we find alignment signals only for halos more massive than $10^{12}$ $h^{-1}$$M_{\\odot}$ both in the tidal and velocity shear webs where the preferences ...
Li, Lin-Sen
2016-04-01
The variation of the instantaneous rotational angular velocity of the rigid Earth in the lunar-solar gravitational field is studied. The formula is derived for variation of the instantaneous angular velocity of the rigid oblate Earth using the potential function from Euler's dynamic equations. The theoretical results show that under the influence of the gravitational field of the Moon and the Sun the Earth instantaneous angular velocity varies with periodic terms, but without secular variations. Amplitudes of the periodic terms and their periods are calculated and discussed.
Constant angular velocity of the wrist during the lifting of a sphere.
Chappell, P H; Metcalf, C D; Burridge, J H; Yule, V T; Pickering, R M
2010-05-01
The primary objective of the experiments was to investigate the wrist motion of a person while they were carrying out a prehensile task from a clinical hand function test. A six-camera movement system was used to observe the wrist motion of 10 participants. A very light sphere and a heavy sphere were used in the experiments to study any mass effects. While seated at a table, a participant moved a sphere over a small obstacle using their dominant hand. The participants were observed to move their wrist at a constant angular velocity. This phenomenon has not been reported previously. Theoretically, the muscles of the wrist provide an impulse of force at the start of the rotation while the forearm maintains a constant vertical force on a sphere. Light-heavy mean differences for the velocities, absolute velocities, angles and times taken showed no significant differences (p = 0.05). PMID:20233128
On the constancy along cylinders of the angular velocity in the solar convection zone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durney, B.R.
1976-03-01
If, in the absence of rotation, the Sun's convection zone is adiabatic and if in the radial and latitudinal equations of motion the main balance of forces is between pressure gradients, Coriolis forces, and buoyancy forces (which is a good approximation if differential rotation is important over the entire convection zone and the large-scale velocities are not too large), then the perturbations in the convective flux and the pole-equator differences in flux (..delta..F) are very large in the lower half of the convection zone, unless the angular velocity is constant along cylinders. The meridional velocities associated with this rotation law are not small, however, and could generate a significant ..delta..F. In this analysis compressibility was taken into account, but the latitudinal and radial dependence of the stabilizing effect of rotation on turbulent convection was neglected. (AIP)
Cosmic web alignments with the shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities of dark matter haloes
Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Contreras, Sergio; Padilla, Nelson
2014-09-01
We study the alignment of dark matter haloes with the cosmic web characterized by the tidal and velocity shear fields. We focus on the alignment of their shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities. We use a cosmological N-body simulation that allows us to study dark matter haloes spanning almost five orders of magnitude in mass (109-1014) h-1 M⊙ and spatial scales of (0.5-1.0) h-1 Mpc to define the cosmic web. The strongest alignment is measured for halo shape along the smallest tidal eigenvector, e.g. along filaments and walls, with a signal that gets stronger as the halo mass increases. In the case of the velocity shear field only massive haloes >1012 h-1 M⊙ tend to have their shapes aligned along the largest tidal eigenvector, i.e. perpendicular to filaments and walls. For the angular momentum we find alignment signals only for haloes more massive than 1012 h-1 M⊙ both in the tidal and velocity shear fields where the preferences is to be parallel to the middle eigenvector; perpendicular to filaments and parallel to walls. Finally, the peculiar velocities show a strong alignment along the smallest tidal eigenvector for all halo masses; haloes move along filaments and walls. The same alignment is present with the velocity shear, albeit weaker and only for haloes less massive than 1012 h-1 M⊙. Our results show that the two different algorithms used to define the cosmic web describe different physical aspects of non-linear collapse and should be used in a complementary way to understand the cosmic web influence on galaxy evolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ribeiro F
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Fernanda Ribeiro,* Pierre-Alexis Lépine,* Corine Garceau-Bolduc, Valérie Coats, Étienne Allard, François Maltais, Didier Saey Centre de recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the test-retest reliability of quadriceps isokinetic endurance testing at two knee angular velocities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods: After one familiarization session, 14 patients with moderate to severe COPD (mean age 65±4 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 55%±18% predicted performed two quadriceps isokinetic endurance tests on two separate occasions within a 5–7-day interval. Quadriceps isokinetic endurance tests consisted of 30 maximal knee extensions at angular velocities of 90° and 180° per second, performed in random order. Test-retest reliability was assessed for peak torque, muscle endurance, work slope, work fatigue index, and changes in FEV1 for dyspnea and leg fatigue from rest to the end of the test. The intraclass correlation coefficient, minimal detectable change, and limits of agreement were calculated. Results: High test-retest reliability was identified for peak torque and muscle total work at both velocities. Work fatigue index was considered reliable at 90° per second but not at 180° per second. A lower reliability was identified for dyspnea and leg fatigue scores at both angular velocities. Conclusion: Despite a limited sample size, our findings su pport the use of a 30-maximal repetition isokinetic muscle testing procedure at angular velocities of 90° and 180° per second in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Endurance measurement (total isokinetic work at 90° per second was highly reliable, with a minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level of 10%. Peak torque and fatigue index
Angular velocity of a sphere in a simple shear at small Reynolds number
Meibohm, J; Rosén, T; Einarsson, J; Lundell, F; Mehlig, B
2016-01-01
We analyse the angular dynamics of a small neutrally buoyant sphere in a simple shear. When the effect of fluid inertia is negligible the sphere rotates at half the fluid vorticity. We compute how weak fluid inertia reduces the angular velocity, and find $\\omega_3/s \\sim -{1}/{2} +0.0540\\, {\\rm Re}_{\\rm s}^{3/2}$ where $s$ is the shear rate and ${\\rm Re}_{\\rm s}$ is the shear Reynolds number. This result differs from that derived by Lin et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 44 (1970) 1] who obtained a coefficient roughly three times larger. Our result is in good agreement with those of direct numerical simulations at small but not too small values of ${\\rm Re}_{\\rm }s$.
Angular beam width of a slit-diffracted wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taking magnetostatic surface wave diffraction as an example, this paper theoretically investigates the 2D diffraction pattern arising in the far-field region of a ferrite slab in the case of a plane wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities incident on a wide, arbitrarily oriented slit in an opaque screen. A universal analytical formula for the angular width of a diffracted beam is derived, which is valid for magnetostatic and other types of waves in anisotropic media and structures (including metamaterials) in 2D geometries. It is shown that the angular width of a diffracted beam in an anisotropic medium can not only take values greater or less than λ0/D (where λ0 is the incident wavelength, and D is the slit width), but can also be zero under certain conditions. (methodological notes)
Fast two-position initial alignment for SINS using velocity plus angular rate measurements
Chang, Guobin
2015-10-01
An improved two-position initial alignment model for strapdown inertial navigation system is proposed. In addition to the velocity, angular rates are incorporated as measurements. The measurement equations in full three channels are derived in both navigation and body frames and the latter of which is found to be preferred. The cross-correlation between the process and the measurement noises is analyzed and addressed in the Kalman filter. The incorporation of the angular rates, without introducing additional device or external signal, speeds up the convergence of estimating the attitudes, especially the heading. In the simulation study, different algorithms are tested with different initial errors, and the advantages of the proposed method compared to the conventional one are validated by the simulation results.
Angular beam width of a slit-diffracted wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities
Lock, Edwin H.
2012-12-01
Taking magnetostatic surface wave diffraction as an example, this paper theoretically investigates the 2D diffraction pattern arising in the far-field region of a ferrite slab in the case of a plane wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities incident on a wide, arbitrarily oriented slit in an opaque screen. A universal analytical formula for the angular width of a diffracted beam is derived, which is valid for magnetostatic and other types of waves in anisotropic media and structures (including metamaterials) in 2D geometries. It is shown that the angular width of a diffracted beam in an anisotropic medium can not only take values greater or less than \\lambda _0/D (where \\lambda _0 is the incident wavelength, and D is the slit width), but can also be zero under certain conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clark, G
2003-04-28
This report describes a feasibility study. We are interested in calculating the angular and linear velocities of a re-entry vehicle using six acceleration signals from a distributed accelerometer inertial measurement unit (DAIMU). Earlier work showed that angular and linear velocity calculation using classic nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) solvers is not practically feasible, due to mathematical and numerical difficulties. This report demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of using model-based nonlinear state estimation techniques to obtain the angular and linear velocities in this problem. Practical numerical and calibration issues require additional work to resolve. We show that the six accelerometers in the DAIMU are not sufficient to provide observability, so additional measurements of the system states are required (e.g. from a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit). Given the constraint that our system cannot use GPS, we propose using the existing on-board 3-axis magnetometer to measure angular velocity. We further show that the six nonlinear ODE's for the vehicle kinematics can be decoupled into three ODE's in the angular velocity and three ODE's in the linear velocity. This allows us to formulate a three-state Gauss-Markov system model for the angular velocities, using the magnetometer signals in the measurement model. This re-formulated model is observable, allowing us to build an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the angular velocities. Given the angular velocity estimates from the EKF, the three ODE's for the linear velocity become algebraic, and the linear velocity can be calculated by numerical integration. Thus, we do not need direct measurements of the linear velocity to provide observability, and the technique is mathematically feasible. Using a simulation example, we show that the estimator adds value over the numerical ODE solver in the presence of measurement noise. Calculating the velocities in the
Antia, H. M.; Chitre, S. M.; Gough, D. O.
2012-01-01
A putative temporally varying circulation-free magnetic-field configuration is inferred in an equatorial segment of the solar convection zone from the helioseismologically inferred angular-velocity variation, assuming that the predominant dynamics is angular acceleration produced by the azimuthal Maxwell stress exerted by a field whose surface values are consistent with photospheric line-of-sight measurements.
Antia, H. M.; Chitre, S. M.; Gough, D. O.
2013-01-01
A putative temporally varying circulation-free magnetic-field configuration is inferred in an equatorial segment of the solar convection zone from the helioseismologically inferred angular-velocity variation, assuming that the predominant dynamics is an angular acceleration produced by the azimuthal Maxwell stress exerted by a field whose surface values are consistent with photospheric line-of-sight measurements.
A new open-loop fiber optic gyro error compensation method based on angular velocity error modeling.
Zhang, Yanshun; Guo, Yajing; Li, Chunyu; Wang, Yixin; Wang, Zhanqing
2015-01-01
With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG) model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage u and temperature T as the input variables and angular velocity error Δω as the output variable. Firstly, the angular velocity error Δω is extracted from OFOG output signals, and then the output voltage u, temperature T and angular velocity error Δω are used as the learning samples to train a Radial-Basis-Function (RBF) neural network model. Then the nonlinear mapping model over T, u and Δω is established and thus Δω can be calculated automatically to compensate OFOG errors according to T and u. The results of the experiments show that the established model can be used to compensate the nonlinear OFOG errors. The maximum, the minimum and the mean square error of OFOG angular velocity are decreased by 97.0%, 97.1% and 96.5% relative to their initial values, respectively. Compared with the direct modeling of gyro angular velocity, which we researched before, the experimental results of the compensating method proposed in this paper are further reduced by 1.6%, 1.4% and 1.42%, respectively, so the performance of this method is better than that of the direct modeling for gyro angular velocity. PMID:25734642
Akhbari, Mahsa; Shamsollahi, Mohammad,; Jutten, Christian; Coppa, Bertrand
2012-01-01
International audience In this paper an efficient filtering procedure based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) has been proposed. The method is based on a modified nonlinear dynamic model, previously introduced for the generation of synthetic ECG signals. The proposed method considers the angular velocity of ECG signal, as one of the states of an EKF. We have considered two cases for observation equations, in one case we have assumed a corresponding observation to angular velocity state and i...
Effect of Angular Velocity on Sensors Based on Morphology Dependent Resonances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir R. Ali
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We carried out an analysis to investigate the morphology dependent optical resonances shift (MDR of a rotating spherical resonator. The spinning resonator experiences an elastic deformation due to the centrifugal force acting on it, leading to a shift in its MDR. Experiments are also carried out to demonstrate the MDR shifts of a spinning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microsphere. The experimental results agree well with the analytical prediction. These studies demonstrated that spinning sensor based on MDR may experience sufficient shift in the optical resonances, therefore interfering with its desirable operational sensor design. Also the results show that angular velocity sensors could be designed using this principle.
Effect of angular velocity on sensors based on morphology dependent resonances.
Ali, Amir R; Ioppolo, Tindaro
2014-01-01
We carried out an analysis to investigate the morphology dependent optical resonances shift (MDR) of a rotating spherical resonator. The spinning resonator experiences an elastic deformation due to the centrifugal force acting on it, leading to a shift in its MDR. Experiments are also carried out to demonstrate the MDR shifts of a spinning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microsphere. The experimental results agree well with the analytical prediction. These studies demonstrated that spinning sensor based on MDR may experience sufficient shift in the optical resonances, therefore interfering with its desirable operational sensor design. Also the results show that angular velocity sensors could be designed using this principle. PMID:24759108
Estimates of the solar internal angular velocity obtained with the Mt. Wilson 60-foot solar tower
Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Woodard, Martin; Tomczyk, Steven; Korzennik, Sylvain
1987-01-01
Estimates are obtained of the solar internal angular velocity from measurements of the frequency splittings of p-mode oscillations. A 16-day time series of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained during July and August 1984 at the 60-foot tower telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory is analyzed. Power spectra were computed for all of the zonal, tesseral, and sectoral p-modes from l = 0 to 89 and for all of the sectoral p-modes from l = 90 to 200. A mean power spectrum was calculated for each degree up to 89. The frequency differences of all of the different nonzonal modes were calculated for these mean power spectra.
New optimal control laws for attitude of a rigid body motion without angular velocity measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Gohary, Awad [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, Faculty of Science King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)] e-mail: aigohary@ksu.edu.sa
2005-08-01
In this paper we shall use the passive properties of Euler dynamic equations as well as the structural properties of kinematic equations in terms of Cayley-Rodrigues and Modified Rodrigues parameters to derive optimal control laws without any information about the angular velocity of the rigid body. The interesting difference in the current study is the assumption that only the kinematics attitude parameters are available for the control process. The optimal control laws ensure the optimal asymptotic stability of the rigid body motion and minimize a selecting performance are obtained in terms of the kinematics attitude parameters and their estimates. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the theoretical results.
The subsurface radial gradient of solar angular velocity from MDI f-mode observations
Corbard, T.; Thompson, M. J.
2001-01-01
We report quantitative analysis of the radial gradient of solar angular velocity at depths down to about 15 Mm below the solar surface for latitudes up to 75 degree using the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) observations of surface gravity waves (f modes) from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO). A negative outward gradient of around -400 nHz/R, equivalent to logarithmic gradient of the rotation frequency with respect to radius which is very close to -1, is found to be remarkably cons...
Structure equations of a slowly rotating, fully relativistic solid star. [Angular velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quintana, H.
1976-07-01
General-relativistic elasticity theory is applied to the derivation of the structure equations for a relativistic rotating solid star with a spherically relaxable structure. The analysis is carried out to third order in the angular velocity. In this way one obtains the deformation of the star and its stress field, the change in gravitational mass, and the change in the moment of inertia. This last quantity is the key parameter needed for the application of the general-relativistic starquake theory of neutron stars.
Angular velocity variations and stability of spatially explicit prey-predator systems
Abta, Refael; Shnerb, Nadav M.
2006-01-01
The linear instability of Lotka-Volterra orbits in the homogenous manifold of a two-patch system is analyzed. The origin of these orbits instability in the absence of prey migration is revealed to be the dependence of the angular velocity on the azimuthal angle; in particular, the system desynchronizes at the exit from the slow part of the trajectory. Using this insight, an analogous model of a two coupled oscillator is presented and shown to yield the same type of linear instability. This un...
Dynamic boundary controls of a rotating body-beam system with time-varying angular velocity
Boumediène Chentouf
2004-01-01
This paper deals with feedback stabilization of a flexible beam clamped at a rigid body and free at the other end. We assume that there is no damping and the rigid body rotates with a nonconstant angular velocity. To stabilize this system, we propose a feedback law which consists of a control torque applied on the rigid body and either a dynamic boundary control moment or a dynamic boundary control force or both of them applied at the free end of the beam. Then it is ...
Effect of the starting block posture on the 3D joint angular velocity in sprinters
SLAWINSKI, J; ONTANON, G; Dumas, R; Cheze, L.; Miller, C.; MAZURE-BONNEFOY, A
2011-01-01
The aim of this study was to measure the effect of the modification of the posture during a sprint start on 3D joint angular velocity. This was performed using a 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body. Ten trained sprinters started using three different starting positions in the starting blocks (bunched, medium and elongated). They were equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, and an opto-electronic Motion Analysis® system (12 digital cameras 250 Hz) was used to collect the 3D marker tra...
Critical angular velocity of uniformly rotating white dwarfs. Technical summary report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miketinac, M.J.
1976-05-01
The equilibrium configurations of uniformly rotating white dwarfs are calculated numerically as an application of the finite difference--finite expansion method pioneered by Stoeckly. The latest version of the Harrison--Wheeler equation of state is used, together with the post-Newtonian equations of structure. No other approximation is made. The resulting critical values for the angular velocity agree in order of magnitude with a 'crude' approximation to these values by Hartle and Thorne, but fractional differences in mean radius and in mass and eccentricities are very different. (GRA)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ito, Yoshifumi; Arai, Noriyuki; Ueda, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Okada, Shigefumi; Goto, Seiichi; Ishimura, Tsutomu (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)
1991-07-01
The angular velocity {Omega}{sub c} of the impurity ions (CV) is measured spectroscopically for the FRC (Field-Reversed-Configuration) plasmas confined in the {theta}-pinch region and translated into the confinement region with magnetic mirror field. The FRC plasma confined in the {theta}-pinch region becomes unstable due to the n=2 rotational instability which can be suppressed by the multipole magnetic field. The ion rotation in the stabilized plasma is almost equal to the velocity in the unstabilized case, suggesting that the multipole field acts on the plasma surface due to the skin effect and suppresses the instability without changing the field configuration within the separatrix radius. The FRC plasma translated in the confinement region is stable without destructive instability. The ion rotation in such a plasma indicates that a suppression mechanism of the n=2 instability exists, which is excited by the rotation in the confinement region. (author).
Velocity and angular distributions of evaporation residues from /sup 32/S-induced reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinnefeld, J.D.; Kolata, J.J.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Kovar, D.G.; Lesko, K.T.; Rosner, G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; van den Berg, A.M.; Wilkins, B.D.
1987-09-01
Velocity distributions of mass-resolved evaporation residues from reactions of /sup 32/S with /sup 12/C, /sup 24/Mg, /sup 27/Al, /sup 28/Si, and /sup 40/Ca have been measured at bombarding energies of 194, 239, and 278 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. In all cases, the observed shifts in the velocity centroids relative to the values expected for complete fusion are consistent with a previously reported parametrization of a threshold for onset of incomplete fusion. Angular distributions were measured and total cross sections extracted for the /sup 32/S+ /sup 24/Mg system at all three energies. A comparison with existing results for /sup 32/S+ /sup 24/Mg at lower energies, and with other systems leading to the /sup 56/Ni compound nucleus, suggests two different types of compound-nuclear limitations to complete fusion at higher energies.
Laminar flow past a spinning bullet-shaped body at moderate angular velocities
Jiménez-González, J. I.; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E.; Sevilla, A.; Martínez-Bazán, C.
2013-11-01
We present a numerical study of the flow past a spinning bullet-shaped body of length-to-diameter ratio L/D=2, focusing on the evolution of the forces and flow regimes that appear depending on the values of the two governing parameters, namely the Reynolds number, Re=ρw∞D/μ, and the dimensionless angular velocity, Ω=ωD/(2w∞), where ρ, μ and w∞ are the free-stream density, viscosity and velocity, respectively, and ω is the angular velocity of the body. The parametric study covers the range 0≤Ω≤0.4 for Re<450, corresponding to laminar flow and moderate rotation velocities. It is shown that the (Re,Ω) parameter plane can be divided into four regions, corresponding to the destabilization of several instability modes. In the range 0≤Ω≲0.2, three different flow regimes take place as Re increases keeping constant Ω: axisymmetric, frozen and spiral flow regimes respectively; the latter leading to a swirling configuration of vortices curling up around the axis, caused by a combination of the frozen mode and the vortex shedding. However, at Ω≃0.2, a new frozen spiral mode takes place for large enough values of Re, where two counter-rotating vortices spiral around the axis, as a result of a lock-in process of the vortex shedding associated to the unsteady spiral regime, being this mode the single unstable one existent for Ω≥0.225. An exhaustive study of the dependence of the drag and lift forces on Ω and Re is also presented.
Dell'Olio, Francesco; Ciminelli, Caterina; Armenise, Mario Nicola
2013-02-01
Here, we report the guidelines to be followed to optimize the design of a new angular velocity sensor based on an indium phosphide (InP) ring resonator. Optical properties of InP ring resonators have been investigated together with some significant physical effects for improving the sensor sensitivity. Three-dimensional algorithms have been utilized for the theoretical estimation of the waveguide loss. An optimized waveguide with propagation loss <0.3 dB/cm and a ring resonator with a quality factor of 1.5×106 have been designed. Performance of angular velocity sensors based on InP low-loss ring resonators has been estimated and discussed. Resolution of 10 deg/h and bias drift in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 deg/h have been evaluated for a fully integrated optical gyro including an InGaAsP/InP optical cavity having a footprint less than 24 cm2.
Zilevu, Kojo S.; Kammerman, Kelly L.; Nanzer, Jeffrey A.
2013-05-01
The design of a 29.5 GHz experimental active interferometer for the measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans is presented in this paper, as well as initial measurements of walking humans. Measurement of the angular motion of moving objects is a desirable function in remote security sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of arrival estimation algorithms. Recently, the authors presented a new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry. The method measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency shift imparted on the signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. The experimental system consists of a transmitter and two separate receivers with two widely spaced antennas. The received signals in each of the two channels are downconverted and digitized, and post-processed offline. Initial results of a walking person passing through the interferometer beam pattern are presented, which verify the expected operation of the receiver derived from the initial theory.
Repeating firing fields of CA1 neurons shift forward in response to increasing angular velocity.
Cowen, Stephen L; Nitz, Douglas A
2014-01-01
Self-motion information influences spatially-specific firing patterns exhibited by hippocampal neurons. Moreover, these firing patterns can repeat across similar subsegments of an environment, provided that there is similarity of path shape and head orientations across subsegments. The influence of self-motion variables on repeating fields remains to be determined. To investigate the role of path shape and angular rotation on hippocampal activity, we recorded the activity of CA1 neurons from rats trained to run on spiral-shaped tracks. During inbound traversals of circular-spiral tracks, angular velocity increases continuously. Under this condition, most neurons (74%) exhibited repeating fields across at least three adjacent loops. Of these neurons, 86% exhibited forward shifts in the angles of field centers relative to centers on preceding loops. Shifts were absent on squared-spiral tracks, minimal and less reliable on concentric-circle tracks, and absent on outward-bound runs on circular-spiral tracks. However, outward-bound runs on the circular-spiral track in the dark were associated with backward shifts. Together, the most parsimonious interpretation of the results is that continuous increases or decreases in angular velocity are particularly effective at shifting the center of mass of repeating fields, although it is also possible that a nonlinear integration of step counts contributes to the shift. Furthermore, the unexpected absence of field shifts during outward journeys in light (but not darkness) suggests visual cues around the goal location anchored the map of space to an allocentric reference frame. PMID:24381284
Precision angular velocity response of a fiber-optic gyroscope using a piezo-nano-rotation table
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Modern fiber-optic gyroscopes are calibrated using the Earth's rotation or stepper motor actuated rotation tables. We investigated the angular velocity resolution of the Optolink SRS-1000 fiber-optic gyroscope using a piezo-activated rotation table down to angular velocity steps of 1 × 10−7 rad s−1 with an accuracy of 1.5 × 10−8 rad s−1. To our knowledge, these are the smallest velocity steps resolved and reported in the literature so far. Our results show that such a gyroscope may be also used for nanopositioning purposes in addition to its usual navigation application. (technical design note)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Xiaoyao; ZHANG Zhiyong; FAN Dapeng
2011-01-01
The performance of any inertially stabilized platform(ISP)is strongly related to the bandwidth and accuracy of the angular velocity signals.This paper discusses the development of an optimal state estimator for sensing inertial velocity using low-cost micro-electro-mechanical systems(MEMS)sensors.A low-bandwidth gyroscope is used alone with two low-performance accelerometers to obtain the estimation.The gyroscope has its own limited dynamics and mainly contributes to the low-frequency components of the estimation.The accelerometers have inherent biases and mainly contribute to the high-frequency components of the estimation.Extensive experimental results show that the state estimator can achieve high-performance signals over a wide range of velocities without drifts in both the t- and s-domains.Furthermore,with applications in miniature inertially stabilized platforms,the control characteristic presents a significantly improvement over the existing methods.The method can be also applied to robotics,attitude estimation,and friction compensation.
Duclay, Julien; Robbe, Alice; Pousson, Michel; Martin, Alain
2009-10-01
At rest, the H-reflex is lower during lengthening than shortening actions. During passive lengthening, both soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) H-reflex amplitudes decrease with increasing angular velocity. This study was designed to investigate whether H-reflex amplitude is affected by angular velocity during concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Experiments were performed on nine healthy men. At a constant angular velocity of 60 degrees /s and 20 degrees /s, maximal H-reflex and M-wave potentials were evoked at rest (i.e., H(max) and M(max), respectively) and during concentric and eccentric MVC (i.e., H(sup) and M(sup), respectively). Regardless of the muscle, H(max)/M(max) was lower during lengthening than shortening actions and the H(sup)/M(sup) ratio was higher than H(max)/M(max) during lengthening actions. Whereas no action type and angular velocity effects on the MG H(sup)/M(sup) were found, the SOL H(sup)/M(sup) was lower during eccentric than concentric MVC and this depression was increased with higher angular velocity. Our findings indicate that the depression of the H-reflex amplitude during eccentric compared to concentric MVC depends mainly on the amount of inhibition induced by lengthening action. In conclusion, H-reflex should be evoked during both passive and active dynamic trials to evaluate the plasticity of the spinal loop. PMID:18555699
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Meng; LIU Shi; LEI Jing; LI ZhiHong
2008-01-01
Cyclone separator is one of the main parts of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The separation efficiency of the cyclone separator is very important to the whole boiler. Electrical capacitance tomo-graphy (ECT) is a unique measuring technique with great potential in multiphase flow measurement. Experimental studies are carried out on the measurement of volumetric concentration and angular ve-locity using ECT. The former is determined through image reconstruction method, and the latter is measured by cross-correlating the capacitance fluctuations caused by the conveyed solids. The dis-tribution of void fraction in radial direction, the fluctuating characteristics, probability density function and the spectrum characteristics are analyzed. The feasibility and reliability of the method are verified by experimental results.
Calibration of the head direction network: a role for symmetric angular head velocity cells.
Stratton, Peter; Wyeth, Gordon; Wiles, Janet
2010-06-01
Continuous attractor networks require calibration. Computational models of the head direction (HD) system of the rat usually assume that the connections that maintain HD neuron activity are pre-wired and static. Ongoing activity in these models relies on precise continuous attractor dynamics. It is currently unknown how such connections could be so precisely wired, and how accurate calibration is maintained in the face of ongoing noise and perturbation. Our adaptive attractor model of the HD system that uses symmetric angular head velocity (AHV) cells as a training signal shows that the HD system can learn to support stable firing patterns from poorly-performing, unstable starting conditions. The proposed calibration mechanism suggests a requirement for symmetric AHV cells, the existence of which has previously been unexplained, and predicts that symmetric and asymmetric AHV cells should be distinctly different (in morphology, synaptic targets and/or methods of action on postsynaptic HD cells) due to their distinctly different functions. PMID:20354898
Angular velocity variations and stability of spatially explicit prey-predator systems.
Abta, Refael; Shnerb, Nadav M
2007-05-01
The linear instability of Lotka-Volterra orbits in the homogenous manifold of a two-patch system is analyzed. The origin of these orbits instability in the absence of prey migration is revealed to be the dependence of the angular velocity on the azimuthal angle; in particular, the system desynchronizes at the exit from the slow part of the trajectory. Using this insight, an analogous model of a two coupled oscillator is presented and shown to yield the same type of linear instability. This enables one to incorporate the linear instability within a recently presented general framework that allows for comparison of all known stabilization mechanisms and for simple classification of observed oscillations. PMID:17677105
Angular momentum analysis of rotational transfer of superthermal relative velocity distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whiteley, T.W.J.; McCaffery, A.J. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Molecular Sciences
1996-12-02
An angular momentum (AM) theory is developed to calculate the relative populations of final rotational states after collision between a diatomic molecule and an atom having a narrow, superthermal velocity distribution as produced by, e.g. photolysis of a precursor species. Probability densities are derived from semiclassical expressions for energy and angular momentum assuming the classically impulsive limit with the repulsive wall modelled by a hard ellipsoid. The treatment given is general and therefore applies to molecules in which the centre-of-mass does not coincide with the centre of the potential coordinates. A transfer function for RT is derived and applied to the H + CO system. Analysis of the data allows the anisotropy to be extracted which is in good agreement with an ab initio potential surface. The method described allows one to rapidly assess the contributions from the elliptical core of the potential and from other features of the potential, and would permit more sophisticated representations of the topology to be incorporated. (Author).
Relation between the critical spin and angular velocity of a nucleus immediately after backbending
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nosov, V.G.; Kamchatnov, A.M.
1979-05-01
In nonspherical nuclei at J=J/sub c/+0 the relationship between the angular momentum and angular velocity immediately after backbending is the same as in the limiting case J-J/sub c/..-->..infinity. This indicates that there is a unique type of cancellation of the deviations from a rigid-body moment of inertia in the upper phase J>J/sub c/. An integral relationship is found which expresses this cancellation quantitatively. This formula permits J/sub c/ to be calculated for the rotational bands of the even-even nuclei studied and the results are in agreement with those obtained by other methods of locating the Curie point. For the ground state band of W/sup 170/ the cancellation of the reciprocals of the true and rigid-body moments of inertia can be verified directly. The condition for the stability of the rotation of a nonspherical nucleus is analyzed in the Appendix in close connection with the problem of a reasonable definition of the concept of a variable moment of inertia.
Relation between the critical spin and angular velocity of a nucleus immediately after backbending
Nosov, V G
1979-01-01
In nonspherical nuclei at $J = J_c + 0$ the relationship between the angular momentum and angular velocity immediately after backbending is the same as in the limiting case $J - J_c\\to\\infty$. This indicates that there is a unique type of cancellation of the deviations from a rigid-body moment of inertia in the upper phase $J>J_c$. An integral relationship is found which expresses this cancellation quantitatively. This formula permits $J_c$ to be calculated for the rotational bands of the even-even nuclei studied and the results are in agreement with those obtained by other methods of locating the Curie point. For the ground state band of W$^{170}$ the cancellation of the reciprocals of the true and rigid-body moments of inertia can be verified directly. The condition for the stability of the rotation of a nonspherical nucleus is analyzed in the Appendix in close connection with the problem of a reasonable definition of the concept of a variable moment of inertia.
Angelaki, D. E.; Hess, B. J.
