Non-gaussian CMBR angular power spectra
Magueijo, J
1995-01-01
In this paper we show how the prediction of CMBR angular power spectra C_l in non-Gaussian theories is affected by a cosmic covariance problem, that is (C_l,C_{l'}) correlations impart features on any observed C_l spectrum which are absent from the average C^l spectrum. Therefore the average spectrum is rendered a bad observational prediction, and two new prediction strategies, better adjusted to these theories, are proposed. In one we search for hidden random indices conditional to which the theory is released from the correlations. Contact with experiment can then be made in the form of the conditional power spectra plus the random index distribution. In another approach we apply to the problem a principal component analysis. We discuss the effect of correlations on the predictivity of non-Gaussian theories. We finish by showing how correlations may be crucial in delineating the borderline between predictions made by non-Gaussian and Gaussian theories. In fact, in some particular theories, correlations may ...
Reconstructing the galaxy redshift distribution from angular cross power spectra
Sun, L; Tao, C
2015-01-01
The control of photometric redshift (photo-$z$) errors is a crucial and challenging task for precision weak lensing cosmology. The spacial cross-correlations (equivalently, the angular cross power spectra) of galaxies between tomographic photo-$z$ bins are sensitive to the true redshift distribution $n_i(z)$ of each bin and hence can help calibrate the photo-$z$ error distribution for weak lensing surveys. Using Fisher matrix analysis, we investigate the contributions of various components of the angular power spectra to the constraints of $n_i(z)$ parameters and demonstrate the importance of the cross power spectra therein, especially when catastrophic photo-$z$ errors are present. We further study the feasibility of reconstructing $n_i(z)$ from galaxy angular power spectra using Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation. Considering an LSST-like survey with $10$ photo-$z$ bins, we find that the underlying redshift distribution can be determined with a fractional precision ($\\sigma(\\theta)/\\theta$ for parameter $\\...
The Angular Power Spectra of Photometric SDSS LRGs
Thomas, Shaun A; Lahav, Ofer
2010-01-01
We construct new galaxy angular power spectra based on the extended, updated and final SDSS II Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) photometric redshift survey: MegaZ DR7. Encapsulating 7746 deg^{2} we utilise 723,556 photometrically determined LRGs between 0.45 < z < 0.65 in a 3.3 (Gpc h^{-1})^3 spherical harmonic analysis of the galaxy distribution. By combining four photometric redshift bins we find preliminary parameter constraints of f_{b} = \\Omega_{b}/\\Omega_{m} = 0.173 +/- 0.046 and \\Omega_{m} = 0.260 +/- 0.035 assuming H_{0} = 75 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, n_{s}=1 and \\Omega_{k} = 0. These limits are consistent with the CMB and the previous data release (DR4). The C_{\\ell} are sensitive to redshift space distortions and therefore we also recast our constraints into a measurement of \\beta ~ \\Omega_{m}^{0.55}/b in different redshift shells. The robustness of these power spectra with respect to a number of potential systematics such as extinction, photometric redshift and ANNz training set extrapolation are examined...
Estimating Discrete Power Angular Spectra in Multiprobe OTA Setups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund
2014-01-01
The letter discusses over-the-air (OTA) testing for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on estimating discrete power angular spectrum modeled at the receiver (Rx) side in the test zone. Two techniques based on a uniform circular array (UCA) are proposed to obtain...
Acoustic scale from the angular power spectra of SDSS-III DR8 photometric luminous galaxies
Seo, Hee-Jong; White, Martin; Cuesta, Antonio; Ross, Ashley; Saito, Shun; Reid, Beth; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Percival, Will J; de Putter, Roland; Schlegel, David; Eisenstein, Daniel; Xu, Xiaoying; Schneider, Donald; Skibba, Ramin; Verde, Licia; Nichol, Robert; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J; Costa, Luiz; Gott, J; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Prada, Francisco; Ross, Nicholas; Simmons, Audrey; Simoni, Fernando; Shelden, Alaina; Snedden, Stephanie; Zehavi, Idit
2012-01-01
We measure the acoustic scale from the angular power spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Data Release 8 imaging catalog that includes 872,921 galaxies over ~ 10,000 deg^2 between 0.45~ 0.35. We report constraints on cosmological parameters from our measurement in combination with the WMAP7 data and the previous spectroscopic BAO measurements of SDSS (Percival et al. 2010) and WiggleZ (Blake et al. 2011). We refer to our companion papers (Ho et al. 2011; de Putter et al. 2011) for investigations on information of the full power spectrum.
The angular power spectra of photometric Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxies
Thomas, Shaun A.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Lahav, Ofer
2011-04-01
We construct new galaxy angular power spectra Cℓ based on the extended, updated and final Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) II luminous red galaxy (LRG) photometric redshift survey - MegaZ (DR7). Encapsulating 7746 deg2 we utilize 723 556 photometrically determined LRGs between 0.45 preliminary parameter constraints of fb≡Ωb/Ωm= 0.173 ± 0.046 and Ωm= 0.260 ± 0.035 assuming H0= 75 km s-1 Mpc-1, ns= 1 and Ωk= 0. These limits are consistent with the cosmic microwave background and the previous data release (DR4). The Cℓ are sensitive to redshift space distortions and therefore we also recast our constraints into a measurement of β≈Ω0.55m/b in different redshift shells. The robustness of these power spectra with respect to a number of potential systematics such as extinction, photometric redshift and ANNz training set extrapolation are examined. The latter includes a cosmological comparison of available photometric redshift estimation codes where we find excellent agreement between template and empirical estimation methods. MegaZ DR7 represents a methodological prototype to next generation surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and, furthermore, is a photometric precursor to the spectroscopic BOSS survey. Our galaxy catalogue and all power spectra data can be found at .
A Remark on the Estimation of Angular Power Spectra in the Presence of Foregrounds
White, M
1998-01-01
It is common practice to estimate the errors on the angular power spectrum which could be obtained by an experiment with a given angular resolution and noise level. Several authors have also addressed the question of foreground subtraction using multi-frequency observations. In such observations the angular resolution of the different frequency channels is rarely the same. In this report we point out how the ``effective'' beam size and noise level change with ell in this case, and give an expression for the error on the angular power spectrum as a function of ell.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alpar, M.A.
1986-12-01
Model power spectra are constructed for quasi-periodic oscillations of the type observed in some galactic bulge X-ray sources. It is shown that the angular location of clumping in the boundary layer, as well as the spread in Keplerian velocities within the boundary layer, will effect the form of the power spectrum under certain conditions. The occurrence of such features in observed power spectra would yield information on the possible role of the magnetic field in clumping and on the radial velocity of matter moving through the boundary layer.
Polarization angular spectra of Galactic synchrotron emission on arcminute scales
Tucci, M; Cecchini, S; Nicastro, L; Fabbri, R; Gaensler, B M; Dickey, J M; McClure-Griffiths, N M
2002-01-01
We study the angular power spectra of the polarized component of the Galactic synchrotron emission in the 28-deg^2 Test Region of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey at 1.4 GHz. These data were obtained by the Australia Telescope Compact Array and allow us to investigate angular power spectra down to arcminute scales. We find that, at this frequency, the polarization spectra for E- and B-modes seem to be affected by Faraday rotation produced in compact foreground screens. A different behavior is shown by the angular spectrum of the polarized intensity PI=\\sqrt{Q^2+U^2}. This is well fitted by a power law with slope \\~1.7, which agrees with higher frequency results and can probably be more confidently extrapolated to the cosmological window.
Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions
Goetz, R Esteban; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P
2016-01-01
Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on e.g. charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.
Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions
Goetz, R. Esteban; Karamatskou, Antonia; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P.
2016-01-01
Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on, e.g., charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.
Correlation Functions and Power Spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jan
2006-01-01
The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...
Power spectra of solar convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, D.Y.; Labonte, B.J.; Braun, D.C.; Duvall, T.L., Jr. (Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (Republic of China) Hawaii, University, Honolulu (USA) NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))
1991-05-01
The properties of convective motions on the sun are studied using Kitt Peak Doppler images and power spectra of convection. The power peaks at a scale of about 29,000 km and drops off smoothly with wavenumber. There is no evidence of apparent energy excess at the scale of the mesogranulation proposed by other authors. The vertical and horizontal power for each wavenumber are obtained and used to calculate the vertical and horizontal velocities of the supergranulation. The amplitude of vertical and horizontal velocities of the supergranulation are 0.034 (+ or {minus} 0.002) km/s and 0.38 (+ or {minus} 0.01) km/s, respectively. The corresponding rms values are 0.024 (+ or {minus} 0.002) km/s and 0.27 (+ or {minus} 0.01) km/s. 25 refs.
Power spectra of solar convection
Chou, D.-Y.; Labonte, B. J.; Braun, D. C.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.
1991-01-01
The properties of convective motions on the sun are studied using Kitt Peak Doppler images and power spectra of convection. The power peaks at a scale of about 29,000 km and drops off smoothly with wavenumber. There is no evidence of apparent energy excess at the scale of the mesogranulation proposed by other authors. The vertical and horizontal power for each wavenumber are obtained and used to calculate the vertical and horizontal velocities of the supergranulation. The amplitude of vertical and horizontal velocities of the supergranulation are 0.034 (+ or - 0.002) km/s and 0.38 (+ or - 0.01) km/s, respectively. The corresponding rms values are 0.024 (+ or - 0.002) km/s and 0.27 (+ or - 0.01) km/s.
Spectra of heavy mesons with nonzero orbital angular momentum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boryu, V.Y.; Khokhlachev, S.B. (Institute of Cosmic Research, USSR Academy of Sciences (SU))
1989-06-01
We show that in a number of cases the asymptotic behavior of the Wilson loop average in QCD is sufficient for calculating the interaction Hamiltonian of heavy quarks. In this paper we calculate the levels of mesons with nonzero orbital angular momentum consisting of {ital c} and {ital b} quarks.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨圣
2015-01-01
big difference between the derived cosmic parameters and the actual counterparts. Therefore removing the systematic errors' effect for the LSS tracers on constraining primordial non-gaussianity is very meaningful so that we could get more real cosmic truth and know the early cosmology more clearly. In this paper, we will review the way how the CMB and LSS tracer's maps restrict on the cosmological parameters firstly and then we will disicuss about the systematic errors' effect on the observed angular power spectrum and also we introduce two important methods to remove the systematics. Finally, we will compare the modified parameter and the original one to discuss the goodness.
Impact of Wind Power on the Angular Stability of a Power System
Djemai NAIMI; Bouktir, Tarek
2008-01-01
Wind energy conversion systems are very different in nature from conventional generators. Therefore dynamic studies must be addressed in order to integrate wind power into the power system. Angular stability assessment of wind power generator is one of main issues in power system security and operation. The angular stability for the wind power generator is determined by its corresponding Critical Clearing Time (CCT). In this paper, the effect of wind power on the transient fault behavior is i...
A Three-Dimensional Angular Scattering Response Including Path Powers
Mammasis, Kostantinos; Santi, Paolo; Goulianos, Angelos
2011-01-01
In this paper the angular power spectrum exhibited under a three-dimensional (3-D) Gaussian scatter distribution at fixed observation points in space is investigated. Typically, these correspond to the mobile and base units respectively. Unlike other spatial channel models, the derived model accounts for the distance to each scatterer from the observation point and transforms distances into power values under the assumption of free-space propagation. The proposed 3-D spatial channel model fol...
Anticipating Non-Resonant New Physics in Dilepton Angular Spectra at the LHC
Raj, Nirmal
2016-01-01
At the LHC, dileptonic events may turn up new physics interacting with quarks and leptons. The poster child for this scenario is a resonant $Z'$, much anticipated in $\\ell^+ \\ell^-$ invariant mass spectra. However, angular spectra of dileptons may play an equal or stronger role in discovering a non-resonant species. This paper avails of their LHC measurements to corner the couplings and masses of leptoquarks (LQs), that can mediate $q \\bar{q} \\rightarrow \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ in the $t$-channel and dramatically alter Standard Model angular spectra. Also derived are constraints from alterations to $m_{\\ell \\ell}$ distributions. These dilepton probes, exploiting the high rates and small uncertainties of the Drell-Yan process, rival or outdo dedicated LHC searches for LQs in single and pair production modes. The couplings of LQs with electronic interactions are best bound today by low-energy measurements of atomic parity violation, but can be probed better by $\\ell^+ \\ell^-$ measurements in the high luminosity runs of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report summarizes experimental data of angular neutron flux spectra measured on the slab assemblies of fusion reactor candidate materials using the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) method. These experiments have been performed for graphite (carbon), beryllium and lithium-oxide. The obtained data are very suitable for the benchmark tests to check the nuclear data and calculational code systems. For use of that purpose, the experimental conditions, definitions of key terms and results obtained are compiled in figures and numerical tables. (author)
Measuring the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pollock, B. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaw, J. L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marsh, K. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ralph, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chen, Y. -H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alessi, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pak, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Clayton, C. E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2014-07-22
This paper presents a new technique to measure the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator. Measurements are performed with a stacked image plates spectrometer, capable of detecting broadband x-ray radiation up to 1 MeV. It can provide measurements of the betatron x-ray spectrum at any angle of observation (within a 40 mrad cone) and of the beam profile. A detailed description of our data analysis is given, along with comparison for several shots. As a result, these measurements provide useful information on the dynamics of the electrons are they are accelerated and wiggled by the wakefield.
Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lindholm, V.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 = 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained b...
Power spectra of outflow-driven turbulence
Moraghan, Anthony; Yoon, Suk-Jin
2015-01-01
We investigate the power spectra of outflow-driven turbulence through high-resolution three-dimensional isothermal numerical simulations where the turbulence is driven locally in real-space by a simple spherical outflow model. The resulting turbulent flow saturates at an average Mach number of ~2.5 and is analysed through density and velocity power spectra, including an investigation of the evolution of the solenoidal and compressional components. We obtain a shallow density power spectrum with a slope of ~-1.2 attributed to the presence of a network of localised dense filamentary structures formed by strong shock interactions. The total velocity power spectrum slope is found to be ~-2.0, representative of Burgers shock dominated turbulence model. The density weighted velocity power spectrum slope is measured as ~-1.6, slightly less than the expected Kolmogorov scaling value (slope of -5/3) found in previous works. The discrepancy may be caused by the nature of our real space driving model and we suggest ther...
Power calculation of linear and angular incremental encoders
Prokofev, Aleksandr V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Mednikov, Sergey V.; Sycheva, Elena A.
2016-04-01
Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and transmit the measured values back to the control unit. The capabilities of these systems are undergoing continual development in terms of their resolution, accuracy and reliability, their measuring ranges, and maximum speeds. This article discusses the method of power calculation of linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders, to find the optimum parameters for its components, such as light emitters, photo-detectors, linear and angular scales, optical components etc. It analyzes methods and devices that permit high resolutions in the order of 0.001 mm or 0.001°, as well as large measuring lengths of over 100 mm. In linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders optical beam is usually formulated by a condenser lens passes through the measuring unit changes its value depending on the movement of a scanning head or measuring raster. Past light beam is converting into an electrical signal by the photo-detecter's block for processing in the electrical block. Therefore, for calculating the energy source is a value of the desired value of the optical signal at the input of the photo-detecter's block, which reliably recorded and processed in the electronic unit of linear and angular incremental optoelectronic encoders. Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and
Adaptive power-controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) multicasting
Li, Shuhui; Wang, Jian
2015-01-01
We report feedback-assisted adaptive multicasting from a single Gaussian mode to multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single phase-only spatial light modulator loaded with a complex phase pattern. By designing and optimizing the complex phase pattern through the adaptive correction of feedback coefficients, the power of each multicast OAM channel can be arbitrarily controlled. We experimentally demonstrate power-controllable multicasting from a single Gaussian mode to two and six OAM modes with different target power distributions. Equalized power multicasting, “up-down” power multicasting and “ladder” power multicasting are realized in the experiment. The difference between measured power distributions and target power distributions is assessed to be less than 1 dB. Moreover, we demonstrate data-carrying OAM multicasting by employing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing 64-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM 64-QAM) signal. The measured bit-error rate curves and observed optical signal-to-noise ratio penalties show favorable operation performance of the proposed adaptive power-controllable OAM multicasting. PMID:25989251
Fast estimation of polarization power spectra using correlation functions
Chon, G; Prunet, S; Hivon, E; Szapudi, I; Chon, Gayoung; Challinor, Anthony; Prunet, Simon; Hivon, Eric; Szapudi, Istvan
2003-01-01
We present a fast method for estimating the cosmic microwave background polarization power spectra using unbiased estimates of heuristically-weighted correlation functions. This extends the O(N_pix^(3/2)) method of Szapudi et al. (2001) to polarized data. If the sky coverage allows the correlation functions to be estimated over the full range of angular separations, they can be inverted directly with integral transforms and clean separation of the electric (E) and magnetic (B) modes of polarization is obtained exactly in the mean. We assess the level of E-B mixing that arises from apodized integral transforms when the correlation function can only be estimated for a subset of angular scales, and show that it is significant for small-area observations. We introduce new estimators to deal with this case on the spherical sky that preserve E-B separation; their construction requires an additional integration of the correlation functions but the computational cost is negligible. We illustrate our methods with appl...
Bumpy Power Spectra and Galaxy Clusters
Knebe, A; Silk, J; Knebe, Alexander; Islam, Ranty; Silk, Joseph
2001-01-01
The evolution of the abundance of galaxy clusters is not a reliable measure of Omega if there are features on scales of a few Mpc in the primordial power spectrum. Conversely, if we know the cosmological model parameters from other measurements, the cluster abundance evolution permits us to probe features in the power spectrum that are in the nonlinear regime at the present epoch, and hence difficult to discern directly from current epoch measurements. We have investigated the influence of an artificially introduced Gaussian feature on an otherwise unperturbed SCDM power spectrum. Using these modified spectra as an input to cosmological N-body simulations, we are able to show that in terms of the cluster abundance evolution, a SCDM model displays characteristics similar to an OCDM model. However, strong modifications would also be visible at a redshift z=0 in the dark matter power spectrum whereas minor alterations to the usual SCDM spectrum are washed away by non-linear evolution effects. We therefore conclu...
Impact of Wind Power on the Angular Stability of a Power System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Djemai NAIMI
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Wind energy conversion systems are very different in nature from conventional generators. Therefore dynamic studies must be addressed in order to integrate wind power into the power system. Angular stability assessment of wind power generator is one of main issues in power system security and operation. The angular stability for the wind power generator is determined by its corresponding Critical Clearing Time (CCT. In this paper, the effect of wind power on the transient fault behavior is investigated by replacing the power generated by two main types of wind turbine, increasing gradually a rate of wind power penetration and changing the location of wind resources. The simulation analysis was established on a 14 bus IEEE test system by PSAT/Matlab, which gives access to an extensive library of grid components, and relevant wind turbine model.
Using the CMB angular power spectrum to study Dark Matter-photon interactions
Wilkinson, Ryan J; Boehm, Celine
2014-01-01
In this paper, we explore the impact of Dark Matter-photon interactions on the CMB angular power spectrum. Using the one-year data release of the Planck satellite, we derive an upper bound on the Dark Matter-photon elastic scattering cross section of sigma_{DM-photon} 500 and l > 3000 respectively, indicating that forthcoming data from CMB polarisation experiments and Planck could help to constrain and characterise the physics of the dark sector. This essentially initiates a new type of dark matter search that is independent of whether dark matter is annihilating, decaying or asymmetric. Thus, any CMB experiment with the ability to measure the temperature and/or polarisation power spectra at high l should be able to investigate the potential interactions of dark matter and contribute to our fundamental understanding of its nature.
Using the CMB angular power spectrum to study Dark Matter-photon interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilkinson, Ryan J.; Boehm, Céline [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Lesgourgues, Julien, E-mail: ryan.wilkinson@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch, E-mail: c.m.boehm@durham.ac.uk [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, CH-1015 (Switzerland)
2014-04-01
In this paper, we explore the impact of Dark Matter-photon interactions on the CMB angular power spectrum. Using the one-year data release of the Planck satellite, we derive an upper bound on the Dark Matter-photon elastic scattering cross section of σ{sub DM−γ} ≤ 8 × 10{sup −31} (m{sub DM}/GeV) cm{sup 2} (68% CL) if the cross section is constant and a present-day value of σ{sub DM−γ} ≤ 6 × 10{sup −40}(m{sub DM}/GeV) cm{sup 2} (68% CL) if it scales as the temperature squared. For such a limiting cross section, both the B-modes and the TT angular power spectrum are suppressed with respect to ΛCDM predictions for ℓ∼>500 and ℓ∼>3000 respectively, indicating that forthcoming data from CMB polarisation experiments and Planck could help to constrain and characterise the physics of the dark sector. This essentially initiates a new type of dark matter search that is independent of whether dark matter is annihilating, decaying or asymmetric. Thus, any CMB experiment with the ability to measure the temperature and/or polarisation power spectra at high ℓ should be able to investigate the potential interactions of dark matter and contribute to our fundamental understanding of its nature.
Using the CMB angular power spectrum to study Dark Matter-photon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we explore the impact of Dark Matter-photon interactions on the CMB angular power spectrum. Using the one-year data release of the Planck satellite, we derive an upper bound on the Dark Matter-photon elastic scattering cross section of σDM−γ ≤ 8 × 10−31 (mDM/GeV) cm2 (68% CL) if the cross section is constant and a present-day value of σDM−γ ≤ 6 × 10−40(mDM/GeV) cm2 (68% CL) if it scales as the temperature squared. For such a limiting cross section, both the B-modes and the TT angular power spectrum are suppressed with respect to ΛCDM predictions for ℓ∼>500 and ℓ∼>3000 respectively, indicating that forthcoming data from CMB polarisation experiments and Planck could help to constrain and characterise the physics of the dark sector. This essentially initiates a new type of dark matter search that is independent of whether dark matter is annihilating, decaying or asymmetric. Thus, any CMB experiment with the ability to measure the temperature and/or polarisation power spectra at high ℓ should be able to investigate the potential interactions of dark matter and contribute to our fundamental understanding of its nature
Pulsed power for angular multiplexed laser fusion drivers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The feasibility of using rare gas-halide lasers, in particular the KrF laser, as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers has been assessed. These lasers are scalable to the required high energy (approx. =1-5 MJ) in a short pulse (approx. =10 ns) by optical angular multiplexing, and integration of the output from approx. =100 kJ laser amplifier subsystems. The e-beam current density (approx. =50A/cm2) and voltage (approx. =800 kV) required for these power amplifiers lead to an e-beam impedance of approx. =0.2Ω for approx. =300 ns pump time. This impedance level requires modularization of the large area e-gun, a) to achieve a diode inductance consistent with fast current risetime, b) to circumvent dielectric breakdown constraints in the pulse forming lines, and c) to reduce the requirement for guide magnetic fields. Pulsed power systems requirements, design concepts, scalability, tradeoffs, and performance projections are discussed in this paper
Leistedt, Boris
2014-01-01
We present optimal measurements of the angular power spectrum of the XDQSOz catalogue of photometric quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These measurements rely on a quadratic maximum likelihood estimator that simultaneously measures the auto- and cross-power spectra of four redshift samples, and provides minimum-variance, unbiased estimates even at the largest angular scales. Since photometric quasars are known to be strongly affected by systematics such as spatially-varying depth and stellar contamination, we introduce a new framework of extended mode projection to robustly mitigate the impact of systematics on the power spectrum measurements. This technique involves constructing template maps of potential systematics, decorrelating them on the sky, and projecting out modes which are significantly correlated with the data. Our method is able to simultaneously process several thousands of nonlinearly-correlated systematics, and mode projection is performed in a blind fashion. Using our final power spe...
Constraints on massive neutrinos from the CFHTLS angular power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Jun-Qing [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Granett, Benjamin R.; Guzzo, Luigi [INAF — Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Brera (Italy); Viel, Matteo [INAF — Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Bird, Simeon [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Haehnelt, Martin G. [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Coupon, Jean [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); McCracken, Henry Joy; Mellier, Yannick, E-mail: xia@sissa.it, E-mail: ben.granett@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: spb@ias.edu, E-mail: luigi.guzzo@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: haehnelt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: coupon@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: hjmcc@iap.fr, E-mail: mellier@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Universitè Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)
2012-06-01
We use the galaxy angular power spectrum at z ∼ 0.5–1.2 from the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Legacy Survey Wide fields (CFHTLS-Wide) to constrain separately the total neutrino mass Σm{sub ν} and the effective number of neutrino species N{sub eff}. This survey has recently benefited from an accurate calibration of the redshift distribution, allowing new measurements of the (non-linear) matter power spectrum in a unique range of scales and redshifts sensitive to neutrino free streaming. Our analysis makes use of a recent model for the effect of neutrinos on the weakly non-linear matter power spectrum derived from accurate N-body simulations. We show that CFHTLS, combined with WMAP7 and a prior on the Hubble constant provides an upper limit of Σm{sub ν} < 0.29 eV and N{sub eff} = 4.17{sup +1.62}{sub −1.26} (2 σ confidence levels). If we omit smaller scales which may be affected by non-linearities, these constraints become Σm{sub ν} < 0.41 eV and N{sub eff} = 3.98{sup +2.02}{sub −1.20} (2 σ confidence levels). Finally we show that the addition of other large scale structures probes can further improve these constraints, demonstrating that high redshift large volumes surveys such as CFHTLS are complementary to other cosmological probes of the neutrino mass.
Angular Power Spectrum and Dilatonic Inflation in Modular-Invariant Supergravity
Hayashi, M J; Okame, Y; Watanabe, T; Hayashi, Mitsuo J.; Hirai, Shiro; Okame, Yusuke; Watanabe, Tomoki
2006-01-01
The angular power spectrum is investigated in the model of supergravity, incorporating the target-space duality and the non-perturbative gaugino condensation in the hidden sector. The inflation and supersymmetry breaking occur at once by the interplay between the dilaton field as inflaton and the condensate gauge-singlet field. The model satisfies the slow-roll condition which solves the \\eta-problem. When the particle rolls down along the minimized trajectory of the potential at a duality invariant fixed point T=1, we can obtain the e-fold value \\sim 57. And then the cosmological parameters obtained from our model well match with the recent WMAP data combined with other experiments. The TT and TE angular power spectra also show that our model is compatible with the data for l > 20. However, the best fit value of \\tau in our model is smaller than that of the \\Lambda CDM model. These results suggest that, among supergravity models of inflation, the modular-invariant supergravity seems to open a hope to constru...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arena, N.; Cavallaro, S.; Femino' , S.; Figuera, P.; Pirrone, S.; Porto, F.; Sambataro, S. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Universita di Messina, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania and Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud I-95129 Catania (Italy))
1991-11-01
Velocity spectra and angular and mass distributions for the evaporation residues of the {sup 32}S+{sup 12}C system at {ital E}{sup 32}S=145 MeV in the angular range 3{degree}{le}{var theta}{sub {ital L}}{le}12{degree} have been measured. In order to separate compound nucleus evaporation residues from other heavy reaction products, a kinematic analysis based on simple statistical assumptions relative to the velocity spectra was performed. The structures in the mass distribution are compared with the LILITA code predictions. The fusion excitation function of the existing results is compared with theoretical models. The total reaction cross section has been extracted by means of the modified sum of differences method.
The angular power spectrum of radio emission at 2.3 GHz
Giardino, G; Fosalba, P; Górski, K M; Jonas, J L; O'Mullane, W; Tauber, J A
2001-01-01
We have analysed the Rhodes/HartRAO survey at 2326 MHz and derived the global angular power spectrum of Galactic continuum emission. In order to measure the angular power spectrum of the diffuse component, point sources were removed from the map by median filtering. A least-square fit to the angular power spectrum of the entire survey with a power law spectrum C_l proportional to l^{-alpha}, gives alpha = 2.43 +/- 0.01 for l = 2-100. The angular power spectrum of radio emission appears to steepen at high Galactic latitudes and for observed regions with |b| > 20 deg, the fitted spectral index is alpha = 2.92 +/- 0.07. We have extrapolated this result to 30 GHz (the lowest frequency channel of Planck) and estimate that no significant contribution to the sky temperature fluctuation is likely to come from synchrotron at degree-angular scales
Full covariance of CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra
Peloton, Julien; Lewis, Antony; Carron, Julien; Zahn, Oliver
2016-01-01
CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra are powerful probes of cosmology. However they are correlated, since the CMB power spectra are lensed and the lensing reconstruction is constructed using CMB multipoles. We perform a full analysis of the auto- and cross-covariances, including polarization power spectra and minimum variance lensing estimators, and compare with simulations of idealized future CMB-S4 observations. Covariances sourced by fluctuations in the unlensed CMB and instrumental noise can largely be removed by using a realization-dependent subtraction of lensing reconstruction noise, leaving a relatively simple covariance model that is dominated by lensing-induced terms and well described by a small number of principal components. The correlations between the CMB and lensing power spectra will be detectable at the level of $\\sim 5\\sigma$ for a CMB-S4 mission, and neglecting those could underestimate some parameter error bars by several tens of percent. However we found that the inclusion of ext...
Non-flat power spectra in the CDM model
Semig, L V; Semig, Lutz V; Mueller, Volker
1995-01-01
Standard inflation with one scalar field produces primordial perturbations with a nearly flat ('Harrison-Zeldovich') power spectrum. Here we consider first, a double inflation spectrum, and second, a massive scalar field with an interaction potential which mimics an early quartic interaction, but fading away at a characteristic scale. We solve numerically the linear perturbation equations with initial conditions due to scalar field quantum fluctuations at the initial horizon crossing. The resulting power spectra are shown to be non-flat, exhibiting either a break or a valley. Using the transfer function of cold dark matter model we study the influence of the shape of primordial power spectra on observations of large scale structure in the universe. We compare the power spectra in redshift space with reconstructed power spectra from the IRAS catalogue. Further we discuss the variances of galaxy counts in cells, and the mass function of galaxy clusters. Comparison with standard CDM demonstrates the advantages a...
Information rates and power spectra of digital codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn
1982-01-01
is expressed in terms of the rate distortion function for a memoryless finite alphabet source and mean-square error distortion measure. A class of simple dc-free power spectra is considered in detail, and a method for constructing Markov sources with such spectra is derived. It is found that these sequences...
Redshift distortions in one-dimensional power spectra
Desjacques, V; Desjacques, Vincent; Nusser, Adi
2004-01-01
We present a model for one-dimensional (1D) matter power spectra in redshift space as estimated from data provided along individual lines of sight. We derive analytic expressions for these power spectra in the linear and nonlinear regimes, focusing on redshift distortions arising from peculiar velocities. In the linear regime, redshift distortions enhance the 1D power spectra only on small scales, and do not affect the power on large scales. This is in contrast to the effect of distortions on three-dimensional (3D) power spectra estimated from data in 3D space, where the enhancement is independent of scale. For CDM cosmologies, the 1D power spectra in redshift and real space are similar for wavenumbers $q<0.1h/Mpc$ where both have a spectral index close to unity, independent of the details of the 3D power spectrum. Nonlinear corrections drive the 1D power spectrum in redshift space into a nearly universal shape over scale $q<10h/Mpc$, and suppress the power on small scales as a result of the strong velo...
Angular power spectrum of sterile neutrino decay lines: the role of eROSITA
Zandanel, Fabio; Weniger, Christoph; Ando, Shin’ichiro
2016-05-01
We study the potential of the angular auto and cross-correlation power spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background in identifying sterile neutrino dark matter taking as reference the performances of the soon-to-be-launched eROSITA satellite. The main astrophysical background sources in this case are active galactic nuclei, galaxies powered by X-ray binaries, and clusters of galaxies. We show that while sterile neutrino decays are always subdominant in the autocorrelation power spectra, they can be efficiently enhanced when cross-correlating with tracers of the dark matter distribution. We estimate that the four-years eROSITA all-sky survey will potentially provide very stringent constraints on the sterile neutrino decay lifetime by cross-correlating the cosmic X-ray background with the 2MASS galaxy catalogue. This will allow to firmly test the recently claimed 3.56-keV X-ray line found towards several clusters and galaxies and its decaying dark matter interpretation. We finally stress that the main limitation of this approach is due to the shot noise of the galaxy catalogues used as tracers for the dark matter distribution, a limitation that we need to overcome to fully exploit the potential of the eROSITA satellite in this context.
Nonlinear Excitations in Inflationary Power Spectra
Miranda, Vinicius; He, Chen; Motohashi, Hayato
2016-01-01
We develop methods to calculate the curvature power spectrum in models where features in the inflaton potential nonlinearly excite modes and generate high frequency features in the spectrum. The first nontrivial effect of excitations generating further excitations arises at third order in deviations from slow roll. If these further excitations are contemporaneous, the series can be resummed, showing the exponential sensitivity of the curvature spectrum to potential features. More generally, this exponential approximation provides a power spectrum template which nonlinearly obeys relations between excitation coefficients and whose parameters may be appropriately adjusted. For a large sharp step in the potential, it greatly improves the analytic power spectrum template and its dependence on potential parameters. For axionic oscillations in the potential, it corrects the mapping between the potential and the amplitude, phase and zero point of the curvature oscillations, which might otherwise cause erroneous infe...
Power law in the angular velocity distribution of a granular needle
Piasecki, J.; Viot, P.
2005-01-01
We show how inelastic collisions induce a power law with exponent -3 in the decay of the angular velocity distribution of anisotropic particles with sufficiently small moment of inertia. We investigate this question within the Boltzmann kinetic theory for an elongated granular particle immersed in a bath. The power law persists so long as the collisions are inelastic for a large range of angular velocities provided the mass ratio of the anisotropic particle and the bath particles remains smal...
Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Soler, J. D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-02-01
The polarized thermal emission from diffuse Galactic dust is the main foreground present in measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at frequencies above 100 GHz. In this paper we exploit the uniqueness of the Planck HFI polarization data from 100 to 353 GHz to measure the polarized dust angular power spectra CℓEE and CℓBB over the multipole range 40 <ℓ< 600 well away from the Galactic plane. These measurements will bring new insights into interstellar dust physics and allow a precise determination of the level of contamination for CMB polarization experiments. Despite the non-Gaussian and anisotropic nature of Galactic dust, we show that general statistical properties of the emission can be characterized accurately over large fractions of the sky using angular power spectra. The polarization power spectra of the dust are well described by power laws in multipole, Cℓ ∝ ℓα, with exponents αEE,BB = -2.42 ± 0.02. The amplitudes of the polarization power spectra vary with the average brightness in a way similar to the intensity power spectra. The frequency dependence of the dust polarization spectra is consistent with modified blackbody emission with βd = 1.59 and Td = 19.6 K down to the lowest Planck HFI frequencies. We find a systematic difference between the amplitudes of the Galactic B- and E-modes, CℓBB/CℓEE = 0.5. We verify that these general properties are preserved towards high Galactic latitudes with low dust column densities. We show that even in the faintest dust-emitting regions there are no "clean" windows in the sky where primordial CMB B-mode polarization measurements could be made without subtraction of foreground emission. Finally, we investigate the level of dust polarization in the specific field recently targeted by the BICEP2 experiment. Extrapolation of the Planck 353 GHz data to 150 GHz gives a dust power 𝒟ℓBB ≡ ℓ(ℓ+1)CℓBB/(2π) of 1.32 × 10-2 μKCMB2 over the multipole range
Power spectra of active galactic nuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG TaiShan; WU YuXiang; LIU Yuan
2009-01-01
The power spectral densities (PSDs) for a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are analyzed in both the frequency domain and the time domain. We find for each object that for broadband noise a character timescale-bifurcation timescale of Fourier and time-domain PSD exists in the 103-106 s range,below which the time-domain power spectrum is systematically higher than the corresponding Fourier spectrum. The relationship between bifurcation timescale, AGN mass and luminosity is studied. Compared with the fact that similar phenomena have been found for Galactic black hole candidates (GBHs)with bifurcation timescale ～0.1 s but not for accreting neutron stars, our finding indicates that AGNs and GBHs have common intrinsic nature in rapid X-ray variability with a character time parameter scaled with their masses.
Power spectra of active galactic nuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The power spectral densities(PSDs)for a sample of active galactic nuclei(AGNs)are analyzed in both the frequency domain and the time domain.We find for each object that for broadband noise a character timescale-bifurcation timescale of Fourier and time-domain PSD exists in the 10 3 -10 6 s range, below which the time-domain power spectrum is systematically higher than the corresponding Fourier spectrum.The relationship between bifurcation timescale,AGN mass and luminosity is studied.Compared with the fact that similar phenomena have been found for Galactic black hole candidates(GBHs) with bifurcation timescale~0.1 s but not for accreting neutron stars,our finding indicates that AGNs and GBHs have common intrinsic nature in rapid X-ray variability with a character time parameter scaled with their masses.
Whole-body angular momentum during stair walking using passive and powered lower-limb prostheses.
Pickle, Nathaniel T; Wilken, Jason M; Aldridge, Jennifer M; Neptune, Richard R; Silverman, Anne K
2014-10-17
Individuals with a unilateral transtibial amputation have a greater risk of falling compared to able-bodied individuals, and falling on stairs can lead to serious injuries. Individuals with transtibial amputations have lost ankle plantarflexor muscle function, which is critical for regulating whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance. Recently, powered prostheses have been designed to provide active ankle power generation with the goal of restoring biological ankle function. However, the effects of using a powered prosthesis on the regulation of whole-body angular momentum are unknown. The purpose of this study was to use angular momentum to evaluate dynamic balance in individuals with a transtibial amputation using powered and passive prostheses relative to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent and descent. Ground reaction forces, external moment arms, and joint powers were also investigated to interpret the angular momentum results. A key result was that individuals with an amputation had a larger range of sagittal-plane angular momentum during prosthetic limb stance compared to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent. There were no significant differences in the frontal, transverse, or sagittal-plane ranges of angular momentum or maximum magnitude of the angular momentum vector between the passive and powered prostheses during stair ascent or descent. These results indicate that individuals with an amputation have altered angular momentum trajectories during stair walking compared to able-bodied individuals, which may contribute to an increased fall risk. The results also suggest that a powered prosthesis provides no distinct advantage over a passive prosthesis in maintaining dynamic balance during stair walking.
CMB power spectra from cosmic strings: predictions for the Planck satellite and beyond
Bevis, Neil; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon
2010-01-01
We present a significant improvement over our previous calculations of the cosmic string contribution to cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra, with particular focus on sub-WMAP angular scales. These smaller scales are relevant for the now-operational Planck satellite and additional sub-orbital CMB projects that have even finer resolutions. We employ larger Abelian Higgs string simulations than before and we additionally model and extrapolate the statistical measures from our simulations to smaller length scales. We then use an efficient means of including the extrapolations into our Einstein-Boltzmann calculations in order to yield accurate results over the multipole range 2 3000 in the case of the temperature power spectrum, which then allows cautious extrapolation to even smaller scales. We find that a string contribution to the temperature power spectrum making up 10% of power at l=10 would be larger than the Silk-damped primary adiabatic contribution for l > 3500. Astrophysical contributions s...
Estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K.; Buchhave, Preben
2014-01-01
The estimation of power spectra from LDA data provides signal processing challenges for fluid dynamicists for several reasons: acquisition is dictated by randomly arriving particles, the registered particle velocities tend to be biased toward higher values, and the signal is highly intermittent...... turbulent jet. These are compared with corresponding hot-wire spectra as well as to alternative algorithms for LDA signals such as the time-slot correlation method, sample-and-hold and common weighting schemes....
Excitation spectra of a Bose-Einstein condensate with an angular spin-orbit coupling
Vasić, Ivana; Balaž, Antun
2016-09-01
A theoretical model of a Bose-Einstein condensate with angular spin-orbit coupling has recently been proposed and it has been established that a half-skyrmion represents the ground state in a certain regime of spin-orbit coupling and interaction. Here we investigate low-lying excitations of this phase by using the Bogoliubov method and numerical simulations of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find that a sudden shift of the trap bottom results in a complex two-dimensional motion of the system's center of mass that is markedly different from the response of a competing phase, and comprises two dominant frequencies. Moreover, the breathing mode frequency of the half-skyrmion is set by both the spin-orbit coupling and the interaction strength, while in the competing state it takes a universal value. Effects of interactions are especially pronounced at the transition between the two phases.
Adiabatic regularisation of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation
Alinea, Allan L
2016-01-01
We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularisation on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in \\textit{nonminimally} coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the \\textit{minimally} coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of $ e $-folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularised power spectrum tends to the "bare" power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularised ("bare") power spectrum in standard calculations.
Adiabatic regularization of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation
Alinea, Allan L.
2016-10-01
We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularization on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the minimally coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of e -folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularized power spectrum tends to the ``bare'' power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularized (``bare'') power spectrum in standard calculations.
Applications and real life spectra in the power generation industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loading spectra encountered in various structures, machines, and components in the Power Generation Industry are presented from the viewpoint of fatigue analysis and structural integrity assessment. Although particular attention is paid to loading transients in turbo-generators, other items such as pressure vessels, pumped storage, nuclear plant pressure circuitry and wind turbines are also considered. (author)
Tang, Jiayu; Takada, Masahiro
2011-01-01
We develop a maximum likelihood based method of reconstructing the real-space density and velocity power spectra from the measured galaxy clustering in redshift space. Our method reconstructs band powers of the real-space power spectra, each of which depends on the redshift-space power spectrum with different powers of angular modulations mu^2n (n=0,1,2) at each wavenumber bins, including marginalization over uncertainties in the Fingers-of-God (FoG) effect. By using N-body simulations of 70 realizations and the halo catalogs, we test our method by comparing the reconstructed power spectra with the spectra directly measured from the simulations. We show that the method can well recover the power spectrum of mu^0, or equivalently the density power spectrum, up to k~0.3 h/Mpc to a few percent accuracies in amplitudes, for both dark matter and halos, if we assume an adequate functional form of the FoG effect. For the power spectrum of mu^2, which is closely related to the density-velocity power spectrum P_dv(k),...
The concept of mass angular scattering power and its relation to the diffusion constant
Sandison, G A
1998-01-01
An understanding of the scattering of high energy charged particle beams by tissue is required in radiotherapy since the particle trajectories determine the pattern of radiation dose deposition in patients. Numerical calculations of radiation dose often utilize energy dependent values of the angular scattering power. However, the physics literature is replete with confused interpretations of the concept of angular scattering power and its relation to the single scattering cross section for the medium or the diffusion constant in the diffusional limit. The purpose of this article is to clarify these notions.
Low Power Compact Radio Galaxies at High Angular Resolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, G.; /Bologna U. /Bologna, Ist. Radioastronomia; Taylor, G.B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NRAO, Socorro
2005-06-30
We present sub-arcsecond resolution multi-frequency (8 and 22 GHz) VLA images of five low power compact (LPC) radio sources, and phase referenced VLBA images at 1.6 GHz of their nuclear regions. At the VLA resolution we resolve the structure and identify component positions and flux densities. The phase referenced VLBA data at 1.6 GHz reveals flat-spectrum, compact cores (down to a few milliJansky) in four of the five sources. The absolute astrometry provided by the phase referencing allows us to identify the center of activity on the VLA images. Moreover, these data reveal rich structures, including two-sided jets and secondary components. On the basis of the arcsecond scale structures and of the nuclear properties, we rule out the presence of strong relativistic effects in our LPCs, which must be intrinsically small (deprojected linear sizes {approx}< 10 kpc). Fits of continuous injection models reveal break frequencies in the GHz domain, and ages in the range 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} yrs. In LPCs, the outermost edge may be advancing more slowly than in more powerful sources or could even be stationary; some LPCs might also have ceased their activity. In general, the properties of LPCs can be related to a number of reasons, including, but not limited to: youth, frustration, low kinematic power jets, and short-lived activity in the radio.
Efficient estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K
2010-01-01
The estimation of power spectra from LDA data provides signal processing challenges for fluid dynamicists for several reasons. Acquisition is dictated by randomly arriving particles which cause the signal to be highly intermittent. This both creates self-noise and causes the measured velocities...... requirements for good statistical convergence due to the random sampling of the data. In the present work, the theory for estimating burst-mode LDA spectra using residence time weighting is discussed and a practical estimator is derived and applied. A brief discussion on the self-noise in spectra...... and correlations is included, as well as one regarding the statistical convergence of the spectral estimator for random sampling. Further, the basic representation of the burst-mode LDA signal has been revisited due to observations in recent years of particles not following the flow (e.g., particle clustering...
Slow-roll inflation and BB-mode angular power spectrum of CMB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malsawmtluangi, N.; Suresh, P.K. [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India)
2016-05-15
The BB-mode correlation angular power spectrum of CMB is obtained by considering the primordial gravitational waves in the squeezed vacuum state for various inflationary models and results are compared with the joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck 353 GHz data. The present results may constrain several models of inflation. (orig.)
Bayesian modeling and significant features exploration in wavelet power spectra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. V. Divine
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This study proposes and justifies a Bayesian approach to modeling wavelet coefficients and finding statistically significant features in wavelet power spectra. The approach utilizes ideas elaborated in scale-space smoothing methods and wavelet data analysis. We treat each scale of the discrete wavelet decomposition as a sequence of independent random variables and then apply Bayes' rule for constructing the posterior distribution of the smoothed wavelet coefficients. Samples drawn from the posterior are subsequently used for finding the estimate of the true wavelet spectrum at each scale. The method offers two different significance testing procedures for wavelet spectra. A traditional approach assesses the statistical significance against a red noise background. The second procedure tests for homoscedasticity of the wavelet power assessing whether the spectrum derivative significantly differs from zero at each particular point of the spectrum. Case studies with simulated data and climatic time-series prove the method to be a potentially useful tool in data analysis.
Piezoelectric generator based on torsional modes for power harvesting from angular vibrations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zi-guang; HU Yuan-tai; YANG Jia-shi
2007-01-01
Torsional vibration of a circular piezoelectric shell of polarized ceramics mounted on a rotationally vibrating base is analyzed. The shell is properly electroded and connected to a circuit such that an electric output is generated. The structure analyzed represents a piezoelectric generator for converting mechanical energy from angular vibrations to electrical energy. Analytical expressions and numerical results for the output voltage, current, power, efficiency and power density are given.
Issues concerning loop corrections to the primordial power spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miao, S.P. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
2012-07-01
We expound ten principles in an attempt to clarify the debate over infrared loop corrections to the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra from inflation. Among other things we note that existing proposals for nonlinear extensions of the scalar fluctuation field ζ introduce new ultraviolet divergences which no one understands how to renormalize. Loop corrections and higher correlators of these putative observables would also be enhanced by inverse powers of the slow roll parameter ε. We propose an extension which should be better behaved.
Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Heavens, A. F.
2015-12-01
We present an optimized variant of the halo model, designed to produce accurate matter power spectra well into the non-linear regime for a wide range of cosmological models. To do this, we introduce physically motivated free parameters into the halo-model formalism and fit these to data from high-resolution N-body simulations. For a variety of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and wCDM models, the halo-model power is accurate to ≃ 5 per cent for k ≤ 10h Mpc-1 and z ≤ 2. An advantage of our new halo model is that it can be adapted to account for the effects of baryonic feedback on the power spectrum. We demonstrate this by fitting the halo model to power spectra from the OWLS (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations) hydrodynamical simulation suite via parameters that govern halo internal structure. We are able to fit all feedback models investigated at the 5 per cent level using only two free parameters, and we place limits on the range of these halo parameters for feedback models investigated by the OWLS simulations. Accurate predictions to high k are vital for weak-lensing surveys, and these halo parameters could be considered nuisance parameters to marginalize over in future analyses to mitigate uncertainty regarding the details of feedback. Finally, we investigate how lensing observables predicted by our model compare to those from simulations and from HALOFIT for a range of k-cuts and feedback models and quantify the angular scales at which these effects become important. Code to calculate power spectra from the model presented in this paper can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmological Parameters from the 2008 Power Spectra
Dunkley, J; Sievers, J; Acquaviva, V; Ade, P A R; Aguirre, P; Amiri, M; Appel, J W; Barrientos, L F; Battistelli, E S; Bond, J R; Brown, B; Burger, B; Chervenak, J; Das, S; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S R; Doriese, W Bertrand; Dunner, R; Essinger-Hileman, T; Fisher, R P; Fowler, J W; Hajian, A; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Hilton, G C; Hilton, M; Hincks, A D; Huffenberger, K M; Hughes, D H; Hughes, J P; Infante, L; Irwin, K D; Juin, J B; Kaul, M; Klein, J; Kosowsky, A; Lau, J M; Limon, M; Lin, Y-T; Lupton, R H; Marriage, T A; Marsden, D; Mauskopf, P; Menanteau, F; Moodley, K; Moseley, H; Netterfield, C B; Niemack, M D; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L; Partridge, B; Reid, B; Sehgal, N; Sherwin, B; Spergel, D N; Staggs, S T; Swetz, D S; Switzer, E R; Thornton, R; Trac, H; Tucker, C; Warne, R; Wollack, E; Zhao, Y
2010-01-01
We present cosmological parameters derived from the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz and 218 GHz over 296 deg^2 with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) during its 2008 season. ACT measures fluctuations at scales 500
Foregrounds in Wide-Field Redshifted 21 cm Power Spectra
Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Bowman, Judd D; Barry, N; Beardsley, A P; Bernardi, G; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Carroll, P; Corey, B E; de Oliveira-Costa, A; Dillon, Joshua S; Emrich, D; Ewall-Wice, A; Feng, L; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hewitt, J N; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kim, Han-Seek; Kittiwisit, P; Kratzenberg, E; Lenc, E; Line, J; Loeb, A; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Neben, A R; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Paul, Sourabh; Pindor, B; Pober, J C; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Shankar, N Udaya; Sethi, Shiv K; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Sullivan, I S; Tegmark, M; Tingay, S J; Trott, C M; Waterson, M; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wu, C; Wyithe, J S B
2015-01-01
Detection of 21 cm emission of HI from the epoch of reionization, at redshifts z>6, is limited primarily by foreground emission. We investigate the signatures of wide-field measurements and an all-sky foreground model using the delay spectrum technique that maps the measurements to foreground object locations through signal delays between antenna pairs. We demonstrate interferometric measurements are inherently sensitive to all scales, including the largest angular scales, owing to the nature of wide-field measurements. These wide-field effects are generic to all observations but antenna shapes impact their amplitudes substantially. A dish-shaped antenna yields the most desirable features from a foreground contamination viewpoint, relative to a dipole or a phased array. Comparing data from recent Murchison Widefield Array observations, we demonstrate that the foreground signatures that have the largest impact on the HI signal arise from power received far away from the primary field of view. We identify diffu...
Estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra
Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K.; Buchhave, Preben
2014-03-01
The estimation of power spectra from LDA data provides signal processing challenges for fluid dynamicists for several reasons: acquisition is dictated by randomly arriving particles, the registered particle velocities tend to be biased toward higher values, and the signal is highly intermittent. The signal can be interpreted correctly by applying residence time weighting to all statistics and using the residence time-weighted discrete Fourier transform to compute the Fourier transform. A new spectral algorithm using the latter is applied to two experiments: a cylinder wake and an axisymmetric turbulent jet. These are compared with corresponding hot-wire spectra as well as to alternative algorithms for LDA signals such as the time-slot correlation method, sample-and-hold and common weighting schemes.
Running from Features: Optimized Evaluation of Inflationary Power Spectra
Motohashi, Hayato
2015-01-01
In models like axion monodromy, temporal features during inflation which are not associated with its ending can produce scalar, and to a lesser extent, tensor power spectra where deviations from scale-free power law spectra can be as large as the deviations from scale invariance itself. Here the standard slow-roll approach breaks down since its parameters evolve on an efolding scale $\\Delta N$ much smaller than the efolds to the end of inflation. Using the generalized slow-roll approach, we show that the expansion of observables in a hierarchy of potential or Hubble evolution parameters comes from a Taylor expansion of the features around an evaluation point that can be optimized. Optimization of the leading order expression provides a sufficiently accurate approximation for current data as long as the power spectrum can be described over the well-observed few efolds by the local tilt and running. Standard second order approaches, often used in the literature, ironically are worse than leading order approache...
Cosmology in one dimension: fractal geometry, power spectra and correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Concentrations of matter, such as galaxies and galactic clusters, originated as very small density fluctuations in the early universe. The existence of galaxy clusters and super-clusters suggests that a natural scale for the matter distribution may not exist. A point of controversy is whether the distribution is fractal and, if so, over what range of scales. One-dimensional models demonstrate that the important dynamics for cluster formation occur in the position–velocity plane. Here the development of scaling behavior and multifractal geometry is investigated for a family of one-dimensional models for three different, scale-free, initial conditions. The methodology employed includes: (1) the derivation of explicit solutions for the gravitational potential and field for a one-dimensional system with periodic boundary conditions (Ewald sums for one dimension); (2) the development of a procedure for obtaining scale-free initial conditions for the growing mode in phase space for an arbitrary power-law index; (3) the evaluation of power spectra, correlation functions, and generalized fractal dimensions at different stages of the system evolution. It is shown that a simple analytic representation of the power spectra captures the main features of the evolution, including the correct time dependence of the crossover from the linear to nonlinear regime and the transition from regular to fractal geometry. A possible physical mechanism for understanding the self-similar evolution is introduced. It is shown that hierarchical cluster formation depends both on the model and on the initial power spectrum. Under special circumstances a simple relation between the power spectrum, correlation function, and correlation dimension in the highly nonlinear regime is confirmed
Reduction of noise and bias in randomly sampled power spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara Marika
2015-01-01
by modifications of the ideal Poisson sample rate caused by dead time effects and correlations between velocity and sample rate. The noise and dead time effects for finite records are shown to tend to previous results for infinite time records and ensemble averages. For finite records, we show that the measured......We consider the origin of noise and distortion in power spectral estimates of randomly sampled data, specifically velocity data measured with a burst-mode laser Doppler anemometer. The analysis guides us to new ways of reducing noise and removing spectral bias, e.g., distortions caused...... sampling function can be used to correct the spectra for noise and dead time effects by a deconvolution process. We also describe a novel version of a power spectral estimator based on a fast slotted autocovariance algorithm....
Diagnosis of power generator sets by analyzing the crank shaft angular speed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis deals with the diagnosis of a powerful 20-cylinder diesel engine which runs a generator set in a nuclear plant. The objective is to make a diagnosis by analyzing the crank shaft angular speed variations. Only combustion related faults are investigated. As the engine is very large, the first crank shaft natural modes are in the low frequencies. Torsional vibrations of the flexible crank shaft strongly complicate the analysis of the angular speed variations. Little attention has been paid to such large engines in the literature. First, a dynamical model with the assumption of a flexible crank shaft is established. The parameters of the model are optimized with the help of actual data. Then, an original automated diagnosis based on pattern recognition of the angular speed waveforms is proposed. Indeed, any faulty cylinder in combustion stroke will distort the angular speed waveform in a specific way which depends on its location with respect to nodes and anti-nodes of the modes. Reference patterns, representative of the engine conditions, are computed with the model constituting the main originality of this work. Promising results are obtained in operational phase. An experimental fuel leakage fault was correctly diagnosed, including detection and localization of the faulty cylinder and an indication of the severity of the fault. (author)
Jeon, Jong Ho; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Kim, Hyung Taek; Rhee, Yong Joo; Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Shin, Jung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ju; Jo, Sung Ha; Shin, Kang Woo; Hojbota, Calin; Bae, Lee Jin; Jung, Jaehyung; Cho, Min Sang; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Cho, Byoung Ick; Choi, Il Woo; Nam, Chang Hee
2016-07-01
Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays radiated by GeV electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) are presented. The angle-resolved spectrum of betatron radiation was deconvolved from the position dependent data measured for a single laser shot with a broadband gamma-ray spectrometer comprising four-quadrant sectored range filters and an unfolding algorithm, based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The unfolded gamma-ray spectra in the photon energy range of 0.1-10 MeV revealed an approximately isotropic angular dependence of the peak photon energy and photon energy-integrated fluence. As expected by the analysis of betatron radiation from LWFAs, the results indicate that unpolarized gamma-rays are emitted by electrons undergoing betatron motion in isotropically distributed orbit planes.
WIND TURBINE SIMULATION FOR TIME-DEPENDENT ANGULAR VELOCITY, TORQUE, AND POWER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YONGHO LEE
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Albeit the prediction of time-dependent properties of wind turbines is not required for common applications, such time-varying properties may play an important role during transient operations occurring due to various reasons. Unlike the conventional numerical simulations of wind turbine rotations that fix the angular velocity to an assumed value, the present work numerically simulates the time-varying turbine rotation in both unsteady and quasi-steady operation regimes, without specifying the angular velocity of the turbine a priori, but by calculating the actual time-dependent angular velocity and aerodynamic torque along with other properties in the course of simulation. In the present work, successful results obtained by an efficient computational fluid dynamics technique are shown, as a demonstration, for a vertical-axis wind turbine with a two-dimensionalSavonius rotor, and the cycle-averaged output powers are compared with experimental power curves and a theory developed on the basis of experimental observations.
Javahiraly, Nicolas; Chakari, Ayoub
2013-05-01
To achieve a very effective automotive power steering system, we need two important data, the angular position of the wheel and the torque applied on the shaft by the driver of the car. We present a new accurate optical fiber angular position sensor connected to an automotive power steering column. In this new design, the sensor allows the measurement of the angular position of a car steering wheel over a large and adjustable range (± several turns of the wheel). The wheel rotation induces micro-bending in the transducer part of the optical fiber sensing system. This system operates as an amplitude modulation sensor based on mode coupling in the transducing fiber in the case when all the modes are equally excited. We study the sensor response both theoretically and experimentally with a multimode step index optical fiber [rf (fiber radius) = 300 μm rc (core radius) = 50 μm nc (core index) = 1,457; N.A. = 0, 22 and the wavelength is 632,8 nm at the ambient Temperature (20°C)]. We show that the sensitivity can be controlled as a function of the sensor's length. We compare modeling and experimental validation and we conclude with a perspective on what could soon be an industrial sensor.
Ebersole, K T; Housh, T J; Weir, J P; Johnson, G O; Evetovich, T K; Smith, D B
2000-01-01
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of leg angular velocity on the mean power frequency (MPF) and amplitude of the mechanomyographic (MMG) signal during maximal concentric (CON) isokinetic muscle actions. Sixteen adult subjects performed maximal CON leg extensions on a calibrated Cybex 6000 dynamometer at leg angular velocities of 60 and 300 degrees.s-1. MMG was detected by a piezoelectric crystal contact sensor placed over the mid-portion of the vastus lateralis muscle. The results indicated a significant (p 0.05) in MMG MPF. These findings did not support our hypothesis that increases across velocity in MMG amplitude were due to decreases in muscle stiffness as a result of a shift in the contribution of slow and fast-twitch muscle fibers to PT production. Future research should examine the potential influence of actin-myosin cycling rate as well as limb movement on the MPF and amplitude of the MMG signal. PMID:10782358
The Effect of Interplanetary Scintillation on Epoch of Reionization Power Spectra
Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.