1996-01-01
1. The dynamic contribution of otolith signals to three-dimensional angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) was studied during off-vertical axis rotations in rhesus monkeys. In an attempt to separate response components to head velocity from those to head position relative to gravity during low-frequency sinusoidal oscillations, large oscillation amplitudes were chosen such that peak-to-peak head displacements exceeded 360 degrees. Because the waveforms of head position and velocity differed in shape and frequency content, the particular head position and angular velocity sensitivity of otolith-ocular responses could be independently assessed. 2. During both constant velocity rotation and low-frequency sinusoidal oscillations, the otolith system generated two different types of oculomotor responses: 1) modulation of three-dimensional eye position and/or eye velocity as a function of head position relative to gravity, as presented in the preceding paper, and 2) slow-phase eye velocity as a function of head angular velocity. These two types of otolith-ocular responses have been analyzed separately. In this paper we focus on the angular velocity responses of the otolith system. 3. During constant velocity off-vertical axis rotations, a steady-state nystagmus was elicited that was maintained throughout rotation. During low-frequency sinusoidal off-vertical axis oscillations, dynamic otolith stimulation resulted primarily in a reduction of phase leads that characterize low-frequency VOR during earth-vertical axis rotations. Both of these effects are the result of an internally generated head angular velocity signal of otolithic origin that is coupled through a low-pass filter to the VOR. No change in either VOR gain or phase was observed at stimulus frequencies larger than 0.1 Hz. 4. The dynamic otolith contribution to low-frequency angular VOR exhibited three-dimensional response characteristics with some quantitative differences in the different response components. For
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamic angular velocity modeling and error compensation of VG095M in the whole temperature range, based on a radial basis function (RBF) neural network, is presented in this paper. With gyro output voltage and environmental temperature as the input and angular velocity as the output, an RBF neural network model is established. The model is trained and validated by the experiment data. The fitting error of the model is 4.3818 × 10−6 deg s−1, which shows that the model has high precision. The experiment data except the data used for modeling were processed with this model. The results show that the maximum, minimum and mean square error of the angular velocity were reduced to 4.6%, 4.3% and 4.7% respectively after compensation
Zheng, Shiqiang; Han, Bangcheng
2013-06-01
This paper presents an integrated angular velocity measurement and attitude control system of spacecraft using magnetically suspended double-gimbal control moment gyros (MSDGCMGs). The high speed rotor of MSDGCMG is alleviated by a five-degree-of-freedom permanent magnet biased AMB control system. With this special rotor supported manner, the MSDGCMG has the function of attitude rate sensing as well as attitude control. This characteristic provides a new approach to a compact light-weight spacecraft design, which can combine these two functions into a single device. This paper discusses the principles and implementations of AMB-based angular velocity measurement. Spacecraft dynamics with DGMSCMG actuators, including the dynamics of magnetically suspended high-speed rotor, the dynamics of inner gimbal and outer gimbal, as well as the determination method of spacecraft angular velocity are modeled, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed integrated system is also validated numerically and experimentally.
Morse, Jonathan L; Jung, Myung-Chul; Bashford, Gregory R; Hallbeck, M Susan
2006-11-01
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of gender, exertion direction, angular velocity and wrist angle on simultaneous grip force and wrist torque under the isokinetic condition. The study used 20 participants (10 males and 10 females) and included 6 angular velocities (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees /s) and 2 wrist exertion directions (flexion and extension) over the wrist range of motion of 70 degrees flexion to 60 degrees extension in 5 degrees increments. Similar to other studies, males and flexion exertion produced larger forces than females and extension exertion, respectively. However, the largest forces were generated at near extreme flexion of the wrist and the dependent variable of angular velocity was not practically significant. These results can contribute to the evaluation of cumulative trauma syndromes, but there is a need for more research on the dynamic measures of the hand and wrist complex and for standard development for dynamic force measurement. PMID:16442072
Modification of Angular Velocity by Inhomogeneous MRI Growth in Protoplanetary Disks
Kato, M T; Tandokoro, R; Fujimoto, M; Ida, S
2008-01-01
We have investigated evolution of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) in protoplanetary disks that have radially non-uniform magnetic field such that stable and unstable regions coexist initially, and found that a zone in which the disk gas rotates with a super-Keplerian velocity emerges as a result of the non-uniformly growing MRI turbulence. We have carried out two-dimensional resistive MHD simulations with a shearing box model. We found that if the spatially averaged magnetic Reynolds number, which is determined by widths of the stable and unstable regions in the initial conditions and values of the resistivity, is smaller than unity, the original Keplerian shear flow is transformed to the quasi-steady flow such that more flattened (rigid-rotation in extreme cases) velocity profile emerges locally and the outer part of the profile tends to be super-Keplerian. Angular momentum and mass transfer due to temporally generated MRI turbulence in the initially unstable region is responsible for the transformation...
Behavior of the angular velocity in the lower part of the solar convection zone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durney, B. R.
1989-03-01
The solar angular velocity is expanded in Legendre polynomials. The meridional motions are restricted to one or two cells per hemisphere, and an approximation to the azimuthal equation of motion is integrated with respect to r with the help of the boundary condition at r = Rc, the lower boundary of the solar convection zone (SCZ). The Reynolds stresses appearing in the equation are estimated for the lower SCZ, and approximate expressions are derived for the turbulent viscosity coefficients (which are due to the influence of the mean flow on the turbulent velocities). It is shown that the assumption of isotropic viscosity is always open to criticism. An order-of-magnitude estimate of the different terms in the E(r) and E(theta) equations suggests that the Reynolds and viscous stresses are important only near the boundaries of the SCZ. Away from the boundaries, in the Taylor-Proudman region, the suggested balance is between Coriolis forces, pressure gradients, and buoyancy forces. 47 refs.
Mandrosov, V. I.
2012-01-01
We propose a reference-free method for forming a three-dimensional image and for determining the angular velocity of a remote nonplanar object. The method is based on probing an object by laser radiation with a coherence length that is smaller or larger than the size of the object and on the use of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zherbina, A.S.
1977-01-01
Unsteady rotation of a viscous convective layer with friction at its lower boundary is analyzed. Such friction is shown to be capable of maintaining a radial dependence of angular velocity for a long time. It is found, however, that this mechanism cannot be the cause of the sun's equatorial acceleration.
Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…
The subsurface radial gradient of solar angular velocity from MDI f-mode observations
Corbard, T
2001-01-01
We report quantitative analysis of the radial gradient of solar angular velocity at depths down to about 15 Mm below the solar surface for latitudes up to 75 degree using the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) observations of surface gravity waves (f modes) from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO). A negative outward gradient of around -400 nHz/R, equivalent to logarithmic gradient of the rotation frequency with respect to radius which is very close to -1, is found to be remarkably constant between the equator and 30 degree of latitude. Above 30 degree it decreases in absolute magnitude to a very small value at around 50 degree. At higher latitudes the gradient may reverse its sign: if so this reversal takes place in a thin layer extending only 5 Mm beneath the visible surface, as evidenced by the most superficial modes (with degrees l>250). The signature of the torsional oscillations is seen in this layer, but no other significant temporal variations of the gradient and value of the rotation rate there...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardou, Philippe, E-mail: pcardou@cim.mcgill.ca; Angeles, Jorge [McGill University, Macdonald Engineering Building, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Intelligent Machines (Canada)
2008-05-15
Two methods are available for the estimation of the angular velocity of a rigid body from point-acceleration measurements: (i) the time-integration of the angular acceleration and (ii) the square-rooting of the centripetal acceleration. The inaccuracy of the first method is due mainly to the accumulation of the error on the angular acceleration throughout the time-integration process, which does not prevent that it be used successfully in crash tests with dummies, since these experiments never last more than one second. On the other hand, the error resulting from the second method is stable through time, but becomes inaccurate whenever the rigid body angular velocity approaches zero, which occurs in many applications. In order to take advantage of the complementarity of these two methods, a fusion of their estimates is proposed. To this end, the accelerometer measurements are modeled as exact signals contaminated with bias errors and Gaussian white noise. The relations between the variables at stake are written in the form of a nonlinear state-space system in which the angular velocity and the angular acceleration are state variables. Consequently, a minimum-variance-error estimate of the state vector is obtained by means of extended Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed estimation method is assessed by means of simulation. Apparently, the resulting estimation method is more robust than the existing accelerometer-only methods and competitive with gyroscope measurements. Moreover, it allows the identification and the compensation of any bias error in the accelerometer measurements, which is a significant advantage over gyroscopes.
Nordsiek, Freja; Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Lathrop, Daniel P.
2015-07-01
We present azimuthal velocity profiles measured in a Taylor-Couette apparatus, which has been used as a model of stellar and planetary accretion disks. The apparatus has a cylinder radius ratio of $\\eta = 0.716$, an aspect-ratio of $\\Gamma = 11.74$, and the plates closing the cylinders in the axial direction are attached to the outer cylinder. We investigate angular momentum transport and Ekman pumping in the Rayleigh-stable regime. The regime is linearly stable and is characterized by radially increasing specific angular momentum. We present several Rayleigh-stable profiles for shear Reynolds numbers $Re_S \\sim O(10^5) \\,$, both for $\\Omega_i > \\Omega_o > 0$ (quasi-Keplerian regime) and $\\Omega_o > \\Omega_i > 0$ (sub-rotating regime) where $\\Omega_{i,o}$ is the inner/outer cylinder rotation rate. None of the velocity profiles matches the non-vortical laminar Taylor-Couette profile. The deviation from that profile increased as solid-body rotation is approached at fixed $Re_S$. Flow super-rotation, an angular velocity greater than that of both cylinders, is observed in the sub-rotating regime. The velocity profiles give lower bounds for the torques required to rotate the inner cylinder that were larger than the torques for the case of laminar Taylor-Couette flow. The quasi-Keplerian profiles are composed of a well mixed inner region, having approximately constant angular momentum, connected to an outer region in solid-body rotation with the outer cylinder and attached axial boundaries. These regions suggest that the angular momentum is transported axially to the axial boundaries. Therefore, Taylor-Couette flow with closing plates attached to the outer cylinder is an imperfect model for accretion disk flows, especially with regard to their stability.
Ohno, Yuichi; Matsushima, Tatsuo; Uetsuka, Hiroshi
1994-01-01
The angular and velocity distributions of desorbing product CO2 were studied on a platinum(110)(1×2) surface over a wide range of CO coverages by means of angle-resolved thermal desorption combined with a cross-correlation time-of-flight (TOF) technique. Heating the coadsorption layer of CO and oxygen yields four CO2 formation peaks P1–CO2 (~400 K), P2–CO2 (300 K), P3–CO2 (250 K), and P4–CO2 (170 K)]. The angular distribution of each CO2 produced at high CO coverages consists of three desorpt...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buss, R.J.; Coggiola, M.J.; Lee, Y.T.
1978-12-01
Several methods currently used to study unimolecular decomposition in molecular beams are discussed. Experimental product angular and velocity distributions obtained for the reaction of F, Cl with C/sub 2/H/sub 3/Br are presented. The mechanism by which conservation of angular momemtum can cause coupling of the product angular and velocity distributions in dissociation of long-lived complexes is introduced. 14 references.
Sadeghi, Jafar
2015-01-01
In order to study quark and anti-quark interaction, one should consider all effects of the medium in motion of the pair. Because the pair, is not produced at rest in QGP. So the velocity of the pair, has some effects on its interactions that should be taken into account. In this paper we apply some conformal transformations for a rotat- ing string dual to a rotating heavy quark in $AdS_3$ which construct an accelerating string dual to an accelerating quark and anti-quark pair. So, we can have a comparison between when pair has angular velocity or not. Then we can study effects of angular velocity on the accelerating quark and anti-quark which are constructed by performing special con- formal transformations, conformal SO(2,2) transformation and particular $SL(2;R)_L$ and $SL(2;R)_R$ transformation. The accelerating quark and anti-quark show different behavior with increasing in angular velocity. With useful numerical solutions we show that quark and anti-quark can deccelerate to achieve each other or accelera...
ERSOY, H. Volkan; BARIŞ, Serdar
2002-01-01
In this paper, the flow of a viscous fluid due to the non-coaxial rotations of a disk and the fluid at infinity with a slight angular velocity difference is studied. The effect of angular velocity difference on the velocity field is analyzed in detail. A perturbation series which is expressed in powers of the rotation parameter with nearly the same angular velocity and the shooting method using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta procedure are employed to solve the problem. It is proved that the r...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arena, N.; Cavallaro, S.; Femino' , S.; Figuera, P.; Pirrone, S.; Porto, F.; Sambataro, S. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Universita di Messina, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania and Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud I-95129 Catania (Italy))
1991-11-01
Velocity spectra and angular and mass distributions for the evaporation residues of the {sup 32}S+{sup 12}C system at {ital E}{sup 32}S=145 MeV in the angular range 3{degree}{le}{var theta}{sub {ital L}}{le}12{degree} have been measured. In order to separate compound nucleus evaporation residues from other heavy reaction products, a kinematic analysis based on simple statistical assumptions relative to the velocity spectra was performed. The structures in the mass distribution are compared with the LILITA code predictions. The fusion excitation function of the existing results is compared with theoretical models. The total reaction cross section has been extracted by means of the modified sum of differences method.
Akhbari, Mahsa; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B; Jutten, Christian; Coppa, Bertrand
2012-01-01
In this paper an efficient filtering procedure based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) has been proposed. The method is based on a modified nonlinear dynamic model, previously introduced for the generation of synthetic ECG signals. The proposed method considers the angular velocity of ECG signal, as one of the states of an EKF. We have considered two cases for observation equations, in one case we have assumed a corresponding observation to angular velocity state and in the other case, we have not assumed any observations for it. Quantitative evaluation of the proposed algorithm on the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm Database (NSRDB) shows that an average SNR improvement of 8 dB is achieved for an input signal of -4 dB. PMID:23366530
Mandrosov, V. I.
2012-07-01
We propose a reference-free method for forming a threedimensional image and for determining the angular velocity of a remote nonplanar object. The method is based on probing an object by laser radiation with a coherence length that is smaller or larger than the size of the object and on the use of a screen with radial holes in the centres of which photodetectors are located, the screen being mounted in the region of the flat image of the object. A threedimensional image of the object is constructed using the visibility of the interference fringes formed behind the screen due to radiation beams scattered by the object which pass through various pairs of holes (one of the holes is fixed). The three components of the angular velocity vector of the object are determined by the power spectrum of the electric signal produced during the movement of interference fringes on a photodetector mounted behind the screen.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gibson, S T; Cavanagh, S J; Lewis, B R [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Gascooke, J R [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, SA 5001 (Australia); Mabbs, R [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St Louis MO 63930-4899 (United States); Sanov, A, E-mail: Stephen.Gibson@anu.edu.a, E-mail: Steven.Cavanagh@anu.edu.a [Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721-0041 (United States)
2009-11-01
The photodetachment spectrum of O{sub 2}{sup -} has been measured at a number of wavelengths using velocity-map imaging. The electron kinetic-energy resolution (< 5 meV) is sufficient to resolve the anion fine-structure splitting, vibrational and electronic structure. The electron angular distribution varies with the electron kinetic-energy, with a different behaviour for each vibronic band.
E. A. Perdios; Kalantonis, V. S.; Perdiou, A. E.; Nikaki, A. A.
2015-01-01
The paper deals with a modification of the restricted three-body problem in which the angular velocity variation is considered in the case where the primaries are sources of radiation. In particular, the existence and stability of its equilibrium points in the plane of motion of the primaries are studied. We find that this problem admits the well-known five planar equilibria of the classical problem with the difference that the corresponding collinear points may be stable depending on the par...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misewich, J.; Zacharias, H.; Loy, M.M.T.
1985-09-01
Infrared laser excitation has been utilized to excite part of a molecular beam of NO to a single well-defined quantum state, NO(v = 1, J = 3/2, ..cap omega.. = 1/2), which is scattered from a cleaved LiF(100) surface. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques then allow the determination of rotational and electronic distributions as well as state-specific angular and velocity distributions for scattering from a single initial vibrational-rotational state.
Yue Ji; Xingfei Li; Tengfei Wu; Cheng Chen
2015-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamics angular rate sensor (MHD ARS) has received much attention for its ultra-low noise in ultra-broad bandwidth and its impact resistance in harsh environments; however, its poor performance at low frequency hinders its work in long time duration. The paper presents a modified MHD ARS combining Coriolis with MHD effect to extend the measurement scope throughout the whole bandwidth, in which an appropriate radial flow velocity should be provided to satisfy simplified model ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butterworth, E.M.
1979-07-01
A method previously described by Butterworth and Ipser for constructing models of rapidly rotating fluid bodies in general relativity is modified to enable construction of solutions whose sources are very highly flattened. In particular, solutions with increasing oblateness and decreasing angular velocity are exhibited. Also, a discussion is given of the possible association of the terminal of relativistic sequences by equatorial shedding and the first secular axisymmetric instability of the Maclaurin spheroids.
A. R. Gowhari-Anaraki; Djavanroodi, F.; S. Shadlou
2008-01-01
The finite element method has been used to predict the creep rupture parameter, C*-Integral for single and double-edge cracks in eight annular rotating discs under constant angular velocity with and without internal pressure. In this study, a new dimensionless creeping crack configuration factor, Q* has been introduced. Power law creeping finite element analyses have been performed and the results are presented in the form of Q* for a wide range of components and crack geometry parameters. Th...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alpar, M.A.
1986-12-01
Model power spectra are constructed for quasi-periodic oscillations of the type observed in some galactic bulge X-ray sources. It is shown that the angular location of clumping in the boundary layer, as well as the spread in Keplerian velocities within the boundary layer, will effect the form of the power spectrum under certain conditions. The occurrence of such features in observed power spectra would yield information on the possible role of the magnetic field in clumping and on the radial velocity of matter moving through the boundary layer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, S.J.; Ro, S.T. [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)
1995-03-01
A simplified model for the so-called ACRT(accelerated crucible rotation technique) Bridgman crystal growth was considered in order to investigate the principal effects of the periodic variation of angular velocity. Numerical solutions were obtained for Ro=0.5, Ra=4.236*10{sup 6} and E=2.176*10{sup -3}. The effects of spin-up process combined with natural convection was investigated as a preliminary study. The spin-up time scale for the present problem was a little larger than that observed for homogeneous spin-up problems. Numerical results reveal that over a time scale of (H{sup 2}/{nu}{omega}{sub f}){sup 1/2} the forced convection due to the formation of Ekman layer predominates. When the state of rigid body rotation is attained, natural convection due to buoyancy emerges as the main driving force and then the steady-state is approached asymptotically. Based on our preliminary results with simple spin-up, several fundamental features associated with variation of rotation speed are successfully identified. When a periodic variation of angular velocity was imposed, the system response was also periodic. Due to effect of mixing, the heat transfer was enlarged. From the analysis of time-averaged Nusselt number along the bottom surface the effect of a periodic variation of angular velocity on the interface location could be indirectly identified. (author). 15 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.
Mass, velocity, angular and charge-state distributions from the fusion of /sup 32/S and /sup 112/Sn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolton, C.; Schier, W.A.; Tsoupas, N.; Enge, H.; Salomaa, M.; Sperduto, A.; Graue, A.
1978-07-01
Evaporation residues from the fusion of /sup 32/S and /sup 112/Sn at E/sub /sup 32/S/ = 160 meV were studied using an energy-mass spectrometer. The velocity selector of the energy-mass spectrometer was first utilized to measure summed fusion products as a function of velocity setting and reaction angle. In-flight mass separtion of the fusion products with the energy-mass spectrometer identified masses 141, 140, and 139 from the evaporation of three to five nucleons from the /sup 144/Dy compound nucleus. Absolute cross-section measurements are compared to theoretical predictions of the statistical evaporation model. Velocity, angular and charge state distributions of evaporation residues are also compared to calculated values.
Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos; De Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Koffes, Fabiana De Carvalho; Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Da Silva, Antonio Carlos
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine differences in hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H/Q) peak torque ratios evaluated at different angular velocities between men and women who participate in judo, handball or soccer. A total of 166 athletes, including 58 judokas (26 females and 32 males), 39 handball players (22 females and 17 males), and 69 soccer players (17 females and 52 males), were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. The H/Q isokinetic peak torque ratios were calculated at angular velocities of 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ and 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. In the analysis by gender, female soccer players produced lower H/Q peak torque ratios at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ than males involved in the same sport. However, when H/Q peak torque ratio was assessed at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹, there were no significant differences between the sexes. In the analysis by sport, there were no differences among females at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹. In contrast, male soccer players had significantly higher H/Q peak torque ratios than judokas (66 ± 12% vs. 57 ± 14%, respectively). Female handball players produced significantly lower peak torque ratios at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹ than judokas or soccer players, whereas males presented no ratio differences among sports At 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. In the analysis by velocity, women's muscular ratios assessed at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ were significantly lower than at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹ for all sports; among men, only judokas presented lower ratios at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ than at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. The present results suggest that sport modality and angular velocity influence the isokinetic strength profiles of men and women. PMID:22364375
Near-field angular distributions of high velocity ions for low-power hall thrusters
Sullivan, Regina M.; Yost, Allison; Johnson, Lee K.
2009-01-01
Experimental angular distributions of high-energy primary ions in the near-field region of a small Hall thruster between 50-200 mm downstream of the thruster exit plane at a range of centerline angles have been determined using a highly-collimated, energy-selective diagnostic probe. The measurements reveal a wide angular distribution of ions exiting the thruster channel and the formation of a strong, axially-directed jet of ions along the thruster centerline. Comparisons are made to other exp...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yue Ji
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The magnetohydrodynamics angular rate sensor (MHD ARS has received much attention for its ultra-low noise in ultra-broad bandwidth and its impact resistance in harsh environments; however, its poor performance at low frequency hinders its work in long time duration. The paper presents a modified MHD ARS combining Coriolis with MHD effect to extend the measurement scope throughout the whole bandwidth, in which an appropriate radial flow velocity should be provided to satisfy simplified model of the modified MHD ARS. A method that can generate radial velocity by an MHD pump in MHD ARS is proposed. A device is designed to study the radial flow velocity generated by the MHD pump. The influence of structure and physical parameters are studied by numerical simulation and experiment of the device. The analytic expression of the velocity generated by the energized current drawn from simulation and experiment are consistent, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method generating radial velocity. The study can be applied to generate and control radial velocity in modified MHD ARS, which is essential for the two effects combination throughout the whole bandwidth.
Ji, Yue; Li, Xingfei; Wu, Tengfei; Chen, Cheng
2015-12-15
The magnetohydrodynamics angular rate sensor (MHD ARS) has received much attention for its ultra-low noise in ultra-broad bandwidth and its impact resistance in harsh environments; however, its poor performance at low frequency hinders its work in long time duration. The paper presents a modified MHD ARS combining Coriolis with MHD effect to extend the measurement scope throughout the whole bandwidth, in which an appropriate radial flow velocity should be provided to satisfy simplified model of the modified MHD ARS. A method that can generate radial velocity by an MHD pump in MHD ARS is proposed. A device is designed to study the radial flow velocity generated by the MHD pump. The influence of structure and physical parameters are studied by numerical simulation and experiment of the device. The analytic expression of the velocity generated by the energized current drawn from simulation and experiment are consistent, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method generating radial velocity. The study can be applied to generate and control radial velocity in modified MHD ARS, which is essential for the two effects combination throughout the whole bandwidth.
Slawinski, J; Bonnefoy, A; Ontanon, G; Leveque, J M; Miller, C; Riquet, A; Chèze, L; Dumas, R
2010-05-28
The aim of the present study was to measure during a sprint start the joint angular velocity and the kinetic energy of the different segments in elite sprinters. This was performed using a 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body. Eight elite sprinters (10.30+/-0.14s 100 m time), equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, realised four maximal 10 m sprints start on an indoor track. An opto-electronic Motion Analysis system consisting of 12 digital cameras (250 Hz) was used to collect the 3D marker trajectories. During the pushing phase on the blocks, the 3D angular velocity vector and its norm were calculated for each joint. The kinetic energy of 16 segments of the lower and upper limbs and of the total body was calculated. The 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body demonstrated that joints such as shoulders, thoracic or hips did not reach their maximal angular velocity with a movement of flexion-extension, but with a combination of flexion-extension, abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation. The maximal kinetic energy of the total body was reached before clearing block (respectively, 537+/-59.3 J vs. 514.9+/-66.0 J; p< or =0.01). These results suggested that a better synchronization between the upper and lower limbs could increase the efficiency of pushing phase on the blocks. Besides, to understand low interindividual variances in the sprint start performance in elite athletes, a 3D complete body kinematic analysis shall be used. PMID:20226465
NAGAYAMA, Takumi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, Akiharu; HANDA, Toshihiro; HONMA, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; KAWAGUCHI, Noriyuki; Miyaji, Takeshi
2010-01-01
We conducted the astrometry of H2O masers in the Galactic star-forming region Onsala 1 (ON1) with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). We measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.404+/-0.017 mas, corresponding to a distance of 2.47+/-0.11 kpc. ON1 is appeared to be located near the tangent point at the Galactic longitude of 69.54 deg. We estimate the angular velocity of the Galactic rotation at Sun, the ratio of the distance from Sun to the Galactic center and the Galactic rotation velo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seregin, A.A.
1976-03-01
In framework of a phenomenological collective nuclear theory the dependence of the moment of inertia on the angular velocity squared is studied. It is shown that this theory may explain the S shape of dependence of J on ..omega../sup 2/ if the collective motion potential V(..beta..) has two points of inflection. Anomalies in the low-lying part of the energy spectrum of the nuclei /sup 184/Hg and /sup 186/Hg are related to inflection points of the potential.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morioka, Y.; Tomiyama, K.; Arima, H. (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)); Sawai, K.; Omata, K.; Matsushima, T.; Takagi, K.; Ishibashi, A.; Saito, H. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))
1993-07-01
The purpose of this newly developed equipment is to separate the power system when an out-of-step between two groups of generators within it is predicted. The out-of-step prediction method is based on the generator's angular-velocity data measured by electromagnetic sensors and gears that are fastened directly to the rotors. The equipment was tested by the large-scale power system simulator APSA (Advanced Power System Analyzer), that is installed in the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. The equipment also underwent a field test.
Nordsiek, F.; Huisman, S.G.; Veen, van der, J.T.; C. Sun; Lohse, D.; Lathrop, D. P.
2015-01-01
We present azimuthal velocity profiles measured in a Taylor–Couette apparatus, which has been used as a model of stellar and planetary accretion disks. The apparatus has a cylinder radius ratio of ${\\it\\eta}=0.716$η=0.716, an aspect ratio of ${\\it\\Gamma}=11.74$Γ=11.74, and the plates closing the cylinders in the axial direction are attached to the outer cylinder. We investigate angular momentum transport and Ekman pumping in the Rayleigh-stable regime. This regime is linearly stable and is ch...
Khurana, Krishan K.; Kivelson, Margaret G.
1993-01-01
The averaged angular velocity of plasma from magnetic observations is evaluated using plasma outflow rate as a parameter. New techniques are developed to calculate the normal and azimuthal components of the magnetic field in and near to the plasma sheet in a plasma sheet coordinate system. The revised field components differ substantially from the quantities used in previous analyses. With the revised field values, it appears that during the Voyager 2 flyby for an outflow rate of 2.5 x 10 exp 29 amu/s, the observed magnetic torque may be sufficient to keep the plasma in corotation to radial distances of 50 Rj in the postmidnight quadrant.
Fukutani, Atsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Isaka, Tadao
2015-01-01
Background During a stretch- shortening cycle (SSC), muscle force attained during concentric contractions (shortening phase) is potentiated by the preceding eccentric contractions (lengthening phase). The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of joint angular velocity on force potentiation induced by SSC (SSC effect). Findings Twelve healthy men (age, 24.2 ± 3.2 years; height, 1.73 ± 0.05 m; body mass, 68.1 ± 11.0 kg) participated in this study. Ankle joint angle was passively mo...
Zhang Zhiyong; Li Zhiqiang; Zhou Qingkun; Zhang Lianchao; Fan Dapeng
2014-01-01
To overcome the influence of the nonlinear friction on the gimbaled servo-system of an inertial stabilized platforms (ISPs) with DC motor direct-drive, the methods of modeling and compensation of the nonlinear friction are proposed. Firstly, the inapplicability of LuGre model when trying to interpret the backward angular displacement in the prestiction regime is observed experimentally and the reason is deduced theoretically. Then, based on the dynamic model of direct-drive ISPs, a modified L...
Post-Glitch Relaxation of Pulsar Angular Velocity in the Context of an Inverse Problem
Hayrapetyan, M. V.; Baghdasaryan, D.
2015-06-01
The motion of the neutron-proton vortex system in neutron stars is examined taking pinning and depinning of the vortices into account. The relaxation solution of the equations for the dynamics of pulsar rotation after glitches is compared with observational data on the Vela pulsar. It is shown that the angular rotation relaxation parameters are related both to the appearance of a "density wave" of neutron vortices during a glitch and to features of the motion of the vortices between successive glitches.
Analysis of the angular sensitivity of an innovative particle velocity sensor
Honschoten, van, J.W.; Yntema, D.R.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Elwenspoek, M.
2008-01-01
Abstract—In this paper a novel micromachined acoustic sensor consisting of four heated wires is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The presence of the chip surface of the probe in the vicinity of the wires influences the local fluid flow, while it also affects the temperature distribution in the probe by altering the direction of heat transport. Both effects result into a specific angular dependence of the sensor sensitivity. To explain this specific directionality of the sensitivity,...
Nagayama, Takumi; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Handa, Toshihiro; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Miyaji, Takeshi
2010-01-01
We conducted the astrometry of H2O masers in the Galactic star-forming region Onsala 1 (ON1) with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). We measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.404+/-0.017 mas, corresponding to a distance of 2.47+/-0.11 kpc. ON1 is appeared to be located near the tangent point at the Galactic longitude of 69.54 deg. We estimate the angular velocity of the Galactic rotation at Sun, the ratio of the distance from Sun to the Galactic center and the Galactic rotation velocity at Sun, to be 28.7+/-1.3 km/s/kpc using the measured distance and proper motion of ON1. This value is larger than the IAU recommended value of 25.9 km/s/kpc, but consistent with other results recently obtained with the VLBI technique.
Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Zazulak, Bohdanna T.
2007-01-01
Our purpose was to determine if females demonstrate decreased hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque (H/Q) ratios compared to males and if H/Q ratios increase with increased isokinetic velocity in both sexes. Maturation disproportionately increases hamstrings peak torque at high velocity in males, but not females. Therefore, we hypothesised that mature females would demonstrate decreased H/Q ratios compared to males and the difference in H/Q ratio between sexes would increase as isokinetic velo...
Nordsiek, Freja; van der Veen, Roeland C A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Lathrop, Daniel P
2014-01-01
Azimuthal velocity profiles were measured in a Taylor-Couette apparatus, which has been used as a model of stellar and planetary accretion disks. The apparatus has a cylinder radius ratio of $\\eta = 0.7158$, an aspect-ratio of $\\Gamma = 11.74$, and axial boundaries attached to the outer cylinder --- known to have significant Ekman pumping. We investigated angular momentum transport and Ekman pumping in the Rayleigh-stable regime. The regime is linearly stable and is characterized by radially increasing specific angular momentum. We measured several Rayleigh-stable profiles for shear Reynolds numbers $Re_S \\sim O\\left(10^5\\right) \\,$, both for $\\Omega_i > \\Omega_o > 0$ (quasi-Keplerian regime) and $\\Omega_o > \\Omega_i > 0$ (sub-rotating regime) where $\\Omega_{i,o}$ is the inner/outer cylinder rotation rate. None of the velocity profiles matched the non-vortical laminar Taylor-Couette profile. The deviation from that profile increased as solid-body rotation was approached at fixed $Re_S$. Flow super-rotation, a...
Shah, Abhay G; Keidl, Tobias S
2012-01-01
This is the first of two papers on computing the self-force in a radiation gauge for a particle moving in circular, equatorial orbit about a Kerr black hole. In the EMRI (extreme-mass-ratio inspiral) framework, with mode-sum renormalization, we compute the renormalized value of the quantity $h_{\\alpha\\beta}u^\\alpha u^\\beta$, gauge-invariant under gauge transformations generated by a helically symmetric gauge vector; and we find the related order $\\frak{m}$ correction to the particle's angular velocity at fixed renormalized redshift (and to its redshift at fixed angular velocity). The radiative part of the perturbed metric is constructed from the Hertz potential which is extracted from the Weyl scalar by an algebraic inversion\\cite{sf2}. We then write the spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics as a sum over spin-weighted spherical harmonics and use mode-sum renormalization to find the renormalization coefficients by matching a series in $L=\\ell+1/2$ to the large-$L$ behavior of the expression for $H := \\frac12 h_{...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ceyer, S.T.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Somorjai, G.A.