2015-11-01
Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) induces intensity fluctuations in small angular size astronomical radio sources via the distortive effects of spatially and temporally varying electron density associated with outflows from the Sun. These radio sources are a potential foreground contaminant signal for redshifted HI emission from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) because they yield time-dependent flux density variations in bright extragalactic point sources. Contamination from foreground continuum sources complicates efforts to discriminate the cosmological signal from other sources in the sky. In IPS, at large angles from the Sun applicable to EoR observations, weak scattering induces spatially and temporally correlated fluctuations in the measured flux density of sources in the field, potentially affecting the detectability of the EoR signal by inducing non-static variations in the signal strength. In this work, we explore the impact of interplanetary weak scintillation on EoR power spectrum measurements, accounting for the instrumental spatial and temporal sampling. We use published power spectra of electron density fluctuations and parameters of EoR experiments to derive the IPS power spectrum in the wavenumber phase space of EoR power spectrum measurements. The contrast of IPS power to expected cosmological power is used as a metric to assess the impact of IPS. We show that IPS has a spectral structure different from power from foregrounds alone, but the additional leakage into the EoR observation parameter space is negligible under typical IPS conditions, unless data are used from deep within the foreground contamination region.
Cosmological flux noise and measured noise power spectra in SQUIDs
Beck, Christian
2016-01-01
The understanding of the origin of 1/f magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDs and qubits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we discuss the possibility that a significant part of the observed low-frequency flux noise measured in these devices is ultimately seeded by cosmological fluctuations. We consider a theory where a primordial flux noise field left over in unchanged form from an early inflationary or quantum gravity epoch of the universe intrinsically influences the phase difference in SQUIDs and qubits. The perturbation seeds generated by this field can explain in a quantitatively correct way the form and amplitude of measured low-frequency flux noise spectra in SQUID devices if one takes as a source of fluctuations the primordial power spectrum of curvature fluctuations as measured by the Planck collaboration. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe. PMID:27320418
Cosmological flux noise and measured noise power spectra in SQUIDs
Beck, Christian
2016-06-01
The understanding of the origin of 1/f magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDs and qubits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we discuss the possibility that a significant part of the observed low-frequency flux noise measured in these devices is ultimately seeded by cosmological fluctuations. We consider a theory where a primordial flux noise field left over in unchanged form from an early inflationary or quantum gravity epoch of the universe intrinsically influences the phase difference in SQUIDs and qubits. The perturbation seeds generated by this field can explain in a quantitatively correct way the form and amplitude of measured low-frequency flux noise spectra in SQUID devices if one takes as a source of fluctuations the primordial power spectrum of curvature fluctuations as measured by the Planck collaboration. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe.
Individual power density spectra of Swift gamma-ray bursts
Guidorzi, C; Amati, L
2016-01-01
Timing analysis is a powerful tool with which to shed light on the still obscure emission physics and geometry of the prompt emission of GRBs. Fourier power density spectra (PDS) characterise time series as stochastic processes and can be used to search for coherent pulsations and to investigate the dominant variability timescales. Because of the limited duration and of the statistical properties, modelling the PDS of individual GRBs is challenging, and only average PDS of large samples have been discussed in the literature. We characterise the individual PDS of GRBs in terms of a stochastic process, and carry out for the first time a systematic search for periodic signals and for a link between the PDS and other observables. We present a Bayesian procedure that uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique and apply it to study 215 bright long GRBs detected with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope from January 2005 to May 2015. The PDS are modelled with a power-law either with or without a break. Two classes of GRBs...
Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bracco, A; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; d'Orfeuil, B Rouillé; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Soler, J D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; White, M; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2016-01-01
The polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust is the main foreground present in measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at frequencies above 100GHz. We exploit the Planck HFI polarization data from 100 to 353GHz to measure the dust angular power spectra $C_\\ell^{EE,BB}$ over the range $40<\\ell<600$. These will bring new insights into interstellar dust physics and a precise determination of the level of contamination for CMB polarization experiments. We show that statistical properties of the emission can be characterized over large fractions of the sky using $C_\\ell$. For the dust, they are well described by power laws in $\\ell$ with exponents $\\alpha^{EE,BB}=-2.42\\pm0.02$. The amplitudes of the polarization $C_\\ell$ vary with the average brightness in a way similar to the intensity ones. The dust polarization frequency dependence is consistent with modified blackbody emission with $\\beta_d=1.59$ and $T_d=19.6$K. We find a systematic ratio between the amplitudes of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this study is to provide detailed characteristics of incident photon beams for different field sizes and beam energies. This information is critical to the future development of accurate treatment planning systems. It also enhances our knowledge of radiotherapy photon beams. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code, BEAM, has been used to simulate 6 and 18 MV photon beams from a Varian Clinac-2100EX accelerator. A simulated realistic beam is stored in a phase space data file, which contains details of each particle's complete history including where it has been and where it has interacted. The phase space files are analysed to obtain energy spectra, angular distribution, fluence profile and mean energy profiles at the phantom surface for particles separated according to their charge and history. The accuracy of a simulated beam is validated by the excellent agreement between the Monte Carlo calculated and measured dose distributions. Measured depth-dose curves are obtained from depth-ionization curves by accounting for newly introduced chamber fluence corrections and the stopping-power ratios for realistic beams. The study presents calculated depth-dose components from different particles as well as calculated surface dose and contribution from different particles to surface dose across the field. It is shown that the increase of surface dose with the increase of the field size is mainly due to the increase of incident contaminant charged particles. At 6 MV, the incident charged particles contribute 7% to 21% of maximum dose at the surface when the field size increases from 10x10 to 40x40 cm2. At 18 MV, their contributions are up to 11% and 29% of maximum dose at the surface for 10x10 cm2 and 40x40 cm2 fields respectively. However, the fluence of these incident charged particles is less than 1% of incident photon fluence in all cases. (author)
The CMBR ISW and HI 21-cm Cross-correlation Angular Power Spectrum
Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha; Bharadwaj, Somnath
2008-01-01
The late-time growth of large scale structures (LSS) is imprinted in the CMBR anisotropy through the Integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect. This is perceived to be a very important observational probe of dark energy. Future observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution hold the potential of probing the LSS over a large redshift range. We have investigated the possibility of detecting the ISW through cross-correlations between the CMBR anisotropies and redshifted 21-cm observations. Assuming that the HI traces the dark matter, we find that the ISW-HI cross-correlation angular power spectrum at an angular multipole l is proportional to the dark matter power spectrum evaluated at the comoving wave number l/r, where r is the comoving distance to the redshift from which the HI signal originated. The amplitude of the cross-correlation signal depends on parameters related to the HI distribution and the growth of cosmological perturbations. However the cross-correla...
Fornasa, Mattia; Zavala, Jesus; Gaskins, Jennifer M; Sanchez-Conde, Miguel A; Gomez-Vargas, German; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Linden, Tim; Prada, Francisco; Zandanel, Fabio; Morselli, Aldo
2016-01-01
The isotropic gamma-ray background arises from the contribution of unresolved sources, including members of confirmed source classes and proposed gamma-ray emitters such as the radiation induced by dark matter annihilation and decay. Clues about the properties of the contributing sources are imprinted in the anisotropy characteristics of the gamma-ray background. We use 81 months of Pass 7 Reprocessed data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to perform a measurement of the anisotropy angular power spectrum of the gamma-ray background. We analyze energies between 0.5 and 500 GeV, extending the range considered in the previous measurement based on 22 months of data. We also compute, for the first time, the cross-correlation angular power spectrum between different energy bins. We find that the derived angular spectra are compatible with being Poissonian, i.e. constant in multipole. Moreover, the energy dependence of the anisotropy suggests that the signal is due to two populations of sources, contributing, resp...
Power Spectra, Power Law Exponents, and Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence at Small Scales
Podesta, J. J.; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.
2006-01-01
The Wind spacecraft provides simultaneous solar wind velocity and magnetic field measurements with 3- second time resolution, roughly an order of magnitude faster than previous measurements, enabling the small scale features of solar wind turbulence to be studied in unprecedented detail. Almost the entire inertial range can now be explored (the inertial range extends from approximately 1 to 10(exp 3) seconds in the spacecraft frame) although the dissipation range of the velocity fluctuations is still out of reach. Improved measurements of solar wind turbulence spectra at 1 AU in the ecliptic plane are presented including spectra of the energy and cross-helicity, the magnetic and kinetic energies, the Alfven ratio, the normalized cross-helicity, and the Elsasser ratio. Some recent observations and theoretical challenges are discussed including the observation that the velocity and magnetic field spectra often show different power law exponents with values close to 3/2 and 5/3, respectively; the energy (kinetic plus magnetic) and cross-helicity often have approximately equal power law exponents with values intermediate between 3/2 and 5/3; and the Alfven ratio, the ratio of the kinetic to magnetic energy spectra, is often a slowly increasing function of frequency increasing from around 0.4 to 1 for frequencies in the inertial range. Differences between high- and low-speed wind are also discussed. Comparisons with phenomenological turbulence theories show that important aspects of the physics are yet unexplained.
Individual power density spectra of Swift gamma-ray bursts
Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Amati, L.
2016-05-01
Context. Timing analysis can be a powerful tool with which to shed light on the still obscure emission physics and geometry of the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Fourier power density spectra (PDS) characterise time series as stochastic processes and can be used to search for coherent pulsations and, more in general, to investigate the dominant variability timescales in astrophysical sources. Because of the limited duration and of the statistical properties involved, modelling the PDS of individual GRBs is challenging, and only average PDS of large samples have been discussed in the literature thus far. Aims: We aim at characterising the individual PDS of GRBs to describe their variability in terms of a stochastic process, to explore their variety, and to carry out for the first time a systematic search for periodic signals and for a link between PDS properties and other GRB observables. Methods: We present a Bayesian procedure that uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique and apply it to study the individual PDS of 215 bright long GRBs detected with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope in the 15-150 keV band from January 2005 to May 2015. The PDS are modelled with a power-law either with or without a break. Results: Two classes of GRBs emerge: with or without a unique dominant timescale. A comparison with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reveals similar distributions of PDS slopes. Unexpectedly, GRBs with subsecond-dominant timescales and duration longer than a few tens of seconds in the source frame appear to be either very rare or altogether absent. Three GRBs are found with possible evidence for a periodic signal at 3.0-3.2σ (Gaussian) significance, corresponding to a multi-trial chance probability of ~1%. Thus, we found no compelling evidence for periodic signal in GRBs. Conclusions: The analogy between the PDS of GRBs and of AGNs could tentatively indicate similar stochastic processes that rule BH accretion across different BH mass scales and objects
The 2MASS galaxy angular power spectrum: Probing the galaxy distribution to Gigaparsec scales
Frith, W J
2005-01-01
We present an angular power spectrum analysis of the 2MASS full release extended source catalogue. The main sample used includes 518,576 galaxies below an extinction-corrected magnitude of K=13.5 and limited to |b|>20. The power spectrum results provide an estimate of the galaxy density fluctuations at extremely large scales, r50 Mpc). We obtain constraints on the galaxy power spectrum shape of Gamma=0.14+/-0.02, in good agreement with previous estimates inferred at smaller scales. We also constrain the galaxy power spectrum normalisation to sigma_8 b^2=1.36+/-0.10; in combination with previous constraints on sigma_8 we infer a K-band bias of b=1.27+/-0.04. We are also able to provide weak constraints on Omega_m h and Omega_b/Omega_m. These results are based on the usual assumption that the errors derived from the Hubble Volume mocks are applicable to all other models. If we instead assume that the error is proportional to the C_l amplitude then the constraints weaken; for example it becomes more difficult to...
Development of probabilistic floor spectra for Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The procedure used in this study for generating probabilistic floor response spectra follows the methodology developed under seismic safety margins research program (SSMRP) conducted in the beginning of eighties in the U.S. This approach will provide a complete description of seismic environment for equipment and piping and can be used directly in seismic PSA studies. The end result of the study will be mean and mean-plus-one-standard-deviation amplified response spectra in selected nodal points in the structure. In seismic PSAs, the uncertainty in structural response is required and this is given by mean and mean-plus-one-standard-deviation response spectra. In the procedure for probabilistic floor spectra generation there are five main tasks, namely, the development of control motion; the development of soil and structural models; the latin hypercube sampling for setting up the input values for each earthquake simulation and the last step is the actual response analysis. (author)
Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study
Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas
2011-01-01
This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Tong
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Photoacoustic Doppler (PAD power spectra showing an evident Doppler shift represent the major characteristics of the continuous wave-excited or burst wave-excited versions of PAD flow measurements. In this paper, the flow angle dependences of the PAD power spectra are investigated using an experiment setup that was established based on intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation. The setup has an overall configuration that is similar to a previously reported configuration, but is more sophisticated in that it accurately aligns the laser illumination with the ultrasound detection process, and in that it picks up the correct sample position. In the analysis of the power spectra data, we find that the background power spectra can be extracted by combining the output signals from the two channels of the lock-in amplifier, which is very useful for identification of the PAD power spectra. The power spectra are presented and analyzed in opposite flow directions, at different flow speeds, and at different flow angles. The power spectra at a 90° flow angle show the unique properties of symmetrical shapes due to PAD broadening. For the other flow angles, the smoothed power spectra clearly show a flow angle cosine relationship.
A Chandra Study of the Image Power Spectra of 41 Cool Core and Non-Cool Core Galaxy Clusters
Zhang, Chenhao; Zhu, Zhenghao; Li, Weitian; Hu, Dan; Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; Gu, Liyi; Zhang, Zhongli; Liu, Chengze; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Xiang-Ping
2016-01-01
In this work we propose a new diagnostic to segregate cool core (CC) clusters from non-cool core (NCC) clusters by studying the two-dimensional power spectra of the X-ray images observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory. Our sample contains 41 members ($z=0.01\\sim 0.54$), which are selected from the Chandra archive when a high photon count, an adequate angular resolution, a relatively complete detector coverage, and coincident CC-NCC classifications derived with three traditional diagnostics are simultaneously guaranteed. We find that in the log-log space the derived image power spectra can be well represented by a constant model component at large wavenumbers, while at small wavenumbers a power excess beyond the constant component appears in all clusters, with a clear tendency that the excess is stronger in CC clusters. By introducing a new CC diagnostic parameter, i.e., the power excess index (PEI), we classify the clusters in our sample and compare the results with those obtained with three traditional C...
Distortions in power spectra of digitized signals - I: General formulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When a continuous signal f(t) is digitized and then spectrally analysed, the resultant energy spectral density R(ω) is given as R(ω) = |F(ω) * D(ω)|2, where F(ω) is the exact Fourier transform of f(t), D(ω) is the exact Fourier transform of the digitization process and * denotes convolution operation. A notable practical problem in spectral analysis is how to adequately decouple D(ω) from R(ω) and hence obtain the exact energy spectral density of f(t), i.e. |F(ω)|2, since R(ω) → |F(ω)|2 only if D(ω) → delta(ω) or (under certain conditions) when D(ω) → delta(ω-ω0) or if D(ω) → Σsub(n) delta(ω-ωsub(n)), where the latter is a sufficiently spaced series of delta functions and ωsub(j) is constant for a given j. A solution to this problem requires, among others, thorough understanding of D(ω), how it relates to F(ω) and hence the manner or degree to which D(ω) distorts or contaminates F(ω) to form R(ω). In this paper, we have developed exact analytical expressions of D(ω) that are well related to the corresponding F(ω) in the cases when f(t) is a simple sinusoid as well as when it is in the form of a more complex function. It is established that in either of these cases, D(ω) is a clear function of the salient parameters of both f(t) and F(ω). The contents of this paper are used in Part II to examine the manner and extent to which D(ω) causes distortions in R(ω) under given conditions, and also to establish a procedure by which such distortions may be decoupled from a practically computed R(ω). Other related issues such as frequency shifts in computed power spectra are also discussed therein. (author)
Use of Directional Spectra for Detection of Engine Cylinder Power Fault
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chong-Won Lee
1997-01-01
Full Text Available A diagnostic method, which uses the two-sided directional power spectra of complex-valued engine vibration signals, is presented and tested with four-cylinder compression and spark ignition engines for the diagnosis of cylinder power faults. As spectral estimators, the maximum likelihood and FFT methods are compared, and the multi-layer neural network is employed for pattern recognition. Experimental results show that the success rate for identifying the misfired cylinder is much higher with the use of two-sided directional power spectra than conventional one-sided power spectra.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The peak near vsub(e)=vsub(i) in the electron spectra from He+ (0.8 MeV/amu), H2+ (0.8 MeV/amu; 1.995 MeV/amu) - Ar collisions was studied at thirteen angles from 0 deg to 180 deg. The experimental values for the position and half width (FWHM) of these peaks were compared with theoretical calculations. An example is given for the comparison of the actual shapes of the peak for different projectiles with the corresponding theoretical curves. The angular distribution of the electrons in the electron loss peak (i.e. the single differential cross section) was plotted together with the theoretical ones. (author)
Effective dark matter power spectra in $f(R)$ gravity
He, Jian-hua; Hawken, Adam J
2015-01-01
Using N-body simulations, we measure the power spectrum of the effective dark matter density field, which is defined through the modified Poisson equation in $f(R)$ cosmologies. We find that when compared to the conventional dark matter power spectrum, the effective power spectrum deviates more significantly from the $\\Lambda$CDM model. For models with $f_{R0}=-10^{-4}$, the deviation can exceed 150\\% while the deviation of the conventional matter power spectrum is less than 50\\%. Even for models with $f_{R0}=-10^{-6}$, for which the conventional matter power spectrum is very close to the $\\Lambda$CDM prediction, the effective power spectrum shows sizeable deviations. Our results indicate that traditional analyses based on the dark matter density field may seriously underestimate the impact of $f(R)$ gravity on galaxy clustering. We therefore suggest the use of the effective density field in such studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morioka, Y.; Tomiyama, K.; Arima, H. (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)); Sawai, K.; Omata, K.; Matsushima, T.; Takagi, K.; Ishibashi, A.; Saito, H. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))
1993-07-01
The purpose of this newly developed equipment is to separate the power system when an out-of-step between two groups of generators within it is predicted. The out-of-step prediction method is based on the generator's angular-velocity data measured by electromagnetic sensors and gears that are fastened directly to the rotors. The equipment was tested by the large-scale power system simulator APSA (Advanced Power System Analyzer), that is installed in the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. The equipment also underwent a field test.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Swift GRBs individual power density spectra (Guidorzi+, 2016)
Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Amati, L.
2016-03-01
Time intervals, redshifts, best-fit parameters of the power density spectra (PDS) for 215 bright long GRBs observed with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) from January 2005 to May 2015. Parameters refer to two alternative PDS models: either a power-law (PL) or a bent power-law (BPL) plus a constant background. (5 data files).
A simplified method of estimating noise power spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A technique to estimate the radial dependence of the noise power spectrum of images is proposed in which the calculations are conducted solely in the spatial domain of the noise image. The noise power spectrum averaged over a radial spatial-frequency interval is obtained form the variance of a noise image that has been convolved with a small kernel that approximates a Laplacian operator. Recursive consolidation of the image by factors of two in each dimension yields estimates of the noise power spectrum over that full range of spatial frequencies
ERRORS IN FREQUENCY PARAMETERS OF EMG POWER SPECTRA
HOF, AL
1991-01-01
Frequency shifts in random signals, e.g., EMG or Doppler ultrasound, can be followed by monitoring one or more parameters of the power spectrum. When such a frequency parameter is determined over a finite length of the signal, a random error and sometimes a systematic error or bias are introduced. A
Distribution of Acoustic Power Spectra for an Isolated Helicopter Fuselage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kusyumov A.N.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The broadband aerodynamic noise can be studied, assuming isotropic flow, turbulence and decay. Proudman’s approach allows practical calculations of noise based on CFD solutions of RANS or URANS equations at the stage of post processing and analysis of the solution. Another aspect is the broadband acoustic spectrum and the distribution of acoustic power over a range of frequencies. The acoustic energy spectrum distribution in isotropic turbulence is non monotonic and has a maximum at a certain value of Strouhal number. In the present work the value of acoustic power peak frequency is determined using a prescribed form of acoustic energy spectrum distribution presented in papers by S. Sarkar and M. Y. Hussaini and by G. M. Lilley. CFD modelling of the flow around isolated helicopter fuselage model was considered using the HMB CFD code and the RANS equations.
Observed and Simulated Power Spectra of Kinetic and Magnetic Energy retrieved with 2D inversions
Danilovic, S; van Noort, M; Cameron, R
2016-01-01
We try to retrieve the power spectra with certainty to the highest spatial frequencies allowed by current instrumentation. For this, we use 2D inversion code that were able to recover information up to the instrumental diffraction limit. The retrieved power spectra have shallow slopes extending further down to much smaller scales than found before. They seem not to show any power law. The observed slopes at subgranular scales agree with those obtained from recent local dynamo simulations. Small differences are found for vertical component of kinetic energy that suggest that observations suffer from an instrumental effect that is not taken into account.
Measurement of CIB power spectra over large sky areas from Planck HFI maps
Ying, Suet; Challinor, Anthony; Efstathiou, Geroge; Lagache, Guilaine
2016-01-01
We present new measurements of the power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using the Planck 2015 full-mission HFI data at 353, 545, and 857 GHz over 20000 square degrees. We use techniques similar to those applied for the cosmological analysis of Planck, subtracting dust emission at the power spectrum level. Our analysis gives stable solutions for the CIB power spectra with increasing sky coverage up to about 50% of the sky. These spectra agree well with Hi cleaned spectra from Planck measured on much smaller areas of sky with low Galactic dust emission. At 545 and 857 GHz our CIB spectra agree well with those measured from Herschel data. We find that the CIB spectra at l > 500 are well fitted by a power-law model for the clustered CIB, with a shallow index {\\gamma}^cib = 0.53\\pm0.02. This is consistent with the CIB results at 217 GHz from the cosmological parameter analysis of Planck. We show that a linear combination of the 545 and 857 GHz Planck maps is dominated by CIB fluctuati...
Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes
Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo
2008-11-01
We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times τ given by ψ(τ )∝1/τμ, with μ ≈2. The condition μ power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f )=K/fη, with η =3-μ, namely, the 1/f noise lives at border between the ergodic μ >2 and nonergodic μ legitimate by two different kinds of truncation effects: the physical and observation-induced effect. In the former case ψ(τ ) is truncated at τ ≈Tmax and L ≫Tmax ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, L ≪Tmax, is more challenging. It was already solved by Margolin and Barkai, who used time asymptotic arguments based on the ergodicity breakdown and obtained K ∝1/L2-μ, proving that the out-of-equilibrium nature of the condition μ 2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1/fη to the 1/f2 regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the L ≪Tmax or by the L ≫Tmax condition.
Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes.
Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo
2008-11-14
We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times tau given by psi(tau) proportional to 1tau(mu), with mu approximately 2. The condition muproblem theoretically and numerically and we prove that the power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f)=Kf(eta), with eta=3-mu, namely, the 1f noise lives at border between the ergodic mu>2 and nonergodic muT(max) ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, Lus to the same conclusion from a somewhat more extended view valid also for the transient out-of-equilibrium case of mu>2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1f(eta) to the 1f(2) regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the LT(max) condition. PMID:19045381
Spherical Harmonic Analyses of Intensity Mapping Power Spectra
Liu, Adrian; Parsons, Aaron R
2016-01-01
Intensity mapping is a promising technique for surveying the large scale structure of our Universe from $z=0$ to $z \\sim 150$, using the brightness temperature field of spectral lines to directly observe previously unexplored portions of out cosmic timeline. Examples of targeted lines include the $21\\,\\textrm{cm}$ hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen, rotational lines of carbon monoxide, and fine structure lines of singly ionized carbon. Recent efforts have focused on detections of the power spectrum of spatial fluctuations, but have been hindered by systematics such as foreground contamination. This has motivated the decomposition of data into Fourier modes perpendicular and parallel to the line-of-sight, which has been shown to be a particularly powerful way to diagnose systematics. However, such a method is well-defined only in the limit of a narrow-field, flat-sky approximation. This limits the sensitivity of intensity mapping experiments, as it means that wide surveys must be separately analyzed as a...
Power spectra of a constrained totally asymmetric simple exclusion process
Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.
2010-07-01
In nature, all biological systems function in a far-from-equilibrium state. Here, we study the process of translation in protein synthesis, using the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) as a model. In particular, we explore the effects of a finite supply of particles for the TASEP, as in a living cell with a finite pool of ribosomes. Specifically, we investigate the power spectrum associated with total occupancy, utilizing both Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. New features arise, such as large suppressions at low frequencies, due to the added constraint. A theory is formulated based on a Langevin approach with discrete space and time. With good agreement between the simulation and theory, we gain some insights into the effects of finite resources on the TASEP.
Near-field angular distributions of high velocity ions for low-power hall thrusters
Sullivan, Regina M.; Yost, Allison; Johnson, Lee K.
2009-01-01
Experimental angular distributions of high-energy primary ions in the near-field region of a small Hall thruster between 50-200 mm downstream of the thruster exit plane at a range of centerline angles have been determined using a highly-collimated, energy-selective diagnostic probe. The measurements reveal a wide angular distribution of ions exiting the thruster channel and the formation of a strong, axially-directed jet of ions along the thruster centerline. Comparisons are made to other exp...
Precision Predictions for the Primordial Power Spectra from f(R) Models of Inflation
Brooker, D J; Woodard, R P
2016-01-01
We study the power spectra of f(R) inflation using a new technique in which the norm-squared of the mode functions is evolved. Our technique results in excellent analytic approximations for how the spectra depend upon the function $f(R)$. Although the spectra are numerically the same in the Jordan and Einstein frames for the same wave number $k$, they depend upon the geometries of these frames in quite different ways. For example, the power spectra in the two frames are different functions of the number of e-foldings until end of inflation. We discuss how future data on reheating can be used to distinguish f(R) inflation from scalar-driven inflation.
Bonnefoy, M; Dougados, C; Kospal, A; Benisty, M; Duchene, G; Bouvier, J; Garcia, P J V; Whelan, E; Antoniucci, S; Podio, L
2016-01-01
Z CMa is a complex pre-main sequence binary with a current separation of 100 mas, known to consist of an FU Orionis star (SE component) and an embedded Herbig Be star (NW component). Immediately when the late-2008 outburst of Z CMa was announced to the community, we initiated a high angular resolution imaging campaign with VLT/NaCo, Keck/NIRC2, VLT/SINFONI, and Keck/OSIRIS which aimed at characterizing the outburst of both components of the system in the near-infrared. We confirm that the NW star dominates the system flux in the 1.1-3.8 microns range and is responsible for the photometric outburst. We extract the first medium-resolution (R=2000-4000) near-infrared (1.1-2.4 microns) spectra of the individual components during and after the outburst. The SE component has a spectrum typical of FU Orionis objects. The NW component spectrum is characteristic of embedded outbursting protostars and EX Or objects. It displays numerous emission lines during the outburst whose intensity correlates with the system activ...
Matter Power Spectra in Viable $f(R)$ Gravity Models with Massive Neutrinos
Geng, Chao-Qiang; Shen, Jia-Liang
2015-01-01
We investigate the matter power spectra in the power law and exponential types of viable $f(R)$ theories along with massive neutrinos. The enhancement of the matter power spectrum is found to be a generic feature in these models. In particular, we show that in the former type, such as the Starobinsky model, the spectrum is magnified much larger than the latter one, such as the exponential model. A greater scale of the total neutrino mass, $\\Sigma m_{\
Scale-invariant power spectra from a Weyl-invariant scalar-tensor theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myung, Yun Soo [Inje University, Institute of Basic Sciences and Department of Computer Simulation, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Jai [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
We obtain scale-invariant scalar and tensor power spectra from a Weyl-invariant scalar-tensor theory in de Sitter spacetime. This implies that the Weyl invariance guarantees the implementation of the scale invariance of the power spectrum in de Sitter spacetime. We establish a deep connection between the Weyl invariance of the action and the scale invariance of the power spectrum in de Sitter spacetime. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The cosmological peculiar velocity field (deviations from the pure Hubble flow) of matter carries significant information on dark energy, dark matter and the underlying theory of gravity on large scales. Peculiar motions of galaxies introduce systematic deviations between the observed galaxy redshifts z and the corresponding cosmological redshifts zcos. A novel method for estimating the angular power spectrum of the peculiar velocity field based on observations of galaxy redshifts and apparent magnitudes m (or equivalently fluxes) is presented. This method exploits the fact that a mean relation between zcos and m of galaxies can be derived from all galaxies in a redshift-magnitude survey. Given a galaxy magnitude, it is shown that the zcos(m) relation yields its cosmological redshift with a 1σ error of σz ∼ 0.3 for a survey like Euclid ( ∼ 109 galaxies at z∼cos(m) with a high signal-to-noise ratio. At large angular separations corresponding to l∼cos(m) relation caused by gravitational lensing magnification dominate, allowing us to probe the line-of-sight integral of the gravitational potential. Effects related to the environmental dependence in the luminosity function can easily be computed and their contamination removed from the estimated power spectra. The amplitude of the combined velocity and lensing power spectra at z ∼ 1 can be measured with ∼<5% accuracy
Fact versus formula in the power spectra of complex systems
Watkins, Nick
2016-04-01
More than 100 years ago, Thomson and Tait's classic "Treatise on Natural Philosophy" cautioned its readers against "considering the formula and not the fact as physical reality". Deciding what the facts actually _were, however, was left as an exercise for the reader ... Complex systems offer many examples [1] of the ambiguity Thomson and Tait were trying to point out. This presentation will be about a formula-the "1/f" spectral shape seen in many areas of physics including climate science; and an empirical fact-the growth of rescaled range originally seen in river time series and now known as the Hurst effect. It is well known that Mandelbrot kicked off the study of long range dependence (LRD) in the mid 1960s [2] with a stationary model for 1/f noise and the Hurst effect. This fractional Gaussian model is now so well known that it is often seen as synonymous with both 1/f noise and the Hurst effect. However Mandelbrot himself was aware that there were other models that produced 1/f noise, including a family [3-6] which he called "conditionally stationary", with power law distributions of times between switching of states. Late in his life he re-emphasised the clear contrasts between their behaviour and that of fGn. I will explain why these other models are also physically interesting, and will show why real systems including climate examples may potentially map more closely to one or the other, or may in fact combine both aspects. I will also discuss his proposals for distinguishing between the models and how they may be implemented. [1] Watkins, Bunched Black Swans, Geophys Res. Lett, 2013 [2] Graves et al, A Brief History of Long Memory, arXiv:1406.6018 [stat.OT] [3] Berger and Mandelbrot, "A New Model for Error Clustering in Telephone Circuits", IBM Technical Journal, July 1963. [4] Mandelbrot, "Self-similar error clusters in communications systems, and the concept of conditional stationarity", IEEE Trans. on Communications Technology, COM-13, 71-90, 1965. [5
Fourier power spectra of the geomagnetic field for circular paths on the Earth's surface.
Alldredge, L.R.; Benton, E.R.
1986-01-01
The Fourier power spectra of geomagnetic component values, synthesized from spherical harmonic models, have been computed for circular paths on the Earth's surface. They are not found to be more useful than is the spectrum of magnetic energy outside the Earth for the purpose of separating core and crustal sources of the geomagnetic field. The Fourier power spectra of N and E geomagnetic components along nearly polar great circle paths exhibit some unusual characteristics that are explained by the geometric perspective of Fourier series on spheres developed by Yee. -Authors
Intrinsic dendritic filtering gives low-pass power spectra of local field potentials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindén, Henrik; Pettersen, Klas H; Einevoll, Gaute T
2010-01-01
spectra, even for frequencies as low as 10 Hz for the example pyramidal neuron. Further, the LFP signal is found to depend sensitively on both the recording position and the position of the synaptic input: the LFP power spectra recorded close to the active synapse are typically found to be less low...... contributions to the LFP from a single layer-5 pyramidal neuron and a single layer-4 stellate neuron receiving synaptic input. An intrinsic dendritic low-pass filtering effect of the LFP signal, previously demonstrated for extracellular signatures of action potentials, is seen to strongly affect the LFP power...
A Measurement of the Angular Power Spectrum of the CMB from l = 100 to 400
Miller, A D; Devlin, M J; Dorwart, W B; Herbig, T; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Puchalla, J; Torbet, E; Tran, H T
1999-01-01
We report on a measurement of the angular spectrum of the CMB between $l\\approx 100$ and $l\\approx 400$ made at 144 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Chilean altiplano. When the new data are combined with previous data at 30 and 40 GHz, taken with the same instrument observing the same section of sky, we find: 1) a rise in the angular spectrum to a maximum with $\\delta T_l \\approx 85~\\mu$K at $l\\approx 200$ and a fall at $l>300$, thereby localizing the peak near $l\\approx 200$; and 2) that the anisotropy at $l\\approx 200$ has the spectrum of the CMB.
WIND TURBINE SIMULATION FOR TIME-DEPENDENT ANGULAR VELOCITY, TORQUE, AND POWER
YONGHO LEE
2013-01-01
Albeit the prediction of time-dependent properties of wind turbines is not required for common applications, such time-varying properties may play an important role during transient operations occurring due to various reasons. Unlike the conventional numerical simulations of wind turbine rotations that fix the angular velocity to an assumed value, the present work numerically simulates the time-varying turbine rotation in both unsteady and quasi-steady operation regimes, without specifying th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a database for estimating organ dose in a voxelized patient model for coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT acquisitions with any spectra and angular tube current modulation setting. The database enables organ dose estimation for existing and novel acquisition techniques without requiring Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The study simulated transport of monoenergetic photons between 5 and 150 keV for 1000 projections over 360° through anthropomorphic voxelized female chest and head (0° and 30° tilt) phantoms and standard head and body CTDI dosimetry cylinders. The simulations resulted in tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs quantifying the organ dose per emitted photon for each incident photon energy and projection angle for coronary angiography and brain perfusion acquisitions. The values in a table can be multiplied by an incident spectrum and number of photons at each projection angle and then summed across all energies and angles to estimate total organ dose. Scanner-specific organ dose may be approximated by normalizing the database-estimated organ dose by the database-estimated CTDIvol and multiplying by a physical CTDIvol measurement. Two examples are provided demonstrating how to use the tables to estimate relative organ dose. In the first, the change in breast and lung dose during coronary angiography CT scans is calculated for reduced kVp, angular tube current modulation, and partial angle scanning protocols relative to a reference protocol. In the second example, the change in dose to the eye lens is calculated for a brain perfusion CT acquisition in which the gantry is tilted 30° relative to a nontilted scan. Results: Our database provides tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT scans. Validation results indicate total organ doses calculated using our database are
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rupcich, Franco; Badal, Andreu; Kyprianou, Iacovos; Schmidt, Taly Gilat [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States); Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics (OSEL/CDRH), US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States)
2012-09-15
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a database for estimating organ dose in a voxelized patient model for coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT acquisitions with any spectra and angular tube current modulation setting. The database enables organ dose estimation for existing and novel acquisition techniques without requiring Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The study simulated transport of monoenergetic photons between 5 and 150 keV for 1000 projections over 360 Degree-Sign through anthropomorphic voxelized female chest and head (0 Degree-Sign and 30 Degree-Sign tilt) phantoms and standard head and body CTDI dosimetry cylinders. The simulations resulted in tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs quantifying the organ dose per emitted photon for each incident photon energy and projection angle for coronary angiography and brain perfusion acquisitions. The values in a table can be multiplied by an incident spectrum and number of photons at each projection angle and then summed across all energies and angles to estimate total organ dose. Scanner-specific organ dose may be approximated by normalizing the database-estimated organ dose by the database-estimated CTDI{sub vol} and multiplying by a physical CTDI{sub vol} measurement. Two examples are provided demonstrating how to use the tables to estimate relative organ dose. In the first, the change in breast and lung dose during coronary angiography CT scans is calculated for reduced kVp, angular tube current modulation, and partial angle scanning protocols relative to a reference protocol. In the second example, the change in dose to the eye lens is calculated for a brain perfusion CT acquisition in which the gantry is tilted 30 Degree-Sign relative to a nontilted scan. Results: Our database provides tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT scans. Validation results indicate
Power spectra in the eikonal approximation with adiabatic and non-adiabatic modes
Bernardeau, Francis; Vernizzi, Filippo
2012-01-01
We use the so-called eikonal approximation, recently introduced in the context of cosmological perturbation theory, to compute power spectra for multi-component fluids. We demonstrate that, at any given order in standard perturbation theory, multi-point power spectra do not depend on the large-scale adiabatic modes. Moreover, we employ perturbation theories to decipher how non-adiabatic modes, such as a relative velocity between two different components, damp the small-scale matter power spectrum, a mechanism recently described in the literature. In particular, we do an explicit calculation at 1-loop order of this effect. While the 1-loop result eventually breaks down, we show how the damping effect can be fully captured by the help of the eikonal approximation. A relative velocity not only induces mode damping but also creates large-scale anisotropic modulations of the matter power spectrum amplitude. We illustrate this for the Local Group environment.
Damping and power spectra of quasi-periodic intensity disturbances above a solar polar coronal hole
Jiao, Fangran; Huang, Zhenghua; Li, Bo; Fu, Hui; Yuan, Ding; Chandrashekhar, Kalugodu
2016-01-01
We study intensity disturbances above a solar polar coronal hole seen in the AIA 171 \\AA\\ and 193 \\AA\\ passbands, aiming to provide more insights into their physical nature. The damping and power spectra of the intensity disturbances with frequencies from 0.07 mHz to 10.5 mHz are investigated. The damping of the intensity disturbances tends to be stronger at lower frequencies, and their damping behavior below 980" (for comparison, the limb is at 945") is different from what happens above. No significant difference is found between the damping of the intensity disturbances in the AIA 171 \\AA\\ and that in the AIA 193 \\AA. The indices of the power spectra of the intensity disturbances are found to be slightly smaller in the AIA 171 \\AA\\ than in the AIA 193 \\AA, but the difference is within one sigma deviation. An additional enhanced component is present in the power spectra in a period range of 8--40 minutes at lower heights. While the power spectra of spicule is highly correlated with its associated intensity d...
Characterizing the peak in the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum
Knox; Page
2000-08-14
A peak has been unambiguously detected in the cosmic microwave background angular spectrum. Here we characterize its properties with fits to phenomenological models. We find that the TOCO and BOOM/NA data determine the peak location to be in the range 175-243 and 151-259, respectively (at 95% confidence) and determine the peak amplitude to be between approximately 70 and 90 &mgr;K. The peak shape is consistent with inflation-inspired flat, cold dark matter plus cosmological constant models of structure formation with adiabatic, nearly scale invariant initial conditions. It is inconsistent with open models and presents a great challenge to defect models.
The Development of Kolmogoroff-Like Power Spectra in the Expanding Solar Wind
Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Ghosh, S.; Deane, A. E.
1998-01-01
Power spectra of the solar wind fluctuations consistently exhibit a -5/3 power-law slope consistent with the idea that the medium is undergoing a turbulent cascade as seen in ordinary fluids. This is surprising both because the radial streams and the magnetic field threading the plasma will induce anisotropies and because the expansion of the wind will tend to lead to the suppression of nonlinear cascades. These conditions violate the assumptions used by Kolmogoroff to derive the -5/3 law. We have studied this issue using a compressible IMHD code in spherical coordinates and have shown that a -5/3 spectrum results from a broad-band flat-spectrum input condition that is sheared and distorted by a current sheet as the wind expands. We determine spectra from time series taken at selected points in the domain as is done with observational spacecraft data. The spectra are very like those we have seen in nonexpanding runs and exhibit evolution and compressive characteristics very similar to those seen in observations. We will report on these results in addition to a new set of runs intended to constrain the necessary and sufficient conditions for the spectra to have this form. The simulation also allows us to examine the anisotropy for the spectra to attempt to determine why the result of an isotropic magnetofluid is obtained in a highly anisotropic situation.
Gravitational quantum effects on power spectra and spectral indices with higher-order corrections
Zhu, Tao; Wang, Anzhong; Cleaver, Gerald; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin
2014-09-01
The uniform asymptotic approximation method provides a powerful, systematically improved, and error-controlled approach to construct accurate analytical approximate solutions of mode functions of perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, designed especially for the cases where the relativistic linear dispersion relation is modified after gravitational quantum effects are taken into account. These include models from string/M Theory, loop quantum cosmology and Hořava-Lifshitz quantum gravity. In this paper, we extend our previous studies of the first-order approximations to high orders for the cases where the modified dispersion relation (linear or nonlinear) has only one turning point (or zero). We obtain the general expressions for the power spectra and spectral indices of both scalar and tensor perturbations up to the third order, at which the error bounds are ≲0.15%. As an application of these formulas, we calculate the power spectra and spectral indices in the slow-roll inflation with a nonlinear power-law dispersion relation. To check the consistency of our formulas, we further restrict ourselves to the relativistic case, and calculate the corresponding power spectra, spectral indices and runnings to the second order. Then, we compare our results with the ones obtained by the Green function method and show explicitly that the results obtained by these two different methods are consistent within the allowed errors.
A WEIGHTED FEATURE REDUCTION METHOD FOR POWER SPECTRA OF RADAR HRRPS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Feature reduction is a key process in pattern recognition. This paper deals with the feature reduction methods for a time-shift invariant feature, power spectrum, in Radar Automatic Target Recognition (RATR)using High-Resolution Range Profiles (HRRPs). Several existing feature reduction methods in pattern recognition are analyzed, and a weighted feature reduction method based on Fisher's Discriminant Ratio (FDR) is proposed in this paper. According to the characteristics of radar HRRP target recognition, this proposed method searches the optimal weight vector for power spectra of HRRPs by means of an iterative algorithm,and thus reduces feature dimensionality. Compared with the method of using raw power spectra and some existing feature reduction methods, the weighted feature reduction method can not only reduce feature dimensionality, but also improve recognition performance with low computation complexity. In the recognition experiments based on measured data, the proposed method is robust to different test data and achieves good recognition results.
Effect of microwave power on EPR spectra of natural and synthetic dental biocompatible materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adamczyk Jakub
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Paramagnetic centers in the two exemplary synthetic and natural dental biocompatible materials applied in implantology were examined by the use of an X-band (9.3 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. The EPR spectra were measured in the range of microwave power 2.2–70 mW. The aims of this work were to compare paramagnetic centers concentrations in different dental biocompatible materials and to determine the effect of microwave power on parameters of their EPR spectra. It is the very first and innovatory examination of paramagnetic centers in these materials. It was pointed out that paramagnetic centers existed in both natural (~1018 spin/g and synthetic (~1019 spin/g dental biocompatible materials, but the lower free radical concentration characterized the natural sample. Continuous microwave saturation of EPR spectra indicated that faster spin-lattice relaxation processes existed in synthetic dental biocompatible materials than in natural material. Linewidths (ΔBpp of the EPR spectra of the natural dental material slightly increased for the higher microwave powers. Such effect was not observed for the synthetic material. The broad EPR lines (ΔBpp: 2.4 mT, 3.9 mT, were measured for the natural and synthetic dental materials, respectively. Probably strong dipolar interactions between paramagnetic centers in the studied samples may be responsible for their line broadening. EPR spectroscopy is the useful experimental method in the examination of paramagnetic centers in dental biocompatible materials.
Yang, X H; Chu Yao Quan; Fang, L Z; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Feng, Long-Long; Chu, Yao-Quan; Fang, Li-Zhi
2001-01-01
The power spectrum estimator based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for 3-dimensional samples has been studied. The DWT estimator for multi-dimensional samples provides two types of spectra with respect to diagonal and off-diagonal modes, which are very flexible to deal with configuration-related problems in the power spectrum detection. With simulation samples and mock catalogues of the Las Campanas redshift survey (LCRS), we show (1) the slice-like geometry of the LCRS doesn't affect the off-diagonal power spectrum with ``slice-like'' mode; (2) the Poisson sampling with the LCRS selection function doesn't cause more than 1-$\\sigma$ error in the DWT power spectrum; and (3) the powers of peculiar velocity fluctuations, which cause the redshift distortion, are approximately scale-independent. These results insure that the uncertainties of the power spectrum measurement are under control. The scatter of the DWT power spectra of the six strips of the LCRS survey is found to be rather small. It is less tha...
Dalton, Brian H; Power, Geoffrey A; Paturel, Justin R; Rice, Charles L
2015-06-01
The underlying factors related to the divergent findings of age-related fatigue for dynamic tasks are not well understood. The purpose here was to investigate age-related fatigability and recovery between a repeated constrained (isokinetic) and an unconstrained velocity (isotonic) task, in which participants performed fatiguing contractions at the velocity (isokinetic) or resistance (isotonic) corresponding with maximal power. To compare between tasks, isotonic torque-power relationships were constructed prior to and following both fatiguing tasks and during short-term recovery. Contractile properties were recorded from 9 old (~75 years) and 11 young (~25 years) men during three testing sessions. In the first session, maximal power was assessed, and sessions 2 and 3 involved an isokinetic or an isotonic concentric fatigue task performed until maximal power was reduced by 40 %. Compared with young, the older men performed the same number of contractions to task failure for the isokinetic task (~45 contractions), but 20 % fewer for the isotonic task (p < 0.05). Regardless of age and task, maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength, angular velocity, and power were reduced by ~30, ~13, and ~25 %, respectively, immediately following task failure, and only isometric torque was not recovered fully by 10 min. In conclusion, older men are more fatigable than the young when performing a repetitive maximal dynamic task at a relative resistance (isotonic) but not an absolute velocity (isokinetic), corresponding to maximal power. PMID:25943700
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Djukanovic, M. (Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Sobajic, D.J.; Yohhan Pao (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Computer Engineering and Science AI WARE inc., Cleveland, OH (United States))
1992-10-01
In heavily stressed power systems, post-fault transient voltage dips can lead to undesired tripping of industrial drives and large induction motors. The lowest transient voltage dips occur when fault clearing times are less than critical ones. In this paper, we propose a new iterative analytical methodology to obtain more accurate estimates of voltage dips at maximum angular swing in direct transient stability analysis. We also propose and demonstrate the possibility of storing the results of these computations in the associative memory (AM) system, which exhibits remarkable generalization capabilities. Feature-based models stored in the AM can be utilized for fast and accurate prediction of the location, duration and the amount of the worst voltage dips, thereby avoiding the need and cost for lengthy time-domain simulations. Numerical results obtained using the example of the New England power system are presented to illustrate our approach. (Author)
Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (PEEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands. PMID:27592207
Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun
2016-09-04
BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (PEEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands.
On the causes of spectral enhancements in solar wind power spectra
Unti, T.; Russell, C. T.
1976-01-01
Enhancements in power spectra of the solar-wind ion flux in the frequency neighborhood of 0.5 Hz had been noted by Unti et al. (1973). It was speculated that these were due to convected small-scale density irregularities. In this paper, 54 flux spectra calculated from OGO 5 data are examined. It is seen that the few prominent spectral peaks which occur were not generated by density irregularities, but were due to several different causes, including convected discontinuities and propagating transverse waves. A superposition of many spectra, however, reveals a moderate enhancement at a frequency corresponding to convected features with a correlation length of a proton gyroradius, consistent with the results of Neugebauer (1975).
In-cabinet response spectra development for nuclear power plant motor control centers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Electrical Components within older nuclear power plant Motor Control Centers (MCC) are becoming obsolete and may require replacement. Many of these components are safety-related and are required to remain functional during and after a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). New component seismic qualification is typically demonstrated per IEEE 344 by shake table testing the components. To validate the shake table test data, the Test Response Spectra (TRS) must be shown to envelope the Required Response Spectra (RRS) of the component. Due to the panel's flexibility, the panel will amplify the floor response spectra. The amplification factor is dependent on the panel geometry, mass magnitude, and location of electrical components inside the panel. A two step approach is presented to develop the in-cabinet response spectra (i.e., RRS) at the individual electrical component's location. The modal properties of the panel are first obtained using finite element and modal analysis techniques. The modal properties, mass of the component, and the base floor response spectra are then used as input to ABB Impell's FLORA program. The FLORA program generates the RRS curves for the composite panel component system using modal synthesis and perturbation techniques taking into account the oscillator/panel coincident frequencies and the interaction between the electrical component and the MCC panel. In one case, this approach yielded a realistic Amplification Factor of 0.84 compared to factors of 3 and higher from more conservative methods
Schwinger, J.
1952-01-26
The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.
Vorontsov, Sergei V
2013-01-01
We describe a global parametric model for the observed power spectra of solar oscillations of intermediate and low degree. A physically motivated parameterization is used as a substitute for a direct description of mode excitation and damping as these mechanisms remain poorly understood. The model is targeted at the accurate fitting of power spectra coming from Doppler velocity measurements and uses an adaptive response function that accounts for both the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity field on the solar surface and for possible instrumental and observational distortions. The model is continuous in frequency, can easily be adapted to intensity measurements and extends naturally to the analysis of high-frequency pseudo modes (interference peaks at frequencies above the atmospheric acoustic cutoff).
Guo, Fan; Daughton, William; Liu, Yi-Hsin
2014-01-01
Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density $\\sigma \\equiv B^2/(4 \\pi n m_ec^2) > 1$ and when the system size is sufficiently large. In the limit $\\sigma \\gg 1$, the spectral index approaches $p=1$ and most of the available energy is converted into non-thermal particles. A simple analytic model is proposed which explains these key features and predicts a general condition under which hard power-law spectra will be generated from magnetic reconnection.
Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; Daughton, William; Liu, Yi-Hsin
2014-01-01
Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density $\\sigma \\equiv B...
Alinea, Allan L.; Kubota, Takahiro; Naylor, Wade
2016-02-01
We investigate a calculation method for solving the Mukhanov-Sasaki equation in slow-roll k-inflation based on the uniform approximation (UA) in conjunction with an expansion scheme for slow-roll parameters with respect to the number of e-folds about the so-called turning point. Earlier works on this method have so far gained some promising results derived from the approximating expressions for the power spectra among others, up to second order with respect to the Hubble and sound flow parameters, when compared to other semi-analytical approaches (e.g., Green's function and WKB methods). However, a closer inspection is suggestive that there is a problem when higher-order parts of the power spectra are considered; residual logarithmic divergences may come out that can render the prediction physically inconsistent. Looking at this possibility, we map out up to what order with respect to the mentioned parameters several physical quantities can be calculated before hitting a logarithmically divergent result. It turns out that the power spectra are limited up to second order, the tensor-to-scalar ratio up to third order, and the spectral indices and running converge to all orders. This indicates that the expansion scheme is incompatible with the working equations derived from UA for the power spectra but compatible with that of the spectral indices. For those quantities that involve logarithmically divergent terms in the higher-order parts, existing results in the literature for the convergent lower-order parts calculated in the equivalent fashion should be viewed with some caution; they do not rest on solid mathematical ground.
Ross, Ashley J; Myers, Adam D
2008-01-01
We present a novel technique to measure $\\sigma_8$, by measuring the dependence of the second-order bias of a density field on $\\sigma_8$ using two separate techniques. Each technique employs area-averaged angular correlation functions ($\\bar{\\omega}_N$), one relying on the shape of $\\bar{\\omega}_2$, the other relying on the amplitude of $s_3$ ($s_3 =\\bar{\\omega}_3/\\bar{\\omega}_2^2$). We confirm the validity of the method by testing it on a mock catalog drawn from Millennium Simulation data and finding $\\sigma_8^{measured}- \\sigma_8^{true} = -0.002 \\pm 0.062$. We create a catalog of photometrically selected LRGs from SDSS DR5 and separate it into three distinct data sets by photometric redshift, with median redshifts of 0.47, 0.53, and 0.61. Measurements of $c_2$, and $\\sigma_8$ are made for each data set, assuming flat geometry and WMAP3 best-fit priors on $\\Omega_m$, $h$, and $\\Gamma$. We find, with increasing redshfit, $c_2 = 0.09 \\pm 0.04$, $0.09 \\pm 0.05$, and $0.09 \\pm 0.03$ and $\\sigma_8 = 0.78 \\pm 0.0...
Rejuvenating the Matter Power Spectrum III: The Cosmology Sensitivity of Gaussianized Power Spectra
Neyrinck, Mark C
2011-01-01
It was recently shown that applying a Gaussianizing transform, such as a logarithm, to the nonlinear matter density field extends the range of scales, by a factor of a few smaller, where the power spectrum excels at describing the ?field. Such a transform dramatically reduces nonlinearities in both the covariance and the shape of the power spectrum. Here, analyzing Coyote Universe real-space dark matter density fields, we investigate the consequences of these transforms for cosmological parameter estimation. The power spectrum of the log-density provides the tightest cosmological parameter error bars (marginalized or not), giving a factor of 2-3 improvement over the conventional power spectrum in all five parameters tested. For the tilt, n_s, the improvement reaches a factor of 5. Similar constraints are achieved if the log-density power spectrum and conventional power spectrum are analyzed together. Rank-order Gaussianization seems just as useful as a log transform to constrain n_s, but not other parameters....
Mead, Alexander; Heymans, Catherine; Joudaki, Shahab; Heavens, Alan
2015-01-01
We present an optimised variant of the halo model, designed to produce accurate matter power spectra well into the non-linear regime for a wide range of cosmological models. To do this, we introduce physically-motivated free parameters into the halo-model formalism and fit these to data from high-resolution N-body simulations. For a variety of $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM models the halo-model power is accurate to $\\simeq 5$ per cent for $k\\leq 10h\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ and $z\\leq 2$. We compare our results with recent revisions of the popular HALOFIT model and show that our predictions are more accurate. An advantage of our new halo model is that it can be adapted to account for the effects of baryonic feedback on the power spectrum. We demonstrate this by fitting the halo model to power spectra from the OWLS hydrodynamical simulation suite via parameters that govern halo internal structure. We are able to fit all feedback models investigated at the 5 per cent level using only two free parameters, and we place limi...
Effect of lensing non-Gaussianity on the CMB power spectra
Lewis, Antony
2016-01-01
Observed CMB anisotropies are lensed, and the lensed power spectra can be calculated accurately assuming the lensing deflections are Gaussian. However, the lensing deflections are actually slightly non-Gaussian due to both non-linear large-scale structure growth and post-Born corrections. We calculate the leading correction to the lensed CMB power spectra from the non-Gaussianity, which is determined by the lensing bispectrum. The lowest-order result gives $\\sim 0.3\\%$ corrections to the BB and EE polarization spectra on small-scales, however we show that the effect on EE is reduced by about a factor of two by higher-order Gaussian lensing smoothing, rendering the total effect safely negligible for the foreseeable future. We give a simple analytic model for the signal expected from skewness of the large-scale lensing field; the effect is similar to a net demagnification and hence a small change in acoustic scale (and therefore out of phase with the dominant lensing smoothing that predominantly affects the pea...
Double power-law spectra of energetic electrons in the Earth magnetotail
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Artemyev
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider electron acceleration in the vicinity of X-line and corresponding formation of energy spectra. We develop an analytical model including the effect of the electron trapping by electrostatic fields and surfing acceleration. Speiser, Fermi and betatron mechanisms of acceleration are also taken into account. Analytical estimates are verified by the numerical integration of electron trajectories. The surfing mechanism and adiabatic heating are responsible for the formation of the double power-law spectrum in agreement with the previous studies. The energy of the spectrum knee is about ~150 keV for typical conditions of the Earth magnetotail. We compare theoretical results with the spacecraft observations of electron double power-law spectra in the magnetotail and demonstrate that the theory is able to describe typical energy of the spectra knee. We also estimate the role of relativistic effects and magnetic field fluctuations on the electron acceleration: the acceleration is more stable for relativistic electrons, while fluctuations of the magnetic field cannot significantly decrease the gained energy for typical magnetospheric conditions.
The Effect of Interplanetary Scintillation on Epoch of Reionisation Power Spectra
Trott, Cathryn M
2015-01-01
Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) induces intensity fluctuations in small angular size astronomical radio sources via the distortive effects of spatially and temporally varying electron density associated with outflows from the Sun. These radio sources are a potential foreground contaminant signal for redshifted HI emission from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) because they yield time-dependent flux density variations in bright extragalactic point sources. Contamination from foreground continuum sources complicates efforts to discriminate the cosmological signal from other sources in the sky. In IPS, at large angles from the Sun applicable to EoR observations, weak scattering induces spatially and temporally correlated fluctuations in the measured flux density of sources in the field, potentially affecting the detectability of the EoR signal by inducing non-static variations in the signal strength. In this work, we explore the impact of interplanetary weak scintillation on EoR power spectrum measurements, acc...
Forward Modeling of Reduced Power Spectra From Three-Dimensional $\\mathbf{k}$-Space
von Papen, Michael
2015-01-01
We present results from a numerical forward model to evaluate one-dimensional reduced power spectral densities (PSD) from arbitrary energy distributions in $\\mathbf{k}$-space. In this model, we can separately calculate the diagonal elements of the spectral tensor for incompressible axisymmetric turbulence with vanishing helicity. Given a critically balanced turbulent cascade with $k_\\|\\sim k_\\perp^\\alpha$ and $\\alpha<1$, we explore the implications on the reduced PSD as a function of frequency. The spectra are obtained under the assumption of Taylor's hypothesis. We further investigate the functional dependence of the spectral index $\\kappa$ on the field-to-flow angle $\\theta$ between plasma flow and background magnetic field from MHD to electron kinetic scales. We show that critically balanced turbulence asymptotically develops toward $\\theta$-independent spectra with a slope corresponding to the perpendicular cascade. This occurs at a transition frequency $f_{2D}(L,\\alpha,\\theta)$, which is analytically ...
van Engelen, A; Sehgal, N; Holder, G P; Zahn, O; Nagai, D
2013-01-01
The lensing power spectrum from cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps will be measured with unprecedented precision with upcoming experiments, including upgrades to ACT and SPT. Achieving significant improvements in cosmological parameter constraints, such as percent level errors on sigma_8 and an uncertainty on the total neutrino mass of approximately 50 meV, requires percent level measurements of the CMB lensing power. This necessitates tight control of systematic biases. We study several types of biases to the temperature-based lensing reconstruction signal from foreground sources such as radio and infrared galaxies and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters. These foregrounds bias the CMB lensing signal due to their non-Gaussian nature. Using simulations as well as some analytical models we find that these sources can substantially impact the measured signal if left untreated. However, these biases can be brought to the percent level if one masks galaxies with fluxes at 15...
Cui, Linyan
2015-06-01
Analytic expressions for the temporal power spectra of irradiance fluctuations and angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. In the derivation, the anisotropic non-Kolmogorov spectrum is adopted, which adopts the assumption of circular symmetry in the orthogonal plane throughout the path and the same degree of anisotropy along the propagation direction for all the turbulence cells. The final expressions consider simultaneously the anisotropic factor and general spectral power law values. When the anisotropic factor equals one (corresponding to the isotropic turbulence), the derived temporal power spectral models have good consistency with the known results for the isotropic turbulence. Numerical calculations show that the increased anisotropic factor alleviates the atmospheric turbulence's influence on the final expressions.
Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.
2016-06-01
We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.
Mead, Alexander; Lombriser, Lucas; Peacock, John; Steele, Olivia; Winther, Hans
2016-01-01
We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead (2015b). We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parameterised $w(a)$ dark energy models at the few per cent level for $k0.5\\,h\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$. An updated version of our publicly available HMcode can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/HMcode
From the Cover: Musical rhythm spectra from Bach to Joplin obey a 1/f power law
Levitin, Daniel J.; Chordia, Parag; Menon, Vinod
2012-03-01
Much of our enjoyment of music comes from its balance of predictability and surprise. Musical pitch fluctuations follow a 1/f power law that precisely achieves this balance. Musical rhythms, especially those of Western classical music, are considered highly regular and predictable, and this predictability has been hypothesized to underlie rhythm's contribution to our enjoyment of music. Are musical rhythms indeed entirely predictable and how do they vary with genre and composer? To answer this question, we analyzed the rhythm spectra of 1,788 movements from 558 compositions of Western classical music. We found that an overwhelming majority of rhythms obeyed a 1/fβ power law across 16 subgenres and 40 composers, with β ranging from ∼0.5-1. Notably, classical composers, whose compositions are known to exhibit nearly identical 1/f pitch spectra, demonstrated distinctive 1/f rhythm spectra: Beethoven's rhythms were among the most predictable, and Mozart's among the least. Our finding of the ubiquity of 1/f rhythm spectra in compositions spanning nearly four centuries demonstrates that, as with musical pitch, musical rhythms also exhibit a balance of predictability and surprise that could contribute in a fundamental way to our aesthetic experience of music. Although music compositions are intended to be performed, the fact that the notated rhythms follow a 1/f spectrum indicates that such structure is no mere artifact of performance or perception, but rather, exists within the written composition before the music is performed. Furthermore, composers systematically manipulate (consciously or otherwise) the predictability in 1/f rhythms to give their compositions unique identities.