1981-09-01
A molecular beam surface scattering apparatus designed for the study of corrosion and catalytic surface reactions is described. The apparatus incorporates two molecular or atomic beams aimed at a surface characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), a rotatable, differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer, and a versatile manipulator. Angular distributions and energy distributions as a function of angle and independent of the surface residence time can be measured. Typical data for the oxidation of deuterium to D/sub 2/O on a Pt(111) crystal surface are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ceyer, S. T.; Siekhaus, W. J.; Somorjai, G. A.
1980-11-01
A molecular beam surface scattering apparatus designed for the study of corrosion and catalyticsurfacereactions is described. The apparatus incorporates two molecular or atomic beams aimed at a surface characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), a rotatable, differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer, and a versatile manipulator. Angular distributions and energy distributions as a funcion of angle and independent of the surface residence time can be measured. Typical data for the oxidation of deuterium to D{sub 2}O on a Pt(lll) crystal surface are presented.
Sasorova, Elena; Levin, Boris
2013-04-01
It was shown [Levin, Sasorova 2012], that a cyclic increase and decrease of the seismic activity in different time intervals was observed in spatial-temporal distributions of the earthquakes (EQ) (1900-2012) with magnitude M≥7 in northwest part of the Pacific region. The spatial-temporal analysis revealed the periodic changing of the seismic activity and the depth distributions of the strong events in different time intervals. The Earth rotation angular velocity varies with time. Increasing of the angular velocity of a celestial body rotation leads to growth of oblateness of planet, and vice versa, the oblateness is decreasing with reducing of velocity of rotation. So, well-known effect of instability leads to small pulsations of the Earth surface. The Earth crust in polar areas is compressing with increasing of angular velocity of rotating planet, and it is extensible in the equator zone. The decreasing of rotation velocity leads to opposite result. The objectives of this work is the comparative spatial-temporal analysis of the seismicity regime variation (events with M>=7.0) on the whole Earth and in the Pacific region from 1900 up to date and the Earth rotation instability. The two subsets of the worldwide NEIC (USGS) catalog were used (USGS/NEIC from 1973 up to 2012 and Significant Worldwide Earthquakes (2150 B.C. - 1994 A.D.)). The preliminary standardization of magnitudes and removal of aftershocks was fulfilled for the first mentioned above subset of events. In both cases the entire range of observations was subdivided into several 5-year intervals. The temporal EQ distributions were calculated separately for six latitudinal intervals (belts): 45°-30°N, 30°-15°N, 15°-0°N, 0°-15°S, 15°-30°S, 30°-45°S. The high latitudes do not take in consideration because of very low seismic activity in these latitudes. Separately were analyzed: the EQs with M>=8 for time interval 1900-2012, and the EQs with M>=6 for time interval 1700-1900. The data base (http
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valentini, J.J.
1976-11-01
A study of the endoergic, bimolecular reactions of F/sub 2/ with I/sub 2/, ICl, and HI in a crossed molecular beam experiment is described. The trihalogens IIF, ClIF, and HIF were directly observed as the products of these reactions. At high collision energies a second reactive channel producing IF becomes important. Product angular and velocity distributions show that this IF does not result from a four-center exchange reaction. Measured threshold energies for the formation of IIF, ClIF, and HIF yield lower bounds to the stabilities of these molecules, with respect to the separated atoms, of 69, 81, and 96 kcal/mole, respectively. Analysis of product center-of-mass angular distributions indicates that a slightly nonlinear approach is most effective in bringing about reaction to form the stable triatomic radical. Also described is a crossed molecular beam study of the Cl + Br/sub 2/ ..-->.. BrCl + Br reaction at collision energies from 6.8 to 17.7 kcal/mole. The results indicate that this reaction has the characteristics of an exoergic reaction on an attractive potential energy surface with early energy release. Reagent translational energy is very efficiently channeled into product internal energy. At high collision energy the reaction appears to approach the spectator stripping limit. Finally, a series of computer programs which can be used to carry out the requisite data analysis for crossed molecular beam reactive scattering experiments are described. These programs recover the reactive scattering center-of-mass flux distribution from the measured angular and velocity distributions of the products.
Dalton, Brian H; Power, Geoffrey A; Paturel, Justin R; Rice, Charles L
2015-06-01
The underlying factors related to the divergent findings of age-related fatigue for dynamic tasks are not well understood. The purpose here was to investigate age-related fatigability and recovery between a repeated constrained (isokinetic) and an unconstrained velocity (isotonic) task, in which participants performed fatiguing contractions at the velocity (isokinetic) or resistance (isotonic) corresponding with maximal power. To compare between tasks, isotonic torque-power relationships were constructed prior to and following both fatiguing tasks and during short-term recovery. Contractile properties were recorded from 9 old (~75 years) and 11 young (~25 years) men during three testing sessions. In the first session, maximal power was assessed, and sessions 2 and 3 involved an isokinetic or an isotonic concentric fatigue task performed until maximal power was reduced by 40 %. Compared with young, the older men performed the same number of contractions to task failure for the isokinetic task (~45 contractions), but 20 % fewer for the isotonic task (p < 0.05). Regardless of age and task, maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength, angular velocity, and power were reduced by ~30, ~13, and ~25 %, respectively, immediately following task failure, and only isometric torque was not recovered fully by 10 min. In conclusion, older men are more fatigable than the young when performing a repetitive maximal dynamic task at a relative resistance (isotonic) but not an absolute velocity (isokinetic), corresponding to maximal power. PMID:25943700
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A closed form formula is given for the mean power radiated per solid angle in a given direction by a relativistic particle in cyclotronic motion with a non zero parallel velocity. The difference between emitted and received mean power for a non closed periodic motion is illustrated in this case
Corrêa, Umberto Cesar; Vilar, Luis; Davids, Keith; Renshaw, Ian
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of interpersonal interactions between players on the regulation of ball passing velocity in the team sport of futsal. For this purpose 28 sequences of play, in which passes were performed between outfield players, were selected from an elite futsal competition and analyzed using TACTO software. Relative angles between attackers and defenders were used to examine interpersonal coordination tendencies that emerged during performance. Result...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lisitskaya, I.N.; Rudenko, V.I.; Semenova, S.V.
1979-01-01
A device has been developed which is not only a measurement convertor of high accuracy, but also a device from whose output the active power of variable current is selected (greater than one watt) to the input of an electric and hydraulic turbine velocity regulator. The device can operate at increased temperature (up to +180/sup 0/C). Results are given of an analytical study and experimental data on the shape of the curve of the output voltage of the convertor.
Modification of Angular Velocity by Inhomogeneous MRI Growth in Protoplanetary Disks
Kato, M T; Nakamura, K.; Tandokoro, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Ida, S.
2008-01-01
We have investigated evolution of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) in protoplanetary disks that have radially non-uniform magnetic field such that stable and unstable regions coexist initially, and found that a zone in which the disk gas rotates with a super-Keplerian velocity emerges as a result of the non-uniformly growing MRI turbulence. We have carried out two-dimensional resistive MHD simulations with a shearing box model. We found that if the spatially averaged magnetic Reynolds num...
Tasnim, S.; Cairns, Iver H.
2016-06-01
An analytic, self-consistent, theoretical model for the solar wind is developed that generalizes previous models to include all of the following: conservation of angular momentum, frozen-in magnetic fields, both radial (r) and azimuthal (ϕ) components of the magnetic field (Br and Bϕ) and velocity (vr and vϕ) from the inner boundary rs to 1 AU, and the detailed tracing back of observations at 1 AU to the inner boundary and all intervening (r,ϕ). The new model applies near the solar equatorial plane, assumes constant radial wind speed at each heliolongitude, and enforces corotation at the inner boundary. It is shown that the new theoretical model can be reduced to the previous models in the appropriate limits. We apply the model to two solar rotations of Wind spacecraft data, one near solar minimum (1-27 August 2010) and one near solar maximum (1-27 July 2002). The model analytically predicts the Alfvénic critical radius ra from the radial Alfvénic Mach number observed at 1 AU. Typically, the values are less than 15 solar radii, in agreement with some recent observations, and vary with longitude. Values of vϕ(r,ϕ) are predicted from the model, being always in the sense of corotation but varying in magnitude with r and ϕ. Reasonable and self-consistent results are found for Br(r,ϕ), Bϕ(r,ϕ), vϕ(r,ϕ), and n(r,ϕ) from rs to 1 AU. Both the azimuthal and radial magnetic fields at rs vary with time by more than an order of magnitude and usually |Br(rs,ϕs)|≥|Bϕ(rs,ϕs)|. Typically, though not always, magnetic contributions to the total angular momentum are small. Interestingly, however, the azimuthal flow velocities observed at 1 AU are not always in the corotation direction and usually have much larger magnitudes than predicted by the model. Conservation of angular momentum alone cannot explain these azimuthal velocities and the standard interpretation involving stream-stream interactions and dynamical behavior seems reasonable. Issues regarding the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Zhiyong; Li Zhiqiang; Zhou Qingkun; Zhang Lianchao; Fan Dapeng
2014-01-01
To overcome the influence of the nonlinear friction on the gimbaled servo-system of an inertial stabilized platforms (ISPs) with DC motor direct-drive, the methods of modeling and com-pensation of the nonlinear friction are proposed. Firstly, the inapplicability of LuGre model when trying to interpret the backward angular displacement in the prestiction regime is observed exper-imentally and the reason is deduced theoretically. Then, based on the dynamic model of direct-drive ISPs, a modified LuGre model is proposed to describe the characteristic of the friction in the prestiction regime. Furthermore, the state switch condition of the three friction regimes including presliding, gross sliding and prestiction is presented. Finally, a composite compensation controller including a nonlinear friction observer and a feedforward compensator based on the novel LuGre model is designed to restrain the nonlinear friction and to improve the control precision. Experi-mental results indicate that compared with those of the conventional proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) control method and the PID plus LuGre model-based friction compensation method, the dwell-time has decreased from 0.2 s to almost 0 s, the position error decreased to 86.7%and the peak-to-peak value of position error decreased to 80%after the novel compensation con-troller is added. It concludes that the composite compensation controller can greatly improve the control precision of the dynamic sealed ISPs.
High-Q microsphere resonators for angular velocity sensing in gyroscopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A resonator gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect is proposed using a core unit that is generated by water-hydrogen flame melting. The relationship between the quality factor Q and diameter D is revealed. The Q factor of the spectral lines of the microsphere cavity coupling system, which uses tapered fibers, is found to be 106 or more before packaging with a low refractive curable ultraviolet polymer, although it drops to approximately 105 after packaging. In addition, a rotating test platform is built, and the transmission spectrum and discriminator curves of a microsphere cavity with Q of 3.22×106 are measured using a semiconductor laser (linewidth less than 1 kHz) and a real-time proportional-integral circuit tracking and feedback technique. Equations fitting the relation between the voltage and angular rotation rate are obtained. According to the experimentally measured parameters, the sensitivity of the microsphere-coupled system can reach 0.095∘/s
High-Q microsphere resonators for angular velocity sensing in gyroscopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
An, Panlong [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030051 (China); School of Science, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zheng, Yongqiu [Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement Laboratory, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Yan, Shubin, E-mail: shubin-yan@nuc.edu.cn; Xue, Chenyang, E-mail: xuechenyang@nuc.edu.cn; Liu, Jun, E-mail: liuj@nuc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement Laboratory, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Wang, Wanjun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)
2015-02-09
A resonator gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect is proposed using a core unit that is generated by water-hydrogen flame melting. The relationship between the quality factor Q and diameter D is revealed. The Q factor of the spectral lines of the microsphere cavity coupling system, which uses tapered fibers, is found to be 10{sup 6} or more before packaging with a low refractive curable ultraviolet polymer, although it drops to approximately 10{sup 5} after packaging. In addition, a rotating test platform is built, and the transmission spectrum and discriminator curves of a microsphere cavity with Q of 3.22×10{sup 6} are measured using a semiconductor laser (linewidth less than 1 kHz) and a real-time proportional-integral circuit tracking and feedback technique. Equations fitting the relation between the voltage and angular rotation rate are obtained. According to the experimentally measured parameters, the sensitivity of the microsphere-coupled system can reach 0.095{sup ∘}/s.
High-Q microsphere resonators for angular velocity sensing in gyroscopes
An, Panlong; Zheng, Yongqiu; Yan, Shubin; Xue, Chenyang; Wang, Wanjun; Liu, Jun
2015-02-01
A resonator gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect is proposed using a core unit that is generated by water-hydrogen flame melting. The relationship between the quality factor Q and diameter D is revealed. The Q factor of the spectral lines of the microsphere cavity coupling system, which uses tapered fibers, is found to be 106 or more before packaging with a low refractive curable ultraviolet polymer, although it drops to approximately 105 after packaging. In addition, a rotating test platform is built, and the transmission spectrum and discriminator curves of a microsphere cavity with Q of 3.22 ×106 are measured using a semiconductor laser (linewidth less than 1 kHz) and a real-time proportional-integral circuit tracking and feedback technique. Equations fitting the relation between the voltage and angular rotation rate are obtained. According to the experimentally measured parameters, the sensitivity of the microsphere-coupled system can reach 0.095∘/s .
Hubble Space Telescope Angular Velocity Estimation During the Robotic Servicing Mission
Thienel, Julie K.; Sanner, Robert M.
2005-01-01
In 2004 NASA began investigation of a robotic servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Such a mission would require estimates of the HST attitude and rates in order to achieve a capture by the proposed Hubble robotic vehicle (HRV). HRV was to be equipped with vision-based sensors, capable of estimating the relative attitude between HST and HRV. The inertial HST attitude is derived from the measured relative attitude and the HRV computed inertial attitude. However, the relative rate between HST and HRV cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the HST rate with respect to inertial space is not known. Two approaches are developed to estimate the HST rates. Both methods utilize the measured relative attitude and the HRV inertial attitude and rates. First, a nonlinear estimator is developed. The nonlinear approach estimates the HST rate through an estimation of the inertial angular momentum. The development includes an analysis of the estimator stability given errors in the measured attitude. Second, a linearized approach is developed. The linearized approach is a pseudo-linear Kalman filter. Simulation test results for both methods are given, including scenarios with erroneous measured attitudes. Even though the development began as an application for the HST robotic servicing mission, the methods presented are applicable to any rendezvous/capture mission involving a non-cooperative target spacecraft.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Zhiyong
2014-06-01
Full Text Available To overcome the influence of the nonlinear friction on the gimbaled servo-system of an inertial stabilized platforms (ISPs with DC motor direct-drive, the methods of modeling and compensation of the nonlinear friction are proposed. Firstly, the inapplicability of LuGre model when trying to interpret the backward angular displacement in the prestiction regime is observed experimentally and the reason is deduced theoretically. Then, based on the dynamic model of direct-drive ISPs, a modified LuGre model is proposed to describe the characteristic of the friction in the prestiction regime. Furthermore, the state switch condition of the three friction regimes including presliding, gross sliding and prestiction is presented. Finally, a composite compensation controller including a nonlinear friction observer and a feedforward compensator based on the novel LuGre model is designed to restrain the nonlinear friction and to improve the control precision. Experimental results indicate that compared with those of the conventional proportion–integration–differentiation (PID control method and the PID plus LuGre model-based friction compensation method, the dwell-time has decreased from 0.2 s to almost 0 s, the position error decreased to 86.7% and the peak-to-peak value of position error decreased to 80% after the novel compensation controller is added. It concludes that the composite compensation controller can greatly improve the control precision of the dynamic sealed ISPs.
Angular and Frequency-Dependent Wave Velocity and Attenuation in Fractured Porous Media
Carcione, José M.; Gurevich, Boris; Santos, Juan E.; Picotti, Stefano
2013-11-01
Wave-induced fluid flow generates a dominant attenuation mechanism in porous media. It consists of energy loss due to P-wave conversion to Biot (diffusive) modes at mesoscopic-scale inhomogeneities. Fractured poroelastic media show significant attenuation and velocity dispersion due to this mechanism. The theory has first been developed for the symmetry axis of the equivalent transversely isotropic (TI) medium corresponding to a poroelastic medium containing planar fractures. In this work, we consider the theory for all propagation angles by obtaining the five complex and frequency-dependent stiffnesses of the equivalent TI medium as a function of frequency. We assume that the flow direction is perpendicular to the layering plane and is independent of the loading direction. As a consequence, the behaviour of the medium can be described by a single relaxation function. We first consider the limiting case of an open (highly permeable) fracture of negligible thickness. We then compute the associated wave velocities and quality factors as a function of the propagation direction (phase and ray angles) and frequency. The location of the relaxation peak depends on the distance between fractures (the mesoscopic distance), viscosity, permeability and fractures compliances. The flow induced by wave propagation affects the quasi-shear (qS) wave with levels of attenuation similar to those of the quasi-compressional (qP) wave. On the other hand, a general fracture can be modeled as a sequence of poroelastic layers, where one of the layers is very thin. Modeling fractures of different thickness filled with CO2 embedded in a background medium saturated with a stiffer fluid also shows considerable attenuation and velocity dispersion. If the fracture and background frames are the same, the equivalent medium is isotropic, but strong wave anisotropy occurs in the case of a frameless and highly permeable fracture material, for instance a suspension of solid particles in the fluid.
Inferring the sun's internal angular velocity from observed p-mode frequency splittings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, T.M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Dziembowski, W.A.; Goode, P.; Gough, D.O. (High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, CO (USA); Aarhus Universitet (Denmark); Centrum Astronomiczne, Warsaw (Poland); New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark (USA); Cambridge Univ. (England))
1989-08-01
The sun's internal solar velocity Omega is studied as a function of latitude and radius using the solar oscillation data of Brown and Morrow (1987). An attempt is made to separate robust inferences about the sun from artifacts of the analysis. It is found that a latitudinal variation of Omega similar to that observed at the solar surface exists throughout the sun's convection zone and that the variation of Omega with latitude persists to some extent even beneath the convection zone. 44 refs.
Juarez, A. M.; Redt, E.; Hoenert, M.; Hoyos-Campo, L. M.; Rolles, D.; Berrah, N.; Aguilar, A.
2009-11-01
We present photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in Helium and Neon for electrons with excess energies between 5 and 100 meV. These ultra-low kinetic energy PAD measurements were obtained with a modified Velocity Map Imaging spectrometer (VMI) and VUV light from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron radiation source. The efficiency and reliability of the spectrometer at this ultra-low kinetic energy range has been tested by determining the variation with energy of the asymmetry, β, parameter of photoelectrons from the s-shell direct ionization in Helium. For Neon, we determined the energy dependent asymmetry parameters across the "s" and "d" autoionizing resonances between the P3/2 and P1/2 ionic states. Furthermore, we measured the asymmetry parameter for photoelectrons produced from the n = 2 to n = 6 satellite states of He. These measurements were performed at values of excess kinetic energy previously unexplored.
Iramina, Keiji; Kamei, Yuuichiro; Katayama, Yoshinori
2011-01-01
We developed a simple, portable and easy system to the motion of pronation and supination of the forearm. This motion was measured by wireless acceleration and angular velocity sensor. The aim of this system is evaluation of minor nervous dysfunction. It is for the screening of the developmental disorder child. In this study, in order to confirm the effectiveness of this system, the reference curve of the neuromotor development was experimentally obtained. We studied 212 participants (108 males, 104 females) aged 7 to 12 years attending the kindergarten school. We could obtain the reference curve of the neuromotor development using this system. We also investigated the difference of neuromotor function between normally developed children and a ADHD child. There is a possibility that abnormality of the minor nervous dysfunction can be detected by using this system. PMID:22256040
Variations in the angular velocity of the earth rotation and the rate of change of the pulsar period
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Y.F.; Rong, J.X.
1981-09-01
The effects of the variations in the angular velocity of earth rotation on observed changes in pulsar periods are discussed. It is suggested that the variations are influential when the arrival times of the pulses are reduced from the topocenter to the barycenter of the solar system. The change in the observed pulsar period is noted to be possibly larger than the period itself. The magnitude of the effect depends on the declination of the pulsar and the altitude of the observing station, and higher declinations and latitudes result in smaller magnitudes. Finally, it is cautioned that while observing at upper or lower culmination, the effect on the rate of change of the pulsar period becomes larger.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juarez, A M; Hoyos-Campo, L M [Institute de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62210 (Mexico); Redt, E; Hoenert, M; Aguilar, A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA-94720 (United States); Rolles, D [Max Planck Advanced Study Group, CFEL, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Berrah, N, E-mail: aaguilar@lbl.go [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo MI-49008 (United States)
2009-11-01
We present photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in Helium and Neon for electrons with excess energies between 5 and 100 meV. These ultra-low kinetic energy PAD measurements were obtained with a modified Velocity Map Imaging spectrometer (VMI) and VUV light from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron radiation source. The efficiency and reliability of the spectrometer at this ultra-low kinetic energy range has been tested by determining the variation with energy of the asymmetry, {beta}, parameter of photoelectrons from the s-shell direct ionization in Helium. For Neon, we determined the energy dependent asymmetry parameters across the 's' and 'd' autoionizing resonances between the P{sub 3/2} and P{sub 1/2} ionic states. Furthermore, we measured the asymmetry parameter for photoelectrons produced from the n = 2 to n = 6 satellite states of He. These measurements were performed at values of excess kinetic energy previously unexplored.
Sharp, P E; Tinkelman, A; Cho, J
2001-06-01
When a rat navigates through space, head direction (HD) cells provide an ongoing signal of the rat's directional heading. It is thought that these cells rely, in part, on angular path integration of the rat's head movements. This integration requires that the HD cell system receive information about angular head movements and that this information be combined with the current directional signal, to generate the next "predicted" direction. Recent data suggest that the dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTN) may play a critical role in helping to generate the HD cell signal. To test this, recordings were made from cells in the DTN in freely moving rats. The following cell types were found: (a) "classic" HD cells, (b) angular velocity cells, and (c) cells that fired as a function of both head direction and angular velocity. Thus, DTN cells exhibit firing characteristics that are critical to the neural circuit hypothesized for generation of the HD cell signal. PMID:11439447
Jordi Naqui; Jan Coromina; Ali Karami-Horestani; Christophe Fumeaux; Ferran Martín
2015-01-01
In this paper, angular displacement and angular velocity sensors based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines and S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs) are presented. The sensor consists of two parts, namely a CPW and an S-SRR, both lying on parallel planes. By this means, line-to-resonator magnetic coupling arises, the coupling level being dependent on the line-to-resonator relative angular orientation. The line-to-resonator coupling level is the key parameter responsible for modul...
Angular and velocity analysis of the three-fold events in the Xe+Cu reaction at 45 MeV/u
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruno, M. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); D' Agostino, M. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Fiandri, M.L. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Fuschini, E. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Manduci, L. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Mastinu, P.F. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Milazzo, P.M. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Gramegna, F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)); Ferrero, A.M.J. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica
1994-08-22
An analysis of the angular and velocity distributions of the intermediate mass fragments produced in the reaction Xe+Cu at 45 MeV/u is presented. Events coming from central collisions are selected and compared with predictions of different models based on a statistical deexcitation of an equilibrated source. The angular and velocity correlations show that the experimental production of three nearly-equal mass fragments cannot be explained by a sequential binary decay and is compatible with a multifragmentation mechanism. ((orig.))
Hawkins, D
1994-03-01
A computer program was developed in conjunction with a musculoskeletal modeling scheme to determine lower extremity joint angular velocity profiles which allow specific muscles, if activated tetanically, to generate their greatest power. As input the program requires subject anthropometric and joint configuration data. Muscle-tendon (MT) attachment location data and a straight line MT model are used to calculate MT lengths for each joint configuration. The shortening velocity which allows an active muscle to generate its greatest power is calculated based on muscle architecture and a relationship between power and shortening velocity. A finite difference technique is used to calculate the time between sequential joint configurations which will produce the optimal muscle shortening velocity. This time is then used to calculate optimal joint angular velocities for each muscle and and for each joint configuration. The utility of this program is demonstrated by calculating optimal joint angular velocities for fifteen muscles and comparing calculated knee extension velocities with experimental results cited in the literature. PMID:8062553
Brouwer, Anne-Marie; López-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J
2006-02-01
We propose and evaluate a source of information that ball catchers may use to determine whether a ball will land behind or in front of them. It combines estimates for the ball's horizontal and vertical speed. These estimates are based, respectively, on the rate of angular expansion and vertical velocity. Our variable could account for ball catchers' data of Oudejans et al. [The effects of baseball experience on movement initiation in catching fly balls. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15, 587-595], but those data could also be explained by the use of angular expansion alone. We therefore conducted additional experiments in which we asked subjects where simulated balls would land under conditions in which both angular expansion and vertical velocity must be combined for obtaining a correct response. Subjects made systematic errors. We found evidence for the use of angular velocity but hardly any indication for the use of angular expansion. Thus, if catchers use a strategy that involves combining vertical and horizontal estimates of the ball's speed, they do not obtain their estimates of the horizontal component from the rate of expansion alone. PMID:16271742
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antonenko, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.A.; Galitskii, V.M.; Grigor' yan, Y.I.; Ippolitov, M.S.; Karadzhev, K.V.; Kuz' min, E.A.; Man' ko, V.I.; Ogloblin, A.A.; Paramonov, V.V.; Tsvetkov, A.A.
1980-04-01
The technique is described and results presented of measurements of the velocity and angular distributions of pions, protons, and deuterons, and tritons emitted in bombardment of lead nuclei by ..cap alpha.. particles with energy 3.6 GeV/nucleon.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krajnovich, D.J.; Giardini-Guidoni, A.; Sudboe, A.S.; Schulz, P.A.; Shen, Y.R.; Lee, Y.T.
1978-09-01
Rate constants for the photodissociation of C/sub 2/F/sub 5/Cl as well as the yield of C/sub 2/F/sub 4//sup +/ were measured. The dynamics of the two dissociation channels was studied by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of the products. 2 references. (JFP)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. Perdios
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with a modification of the restricted three-body problem in which the angular velocity variation is considered in the case where the primaries are sources of radiation. In particular, the existence and stability of its equilibrium points in the plane of motion of the primaries are studied. We find that this problem admits the well-known five planar equilibria of the classical problem with the difference that the corresponding collinear points may be stable depending on the parameters of the problem. For all planar equilibria, sufficient parametric conditions for their stability have been established which are used for the numerical determination of the stability regions in various parametric planes. Also, for certain values of the parameters of the problem for which the equilibrium points are stable, the short and long period families have been computed. To do so, semianalytical expressions have been found for the determination of appropriate initial conditions. Special attention has been given to the continuation of the long period family, in the case of the classical restricted three-body problem, where we show numerically that periodic orbits of the short period family, which are bifurcation points with the long period family, are connected through the characteristic curve of the long period family.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. R. Gowhari-Anaraki
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The finite element method has been used to predict the creep rupture parameter, C*-Integral for single and double-edge cracks in eight annular rotating discs under constant angular velocity with and without internal pressure. In this study, a new dimensionless creeping crack configuration factor, Q* has been introduced. Power law creeping finite element analyses have been performed and the results are presented in the form of Q* for a wide range of components and crack geometry parameters. These parameters are chosen to be representative of typical practical situations and have been determined from evidence presented in the open literature. The extensive range of Q* obtained from the analyses are then used to obtain equivalent prediction equations using a statistical multiple non-linear regression model. The predictive equations for Q*, can also be used easily to calculate the C*-Integral values for extensive range of geometric parameters. The C*-Integral values obtained from predictive equations were also compared with those obtained from reference stress method (RSM. Finally, creep zone growth behavior was studied in the component during transient time.
改进的对数算法求解GFSINS的角速度%Solving angular velocity of GFSINS using improved logarithmic algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程子健; 史震; 杨杰
2011-01-01
Based on a nine-accelerometer configuration, the logarithmic algorithm was applied to the angular velocity solver for gyroscope free strap-down inertial navigation system (GFSINS). The angular velocity with the traditional method of logarithmic algorithm was deduced. The reasons why the method for solving angular velocity can not determine the symbol was analyzed. Against the problem of traditional logarithmic algorithm for solving angular velocity, the integration method and a nearly gyroscope free approach to judge the symbol were proposed. Simulation experiments for traditional method of logarithmic algorithm were simulated. Results show that the improved program can be judged the symbol of solving angular velocity.%基于一种9加速度计配置方案,应用对数算法对无陀螺捷联惯导系统的角速度进行求解,对传统对数算法解算角速度进行了推导,详细分析了该方法解算角速度造成不能判断符号的原因,并针对此问题提出了积分法和一种准无陀螺方法来判断符号的解决方案.对传统对数算法和改进的对数算法解算角速度进行了仿真试验,验证了改进的对数算法可以判断解算角速度的符号.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, L.S.; Sibener, S.J.
1989-03-01
Molecular beam and time of flight methods have been used to examine the angular distributions and velocity distributions of the CO/sub 2/ product molecules formed in the catalytic oxidation of CO on a Rh(111) single crystal in the surface temperature range 700--1000 K. The angular distribution was sharply peaked about the surface normal, and cannot be described by a simple cos/sup n/ theta expression. No temperature dependence was observed in the angular distribution over the range of temperatures studied here. Observed velocity distributions were clearly non-Maxwellian and had average translational energies in excess of those expected at the surface temperatures. Furthermore, the average velocity depended strongly on the desorption angle. Molecules desorbing along the surface normal had an average translational energy of approx.8 kcal/mol. The average energy decreased with increasing angle, reaching a value of approx.4 kcal/mol at an angle of 60/sup 0/. All of the observed velocity distributions were narrower than Maxwellian distributions with the same average energies. Product velocity distributions did not appear to vary with surface temperature. The observed excess energies are believed to arise from the crossing of the activation barrier to reaction, with a fraction of the reaction energy being carried away from the surface by the product molecules.
Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L; Nussbaum, Maury A
2007-01-01
Measurements of human strength can be important during analyses of physical activities. Such measurements have often taken the form of the maximum voluntary torque at a single joint angle and angular velocity. However, the available strength varies substantially with joint position and velocity. When examining dynamic activities, strength measurements should account for these variations. A model is presented of maximum voluntary joint torque as a function of joint angle and angular velocity. The model is based on well-known physiological relationships between muscle force and length and between muscle force and velocity and was tested by fitting it to maximum voluntary joint torque data from six different exertions in the lower limb. Isometric, concentric and eccentric maximum voluntary contractions were collected during hip extension, hip flexion, knee extension, knee flexion, ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion. Model parameters are reported for each of these exertion directions by gender and age group. This model provides an efficient method by which strength variations with joint angle and angular velocity may be incorporated into comparisons between joint torques calculated by inverse dynamics and the maximum available joint torques. PMID:17485097
Naqui, Jordi; Coromina, Jan; Karami-Horestani, Ali; Fumeaux, Christophe; Martín, Ferran
2015-01-01
In this paper, angular displacement and angular velocity sensors based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines and S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs) are presented. The sensor consists of two parts, namely a CPW and an S-SRR, both lying on parallel planes. By this means, line-to-resonator magnetic coupling arises, the coupling level being dependent on the line-to-resonator relative angular orientation. The line-to-resonator coupling level is the key parameter responsible for modulating the amplitude of the frequency response seen between the CPW ports in the vicinity of the S-SRR fundamental resonance frequency. Specifically, an amplitude notch that can be visualized in the transmission coefficient is changed by the coupling strength, and it is characterized as the sensing variable. Thus, the relative angular orientation between the two parts is measured, when the S-SRR is attached to a rotating object. It follows that the rotation angle and speed can be inferred either by measuring the frequency response of the S-SRR-loaded line, or the response amplitude at a fixed frequency in the vicinity of resonance. It is in addition shown that the angular velocity can be accurately determined from the time-domain response of a carrier time-harmonic signal tuned at the S-SRR resonance frequency. The main advantage of the proposed device is its small size directly related to the small electrical size of the S-SRR, which allows for the design of compact angular displacement and velocity sensors at low frequencies. Despite the small size of the fabricated proof-of-concept prototype (electrically small structures do not usually reject signals efficiently), it exhibits good linearity (on a logarithmic scale), sensitivity and dynamic range. PMID:25915590
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordi Naqui
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, angular displacement and angular velocity sensors based on coplanar waveguide (CPW transmission lines and S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs are presented. The sensor consists of two parts, namely a CPW and an S-SRR, both lying on parallel planes. By this means, line-to-resonator magnetic coupling arises, the coupling level being dependent on the line-to-resonator relative angular orientation. The line-to-resonator coupling level is the key parameter responsible for modulating the amplitude of the frequency response seen between the CPW ports in the vicinity of the S-SRR fundamental resonance frequency. Specifically, an amplitude notch that can be visualized in the transmission coefficient is changed by the coupling strength, and it is characterized as the sensing variable. Thus, the relative angular orientation between the two parts is measured, when the S-SRR is attached to a rotating object. It follows that the rotation angle and speed can be inferred either by measuring the frequency response of the S-SRR-loaded line, or the response amplitude at a fixed frequency in the vicinity of resonance. It is in addition shown that the angular velocity can be accurately determined from the time-domain response of a carrier time-harmonic signal tuned at the S-SRR resonance frequency. The main advantage of the proposed device is its small size directly related to the small electrical size of the S-SRR, which allows for the design of compact angular displacement and velocity sensors at low frequencies. Despite the small size of the fabricated proof-of-concept prototype (electrically small structures do not usually reject signals efficiently, it exhibits good linearity (on a logarithmic scale, sensitivity and dynamic range.
Bieryla, Kathleen A; Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L
2009-02-01
The main purpose of this study was to compare three methods of determining relative effort during sit-to-stand (STS). Fourteen young (mean 19.6+/-SD 1.2 years old) and 17 older (61.7+/-5.5 years old) adults completed six STS trials at three speeds: slow, normal, and fast. Sagittal plane joint torques at the hip, knee, and ankle were calculated through inverse dynamics. Isometric and isokinetic maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) for the hip, knee, and ankle were collected and used for model parameters to predict the participant-specific maximum voluntary joint torque. Three different measures of relative effort were determined by normalizing STS joint torques to three different estimates of maximum voluntary torque. Relative effort at the hip, knee, and ankle were higher when accounting for variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity (hip=26.3+/-13.5%, knee=78.4+/-32.2%, ankle=27.9+/-14.1%) compared to methods which do not account for these variations (hip=23.5+/-11.7%, knee=51.7+/-15.0%, ankle=20.7+/-10.4%). At higher velocities, the difference in calculating relative effort with respect to isometric MVC or incorporating joint angle and angular velocity became more evident. Estimates of relative effort that account for the variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity may provide higher levels of accuracy compared to methods based on measurements of maximal isometric torques. PMID:17720539
Alaways, Leroy Ward
In this dissertation the aerodynamic force and initial conditions of pitched baseballs are estimated from high-speed video data. Fifteen parameters are estimated including the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and the angular velocity vector using a parameter estimation technique that minimizes the residual error between measured and estimated trajectories of markers on the ball's surface and the center of mass of pitched baseballs. Studies are carried out using trajectory data acquired from human pitchers and, in a more controlled environment, with a pitching machine. In all 58 pitch trajectories from human pitchers and 20 pitching machine pitches with spin information are analyzed. In the pitching machine trials four markers on the ball are tracked over the first 4 ft (1.22 m) and the center of mass of the ball is tracked over the last 13 ft (3.96 m) of flight. The estimated lift coefficients are compared to previous measured lift coefficients of Sikorsky (Alaways & Lightfoot, 1998) and Watts & Ferrer (1987) and show that significant differences exists in the lift coefficients of two- and four-seam curve balls at lower values of spin parameter, S. As S increased the two- and four-seam lift coefficients merge becoming statistically insignificant. The estimated drag coefficients are compared to drag coefficients of smooth spheres and golf-balls and show that these data sets bound the drag-coefficient of the baseball. Finally, it is shown that asymmetries of the ball associated with the knuckleball can influence the trajectory of the more common curve and fastball.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, H. (Inst. fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Flugtriebwerke, Braunschweig (Germany)); Schneider, A. (Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany))
1991-01-01
This study deals with the question of how far an analysis of the angular velocity of the crankshaft can determine values such as the progression of the gas momentum or the pressure in the combustion chamber, through the use of an analytical model. In order to answer this question, based on the example of a 4-cylinder, straight-type engine, the sum of the superimposed gas momenta taken from the balance of momenta at the crankshaft is simulated as a function of the angular velocity. Torsional elastic couplings between entry and delivery of momentum are being simulated with the help of electro-magnetic analogies. Based on the simulated total gas momentum, the pressures of the combustion chamber of individual cylinders can be calculated. (orig./HW)
Abrashkin, V. I.; Voronov, K. E.; Piyakov, I. V.; Puzin, Yu. Ya.; Sazonov, V. V.; Syomkin, N. D.; Chebukov, S. Yu.
2016-09-01
The mathematical model, which allowed us to reconstruct the rotational motion of the Bion M-1 and Foton M-4 satellites by processing the measurements of onboard magnetometers and the angular velocity sensor, is sufficiently detailed and accurate. If we slightly lower the requirements for accuracy and transfer to a rougher model, i.e., we will not update the biases in measurements of the angular velocity component, then the measurement processing technique can be significantly simplified. The volume of calculations in minimizing the functional of the least-square technique is reduced; the most complicated part of calculations is performed using the standard procedure of computational linear algebra. This simplified technique is described below, and the examples of its application for reconstructing the rotational motion of the Foton M-4 satellite are presented. A noticeable distinction in the reconstructions of motion, constructed by simplified and more exact techniques, is revealed in processing the measurements over time intervals longer than 4 hours.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneider, A.
1992-12-18
Using the example of an in-line four-stroke engine in steady-state operation, a method is developed for monitoring the combustion process by analyzing the angular velocity of the crankshaft. (orig./HW). 78 figs. [Deutsch] Es wird am Beispiel eines stationaer betriebenen Reihen-Vierzylindermotors ein Ansatz entwickelt, der die Ueberwachung des Verbrennungsverlaufs durch Analyse der Winkelgeschwindigkeit an der Kurbelwelle ermoeglicht. (orig./HW)
Alex J Cope; Chelsea Sabo; Kevin Gurney; Eleni Vasilaki; Marshall, James A. R.
2016-01-01
We present a novel neurally based model for estimating angular velocity (AV) in the bee brain, capable of quantitatively reproducing experimental observations of visual odometry and corridor-centering in free-flying honeybees, including previously unaccounted for manipulations of behaviour. The model is fitted using electrophysiological data, and tested using behavioural data. Based on our model we suggest that the AV response can be considered as an evolutionary extension to the optomotor re...
Shah, Abhay G.; Friedman, John L.; Keidl, Tobias S.
2012-10-01
This is the first of two papers on computing the self-force in a radiation gauge for a particle of mass m moving in circular, equatorial orbit about a Kerr black hole. In the extreme-mass-ratio inspiral (EMRI) framework, with mode-sum renormalization, we compute the renormalized value of the quantity H≔(1)/(2)hαβuαuβ, gauge-invariant under gauge transformations generated by a helically symmetric gauge vector; here, hαβ is the metric perturbation, uα the particle’s 4-velocity. We find the related order m correction to the particle’s angular velocity at fixed renormalized redshift (and to its redshift at fixed angular velocity), each of which can be written in terms of H. The radiative part of the metric perturbation is constructed from a Hertz potential that is extracted from the Weyl scalar by an algebraic inversion T. S. Keidl , Phys. Rev. D 82, 124012 (2010). We then write the spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics as a sum over spin-weighted spherical harmonics Yℓms and use mode-sum renormalization to find the renormalization coefficients by matching a series in L=ℓ+1/2 to the large-L behavior of the expression for H. The nonradiative parts of the perturbed metric associated with changes in mass and angular momentum are calculated in the Kerr gauge.
Scherer, Matthew R; Shelhamer, Mark J; Schubert, Michael C
2011-02-01
Blasts (explosions) are the most common mechanism of injury in modern warfare. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and dizziness are common sequelae associated with blasts, and many service members (SMs) report symptoms worsen with activity. The purpose of this study was to measure angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gain (aVOR) of blast-exposed SMs with TBI during head impulse testing. We also assessed their symptoms during exertion. Twenty-four SMs recovering from TBI were prospectively assigned to one of two groups based on the presence or absence of dizziness. Wireless monocular scleral search coil and rate sensor were used to characterize active and passive yaw and pitch head and eye rotations. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to monitor symptoms during fast walking/running. For active yaw head impulses, aVOR gains were significantly lower in the symptomatic group (0.79 ± 0.15) versus asymptomatic (0.87 ± 0.18), but not for passive head rotation. For pitch head rotation, the symptomatic group had both active (0.915 ± 0.24) and passive (0.878 ± 0.22) aVOR gains lower than the asymptomatic group (active 1.03 ± 0.27, passive 0.97 ± 0.23). Some SMs had elevated aVOR gain. VAS scores for all symptoms were highest during exertion. Our data suggest symptomatic SMs with TBI as a result of blast have varied aVOR gain during high-velocity head impulses and provide compelling evidence of pathology affecting the vestibular system. Potential loci of injury in this population include the following: disruption of pathways relaying vestibular efference signals, differential destruction of type I vestibular hair cells, or selective damage to irregular afferent pathways-any of which may explain the common discrepancy between reports of vestibular-like symptoms and laboratory testing results. Significantly reduced pitch aVOR in symptomatic SMs and peak symptom severity during exertional testing support earlier findings in the chronic blast-exposed active duty SMs.
Scherer, Matthew R; Shelhamer, Mark J; Schubert, Michael C
2011-02-01
Blasts (explosions) are the most common mechanism of injury in modern warfare. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and dizziness are common sequelae associated with blasts, and many service members (SMs) report symptoms worsen with activity. The purpose of this study was to measure angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gain (aVOR) of blast-exposed SMs with TBI during head impulse testing. We also assessed their symptoms during exertion. Twenty-four SMs recovering from TBI were prospectively assigned to one of two groups based on the presence or absence of dizziness. Wireless monocular scleral search coil and rate sensor were used to characterize active and passive yaw and pitch head and eye rotations. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to monitor symptoms during fast walking/running. For active yaw head impulses, aVOR gains were significantly lower in the symptomatic group (0.79 ± 0.15) versus asymptomatic (0.87 ± 0.18), but not for passive head rotation. For pitch head rotation, the symptomatic group had both active (0.915 ± 0.24) and passive (0.878 ± 0.22) aVOR gains lower than the asymptomatic group (active 1.03 ± 0.27, passive 0.97 ± 0.23). Some SMs had elevated aVOR gain. VAS scores for all symptoms were highest during exertion. Our data suggest symptomatic SMs with TBI as a result of blast have varied aVOR gain during high-velocity head impulses and provide compelling evidence of pathology affecting the vestibular system. Potential loci of injury in this population include the following: disruption of pathways relaying vestibular efference signals, differential destruction of type I vestibular hair cells, or selective damage to irregular afferent pathways-any of which may explain the common discrepancy between reports of vestibular-like symptoms and laboratory testing results. Significantly reduced pitch aVOR in symptomatic SMs and peak symptom severity during exertional testing support earlier findings in the chronic blast-exposed active duty SMs. PMID
基于BP神经网络的GFSINS角速度预测%Prediction of the angular velocity of GFSINS by BP neural network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韩庆楠; 郝燕玲; 刘志平; 王瑞
2011-01-01
针对无陀螺捷联惯导系统(GFSINS)中传统角速度算法解算精度不高的问题,提出一种可避免复杂代数运算的反向传播(BP)神经网络算法来求解角速度.基于一种十加速度计构型方案,选择10个加速度计输出、采样周期和臂杆距离等12个已知量作为网络输入,以对数法得到的角速度值作为期望输出,针对5 000个样本在不同的隐含层层数、单层神经元个数以及学习步数等情况下进行网络训练,构建了一个含有30个隐含层神经元的3层BP网络模型.采用此模型对角速度进行实时预测,结果表明:网络具有很好的适应能力和实时性,角速度实时预测时间与对数法相当,且其预测精度比对数法提高大约3倍.%Aimed at low precision for traditional angular velocity algorithms in gyro-free strapdown inertial navigation system (GFSINS), a BP (back-propagation)neural network algorithm without complex mathematic computation was put forward to calculate angular velocity. Based on a ten-accelerometer configuration scheme, the accelerometer output, sample interval and fixed position were chosen as input, angular velocity got by lognormal algorithm was chosen as output, and 5 000 samples were trained in several conditions with different hiding layers, neural cells and training steps. Then a threelayer BP network model with 30 hiding layer neural cells was built. Finally, the angular velocity was predicted in real time by the model. Results demonstrate that network has strong adaptive capability and instantaneity, and compared with lognormal algorithm, prediction time is almost the same, but the prediction precision of angular velocity is nearly improved by 3 times.
角速率输入条件下圆锥误差补偿算法%Algorithm for Coning Error Compensation Based on Angular Velocity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
段广仁; 张泽; 孙勇
2012-01-01
For a strap-down inertial navigation system, the coning error compensation accuracy will be decreased and its real time capability will be worse, when using the angular velocity according to the traditional method. In order to solve this problem, a new algorithm was proposed by using the angular velocity directly without obtaining the angular increment from the angular velocity through Simpson formula or trapezoid formula. Moreover, the four-sample rotation vector algorithm was derived, and the mechanism of the coning error was given. At last, the simulation results of the proposed algorithm and the theoretical one were compared.%针对捷联惯导系统中利用角速率拟合角增量进行圆锥误差补偿精度下降和实时性变差的问题,提出了一种直接利用陀螺的角速率输出进行圆锥误差补偿的算法,利用角速率的叉乘项来拟合圆锥误差补偿项,并推导了四子样圆锥误差补偿算法的具体表达形式,并从本质上阐述了圆锥误差的存在机理.在典型圆锥运动条件下通过对所提算法的仿真并和理论解析解的做差比较,验证了所提算法的可行性和有效性.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吉跃仁
2000-01-01
By using the spinorbit coupling energy and the experimental date of finestructure splitting for the alkaline metal atoms, a new calculative formula for the fastprecession angular velocity of singleelectron atoms is presented on the basis of the theoretical study and specific calculation.%借助于自旋--轨道耦合引起的附加能量ΔEls以及碱金属精细结构裂距Δ的实验值，通过推导和计算，给出了单电子原子“快旋进”角速度的表 达 式.
Jiménez Espadafor, Francisco J.; A. Becerra Villanueva, José; Palomo Guerrero, Daniel; Torres García, Miguel; Carvajal Trujillo, Elisa; Fernández Vacas, Francisco
2014-12-01
This paper presents an investigation into the potential of using direct measurement of engine torque for diagnostic purposes in large engines - in this case applied to power generation. The procedures for measuring and analyzing the instantaneous torque, the angular displacement on the generator output end and the angular displacement on its free end for a ten-cylinder, low speed two stroke diesel engine are presented. Angular speed oscillations are frequently used for combustion engine diagnostics although they cannot be used to measure engine power directly. In addition, and for engines with huge inertia generators such as those used in power plants, speed oscillations are very low and this reduces the signal to noise ratio and makes the evaluation of the instantaneous angular speed very noisy. In the work described here, torque and angular displacement measurements carried out at the same point and with the same engine conditions are compared and the superior performance of torque is demonstrated. Harmonic analysis of instantaneous torque allowed the identification of the dynamic characteristics of the power train of the diesel group and clearly suggests that this signal can be used as a diagnostic tool for excitation, combustion malfunctions, or for the mechanical characteristics of the system and crankshaft stiffness. The torque distortion introduced by the generator due to the discontinuity imposed by the pole pairs is also observed in the torque signal, suggesting that the torque signal can be used to identify generator malfunction.
Miller, E. F., II; Graybiel, A.
1973-01-01
Motion sickness susceptibility of four normal subjects was measured in terms of duration of exposure necessary to evoke moderate malaise (MIIA) as a function of velocity in a chair rotated about a central axis tilted 10 deg with respect to gravitational upright. The subjects had little or no susceptibility to this type of rotation at 2.5 and 5.0 rpm, but with further increases in rate, the MIIA endpoint was always reached and with ever shorter test durations. Minimal provocative periods for all subjects were found at 15 or 20 rpm. Higher rotational rates dramatically reversed the vestibular stressor effect, and the subjects as a group tended to reach a plateau of relatively low susceptibility at 40 and 45 rpm. At these higher velocities, furthermore, the subjects essentially lost their sensation of being tilted off vertical. In the second half of the study, the effect of tilt angle was varied while the rotation rate was maintained at a constant 17.5 rpm. Two subjects were completely resistant to symptoms of motion sickness when rotated at 2.5 deg off vertical; with greater off-vertical angles, the susceptibility of all subjects increased sharply at first, then tapered off in a manner reflecting a Fechnerian function.
Compared of Coil Magnetic Sensor Angular Velocity Calculating Method%线圈式磁传感器角速度解算方法比较
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马计栋; 李凯; 韩焱
2014-01-01
当前姿态解算方法有很多，大部分算法的计算过程都需要利用角速度。一般获得角速度的方法是通过陀螺仪直接输出，但这种方法误差较大，增加后续解算负担。本文根据线圈式磁传感器采集到的电压信号，分析得到信号频率和角速度的关系，通过对电压信号的分析，求得角速度。文中使用3种解算方法，分析比较，得出每种方法的优缺点。%There are a lot of methods to get the attitude angles. But most of them use the angular speed. Generally, the approved method is by the angular velocity gyroscope output directly, but this method’s error is bigger. Then increase subsequent computation burden. According to the signal from the coil magnetic sensor ,we can find the relationship between the frequency and angular speed. Then obtain the angular speed through the analysis of voltage signal. In this paper, we use three kinds of calculating method, analysis and comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each method are obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, T.H.; Somorjai, G.A.
1984-07-15
The H/sub 2/--D/sub 2/ exchange reaction on Pt(557) crystal surface was investigated using a molecular beam surface scattering technique. The angular and velocity distributions of the HD product were measured at various crystal temperatures (500--1170 K). It was found that the exchange reaction occurred via interactions of adsorbed H and D atoms (Langmuir--Hinshelwood mechanism). Although the HD that is produced desorbs with a cos/sup 2/ theta angular distribution, its translational energy corresponds to a temperature slightly colder than that of the substrate with the mean energy of the desorbing molecules depending on the desorption angle. As the desorbing angle increases away from the surface normal, the mean translational energy decreases. The exchange reactivity was found to be incident azimuthal angle dependent while the translational energy of the product HD is independent of the azimuthal angle of detection.
Scherer, Matthew R.; Shelhamer, Mark J.; Schubert, Michael C.
2010-01-01
Blasts (explosions) are the most common mechanism of injury in modern warfare. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and dizziness are common sequelae associated with blasts, and many service members (SMs) report symptoms worsen with activity. The purpose of this study was to measure angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gain (aVOR) of blast-exposed SMs with TBI during head impulse testing. We also assessed their symptoms during exertion. Twenty-four SMs recovering from TBI were prospectively assigned to on...
Dalton, Brian H.; Power, Geoffrey A; Paturel, Justin R.; Rice, Charles L.
2015-01-01
The underlying factors related to the divergent findings of age-related fatigue for dynamic tasks are not well understood. The purpose here was to investigate age-related fatigability and recovery between a repeated constrained (isokinetic) and an unconstrained velocity (isotonic) task, in which participants performed fatiguing contractions at the velocity (isokinetic) or resistance (isotonic) corresponding with maximal power. To compare between tasks, isotonic torque–power relationships were...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schopohl, N.
1980-11-01
On the basis of Gorkov's formulation of superconductivity theory, generalized Eilenberger equations are derived which apply to rotating superfluid /sup 3/He in the presence of a magnetic field h and finite superflow v. In analyogy to conventional type II superconductors, the possibility of vortex solutions in discussed. An implicit equation determining the upper critical angular velocity ..cap omega../sub c/2 as a function of temperature T, magnetic field h, and superflow v parallel to the rotation axis is-inferred from the linearized Eilenberger equations. In contrast to the case of slowly rotating /sup 3/He-A, the solution of the eigenvalue problem determining the order parameter ..delta.. near the the upper critical angular velocity admits no coreless vortex no coreless solutions. The space-dependent amplitude of the order parameter is analogous to Abrikosov's vortex array solution, while the spin-orbit part is given either by a polar-state type or an Anderson-Brinkman-Morel (ABM)-state-type eigensolution. Among the possible eigensolutions the polar-state type yields for vanishing superflow v the highest critical rotation frequency. For finite superflow v parallel to the rotation axis, however, the ABM-state-type solution is stabilized in comparison to the polar state for Vertical BarvVertical Bar> or approx. =0.2..pi..(Tc/sub c/0/T/sub F/)v/sub f/ at zero temperature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fehrenbach, H.
1991-01-01
The combustion chamber pressure curve is one of the most important engine parameters for assessing the operating state of internal combustion engines. In general it can only be registered in the test stand since the required pressure transducers are not robust enough for continuous operation. Experiments on a one-cylinder gasoline engine showed that the combustion chamber pressure curve can be computed when one measures the angular velocity of the crankshaft. Angular velocity can be measured in contrast to the combustion chamber pressure with an economical synchro-generator arrangement. The computation of the combustion chamber pressure curve is based on a physical/mathematical model for the engine mechanics. The accuracy which can be achieved is checked for different model variants. Comparisons of characteristic values of measured and calculated combustion chamber pressure curves have shown that the accuracies achieved in the one-cylinder engine are in the same range as those achievable with uncooled pressure transducers. (orig.) With 49 figs., 9 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taniwaki, S.; Matsunaga, S.; Okami, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)
1998-09-05
This paper proposes a coordinated control method based on the norm estimation of the angular velocity of the satellite attitude and the control of the head speed of the manipulator. In this method, the angular velocity norm of the satellite attitude is estimated in real time from the target value of the head speed of the manipulator, i.e. the target payload speed during a coordinated control operation in which the variation of the inertial parameters of a space robot is compensated, and the head speed of the manipulator is controlled by using this estimated value. This enables the variation of the attitude of the satellite body to be within a permissible range. The restriction on the manipulator control speed at this time is alleviated more than that satisfying the Lyapunov stability conditions, so that the operability of the manipulator is improved. The effectiveness of this method was ascertained by a numerical simulation. The attitude variation could be within a permissible range by correcting the head speed of the manipulator so that the estimated value became not higher than a permissible range. 7 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.
Shah, Abhay G; Friedman, John L.; Keidl, Tobias S.
2012-01-01
This is the first of two papers on computing the self-force in a radiation gauge for a particle moving in circular, equatorial orbit about a Kerr black hole. In the EMRI (extreme-mass-ratio inspiral) framework, with mode-sum renormalization, we compute the renormalized value of the quantity $h_{\\alpha\\beta}u^\\alpha u^\\beta$, gauge-invariant under gauge transformations generated by a helically symmetric gauge vector; and we find the related order $\\frak{m}$ correction to the particle's angular...
Attitude Control of Micro Spacecraft Without Angular Velocity Measurement%微小型航天器无角速度测量姿态控制
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龚宜; 刘莹莹; 周军
2013-01-01
研究微小型航天器姿态跟踪在角速度不可测量以及控制力矩受限情况下的的控制方法.首先基于无源性原理,仅依赖姿态测量,建立一个类似PD控制的方法.为了让初始状态和角度误差始终在合理的控制范围内,对误差函数加入跳变规则,从而获得一种混合控制方法;然后利用Lyapunov原理证明了闭环系统的全局渐进稳定性;最后通过仿真与已有方法进行比较研究,验证了控制方法的有效性,即使初始速度估计误差和初始角度误差很大,依然可以控制.%The paper mainly dealt with the problem of attitude control of a micro rigid spacecraft without angular velocity measurement and under control torque constraint through a hybrid tracking controller.Based on passivity approach using only attitude measurements,a control law similar to the PD law was established; then in order to limit the inertial states and the attitude error to an appropriate bound,a switching rule was added to the error functions,so that a hybrid control law was gained.A Lyapunov approach was used to prove the global asymptotic stability of the closed loop system.The simulation results were presented to corroborate the effectiveness of this controller in contrast to another existing controller,even when the initial estimated angular velocity error and the initial angular error are large.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menzel, C.; Zacharias, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Baumfalk, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Stroemungsforschung, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany)
1998-12-15
The scattering of neutral ammonia clusters off a LiF(100) surface is studied. A supersonic expansion of ammonia and ammonia seeded in Kr and He produces clusters of various sizes but uniform kinetic energies of 176, 57 and 285 meV per monomer molecule, respectively. The mass distribution of scattered particles is measured in a reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer using single-photon photoionization with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser radiation at {lambda}=118 nm (h{nu}=10.49 eV). While in the incident beam (NH{sub 3}){sub n} clusters up to n=65 can be detected, the mass spectrum of the scattered particles is dominated by NH{sub 3}{sup +}, and only a few small clusters are found. Angular distributions of these fragments show that the maximum of the scattered intensity shifts to greater detection angles for increasing fragment mass. Velocity distributions of released monomers are measured for all three cluster beams and found to be independent of the impact velocity of the clusters. The velocity distributions of scattered fragments larger than NH{sub 3}{sup +} show a decreasing width with increasing fragment size and a most probable velocity slightly higher than that of the monomer molecules. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foukal, P.
1976-02-01
Simultaneous observations of the photospheric rotation velocity and magnetic field are made with 5'' spatial resolution. The results show a significant increase in plasma rotation velocity with absolute magnetic intensity. The difference in rotation velocity between the highest and lowest magnetic fields, in areas of quiet photosphere, is 41 +- 6 m s/sup -1/ in 1975 and 46 +- 11 m s/sup -1/ in 1974, measured in the lambda5250 line of Fe i. A less significant increase is found in the lambda5233 line. These results indicate that the magnetic network rotates at least 2 percent faster than the general photosphere, and the flux tubes accelerate the local plasma of the network boundaries. (AIP)
Nordsiek, F.; Huisman, S.G.; Veen, van der R.C.A.; Sun, C.; Lohse, D.; Lathrop, D.P.
2015-01-01
We present azimuthal velocity profiles measured in a Taylor–Couette apparatus, which has been used as a model of stellar and planetary accretion disks. The apparatus has a cylinder radius ratio of ${\\it\\eta}=0.716$η=0.716, an aspect ratio of ${\\it\\Gamma}=11.74$Γ=11.74, and the plates closing the cyl
Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations
Graybiel, A.
1975-01-01
Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.
Rojas Ruiz, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez Dávila, Marcos
2009-01-01
The present study arises as a response to the historical controversy about the theoretical model of the hammer throw and performance. It starts from the fluctuations produced in the tangential velocity in the centre of gravity (CG) of the hammer in each turn, accelerating during the double support phase and reducing markedly in the single support phase. Coaches have sought to prolong the double support phase, although other studies have shown that acceleration is also possible during the sing...
Sadeghi, Jafar; Razavi, Fatemeh
2015-01-01
In order to study quark and anti-quark interaction, one should consider all effects of the medium in motion of the pair. Because the pair, is not produced at rest in QGP. So the velocity of the pair, has some effects on its interactions that should be taken into account. In this paper we apply some conformal transformations for a rotat- ing string dual to a rotating heavy quark in $AdS_3$ which construct an accelerating string dual to an accelerating quark and anti-quark pair. So, we can have...
Kaneko, M; Okui, H; Hirakawa, G; Ishinishi, H; Katayama, Y; Iramina, K
2012-01-01
We have developed an evaluation system for pronation and supination of forearms. The motion of pronation and supination of the forearm is used as a diagnosis method of developmental disability, etc. However, this diagnosis method has a demerit in which diagnosis results between doctors are not consistent. It is hoped that a more quantitative and simple evaluation method is established. Moreover it is hoped a diagnostic criteria obtained from healthy subjects can be established to diagnose developmental disorder patients. We developed a simple and portable evaluation system for pronation and supination of forearms. Three-dimensional wireless acceleration and angular velocity sensors are used for this system. In this study, pronation and supination of forearms of 570 subjects (subjects aged 6-12, 21-100) were examined. We could obtain aging curves in the neuromotor function of pronation and supination. These aging curves obtained by our developed system, has the potential to become diagnostic criteria for a developmental disability, etc. PMID:23366971
Casini, Laurence; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Romaiguère, Patricia
2008-03-01
We studied the relationship between the velocity of movement illusion and the activity level of primary motor area (M1) and of the left angular gyrus (AG) in humans. To induce illusory movement perception, we applied co-vibration at different frequencies on tendons of antagonistic muscle groups. Since it is well established that the velocity of illusory movement is related to the difference in vibration frequency applied to two antagonistic muscles, we compared magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals recorded in two conditions of co-vibration: in the "fast illusion" condition a frequency difference of 80 Hz was applied on the tendons of the right wrist extensor and flexor muscle groups, whereas in the "slow illusion" condition a frequency difference of 40 Hz was applied on the same muscle groups. The dipole strength, reflecting the activity level of structures, was measured over M1 and the left AG in two different time-periods: 0-400 and 400-800 ms in each condition. Our results showed that the activity level of the AG was similar in both conditions whatever the time-period, whereas the activity level of M1 was higher in the "fast illusion" condition compared to the "slow illusion" condition from 400 ms after the vibration onset only. The data suggest that the two structures differently contributed to the perception of illusory movements. Our hypothesis is that M1 would be involved in the coding of cinematic parameters of the illusory movement but not the AG. PMID:18317743
Zaatri, Amel; Roth, Markus; Corbard, Thierry; Brajsa, Roman
2009-01-01
Context. We compare solar differential rotation of subphotospheric layers derived from local helioseismology analysis of GONG++ dopplergrams and the one derived from tracing small bright coronal structures (SBCS) using EIT/SOHO images for the period August 2001 - December 2006, which correspond to the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Aims. The study aims to find a relationship between the rotation of the SBCS and the subphotospheric angular velocity. The northsouth asymmetries of both rotation velocity measurements are also investigated. Methods. Subphotospheric differential rotation was derived using ring-diagram analysis of GONG++ full-disk dopplergrams of 1 min cadence. The coronal rotation was derived by using an automatic method to identify and track the small bright coronal structures in EIT full-disk images of 6 hours cadence. Results. We find that the SBCS rotate faster than the considered upper subphotospheric layer (3Mm) by about 0.5 deg/day at the equator. This result joins the results of several...
Greess, Samuel; Ji, Hantao; Merino, Enrique; Berrios, William
2013-10-01
The method by which angular momentum transfers between different sections of accretion disks is a matter of ongoing debate. One suggested answer is Magnetorotational instability (MRI), which would facilitate this transfer through the magnetic interactions between particles at different distances from the center of the disk. While ongoing experiments with MRI have focused on the use of liquid metals to test the effects of magnetic fields, we are developing a swirling gas experiment to study effects beyond incompressible hydrodynamics, including compressible gas dynamics and plasma effects when gas is ionized. A second-generation prototype swirling gas experiment has been built to test the principle and to establish favorable rotation profiles using a chamber of swirling fog to simulate the formation and movement of accretion disks about some gravitational center. The paths of the visible fog particles can then be analyzed with Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) techniques; these velocity measurements can then be organized by a Python program. Anticipated results include a radial profile of velocities at different times during the gas injection process, as well as further refinement of the fog chamber design to improve the accuracy in controlling the profile.