Dijk, D. J.
1999-01-01
In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.
Simons, F. J.; Beggan, C.; Saarimaki, J.; Whaler, K. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Plattner, A.
2012-12-01
We elucidate "myths and truths concerning the estimation of power spectra", to paraphrase a paper written by G. Efstathiou. A complete theory and software are available to construct and interpret localized power spectral densities from noisy and incomplete data observed on a spherical surface, but such knowledge has not made it into mainstream geophysical practice. Key are the doubly-orthogonal spherical Slepian functions, and their Cartesian and vectorial relatives. There is confusion in the community on whether to use the Slepian functions as a basis for data approximation, as windows for regularization of power spectral estimates, or hybridly. Each of these choices is legitimate but carries consequences to be characterized statistically. We review the options and present them tutorially, to motivate the scientific analysis of the terrestrial magnetic power spectrum, and that of Mars, which follows. The power spectral density of the lithospheric magnetic field on Earth is broken down in to portions that are geographically limited to the oceans, the continents, and various portions thereof. The different overall power levels and varying character of the power spectra contain much diagnostic information about the generation and preservation of magnetic signatures in the Earth's crust. On Mars, we conducted a parameterized inversion for magnetization strength and decorrelation depth, and compared this to independent, gravity-based estimates for crustal thickness. Both the terrestrial and martian examples are different manifestations of how Slepian functions can be used for power-spectral localization, and in both cases, the uncertainty of the spectral estimates, both on the horizontal axis (degree resolution) and the vertical axis (estimation variance), is easily computed via exact and also approximate relationships. The analytical expressions that are involved may look off-puttingly complex, but the result of the theoretical analysis is a set of simple routines
Quantum effects on power spectra and spectral indices with higher-order corrections
Zhu, Tao; Cleaver, Gerald; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin
2014-01-01
The uniform asymptotic approximation method provides a powerful, systematically-improved, and error-controlled approach to construct accurate analytical approximate solutions of mode functions of perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, designed especially for the cases where the relativistic linear dispersion relation is modified after quantum effects are taken into account. These include models from string/M-Theory, loop quantum cosmology and Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz quantum gravity. In this paper, we extend our previous studies of the first-order approximations to high orders for the cases where the modified dispersion relation (linear or nonlinear) has only one-turning point (or zero). We obtain the general expressions for the power spectra and spectral indices of both scalar and tensor perturbations up to the third-order, at which the error bounds are $\\lesssim 0.15\\%$. As an application of these formulas, we calculate the power spectra and spectral indices in the slow-roll inflation with a n...
Choudhuri, Samir; Roy, Nirupam; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk Saiyad
2016-01-01
It is important to correctly subtract point sources from radio-interferometric data in order to measure the power spectrum of diffuse radiation like the Galactic synchrotron or the Epoch of Reionization 21-cm signal. It is computationally very expensive and challenging to image a very large area and accurately subtract all the point sources from the image. The problem is particularly severe at the sidelobes and the outer parts of the main lobe where the antenna response is highly frequency dependent and the calibration also differs from that of the phase center. Here we show that it is possible to overcome this problem by tapering the sky response. Using simulated 150 MHz observations, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress the contribution due to point sources from the outer parts by using the Tapered Gridded Estimator to measure the angular power spectrum C_l of the sky signal. We also show from the simulation that this method can self-consistently compute the noise bias and accurately subtract it t...
Using Leaked Power to Measure Intrinsic AGN Power Spectra of Red-noise Time Series
Zhu, S. F.; Xue, Y. Q.
2016-07-01
Fluxes emitted at different wavebands from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) fluctuate at both long and short timescales. The variation can typically be characterized by a broadband power spectrum, which exhibits a red-noise process at high frequencies. The standard method of estimating the power spectral density (PSD) of AGN variability is easily affected by systematic biases such as red-noise leakage and aliasing, in particular when the observation spans a relatively short period and is gapped. Focusing on the high-frequency PSD that is strongly distorted due to red-noise leakage and usually not significantly affected by aliasing, we develop a novel and observable normalized leakage spectrum (NLS), which sensitively describes the effects of leaked red-noise power on the PSD at different temporal frequencies. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate how an AGN underlying PSD sensitively determines the NLS when there is severe red-noise leakage, and thereby how the NLS can be used to effectively constrain the underlying PSD.
Using Leaked Power to Measure Intrinsic AGN Power Spectra of Red-Noise Time Series
Zhu, S F
2016-01-01
Fluxes emitted at different wavebands from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) fluctuate at both long and short timescales. The variation can typically be characterized by a broadband power spectrum, which exhibits a red-noise process at high frequencies. The standard method of estimating power spectral density (PSD) of AGN variability is easily affected by systematic biases such as red-noise leakage and aliasing, in particular, when the observation spans a relatively short period and is gapped. Focusing on the high-frequency PSD that is strongly distorted due to red-noise leakage and usually not significantly affected by aliasing, we develop a novel and observable normalized leakage spectrum (NLS), which describes sensitively the effects of leaked red-noise power on the PSD at different temporal frequencies. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate how an AGN underlying PSD sensitively determines the NLS when there is severe red-noise leakage and thereby how the NLS can be used to effectively constrain the un...
Linear power spectra in cold+hot dark matter models analytical approximations and applications
Ma Chung Pei
1996-01-01
This paper presents simple analytic approximations to the linear power spectra, linear growth rates, and rms mass fluctuations for both components in a family of cold+hot dark matter (CDM+HDM) models that are of current cosmological interest. The formulas are valid for a wide range of wavenumber, neutrino fraction, redshift, and Hubble constant: k\\lo 10\\,h Mpc^{-1}, 0.05\\lo \\onu\\lo 0.3, 0\\le z\\lo 15, and 0.5\\lo h \\lo 0.8. A new, redshift-dependent shape parameter \\Gamma_\
The importance of the cosmic web and halo substructure for power spectra
Pace, Francesco; Manera, Marc; Bacon, David J.; Crittenden, Robert; Percival, Will J.
2015-01-01
In this work we study the relevance of the cosmic web and substructures on the matter and lensing power spectra measured from halo mock catalogues extracted from the N-body simulations. Since N-body simulations are computationally expensive, it is common to use faster methods that approximate the dark matter field as a set of halos. In this approximation, we replace mass concentrations in N-body simulations by a spherically symmetric Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile. We also consider ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grachev, V., E-mail: grachev@physics.montana.edu; Malovichko, G. [Physics Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Munro, M. [Quantel Laser, Bozeman, Montana 59715 (United States); Kokanyan, E. [Institute of Physical Researches, Ashtarak (Armenia)
2015-07-28
Two procedures for facilitation of line tracing and deciphering of complicated spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were developed: a correction of microwave frequencies for every orientation of external magnetic field on the base of known values of g-tensor components for a reference paramagnetic center and followed rectification of measured angular dependences using plots of effective deviation of g{sup 2}-factors of observed lines from effective g{sup 2}-factors of the reference center versus angles or squared cosines of angles describing magnetic field orientations. Their application to EPR spectra of nearly stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals doped with neodymium allowed identifying two axial and six different low-symmetry Nd{sup 3+} centers, to determine all components of their g-tensors, and to propose common divacancy models for a whole family of Nd{sup 3+} centers.
Gerbino, Martina; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Natoli, Paolo; Shiraishi, Maresuke; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2016-07-01
We use the 2015 Planck likelihood in combination with the Bicep2/Keck likelihood (BKP and BK14) to constrain the chirality, χ, of primordial gravitational waves in a scale-invariant scenario. In this framework, the parameter χ enters theory always coupled to the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, e.g. in combination of the form χ ṡ r. Thus, the capability to detect χ critically depends on the value of r. We find that with present data sets χ is de facto unconstrained. We also provide forecasts for χ from future CMB experiments, including COrE+, exploring several fiducial values of r. We find that the current limit on r is tight enough to disfavor a neat detection of χ. For example, in the unlikely case in which r~0.1(0.05), the maximal chirality case, i.e. χ = ±1, could be detected with a significance of ~2.5(1.5)σ at best. We conclude that the two-point statistics at the basis of CMB likelihood functions is currently unable to constrain chirality and may only provide weak limits on χ in the most optimistic scenarios. Hence, it is crucial to investigate the use of other observables, e.g. provided by higher order statistics, to constrain these kinds of parity violating theories with the CMB.
The Large Local Hole in the Galaxy Distribution: The 2MASS Galaxy Angular Power Spectrum
Frith, W J
2004-01-01
We present new evidence for a large deficiency in the local galaxy distribution situated in the 4000 sq.deg. APM survey area. We use models guided by the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) n(z) as a probe of the underlying LSS. We first check the usefulness of this technique by comparing the 2dFGRS n(z) model prediction with the K-band and B-band number counts extracted from the 2MASS and 2dFGRS parent catalogues over the 2dFGRS Northern and Southern declination strips, before turning to a comparison with the APM counts. We find that the APM counts in both the B and K-bands indicate a deficiency in the local galaxy distribution of approx. 30% to z=0.1 over the entire APM survey area. We examine the implied significance of such a large local hole, considering several possible forms for the real-space correlation function. We find that such a deficiency in the APM survey area indicates an excess of power at large scales over what is expected from the correlation function observed in the 2dFGRS correlation func...
Bifurcation timescales in power spectra of black hole binaries and ultraluminous X-ray sources
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
For black hole binaries(BHBs) and active galactic nuclei(AGNs),bifurcation timescales(BTs) Δtb exist,below which time-domain power is significantly higher than the corresponding Fourier power.Quasi-periodic oscillations(QPOs) are removed from the Fourier spectra of BHBs.A relationship between BT,black hole mass and bolometric luminosity is derived.Strong anti-correlation between BT and luminosity of Cyg X-1 is found.After removing the QPOs,BTs are also obtained for two ultraluminous X-ray sources(ULXs),M82 X-1 and NGC5408 X-1.The results support that they harbor intermediate mass black holes(IMBHs).
Modification of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity in autobiographical memory: a sLORETA study.
Imperatori, Claudio; Brunetti, Riccardo; Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo
2014-08-01
The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of scalp EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity during the autobiographical memory test (AM-T) and during the retrieval of an autobiographical event (the high school final examination, Task 2). Seventeen healthy volunteers were enrolled (9 women and 8 men, mean age 23.4 ± 2.8 years, range 19-30). EEG was recorded at baseline and while performing the autobiographical memory (AM) tasks, by means of 19 surface electrodes and a nasopharyngeal electrode. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized LOw Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectra and lagged EEG coherence were compared between EEG acquired during the memory tasks and baseline recording. The frequency bands considered were as follows: delta (0.5-4 Hz); theta (4.5-7.5 Hz); alpha (8-12.5 Hz); beta1 (13-17.5 Hz); beta2 (18-30 Hz); gamma (30.5-60 Hz). During AM-T, we observed a significant delta power increase in left frontal and midline cortices (T = 3.554; p < 0.05) and increased EEG connectivity in delta band in prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and for gamma bands in the left temporo-parietal regions (T = 4.154; p < 0.05). In Task 2, we measured an increased power in the gamma band located in the left posterior midline areas (T = 3.960; p < 0.05) and a significant increase in delta band connectivity in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and in the gamma band involving right temporo-parietal areas (T = 4.579; p < 0.05). These results indicate that AM retrieval engages in a complex network which is mediated by both low- (delta) and high-frequency (gamma) EEG bands.
The power-law spectra of energetic particles during multi-island magnetic reconnection
Drake, J F; Fermo, R L
2012-01-01
Power-law distributions are a near universal feature of energetic particle spectra in the heliosphere. Anomalous Cosmic Rays (ACRs), super-Alfv\\'enic ions in the solar wind and the hardest energetic electron spectra in flares all have energy fluxes with power-laws that depend on energy $E$ approximately as $E^{-1.5}$. We present a new model of particle acceleration in systems with a bath of merging magnetic islands that self-consistently describes the development of velocity-space anisotropy parallel and perpendicular to the local magnetic field and includes the self-consistent feedback of pressure anisotropy on the merging dynamics. By including pitch-angle scattering we obtain an equation for the omni-directional particle distribution $f(v,t)$ that is solved in closed form to reveal $v^{-5}$ (corresponding to an energy flux varying as $E^{-1.5}$) as a near-universal solution as long as the characteristic acceleration time is short compared with the characteristic loss time. In such a state the total energy ...
Alsing, Justin; Jaffe, Andrew H
2016-01-01
We apply two Bayesian hierarchical inference schemes to infer shear power spectra, shear maps and cosmological parameters from the CFHTLenS weak lensing survey - the first application of this method to data. In the first approach, we sample the joint posterior distribution of the shear maps and power spectra by Gibbs sampling, with minimal model assumptions. In the second approach, we sample the joint posterior of the shear maps and cosmological parameters, providing a new, accurate and principled approach to cosmological parameter inference from cosmic shear data. As a first demonstration on data we perform a 2-bin tomographic analysis to constrain cosmological parameters and investigate the possibility of photometric redshift bias in the CFHTLenS data. Under the baseline $\\Lambda$CDM model we constrain $S_8 = \\sigma_8(\\Omega_\\mathrm{m}/0.3)^{0.5} = 0.67 ^{\\scriptscriptstyle+ 0.03 }_{\\scriptscriptstyle- 0.03 }$ $(68\\%)$, consistent with previous CFHTLenS analysis but in tension with Planck. Adding neutrino m...
Ali, Sk Saiyad; Choudhuri, Samir; Ghosh, Abhik; Roy, Nirupam
2016-01-01
The diffuse Galactic syncrotron emission (DGSE) is the most important diffuse foreground component for future cosmological 21-cm observations. The DGSE is also an important probe of the cosmic ray electron and magnetic field distributions in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy. In this paper we briefly review the Tapered Gridded Estimator (TGE) which can be used to quantify the angular power spectrum of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio-interferometric observations. The salient features of the TGE are (1.) it deals with the gridded data which makes it computationally very fast (2.) it avoids a positive noise bias which normally arises from the system noise inherent to the visibility data, and (3.) it allows us to taper the sky response and thereby suppresses the contribution from unsubtracted point sources in the outer parts and the sidelobes of the antenna beam pattern. We also summarize earlier work where the TGE was used to measure the C_l of the DGSE using 1...
Coronal Fourier power spectra: implications for coronal seismology and coronal heating
Ireland, Jack; Inglis, Andrew R
2014-01-01
The dynamics of regions of the solar corona are investigated using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 171\\AA\\ and 193\\AA\\ data. The coronal emission from the quiet Sun, coronal loop footprints, coronal moss, and from above a sunspot is studied. It is shown that the mean Fourier power spectra in these regions can be described by a power law at lower frequencies that tails to flat spectrum at higher frequencies, plus a Gaussian-shaped contribution that varies depending on the region studied. This Fourier spectral shape is in contrast to the commonly-held assumption that coronal time-series are well described by the sum of a long time-scale background trend plus Gaussian-distributed noise, with some specific locations also showing an oscillatory signal. The implications of this discovery to the field of coronal seismology and the automated detections of oscillations are discussed. The power law contribution to the shape of the Fourier power spectrum is interpreted as being due to the summation of a distribution ...
The importance of the cosmic web and halo substructure for power spectra
Pace, Francesco; Bacon, David J; Crittenden, Robert; Percival, Will J
2015-01-01
In this work we study the relevance of the cosmic web and substructures on the matter and lensing power spectra measured from halo mock catalogues extracted from the N-body simulations. Since N-body simulations are computationally expensive, it is common to use faster methods that approximate the dark matter field as a set of halos. In this approximation, we replace mass concentrations in N-body simulations by a spherically symmetric Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile. We also consider the full mass field as the sum of two distinct fields: dark matter halos ($M>9\\times 10^{12}~M_{\\odot}$/h) and particles not included into halos. Mock halos reproduce well the matter power spectrum, but underestimate the lensing power spectrum on large and small scales. For sources at $z_{\\rm s}=1$ the lensing power spectrum is underestimated by up to 40% at $\\ell\\approx 10^4$ with respect to the simulated halos. The large scale effect can be alleviated by combining the mock catalogue with the dark matter distribution out...
Origin of multiple periodicities in the Fourier power spectra of the Plasmodium falciparum genome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nunes Miriam CS
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fourier transforms and their associated power spectra are used for detecting periodicities and protein-coding genes and is generally regarded as a well established technique. Many of the periodicities which have been found with this method are quite well understood such as the periodicity of 3 nt which is associated to codon usage. But what is the origin of the peculiar frequency multiples k/21 which were reported for a tiny section of chromosome 2 in P. falciparum? Are these present in other chromosomes and perhaps in related organisms? And how should we interpret fractional periodicities in genomes? Results We applied the binary indicator power spectrum to all chromosomes of P. falciparum, and found that the frequency overtones k/21 are present only in non-coding sections. We did not find such frequency overtones in any other related genomes. Furthermore, the frequency overtones were identified as artifacts of the way the genome is encoded into a numerical sequence, that is, they are frequency aliases. By choosing a different way to encode the sequence the overtones do not appear. In view of these results, we revisited early applications of this technique to proteins where frequency overtones were reported. Conclusions Some authors hinted recently at the possibility of mapping artifacts and frequency aliases in power spectra. However, in the case of P. falciparum the frequency aliases are particularly strong and can mask the 1/3 frequency which is used for gene detecting. This shows that albeit being a well known technique, with a long history of application in proteins, few researchers seem to be aware of the problems represented by frequency aliases.
Lee, Jounghun
2008-01-01
We analyze the photometric redshift catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5) to estimate the Fisher information in the galaxy angular power spectrum with the help of the Rimes-Hamilton technique. It is found that the amount of Fisher information contained in the galaxy angular power spectrum is saturated at lensing multipole scale 300<= l <= 2000 in the redshift range 0.1<= photo-z <0.5. At l=2000, the observed information is two orders of magnitude lower than the case of Gaussian fluctuations. This supports observationally that the translinear regime of the density power spectrum contains little independent information about the initial cosmological conditions, which is consistent with the numerical trend shown by Rimes-Hamilton. Our results also suggest that the Gaussian-noise description may not be valid in weak lensing measurements.
The importance of the cosmic web and halo substructure for power spectra
Pace, Francesco; Manera, Marc; Bacon, David J.; Crittenden, Robert; Percival, Will J.
2015-11-01
In this work, we study the relevance of the cosmic web and substructures on the matter and lensing power spectra measured from halo mock catalogues extracted from the N-body simulations. Since N-body simulations are computationally expensive, it is common to use faster methods that approximate the dark matter field as a set of haloes. In this approximation, we replace mass concentrations in N-body simulations by a spherically symmetric Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile. We also consider the full mass field as the sum of two distinct fields: dark matter haloes (M > 9 × 1012 M⊙ h-1) and particles not included into haloes. Mock haloes reproduce well the matter power spectrum, but underestimate the lensing power spectrum on large and small scales. For sources at zs = 1 the lensing power spectrum is underestimated by up to 40 per cent at ℓ ≈ 104 with respect to the simulated haloes. The large-scale effect can be alleviated by combining the mock catalogue with the dark matter distribution outside the haloes. In addition, to evaluate the contribution of substructures we have smeared out the intrahalo substructures in an N-body simulation while keeping the halo density profiles unchanged. For the matter power spectrum the effect of this smoothing is only of the order of 5 per cent, but for lensing substructures and ellipticity are much more important: for ℓ ≈ 104 modifications to the internal structure contribute to 30 per cent of the total spectrum. These findings have important implications in the way mock catalogues have to be created, suggesting that some approximate methods currently used for galaxy surveys will be inadequate for future weak lensing surveys.
Theoretical power spectra of mixed modes in low mass red giant stars
Grosjean, M; Belkacem, K; Montalban, J; Samadi, R; Mosser, B
2014-01-01
CoRoT and Kepler observations of red giant stars revealed very rich spectra of non-radial solar-like oscillations. Of particular interest was the detection of mixed modes that exhibit significant amplitude, both in the core and at the surface of the stars. It opens the possibility of probing the internal structure from their inner-most layers up to their surface along their evolution on the red giant branch as well as on the red-clump. Our objective is primarily to provide physical insight into the physical mechanism responsible for mixed-modes amplitudes and lifetimes. Subsequently, we aim at understanding the evolution and structure of red giants spectra along with their evolution. The study of energetic aspects of these oscillations is also of great importance to predict the mode parameters in the power spectrum. Non-adiabatic computations, including a time-dependent treatment of convection, are performed and provide the lifetimes of radial and non-radial mixed modes. We then combine these mode lifetimes a...
Matter power spectra in viable f(R gravity models with massive neutrinos
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Chao-Qiang Geng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the matter power spectra in the power law and exponential types of viable f(R theories along with massive neutrinos. The enhancement of the matter power spectrum is found to be a generic feature in these models. In particular, we show that in the former type, such as the Starobinsky model, the spectrum is magnified much larger than the latter one, such as the exponential model. A greater scale of the total neutrino mass, ∑mν, is allowed in the viable f(R models than that in the ΛCDM one. We obtain the constraints on the neutrino masses by using the CosmoMC package with the modified MGCAMB. Explicitly, we get ∑mν<0.451(0.214 eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential model, while the corresponding one for the ΛCDM model is ∑mν<0.200 eV. Furthermore, by treating the effective number of neutrino species Neff as a free parameter along with ∑mν, we find that Neff=3.78−0.84+0.64(3.47−0.60+0.74 and ∑mν=0.533−0.411+0.254 (<0.386 eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential model.
Matter power spectra in viable f(R) gravity models with massive neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geng, Chao-Qiang, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Lee, Chung-Chi, E-mail: g9522545@oz.nthu.edu.tw [National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Shen, Jia-Liang, E-mail: dddirac@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China)
2015-01-05
We investigate the matter power spectra in the power law and exponential types of viable f(R) theories along with massive neutrinos. The enhancement of the matter power spectrum is found to be a generic feature in these models. In particular, we show that in the former type, such as the Starobinsky model, the spectrum is magnified much larger than the latter one, such as the exponential model. A greater scale of the total neutrino mass, ∑m{sub ν}, is allowed in the viable f(R) models than that in the ΛCDM one. We obtain the constraints on the neutrino masses by using the CosmoMC package with the modified MGCAMB. Explicitly, we get ∑m{sub ν}<0.451(0.214) eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential) model, while the corresponding one for the ΛCDM model is ∑m{sub ν}<0.200 eV. Furthermore, by treating the effective number of neutrino species N{sub eff} as a free parameter along with ∑m{sub ν}, we find that N{sub eff}=3.78{sub −0.84}{sup +0.64}(3.47{sub −0.60}{sup +0.74}) and ∑m{sub ν}=0.533{sub −0.411}{sup +0.254}(<0.386) eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential) model.
Internal and external spatial attention examined with lateralized EEG power spectra.
Van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Bundt, Carsten; Abrahamse, Elger L
2014-10-01
Several authors argued that retrieval of an item from visual short term memory (internal spatial attention) and focusing attention on an externally presented item (external spatial attention) are similar. Part of the neuroimaging support for this view may be due to the employed experimental procedures. Furthermore, as internal spatial attention may have a more induced than evoked nature some effects may not have been visible in event related analyses of the electroencephalogram (EEG), which limits the possibility to demonstrate differences. In the current study, a colored frame cued which stimulus, one out of four presented in separate quadrants, required a response, which depended on the form of the cued stimulus (circle or square). Importantly, the frame occurred either before (precue), simultaneously with (simultaneous cue), or after the stimuli (postcue). The precue and simultaneous cue condition both concern external attention, while the postcue condition implies the involvement of internal spatial attention. Event-related lateralizations (ERLs), reflecting evoked effects, and lateralized power spectra (LPS), reflecting both evoked and induced effects, were determined. ERLs revealed a posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) only in the precue condition. LPS analyses on the raw EEG showed early increased contralateral theta power at posterior sites and later increased ipsilateral alpha power at occipito-temporal sites in all cue conditions. Responses were faster when the internally or externally attended location corresponded with the required response side than when not. These findings provide further support for the view that internal and external spatial attention share their underlying mechanism. PMID:25130665
Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development
Chuss, D T; Amiri, M; Appel, J; Bennett, C L; Colazo, F; Denis, K L; Dünner, R; Essinger-Hileman, T; Eimer, J; Fluxa, P; Gothe, D; Halpern, M; Harrington, K; Hilton, G; Hinshaw, G; Hubmayr, J; Iuliano, J; Marriage, T A; Miller, N; Moseley, S H; Mumby, G; Petroff, M; Reintsema, C; Rostem, K; U-Yen, K; Watts, D; Wagner, E; Wollack, E J; Xu, Z; Zeng, L
2015-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe $\\sim$70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) modulates the polarization at $\\sim$10 Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that span both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously d...
Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters
Aghanim, N; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlation functions of CMB temperature and polarization. They use the hybrid approach employed previously: pixel-based at low multipoles, $\\ell$, and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher $\\ell$. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization data, and more detailed foreground and instrumental models. More than doubling the data allows further checks and enhanced immunity to systematics. Progress in foreground modelling enables a larger sky fraction, contributing to enhanced precision. Improvements in processing and instrumental models further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish robustness and accuracy, from temperature, from polarization, and from their combination, and show that the {\\Lambda}CDM model continues to offer a very good fit. We further validate the likelihood against specific extensions to this baseline, suc...
A technique for filling gaps in time series with complicated power spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fahlman and Ulrych (1982) describe a method for estimating the power and phase spectra of gapped time series, using a maximum-entropy reconstruction of the data in the gaps. It has proved difficult to apply this technique to solar oscillations data, because of the great complexity of the solar oscillations spectrum. We describe a means for avoiding this difficulty, and report the results of a series of blind tests of the modified technique. The main results of these tests are: 1. Gap-filling gives good results, provided that the signal-to-noise ration in the original data is large enough, and provided the gaps are short enough. For low-noise data, the duty cycle of the observations should not be less than about 50%. 2. The frequencies and widths of narrow spectrum features are well reproduced by the technique. 3. The technique systematically reduces the apparent amplitudes of small features in the spectrum relative to large ones. (orig.)
Emerging spectra of singular correlation matrices under small power-map deformations
Vinayak; Schäfer, Rudi; Seligman, Thomas H.
2013-09-01
Correlation matrices are a standard tool in the analysis of the time evolution of complex systems in general and financial markets in particular. Yet most analysis assume stationarity of the underlying time series. This tends to be an assumption of varying and often dubious validity. The validity of the assumption improves as shorter time series are used. If many time series are used, this implies an analysis of highly singular correlation matrices. We attack this problem by using the so-called power map, which was introduced to reduce noise. Its nonlinearity breaks the degeneracy of the zero eigenvalues and we analyze the sensitivity of the so-emerging spectra to correlations. This sensitivity will be demonstrated for uncorrelated and correlated Wishart ensembles.
Deconvolution as a means of correcting turbulence power spectra measured by LDA
Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara
2014-11-01
Measurement of turbulence power spectra by means of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) has proven to be a difficult task. Among the problems affecting the shape of the spectrum are noise in the signal and changes in the sample rate caused by unintentional effects in the measuring apparatus or even in the mathematical algorithms used to evaluate the spectrum. We analyze the effect of various causes of bias in the sample rate and show that the effect is a convolution of the true spectrum with various spectral functions. We show that these spectral functions can be measured with the available data from a standard LDA processor and we use this knowledge to correct the measured spectrum by deconvolution. We present results supported by realistic computer generated data using two different spectral estimators, the so-called slotted autocovariance method and the so-called direct method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A study of the behavior of reflected gamma radiation inside a spherical, steel-lined, concrete-walled room has been conducted using the discrete ordinates S/sub n/ code ANISN. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the scattered radiation on the calculated gamma dose rate expected following a severe accident inside a reactor containment building. This paper presents an analysis of the angular, radial, and energy dependence of the scattered fluence. An empirical approximation for the radial dependence of the contribution of the scattered radiation is presented. Major conclusions are that the total scattered radiation is approximately twice the product of the incident fluence and the albedo near the wall, and that the presence of a steel liner significantly reduces the scattered radiation. Generally, good agreement was observed between the discrete ordinates results and published Monte Carlo data
Siddiqui, Imran; Khan, Shamim; Windholz, Laurentius
2014-05-01
We present 66 even and 58 odd parity newly discovered fine structure levels of Pr I with high angular momentum: J = 15/2, 17/2 and 19/2 and 21/2. Spectral lines in the range 4200 Å to 7500 Å were experimentally investigated using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. The levels were discovered by analysis of the recorded hyperfine patterns of the investigated transitions. More than 800 spectral lines could be classified with help of these levels. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2014-50025-7
Reconstruction of the primordial power spectra with Planck and BICEP2
Hu, Bin; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Cai, Rong-Gen
2014-01-01
By using the cubic spline interpolation method, we reconstruct the shape of the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra from the recently released {\\it Planck} temperature and BICEP2 polarization cosmic microwave background data. We find that the vanishing scalar index running ($\\dd n_s/\\dd\\ln k$) model is strongly disfavored with more than $3\\sigma$ confidence level on the $k=0.0002$ Mpc$^{-1}$ scale. Furthermore, the power-law parameterization gives a blue-tilt tensor spectrum, no matter using only the first 5 bandpowers $n_t = 1.20^{+0.56}_{-0.64}~(95\\% {\\rm CL})$ or the full 9 bandpowers $n_t = 1.24^{+0.51}_{-0.58}~(95\\% {\\rm CL})$ of BICEP2 data sets. Compared with the large tensor-to-scalar ratio value ($r\\sim0.20$) under the scale-invariant tensor spectrum assumption, our interpolation approach gives $r_{0.002} < 0.060~(95\\% {\\rm CL})$ by using the first 5 bandpowers of BICEP2 data.