Wiederkehr, A. W.; Schmutz, H.; Motsch, M.; Merkt, F.
2012-08-01
Cold samples of oxygen molecules in supersonic beams have been decelerated from initial velocities of 390 and 450 m s-1 to final velocities in the range between 150 and 280 m s-1 using a 90-stage Zeeman decelerator. (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced-multiphoton-ionization (REMPI) spectra of the 3sσ g 3Π g (C) ? two-photon transition of O2 have been recorded to characterize the state selectivity of the deceleration process. The decelerated molecular sample was found to consist exclusively of molecules in the J ‧‧ = 2 spin-rotational component of the X ? ground state of O2. Measurements of the REMPI spectra using linearly polarized laser radiation with polarization vector parallel to the decelerator axis, and thus to the magnetic-field vector of the deceleration solenoids, further showed that only the ? magnetic sublevel of the N‧‧ = 1, J ‧‧ = 2 spin-rotational level is populated in the decelerated sample, which therefore is characterized by a fully oriented total-angular-momentum vector. By maintaining a weak quantization magnetic field beyond the decelerator, the polarization of the sample could be maintained over the 5 cm distance separating the last deceleration solenoid and the detection region.
速度与角速度双积分匹配传递对准%Transfer alignment of velocity and double integration of angular rate matching
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孔星炜; 董景新; 郭美凤
2011-01-01
The effects of carrier flexure deformation on transfer alignment were reduced using a developed ＂velocity ＋ double-integration of angular rate＂（VDAR） matching method.Compared with the attitude matching method,the double-integration of angular rate matching method is insensitive to carrier flexure deformation,with the VDAR matching method,combined with the velocity matching method,reducing the transfer alignment errors caused by flexure deformation.Monte Carlo simulations of transfer alignment based on the wing flexure data measured in a flight test show that the maximum attitude estimate error obtained by using the VDAR matching is reduced by more than 30% with the gyro and accelerometer bias estimate errors also decreased,compared with using the traditional ＂velocity ＋ attitude＂ matching.A vehicle test validates the developed method efficiency.%为降低载体挠曲变形对传递对准的影响,提出了＂速度＋角速度双积分＂匹配方法。与姿态匹配相比,角速度双积分匹配对载体挠曲变形不敏感。结合速度匹配,＂速度＋角速度双积分＂匹配可减小挠曲变形引起的传递对准误差。参照挂飞试验测得的机翼挠曲变形数据,进行了传递对准的Monte Carlo仿真。仿真结果表明：采用＂速度＋角速度双积分＂匹配方式相比采用传统的＂速度＋姿态＂匹配,最大姿态估计误差减小超过30%,陀螺和加速度计的零偏估计误差也有不同程度的减小。车载实验验证了这种方法的有效性。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐俊铨; 田学隆
2011-01-01
剪切池内旋转锥体的角速度是新型锥板式血液粘度仪的主要信息源,其精度取决于光电传感器和齿形盘.分析了光电传感器的点光源特性和齿形盘的周期性摆动及其加工精度导致的角度误差.针对锥体角速度的单调递减特性、角度误差在单转内的随机性及整个测量过程中呈周期性,采用有理三次样条插值算法对角速度误差进行补偿.实验结果表明:该方法可提高角速度的测量精度,降低传感器的生产成本.%The angular velocity of rotating cone in shear-pool is the main information source of a cone-plate blood viscometer,and its precision depends on the photoelectric sensor and fluted disc. The error sources of angular velocity device are analyzed, that is, the pointolite characteristic of photoelectric sensor, and the angular error due to the cyclical swing and the machining inaccuracy of fluted disc. Since the cone angular velocity is monotone decreasing and the angular error is random in one cycle but is cyclical variation during the whole detecting process,a rational cubic spline interpolation algorithm is adopted to decrease the angular error. Experimental results show that this method can improve the precision of angular velocity and reduce the production cost of sensor.
Veale, Melanie; Ma, Chung-Pei; Thomas, Jens; Greene, Jenny E.; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Walsh, Jonelle; Ito, Jennifer; Blakeslee, John P.; Janish, Ryan
2016-09-01
We present spatially-resolved two-dimensional stellar kinematics for the 41 most massive early-type galaxies (MK ≲ -25.7 mag, stellar mass M★ ≳ 1011.8 M⊙) of the volume-limited (D angular momentum (λ and fast or slow rotator status), velocity dispersion (σ), and higher-order non-Gaussian velocity features (Gauss-Hermite moments h3 to h6). Our sample contains a high fraction (˜80%) of slow and non-rotators with λ ≲ 0.2. When combined with the lower-mass ETGs in the ATLAS3D survey, we find the fraction of slow-rotators to increase dramatically with galaxy mass, reaching ˜50% at MK ˜ -25.5 mag and ˜90% at MK ≲ -26 mag. All of our fast rotators show a clear anti-correlation between h3 and V/σ, and the slope of the anti-correlation is steeper in more round galaxies. The radial profiles of σ show a clear luminosity and environmental dependence: the 12 most luminous galaxies in our sample (MK ≲ -26 mag) are all brightest cluster/group galaxies (except NGC 4874) and all have rising or nearly flat σ profiles, whereas five of the seven "isolated" galaxies are all fainter than MK = -25.8 mag and have falling σ. All of our galaxies have positive average h4; the most luminous galaxies have average h4 ˜ 0.05 while less luminous galaxies have a range of values between 0 and 0.05. Most of our galaxies show positive radial gradients in h4, and those galaxies also tend to have rising σ profiles. We discuss the implications for the relationship among dynamical mass, σ, h4, and velocity anisotropy for these massive galaxies.
Application analysis of angular dispersion Fabry-Perot velocity interferometry%角色散FP干涉测速技术应用与分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈光华; 刘寿先; 李泽仁; 李涛; 蒙建华; 郭江建; 刘乔
2011-01-01
A fixed-cavity angular dispersion Fabry-Perot velocity interferometer was developed by applying a solid etalon to realize that this interferometer's structure was compact, the interference fringes obtained by it were adjustment-free and its fringe constant could be easily and accurately calibrated. This interferometer was used in the experiment with an electric gun to accelerate a 10-mm-diame-ter, 0. 25-mm-thick Mylar flyer. The interferometer gave good results even when the intensity of light reflected from the target changed 100 times. The measurement accuracy of the system was analyzed by taking account of etalon thickness error, unparallel etalon surfaces, fringe broadening, image aberration, and so on. And the velocity resolution and the temporal resolution were also analyzed.%发展了固定腔结构的角色散FP干涉测速系统,干涉仪结构紧凑,采用固定腔标准具,实现了干涉条纹永久免调,并且条纹常数的标定非常简单.该系统可用于靶面反射光强动态变化很大的场合,在电炮驱动Mylar膜飞片实验中,光强变化达100倍时仍然获得了很好的结果.分析了标准具厚度误差、标准具端面不平行、干涉条纹动态展宽和扫描图像畸变等因素对系统测量精度的影响以及系统的速度和时间分辨能力.
Cope, Alex J; Sabo, Chelsea; Gurney, Kevin; Vasilaki, Eleni; Marshall, James A R
2016-05-01
We present a novel neurally based model for estimating angular velocity (AV) in the bee brain, capable of quantitatively reproducing experimental observations of visual odometry and corridor-centering in free-flying honeybees, including previously unaccounted for manipulations of behaviour. The model is fitted using electrophysiological data, and tested using behavioural data. Based on our model we suggest that the AV response can be considered as an evolutionary extension to the optomotor response. The detector is tested behaviourally in silico with the corridor-centering paradigm, where bees navigate down a corridor with gratings (square wave or sinusoidal) on the walls. When combined with an existing flight control algorithm the detector reproduces the invariance of the average flight path to the spatial frequency and contrast of the gratings, including deviations from perfect centering behaviour as found in the real bee's behaviour. In addition, the summed response of the detector to a unit distance movement along the corridor is constant for a large range of grating spatial frequencies, demonstrating that the detector can be used as a visual odometer. PMID:27148968
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex J Cope
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We present a novel neurally based model for estimating angular velocity (AV in the bee brain, capable of quantitatively reproducing experimental observations of visual odometry and corridor-centering in free-flying honeybees, including previously unaccounted for manipulations of behaviour. The model is fitted using electrophysiological data, and tested using behavioural data. Based on our model we suggest that the AV response can be considered as an evolutionary extension to the optomotor response. The detector is tested behaviourally in silico with the corridor-centering paradigm, where bees navigate down a corridor with gratings (square wave or sinusoidal on the walls. When combined with an existing flight control algorithm the detector reproduces the invariance of the average flight path to the spatial frequency and contrast of the gratings, including deviations from perfect centering behaviour as found in the real bee's behaviour. In addition, the summed response of the detector to a unit distance movement along the corridor is constant for a large range of grating spatial frequencies, demonstrating that the detector can be used as a visual odometer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slawomirski, M.R.
1979-01-01
An examination is made of the flow of viscoplastic fluids in the space between two coaxial pipes with regard for rotation of the inner pipe. An analytical solution is provided for the task to determine the nature of distribution of flow velocity of the drilling fluid in the annular space and distribution of angular velocities in the flow. A relationship is obtained between the angular velocity of the drilling string and the torque acting on it. In this case, cases are examined where there is no flow nucleus, where the flow nucleus occupies the entire section of the annular space and an intermediate case where the flow nucleus only occupies part of the annular space limited by a certain radius. The solutions are given for different rheological models: Bingam, Khershel-Balkli and Kasson.
Angular velocity and acceleration meter
Melamed, L.
1972-01-01
Meter uses a liquid crystalline film which changes coloration due to shear-stresses produced by a rotating disk. Device is advantageous in that it is not subject to bearing failure or electrical burnouts as are conventional devices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王亭; 赵俊卿; 庄世栋; 孙雅婷
2014-01-01
角速度是在许多领域的机械系统设计与控制中有着广泛应用的一个基本概念。为了正确应用角速度矢量描述物体的转动，文章以质点和刚体为研究对象，基于运动的叠加性、运动的相对性、非惯性系中物体的运动和刚体转动的不同描述方法，提出了相同研究对象的不同速度表达式，分析了角速度的准确含义，并通过两个应用实例，综合分析了矢量转动的角速度、坐标系转动的角速度和刚体转动的角速度等相关公式。结果表明：对角速度物理含义的准确理解是正确描述物体运动状态的基础，在具体问题中，将有关公式有机结合，注重各种方法的比较应用和相互验证，避免因对角速度、基点等的理解偏差而导致的错误。%The angular velocity is a basic concept which has been widely used in the mechanical design and control fields. To describe objects' rotation properly by using angular velocity vector,we study mechanical motion of the particle and rigid body. Based on superposition and relativity of motion,movement in non-inertial system,and different expressions of rigid body rotation,we provide diverse velocity expressions for all the researched objects,analyze the exact meaning of the angular velocity in the expressions,and comprehensively compare all the expressions corresponding to angular velocity vector,coordinate system and rigid body rotation through two practical examples. Results show that the accurate understanding of the angular velocity is the basis of correctly describing objects' motion state. In specific examples,organically combining the relevant formula by comparative application and mutual verification of all the corresponding methods can effectively avoid possible deviation caused by misunderstanding of the angular velocity.
Sasorova, Elena; Levin, Boris
2016-04-01
It is known that the seismic activity (SA) of the Earth is unstable both in time and in space. Periods of increase in seismic activity alternate with periods of its decrease. The objective of this work is to analyze the spatial-temporal the distributions of the density of seismic events and relationship between the global CA and variations in the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation (AVER). A density of the observed seismic events in the 1700-1895 years is several times less than in the period 1895-2014, so we carried out a separate analysis for both periods. To construct the spatial distributions of earthquake sources, we subdivided the Earth's surface into 18 latitudinal belts of 10° in extent. To analyze the temporal distribution, the entire observation period was subdivided into 5-year intervals and total number of events within each 5-year interval was calculated. To prepare the working catalog of strong earthquakes for the period of 1700-1895, we used the catalog of considerable earthquakes on Earth since 2150 B.C. compiled by NEIC from the NOAA database. We extracted events with M>=7.5. The total number of events is equal to 72 (38 in the Northern Hemisphere and 34 in the Southern one). Scatterplot for selected events (for latitude and time) and temporal distribution of events in five-year intervals were built. It is found that earthquakes to the north of latitude 60N and to the south of latitude 60S latitude were not observed. The Earth's SA has clearly expressed bimodal latitudinal distribution: two peaks in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (40°N-50°N) and the Southern Hemisphere (10°S-30°S), and the local minimum near the Equator. The same analysis was carried out for period 1890-2014 years (period of instrumental observations) and the similar bimodal distributions were obtained. The working catalog for the AVER for period 1720-2014 years was compiled on the basis of the world-known database IERS and data presented in the work [Mc
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
代刚; 李枚; 苏伟; 邵贝贝
2011-01-01
利用磁场传感器可辅助载体进行角速度测量.在用于飞行载体时,由于载体通常伴随有圆锥运动,并且载体自身会对内部磁场产生干扰,使磁场传感器输出产生畸变,从而导致利用磁场辅助测量的载体角速度的误差较大.针对这个问题,提出了一种基于实时误差补偿的在圆锥运动及磁场干扰影响条件下利用磁场辅助进行角速度测量的方法.该方法利用载体过去1周旋转的数据,实时对圆锥运动与磁场干扰进行补偿,然后根据补偿结果计算当前载体的角速度.当载体角速度越大时,精度越高.通过飞行实验对该方法进行了验证,实验结果表明,在角速度大于300 (°)/s时,角速度误差小于1(°)/s.%Magnetometer can be used to assist the vehicle for angular velocity measurement. The vehicle normally has the coning motion in flight application, and this would influence the interior magnetic distribution and lead to distortion in magnetometer output. In order to solve this problem, a magnetometer aided angular velocity measurement method based on real-time error compensation is put forward which considers the coning motion and magnetic deviation. It takes the advantage of the last 1 rotation cycle data of the magnetometer to compensate the output error and calculate the vehicle angular velocity. When the angular velocity is larger, the result would be more accurate. Flight experiment is carried on to verify the method, and the result shows that the angular velocity error is smaller than l(°)/s when the angular velocity is larger than 300 (°)/s.
基于角速度传感器的火炮调炮速度测量系统%Design of Measuring System of Angular Velocity Based on Sensor Technology
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
康葳; 董田沼; 杨国振; 程旭维
2012-01-01
At present, the instruments used for measuring the artillery angular velocity are huge in size, complex in installation, excessive connections, and requesting higher technical level in operation and can only measure the average velocity. In accordance with this situation, the portable system for measuring the real -time angular velocity is developed based on the high precision angular velocity sensor and the technology of virtual instrument. Hardware structure and software design of the system are described. Through the turntable in different angular velocity testing experiment proves the system stable work, data acquisition and reliable, strong real-time property. Through the test data of Matlab wavelet filter, with a white noise filter in addition to verify the effectiveness of filtering algorithm.%在火炮调炮速度测量中,现有设备只能实现平均速度的测量,且体积较大、安装复杂、连线繁多、操作技术要求较高；针对上述问题,基于高精度角速度传感器和虚拟仪器技术,开发了便携式火炮调炮速度实时测量系统；介绍了系统的硬件组成和软件设计流程；通过转台在不同角速度下的测试实验,验证了该系统工作稳定、数据采集可靠,实时性强；通过Matlab对测试数据进行小波滤波处理,较好地滤除了白噪声,验证了滤波算法的有效性.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马晓三; 于治福; 商德勇
2011-01-01
Using the functional relationships among the initiative input angle, input angular velocity and output angular velocity of a single-cross universal joint, we derive the functional relationship of the transmission shaft composed of two cross universal tandem joints under the condition that three shafts are located in different planes. With these functional relationships, we verify the constant-velocity condition of the cress universal transmission shaft. Then we use the step-by-step search algorithm to determine the optimal phase angle that leads to the minimum fluetuation of the output angular velocity under the varying-velocity condition and to search the maximum and minimum values of the output angular velocity and their corresponding input angles. Finally, we use an ADAMS simulation example to verify that the output angular velocity function and the step-by-step search algorithm are correct.%以由两个十字轴万向节串联组成的传动轴为研究对象，以单十字轴万向节输出角速度计算公式为基础，通过研究两级输入转角之间的关系，推导出了三轴不同面时输出角速度与输入转角、输入角速度之间的函数关系。通过该函数关系，对十字轴万向传动轴等速条件进行了验证，并运用逐步搜索的方法编程确定了不等速条件下使输出角速度波动最小的相位角，在相位角确定时逐步搜索出输出角速度的最大值、最小值及其对应的输入转角。ADAMS仿真实例对输出角速度函数和逐步搜索算法的正确性进行了验证。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭艳丽
2014-01-01
Spindle angular velocity measurement device is an important part of CNC system, is the important guaran-tee to realize the technological process, the article have to do is to use the appropriate sensor to complete the lathe spin-dle angular velocity measurement system.%主轴角速度测量装置是车床数控系统当中的一个重要环节，是实现工艺过程的重要保证，文章所要做到的就是要利用合适的传感器来完成对车床主轴角速度测量系统。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘晓敏; 赵云伟; 刘洪波
2015-01-01
To get the tri-axial angular velocity performance of the Mpu-6050 6-axis motion sensor,the sensor calibration experiments are done on the self-made sensor calibration experiment apparatus by the servo motor. The angular velocity measurements of sensor and samples are acquired and then they are linear fitted. Furthermore, the empirical formula of angular velocity is established which laid a good foundation for application of flexible pneumatic robot hand.%为了获得Mpu-6050型6轴运动传感器的三轴角速度性能，在自制的传感器标定实验装置上，利用伺服电机进行了传感器标定实验。获得了传感器角速度测量值与采样值的关系及测量范围。并进行了线性拟合，建立了传感器输出角速度的经验公式，为该传感器在气动柔性机械手中的应用奠定了基础。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘志海; 魏勇; 王赫楠; 张晓男; 赵恩铭
2014-01-01
A demonstration device for the principle of angular velocity generator in spacial sagnac interferometer was designed and manufactured .In general ,Sagnac interferometer had some disadvan-tages such as the weak Sagnac effect ,the matching difficulty between the interferometer and the angu-lar velocity generator ,so it was hard to demonstrate to students how it works .In this paper ,we solved these problems by designing and manufacturing a new angular velocity generator ,in which swivel plate could readily rotate at the rate of 28 r/min and 334 r/min to meet the demand of demon-strating of Sagnac effect to the college students .%设计并制作了空间Sagnac干涉仪测量角速度原理演示装置。打破了由于Sagnac效应微弱，角速度发生装置难以配套演示困难的局面，使广大学生可以直观学习探索Sagnac效应。本文设计的角速度发生装置，转盘可以在28～334 r/min之间稳定转动，满足Sagnac效应演示实验的需求。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
余剑敏; 钟健松; 魏健宁; 谌庆春; 吴米贵
2011-01-01
This article describes using PASCO optical-sensors in real time measurement of angular velocity and angular acceleration of the circular disc,and makes the circular disc rotational speed and acceleration measurements.The experimental design,measurement sciences,accurate and reliable data,reference to reality.%介绍了利用PASCO光传感器实时测量圆盘的角速度与角加速度,进而实现对圆盘转动速度、加速度的测量。实验设计合理,测量方法科学,数据精确可靠,对现实应用有借鉴作用。
NTD based measurement method of the relative angular velocity of ISP gimbal%一种基于NTD的ISP框架相对角速度测量方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
白长瑞; 张舟; 赵岩
2012-01-01
In order to improve the precision of angular position servo of inertially stabilized platform (ISP) gimbal,the relative angular velocity of ISP should be measured in real-time with high precision. Thus,a method for measuring the relative angular velocity of ISP based on the nonlinear tracking differentiator (NTD) is proposed. In order to acquire the parameters of NTD algorithm accurately,a tuning method for identifying the parameters of NTD is proposed. On this basis,the NTD used for ISP was designed according to the control system of ISP. Experimental results show that compared with the traditional speed measurement methods based on position signal,the proposed method can suppress the measurement noise effectively and improve the control accuracy of velocity-loop. And the precision of angular positidn servo is improved from±0.015°to±0.002° All these characteristics show that the proposed method is feasible and can provide references for the engineering application of velocity measurement based on NTD.%为了提高航空遥感用三轴惯性稳定平台(inertially stabilized platform,ISP)框架角位置伺服精度,需要实现对ISP框架相对角速度的实时、高精度测量.为此,提出了一种基于非线性跟踪微分器(nonlinear tracking differentiator,NTD)获得ISP框架相对角速度的方法.并且,为了精确获取NTD算法中的参数,提出了一种NTD参数整定方法.在此基础上,结合ISP的控制系统,完成了ISP用NTD的设计.实验结果表明,与传统基于位置信号的测速法相比,该方法可有效抑制测量噪声,提高框架速率环控制精度,并将ISP框架的角位置伺服精度由原来的±0.015°提升至±0.002°.实验结果验证了该方法的可行性,为基于NTD的速度测量方法的工程应用提供了参考.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, I.; Martriaanez, H.; Cisneros, C.; de Urquijo, J. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 139-B, 62191 Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico))
1992-01-01
The angular and velocity distributions of the HD{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +} fragments resulting from collision-induced dissociation of the HD{sub 2}{sup +} molecular ion incident on He have been measured in the energy range 1--5 keV. These distributions were used to determine the binding energy of HD{sub 2}{sup +}, some of the main transitions involved in the dissociation process, and the total cross sections for the production of both fragments.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴忠; 吕绪明
2011-01-01
磁编码器是一种基于磁阻效应或霍尔效应的轴角传感器,输出信号是转子角位置的正余弦函数.为获取转子角位置和角速度信息,设计了一种基于状态观测器的磁编码器解调算法.理论分析表明,当伺服电机匀速旋转时,基于二阶和三阶状态观测器的解调算法误差均可渐近收敛至零;当伺服电机匀加速或匀减速旋转时,前者存在原理性偏差,而后者解调误差依然可以渐近收敛至零.与反正切法相比,该算法不需通过数值差分即可获得角速度信息,具有较强的干扰抑制能力.与基于锁相环的角度跟踪法相比,该算法考虑了电机的转速变化,角位置和角速度解算精度较高.实验结果表明,该解调算法是可行的.%Magnetic encoder was a kind of rotary sensors based on magnetoresistance effects or Hall effects, and it could output two orthogonal signals which were sine or cosine functions of the rotor angular position. In order to obtain the rotor angular position and velocity information, a state-observer-based algorithm was presented to demodulate output signals of the magnetic encoder. Theoretical analysis showed that both the second-order state observer and the third-order one could make the demodulation error converge to zero asymptotically when the motor rotated under constant speed. Once the motor speed varied uniformly, the demodulation error of the former algorithm would exist bias in principle and the latter still could converge to zero asymptotically. Comparing with the arc-tangent method, this algorithm could obtain angular velocity information without needing differential operator, thus had a strong ability to suppress random disturbances. Comparing with the phase-locked loop tracking method, this algorithm could obtain angular position and velocity with higher precision since the variation of the motor speed was taken into consideration. Experimental results indicated that the demodulation algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱艳英; 魏勇; 窦红星; 沈军峰; 靳李丽; 李云涛
2012-01-01
With the development of the optical technology, the application of optical rotation became more and more wide in MEMS and microorganisms field. In the paper the principle of optical rotation due to the transfer of spin angular momentum from light to particles was discussed by analyzing the interaction between the beam of light and birefringent crystal particles, and the effect of ellipse degree of incident light on the optical rotation was also analyzed theoretically. With MATLAB software, the variational relation between ellipse degree of incident light and rotation angular velocity was simulated under the different laser powers, and the result shows that the rotation of crystal particle depends on the relationship between ellipse degree and the thickness of particle in the actual operation. Under the same laser power, the simulated curve of ellipse degree and rotation angular velocity was sinusoidal, as a result, the rotation angular velocity of the crystal particle could be increased by adjusting the ellipse degree of incident light and the laser power in the experiment. The conclusion could be used to the choice of crystal particles and the optimization control of rotation frequency in actual application.%光致旋转技术在微机械和微生物等领域的应用越来越广泛.利用光束自旋角动量可以导致晶体微粒光致旋转的机理,从理论上分析了入射光椭圆度对晶体微粒旋转角速度的影响.通过MATLAB对不同激光功率下,光束的椭圆度与晶体微粒旋转角速度的关系进行数值模拟.结果表明:在实际对晶体微粒光致旋转操作中,晶体微粒能否旋转起来取决于光束椭圆度与微粒厚度之间的关系；在同一激光功率下,光束椭圆度与晶体微粒旋转角速度呈正旋曲线变化.因此,通过调节光束的椭圆度和较高的激光功率可以提高晶体微粒的旋转角速度.该结论对光驱动微机械马达的优化设计有一定的指导意义.
Dumas, R; Cheze, L
2008-08-01
Joint power is commonly used in orthopaedics, ergonomics or sports analysis but its clinical interpretation remains controversial. Some basic principles on muscle actions and energy transfer have been proposed in 2D. The decomposition of power on 3 axes, although questionable, allows the same analysis in 3D. However, these basic principles have been widely criticized, mainly because bi-articular muscles must be considered. This requires a more complex computation in order to determine how the individual muscle force contributes to drive the joint. Conversely, with simple 3D inverse dynamics, the analysis of both joint moment and angular velocity directions is essential to clarify when the joint moment can contribute or not to drive the joint. The present study evaluates the 3D angle between the joint moment and the joint angular velocity and investigates when the hip, knee and ankle joints are predominantly driven (angle close to 0 degrees and 180 degrees ) or stabilized (angle close to 90 degrees ) during gait. The 3D angle curves show that the three joints are never fully but only partially driven and that the hip and knee joints are mainly stabilized during the stance phase. The notion of stabilization should be further investigated, especially for subjects with motion disorders or prostheses. PMID:18206375
Dumas, R; Cheze, L
2008-08-01
Joint power is commonly used in orthopaedics, ergonomics or sports analysis but its clinical interpretation remains controversial. Some basic principles on muscle actions and energy transfer have been proposed in 2D. The decomposition of power on 3 axes, although questionable, allows the same analysis in 3D. However, these basic principles have been widely criticized, mainly because bi-articular muscles must be considered. This requires a more complex computation in order to determine how the individual muscle force contributes to drive the joint. Conversely, with simple 3D inverse dynamics, the analysis of both joint moment and angular velocity directions is essential to clarify when the joint moment can contribute or not to drive the joint. The present study evaluates the 3D angle between the joint moment and the joint angular velocity and investigates when the hip, knee and ankle joints are predominantly driven (angle close to 0 degrees and 180 degrees ) or stabilized (angle close to 90 degrees ) during gait. The 3D angle curves show that the three joints are never fully but only partially driven and that the hip and knee joints are mainly stabilized during the stance phase. The notion of stabilization should be further investigated, especially for subjects with motion disorders or prostheses.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵颖; 朱兴望; 曲世祥; 陈堃
2016-01-01
Background: Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR), most often used in Generation IV high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor, employs pebble-shaped fuel elements. As pebbles flow through the reactor, they will slide and rotate against each other and the wall, causing generation of graphite dust.Purpose:This study aims to investigate the rotation angles and angular velocities of pebble-shaped fuel elements (PSFE). Methods: The rotation angle and angular velocity were studied by using a simulated transparent cylinder to replace the reactor core. A pebble-shaped detection system is employed to test the angular velocities and accumulated rotation angles of PSFEs with wireless interface. The generation of graphite particles by rotational abrasion was also studied.Results:The experimental results show that the initial seeding position has influence on rotation angles and angular velocities. The distribution of rotation angles and angular velocities from the center to the wall can be described as an inverted V-type distribution. The calculation results show that wear mass by rotation accounts for 11%?27% of the total graphite dust.Conclusion: Sliding abrasion is stronger than rotation abrasion in general, graphite generation tends to be overestimated if we only take sliding abrasion into consideration and ignore rotation abrasion.%球床堆采用球形燃料元件,其在循环过程中存在滚动磨损以及滑动磨损并产生石墨粉尘.本文借助一种球形无线探测系统量化了角速度及累计旋转角度,并量化了滚动磨损对石墨粉尘产生的影响.实验结果表明,累计旋转角度和角速度与初始径向位置有关,随着初始径向位置由里向外,呈V字型分布,与仓筒边壁接触的球累计旋转角度和角速度远大于其他位置,边壁滚动效应显著.计算结果表明,滚动磨损对石墨粉尘产生量的贡献在11%?27%,且靠近仓筒边壁处该百分比高于其他位置,边壁效应明显.一般情况下,滚动磨
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uchida, Yutaka (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science); Mizuno, Akira; Nozawa, Satonori; Fukui, Yasuo
1990-01-01
It has been found from {sup 13}CO observations using the Nagoya 4-m telescope that the blue- and redshifted contours (e.g., V{sub LSR} {plus minus} 0.5 kms{sup -1}) in the {rho} Oph streamer (north) are systematically separated from each other, with blue on the north-west side and red on the south-east side of the curved axis of the streamer, respectively. Our interpretation is that the streamer is spinning around its axis. We propose a picture in which the streamer is a 'drain' through which the angular momentum is carried away from a massive cloud of active star formation by the magnetic twist. This draining allows the star-formation process in the massive cloud to occur with an enhanced rate. (author).
Angular velocity and acceleration analysis for ground-level tracking system%地平式跟踪系统中目标角速度与角加速度分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
游安清; 张家如
2013-01-01
Many fire control systems nowadays need real-time tracking and pointing to targets.In their design,demonstration and analysis,it is often necessary to estimate the angular velocity,angular acceleration and their variation law to provide basis for designing tracking and pointing system.However,systematic exposition for these issues is hard to find.Therefore,theoretical deductions are strictly made for often-involved long-range space targets to obtain quantitive formulae about angular velocity,angular acceleration as well as their maximum values.The deductions specially aim at ground-level tracking systems.Results of theoretical calculations with these formulae are compared with some real-measured data from a target.Conformity of the two types of results proves all the formulae are correct.The obtained formulae are also fit for short-range targets,which can be seen from the procedure of deduction.%在需要对目标进行实时跟踪瞄准的火控系统设计、论证与分析中,经常要估算目标运动的角速度、角加速度及其变化规律,以作为跟踪系统设计的依据,但目前很难找到针对此类问题的系统性论述.为此,以经常涉及的空间远程目标为对象,从理论上对地平式跟踪系统中目标运动的角速度、角加速度、最大角速度、最大角加速度等物理量进行了严格推导,给出定量的计算公式,并将理论计算结果与对某目标的实测数据进行了比较,证明了理论公式的正确性.从推导过程看,所得公式同样适用于近程目标.
... A This image displays a frequent location for candida infection (angular cheilitis), the corners of the mouth. Overview ... infection, those affected may also have thrush (oral candidiasis). The areas are generally slightly painful. The condition ...
Veale, Melanie; Thomas, Jens; Greene, Jenny E; McConnell, Nicholas J; Walsh, Jonelle; Ito, Jennifer; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan
2016-01-01
We present spatially-resolved two-dimensional stellar kinematics for the 41 most massive early-type galaxies (MK ~ 10^11.8 Msun) of the volume-limited (D ; the most luminous galaxies have ~ 0.05 while less luminous galaxies have a range of values between 0 and 0.5. Most of our galaxies show positive radial gradients in h4, and those galaxies also tend to have rising sigma profiles. We discuss the implications for the relationship among dynamical mass, sigma, h4, and velocity anisotropy for these massive galaxies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berger, M.H.
1979-12-01
The auxiliary equation to uncouple temperature and angular velocity in the PANCAKESS code is presented in the context of the complete system of linearized continuum equations governing steady state centrifuge gas dynamics. This single, second order, anisotropic diffusion equation is carefully examined, and boundary layer-like character under high-speed conditions (A/sup 2/ >> 1) is identified through physical reasoning. Both exact and perturbation solutions are constructed for the main drive mechanisms of interest, (e.g., wall temperature, end cap temperature, scoop and feed). Several analytical solutions are greatly simplified in the perturbation approximation of matched asymptotic expansions and simultaneously reduce computational labor. As a result, the physics of this process is described in several cases of interest by very simple expressions.