A method for the estimation of p-mode parameters from averaged solar oscillation power spectra
Reiter, J; Kosovichev, A G; Schou, J; Scherrer, P H; Larson, T P
2015-01-01
A new fitting methodology is presented which is equally well suited for the estimation of low-, medium-, and high-degree mode parameters from $m$-averaged solar oscillation power spectra of widely differing spectral resolution. This method, which we call the "Windowed, MuLTiple-Peak, averaged spectrum", or WMLTP Method, constructs a theoretical profile by convolving the weighted sum of the profiles of the modes appearing in the fitting box with the power spectrum of the window function of the observing run using weights from a leakage matrix that takes into account both observational and physical effects, such as the distortion of modes by solar latitudinal differential rotation. We demonstrate that the WMLTP Method makes substantial improvements in the inferences of the properties of the solar oscillations in comparison with a previous method that employed a single profile to represent each spectral peak. We also present an inversion for the internal solar structure which is based upon 6,366 modes that we ha...
Clarifying Slow Roll Inflation and the Quantum Corrections to the Observable Power Spectra
Boyanovsky, D; Sánchez, N G
2006-01-01
Slow-roll inflation can be studied as an effective field theory. The form of the inflaton potential consistent with the data is V(phi) = N M^4 w(phi/[sqrt{N} M_{Pl}]) where phi is the inflaton field, M is the inflation energy scale, and N ~ 50 the number of efolds. The dimensionless function w(chi) and field chi are O(1). This form of the potential encodes the slow-roll expansion as an expansion in 1/N.A The Hubble parameter, inflaton mass and non-linear couplings are of the see-saw form in terms of M/M_{Pl}. The quartic coupling is lambda~1/N (M/M_{Pl})^4. The smallness of the non-linear couplings is not a result of fine tuning but a natural consequence of the validity of the effective field theory and slow roll approximation. Quantum corrections to slow roll inflation are computed and turn to be an expansion in powers (H/M_{Pl})^2. The corrections to the inflaton effective potential and its equation of motion are computed, as well as the quantum corrections to the observable power spectra. The near scale in...
Sturrock, P A
2003-01-01
It is often necessary to compare the power spectra of two or more time series: one may, for instance, wish to estimate what the power spectrum of the combined data sets might have been, or one may wish to estimate the significance of a particular peak that shows up in two or more power spectra. Also, one may occasionally need to search for a complex of peaks in a single power spectrum, such as a fundamental and one or more harmonics, or a fundamental plus sidebands, etc. Visual inspection can be revealing, but it can also be misleading. This leads one to look for one or more ways of forming statistics, which readily lend themselves to significance estimation, from two or more power spectra. The familiar chi-square statistic provides a convenient mechanism for combining variables drawn from normal distributions, and one may generalize the chi-square statistic to be any function of any number of variables with arbitrary distributions. In dealing with power spectra, we are interested mainly in exponential distri...
... A This image displays a frequent location for candida infection (angular cheilitis), the corners of the mouth. Overview ... infection, those affected may also have thrush (oral candidiasis). The areas are generally slightly painful. The condition ...
Hawkins, D
1994-03-01
A computer program was developed in conjunction with a musculoskeletal modeling scheme to determine lower extremity joint angular velocity profiles which allow specific muscles, if activated tetanically, to generate their greatest power. As input the program requires subject anthropometric and joint configuration data. Muscle-tendon (MT) attachment location data and a straight line MT model are used to calculate MT lengths for each joint configuration. The shortening velocity which allows an active muscle to generate its greatest power is calculated based on muscle architecture and a relationship between power and shortening velocity. A finite difference technique is used to calculate the time between sequential joint configurations which will produce the optimal muscle shortening velocity. This time is then used to calculate optimal joint angular velocities for each muscle and and for each joint configuration. The utility of this program is demonstrated by calculating optimal joint angular velocities for fifteen muscles and comparing calculated knee extension velocities with experimental results cited in the literature. PMID:8062553
Spectra and angular distributions of atmospheric gamma rays from 0.3 to 10 MeV at lambda = 40 deg
Ling, J. C.; Gruber, D. E.
1977-01-01
Measurements of the spectral and angular distributions of atmospheric gamma sq cm rays in the energy range 0.3-10 MeV over Palestine, Texas, at residual depths of 2.5 and 70 g/sq cm are reported. In confirmation of the general features of a model prediction, the measurements show at 2.5 g/sq cm upward moving fluxes greater than the downward moving fluxes, the effect increasing with energy, and approximate isotropy at 70 g/sq cm. Numerous characteristic gamma-ray lines were observed, most prominently at 0.511, 1.6, 2.3, 4.4, and 6.1 MeV. Their intensities were also compared with model predictions. Observations were made with an actively shielded scintillator counter with two detectors, one of aperture 50 deg FWHM and the other of 120 deg FWHM. Above 1 MeV, contributions to the counting rate from photons penetrating the shield annulus and from neutron interactions were large; they were studied by means of a Monte Carlo code and are extensively discussed.
Cusp-latitude Pc3 spectra: band-limited and power-law components
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Ponomarenko
Full Text Available This work attempts to fill a gap in comparative studies of upstream-generated Pc3–4 waves and broad band ULF noise observed at cusp latitudes. We performed a statistical analysis of the spectral properties of three years of cusp-latitude ground magnetometer data, finding that the average daytime Pc3–4 spectra are characterized by two principal components: an upstream-related band-limited enhancement (‘signal’ and a power-law background (‘noise’ with S(f a f ^{-4} . Based on this information we developed an algorithm allowing for the deconvolution of these two components in the spectral domain. The frequency of the signal enhancement increases linearly with IMF magnitude as f [mHz] ~ 4.4 | B_{IMF} | [nT], and its power maximizes around IMF cone angles q_{xB} ~ 20 and 160° and at 10:30–11:00 MLT. Both spectral components exhibit similar semiannual variations with equinoctial maxima. The back-ground noise power grows with increasing southward B_{z} and remains nearly constant for northward B_{z} . Its diurnal variation resembles that of Pc5 field-line resonance power, with a maximum near 09:00 MLT. Both the band-limited signal and broad band noise components show power-law growth with solar wind velocity a V ^{5.71}_{sw} and a V ^{4.12}_{sw}, respectively. Thus, the effective signal-to-noise ratio increases with in-creasing V_{sw}. The observations suggest that the noise generation is associated with reconnection processes.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind magnetosphere interactions
Deb, B.; Bhattacharya, S.; Ghosh, A.
2011-11-01
In this letter we have studied broadband conductivity spectra (10 Hz-3 GHz) of fast-ion-conducting silver selenite glasses of compositions xAgI-(1-x)(yAg2O-(1-y)SeO2). We have observed that the conductivity spectra below 10 MHz are characterized by a power law with exponent less than unity, while the conductivity spectra in the high-frequency range (above 10 MHz) have been adequately explained in the framework of the unified site relaxation model with exponent greater than unity. The scaling of the conductivity spectra indicates that the time-temperature superposition principle is valid in the low-frequency regime, but not in the high-frequency regime.
Effect of microwave power on EPR spectra of thermally sterilized eucerinum anhydricum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramos Paweł
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Free radicals formed during thermal sterilization of eucerinum anhydricum – the pharmaceutical base were examined by an X-band (9.3 GHz spectrometer. Eucerinum anhydricum was sterilized at different physical conditions according to the Polish Pharmacopeia norms. The samples were heated at temperatures: 160°C (120 min, 170°C (60 min, and 180°C (30 min. The aim of this study is to compare free radical concentration and effect of microwave power on EPR spectra of eucerinum anhydricum base thermally sterilized at different temperatures and periods of time. The effect of time storage on the free radicals in the heated samples was tested. Free radical concentrations in the sample stored 15 min strongly decreased with the increasing of sterilization temperature, probably as the result of recombination. Storage caused strong decrease of free radical concentrations in the samples, probably as the result of interactions with oxygen. It was observed to be independent of sterilization conditions from 2 days of storage and longer. Because of the lowest free radical concentration, for eucerinum anhydricum thermal sterilization at 180°C for 30 min is recommended. The sterilized samples should be stored at inert atmosphere without oxygen molecules. Fast spin-lattice relaxation processes existed in sterilized eucerinum anhydricum. The character of changes of amplitudes and linewidths of EPR lines with increasing of microwave power was the same for different storage times. The parameters of thermal sterilization and storage time influenced free radical concentration in eucerinum anhydricum, but magnetic spin-lattice interactions were unchanged. The usefulness of EPR spectroscopy in optimization of thermal sterilization process of eucerinum anhydricum was confirmed.
A Method for the Estimation of p-Mode Parameters from Averaged Solar Oscillation Power Spectra
Reiter, J.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Larson, T. P.
2015-04-01
A new fitting methodology is presented that is equally well suited for the estimation of low-, medium-, and high-degree mode parameters from m-averaged solar oscillation power spectra of widely differing spectral resolution. This method, which we call the “Windowed, MuLTiple-Peak, averaged-spectrum” or WMLTP Method, constructs a theoretical profile by convolving the weighted sum of the profiles of the modes appearing in the fitting box with the power spectrum of the window function of the observing run, using weights from a leakage matrix that takes into account observational and physical effects, such as the distortion of modes by solar latitudinal differential rotation. We demonstrate that the WMLTP Method makes substantial improvements in the inferences of the properties of the solar oscillations in comparison with a previous method, which employed a single profile to represent each spectral peak. We also present an inversion for the internal solar structure, which is based upon 6366 modes that we computed using the WMLTP method on the 66 day 2010 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/MDI Dynamics Run. To improve both the numerical stability and reliability of the inversion, we developed a new procedure for the identification and correction of outliers in a frequency dataset. We present evidence for a pronounced departure of the sound speed in the outer half of the solar convection zone and in the subsurface shear layer from the radial sound speed profile contained in Model S of Christensen-Dalsgaard and his collaborators that existed in the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 during mid-2010.
Inflation after WMAP3: Confronting the Slow-Roll and Exact Power Spectra to CMB Data
Martín, J; Martin, Jerome; Ringeval, Christophe
2006-01-01
The implications of the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) third year data for inflation are investigated using both the slow-roll approximation and an exact numerical integration of the inflationary power spectra including a phenomenological modelling of the reheating era. At slow-roll leading order, the constraints epsilon1 0 is observed. With regards to the exact numerical integration, large field models, V(phi) \\propto phi^p, with p > 3.1 are now excluded at 95% CL. Small field models, V(phi) \\propto 1-(phi/mu)^p, are still compatible with the data for all values of p. However, if mu/Mpl 1MeV at 95% CL and T_reh > 1TeV at 68% CL. Hybrid models are disfavoured by the data, the best fit model having \\Delta chi^2 = +5 with two extra parameters in comparison with large field models. Running mass models remain compatible, but no prior independent constraints can be obtained. Finally, superimposed oscillations of trans-Planckian origin are studied. The vanilla slow-roll model is still the most probab...
Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.
2015-12-01
In this study, a novel ab initio cosmic ray (CR) modulation code that solves a set of stochastic transport equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation, and that uses output from a turbulence transport code as input for the diffusion tensor, is introduced. This code is benchmarked with a previous approach to ab initio modulation. The sensitivity of computed galactic CR proton spectra at Earth to assumptions made as to the low-wavenumber behavior of the two-dimensional (2D) turbulence power spectrum is investigated using perpendicular mean free path expressions derived from two different scattering theories. Constraints on the low-wavenumber behavior of the 2D power spectrum are inferred from the qualitative comparison of computed CR spectra with spacecraft observations at Earth. Another key difference from previous studies is that observed and inferred CR intensity spectra at 73 AU are used as boundary spectra instead of the usual local interstellar spectrum. Furthermore, the results presented here provide a tentative explanation as to the reason behind the unusually high galactic proton intensity spectra observed in 2009 during the recent unusual solar minimum.
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
A High-Frequency Doppler Feature in the Power Spectra of Simulated GRMHD Black Hole Accretion Disks
Wellons, Sarah; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E
2013-01-01
Black hole binaries exhibit a wide range of variability phenomena, from large-scale state changes to broadband noise and quasi-periodic oscillations, but the physical nature of much of this variability is poorly understood. We examine the variability properties of three GRMHD simulations of thin accretion disks around black holes of varying spin, producing light curves and power spectra as would be seen by observers. We find that the simulated power spectra show a broad feature at high frequency, which increases in amplitude with the inclination of the observer. We show that this high-frequency feature is a product of the Doppler effect and that its location is a function of the mass and spin of the black hole. This Doppler feature demonstrates that power spectral properties of the accretion disk can be tied to, and potentially used to determine, physical properties of the black hole.
Kohn, S A; Nunhokee, C; Bernardi, G; Pober, J; Ali, Z; Bradley, R; Carilli, C; DeBoer, D; Gugliucci, N; Jacobs, D; Klima, P; MacMahon, D; Manley, J; Moore, D; Parsons, A; Stefan, I; Walbrugh, W
2016-01-01
Current-generation low frequency interferometers constructed with the objective of detecting the high-redshift 21 cm background, aim to generate power spectra of the brightness-temperature contrast of neutral hydrogen in primordial intergalactic medium. Two-dimensional power spectra (power in Fourier modes parallel and perpendicular to the line of sight) formed from interferometric visibilities have been shown to delineate a boundary between spectrally-smooth foregrounds (known as the wedge) and spectrally-structured 21 cm background emission (the EoR-window). However, polarized foregrounds are known to possess spectral structure due to Faraday rotation, which can leak into the EoR window. In this work, we create and analyze 2D power spectra from the PAPER-32 imaging array in Stokes I, Q, U and V. These allow us to observe and diagnose systematic effects in our calibration at high signal-to-noise within the Fourier space most relevant to EoR experiments. We observe well-defined windows in the Stokes visibilit...
Moore, David; Parsons, Aaron; Ali, Zaki; Bradley, Richard; Carilli, Chris; DeBoer, David; Dexter, Matthew; Gugliucci, Nicole; Jacobs, Daniel; Klima, Pat; Liu, Adrian; MacMahon, David; Manley, Jason; Pober, Jonathan; Stefan, Irina; Walbrugh, William
2015-01-01
Polarized foreground emission is a potential contaminant of attempts to measure the fluctuation power spectrum of highly redshifted 21 cm H{\\sc i} emission from the epoch of reionization, yet observational constraints on the level of polarized emission are poor. Using the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), we present the first limits on the power spectra of all four Stokes parameters in two frequency bands, centered at 126 MHz ($z=10.3$) and 164 MHz ($z=7.66$). This data comes from from a three-month observing campaign of a 32-antenna deployment, for which unpolarized power spectrum results have been reported at $z=7.7$ (Parsons et al 2014) and $7.5 < z < 10.5$ (Jacobs et al 2014). The power spectra in this paper are processed in the same way, and show no definitive detection of polarized power. The limits are sufficiently low that we are able to show that the excess unpolarized power reported in those works is not due to leakage of Faraday-rotated polarized ...
THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM OF DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES AND ITS IMPACT ON SUNYAEV ZEL'DOVICH STUDIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Montaña
2011-01-01
Full Text Available En este trabajo medimos el espectro angular de potencias de la población de galaxias milimétricas (SMGs a partir de observaciones a 1.1 mm realizadas con la cámara AzTEC en el Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE y el James Clerk Maxwell Telecope (JCMT. La muestra de campos observados nos permite comparar el espectro angular de potencias de las SMGs medido en la dirección de regiones del Universo sin sesgo y otras sobre densas. Nuestras mediciones permiten acotar el impacto que tiene la población de SMGs en mediciones del espectro de potencias de las fluctuaciones primarias y secundarias del fondo cósmico de radiación de microndas (CMB, que actualmente están siendo medidas por una nueva generación de experimentos con resoluciones espaciales del orden de minutos de arco y que operan a longitudes de onda milimétricas.
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)
Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Denis, Kevin; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward
2016-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).
Estimates of the solar internal angular velocity obtained with the Mt. Wilson 60-foot solar tower
Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Woodard, Martin; Tomczyk, Steven; Korzennik, Sylvain
1987-01-01
Estimates are obtained of the solar internal angular velocity from measurements of the frequency splittings of p-mode oscillations. A 16-day time series of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained during July and August 1984 at the 60-foot tower telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory is analyzed. Power spectra were computed for all of the zonal, tesseral, and sectoral p-modes from l = 0 to 89 and for all of the sectoral p-modes from l = 90 to 200. A mean power spectrum was calculated for each degree up to 89. The frequency differences of all of the different nonzonal modes were calculated for these mean power spectra.
Image simulation and a model of noise power spectra across a range of mammographic beam qualities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mackenzie, Alistair, E-mail: alistairmackenzie@nhs.net; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Diaz, Oliver [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, United Kingdom and Computer Vision and Robotics Research Institute, University of Girona, Girona 17071 (Spain)
2014-12-15
Purpose: The aim of this work is to create a model to predict the noise power spectra (NPS) for a range of mammographic radiographic factors. The noise model was necessary to degrade images acquired on one system to match the image quality of different systems for a range of beam qualities. Methods: Five detectors and x-ray systems [Hologic Selenia (ASEh), Carestream computed radiography CR900 (CRc), GE Essential (CSI), Carestream NIP (NIPc), and Siemens Inspiration (ASEs)] were characterized for this study. The signal transfer property was measured as the pixel value against absorbed energy per unit area (E) at a reference beam quality of 28 kV, Mo/Mo or 29 kV, W/Rh with 45 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) at the tube head. The contributions of the three noise sources (electronic, quantum, and structure) to the NPS were calculated by fitting a quadratic at each spatial frequency of the NPS against E. A quantum noise correction factor which was dependent on beam quality was quantified using a set of images acquired over a range of radiographic factors with different thicknesses of PMMA. The noise model was tested for images acquired at 26 kV, Mo/Mo with 20 mm PMMA and 34 kV, Mo/Rh with 70 mm PMMA for three detectors (ASEh, CRc, and CSI) over a range of exposures. The NPS were modeled with and without the noise correction factor and compared with the measured NPS. A previous method for adapting an image to appear as if acquired on a different system was modified to allow the reference beam quality to be different from the beam quality of the image. The method was validated by adapting the ASEh flat field images with two thicknesses of PMMA (20 and 70 mm) to appear with the imaging characteristics of the CSI and CRc systems. Results: The quantum noise correction factor rises with higher beam qualities, except for CR systems at high spatial frequencies, where a flat response was found against mean photon energy. This is due to the dominance of secondary quantum noise
Sato, Haruo
2016-01-01
Peak delay and envelope broadening of an S-wavelet with travel distance increasing are seen in short-period seismograms of small earthquakes. Those phenomena are results of scattering by random velocity inhomogeneities in the earth medium. As shown in sonic well-log data we may suppose that random velocity fluctuation has power-law spectra even in the seismic spectral range. As a simple mathematical model, we study how the envelope of a scalar wavelet varies in von Kármán-type random media, which have power-law spectra at large wavenumbers. Since the centre wavenumber of a wavelet is a unique scale in the power-law spectral range, using it as a reference, we divide the random media into the low-wavenumber spectral (long-scale) component and the high-wavenumber spectral (short-scale) component. For the wave propagation through the long-scale component of random media, we may apply the parabolic approximation to the wave equation. Using the Markov approximation, which is a stochastic extension of the phase screen method, we directly synthesize the energy density, which is the mean-square (MS) envelope of a wavelet in a given frequency band. The envelope duration increases according to the second power of travel distance. There is an additional factor, the wandering effect which increases the envelope duration according to the traveltime fluctuation. Wide angle scattering caused by the short-scale component of random media attenuates wave amplitude with travel distance increasing. We use the total scattering coefficient of the short-scale component as a measure of scattering attenuation per distance, which is well described by the Born approximation. Multiplying the exponential scattering attenuation factor by the MS envelope derived by the Markov approximation, we can synthesize the MS envelope reflecting all the spectral components of random media. When the random medium power spectra have a steep role-off at large wavenumbers, the envelope broadening is small and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In November 1989, the USNRC issued Revision 2 of the Standard Review Plan (SRP), Section 3.7.1. The revision requires acceleration time histories (ATH) used in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) structures meet a target power spectral density function (PSDF) in addition to meeting the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 design ground response spectrum (DGRS). Three statistically independent ATH (Original ATH) developed prior to 1989 do not fully envelop the new SRP target PSDF. Consequently, these Original ATH were numerically modified to meet the target PSDF (Modified ATH). At the same time, a new set of artificial ATH was also developed (New ATH). A three-dimensional seismic analysis of a NPP containment structure is performed using each of the three sets of ATH. Three sets of in-structure response spectra are developed at a representative location. From which ASME Code Case N-411-1 damping (PVRC damping) response spectra are developed. The three sets of PVRC damping response spectra are used as inputs to response spectrum analyses of four typical piping systems and the resulting responses compared and discussed
Munoz, Joseph A
2012-01-01
We develop a radiation pressure-balanced model for the interstellar medium of high-redshift galaxies that describes many facets of galaxy formation at z>~6, including star formation rates and distributions and gas accretion onto central black holes. We first show that the vertical gravitational force in the disk of such a model is dominated by the disk self-gravity but that both radiation pressure on dust grains and turbulent pressure from dense clumps and disk instabilities are negligible compared with the radiation pressure of starlight on gas. Constraining our model to reproduce the UV luminosity function of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs), we limit the available parameter-space to wind mass-loading factors 1--4 times the canonical value for momentum-driven winds. We then focus our study by exploring the effects of different angular momentum transport mechanisms in the galactic disk and find that viscosity driven by gravitational torques, such as from linear spiral waves or non-linear orbit crossings, can buil...
Dalton, Brian H.; Power, Geoffrey A; Paturel, Justin R.; Rice, Charles L.
2015-01-01
The underlying factors related to the divergent findings of age-related fatigue for dynamic tasks are not well understood. The purpose here was to investigate age-related fatigability and recovery between a repeated constrained (isokinetic) and an unconstrained velocity (isotonic) task, in which participants performed fatiguing contractions at the velocity (isokinetic) or resistance (isotonic) corresponding with maximal power. To compare between tasks, isotonic torque–power relationships were...
Neyrinck, Mark C
2013-01-01
We present an experiment in which we 'ring' a set of cosmological N-body-simulation initial conditions, placing spikes in its initial power spectrum at different wavenumber bins. We then measure where these spikes end up in the final conditions. In the usual, overdensity power spectrum, most sensitive to contracting and collapsing dense regions, initial power on slightly non-linear scales (k ~ 0.3 h/Mpc) smears to smaller scales, coming to dominate the initial power once there. In log-density and Gaussianized-density power spectra, the sensitivity to low-density (expanding) as well as high-density regions produces a different response: initial spikes spread symmetrically in scale, both upward and downward. We also test the difference between a crude approximation of the Ly-{\\alpha} flux field, and its Gaussianized form. In the power spectrum of the reciprocal density, 1/(1 + {\\delta}), spikes migrate to larger scales, indicating the magnifying effect voids have on small-scale modes. We give a toy model that q...
Lin, Y T; Lin, Yen-Ting; Wandelt, Benjamin D.
2004-01-01
We present here a detailed, self--contained treatment of the mathematical formalism for describing the theory of polarized anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background. This didactic review is aimed at researchers who are new to the field. We first develop the mathematical tools for describing polarized scattering of CMB photons. Then we take the reader through a detailed derivation of the line-of-sight formalism, explaining the calculation of both temperature and polarization power spectra due to the scalar and tensor perturbations in a flat Universe.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Hai; LIU JinSong; L(U) JianTao; WANG KeJia
2009-01-01
Polarization-dependent difference of the power spectra from a set of two-dimensional (2D) passive random media is investigated by simultaneously solving Maxwell's equations for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) fields. The random media have the same random constitution but different shapes. Results show that both two polarized states are morphology dependent,and the variety of the shapes has more influence on the selection of TM polarized modes than that of TE polarized modes. Such polarization-dependent difference of morphology property presents a new modeselecting technique for random lasers.
Power scaling of mini-bar-based high-power 780-980nm pump modules at Spectra-Physics
Liu, Daming; Cutillas, Serge; Jin, Xu; Park, Sang-Ki; Johnson, Kelly; Li, Hanxuan; Truchan, Tom; Wolak, Ed; Towe, Terry; Chyr, Irving; Miller, Robert; Meissner, Arne; Lenarduzzi, Dino; Bullock, Robert; Mott, Jeff; Harrison, James
2009-02-01
Continued advances in high power diode laser technology enable new applications and enhance existing ones. Recently, mini-bar based modules have been demonstrated which combine the advantages of independent emitter failures previously shown in single-stripe architectures with the improved brightness retention enabled by multi-stripe architectures. In this work we highlight advances in a family of compact, environmentally rugged mini-bar based fiber coupled Orion modules. Advances in PCE (power conversion efficiency) and reliable operating power from a 9xx nm wavelength unit are shown from such modules. Additionally, highly reliable fiber coupled operation and performance data is demonstrated in other wavelengths in the 780 - 980 nm range. Data demonstrating the scaling this technology to 25W and higher power levels will be given.
Linked Scatter Plots, A Powerful Exploration Tool For Very Large Sets of Spectra
Carbon, Duane Francis; Henze, Christopher
2015-08-01
We present a new tool, based on linked scatter plots, that is designed to efficiently explore very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, APOGEE, LAMOST, GAIA, and RAVE data sets.The tool works in two stages: the first uses batch processing and the second runs interactively. In the batch stage, spectra are processed through our data pipeline which computes the depths relative to the local continuum at preselected feature wavelengths. These depths, and any additional available variables such as local S/N level, magnitudes, colors, positions, and radial velocities, are the basic measured quantities used in the interactive stage.The interactive stage employs the NASA hyperwall, a configuration of 128 workstation displays (8x16 array) controlled by a parallelized software suite running on NASA's Pleiades supercomputer. Each hyperwall panel is used to display a fully linked 2-D scatter plot showing the depth of feature A vs the depth of feature B for all of the spectra. A and B change from panel to panel. The relationships between the various (A,B) strengths and any distinctive clustering, as well as unique outlier groupings, are visually apparent when examining and inter-comparing the different panels on the hyperwall. In addition, the data links between the scatter plots allow the user to apply a logical algebra to the measurements. By graphically selecting the objects in any interesting region of any 2-D plot on the hyperwall, the tool immediately and clearly shows how the selected objects are distributed in all the other 2-D plots. The selection process may be repeated multiple times and, at each step, the selections can represent a sequence of logical constraints on the measurements, revealing those objects which satisfy all the constraints thus far. The spectra of the selected objects may be examined at any time on a connected workstation display.Using over 945,000,000 depth measurements from 569,738 SDSS DR10 stellar spectra, we illustrate how to quickly
Spectra power and bandwidth of fiber Bragg grating under influence of gradient strain
Liu, Qinpeng; Qiao, Xueguang; Jia, Zhen'an; Fu, Haiwei
2016-09-01
The reflective spectrum power and the bandwidth of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) under gradient strain are researched and experimentally demonstrated. The gradient strain is applied on the FBG, which can induce FBG bandwidth broadening, resulting in the variation of reflective power. Based on the coupled-mode theory and transfer matrix method, the segmental linear relationship between the gradient strain, the reflective power, and the bandwidth is simulated and analyzed, and the influence of the FBG length on the reflective spectrum is analyzed. In the experiment, the strict gradient stain device is designed; the experimental results indicate that the reflective optic power and the bandwidth of the FBG under gradient stain are concerned with the length of the FBG. Experimental results are well consistent with the theoretical analysis, which have important guiding significance in the FBG dynamic sensing.