Muñoz, R R; Majewski, S R; Kuhn, J R; Chou, M Y; Palma, C; Sohn, S T; Patterson, R J; Siegel, M H; Munoz, Ricardo R.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Majewski, Steven R.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Chou, Mei-Yin; Palma, Christopher; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Patterson, Richard J.; Siegel, Michael H.
2005-01-01
We analyze velocity dispersion profiles for the Draco and Ursa Minor (UMi) dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies based on data by Wilkinson et al.(2004) and new Keck HIRES spectra for stars in the outer UMi field. Washington+DDO51 filter photometric catalogs provide additional leverage on membership of individual stars, and beyond 0.5 King limiting radii (R_lim) identify bona fide dSph members five times more efficiently than simple color-magnitude diagram selection schemes. Previously reported ``cold populations'' at the R_lim are not obvious in the data and strongly depend on binning: more or less flat and platykurtic dispersion profiles are characteristic of these dSphs at large radii. For either dSph the velocity dispersion of the outermost stars lies within the range of dispersions for stars at other, smaller projected radii. We report discovery of UMi stars to at least 2.7 R_lim (i.e., 210 arcmin or 4 kpc). Even with conservative assumptions, a UMi mass of M> 4.9x10^8 M(sun) is required to bind these stars, ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beck, R.D.; Weis, P.; Rockenberger, J.; Kappes, M.M. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)
1995-03-23
The mechanism of UV laser desorption/ionization of C{sub 60} and C{sub 60}O{sub x} (x = 2-4) has been studied by measuring the angle and arrival time distribution for positive ions generated upon laser irradiation of microcrystalline targets. Observations include evidence for desorption `jet` formation as well as for on-beam axis enrichment of coalescence products. These measurements imply that internal and kinetic energy of promptly desorbing material are correlated and suggest that coalescence products such as C{sub 118}{sup +} are generated within the material ablated by one laser pulse rather than from previous photopolymerization. The data are contrasted to laser desorption measurements of NaI/CsI mixed targets for which near effusive ion velocity distributions are observed. 30 refs., 11 figs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李永博; 郭治
2009-01-01
The definitions of dynamic and static equations with the moving-mass framework for high-rolling projectile were proposed; the dynamic gesture equation was established based on a bi-moving mass model, which is abbreviated by linearization method; the abbreviated equation was described as the standard state space form, the feedback control law was designed according to satisfactory control theory, to reach control tracking the angle velocities at yaw and pitch rotation directions; the tracking angular velocity for high-spin projectile with moving-mass framework was simulated. The simulated result shows the proposed algorithm is effective and proyides a necessary reference for practical engineering.%针对高旋弹头滑块控制的特点,提出了动态方程和静态方程的概念;以双滑块机构为模型,建立了动态姿态动力学方程,运用线性化手段将方程化简;并列写成标准的状态空间形式,以满意控制理论设计了反馈控制律,以达到控制俯仰、偏航角速度的目的;针对某型高旋弹进行了仿真研究.仿真结果表明控制效果明显,为实际工程应用提供了必要借鉴.
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
Study on angular velocity algorithm for vibration test based on sensors array%基于传感器阵列的振动测试角速度算法研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪伟; 焦健超; 唐力伟; 杨通强
2012-01-01
Acceleration sensors array can effectively measure 6 -DOF high -frequency vibration parameters of many dimensions linear vibration and angular vibration. In the crucial course of testing three -dimensional angular velocity, the traditional integral method makes the error accumulate fast so that the precision is influenced seriously under the condition of long time test. In this paper, a scheme of applying 3-axis acceleration sensors array was taken as an example. The effect of integration and evolution was compared by model simulation. A kind of combination algorithm was put forward to solve the problem of error accumulation under guaranteeing the prerequisite of precision which offers algorithm guarantee for long time vibration test.%针对较高频率下多维线振动与角振动同时存在的复杂振动,加速度传感器阵列可以有效地测试六自由度参数.在关键的测试三维角速度的过程中,传统的积分方法使误差快速积累,在长时间测试的情况下严重影响精度.该文基于一种利用三轴加速度传感器阵列的四传感器配置方案,通过模型仿真对积分法、开方法等角速度解算算法进行比较,并提出一种组合算法,在保证精度的前提下解决了误差积累的问题,为长时间的振动测试提供了算法保证.
A neural circuit for angular velocity computation
Snider, Samuel B.; Rafael Yuste; Packer, Adam M.
2010-01-01
In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly tunable wing steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information abou...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张蔚云; 闫树斌; 甄国涌; 薛晨阳; 郑永秋
2014-01-01
微腔角速度传感系统是新一代光学传感器的代表。提出一种面向角速度传感系统的微球腔,其中微球腔作为核心部件直径约为1 mm,根据测量及相关公式计算,半高全宽为10.5 MHz,自由谱宽65.89 GHz,Q值1.84×107,精细度为6.26×103。微球腔特有的高Q值、高分辨率、制备简单等性能,使其具有长远的发展前景。详细介绍了整个系统的工作原理,并通过使用不同波形、不同频率的扫频及调制信号进行实验,对比透射曲线和鉴频曲线的形态,获得在球腔系统中的最适参数。经验证,使用频率为10 Hz的正弦波进行扫频,1 MHz的三角波作为进行调制,能够使系统处于更优的状态。%The velocity sensor system which based on microcavity is a novel candidate for the next generation interial rotation sensor. For the angular velocity sensing system, the microsphere cavity is proposed. The key part of the system is the microsphere cavity of which diameter is 1 mm. According to the measurement and related formula,the free spectral range of the resonator ( FSR ) , the full width at half maximum of the resonance curve ( FWHM ) , the value of Q and the fineness of the resonator(F)are 10. 5 MHz,65. 89 GHz,1. 84×107,6. 26×103. The unique properties such as high-Q,high resolution,simple preparation and others make the microsphere cavity has a long-term development prospects. Describes the working principle of the whole system,we have used sweep signal and the modulated signal with different waveforms,different frequency to experiment,contrasted the shape of transmittance curves and frequency discriminator curve,and then acquired the most appropriate parameters in the system. After authentication,the system can be in a better state by using a 10 Hz sine wave to be frequency sweeping signal and a 1 MHz triangle wave to be modulation signal.
Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Bowin
2009-03-01
Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm^{2}s^{−1}. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive
Coupling Between Velocities in a Radial Supercharger
Pavlechko, V. N.; Petrov, O. A.
2014-03-01
We have analyzed the velocities of the medium and impeller in a radial supercharger with consideration of the Coriolis acceleration. We have derived an expression for determining the angular velocity of the medium that differs from the angular velocity of the impeller. Dependences have been obtained to determine the velocity of the medium at the exit from the impeller on the inclination angle of the supercharger blades and their coupling with the circumferential velocity of the impeller in the absence of energy losses. Graphical dependences of velocities on the inclination angle of the blades at different ratios of inside radius to outside radius have been constructed.
Karpov, Valeri
2015-01-01
A comprehensive guide to AngularJS, Google's open-source client-side framework for app development. Most of the existing guides to AngularJS struggle to provide simple and understandable explanations for more advanced concepts. As a result, some developers who understand all the basic concepts of AngularJS struggle when it comes to building more complex real-world applications. Professional AngularJS provides a thorough understanding of AngularJS, covering everything from basic concepts, such as directives and data binding, to more advanced concepts like transclusion, build systems, and auto
Honma, Kenji; Miyashita, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Yoshiteru
2014-06-01
Oxidation reaction of a gas-phase aluminum atom by a molecular oxygen was studied by a crossed-beam condition at 12.4 kJ/mol of collision energy. A (1+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the D2Σ+-X2Σ+ transition of AlO was applied to ionize the product. The REMPI spectrum was analyzed to determine rotational state distributions for v = 0-2 of AlO. For several vib-rotational states of AlO, state selected angular and kinetic energy distributions were determined by a time-sliced ion imaging technique for the first time. Kinetic energy distributions were well represented by that taken into account initial energy spreads of collision energy and the population of the spin-orbit levels of the counter product O(3PJ) determined previously. All angular distributions showed forward and backward peaks, and the forward peaks were more pronounced than the backward one for the states of low internal energy. The backward peak intensity became comparable to the forward one for the states of high internal energy. These results and the rotational state distributions suggested that the reaction proceeds via an intermediate which has a lifetime comparable to or shorter than its rotational period.
Honma, Kenji; Miyashita, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Yoshiteru
2014-06-01
Oxidation reaction of a gas-phase aluminum atom by a molecular oxygen was studied by a crossed-beam condition at 12.4 kJ/mol of collision energy. A (1+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the D(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Σ(+) transition of AlO was applied to ionize the product. The REMPI spectrum was analyzed to determine rotational state distributions for v = 0-2 of AlO. For several vib-rotational states of AlO, state selected angular and kinetic energy distributions were determined by a time-sliced ion imaging technique for the first time. Kinetic energy distributions were well represented by that taken into account initial energy spreads of collision energy and the population of the spin-orbit levels of the counter product O((3)P(J)) determined previously. All angular distributions showed forward and backward peaks, and the forward peaks were more pronounced than the backward one for the states of low internal energy. The backward peak intensity became comparable to the forward one for the states of high internal energy. These results and the rotational state distributions suggested that the reaction proceeds via an intermediate which has a lifetime comparable to or shorter than its rotational period. PMID:24908005
Orbital angular momentum in /sup 3/He-A-italic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balatskii-breve, A.V.; Mineev, V.P.
1985-12-01
The intrinsic angular momentum in the A-italic phase of superfluid /sup 3/He is found in terms of the response to the angular velocity of rotation. It is shown that in the weak-coupling approximation at an arbitrary temperature and with allowance for the Fermi-liquid renormalization the intrinsic angular momentum is small in accordance with the smallness of the asymmetry in the distribution of particles and holes.
Schwinger, J.
1952-01-26
The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.
Partonic orbital angular momentum
Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Shahveh, Abolfazl
2013-04-01
Ji's decomposition of nucleon spin is used and the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluon are calculated. We have utilized the so called valon model description of the nucleon in the next to leading order. It is found that the average orbital angular momentum of quarks is positive, but small, whereas that of gluon is negative and large. Individual quark flavor contributions are also calculated. Some regularities on the total angular momentum of the quarks and gluon are observed.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Burkardt Matthias
2015-01-01
Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asy...
Angular dynamics of small crystals in viscous flow
Fries, J; Mehlig, B
2016-01-01
The angular dynamics of a very small ellipsoidal particle in a viscous flow decouples from its translational dynamics, and the particle angular velocity is given by Jeffery's theory. It is known that cuboid particles share these properties. In the literature a special case is most frequently discussed, that of axisymmetric particles, with a continuous rotational symmetry. Here we compute the angular dynamics of crystals that possess a discrete rotational symmetry and certain mirror symmetries, but that do not have a continuous rotational symmetry. We give examples of such particles that nevertheless obey Jeffery's theory. But there are other examples where the angular dynamics is determined by a more general equation of motion.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burkardt Matthias
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.
Energy velocity and group velocity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈宇
1995-01-01
A new Lagrangian method for studying the relationship between the energy velocity and the group velocity is described. It is proved that under the usual quasistatic electric field, the energy velocity is identical to the group velocity for acoustic waves in anisotropic piezoelectric (or non-piezoelectric) media.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For many years the Institute of Physics has published books on hot topics based on a collection of reprints from different journals, including some remarks by the editors of each volume. The book on Optical Angular Momentum, edited by L Allen, S M Barnett and M J Padgett, is a recent addition to the series. It reproduces forty four papers originally published in different journals and in a few cases it provides direct access to works not easily accessible to a web navigator. The collection covers nearly a hundred years of progress in physics, starting from an historic 1909 paper by Poynting, and ending with a 2002 paper by Padgett, Barnett and coworkers on the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon. The field of optical angular momentum has expanded greatly, creating an interdisciplinary attraction for researchers operating in quantum optics, atomic physics, solid state physics, biophysics and quantum information theory. The development of laser optics, especially the control of single mode sources, has made possible the specific design of optical radiation modes with a high degree of control on the light angular momentum. The editors of this book are important figures in the field of angular momentum, having contributed to key progress in the area. L Allen published an historical paper in 1999, he and M J Padgett (together with M Babiker) produced few years ago a long review article which is today still the most complete basic introduction to the angular momentum of light, while S M Barnett has contributed several high quality papers to the progress of this area of physics. The editors' choice provides an excellent overview to all readers, with papers classified into eight different topics, covering the basic principles of the light and spin and orbital angular momentum, the laboratory tools for creating laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum, the optical forces and torques created by laser beams carrying angular momentum on
Nikola Vlacic
2010-01-01
In this project, we investigated if it is feasible for a single staged rocket with constant thrust to attain escape velocity. We derived an equation for the velocity and position of a single staged rocket that launches vertically. From this equation, we determined if an ideal model of a rocket is able to reach escape velocity.
A new method for verifying the law of conservation of angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new method has been proposed for verifying the law of conservation of angular momentum by measuring the linear velocity, which is in contrast to the conventional method in which the angular velocity is measured. Using the proposed method, systematic and random errors can be greatly reduced. It has been found that the relative experimental error can be reduced to 1.4%. (paper)
Velocity profiles in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
Grossmann, Siegfried; Sun, Chao
2013-01-01
We derive the velocity profiles in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow for the general case of independently rotating cylinders. The theory is based on the Navier-Stokes equations in the appropriate (cylinder) geometry. In particular, we derive the axial and the angular velocity profiles as functions of distance from the cylinder walls and find that both follow a logarithmic profile, with downwards-bending curvature corrections, which are more pronounced for the angular velocity profile as compared to the axial velocity profile, and which strongly increase with decreasing ratio $\\eta$ between inner and outer cylinder radius. In contrast, the azimuthal velocity does not follow a log-law. We then compare the angular and azimuthal velocity profiles with the recently measured profiles in the ultimate state of (very) large Taylor numbers. Though the {\\em qualitative} trends are the same -- down-bending for large wall distances and (properly shifted and non-dimensionalized) angular velocity profile $\\omega^+(r)$...
Zheng, Jian
2016-01-01
Visible Cherenkov radiation can offers a method of the measurement of the velocity of a charged particles. The angular width of the radiation is important since it determines the resolution of the velocity measurement. In this article, the angular width of Cherenkov radiation with inclusion of multiple scattering is calculated through the path-integral method, and and the analytical expressions are presented. The condition that multiple scattering process dominates the angular distribution is obtained.
Angular width of the Cherenkov radiation with inclusion of multiple scattering
Zheng, Jian
2016-06-01
Visible Cherenkov radiation can offer a method of the measurement of the velocity of charged particles. The angular width of the radiation is important since it determines the resolution of the velocity measurement. In this article, the angular width of Cherenkov radiation with inclusion of multiple scattering is calculated through the path-integral method, and the analytical expressions are presented. The condition that multiple scattering processes dominate the angular distribution is obtained.
Metamaterial Broadband Angular Selectivity
Shen, Yichen; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Li; Celanovic, Ivan; Ran, Lixin; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin
2014-01-01
We demonstrate how broadband angular selectivity can be achieved with stacks of one-dimensionally periodic photonic crystals, each consisting of alternating isotropic layers and effective anisotropic layers, where each effective anisotropic layer is constructed from a multilayered metamaterial. We show that by simply changing the structure of the metamaterials, the selective angle can be tuned to a broad range of angles; and, by increasing the number of stacks, the angular transmission window can be made as narrow as desired. As a proof of principle, we realize the idea experimentally in the microwave regime. The angular selectivity and tunability we report here can have various applications such as in directional control of electromagnetic emitters and detectors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC
2012-02-17
We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.
Coriolis effects are principally caused by gyroscopic angular acceleration.
Isu, N; Yanagihara, M; Mikuni, T; Koo, J
1994-07-01
A cause of nausea evoked by cross-coupled rotation (termed Coriolis stimulus) was determined. Subjects were provided with two types of cross-coupled rotations: neck-forward flexion (Neck Flx) and upper body-forward flexion (Body Flx) during horizontal whole body rotation at a constant angular velocity. These Coriolis stimuli were given alternatively in an experimental sequence, and the severity of the nausea they evoked was compared by the subjects. The results indicated that the same quality of nausea was evoked by a slightly higher angular velocity during Body Flx (100.5 degrees/s) than during Neck Flx (90 degrees/s). While Body Flx generated Coriolis linear acceleration several times larger than Neck Flx, both the stimuli generated a similar magnitude of gyroscopic angular acceleration in this condition. Therefore, it was inferred that the nausea evoked by a Coriolis stimulus is principally caused by gyroscopic angular acceleration.
Relevance of angular momentum conservation in mesoscale hydrodynamics simulations.
Götze, Ingo O; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard
2007-10-01
The angular momentum is conserved in fluids with a few exceptions such as ferrofluids. However, it can be violated locally in fluid simulations to reduce computational costs. The effects of this violation are investigated using a particle-based simulation method, multiparticle collision dynamics, which can switch on or off angular-momentum conservation. To this end, we study circular Couette flows between concentric and eccentric cylinders, where nonphysical torques due to the lack of the angular-momentum conservation are found whereas the velocity field is not affected. In addition, in simulations of fluids with different viscosities in contact and star polymers in solvent, incorrect angular velocities occur. These results quantitatively agree with the theoretical predictions based on the macroscopic stress tensor.
Parker, G. W.
1978-01-01
Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)
Induced Compression of White Dwarfs by Angular Momentum Loss
Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo; Zhami, Bakytzhan
2016-01-01
We investigate isolated sub- and super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs which lose angular momentum through magnetic dipole braking. We construct constant rest mass sequences by fulfilling all stability criteria of rotating configurations and show how the main structure of white dwarfs such as the central density, mean radius and angular velocity change with time. We explicitly demonstrate that all isolated white dwarfs regardless of their masses, by angular momentum loss, shrink and increase their central density. We also analyze the effects of the structure parameters on the evolution timescale both in the case of constant magnetic field and constant magnetic flux.
Detection of a spinning object using light's orbital angular momentum.
Lavery, Martin P J; Speirits, Fiona C; Barnett, Stephen M; Padgett, Miles J
2013-08-01
The linear Doppler shift is widely used to infer the velocity of approaching objects, but this shift does not detect rotation. By analyzing the orbital angular momentum of the light scattered from a spinning object, we observed a frequency shift proportional to product of the rotation frequency of the object and the orbital angular momentum of the light. This rotational frequency shift was still present when the angular momentum vector was parallel to the observation direction. The multiplicative enhancement of the frequency shift may have applications for the remote detection of rotating bodies in both terrestrial and astronomical settings.
Intracycle Angular Velocity Control of Cross-Flow Turbines
Strom, Benjamin; Polagye, Brian
2016-01-01
Cross-flow turbines, also known as vertical-axis turbines, have numerous features that make them attractive for wind and marine renewable energy. To maximize power output, the turbine blade kinematics may be controlled during the course of the blade revolution, thus optimizing the unsteady fluid dynamic forces. Dynamically pitching the blades, similar to blade control in a helicopter, is an established method. However, this technique adds undesirable mechanical complexity to the turbine, increasing cost and reducing durability. Here we introduce a novel alternative requiring no additional moving parts: we optimize the turbine rotation rate as a function of blade position resulting in motion (including changes in the effective angle of attack) that is precisely timed to exploit unsteady fluid effects. We demonstrate experimentally that this approach results in a 79% increase in power output over industry standard control methods. Analysis of the fluid forcing and blade kinematics show that maximal power is ach...
Shaft transducer having dc output proportional to angular velocity
Handlykken, M. B. (Inventor)
1984-01-01
A brushless dc tachometer is disclosed that includes a high strength toroidal permanent magnet for providing a uniform magnetic field in an air gap, an annular pole piece opposite the magnet, and a pickup coil wound around the pole piece and adapted to rotate about the axis of the pole piece. The pickup coil is rotated by an input shaft to which the coil is coupled with the friction clip. The output of the coil is conducted to circuitry by a twisted wire pair. The input shaft also activates a position transducing potentiometer.
Intracycle Angular Velocity Control of Cross-Flow Turbines
Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven L.; Polagye, Brian
2016-01-01
Cross-flow turbines, also known as vertical-axis turbines, have numerous features that make them attractive for wind and marine renewable energy. To maximize power output, the turbine blade kinematics may be controlled during the course of the blade revolution, thus optimizing the unsteady fluid dynamic forces. Dynamically pitching the blades, similar to blade control in a helicopter, is an established method. However, this technique adds undesirable mechanical complexity to the turbine, incr...
Quantum Heuristics of Angular Momentum
Levy-Leblond, Jean-Marc
1976-01-01
Discusses the quantization of angular momentum components, Heisenberg-type inequalities for their spectral dispersions, and the quantization of the angular momentum modulus, without using operators or commutation relations. (MLH)
Angular momentum projected semiclassics
Hasse, Rainer W.
1987-06-01
By using angular momentum projected plane waves as wave functions, we derive semiclassical expressions for the single-particle propagator, the partition function, the nonlocal density matrix, the single-particle density and the one particle-one hole level density for fixed angular momentum and fixed z-component or summed over the z-components. Other quantities can be deduced from the propagator. In coordinate space ( r, r') the relevant quantities depend on |r-r'| instead of | r- r'| and in Wigner space ( R, P) they become proportional to the angular momentum constraints δ(| R × P|/ h̵-l) and δ( R × P) z/ h̵-m) . As applications we calculate the single-particle and one-particle-one hole level densities for harmonic oscillator and Hill-Wheeler box potentials and the imaginary part of the optical potential and its volume integral with an underlying harmonic oscillator potential and a zero range two-body interaction.
WESTERBORK OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS - THE DATA
WAKKER, BP
1991-01-01
The results of Westerbork * observations of small-scale structure in high-velocity clouds (HVCs) at 1' angular and 1 km s-1 velocity resolution are presented in the form of a table of observational parameters, maps of hydrogen column density, velocity-right ascension cuts, and histograms of the line
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Burkardt, Matthias
2016-06-01
Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.
Vanston, Alex
2013-01-01
This book uses a practical, step-by-step approach, starting with how to build directives from the ground up before moving on to creating web applications comprised of multiple modules all working together to provide the best user experience possible.This book is intended for intermediate JavaScript developers who are looking to enhance their understanding of single-page web application development with a focus on AngularJS and the JavaScript MVC frameworks.It is expected that readers will understand basic JavaScript patterns and idioms and can recognize JSON formatted data.
Long-time tails in angular momentum correlations
Lowe, C.P.; Frenkel, D.; Masters, A.J.
1995-01-01
We compare computer simulation results for the angular velocity autocorrelation function (AVACF) of a colloidal particle with theoretical predictions. We consider both spherical and nonspherical particles in two and three dimensions. The theoretical prediction for the long-time decay of the AVACF in
Orbital angular momentum microlaser
Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang
2016-07-01
Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.
Orbital angular momentum microlaser.
Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Feng, Liang
2016-07-29
Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes. PMID:27471299
Demonstrating the Conservation of Angular Momentum Using Model Cars Moving along a Rotating Rod
Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq; Golubovic, Leonardo
2013-01-01
We have developed an exciting non-traditional experiment for our introductory physics laboratories to help students to understand the principle of conservation of angular momentum. We used electric toy cars moving along a long rotating rod. As the cars move towards the centre of the rod, the angular velocity of this system increases.…
Angular momentum in subbarrier fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have measured the ratio of the isomer to ground-state yields of 137Ce produced in the fusion reactions 128Te(12C,3n), 133Cs(7Li,3n), 136Ba(3He,2n), 136Ba(4He,3n), and 137Ba(3He,3n), from energies above the Coulomb barrier to energies typically 20--30% below the barrier by observing the delayed x- and γ-ray emission. We deduce the average angular momentum, , from the measured isomer ratios with a statistical model. In the first three reactions we observe that the values of exhibit the behavior predicted for low energies and the expected variation with the reduced mass of the entrance channel. We analyze these data and the associated cross sections with a barrier penetration model that includes the coupling of inelastic channels. Measurements of average angular momenta and cross sections made on other systems using the γ-multiplicity and fission-fragment angular correlation techniques are then analyzed in a similar way with this model. The discrepancies with theory for the γ-multiplicity data show correlations in cross section and angular momentum that suggest a valid model can be found. The measurements of angular momentum using the fission fragment angular correlation technique, however, do not appear reconcilable with the energy dependence of the cross sections. This systematic overview suggests, in particular, that our current understanding of the relationship of angular momentum and anisotropy in fission fragment angular correlations is incomplete. 26 refs
Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.
Santarelli, Vincent
1979-01-01
Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)
Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping
2016-03-21
Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780
Inertial Measurements Based Velocity-free Attitude Stabilization
Tayebi, A; Benallegue, A
2012-01-01
The existing attitude controllers (without angular velocity measurements) involve explicitly the orientation (\\textit{e.g.,} the unit-quaternion) in the feedback. Unfortunately, there does not exist any sensor that directly measures the orientation of a rigid body, and hence, the attitude must be reconstructed using a set of inertial vector measurements as well as the angular velocity (which is assumed to be unavailable in velocity-free control schemes). To overcome this \\textit{circular reasoning}-like problem, we propose a velocity-free attitude stabilization control scheme relying solely on inertial vector measurements. The originality of this control strategy stems from the fact that the reconstruction of the attitude as well as the angular velocity measurements are not required at all. Moreover, as a byproduct of our design approach, the proposed controller does not lead to the unwinding phenomenon encountered in unit-quaternion based attitude controllers.
On the angular momentum evolution of merged white dwarfs
Gourgouliatos, KN
2006-01-01
We study the angular momentum evolution of binaries containing two white dwarfs (WDs) which merge and become cool helium-rich supergiants. Our object is to compare predicted rotation velocities with observations of highly evolved stars believed to have formed from such a merger, which include the R CrB and extreme He stars. The principal case study involves a short-period binary containing a 0.6-M⊙ carbon–oxygen (CO) WD, and a 0.3-M⊙ He WD. The initial condition for the angular momentum distr...
Angular momentum evolution for galaxies
Pedrosa, Susana
2015-01-01
Using cosmological hydrodynamics simulations we study the angular momentum content of the simulated galaxies in relation with their morphological type. We found that not only the angular momentum of the disk component follow the expected theoretical relation, Mo, Mao & Whiye (1998), but also the spheroidal one, with a gap due to its lost of angular momentum, in agreement with Fall & Romanowsky (2013),. We also found that the galaxy size can plot in one general relation, despite the morphological type, as found by Kravtsov (2013).
Bailey, Simon
2015-01-01
This book is intended for developers who have an understanding of the basic principles behind both AngularJS and test-driven development. You, as a developer, are interested in eliminating the fear related to either introducing tests to an existing codebase or starting out testing on a fresh AngularJS application. If you're a team leader or part of a QA team with the responsibility of ensuring full test coverage of an application, then this book is ideal for you to comprehend the full testing scope required by your developers. Whether you're new to or are well versed with AngularJS, this book
A Role for Improved Angular Observations in Geosynchronous Orbit Determination
Sabol, Christopher Andrew
1998-12-01
The goal of this thesis is to show that improved angular observations can aid in the determination of satellite position and velocity in the geosynchronous orbit regime. Raven is a new sensor being developed by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory which should allow for angular observations of satellites to be made with a standard deviation of 1 arcsecond (which maps into approximately 170 meters at geosynchronous altitude); this is an order of magnitude improvement over traditional angular observation techniques and represents state of the art accuracy of angular observations for geosynchronous orbit determination work. Simulation studies are undertaken to show that these angular observations can be used in the orbit determination process both as the only cracking data source and as a supplement to other tracking data sources such as radar and radio transponder ranges. Results from the radio transponder range analysis are extended to cover Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) observation types as well. The studies target both space surveillance and owner/operator mission support aspects of orbit determination although the emphasis will be on mission support satellite operations. Parameters varied in the simulation studies include the number of observing stations, the density of the angular observations, and the number of nights of optical tracking. The data simulations are calibrated based on real data results from a geosynchronous satellite to ensure the integrity of the simulations and the accuracy of the results. The studies show that including the improved angular observations with traditional high accuracy range observations produces a significant improvement in orbit determination accuracy over the range observations alone. The studies also show single site geosynchronous orbit determination is an attractive alternative when combining improved angular and high accuracy range observations.
Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator
Bouchard, Frédéric; Mand, Harjaspreet; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W
2014-01-01
We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of \\textit{two glued hollow axicons}, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarisation into a linearly polarised input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming be...
Velocity profiles in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
Grossmann, S.; Lohse, D.; Sun, C.
2014-01-01
We derive the velocity profiles in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow for the general case of independently rotating cylinders. The theory is based on the Navier-Stokes equations in the appropriate (cylinder) geometry. In particular, we derive the axial and the angular velocity profiles as funct
Conservation of orbital angular momentum in air core optical fibers
Gregg, P; Ramachandran, S
2014-01-01
Light's orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a conserved quantity in cylindrically symmetric media; however, it is easily destroyed by free-space turbulence or fiber bends, because anisotropic perturbations impart angular momentum. We observe the conservations of OAM even in the presence of strong bend perturbations, with fibers featuring air cores that appropriately sculpt the modal density of states. In analogy to the classical reasoning for the enhanced stability of spinning tops with increasing angular velocity, these states' lifetimes with OAM magnitude. Consequently, contrary to convention wisdom that ground states of systems are the most stable, OAM longevity in air-core fiber increases with mode order. Aided by conservation of this fundamental quantity, we demonstrate fiber propagation of 12 distinct higher-order OAM modes, of which 8 remain low-loss and >98% pure from near-degenerate coupling after km-length propagation. The first realization of long-lived higher-order OAM states, thus far posited to ex...
Effects of Angular Momentum on Halo Profiles
Lentz, Erik W; Rosenberg, Leslie J
2016-01-01
The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N-body simulations has proven to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. In this letter we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean ($\\lambda \\lesssim 0.20$) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large ($\\lambda \\gtrsim 0.20$) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to $\\lambda \\lesssim 0.20$. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.
An angular momentum conserving Affine-Particle-In-Cell method
Jiang, Chenfanfu; Teran, Joseph
2016-01-01
We present a new technique for transferring momentum and velocity between particles and grid with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) calculations which we call Affine-Particle-In-Cell (APIC). APIC represents particle velocities as locally affine, rather than locally constant as in traditional PIC. We show that this representation allows APIC to conserve linear and angular momentum across transfers while also dramatically reducing numerical diffusion usually associated with PIC. Notably, conservation is achieved with lumped mass, as opposed to the more commonly used Fluid Implicit Particle (FLIP) transfers which require a 'full' mass matrix for exact conservation. Furthermore, unlike FLIP, APIC retains a filtering property of the original PIC and thus does not accumulate velocity modes on particles as FLIP does. In particular, we demonstrate that APIC does not experience velocity instabilities that are characteristic of FLIP in a number of Material Point Method (MPM) hyperelasticity calculations. Lastly, we demonstrate th...
EVOLUTION OF ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF A-TYPE STARS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The equatorial velocity of A-type stars undergoes an acceleration in the first third of the main sequence (MS) stage, but the velocity decreases as if the stars were not undergoing any redistribution of angular momentum in the external layers in the last stage of the MS phase. Our calculations show that the acceleration and the decrease of the equatorial velocity can be reproduced by the evolution of the differential rotation zero-age MS model with the angular momentum transport caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the MS stage. The acceleration results from the fact that the angular momentum stored in the interiors of the stars is transported outward. In the last stage, the core and the radiative envelope are uncoupling, and the rotation of the envelope is a quasi-solid rotation; the uncoupling and the expansion of the envelope indicate that the decrease of the equatorial velocity approximately follows the slope for the change in the equatorial velocity of the model without any redistribution of angular momentum. When the fractional age 0.3 ∼MS ∼< 0.5, the equatorial velocity remains almost constant for stars whose central density increases with age in the early stage of the MS phase, while the velocity decreases with age for stars whose central density decreases with age in the early stage of the MS phase.
Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator
Bouchard, Frédéric; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W
2014-01-01
We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of \\textit{two glued hollow axicons}, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarisation into a linearly polarised input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarisation, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of $95\\%$ for these three different wavelengths is observed. %, which confirms its wavelen...
Angular momentum in human walking.
Herr, Hugh; Popovic, Marko
2008-02-01
Angular momentum is a conserved physical quantity for isolated systems where no external moments act about a body's center of mass (CM). However, in the case of legged locomotion, where the body interacts with the environment (ground reaction forces), there is no a priori reason for this relationship to hold. A key hypothesis in this paper is that angular momentum is highly regulated throughout the walking cycle about all three spatial directions [|Lt| approximately 0], and therefore horizontal ground reaction forces and the center of pressure trajectory can be explained predominantly through an analysis that assumes zero net moment about the body's CM. Using a 16-segment human model and gait data for 10 study participants, we found that calculated zero-moment forces closely match experimental values (Rx2=0.91; Ry2=0.90). Additionally, the centroidal moment pivot (point where a line parallel to the ground reaction force, passing through the CM, intersects the ground) never leaves the ground support base, highlighting how closely the body regulates angular momentum. Principal component analysis was used to examine segmental contributions to whole-body angular momentum. We found that whole-body angular momentum is small, despite substantial segmental momenta, indicating large segment-to-segment cancellations ( approximately 95% medio-lateral, approximately 70% anterior-posterior and approximately 80% vertical). Specifically, we show that adjacent leg-segment momenta are balanced in the medio-lateral direction (left foot momentum cancels right foot momentum, etc.). Further, pelvis and abdomen momenta are balanced by leg, chest and head momenta in the anterior-posterior direction, and leg momentum is balanced by upper-body momentum in the vertical direction. Finally, we discuss the determinants of gait in the context of these segment-to-segment cancellations of angular momentum.
ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fall, S. Michael [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2012-12-15
Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j{sub *} and mass M{sub *} (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j{sub *} reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j{sub *} in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of {approx}100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j{sub *} versus M{sub *}. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j{sub *}-M{sub *} tracks, with log-slopes of {approx}0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of {approx}3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and {approx}7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j{sub *}-M{sub *} trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow
A probability density function of liftoff velocities in mixed-size wind sand flux
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG XiaoJing; ZHU Wei; XIE Li
2008-01-01
With the discrete element method (DEM), employing the diameter distribution of natural sands sampled from the Tengger Desert, a mixed-size sand bed was pro-duced and the particle-bed collision was simulated in the mixed-size wind sand movement. In the simulation, the shear wind velocity, particle diameter, incident velocity and incident angle of the impact sand particle were given the same values as the experimental results. After the particle-bed collision, we collected all the ini-tial velocities of rising sand particles, including the liftoff angular velocities, liftoff linear velocities and their horizontal and vertical components. By the statistical analysis on the velocity sample for each velocity component, its probability density functions were obtained, and they are the functions of the shear wind velocity. The liftoff velocities and their horizontal and vertical components are distributed as an exponential density function, while the angular velocities are distributed as a nor-mal density function.
Olympic Wrestling and Angular Momentum.
Carle, Mark
1988-01-01
Reported is the use of a wrestling photograph in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The photograph presents a maneuver that could serve as an example for a discussion on equilibrium, forces, torque, and angular motion. Provided are some qualitative thoughts as well as quantitative calculations. (YP)
Angelaki, D. E.; Perachio, A. A.
1993-01-01
1. The effects of constant anodal currents (100 microA) delivered bilaterally to both labyrinths on the horizontal vestibuloocular response (VOR) were studied in squirrel monkeys during steps of angular velocity in the dark. We report that bilateral anodal currents decreased eye velocity approximately 30-50% during the period of galvanic stimulation without a change in the time constant of VOR. The decrease in eye velocity, present during steps of angular velocity, was not observed during sinusoidal head rotation at 0.2, 0.5, and 1 Hz. The results suggest that responses from irregular vestibular afferents influence VOR amplitude during constant velocity rotation.
Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junfang Fan
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.
The AeroAstro Fast-Angular-Rate Miniature Star Tracker: Algorithms and Simulation Results
Seng, Bill; Stafford, James; Zenick, Ray; Kennedy, Vickie
2005-01-01
AeroAstro’s Fast Angular Rate Miniature Star Tracker (FAR-MST) is an optical-based system that uses image processing of star fields viewed from the satellite to determine ephemeris information. The FAR-MST system offers solutions to several problems, including the determination of an initial position fix (the “lost-in-space” problem), determination of spacecraft attitude, and measurement of spacecraft rotational velocity – even at high angular rates. Low-cost, high-performance microsatellites...
Angular Momentum of Twisted Radiation from an Electron in Spiral Motion
Katoh, M; Kawaguchi, H; Tsuchiya, K; Ohmi, K; Kaneyasu, T; Taira, Y; Hosaka, M; Mochihashi, A; Takashima, Y
2016-01-01
We theoretically demonstrate for the first time that a single free electron in circular/spiral motion emits twisted photons carrying well defined orbital angular momentum along the axis of the electron circulation, in adding to spin angular momentum. We show that, when the electron velocity is relativistic, the radiation field contains harmonic components and the photons of l-th harmonic carry lhbar total angular momentum for each. This work indicates that twisted photons are naturally emitted by free electrons and more ubiquitous in laboratories and in nature than ever been thought.
Angular Motion Estimation Using Dynamic Models in a Gyro-Free Inertial Measurement Unit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Otmar Loffeld
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we summarize the results of using dynamic models borrowed from tracking theory in describing the time evolution of the state vector to have an estimate of the angular motion in a gyro-free inertial measurement unit (GF-IMU. The GF-IMU is a special type inertial measurement unit (IMU that uses only a set of accelerometers in inferring the angular motion. Using distributed accelerometers, we get an angular information vector (AIV composed of angular acceleration and quadratic angular velocity terms. We use a Kalman filter approach to estimate the angular velocity vector since it is not expressed explicitly within the AIV. The bias parameters inherent in the accelerometers measurements’ produce a biased AIV and hence the AIV bias parameters are estimated within an augmented state vector. Using dynamic models, the appended bias parameters of the AIV become observable and hence we can have unbiased angular motion estimate. Moreover, a good model is required to extract the maximum amount of information from the observation. Observability analysis is done to determine the conditions for having an observable state space model. For higher grades of accelerometers and under relatively higher sampling frequency, the error of accelerometer measurements is dominated by the noise error. Consequently, simulations are conducted on two models, one has bias parameters appended in the state space model and the other is a reduced model without bias parameters.
Statistical mechanics of collisionless orbits. IV. Distribution of angular momentum
Williams, Liliya L R; Wojtak, Radoslaw
2014-01-01
It has been shown in previous work that DARKexp, which is a theoretically derived, maximum entropy, one shape parameter model for isotropic collisionless systems, provides very good fits to simulated and observed dark-matter halos. Specifically, it fits the energy distribution, N(E), and the density profiles, including the central cusp. Here, we extend DARKexp N(E) to include the distribution in angular momentum, L^2, for spherically symmetric systems. First, we argue, based on theoretical, semi-analytical, and simulation results, that while dark-matter halos are relaxed in energy, they are not nearly as relaxed in angular momentum, which precludes using maximum entropy to uniquely derive N(E,L^2). Instead, we require that when integrating N(E,L^2) over squared angular momenta one retrieves the DARKexp N(E). Starting with a general expression for N(E,L^2) we show how the distribution of particles in L^2 is related to the shape of the velocity distribution function, VDF, and velocity anisotropy profile, \\beta(...
AngularJS test-driven development
Chaplin, Tim
2015-01-01
This book is for developers who want to learn about AngularJS development by applying testing techniques. You are assumed to have a basic knowledge and understanding of HTML, JavaScript, and AngularJS.
Orbital angular momentum in phase space
Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.; Klimov, A. B.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.
2010-01-01
A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayub, M. K. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-10-15
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
On Dunkl angular momenta algebra
Feigin, Misha; Hakobyan, Tigran
2015-11-01
We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl( N ) version of the subalge-bra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.
Angular momentum in QGP holography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett McInnes
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The quark chemical potential is one of the fundamental parameters describing the quark–gluon plasma produced by sufficiently energetic heavy-ion collisions. It is not large at the extremely high temperatures probed by the LHC, but it plays a key role in discussions of the beam energy scan programmes at the RHIC and other facilities. On the other hand, collisions at such energies typically (that is, in peripheral collisions give rise to very high values of the angular momentum density. Here we explain that holographic estimates of the quark chemical potential of a rotating sample of plasma can be very considerably improved by taking the angular momentum into account.
Orbital angular momentum is dependent on polarization
Li, Chun-Fang
2009-01-01
It is shown that the momentum density of free electromagnetic field splits into two parts. One has no contribution to the net momentum due to the transversality condition. The other yields all the momentum. The angular momentum that originates from the former part is spin, and the angular momentum that originates from the latter part is orbital angular momentum. Expressions for the spin and orbital angular momentum are given in terms of the electric vector in reciprocal space. The spin and or...
Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of two glued hollow axicons, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarization into a linearly polarized input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarization, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of 95% for these three different wavelengths is observed. This device may find applications in imaging from micro- to astronomical systems where a white vortex beam is needed. (paper)
AngularJS web application development
Darwin, Peter Bacon
2013-01-01
The book will be a step-by-step guide showing the readers how to build a complete web app with AngularJSJavaScript developers who want to learn AngularJS for developing web apps. Knowledge of JavaScript and HTML is expected. No knowledge of AngularJS is required.
Velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Li-yun; WENG Xu-dan; LI Qing-ding
2009-01-01
In this paper,the velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model (OVM) is investigated.The driver adjusts the velocity of his vehicle by the desired headway,which depends on both instantaneous headway and relative velocity.The effect of relative velocity is measured by a sensitivity function.A specific form of the sensitivity function is supposed and the involved parameters are determined by the both numerical simulation and empirical data.It is shown that inclusion of velocity anticipation enhances the stability of traffic flow.Numerical simulations show a good agreement with empirical data.This model provides a better description of real traffic,including the acceleration process from standing states and the deceleration process approaching a stopped car.
Parameters determining maximum wind velocity in a tropical cyclone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The spiral structure of a tropical cyclone was earlier explained by a tangential velocity distribution which varies inversely as the distance from the cyclone centre outside the circle of maximum wind speed. The case has been extended in the present paper by adding a radial velocity. It has been found that a suitable combination of radial and tangential velocities can account for the spiral structure of a cyclone. This enables parametrization of the cyclone. Finally a formula has been derived relating maximum velocity in a tropical cyclone with angular momentum, radius of maximum wind speed and the spiral angle. The shapes of the spirals have been computed for various spiral angles. (author)
Laboratory modeling of standing shocks and radiatively cooled jets with angular momentum
Ampleford, D J; Ciardi, A; Bland, S N; Bott, S C; Hall, G N; Naz, N; Jennings, C A; Sherlock, M; Chittenden, J P; Palmer, J B A; Frank, A; Blackman, E
2007-01-01
The first laboratory astrophysics experiments to produce a radiatively cooled plasma jet with dynamically significant angular momentum are discussed. A new configuration of wire array z-pinch, the twisted conical wire array, is used to produce convergent plasma flows each rotating about the central axis. Collision of the flows produces a standing shock and jet that each have supersonic azimuthal velocities. By varying the twist angle of the array, the rotation velocity of the system can be controlled, with jet rotation velocities ~18% of the propagation velocity directly measured.
Angular Momentum Transport in Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Prasad Subramanian; B. S. Pujari; Peter A. Becker
2004-03-01
We reexamine arguments advanced by Hayashi & Matsuda (2001), who claim that several simple, physically motivated derivations based on mean free path theory for calculating the viscous torque in a quasi-Keplerian accretion disk yield results that are inconsistent with the generally accepted model. If correct, the ideas proposed by Hayashi & Matsuda would radically alter our understanding of the nature of the angular momentum transport in the disk, which is a central feature of accretion disk theory. However, in this paper we point out several fallacies in their arguments and show that there indeed exists a simple derivation based on mean free path theory that yields an expression for the viscous torque that is proportional to the radial derivative of the angular velocity in the accretion disk, as expected. The derivation is based on the analysis of the epicyclic motion of gas parcels in adjacent eddies in the disk.
Pore Velocity Estimation Uncertainties
Devary, J. L.; Doctor, P. G.
1982-08-01
Geostatistical data analysis techniques were used to stochastically model the spatial variability of groundwater pore velocity in a potential waste repository site. Kriging algorithms were applied to Hanford Reservation data to estimate hydraulic conductivities, hydraulic head gradients, and pore velocities. A first-order Taylor series expansion for pore velocity was used to statistically combine hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic head gradient, and effective porosity surfaces and uncertainties to characterize the pore velocity uncertainty. Use of these techniques permits the estimation of pore velocity uncertainties when pore velocity measurements do not exist. Large pore velocity estimation uncertainties were found to be located in the region where the hydraulic head gradient relative uncertainty was maximal.
Dependency injection with AngularJS
Knol, Alex
2013-01-01
This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.
The role of angular momentum conservation law in statistical mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I.M. Dubrovskii
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Within the limits of Khinchin ideas [A.Y. Khinchin, Mathematical Foundation of Statistical Mechanics. NY, Ed. Dover, 1949] the importance of momentum and angular momentum conservation laws was analyzed for two cases: for uniform magnetic field and when magnetic field is absent. The law of momentum conservation does not change the density of probability distribution in both cases, just as it is assumed in the conventional theory. It is shown that in systems where the kinetic energy depends only on particle momenta canonically conjugated with Cartesian coordinates being their diagonal quadric form,the angular momentum conservation law changes the density of distribution of the system only in case the full angular momentum of a system is not equal to zero. In the gas of charged particles in a uniform magnetic field the density of distribution also varies if the angular momentum is zero [see Dubrovskii I.M., Condensed Matter Physics, 2206, 9, 23]. Two-dimensional gas of charged particles located within a section of an endless strip filled with gas in magnetic field is considered. Under such conditions the angular momentum is not conserved. Directional particle flows take place close to the strip boundaries, and, as a consequence, the phase trajectory of the considered set of particles does not remain within the limited volume of the phase space. In order to apply a statistical thermodynamics method, it was suggested to consider near-boundary trajectories relative to a reference system that moves uniformly. It was shown that if the diameter of an orbit having average thermal energy is much smaller than a strip width, the corrections to thermodynamic functions are small depending on magnetic field. Only the average velocity of near-boundary particles that form near-boundary electric currents creating the paramagnetic moment turn out to be essential.
Magnetized galactic halos and velocity lags
Henriksen, Richard N
2016-01-01
We present an analytic model of a magnetized galactic halo surrounding a Mestel gravitating disc. The magnetic field is taken to be in energy equipartition with the pressure dominant rotating halo gas ({\\it not} with the cosmic rays), and the whole system is in a steady state. A more flexible `anisotropic equipartition' model is also explored. A definite pressure law is required to maintain the equilibrium, but the halo density is constant. The velocity/magnetic system is scale-free. The objective is to find the rotational velocity lag in such a halo. The magnetic field is not force-free so that angular momentum may be transported from the halo to the intergalactic medium. We find that the `X'-shaped structure observed for halo magnetic fields can be obtained together with a simple analytic formula for the rate of decline of the velocity with height $z$. The formula also predicts the change in lag with radius, $r$.
Matter waves with angular momentum
Bracher, C; Kleber, M; Bracher, Christian; Kramer, Tobias; Kleber, Manfred
2003-01-01
An alternative description of quantum scattering processes rests on inhomogeneous terms amended to the Schr\\"odinger equation. We detail the structure of sources that give rise to multipole scattering waves of definite angular momentum, and introduce pointlike multipole sources as their limiting case. Partial wave theory is recovered for freely propagating particles. We obtain novel results for ballistic scattering in an external uniform force field, where we provide analytical solutions for both the scattering waves and the integrated particle flux. As an illustration of the theory, we predict some properties of vortex-bearing atom laser beams outcoupled from a rotating Bose--Einstein condensate under the influence of gravity.
Velocity perturbation distributions in the breakup of artificial satellites
Badhwar, Gautam D.; Tan, Arjun; Reynolds, Robert C.
1990-01-01
A method is presented for calculating the three orthogonal components of the velocity perturbations of satellite fragments, with a view to ascertaining the nature and intensity of the satellite breakup. The method employs three simultaneous equations furnished by changes in fragment specific energy, specific angular momentum, and plane orientation. Velocity perturbations are thereby calculated for fragments from 20 major satellite breakup events; these results, in conjunction with a technique for determining fragment masses, yield a description of the breakup process.
Angular Rate Optimal Design for the Rotary Strapdown Inertial Navigation System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Yu
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Due to the characteristics of high precision for a long duration, the rotary strapdown inertial navigation system (RSINS has been widely used in submarines and surface ships. Nowadays, the core technology, the rotating scheme, has been studied by numerous researchers. It is well known that as one of the key technologies, the rotating angular rate seriously influences the effectiveness of the error modulating. In order to design the optimal rotating angular rate of the RSINS, the relationship between the rotating angular rate and the velocity error of the RSINS was analyzed in detail based on the Laplace transform and the inverse Laplace transform in this paper. The analysis results showed that the velocity error of the RSINS depends on not only the sensor error, but also the rotating angular rate. In order to minimize the velocity error, the rotating angular rate of the RSINS should match the sensor error. One optimal design method for the rotating rate of the RSINS was also proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results verified the validity and superiority of this optimal design method for the rotating rate of the RSINS.
Angular dynamics of a small particle in turbulence
Candelier, F; Mehlig, B
2016-01-01
We compute the angular dynamics of a neutrally buoyant nearly spherical particle immersed in an unsteady fluid. We assume that the particle is small, that its translational slip velocity is negligible, and that unsteady and convective inertia are small perturbations. We derive an approximation for the torque on the particle that determines the first inertial corrections to Jeffery's equation. These corrections arise as a consequence of local vortex stretching, and can be substantial in turbulence where local vortex stretching is strong and closely linked to the irreversibility of turbulence.
High intensity positron beam and angular correlation experiments at Livermore
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A positron beam apparatus that produces a variable energy positron beam with sufficient intensity to perform new positron experiments in an ultrahigh vacuum environment has been installed at the Lawrence Livermore 100 MeV electron linac. We have installed two large area position sensitive gamma-ray detectors to measure angular correlations in two dimensions and a separate highly collimated detector to measure positronium energy distributions by time-of-flight velocity determination. Data from measurements on single crystals of Cu will be described
Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.
Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A
2015-09-24
The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies. PMID:26399831
Human skeletal muscle fibre types and force: velocity properties.
MacIntosh, B R; Herzog, W; Suter, E; Wiley, J P; Sokolosky, J
1993-01-01
It has been reported that there is a relationship between power output and fibre type distribution in mixed muscle. The strength of this relationship is greater in the range of 3-8 rad.s-1 during knee extension compared to slower or faster angular knee extensor speeds. A mathematical model of the force: velocity properties of muscle with various combinations of fast- and slow-twitch fibres may provide insight into why specific velocities may give better predictions of fibre type distribution. In this paper, a mathematical model of the force:velocity relationship for mixed muscle is presented. This model demonstrates that peak power and optimal velocity should be predictive of fibre distribution and that the greatest fibre type discrimination in human knee extensor muscles should occur with measurement of power output at an angular velocity just greater than 7 rad.s-1. Measurements of torque:angular velocity relationships for knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer and fibre type distribution in biopsies of vastus lateralis muscles were made on 31 subjects. Peak power and optimal velocity were determined in three ways: (1) direct measurement, (2) linear regression, and (3) fitting to the Hill equation. Estimation of peak power and optimal velocity using the Hill equation gave the best correlation with fibre type distribution (r < 0.5 for peak power or optimal velocity and percentage of fast-twitch fibres). The results of this study confirm that prediction of fibre type distribution is facilitated by measurement of peak power at optimal velocity and that fitting of the data to the Hill equation is a suitable method for evaluation of these parameters.
A demonstration of the conservation of the orbital angular momentum of Earth
Pellizza, Leonardo J.; Mayochi, Mariano G.; Ciocci Brazzano, Ligia; Pedrosa, Susana E.
2015-12-01
We describe a simple but quantitative experiment to demonstrate the conservation of angular momentum. We measure the correlation of the apparent radius and angular velocity of the Sun with respect to the stars, due to the conservation of the angular momentum of Earth in its orbit. We also determine the direction of Earth's angular momentum vector and show that it is conserved. The experiment can be performed using a small telescope and a digital camera. It is conceptually simple, allowing students to get direct physical insight from the data. The observations are performed near the resolution limit imposed by the atmosphere, and in the presence of strong competing effects. These effects necessitate a careful experimental setup and allow students to improve their skills in experimentation.
Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.; Hebert, F.
1985-01-01
Models of lunar origin in which the Moon accretes in orbit about the Earth from material approaching the Earth from heliocentric orbits must overcome a fundamental problem: the approach orbits of such material would be, in the simplest approximation, equally likely to be prograde or retrograde about the Earth, with the result that accretion of such material adds mass but not angular momentum to circumterrestrial satellites. Satellite orbits would then decay due to the resulting drag, ultimately impacting onto the Earth. One possibility for adding both material and angular momentum to Earth orbit is investigated: imbalance in the delivered angular momentum between pro and retrograde Earth passing orbits which arises from the three body dynamics of planetesimals approaching the Earth from heliocentric space. In order to study angular momentum delivery to circumterrestrial satellites, the near Earth velocities were numerically computed as a function of distance from the Earth for a large array of orbits systematically spanning heliocentric phase space.
The difficulty of measuring orbital angular momentum
Preece, D; Nieminen, T. A.; Asavei, T.; Heckenberg, N. R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.
2011-01-01
Light can carry angular momentum as well as energy and momentum; the transfer of this angular momentum to an object results in an optical torque. The development of a rotational analogue to the force measurement capability of optical tweezers is hampered by the difficulty of optical measurement of orbital angular momentum. We present an experiment with encouraging results, but emphasise the difficulty of the task.
The difficulty of measuring orbital angular momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Preece
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Light can carry angular momentum as well as energy and momentum; the transfer of this angular momentum to an object results in an optical torque. The development of a rotational analogue to the force measurement capability of optical tweezers is hampered by the difficulty of optical measurement of orbital angular momentum. We present an experiment with encouraging results, but emphasise the difficulty of the task.
Orbital angular momentum and the parton model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ratcliffe, P.G.
1987-06-25
The role of orbital angular momentum is discussed within the framework of the parton model. It is shown that a consistent interpretation of the Altarelli-Parisi equations governing the Q/sup 2/-evolution of helicity-weighted parton distributions necessitates the assumption that partons carry a large orbital angular momentum, contrary to popular belief. In developing the arguments presented, the Altarelli-Parisi formalism is extended to include orbital angular momentum dependence.
Photoionization with Orbital Angular Momentum Beams
Picón, A.; Mompart, J.; de Aldana, J. R. Vázquez; Plaja, L.; Calvo, G. F.; Roso, L.
2010-01-01
Intense laser ionization expands Einstein's photoelectric effect rules giving a wealth of phenomena widely studied over the last decades. In all cases, so far, photons were assumed to carry one unit of angular momentum. However it is now clear that photons can possess extra angular momentum, the orbital angular momentum (OAM), related to their spatial profile. We show a complete description of photoionization by OAM photons, including new selection rules involving more than one unit of angula...
Quantum formulation of fractional orbital angular momentum
Götte, Jörg B; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Zambrini, Roberta; Barnett, Stephen M.
2007-01-01
The quantum theory of rotation angles (S. M. Barnett and D. T. Pegg, Phys. Rev. A, 41, 3427-3425 (1990)) is generalised to non-integer values of the orbital angular momentum. This requires the introduction of an additional parameter, the orientation of a phase discontinuity associated with fractional values of the orbital angular momentum. We apply our formalism to the propagation of light modes with fractional orbital angular momentum in the paraxial and non-paraxial regime.
Orbital angular momentum induced beam shifts
Hermosa N.; Merano M.; Aiello A.; Woerdman J.P.
2011-01-01
We present experiments on Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) induced beam shifts in optical reflection. Specifically, we observe the spatial Goos-H\\"anchen shift in which the beam is displaced parallel to the plane of incidence and the angular Imbert-Fedorov shift which is a transverse angular deviation from the geometric optics prediction. Experimental results agree well with our theoretical predictions. Both beam shifts increase with the OAM of the beam; we have measured these for OAM indices u...
Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.
Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim
2010-01-01
Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.
Tracing sunspot groups to determine angular momentum transfer on the Sun
Sudar, D; Ruždjak, D; Brajša, R; Wöohl, H
2014-01-01
The goal of this paper is to investigate Reynolds stresses and to check if it is plausible that they are responsible for angular momentum transfer toward the solar equator. We also analysed meridional velocity, rotation velocity residuals and correlation between the velocities. We used sunspot groups position measurements from GPR (Greenwich Photographic Result) and SOON/USAF/NOAA (Solar Observing Optical Network/United States Air Force/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) databases covering the period from 1878 until 2011. In order to calculate velocities we used daily motion of sunspot groups. The sample was also limited to $\\pm$58\\degr in Central Meridian Distance (CMD) in order to avoid solar limb effects. We mainly investigated velocity patterns depending on solar cycle phase and latitude. We found that meridional motion of sunspot groups is toward the centre of activity from all available latitudes and in all phases of the solar cycle. The range of meridional velocities is $\\pm10$ m s$^{-1}$...
Magnetic Modulation of Stellar Angular Momentum Loss
Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer
2014-01-01
Angular Momentum Loss is important for understanding astrophysical phenomena such as stellar rotation, magnetic activity, close binaries, and cataclysmic variables. Magnetic breaking is the dominant mechanism in the spin down of young late-type stars. We have studied angular momentum loss as a function of stellar magnetic activity. We argue that the complexity of the field and its latitudinal distribution are crucial for angular momentum loss rates. In this work we discuss how angular momentum is modulated by magnetic cycles, and how stellar spin down is not just a simple function of large scale magnetic field strength.
The Angular Momentum of the Solar System
Cang, Rongquin; Guo, Jianpo; Hu, Juanxiu; He, Chaoquiong
2016-05-01
The angular momentum of the Solar System is a very important physical quantity to the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Previously, the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets were only taken into consideration, when researchers calculated the angular momentum of the Solar System. Nowadays, it seems narrow and conservative. Using Eggleton's code, we calculate the rotational inertia of the Sun. Furthermore, we obtain that the spin angular momentum of the Sun is 1.8838 x 10^41 kg m^2 s^-1. Besides the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets, we also account for the orbital angular momentum of the Asteroid Belt, the Kuiper Belt, the Oort Cloud, the Ninth Giant Planet and the Solar Companion. We obtain that the angular momentum of the whole Solar System is 3.3212 x 10^45 kg m^2 s^-1.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2000-01-01
Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...... estimator automatically compensates for the axial velocity, when determining the transverse velocity by using fourth order moments rather than second order moments. The estimation is optimized by using a lag different from one in the estimation process, and noise artifacts are reduced by using averaging...... of RF samples. Further, compensation for the axial velocity can be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce spatial velocity dispersion....
Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties
Statistical mechanics of collisionless orbits. IV. Distribution of angular momentum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Liliya L. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hjorth, Jens; Wojtak, Radosław, E-mail: llrw@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: jens@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: wojtak@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)
2014-03-01
It has been shown in previous work that DARKexp, which is a theoretically derived, maximum entropy, one shape parameter model for isotropic collisionless systems, provides very good fits to simulated and observed dark matter halos. Specifically, it fits the energy distribution, N(E), and the density profiles, including the central cusp. Here, we extend DARKexp N(E) to include the distribution in angular momentum, L {sup 2}, for spherically symmetric systems. First, we argue, based on theoretical, semi-analytical, and simulation results, that while dark matter halos are relaxed in energy, they are not nearly as relaxed in angular momentum, which precludes using maximum entropy to uniquely derive N(E, L {sup 2}). Instead, we require that when integrating N(E, L {sup 2}) over squared angular momenta one retrieves the DARKexp N(E). Starting with a general expression for N(E, L {sup 2}) we show how the distribution of particles in L {sup 2} is related to the shape of the velocity distribution function, VDF, and velocity anisotropy profile, β(r). We then demonstrate that astrophysically realistic halos, as judged by the VDF shape and β(r), must have linear or convex distributions in L {sup 2}, for each separate energy bin. The distribution in energy of the most bound particles must be nearly flat, and become more tilted in favor of radial orbits for less bound particles. These results are consistent with numerical simulations and represent an important step toward deriving the full distribution function for spherically symmetric dark matter halos.
Statistical mechanics of collisionless orbits. IV. Distribution of angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It has been shown in previous work that DARKexp, which is a theoretically derived, maximum entropy, one shape parameter model for isotropic collisionless systems, provides very good fits to simulated and observed dark matter halos. Specifically, it fits the energy distribution, N(E), and the density profiles, including the central cusp. Here, we extend DARKexp N(E) to include the distribution in angular momentum, L 2, for spherically symmetric systems. First, we argue, based on theoretical, semi-analytical, and simulation results, that while dark matter halos are relaxed in energy, they are not nearly as relaxed in angular momentum, which precludes using maximum entropy to uniquely derive N(E, L 2). Instead, we require that when integrating N(E, L 2) over squared angular momenta one retrieves the DARKexp N(E). Starting with a general expression for N(E, L 2) we show how the distribution of particles in L 2 is related to the shape of the velocity distribution function, VDF, and velocity anisotropy profile, β(r). We then demonstrate that astrophysically realistic halos, as judged by the VDF shape and β(r), must have linear or convex distributions in L 2, for each separate energy bin. The distribution in energy of the most bound particles must be nearly flat, and become more tilted in favor of radial orbits for less bound particles. These results are consistent with numerical simulations and represent an important step toward deriving the full distribution function for spherically symmetric dark matter halos.
Angular momentum of non-paraxial light beam: Dependence of orbital angular momentum on polarization
Li, Chun-Fang
2009-01-01
It is shown that the momentum density of free electromagnetic field splits into two parts. One has no contribution to the net momentum due to the transversality condition. The other yields all the momentum. The angular momentum that is associated with the former part is spin, and the angular momentum that is associated with the latter part is orbital angular momentum. Expressions for the spin and orbital angular momentum are given in terms of the electric vector in reciprocal space. The spin ...
Study of angular dependences of ion component parameters in CO2-laser-produced plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CO2-laser-produced plasma ion component parameters were studied for aluminium and lead targets at laser intensity of P = 4x1013 W cm-2 and pulse duration of τ = 15 ns experimentally and numerically. Angular dependences of ion number density for different charge states, average velocity and its spread were measured by time-of-flight method. Ion charge state distribution shows high-charge and low-charge state groups at normal expansion direction. Ions in these groups have different average expansion velocity and longitudinal velocity spread. Angular distribution of high-charge states is narrower than that of the low-charge state ion group, maximum yield of low-charge states occur at some angle from normal. For Al target results show similar trends as for Pb target, but simulations have indicated that the effect of laser ponderomotive force is more pronounced in this case
Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.;
2015-01-01
Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...
Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements
Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.
1998-01-01
In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.
Exposing Library Services with AngularJS
Jakob Voß; Moritz Horn
2014-01-01
This article provides an introduction to the JavaScript framework AngularJS and specific AngularJS modules for accessing library services. It shows how information such as search suggestions, additional links, and availability can be embedded in any website. The ease of reuse may encourage more libraries to expose their services via standard APIs to allow usage in different contexts.
Concepts of radial and angular kinetic energies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W.P.
2002-01-01
We consider a general central-field system in D dimensions and show that the division of the kinetic energy into radial and angular parts proceeds differently in the wave-function picture and the Weyl-Wigner phase-space picture, Thus, the radial and angular kinetic energies are different quantities...
Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.
Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.
1981-01-01
Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)
Angular Momentum Distribution in the Transverse Plane
Adhikari, Lekha
2016-01-01
Several possibilities to relate the $t$-dependence of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) to the distribution of angular momentum in the transverse plane are discussed. Using a simple spectator model we demonstrate that non of them correctly describes the orbital angular momentum distribution that for a longitudinally polarized nucleon obtained directly from light-front wavefunctions.
Orbital Angular Momentum in the Nucleon
Garvey, Gerald T.
2010-01-01
Analysis of the measured value of the integrated \\bar{d}-\\bar{u} asymmetry (Ifas = 0.147+-0.027) in the nucleon show it to arise from nucleon fluctuations into baryon plus pion. Requiring angular momentum conservation in these fluctuations shows the associated orbital angular momentum is equal to the value of the flavor asymmetry.
Detecting orbital angular momentum in radio signals
Then, H.; Thidé, B.; Mendonça, J T; Carozzi, T.D.; Bergman, J.; Baan, W. A.; Mohammadi, S. (Siawoosh); Eliasson, B.
2008-01-01
Electromagnetic waves with an azimuthal phase shift are known to have a well defined orbital angular momentum. Different methods that allow for the detection of the angular momentum are proposed. For some, we discuss the required experimental setup and explore the range of applicability.
Responsive web design with AngularJS
Patel, Sandeep Kumar
2014-01-01
If you are an AngularJS developer who wants to learn about responsive web application development, this book is ideal for you. Responsive Web Design with AngularJS is intended for web developers or designers with a basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.
Angular momentum decomposition of Richardson's pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The angular momentum decomposition of pairs obtained using Richardson's exact solution of the pairing Hamiltonian for the deformed 174Yb nucleus are displayed. The probabilities for low angular momenta of the collective pairs are strikingly different from the ones obtained in the BCS ground state
Does high harmonic generation conserve angular momentum?
Fleischer, Avner; Diskin, Tzvi; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren
2013-01-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) is a unique and useful process in which infrared or visible radiation is frequency up converted into the extreme ultraviolet and x ray spectral regions. As a parametric process, high harmonic generation should conserve the radiation energy, momentum and angular momentum. Indeed, conservation of energy and momentum have been demonstrated. Angular momentum of optical beams can be divided into two components: orbital and spin (polarization). Orbital angular momentum is assumed to be conserved and recently observed deviations were attributed to propagation effects. On the other hand, conservation of spin angular momentum has thus far never been studied, neither experimentally nor theoretically. Here, we present the first study on the role of spin angular momentum in extreme nonlinear optics by experimentally generating high harmonics of bi chromatic elliptically polarized pump beams that interact with isotropic media. While observing that the selection rules qualitatively correspond...
Physical Angular Momentum Separation for QED
Sun, Weimin
2016-01-01
We study the non-uniqueness problem of the gauge-invariant angular momentum separation for the case of QED, which stems from the recent controversy concerning the proper definitions of the orbital angular momentum and spin operator of the individual parts of a gauge field system. For the free quantum electrodynamics without matter, we show that the basic requirement of Euclidean symmetry selects a unique physical angular momentum separation scheme from the multitude of the possible angular momentum separation schemes constructed using the various Gauge Invariant Extentions. Based on these results, we propose a set of natural angular momentum separation schemes for the case of interacting QED by invoking the formalism of asymptotic fields. Some perspectives on such a problem for the case of QCD are briefly discussed.
Quark angular momentum in a spectator model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the quark angular momentum in a model with the nucleon being a quark and a spectator. Both scalar and axial-vector spectators are included. We perform the calculations in the light-cone formalism where the parton concept is well defined. We calculate the quark helicity and canonical orbital angular momentum. Then we calculate the gravitational form factors which are often related to the kinetic angular momentums, and find that even in a no gauge field model we cannot identify the canonical angular momentums with half the sum of gravitational form factors. In addition, we examine the model relation between the orbital angular momentum and pretzelosity, and find it is violated in the axial-vector case
Subluminal velocity of OAM-carrying beam
Bareza, Nestor D
2015-01-01
We report a consequence of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a beam to its group velocity. We calculate the group velocity $v_g$ of Laguerre-Gauss beam ($\\emph{LG}$) with $\\ell$ and at $p=0$. The $v_g$ reduction of $\\emph{LG}$ beam even in free space is observed to have dependence on both orbital or winding number $\\ell$ and the beam's divergence $\\theta_0$. We found that light possessing higher $\\ell$ travels relatively slower than that with lower $\\ell$ values. This suggests that light of different OAM separate in the temporal domain along propagation and it is an added effect to the dispersion due to field confinement. Our results are useful for treating information embedded in light with OAM from astronomical sources and/or data transmission in free space.
About measuring velocity dispersions
Fellhauer, M.
A lot of our knowledge about the dynamics and total masses of pressure dominated stellar systems relies on measuring the internal velocity disper- sion of the system. We assume virial equilibrium and that we are able to measure only the bound stars of the system without any contamination. This article shows how likely it is to measure the correct velocity dispersion in reality. It will show that as long as we have small samples of velocity mea- surements the distribution of possible outcomes can be very large and as soon as we have a source of error the velocity dispersion can wrong by several standard deviations especially in large samples.
Yang, W M
2008-01-01
The purpose of this work was to obtain diffusion coefficient for the magnetic angular momentum transport and material transport in a rotating solar model. We assumed that the transport of both angular momentum and chemical elements caused by magnetic fields could be treated as a diffusion process. The diffusion coefficient depends on the stellar radius, angular velocity, and the configuration of magnetic fields. By using of this coefficient, it is found that our model becomes more consistent with the helioseismic results of total angular momentum, angular momentum density, and the rotation rate in a radiative region than the one without magnetic fields. Not only can the magnetic fields redistribute angular momentum efficiently, but they can also strengthen the coupling between the radiative and convective zones. As a result, the sharp gradient of the rotation rate is reduced at the bottom of the convective zone. The thickness of the layer of sharp radial change in the rotation rate is about 0.036 $R_{\\odot}$ ...
Rotational Angles and Velocities During Down the Line and Diagonal Across Court Volleyball Spikes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justin R. Brown
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The volleyball spike is an explosive movement that is frequently used to end a rally and earn a point. High velocity spikes are an important skill for a successful volleyball offense. Although the influence of vertical jump height and arm velocity on spiked ball velocity (SBV have been investigated, little is known about the relationship of shoulder and hip angular kinematics with SBV. Other sport skills, like the baseball pitch share similar movement patterns and suggest trunk rotation is important for such movements. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of both shoulder and hip angular kinematics with ball velocity during the volleyball spike. Methods: Fourteen Division I collegiate female volleyball players executed down the line (DL and diagonally across-court (DAC spikes in a laboratory setting to measure shoulder and hip angular kinematics and velocities. Each spike was analyzed using a 10 Camera Raptor-E Digital Real Time Camera System. Results: DL SBV was significantly greater than for DAC, respectively (17.54±2.35 vs. 15.97±2.36 m/s, p<0.05. The Shoulder Hip Separation Angle (S-HSA, Shoulder Angular Velocity (SAV, and Hip Angular Velocity (HAV were all significantly correlated with DAC SBV. S-HSA was the most significant predictor of DAC SBV as determined by regression analysis. Conclusions: This study provides support for a relationship between a greater S-HSA and SBV. Future research should continue to 1 examine the influence of core training exercise and rotational skill drills on SBV and 2 examine trunk angular velocities during various types of spikes during play.
Wakker, Bart P.; Woerden, Hugo van; Oswalt, Terry D.; Gilmore, Gerard
2013-01-01
The high-velocity clouds (HVCs) are gaseous objects that do not partake in differential galactic rotation, but instead have anomalous velocities. They trace energetic processes on the interface between the interstellar material in the Galactic disk and intergalactic space. Three different processes
Angular momentum conservation for dynamical black holes
Hayward, Sean A.
2006-01-01
Angular momentum can be defined by rearranging the Komar surface integral in terms of a twist form, encoding the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass, and an axial vector. If the axial vector is a coordinate vector and has vanishing transverse divergence, it can be uniquely specified under certain generic conditions. Along a trapping horizon, a conservation law expresses the rate of change of angular momentum of a general black hole in terms of angular momentum densities of ma...
Quartz angular rate sensor for automotive navigation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nozoe, Toshiyuki; Ichinose, Toshihiko; Kawasaki, Syusaku; Hatanaka, Masakazu; Kuroda, Keisuke [Matsushita Electronic Components Co. Ltd. (Japan); Yamamoto, Kohji; Ogata, Motoki; Takeno, Shoichi [Fukui Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd. (Japan); Ishihara, Minoru; Ishii, Tadashi; Umeki, Mitoshi [Nihonn Denpa Kogyo Co. Ltd. (Japan)
1999-07-01
Many of the recent automotive navigation systems are introducing an angular rate sensor that detect vehicle yaw in their system due to the advantage of higher accuracy, in addition to a conventional GPS (Global Positioning System) and vehicle speed signals. Though there are a couple of other methods to get a vehicle direction information, the angular rate sensor is the most suitable device as a gyro in accuracy and reliability point of view. Matsushita developed a new compact angular rate sensor using quartz crystal for automotive navigation systems. The sensor's operation is based upon Coriolis force imposed on a vibrating quartz tuning fork. (orig.)
Transverse Spectral Velocity Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2014-01-01
A transverse oscillation (TO)-based method for calculating the velocity spectrum for fully transverse flow is described. Current methods yield the mean velocity at one position, whereas the new method reveals the transverse velocity spectrum as a function of time at one spatial location. A convex...... array probe is used along with two different estimators based on the correlation of the received signal. They can estimate the velocity spectrum as a function of time as for ordinary spectrograms, but they also work at a beam-to-flow angle of 90°. The approach is validated using simulations of pulsatile...... flow using the Womersly–Evans flow model. The relative bias of the mean estimated frequency is 13.6% and the mean relative standard deviation is 14.3% at 90°, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with an experimental scanner and a convex array transducer...
EVIDENCE FOR INFALLING GAS OF LOW ANGULAR MOMENTUM TOWARD THE L1551 NE KEPLERIAN CIRCUMBINARY DISK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report follow-up C18O(3-2) line observations of the Class I binary protostellar system L1551 NE with the Submillimeter Array in its compact and subcompact configurations. Our previous observations at a higher angular resolution in the extended configuration revealed a circumbinary disk exhibiting Keplerian motion. The combined data, with more extensive spatial coverage (∼140-2000 AU), verify the presence of a Keplerian circumbinary disk and reveal for the first time a distinct low-velocity (∼–1 from the systemic velocity) component that displays a velocity gradient along the minor axis of the circumbinary disk. Our simple model that reproduces the main features seen in the position-velocity diagrams comprises a circumbinary disk exhibiting Keplerian motion out to a radius of ∼300 AU, beyond which the gas exhibits pure infall at a constant velocity of ∼0.6 km s–1. This velocity is significantly smaller than the expected free-fall velocity of ∼2.2 km s–1 onto the L1551 NE protostellar mass of ∼0.8 M☉ at ∼300 AU, suggesting that the infalling gas is decelerated as it moves into regions of high gas pressure in the circumbinary disk. The discontinuity in angular momenta between the outer infalling gas and the inner Keplerian circumbinary disk implies an abrupt transition in the effectiveness at which magnetic braking is able to transfer angular momentum outward, a result perhaps of the different plasma β values and the ionization fractions between the outer and inner regions of the circumbinary disk
Angular Momentum Acquisition in Galaxy Halos
Stewart, Kyle R; Bullock, James S; Maller, Ariyeh H; Diemand, Juerg; Wadsley, James; Moustakas, Leonidas A
2013-01-01
We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky Way sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with ~70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by \\lambda~0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms "cold flow disks". We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.
Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo
2015-01-01
Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.
The physics of angular momentum radio
Thidé, B; Then, H; Someda, C G; Ravanelli, R A
2014-01-01
Wireless communications, radio astronomy and other radio science applications are mainly implemented with techniques built on top of the electromagnetic linear momentum (Poynting vector) physical layer. As a supplement and/or alternative to this conventional approach, techniques rooted in the electromagnetic angular momentum physical layer have been advocated, and promising results from proof-of-concept radio communication experiments using angular momentum were recently published. This sparingly exploited physical observable describes the rotational (spinning and orbiting) physical properties of the electromagnetic fields and the rotational dynamics of the pertinent charge and current densities. In order to facilitate the exploitation of angular momentum techniques in real-world implementations, we present a systematic, comprehensive theoretical review of the fundamental physical properties of electromagnetic angular momentum observable. Starting from an overview that puts it into its physical context among ...
Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia
2016-02-01
Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.
Topological Orbital Angular Momentum Hall Current
Hu, Jiangping
2005-01-01
We show that there is a fundamental difference between spin Hall current and orbital angular momentum Hall current in Rashba- Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling systems. The orbital angular momentum Hall current has a pure topological contribution which is originated from the existence of magnetic flux in momentum space while there is no such topological nature for the spin Hall current. Moreover, we show that the orbital Hall conductance is always larger than the spin Hall conductance in the pr...
ZKDR Distance, Angular Size and Phantom Cosmology
R.C. Santos; Lima, J. A. S.
2006-01-01
The influence of mass inhomogeneities on the angular size-redshift test is investigated for a large class of flat cosmological models driven by dark energy plus a cold dark matter component. The results are presented in two steps. First, the mass inhomogeneities are modeled by a generalized Zeldovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder (ZKDR) distance which is characterized by a smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ and a power index $\\gamma$, and, second, we provide a statistical analysis to angular size data ...
Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Angular Momentum
Bosso, Pasquale
2016-01-01
Various models of quantum gravity suggest a modification of the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, to the so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle, between position and momentum. In this work we show how this modification influences the theory of angular momentum in Quantum Mechanics. In particular, we compute Planck scale corrections to angular momentum eigenvalues, the Hydrogen atom spectrum, the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. We also examine effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on multi-particle systems.
Multipolar expansion of orbital angular momentum modes
Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2008-01-01
In this letter a general method for expanding paraxial beams into multipolar electromagnetic fields is presented. This method is applied to the expansion of paraxial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM), showing how the paraxial OAM is related to the general angular momentum of an electromagnetic wave. This method can be extended to quasi-paraxial beams, i.e. highly focused laser beams. Some applications to the control of electronic transitions in atoms are discussed.
Orbital angular momentum in the nucleons
Lorcé, Cédric
2014-01-01
In the last decade, it has been realized that the orbital angular momentum of partons inside the nucleon plays a major role. It contributes significantly to nucleon properties and is at the origin of many asymmetries observed in spin physics. It is therefore of paramount importance to determine this quantity if we want to understand the nucleon internal structure and experimental observables. This triggered numerous discussions and controversies about the proper definition of orbital angular ...
Orbital angular momentum of partially coherent beams
Serna Galán, Julio; Movilla Serrano, Jesús María
2001-01-01
The definition of the orbital angular momentum established for coherent beams is extended to partially coherent beams, expressed in terms of two elements of the beam matrix. This extension is justified by use of the Mercer expansion of partially coherent fields. General Gauss-Schell-model fields are considered, and the relation between the twist; parameter and the orbital angular momentum is analyzed. © 2001 Optical Society of America.
Entanglement of Polarization and Orbital Angular Momentum
Bhatti, Daniel; von Zanthier, Joachim; Agarwal, Girish S.
2015-01-01
We investigate two-photon entangled states using two important degrees of freedom of the electromagnetic field, namely orbital angular momentum (OAM) and spin angular momentum. For photons propagating in the same direction we apply the idea of $\\textit{entanglement duality}$ and develop schemes to do $\\textit{entanglement sorting}$ based either on OAM or polarization. In each case the entanglement is tested using appropriate witnesses. We finally present generalizations of these ideas to thre...
Radio beam vorticity and orbital angular momentum
Thidé, Bo; Tamburini, Fabrizio; Mari, Elettra; Romanato, Filippo; Barbieri, Cesare
2011-01-01
It has been known for a century that electromagnetic fields can transport not only energy and linear momentum but also angular momentum. However, it was not until twenty years ago, with the discovery in laser optics of experimental techniques for the generation, detection and manipulation of photons in well-defined, pure orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, that twisted light and its pertinent optical vorticity and phase singularities began to come into widespread use in science and technol...
Pretzelosity TMD and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Lorce, Cédric; Pasquini, B.
2015-01-01
We study the connection between the quark orbital angular momentum and the pretzelosity transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution function. We discuss the origin of this relation in quark models, identifying as key ingredient for its validity the assumption of spherical symmetry for the nucleon in its rest frame. Finally we show that the individual quark contributions to the orbital angular momentum obtained from this relation can not be interpreted as the intrinsic contributions, but...
Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers
Majid, Mohammad Wadood
2015-01-01
This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.
Salim, S.; Gould, A.
2000-12-01
Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) belongs to a new generation of astrometry satellites and will probe the surrounding space some 20 times deeper than its predecessor Hipparcos. As a result we will acquire precise knowledge of 5 out of 6 components of phase-space for millions of stars. The remaining coordinate, radial velocity, will remain unknown. In this study, we look at how the knowledge of radial velocity affects the determination of the structure of the Galaxy, and its gravitational potential. We therefore propose a radial velocity survey of FAME stars, and discuss its feasibility and technical requirements.
Zhang, Yiqi; Liu, Xing; Belić, Milivoj R; Zhong, Weiping; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Yanpeng
2015-08-15
We analytically and numerically investigate an anharmonic propagation of two-dimensional beams in a harmonic potential. We pick noncentrosymmetric beams of common interest that carry orbital angular momentum. The examples studied include superposed Bessel-Gauss (BG), Laguerre-Gauss (LG), and circular Airy (CA) beams. For the BG beams, periodic inversion, phase transition, and rotation with periodic angular velocity are demonstrated during propagation. For the LG and CA beams, periodic inversion and variable rotation are still there but not the phase transition. On the whole, the "center of mass" and the orbital angular momentum of a beam exhibit harmonic motion, but the motion of the beam intensity distribution in detail is subject to external and internal torques and forces, causing it to be anharmonic. Our results are applicable to other superpositions of finite circularly asymmetric beams.
Superluminal Recession Velocities
Davis, T M; Davis, Tamara M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.
2000-01-01
Hubble's Law, v=HD (recession velocity is proportional to distance), is a theoretical result derived from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. v=HD applies at least as far as the particle horizon and in principle for all distances. Thus, galaxies with distances greater than D=c/H are receding from us with velocities greater than the speed of light and superluminal recession is a fundamental part of the general relativistic description of the expanding universe. This apparent contradiction of special relativity (SR) is often mistakenly remedied by converting redshift to velocity using SR. Here we show that galaxies with recession velocities faster than the speed of light are observable and that in all viable cosmological models, galaxies above a redshift of three are receding superluminally.
1988-01-01
A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.
The critical ionization velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)
Investigation of Slipstream Velocity
Crowley, J W , Jr
1925-01-01
These experiments were made at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, to investigate the velocity of the air in the slipstream in horizontal and climbing flight to determine the form of expression giving the slipstream velocity in terms of the airspeed of the airplane. The method used consisted in flying the airplane both on a level course and in climb at full throttle and measuring the slipstream velocity at seven points in the slipstream for the whole speed range of the airplane in both conditions. In general the results show that for both condition, horizontal and climbing flights, the slipstream velocity v subscript 3 and airspeed v can be represented by straight lines and consequently the equations are of the form: v subscript s = mv+b where m and b are constant. (author)
The Effects of Angular Momentum on Halo Profiles
Lentz, Erik W.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Rosenberg, Leslie J.
2016-05-01
The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N-body simulations proved to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. Here we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean (λ ≲ 0.20) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large (λ ≳ 0.20) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to λ ≲ 0.20. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.
On the Angular Width of Diffractive Beam in Anisotropic Media
Lock, Edwin H
2011-01-01
2-D diffraction patterns arising in the far-field region were investigated theoretically for the case, when the plane wave with non collinear group and phase velocities is incident on the wide slit in opaque screen with arbitrary orientation. This investigation was carried out by consideration as an example of magnetostatic surface wave diffraction in tangentially magnetized ferrite slab. It was deduced the universal analytical formula, which one can use to calculate the angular width of diffractive beam in any 2-D anisotropic geometries for the waves of various nature. It was shown, that in 2-D anisotropic geometries this width may be not only more or less then the value L/D (L - wavelength of incident wave, D - length of slit), but it also may be equal to zero in certain conditions.
Orbital angular momentum loss in PSR 1957 + 20
Banit, Menashe; Shaham, Jacob
1992-01-01
It is suggested that the companion winds, excited by the radiation from the neutron star in PSR 1957 + 20 form only through the combined action of the radiation heat on the companion's atmosphere and the radiation force on the slowly lifting wind. Ballistic simulations suggest that these winds leave only from selected areas of the illuminated surface of the companion; surface currents channel into these regions relatively hot (but altogether cooler than the companion escape velocity) 'coronal' matter from the whole illuminated area. Under suitable conditions, wind particles spend some time trailing the companion at close distances before taking off to escape from the system. This can torque the binary into angular momentum loss that will be as efficient as the one recently observed in PSR 1957 + 20 if the companion is bloated to dimensions close to that of the Roche lobe.
Angular momentum of disc galaxies with a lognormal density distribution
Marr, John Herbert
2015-01-01
Whilst most galaxy properties scale with galaxy mass, similar scaling relations for angular momentum are harder to demonstrate. A lognormal (LN) density distribution for disc mass provides a good overall fit to the observational data for disc rotation curves for a wide variety of galaxy types and luminosities. In this paper, the total angular momentum J and energy $\\vert{}$E$\\vert{}$ were computed for 38 disc galaxies from the published rotation curves and plotted against the derived disc masses, with best fit slopes of 1.683$\\pm{}$0.018 and 1.643$\\pm{}$0.038 respectively, using a theoretical model with a LN density profile. The derived mean disc spin parameter was $\\lambda{}$=0.423$\\pm{}$0.014. Using the rotation curve parameters V$_{max}$ and R$_{max}$ as surrogates for the virial velocity and radius, the virial mass estimator $M_{disc}\\propto{}R_{max}V_{max}^2$ was also generated, with a log-log slope of 1.024$\\pm{}$0.014 for the 38 galaxies, and a proportionality constant ${\\lambda{}}^*=1.47\\pm{}0.20\\time...
Angular momentum exchange in white dwarf binaries accreting through direct impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine the exchange of angular momentum between the component spins and the orbit in semi-detached double white dwarf binaries undergoing mass transfer through direct impact of the transfer stream. We approximate the stream as a series of discrete massive particles ejected in the ballistic limit at the inner Lagrangian point of the donor toward the accretor. This work improves upon similar earlier studies in a number of ways. First, we self-consistently calculate the total angular momentum of the orbit at all times. This includes changes in the orbital angular momentum during the ballistic trajectory of the ejected mass, as well as changes during the ejection/accretion due to the radial component of the particle's velocity. Second, we calculate the particle's ballistic trajectory for each system, which allows us to determine the precise position and velocity of the particle upon accretion. We can then include specific information about the radius of the accretor as well as the angle of impact. Finally, we ensure that the total angular momentum is conserved, which requires the donor star spin to vary self-consistently. With these improvements, we calculate the angular momentum change of the orbit and each binary component across the entire parameter space of direct impact double white dwarf binary systems. We find a significant decrease in the amount of angular momentum removed from the orbit during mass transfer, as well as cases where this process increases the angular momentum of the orbit at the expense of the spin angular momentum of the donor. We conclude that, unlike earlier claims in the literature, mass transfer through direct impact need not destabilize the binary and that the quantity and sign of the orbital angular momentum transfer depends on the binary properties, particularly the masses of the double white dwarf binary component stars. This stabilization may significantly impact the population synthesis calculations of the expected
Discretising the velocity distribution for directional dark matter experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments which are directionally-sensitive may be the only method of probing the full velocity distribution function (VDF) of the Galactic DM halo. We present an angular basis for the DM VDF which can be used to parametrise the distribution in order to mitigate astrophysical uncertainties in future directional experiments and extract information about the DM halo. This basis consists of discretising the VDF in a series of angular bins, with the VDF being only a function of the DM speed v within each bin. In contrast to other methods, such as spherical harmonic expansions, the use of this basis allows us to guarantee that the resulting VDF is everywhere positive and therefore physical. We present a recipe for calculating the event rates corresponding to the discrete VDF for an arbitrary number of angular bins N and investigate the discretisation error which is introduced in this way. For smooth, Standard Halo Model-like distribution functions, only N=3 angular bins are required to achieve an accuracy of around 10–30% in the number of events in each bin. Shortly after confirmation of the DM origin of the signal with around 50 events, this accuracy should be sufficient to allow the discretised velocity distribution to be employed reliably. For more extreme VDFs (such as streams), the discretisation error is typically much larger, but can be improved with increasing N. This method paves the way towards an astrophysics-independent analysis framework for the directional detection of dark matter
Detection of a dearth of stars with zero angular momentum in the solar neighbourhood
Hunt, Jason A S; Carlberg, Raymond G
2016-01-01
We report on the detection in the combined $Gaia$-DR1/RAVE data of a lack of disk stars in the solar neighbourhood with velocities close to zero angular momentum. We propose that this may be caused by the scattering of stars with very low angular momentum onto chaotic, halo-type orbits when they pass through the Galactic nucleus. We model the effect in a Milky-Way like potential and fit the resulting model directly to the data, finding a likelihood ($\\sim2.7\\sigma$) of a dip in the distribution. Using this effect, we can make a dynamical measurement of the Solar rotation velocity around the Galactic center: $v_{\\odot}=239\\pm9$ km s$^{-1}$. Combined with the measured proper motion of Sgr A$^*$, this measurement gives a measurement of the distance to the Galactic centre: $R_0=7.9\\pm0.3$ kpc.
Velocity estimation in wideband mobile stations equipped with multiple antennas
Umansky, Dmitry; Pätzold, Matthias
2009-01-01
A new method is proposed for estimating the velocity of wideband mobile stations (MSs) equipped with multiple antennas. The MS speed is determined using the well-known relationship between the direction-of-arrivals (DOAs) and the Doppler frequency shifts experienced by the multipath signal components. The method is based on the assumption that the multipath signal components with the DOAs confined to a small angular interval are clustered in the delay domain. Additionally, we assume that diff...
Reconstructing the three-dimensional local dark matter velocity distribution
Kavanagh, Bradley J
2016-01-01
Directionally sensitive dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments present the only way to observe the full three-dimensional velocity distribution of the Milky Way halo local to Earth. In this work we compare methods for extracting information about the local DM velocity distribution from a set of recoil directions and energies in a range of hypothetical directional and non-directional experiments. We compare a model independent empirical parameterisation of the velocity distribution based on an angular discretisation with a model dependent approach which assumes knowledge of the functional form of the distribution. The methods are tested under three distinct halo models which cover a range of possible phase space structures for the local velocity distribution: a smooth Maxwellian halo, a tidal stream and a debris flow. In each case we use simulated directional data to attempt to reconstruct the shape and parameters describing each model as well as the DM particle properties. We find that the empirical pa...
Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials
Manz, Jörn; Schmidt, Burkhard; Yang, Yonggang
2014-01-01
We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to ...
Mattson, D. L.
1975-01-01
The effect of prolonged angular acceleration on choice reaction time to an accelerating visual stimulus was investigated, with 10 commercial airline pilots serving as subjects. The pattern of reaction times during and following acceleration was compared with the pattern of velocity estimates reported during identical trials. Both reaction times and velocity estimates increased at the onset of acceleration, declined prior to the termination of acceleration, and showed an aftereffect. These results are inconsistent with the torsion-pendulum theory of semicircular canal function and suggest that the vestibular adaptation is of central origin.
Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Davids, Keith; Esteves, Carlos
2015-04-01
This study examined the continuous interpersonal interactions of performers in dyadic systems in team sports, as a function of changing information constraints. As a task vehicle, we investigated how attackers attained success in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball by exploring angular relations with immediate opponents and the basket. We hypothesized that angular relations would convey information for the attackers to dribble past defenders. Four basketball players performed as an attacker and defender in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball, in which the co-positioning and orientation of participants relative to the basket was manipulated. After video recording performance behaviors, we digitized participant movement displacement trajectories and categorized trials as successful or unsuccessful (from the attackers' viewpoint). Results revealed that, to successfully dribble past a defender, attackers tended to explore the left hand side of the space by defenders by increasing their angular velocity and decreasing their angular variability, especially in the center of the court. Interpersonal interactions and goal-achievement in attacker-defender dyads appear to have been constrained by the angular relations sustained between participants relative to the scoring target. Results revealed the functionality of exploratory behaviors of participants attempting re-align spatial relations with an opponent in 1v1 sub-phases of team games. PMID:25625811
McCrea, R. A.; Chen-Huang, C.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)
1999-01-01
The contributions of vestibular nerve afferents and central vestibular pathways to the angular (AVOR) and linear (LVOR) vestibulo-ocular reflex were studied in squirrel monkeys during fixation of near and far targets. Irregular vestibular afferents did not appear to be necessary for the LVOR, since when they were selectively silenced with galvanic currents the LVOR was essentially unaffected during both far- and near-target viewing. The linear translation signals generated by secondary AVOR neurons in the vestibular nuclei were, on average, in phase with head velocity, inversely related to viewing distance, and were nearly as strong as AVOR-related signals. We suggest that spatial-temporal transformation of linear head translation signals to angular eye velocity commands is accomplished primarily by the addition of viewing distance multiplied, centrally integrated, otolith regular afferent signals to angular VOR pathways.
Ultrafast angular momentum transfer in multisublattice ferrimagnets.
Bergeard, N; López-Flores, V; Halté, V; Hehn, M; Stamm, C; Pontius, N; Beaurepaire, E; Boeglin, C
2014-03-11
Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to induce ultrafast changes of the magnetization in magnetic materials. However, one of the unsolved questions is that of conservation of the total angular momentum during the ultrafast demagnetization. Here we report the ultrafast transfer of angular momentum during the first hundred femtoseconds in ferrimagnetic Co0.8Gd0.2 and Co0.74Tb0.26 films. Using time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism allowed for time-resolved determination of spin and orbital momenta for each element. We report an ultrafast quenching of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and show that at early times the demagnetization in ferrimagnetic alloys is driven by the local transfer of angular momenta between the two exchange-coupled sublattices while the total angular momentum stays constant. In Co0.74Tb0.26 we have observed a transfer of the total angular momentum to an external bath, which is delayed by ~150 fs.
An orbital angular momentum spectrometer for electrons
Harvey, Tyler; Grillo, Vincenzo; McMorran, Benjamin
2016-05-01
With the advent of techniques for preparation of free-electron and neutron orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, a basic follow-up question emerges: how do we measure the orbital angular momentum state distribution in matter waves? Control of both the energy and helicity of light has produced a range of spectroscopic applications, including molecular fingerprinting and magnetization mapping. Realization of an analogous dual energy-OAM spectroscopy with matter waves demands control of both initial and final energy and orbital angular momentum states: unlike for photons, final state post-selection is necessary for particles that cannot be annihilated. We propose a magnetic field-based mechanism for quantum non-demolition measurement of electron OAM. We show that OAM-dependent lensing is produced by an operator of form U =exp iLzρ2/ℏb2 where ρ =√{x2 +y2 } is the radial position operator, Lz is the orbital angular momentum operator along z, and b is the OAM dispersion length. We can physically realize this operator as a term in the time evolution of an electron in magnetic round lens. We discuss prospects and practical challenges for implementation of a lensing orbital angular momentum measurement. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under the Early Career Research Program Award # DE-SC0010466.