Dexter, Jason; Blaes, Omer
2013-01-01
We propose a new model of the steep power law state of luminous black hole X-ray binaries. The model uses the fact that at high luminosities, the inner radii of radiation pressure dominated accretion discs are expected to i) become effectively optically thin and ii) produce significant luminosities. The gas temperature therefore rises sharply inwards, producing local saturated Compton spectra with rapidly increasing peak energy. These spectra sum together to form a steep power law tail to the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Koch
Full Text Available Art images and natural scenes have in common that their radially averaged (1D Fourier spectral power falls according to a power-law with increasing spatial frequency (1/f(2 characteristics, which implies that the power spectra have scale-invariant properties. In the present study, we show that other categories of man-made images, cartoons and graphic novels (comics and mangas, have similar properties. Further on, we extend our investigations to 2D power spectra. In order to determine whether the Fourier power spectra of man-made images differed from those of other categories of images (photographs of natural scenes, objects, faces and plants and scientific illustrations, we analyzed their 2D power spectra by principal component analysis. Results indicated that the first fifteen principal components allowed a partial separation of the different image categories. The differences between the image categories were studied in more detail by analyzing whether the mean power and the slope of the power gradients from low to high spatial frequencies varied across orientations in the power spectra. Mean power was generally higher in cardinal orientations both in real-world photographs and artworks, with no systematic difference between the two types of images. However, the slope of the power gradients showed a lower degree of mean variability across spectral orientations (i.e., more isotropy in art images, cartoons and graphic novels than in photographs of comparable subject matters. Taken together, these results indicate that art images, cartoons and graphic novels possess relatively uniform 1/f(2 characteristics across all orientations. In conclusion, the man-made stimuli studied, which were presumably produced to evoke pleasant and/or enjoyable visual perception in human observers, form a subset of all images and share statistical properties in their Fourier power spectra. Whether these properties are necessary or sufficient to induce aesthetic
Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters
Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-09-01
This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlationfunctions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations that account for relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. They are based on the same hybrid approach used for the previous release, i.e., a pixel-based likelihood at low multipoles (ℓCMB, which also contributes to the enhanced precision of the spectra. Improvements in data processing and instrumental modelling further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish the robustness and accuracy of the likelihood results, from temperature alone, from polarization alone, and from their combination. For temperature, we also perform a full likelihood analysis of realistic end-to-end simulations of the instrumental response to the sky, which were fed into the actual data processing pipeline; this does not reveal biases from residual low-level instrumental systematics. Even with the increase in precision and robustness, the ΛCDM cosmological model continues to offer a very good fit to the Planck data. The slope of the primordial scalar fluctuations, ns, is confirmed smaller than unity at more than 5σ from Planck alone. We further validate the robustness of the likelihood results against specific extensions to the baseline cosmology, which are particularly sensitive to data at high multipoles. For instance, the effective number of neutrino species remains compatible with the canonical value of 3.046. For this first detailed analysis of Planck polarization spectra, we concentrate at high multipoles on the E modes, leaving the analysis of the weaker B modes to future work. At low multipoles we use temperature maps at all Planck frequencies along with a subset of polarization data. These data take advantage of Planck's wide frequency coverage to improve the separation of CMB and foreground emission. Within the baseline ΛCDM cosmology this requires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Munk, Emil Gammelmark Schreiner; Peppard, Paul E.;
2015-01-01
Objective: Manifestations of narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) include disturbed nocturnal sleep – hereunder sleep–wake instability, decreased latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and dissociated REM sleep events. In this study, we characterized the electroencephalography (EEG) of various sleep...... show (1) increased alpha power in REM sleep, (2) decreased sigma power in wakefulness, and (3) decreased delta power in stage N1 versus wakefulness. Sensitivity of these features ranged from 4% to 10% with specificity around 98%, and it did not vary substantially with and without treatment. Conclusions......: EEG spectral analysis of REM sleep, wake, and differences between N1 and wakefulness contain diagnostic features of NC. These traits may represent sleepiness and dissociated REM sleep in patients with NC. However, the features are not sufficient for differentiating NC from controls, and further...
Forward Modeling of Reduced Power Spectra From Three-Dimensional k-Space
von Papen, Michael; Saur, Joachim
2015-01-01
We present results from a numerical forward model to evaluate one-dimensional reduced power spectral densities (PSD) from arbitrary energy distributions in $\\mathbf{k}$-space. In this model, we can separately calculate the diagonal elements of the spectral tensor for incompressible axisymmetric turbulence with vanishing helicity. Given a critically balanced turbulent cascade with $k_\\|\\sim k_\\perp^\\alpha$ and $\\alpha
The Effect of a Finite Measurement Volume on Power Spectra from a Burst Type LDA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara Marika; K. George, William
2014-01-01
We analyze the effects of a finite size measurement volume on the power spectrum computed fromdata acquired with a burst-type laser Doppler anemometer. The finite measurement volume causes temporal distortions in acquisition of the data resulting in phenomena such as finite processing time and de...
Effect of clomipramine on sleep and EEG power spectra in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus
Dijk, D.J.; Strijkstra, A.; Daan, S.; Beersma, D.G.M.; Hoofdakker, R.H. van den
1991-01-01
Sleep was recorded in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus, chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes. The tricyclic antidepressant drug clomipramine suppressed the duration of REM sleep and EEG power density in the frequencies between 1.5 and 13.5 Hz in nonREM sleep. During the administrat
Carrano, Charles S.; Rino, Charles L.
2016-06-01
We extend the power law phase screen theory for ionospheric scintillation to account for the case where the refractive index irregularities follow a two-component inverse power law spectrum. The two-component model includes, as special cases, an unmodified power law and a modified power law with spectral break that may assume the role of an outer scale, intermediate break scale, or inner scale. As such, it provides a framework for investigating the effects of a spectral break on the scintillation statistics. Using this spectral model, we solve the fourth moment equation governing intensity variations following propagation through two-dimensional field-aligned irregularities in the ionosphere. A specific normalization is invoked that exploits self-similar properties of the structure to achieve a universal scaling, such that different combinations of perturbation strength, propagation distance, and frequency produce the same results. The numerical algorithm is validated using new theoretical predictions for the behavior of the scintillation index and intensity correlation length under strong scatter conditions. A series of numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the morphologies of the intensity spectrum, scintillation index, and intensity correlation length as functions of the spectral indices and strength of scatter; retrieve phase screen parameters from intensity scintillation observations; explore the relative contributions to the scintillation due to large- and small-scale ionospheric structures; and quantify the conditions under which a general spectral break will influence the scintillation statistics.
The Impact of Modeling Errors on Interferometer Calibration for 21 cm Power Spectra
Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Liu, Adrian; Hewitt, Jacqueline
2016-01-01
We study the impact of sky-based calibration errors from source mismodeling on 21 cm power spectrum measurements with an interferometer and propose a method for suppressing their effects. While emission from faint sources that are not accounted for in calibration catalogs is believed to be spectrally smooth, deviations of true visibilities from model visibilities are not, due to the inherent chromaticity of the interferometer's sky-response (the "wedge"). Thus, unmodeled foregrounds at the $\\approx 1$ mJy level introduce frequency structure into gain solutions on the same line-of-sight scales on which we hope to observe the cosmological signal. We derive analytic expressions describing these errors using linearized approximations of the calibration equations and determine the impact of this bias on measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Given our current precision in primary beam and foreground modeling, this noise will significantly impact the sensitivity of existing...
Sharpe, Matthew Michael
1990-01-01
CIVINS Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited Observed distributions of wave heights and periods taken from one year of surface wave monitoring near Martha's Vineyard are compared to distributions based on narrow-band theory. The joint distributions of wave heights and periods and the marginal height distributions are examined. The observed significant wave heights and periods of the extreme waves are also studied. Seas are classified by the shapes of their power densit...
Spectra and fast multi-wavelength variability of compact jets powered by internal shocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malzac Julien
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The emission of steady compact jets observed in the hard spectral state of X-ray binaries is likely to be powered by internal shocks caused by fluctuations of the outflow velocity. The dynamics of the internal shocks and the resulting spectral energy distribution (SED of the jet is very sensitive to the shape of the Power Spectral Density (PSD of the fluctuations of the jet Lorentz factor. I used both Monte-Carlo simulations and semi-analytical methods to investigate this dependence. It turns out that Lorentz factor fluctuations injected at the base of the jet with a flicker noise power spectrum (i.e. P(f 1/f naturally produce the canonical flat SED observed from radio to IR band in X-ray binary systems in the hard state. This model also predicts a strong, wavelength dependent, variability that resembles the observed one. In particular, strong sub-second variability is predicted in the infrared and optical bands. The complex timing correlations observed between the IR/optical light curves and the X-rays can then be used to probe the accretion/ejection connection on short time-scales.
Einstein-singleton theory and its power spectra in de Sitter inflation
Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai
2015-01-01
We study the Einstein-singleton theory during de Sitter inflation since it provides a way of degenerate fourth-order scalar theory. We obtain an exact solution expressed in terms of the exponential-integral function by solving the degenerate fourth-order scalar equation in de Sitter spacetime. Furthermore, we find that its power spectrum blows up in the superhorizon limit, while it is scale-invariant in the subhorizon limit. This suggests that the Einstein-singleton theory is not a suitable model for a slow-roll inflation model.
Power Spectra of a Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process with Finite Resources
Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, Royce K. P.
2010-03-01
In a cell, a mRNA has only a finite number of ribosomes to use during protein synthesis. We take this constraint into account in the modeling of translation by a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Through Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods, we study the power spectrum of the total particle occupancy of the TASEP. New features are found, such as a severe suppression at low frequencies. We formulate a theory based on a linearized Langevin equation with discrete space and time. With good agreement between the theoretical approach and the simulations, we gain some insight in how finite resources affect a TASEP.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Bernardis, P.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill,J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Contaldi, C.R.; Crill, B.P.; De Troia, G.; Farese, P.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Lange, A.E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason, P.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Polenta,G.; Pongetti, F.; Prunet, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scaramuzzi, F.
2001-05-17
Three peaks and two dips have been detected in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background from the BOOMERANG experiment, at {ell} {approx} 210, 540, 840 and {ell} {approx} 420, 750, respectively. Using model-independent analyses, we find that all five features are statistically significant and we measure their location and amplitude. These are consistent with the adiabatic inflationary model. We also calculate the mean and variance of the peak and dip locations and amplitudes in a large 7-dimensional parameter space of such models, which gives good agreement with the model-independent estimates, and forecast where the next few peaks and dips should be found if the basic paradigm is correct. We test the robustness of our results by comparing Bayesian marginalization techniques on this space with likelihood maximization techniques applied to a second 7-dimensional cosmological parameter space, using an independent computational pipeline, and find excellent agreement: {Omega}{sub tot} = 1.02{sub -0.05}{sup +0.06} vs. 1.04 {+-} 0.05, {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2} = 0.022{sub -0.003}{sup +0.004} vs. 0.019{sub -0.004}{sup +0.005}, and n{sub s} = 0.96{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10} vs. 0.90 {+-} 0.08. The deviation in primordial spectral index n{sub s} is a consequence of the strong correlation with the optical depth.
Emission spectra from direct current and microwave powered Hg lamps at very high pressure
Hamady, M.; Lister, G. G.; Stafford, L.
2013-11-01
Discharge lamps containing mercury at pressures above 100 bar are commercially used in data projectors and television projector systems. Due to their small size, these lamps are difficult to investigate experimentally, but spectral measurements, combined with radiation transport calculations, have provided useful information on the visible spectrum. However, classical spectral line broadening theory is inadequate to describe the UV portion of the spectrum, so self-consistent modelling of these discharges is not possible at present. This paper discusses the differences between discharges containing electrodes and discharges sustained by a microwave (mw) electromagnetic field, on the basis of the experimentally measured temperature profile in an electroded discharge, and a temperature profile computed from a 1D power balance model for a microwave discharge. A model based on the ray-tracing method is employed to simulate the radiation transport in these lamps. The model has been validated by comparing the emission spectrum from dc discharge lamps with those obtained experimentally. The output flux, luminous flux, luminous efficacy, the correlated colour temperature, the chromaticity coordinates and photometric curves of the lamp were then obtained. These results were also compared with those of a theoretically calculated temperature profile for the same lamp, excited by microwave power in the TM010 mode.
Magnetic field power density spectra during 'scatter-free' solar particle events
Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.
1993-01-01
We have examined interplanetary magnetic field power spectral density during four previously identified 3He-rich flare periods when the about 1 MeV nucleon-1 particles exhibited nearly scatter-free transport from the sun to 1 AU. Since the scattering mean free path A was large, it might be expected that interplanetary turbulence was low, yet the spectral density value was low only for one of the four periods. For the other three, however, the spectral index q of the power density spectrum was near 2.0, a value at which quasi-linear theories predict an increase in the scattering mean free path. Comparing the lambda values from the energetic particles with that computed from a recent quasi-linear theory which includes helicity and the propagation direction of waves, we find lambda(QLT)/lambda(SEP) = 0.08 +/- 0.03 for the four events. Thus, the theory fits the q-dependence of lambda; however, as found for previous quasi-linear theories, the absolute value is low.
Quasi-Lagrangian measurements of density surface fluctuations and power spectra in the stratosphere
Quinn, Elizabeth P.; Holzworth, Robert H.
1987-01-01
Pressure and temperature data from eight superpressure balloon flights at 26 km in the southern hemisphere stratosphere are analyzed. The balloons, which float on a constant density surface, travel steadily westward during summer and eastward during winter, as expected from local climatology. Two types of fluctuations are observed: neutral buoyancy oscillations (NBO) of around 4 min, and 0.1- to 1-hour oscillations that are characterized as small-amplitude density surface fluctuations. Lapse rates and densities are calculated and found to agree well with the expected values. Examples of wave damping and simultaneous fluctuation at two nearby balloons are presented. Spectral analysis is performed clearly showing the NBO and that the majority of the power is in the mesoscale range. Spectral slopes of power versus frequency are measured to be on the average -2.18 + or - 0.24 for pressure and -1.72 + or - 0.24 for temperature. These slopes are compared to the predictions of turbulence theories and the theory of a universal gravity wave spectrum.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akkerman, A.; Murat, M., E-mail: michael@soreq.gov.il; Barak, J.
2014-02-15
The energy spectrum of the δ-electrons ejected by an ion moving in the bulk of a solid is the origin of numerous effects which follow the transport of these electrons. This spectrum cannot be measured directly. Therefore, it should be derived theoretically. The present work aims to investigate the uncertainties introduced when applying commonly used theoretical approaches like BEA, CDFT, and PWBA to calculate δ-electron spectrum. Our calculations show that, above a certain δ-electron energy, the energy spectra of the δ-electrons obtained using the various approaches behave similarly. Below this energy, the spectra found using these approaches differ significantly due to the manner in which the solid state character of the target material is taken into account in each approach. This results in differences in the inelastic cross sections and stopping powers for the ions, which in turn result in different ion track structures. Also discussed in this paper is the effect of the uncertainty in the effective ion charge on the accuracy of ion track calculations. The results obtained for silicon allow estimating the possible uncertainties of the calculated ion track properties and related effects.
On the power spectra of the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2
Orlandini, Mauro; Morfill, G. E.
1992-01-01
A phenomenological model of accretion which is applied to the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2 is developed, assuming that the accretion onto the neutron star does not occur from a continuous flux of plasma, but from blobs of matter which are threaded by the magnetic field lines onto the magnetic polar caps of the neutron star. These 'lumps' are produced at the magnetospheric limit by magnetohydrodynamical instability, introducing a 'noise' in the accretion process, due to the discontinuity in the flux of matter onto the neutron star. This model is able to describe the change of slope observed in the continuum component of the power spectra of the X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2, in the frequency range 0.01 - 0.1 Hz. The physical properties of the infalling blobs derived in the model are in agreement with the constraints imposed by observations.
CMB and matter power spectra with non-linear dark-sector interactions
Marttens, R F vom; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W S; Zimdahl, W
2016-01-01
An interaction between dark matter and dark energy, proportional to the product of their energy densities, results in a scaling behavior of the ratio of these densities with respect to the scale factor of the Robertson-Walker metric. This gives rise to a class of cosmological models which deviate from the standard model in an analytically tractable way. In particular, it becomes possible to quantify the role of potential dark-energy perturbations. We investigate the impact of this interaction on the structure formation process. Using the (modified) CAMB code we obtain the CMB spectrum as well as the linear matter power spectrum. It is shown that the strong degeneracy in the parameter space present in the background analysis is considerably reduced by considering \\textit{Planck} data. Our analysis is compatible with the $\\Lambda$CDM model at the $2\\sigma$ confidence level with a slightly preferred direction of the energy flow from dark matter to dark energy.
An improved sample-and-hold reconstruction procedure for estimation of power spectra from LDA data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simon, Laurent [Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine, UMR-CNRS 6613, Avenue Messiaen, 72085, Le Mans (France); Fitzpatrick, John [Mechanical Engineering Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2004-08-01
Techniques for deriving the auto or power spectrum (PSD) of turbulence from laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements are reviewed briefly. The low pass filter and step noise errors associated with the sample-and-hold process are considered and a discrete version of the low pass filter for the resampled signal is derived. This is then used to develop a procedure by which the PSD estimates obtained from sample and hold measurements can be corrected. The application of the procedures is examined using simulated data and the results show that the frequency range of the analysis can be extended beyond the Nyquist frequency based on the mean sample rate. The results are shown to be comparable to those obtained using the method of Nobach et al. (1998) but the new procedures are more straightforward to implement. The technique is then used to determine the PSD of real LDA data and the results are compared with those from a hot wire anemometer. (orig.)
Ferreira, P G; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Magueijo, Joao
1997-01-01
Gaussian cosmic microwave background skies are fully specified by the power spectrum. The conventional method of characterizing non-Gaussian skies is to evaluate higher order moments, the n-point functions and their Fourier transforms. We argue that this method is inefficient, due to the redundancy of information existing in the complete set of moments. In this paper we propose a set of new statistics or non-Gaussian spectra to be extracted out of the angular distribution of the Fourier transform of the temperature anisotropies in the small field limit. These statistics complement the power spectrum and act as localization, shape, and connectedness statistics. They quantify generic non-Gaussian structure, and may be used in more general image processing tasks. We concentrate on a subset of these statistics and argue that while they carry no information in Gaussian theories they may be the best arena for making predictions in some non-Gaussian theories. As examples of applications we consider superposed Gaussi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A spectrometer to measure neutron-induced charged-particle-producing reactions was developed and yields data with greatly improved signal-to-background ratios. It consists of a magnetic quadrupole lens which focuses the charged particles onto a silicon surface-barrier detector or a two-detector telescope which is more than 2 meters from the sample being irradiated. The efficiency of the spectrometer is calibrated experimentally and depends only on values for the (n,p) elastic cross section and the stopping power of polyethylene. Further development is under way to replace the surface-barrier ΔE counter with a proportional counter of larger area. This detector, combined with a larger E counter (surface-barrier) could increase the effective solid angle by a factor of five. The results for (n,xp), (n,xd) and (n,xα) cross sections are summarized for the eight target materials studied so far. Measurements of the charged-particle spectra established that cross sections for production of protons below 2.5 MeV are significant for some targets; in fact, protons as low as 800 keV were detected from aluminum. These low-energy protons would be quite difficult to measure with conventional counter telescope spectrometers. 4 figures, 1 table
Franz, Robert; Kolbeck, Jonathan; Anders, André
2016-01-01
The ion energies and fluxes in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma from a Nb target were analysed angularly resolved along the tangential direction of the racetrack. A reactive oxygen-containing atmosphere was used as such discharge conditions are typically employed for the synthesis of thin films. Asymmetries in the flux distribution of the recorded ions as well as their energies and charge states were noticed when varying the angle between mass-energy analyser and target surface. More positively charged ions with higher count rates in the medium energy range of their distributions were detected in $+\\mathbf{E}\\times \\mathbf{B}$ than in $-\\mathbf{E}\\times \\mathbf{B}$ direction, thus confirming the notion that ionisation zones are associated with moving potential humps. The motion of the recorded negatively charged high-energy oxygen ions was unaffected. NbO$_x$ thin films at different angles and positions were synthesised and analysed as to their structure and properties in order to correlate ...
Kudoh, H; Kudoh, Hideaki; Taruya, Atsushi
2005-01-01
We discuss the sensitivity to anisotropies of stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds (GWBs) observed via space-based interferometer. In addition to the un-resolved Galactic binaries as the most promising GWB source of the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the extra-galactic sources for GWBs might be detected in the future space missions. The anisotropies of the GWBs thus play a crucial role to discriminate various components of the GWBs. We study general features of antenna pattern sensitivity to the anisotropies of GWBs beyond the low-frequency approximation. We show that the sensitivity of space-based interferometer to GWBs is severely restricted by the data combinations and the symmetries of the detector configuration. The spherical harmonic analysis of the antenna pattern functions reveals that the angular power of the detector response increases with frequency and the detectable multipole moments with effective sensitivity h_{eff}\\sim 10^{-20} Hz^{-1/2} may reach $\\ell \\sim $ 8 - 10 a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the sensitivity to anisotropies of stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds (GWBs) observed via space-based interferometer. In addition to the unresolved galactic binaries as the most promising GWB source of the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the extragalactic sources for GWBs might be detected in the future space missions. The anisotropies of the GWBs thus play a crucial role to discriminate various components of the GWBs. We study general features of antenna pattern sensitivity to the anisotropies of GWBs beyond the low-frequency approximation. We show that the sensitivity of space-based interferometer to GWBs is severely restricted by the data combinations and the symmetries of the detector configuration. The spherical harmonic analysis of the antenna pattern functions reveals that the angular power of the detector response increases with frequency and the detectable multipole moments with effective sensitivity heff∼10-20 Hz-1/2 may reach l∼8-10 at f∼f*=10 mHz in the case of the single LISA detector. However, the cross correlation of optimal interferometric variables is blind to the monopole (l=0) intensity anisotropy, and also to the dipole (l=1) in some case, irrespective of the frequency band. Besides, all the self-correlated signals are shown to be blind to the odd multipole moments (l=odd), independently of the frequency band
Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development
Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.
2016-08-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe ˜ 70 % of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at ˜ 10 Hz to suppress the 1/ f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.
Gottwald, Georg A.; Melbourne, Ian
2016-04-01
We present results on the broadband nature of the power spectrum S(ω ), ω \\in (0,2π ), for a large class of nonuniformly expanding maps with summable and nonsummable decay of correlations. In particular, we consider a class of intermittent maps f :[0,1]\\to [0,1] with f(x)≈ {x}1+γ for x≈ 0, where γ \\in (0,1). Such maps have summable decay of correlations when γ \\in ≤ft(0,\\frac{1}{2}\\right), and S(ω ) extends to a continuous function on [0,2π ] by the classical Wiener-Khintchine theorem. We show that S(ω ) is typically bounded away from zero for Hölder observables. Moreover, in the nonsummable case γ \\in ≤ft[\\frac{1}{2},1\\right), we show that S(ω ) is defined almost everywhere with a continuous extension \\tilde{S}(ω ) defined on (0,2π ), and \\tilde{S}(ω ) is typically nonvanishing.
Non-linear power spectra of dark and luminous matter in halo model of structure formation
Kulinich, Yurij; Apunevych, Stepan
2012-01-01
The paper represents a comprehensive treatment of late stages of large-scale structure evolution within the framework of halo model. A number of modifications to basic theory are suggested. We have engineered simple yet accurate approximation to relate the amplitude of non-linear spherical density perturbation to the one of the linear. The theory for final stages of spherical overdensity evolution is revised in order to re-evaluate the dependences of collapse and critical overdensity parameters, $\\delta_{col}$, $\\delta_{ta}$ and $\\delta_{min}$, on redshift and other cosmological parameters. A new technique is proposed for straightforward computation of halo concentration parameter, $c$, without need to evaluate the $z_{col}$. Validity of the technique is proved for a number of $\\Lambda$CDM and $\\Lambda$WDM cosmologies. The parameters for Sheth-Tormen mass function are estimated, as well as new approximation is constructed for the dependence of subhalo mass function on initial power spectrum. The modified and ...
Signatures of X-ray reverberation in the power spectra of AGN
Papadakis, I; Dovciak, M; Epitropakis, A; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Karas, V
2016-01-01
We compute fully relativistic disc response functions in the case of the "lamp-post" geometry using the full observed reflection spectrum for various X-ray source heights, disc inclination, and spin values of the central black hole. Since the observed PSD is equal to the product of the intrinsic power spectrum with the "transfer function" (i.e. the Fourier transform of the disc response function), we are able to predict the observed PSDs in the case of X-ray illumination of the inner disc. The observed PSD should show a prominent dip at high frequencies and an oscillatory behaviour, with a decreasing amplitude, at higher frequencies. The reverberation "echo" features should be more prominent in energy bands where the reflection component is more pronounced. The frequency of the dip is independent of energy, and it is mainly determined by the black hole mass and the X-ray source height. The amplitude of the dip increases with increasing black hole spin and inclination angle, as long as the height of the "lamp"...
The power spectra of non-circular motions in disk galaxies
Westfall, Kyle; Laws, Anna S. E.; MaNGA Team
2016-01-01
Using data from the first year of the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, we present a preliminary study of the amplitude of non-circular motions in a sample of disk galaxies. We select galaxies that have either a visual classification as a spiral galaxy by the Galaxy Zoo project (Lintott et al. 2011) and/or a measured Sersic index of less than 2.5 from the NASA-Sloan Atlas (nsatlas.org). We also remove high-inclination systems by selecting galaxies with isophotal ellipticity measurements of less than 0.6, implying an inclination of less than 65 degrees. For each galaxy, we fit a tilted-disk model to the observed line-of-sight velocities (Andersen & Bershady 2013). The geometric projection of the circularly rotating disk is simultaneously fit to both the ionized-gas (H-alpha) and stellar kinematics, whereas the rotation curves of the two dynamical tracers are allowed to be independent. We deproject the residuals of the velocity-field fit to the disk-plane polar coordinates and select a radial region that is fully covered in aziumuth, yet not undersampled by the on-sky spaxel. Similar to the approach taken by Bovy et al. (2015) for the Milky Way, we then compute the two-dimensional power spectrum of this velocity-residual map, which provides the amplitude of non-circular motions at all modes probed by the data. Our preliminary analysis reveals disk-plane non-circular motions in both the stars and ionized-gas with typical peak amplitudes of approximately 20 km/s. Additionally, our initial findings appear to demonstrate that non-circular motions in barred galaxies are stronger in the ionized gas than in the stars, a trend not seen in unbarred galaxies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the results of an investigation in which the Infrared spectroscopy and tensile elongation experiments were used to study the behaviour of polymeric insulation materials used in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (l and C) cables. A low voltage polyvinyl chloride (PVC) insulated and PVC sheathed control cable was subjected to gamma radiation from 5M Rad to 50 MRad and the extent of degradation due to radiation ageing was assessed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was observed from the infrared spectroscopy that there is an improvement in the properties of insulation materials at lower dose levels; however, the properties degrade at elevated dose conditions. This change in material properties may be due to the fact that the high energy radiation can either induce cross-linking or degradation in a polymer matrix depending on the properties of base materials and radiation parameters. In order to benchmark the findings of FTIR spectroscopy, ultimate tensile testing experimental studies were also carried out and the correlation of infrared transmittance with elongation-at-break (EAB) was established. It was evident that the FTIR findings are in good agreement with the tensile testing results at all dose levels except for a case of 5 MRad in case of sheath material. Although the chemical structure of sheath material is not affected much due to gamma radiation at 5 MRad, a reduction in EAB was seen at this dose condition. This reduction in EAB may be due to the presence of other additives in the sheath material (or physical, mechanical and environmental protection. Analysis of variance (Anova) was also performed at specific peaks of infrared transmittance to study the extent of degradation due to gamma radiation between various dose conditions, It was apparent from Anova study that there is a significant degradation due to radiation in insulation at different dose conditions at 5% significance level; however
Fogli, G L; Palazzo, A; Rotunno, A M
2005-01-01
The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) is sensitive to the neutrino event spectrum from (mainly Japanese) nuclear reactors in both the energy domain and the time domain. While the energy spectrum of KamLAND events allows the determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters, the time spectrum can be used to monitor known and unknown neutrino sources. By using available monthly-binned data on event-by-event energies in KamLAND and on reactor powers in Japan, we perform a likelihood analysis of the neutrino event spectra in energy and time, and find significant indications in favor of time variations of the known reactor sources, as compared with the hypothetical case of constant reactor neutrino flux. We also find that the KamLAND data place interesting upper limits on the power of a speculative nuclear reactor operating in the Earth's core (the so-called georeactor); such limits are strengthened by including solar neutrino constraints on the neutrino mass and mixing parameters. Ou...
Zhuravleva, I; Schekochihin, A A; Lau, E T; Nagai, D; Gaspari, M; Allen, S W; Nelson, K; Parrish, I J
2014-01-01
We address the problem of evaluating the power spectrum of the velocity field of the ICM using only information on the plasma density fluctuations, which can be measured today by Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories. We argue that for relaxed clusters there is a linear relation between the rms density and velocity fluctuations across a range of scales, from the largest ones, where motions are dominated by buoyancy, down to small, turbulent scales: $(\\delta\\rho_k/\\rho)^2 = \\eta_1^2 (V_{1,k}/c_s)^2$, where $\\delta\\rho_k/\\rho$ is the spectral amplitude of the density perturbations at wave number $k$, $V_{1,k}^2=V_k^2/3$ is the mean square component of the velocity field, $c_s$ is the sound speed, and $\\eta_1$ is a dimensionless constant of order unity. Using cosmological simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters, we calibrate this relation and find $\\eta_1\\approx 1 \\pm 0.3$. We argue that this value is set at large scales by buoyancy physics, while at small scales the density and velocity power spectra are proporti...
Howe, Rachel; Bogart, Richard S; Haber, Deborah A; Baldner, Charles S
2012-01-01
While the {\\it Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager} (HMI) onboard the {\\it Solar Dynamics Observatory} (SDO) provides Doppler velocity [$V$], continuum intensity [$I_C$], and line-depth [$Ld$] observations, each of which is sensitive to the five-minute acoustic spectrum, the {\\it Atmospheric Imaging Array} (AIA) also observes at wavelengths -- specifically the 1600 and 1700 Angstrom bands -- that are partly formed in the upper photosphere and have good sensitivity to acoustic modes. In this article we consider the characteristics of the spatio--temporal Fourier spectra in AIA and HMI observables for a 15-degree region around NOAA Active Region 11072. We map the spatio--temporal-power distribution for the different observables and the HMI Line Core [$I_L$], or Continuum minus Line Depth, and the phase and coherence functions for selected observable pairs, as a function of position and frequency. Five-minute oscillation power in all observables is suppressed in the sunspot and also in plage areas. Above the acoust...
Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Omar, Mohd Iqbal; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Mohamad, Khairiyah; Palaniappan, R; Satiyan, M
2014-03-01
Deficits in the ability to process emotions characterize several neuropsychiatric disorders and are traits of Parkinson's disease (PD), and there is need for a method of quantifying emotion, which is currently performed by clinical diagnosis. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, being an activity of central nervous system (CNS), can reflect the underlying true emotional state of a person. This study applied machine-learning algorithms to categorize EEG emotional states in PD patients that would classify six basic emotions (happiness and sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust) in comparison with healthy controls (HC). Emotional EEG data were recorded from 20 PD patients and 20 healthy age-, education level- and sex-matched controls using multimodal (audio-visual) stimuli. The use of nonlinear features motivated by the higher-order spectra (HOS) has been reported to be a promising approach to classify the emotional states. In this work, we made the comparative study of the performance of k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers using the features derived from HOS and from the power spectrum. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that power spectrum and HOS based features were statistically significant among the six emotional states (p happiness, surprise) compared with HC. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of applying machine learning techniques to the classification of emotional states in PD patients in a user independent manner using EEG signals. The accuracy of the system can be improved by investigating the other HOS based features. This study might lead to a practical system for noninvasive assessment of the emotional impairments associated with neurological disorders. PMID:24738541
Bischoff, C; Buder, I; Chinone, Y; Cleary, K; Dumoulin, R N; Kusaka, A; Monsalve, R; Næss, S K; Newburgh, L B; Reeves, R; Smith, K M; Wehus, I K; Zuntz, J A; Zwart, J T L; Bronfman, L; Bustos, R; Church, S E; Dickinson, C; Eriksen, H K; Ferreira, P G; Gaier, T; Gundersen, J O; Hasegawa, M; Hazumi, M; Huffenberger, K M; Jones, M E; Kangaslahti, P; Kapner, D J; Lawrence, C R; Limon, M; May, J; McMahon, J J; Miller, A D; Nguyen, H; Nixon, G W; Pearson, T J; Piccirillo, L; Radford, S J E; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Samtleben, D; Seiffert, M; Shepherd, M C; Staggs, S T; Tajima, O; Thompson, K L; Vanderlinde, K; Williamson, R; Winstein, B
2010-01-01
The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) employs coherent receivers at 43GHz and 95GHz, operating on the Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert in Chile, to measure the anisotropy in the polarization of the CMB. QUIET primarily targets the B modes from primordial gravitational waves. The combination of these frequencies gives sensitivity to foreground contributions from diffuse Galactic synchrotron radiation. Between 2008 October and 2010 December, >10,000hours of data were collected, first with the 19-element 43GHz array (3458hours) and then with the 90-element 95GHz array. Each array observes the same four fields, selected for low foregrounds, together covering ~1000deg^2. This paper reports initial results from the 43GHz receiver which has an array sensitivity to CMB fluctuations of 69uK sqrt(s). The data were extensively studied with a large suite of null tests before the power spectra, determined with two independent pipelines, were examined. Analysis choices, including data selection, were modified until th...
Becker, Matthew R
2012-01-01
I present a new algorithm, CALCLENS, for efficiently computing weak gravitational lensing shear signals from large N-body light cone simulations over a curved sky. This new algorithm properly accounts for the sky curvature and boundary conditions, is able to produce redshift-dependent shear signals including corrections to the Born approximation by using multiple-plane ray tracing, and properly computes the lensed images of source galaxies in the light cone. The key feature of this algorithm is a new, computationally efficient Poisson solver for the sphere that combines spherical harmonic transform and multgrid methods. As a result, large areas of sky (~10, 000 square degrees) can be ray traced efficiently at high-resolution using only a few hundred cores on widely available machines. Using this new algorithm and curved-sky calculations that only use a slower but more accurate spherical harmonic transform Poisson solver, I study the shear B-mode and rotation mode power spectra. Employing full-sky E/B-mode dec...
Karpov, Valeri
2015-01-01
A comprehensive guide to AngularJS, Google's open-source client-side framework for app development. Most of the existing guides to AngularJS struggle to provide simple and understandable explanations for more advanced concepts. As a result, some developers who understand all the basic concepts of AngularJS struggle when it comes to building more complex real-world applications. Professional AngularJS provides a thorough understanding of AngularJS, covering everything from basic concepts, such as directives and data binding, to more advanced concepts like transclusion, build systems, and auto
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems
Ecklund, W. L.; Balsley, B. B.; Crochet, M.; Carter, D. A.; Riddle, A. C.; Garello, R.
1983-01-01
A joint France/U.S. experiment was conducted near the mouth of the Rhone river in southern France as part of the ALPEX program. This experiment used 3 vertically directed 50 MHz radars separated by 4 to 6 km. The main purpose of this experiment was to study the spatial characteristics of gravity waves. The good height resolution (750 meters) and time resolution (1 minute) and the continuous operation over many weeks have yielded high resolution vertical wind speed power spectra under a variety of synoptic conditions. Vertical spectra obtained during very quiet (low wind) conditions in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from a single site are presented.
Angular dependent light emission from planar waveguides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peter, Jaison, E-mail: jaison.peter@gmail.com [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India); CRE" +E, IDEAS Research Institute, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ (United Kingdom); Prabhu, Radhakrishna [CRE" +E, IDEAS Research Institute, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ (United Kingdom); Radhakrishnan, P.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Kailasnath, M. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India)
2015-01-07
We have investigated the angular dependence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and laser emission from an asymmetric and free-standing polymer thin films doped with rhodamine 6G, which is transversely pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A semi-leaky waveguide or quasi-waveguide structure has been developed by spin coating technique. In these waveguides, the light was confined by the film/air-film/glass substrate interfaces. At the film/substrate interface, a portion of light will reflect back into the film (guided mode) and the remaining refracted to the substrate resulting in cutoff modes. A blue-shift in ASE has been observed when the pump power was increased from 8 to 20 mW allowing a limited range of tuning of emission wavelength. To study the directionality of the ASE from the waveguide, we have measured the output intensity and FWHM of emission spectra as a function of viewing angle (θ) from the plane parallel to film. From the detailed examination of the output emission spectra, as +θ increases from 0° there has been an initial decrease in output intensity, but at a particular angle ≈10° an increase in output intensity was observed. This additional peak in output intensity as +θ is a clear indication of coexistence of the cutoff mode. We also present a compact solid-state laser based on leaky mode propagation from the dye-doped polymer free-standing film (∼50 μm thickness) waveguide. The partial reflections from the broad lateral surfaces of the free-standing films provided the optical feedback for the laser emission with high directionality. For a pump power of 22 mW, an intense line with FWHM <0.2 nm was observed at 578 nm.
Dexter, Jason
2013-01-01
We propose a new model of the steep power law state of luminous black hole X-ray binaries. The model uses the fact that at high luminosities, the inner radii of radiation pressure dominated accretion discs are expected to i) become effectively optically thin and ii) produce significant luminosities. The gas temperature therefore rises sharply inwards, producing local saturated Compton spectra with rapidly increasing peak energy. These spectra sum together to form a steep power law tail to the spectrum. A given photon energy on this tail corresponds to a narrow range in radius, so that local vertical oscillations of the disc naturally produce high quality high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) in the hard X-ray band. The two lowest order modes have a robust frequency ratio of ~1.53. This model explains the appearance of steep power law spectra and HFQPOs at high luminosity, the 3:2 HFQPO frequency ratios, and their association with the power law spectral component. We predict an increase in QPO qu...
Siddiqui, Imran; Khan, Shamim; Windholz, Laurentius
2016-03-01
We present 39 even and 60 odd parity newly discovered fine structure levels of Pr I with angular momentum quantum numbers J = 7 / 2, 9/2, 11/2 and 13/2. Spectral lines in the wavelength range of 4200 Å to 7500 Å were investigated experimentally using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy or optogalvanic spectroscopy. Free Pr atoms were produced in a hollow cathode discharge. A high resolution Fourier transform spectrum of Pr was used to extract excitation wavelengths. From an analysis of the recorded hyperfine patterns, together with excitation and fluorescence wavelengths, we were able to find the unknown levels involved in the formation of the investigated lines. More than 500 spectral lines could be classified by the new levels. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-60485-2
Partonic orbital angular momentum
Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Shahveh, Abolfazl
2013-04-01
Ji's decomposition of nucleon spin is used and the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluon are calculated. We have utilized the so called valon model description of the nucleon in the next to leading order. It is found that the average orbital angular momentum of quarks is positive, but small, whereas that of gluon is negative and large. Individual quark flavor contributions are also calculated. Some regularities on the total angular momentum of the quarks and gluon are observed.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Burkardt Matthias
2015-01-01
Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asy...
Li, Guang-Xing
2016-01-01
Gravity plays a determining role in the evolution of the molecular ISM. In Li \\& Burkert. (2016), we proposed a measure called gravitational energy spectra to quantify the importance of gravity on multiple physical scales. In this work, using a wavelet-based decomposition technique, we derive the gravitational energy spectra of the Orion A and the Orion B molecular cloud from observational data. The gravitational energy spectra are found to exhibit power-law-like behaviors. At sub-parsec scale, the Orion A and Orion B molecular cloud have $E_{\\rm p}(k)\\sim k^{-1.88}$ and $E_{\\rm p}(k)\\sim k^{-2.09}$, respectively. These scaling exponents are close to the scaling exponents of the kinetic energy power spectra of compressible turbulence (where $E\\sim k^{-2}$), with near-equipartition of turbulent versus gravitational energy on multiple scales. This provides a clear evidence that gravity is able to counteract effectively against turbulent motion for these length scales. The results confirm our earlier analyti...
Imperatori, Claudio; Farina, Benedetto; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Onofri, Antonio; Castelli Gattinara, Paola; Lepore, Marta; Gnoni, Valentina; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo
2014-10-01
The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity of resting state (RS) condition in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventeen patients and seventeen healthy subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled. EEG was recorded during 5min of RS. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (sLORETA). In power spectra analysis PTSD patients showed a widespread increase of theta activity (4.5-7.5Hz) in parietal lobes (Brodmann Area, BA 7, 4, 5, 40) and in frontal lobes (BA 6). In the connectivity analysis PTSD patients also showed increase of alpha connectivity (8-12.5Hz) between the cortical areas explored by Pz-P4 electrode. Our results could reflect the alteration of memory systems and emotional processing consistently altered in PTSD patients.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yonghoon, E-mail: yhlee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Kyung-Sik [Department of Food Engineering, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Song-Hee [Division of Maritime Transportation System, Mokpo National Maritime University, Jeonnam 530-729 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jonghyun, E-mail: jyoo@appliedspectra.com [Applied Spectra, Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Jeong, Sungho [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-11-01
We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results. - Highlights: • Broadband LIBS spectra of various edible sea salts were obtained. • Intensity correlation of emission lines of the elements in edible sea salts was analyzed. • The elements were categorized into three groups with independent discriminating power. • The effective combination of a few lines can provide dependable classification models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results. - Highlights: • Broadband LIBS spectra of various edible sea salts were obtained. • Intensity correlation of emission lines of the elements in edible sea salts was analyzed. • The elements were categorized into three groups with independent discriminating power. • The effective combination of a few lines can provide dependable classification models
Okumura, Eiichiro; Kawashita, Ikuo; Ishida, Takayuki
2014-01-01
We have been developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pneumoconiosis based on a rule-based plus artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of power spectra. In this study, we have developed three enhancement methods for the abnormal patterns to reduce false-positive and false-negative values. The image database consisted of 2 normal and 15 abnormal chest radiographs. The International Labour Organization standard chest radiographs with pneumoconiosis were categorized as subcategor...
Study on the factors of the angular dispersion power for the triple prism%三棱镜角色散性能的影响因素研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王玉梅
2013-01-01
In this paper, the refractive index of visible light in the triple prism was measured by the methord of minimum deviation. Based on the expirical foumula of Cauchy, the experimental data was investigated in Origin software, and the dispersion curvers of the triple prism were obtained. The parameters A0 and B0 of the ZF1 optical glass and the K9 optical glass were determined and the angular diapersion power of two optical glass were obtained. The experimental results show that the angular dispersion power of triple prism related to not only prism materials but also the wave length of the incident light. The angular dispersion power increases with the increase of refraction index and increases with the decrease of wave length.%用最小偏向角法测定了可见光中不同波长的光在三棱镜中的折射率,按照Cauchy经验公式用Origin软件拟合实验数据,得出了三棱镜材料的色散关系曲线;确定了玻璃ZF1和玻璃K9色散关系中的参量A0、B0值;确定了两种玻璃棱镜的角色散本领;分析得出了三棱镜的角色散本领与棱镜材料的折射率及入射波的波长有关,三棱镜的角色散本领随棱镜材料折射率的增大而增大,随入射波波长的减小而增大.
Large-scale CMB temperature and polarization cross-spectra likelihoods
Mangilli, A; Tristram, M
2015-01-01
One of the main challenges left for the present and future Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments is the high precision measurement of the CMB polarization anisotropies at large angular scales. The reionization bump in the CMB polarization power spectra encodes unique informations about the reionization history of the Universe and the inflationary epoch. Such valuable information can be accessed only with an unprecedented accuracy and care on each step of the data analysis and its interpretation. In this paper we present a cross-spectra based approach for the analysis of the CMB data at large angular scales to constrain the reionization optical depth, the tensor to scalar ratio and the amplitude of the primordial scalar perturbations. Using cross-spectra has the advantage to eliminate spurious noise bias and to give a better handle of residual systematics with respect to the pixel-based approach used so far, allowing to efficiently combine the cosmological information encoded in cross-frequency or cros...
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Two-Season ACTPol Spectra and Parameters
Louis, Thibaut; Hasselfield, Matthew; Lungu, Marius; Maurin, Loïc; Addison, Graeme E; Ade, Peter A R; Aiola, Simone; Allison, Rupert; Amiri, Mandana; Angile, Elio; Battaglia, Nicholas; Beall, James A; de Bernardis, Francesco; Bond, J Richard; Britton, Joe; Calabrese, Erminia; Cho, Hsiao-mei; Choi, Steve K; Coughlin, Kevin; Crichton, Devin; Crowley, Kevin; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Ferraro, Simone; Fox, Anna E; Gallardo, Patricio; Gralla, Megan; Halpern, Mark; Henderson, Shawn; Hill, J Colin; Hilton, Gene C; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Ho, S P Patty; Huang, Zhiqi; Hubmayr, Johannes; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Irwin, Kent; Kasanda, Simon Muya; Klein, Jeff; Koopman, Brian; Kosowsky, Arthur; Li, Dale; Madhavacheril, Mathew; Marriage, Tobias A; McMahon, Jeff; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Munson, Charles; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Nibarger, John; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Nuñez, Carolina; Page, Lyman A; Pappas, Christine; Partridge, Bruce; Rojas, Felipe; Schaan, Emmanuel; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Simon, Sara; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Trac, Hy; Treu, Jesse; Tucker, Carole; Van Engelen, Alexander; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J
2016-01-01
We present the temperature and polarization angular power spectra measured by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol). We analyze night-time data collected during 2013-14 using two detector arrays at 149 GHz, from 548 deg$^2$ of sky on the celestial equator. We use these spectra, and the spectra measured with the MBAC camera on ACT from 2008-10, in combination with Planck and WMAP data to estimate cosmological parameters from the temperature, polarization, and temperature-polarization cross-correlations. We find the new ACTPol data to be consistent with the LCDM model. The ACTPol temperature-polarization cross-spectrum now provides stronger constraints on multiple parameters than the ACTPol temperature spectrum, including the baryon density, the acoustic peak angular scale, and the derived Hubble constant. Adding the new data to planck temperature data tightens the limits on damping tail parameters, for example reducing the joint uncertainty on the number of neutrino species and the primordial he...
Non-linear Galaxy Power Spectrum and Cosmological Parameters
Cooray, Asantha
2003-01-01
The galaxy power spectrum is now a well-known tool of precision cosmology. In addition to the overall shape, baryon oscillations and the small-scale suppression of power by massive neutrinos capture complimentary information on cosmological parameters when compared to the angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We study both the real space and redshift space galaxy power spectra in the context of non-linear effects and model them based on the halo approach to large...
ZKDR Distance, Angular Size and Phantom Cosmology
R.C. Santos; Lima, J. A. S.
2006-01-01
The influence of mass inhomogeneities on the angular size-redshift test is investigated for a large class of flat cosmological models driven by dark energy plus a cold dark matter component. The results are presented in two steps. First, the mass inhomogeneities are modeled by a generalized Zeldovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder (ZKDR) distance which is characterized by a smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ and a power index $\\gamma$, and, second, we provide a statistical analysis to angular size data ...
Dexter, Jason; Blaes, Omer
2014-03-01
We propose a new model of the steep power-law state of luminous black hole X-ray binaries. The model uses the fact that at high luminosities, the inner radii of radiation pressure dominated accretion discs are expected to (i) become effectively optically thin and (ii) produce significant luminosities. The gas temperature therefore rises sharply inwards, producing local saturated Compton spectra with rapidly increasing peak energies. These spectra sum together to form a steep power-law tail to the spectrum. A given photon energy on this tail corresponds to a narrow range in radius, so that local vertical oscillations of the disc naturally produce high-quality high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) in the hard X-ray band. The two lowest order modes have a robust frequency ratio of sqrt{7/3}˜eq 1.53. This model explains the appearance of steep power-law spectra and HFQPOs at high luminosity, the 3:2 HFQPO frequency ratios, and their association with the power-law spectral component. We predict an increase in QPO quality factor when the power spectrum is restricted to a narrower photon energy band, and an increase in HFQPO frequency at higher X-ray energies or lower luminosities. Future X-ray telescopes could detect additional HFQPOs from higher order modes. We demonstrate how this model could be used to measure black hole spin from HFQPOs, and qualitatively estimate the spin of GRO J1655-40 as a/M ˜ 0.4-0.7.
Tripathi, K K
2011-06-01
The origin of very low frequency (VLF) oscillations in the power spectra of heart rate variability (HRV) is controversial with possible mechanisms involving thermoregulation and/or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recently, a major contribution from vagal influences has been suggested. The present study investigated the behaviour of VLF (0.004-0.040 Hz) components of HRV power spectra in a group of healthy male volunteers during their exposure to (1) dry, supine, immersion in thermo-neutral water for 6 h (n = 7) and (2) non-hypoxic hypobaria (breathing 40-60% oxygen at 15,000' simulated in a decompression chamber) for 5 h (n = 15). The two manoeuvres are established to increase vagal outflow. During both the manoeuvres, all the frequency domain indices of HRV exhibited a significant increase. Increase in HRV was much more than that in the R-R interval. At 6 h of immersion, the R-R interval increased by ∼ 15% but the total power increased ∼ fourfold. Similarly, at 5 h of exposure to hypobaria, total power increased ∼ twofold with a very modest increase in an R-R of ∼ 9%. Increase in spectral power was appreciable even after normalization with mean R-R(2). Increase in VLF during immersion was more than reported during enalaprilat blockade of angiotensin convertase enzyme. Plasma renin activity did not vary during hypobaria. There was a significant increase in pNN50, an established marker of cardiac vagal activity. Centre frequencies of the spectra and slope (β) of the relation between log(PSD) and log(frequency) did not change. Results were supportive of the notion that the parasympathetic system is pre-potent to influence slower (than respiratory) frequency components in HRV spectrum. Additionally, such an effect was without a change in the time constant of effector responses or pacemaker frequencies of VLF and LF periodicities and HRV was not a simple linear surrogate for cardiac vagal effects. An invariance of spectral exponent (β) ruled out
Timonen, Hilkka; Cubison, Mike; Aurela, Minna; Brus, David; Lihavainen, Heikki; Hillamo, Risto; Canagaratna, Manjula; Nekat, Bettina; Weller, Rolf; Worsnop, Douglas; Saarikoski, Sanna
2016-07-01
The applicability, methods and limitations of constrained peak fitting on mass spectra of low mass resolving power (m/Δm50 ˜ 500) recorded with a time-of-flight aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ToF-ACSM) are explored. Calibration measurements as well as ambient data are used to exemplify the methods that should be applied to maximise data quality and assess confidence in peak-fitting results. Sensitivity analyses and basic peak fit metrics such as normalised ion separation are employed to demonstrate which peak-fitting analyses commonly performed in high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry are appropriate to perform on spectra of this resolving power. Information on aerosol sulfate, nitrate, sodium chloride, methanesulfonic acid as well as semi-volatile metal species retrieved from these methods is evaluated. The constants in a commonly used formula for the estimation of the mass concentration of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol may be refined based on peak-fitting results. Finally, application of a recently published parameterisation for the estimation of carbon oxidation state to ToF-ACSM spectra is validated for a range of organic standards and its use demonstrated for ambient urban data.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡云; 王大辉; 赵学庆
2016-01-01
In high power excimer laser system, angular multiplexing technique is employed to achieve both high energy and narrow pulse output. In this article, angular multiplexing technique was introduced, and a multiplexing encoding method was presented. This method encoded seed beam in two steps by sequential amplitude splitting. The optical elements were arranged in rectangle arrays and piled by layers. A specific optical design was made for XeCl high power excimer laser system in this laboratory. This method of angular multiplexing encoding has advantages of compacted space, small encoding error, good compatibility with alignment and measurement, and is also easy to fabricate and assemble. This design is adopted in the system and performs well.%在高功率准分子激光系统中，一般采用光学角多路技术来获得高能量窄脉冲输出。文中介绍了角多路技术原理，提出了一种采用矩形阵列和空间层叠光路结构的连续分振幅两次编码方式，并针对该实验室的XeCl高功率准分子激光系统进行了具体的编码光路设计，给出了设计实例。该方法具有编码结构紧凑，编码精度高，与光路准直、激光参数测量系统等兼容性好，便于加工制作和安装调节等优点，目前已在系统中应用，效果良好。
Ramos, Paweł; Pieprzyca, Małgorzata; Pilawa, Barbara
2016-01-01
Complex free radical system in thermally sterilized acidum boricum (AB) was studied. Acidum boricum was sterilized at temperatures and times given by pharmaceutical norms: 160 degrees C and 120 min, 170 degrees C and 60 min and 180 degrees C and 30 min. The advanced spectroscopic tests were performed. The EPR spectra of free radicals were measured as the first derivatives with microwaves of 9.3 GHz frequency and magnetic modulation of 100 kHz. The Polish X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer of Radiopan (Poznań) was used. EPR lines were not observed for the nonheated AB. The broad EPR asymmetric lines were obtained for all the heated AB samples. The influence of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on the shape of EPR spectra of the heated drug samples was tested. The following asymmetry parameters: A1/A2, A1-A2, B1/B2, and B1-B2, were analyzed. The changes of these parameters with microwave power were observed. The strong dependence of shape and its parameters on microwave power proved the complex character of free radical system in thermally sterilized AB. Changes of microwave power during the detection of EPR spectra indicated complex character of free radicals in AB sterilized in hot air under all the tested conditions. Thermolysis, interactions between free radicals and interactions of free radicals with oxygen may be responsible for the complex free radicals system in thermally treated AB. Usefulness of continuous microwave saturation of EPR lines and shape analysis to examine free radicals in thermally sterilized drugs was confirmed.
Liebe, Wolfgang
1944-01-01
In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burkardt Matthias
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.
Bartelmann, Matthias; Berg, Daniel; Kozlikin, Elena; Lilow, Robert; Viermann, Celia
2014-01-01
We use the non-equlibrium statistical field theory for classical particles, recently developed by Mazenko and Das and Mazenko, together with the free generating functional we have previously derived for point sets initially correlated in phase space, to calculate the time evolution of power spectra in the free theory, i.e. neglecting particle interactions. We provide expressions taking linear and quadratic momentum correlations into account. Up to this point, the expressions are general with respect to the free propagator of the microscopic degrees of freedom. We then specialise the propagator to that expected for particles in cosmology treated within the Zel'dovich approximation and show that, to linear order in the momentum correlations, the linear growth of the cosmological power spectrum is reproduced. Quadratic momentum correlations return a first contribution to the non-linear evolution of the power spectrum, for which we derive a simple closed expression valid for arbitrary wave numbers. This expressio...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the Linssi database and UniSampo/Shaman software, an automated analysis platform has been setup for the analysis of large amounts of gamma-spectra from the primary coolant monitoring systems of a CANDU reactor. Thus, a database inventory of gaseous and volatile fission products in the primary coolant of a CANDU reactor has been established. This database is comprised of 15,000 spectra of radioisotope analysis records. Records from the database inventory were retrieved by a specifically designed data-mining module and subjected to further analysis. Results from the analysis were subsequently used to identify the reactor coolant half-life of 135Xe and 133Xe, as well as the correlations of 135Xe and 88Kr activities. (author)
Angular averaged consistency relations of large-scale structures
Valageas, Patrick
2013-01-01
The cosmological dynamics of gravitational clustering satisfies an approximate invariance with respect to the cosmological parameters that is often used to simplify analytical computations. We describe how this approximate symmetry gives rise to angular averaged consistency relations for the matter density correlations. This allows one to write the $(\\ell+n)$ density correlation, with $\\ell$ large-scale linear wave numbers that are integrated over angles, and $n$ fixed small-scale nonlinear wave numbers, in terms of the small-scale $n$-point density correlation and $\\ell$ prefactors that involve the linear power spectra at the large-scale wave numbers. These relations, which do not vanish for equal-time statistics, go beyond the already known kinematic consistency relations. They could be used to detect primordial non-Gaussianities, modifications of gravity, limitations of galaxy biasing schemes, or to help designing analytical models of gravitational clustering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For many years the Institute of Physics has published books on hot topics based on a collection of reprints from different journals, including some remarks by the editors of each volume. The book on Optical Angular Momentum, edited by L Allen, S M Barnett and M J Padgett, is a recent addition to the series. It reproduces forty four papers originally published in different journals and in a few cases it provides direct access to works not easily accessible to a web navigator. The collection covers nearly a hundred years of progress in physics, starting from an historic 1909 paper by Poynting, and ending with a 2002 paper by Padgett, Barnett and coworkers on the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon. The field of optical angular momentum has expanded greatly, creating an interdisciplinary attraction for researchers operating in quantum optics, atomic physics, solid state physics, biophysics and quantum information theory. The development of laser optics, especially the control of single mode sources, has made possible the specific design of optical radiation modes with a high degree of control on the light angular momentum. The editors of this book are important figures in the field of angular momentum, having contributed to key progress in the area. L Allen published an historical paper in 1999, he and M J Padgett (together with M Babiker) produced few years ago a long review article which is today still the most complete basic introduction to the angular momentum of light, while S M Barnett has contributed several high quality papers to the progress of this area of physics. The editors' choice provides an excellent overview to all readers, with papers classified into eight different topics, covering the basic principles of the light and spin and orbital angular momentum, the laboratory tools for creating laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum, the optical forces and torques created by laser beams carrying angular momentum on
Van Essen, H.
2004-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to th...
Angular velocity discrimination
Kaiser, Mary K.
1990-01-01
Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kocharovsky, V. V., E-mail: vkochar@physics.tamu.edu [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Science, 46 Ulyanov Street, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Kocharovsky, VI. V.; Tarasov, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Science, 46 Ulyanov Street, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Martyanov, V. Ju. [ZAO “Intel” A/O, 30 Turgeneva Street, Nizhny Novgorod 603024 (Russian Federation)
2015-08-15
Widespread use of a broken-power-law description of the spectra of synchrotron emission of various plasma objects requires an analysis of origin and a proper interpretation of spectral components. We show that, for a self-consistent magnetic configuration in a collisionless plasma, these components may be angle-dependent according to an anisotropic particle momentum distribution and may have no counterparts in a particle energy distribution. That has never been studied analytically and is in contrast to a usual model of synchrotron radiation, assuming an external magnetic field and a particle ensemble with isotropic momentum distribution. We demonstrate that for the wide intervals of observation angle the power-law spectra and, in particular, the positions and number of spectral breaks may be essentially different for the cases of the self-consistent and not-self-consistent magnetic fields in current structures responsible for the synchrotron radiation of the ensembles of relativistic particles with the multi-power-law energy distributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Widespread use of a broken-power-law description of the spectra of synchrotron emission of various plasma objects requires an analysis of origin and a proper interpretation of spectral components. We show that, for a self-consistent magnetic configuration in a collisionless plasma, these components may be angle-dependent according to an anisotropic particle momentum distribution and may have no counterparts in a particle energy distribution. That has never been studied analytically and is in contrast to a usual model of synchrotron radiation, assuming an external magnetic field and a particle ensemble with isotropic momentum distribution. We demonstrate that for the wide intervals of observation angle the power-law spectra and, in particular, the positions and number of spectral breaks may be essentially different for the cases of the self-consistent and not-self-consistent magnetic fields in current structures responsible for the synchrotron radiation of the ensembles of relativistic particles with the multi-power-law energy distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J. [Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dominique, M. [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180, Brussels (Belgium)
2015-01-10
The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPPs is needed. We adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power-law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/Large Yield Radiometer, Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally, we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately described as a manifestation of a power law in the Fourier power spectrum. However, for the flare of 1998 May 8, strong evidence for an explicit oscillation with P ≈ 14-16 s is found in the 17 GHz radio data and the 13-23 keV Yohkoh/HXT data. We conclude that, most likely, many previously analyzed events in the literature may be similarly described by power laws in the flare Fourier power spectrum, without invoking a narrowband, oscillatory component. Hence the prevalence of oscillatory signatures in solar and stellar flares may be less than previously believed. The physical mechanism behind the appearance of the observed power laws is discussed.
Zhang, Xinrui; Morikawa, Hitoshi
2016-01-01
Array methods like spatial auto-correlation (SPAC) method and the centerless circular array (CCA) method have provided a convenient means of inferring the phase velocity of surface waves. However, these methods are under the assumption of horizontally layered medium (lateral homogeneity) while the ground structure is actually likely to be inclined. Hence, it is expected to obtain more detailed information of ground structure such as inclination by making better use of the records. In recent years, the seismic interferometry theory has also been widely used to estimate ground structure. According to seismic interferometry theory, the cross correlation of motion between two sites is proportional to the imaginary part of the Green's function (IOG) between the two sites in diffuse wavefield. In this study, we can obtain the ratio of IOG between two sites by taking the ratio of power spectra between the same two sites. We propose this ratio as an indicator of the lateral heterogeneity between two sites. Through numerical simulation and a field test, we demonstrate that the significance of ratio of power spectra can be interpreted from the sight of ratio of IOG successfully.
Baranowski, M; Latkowska, M; Kudrawiec, R; Misiewicz, J
2011-05-25
The model of hopping excitons in semiconductors proposed by Baranovskii et al (1998 Phys. Rev. B 58 13081) has been modified and applied to explain sharp lines observed in micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) spectra of GaInNAs alloys and their changes with excitation power and temperature. Instead of two types of recombination centres (radiative and nonradiative centres) introduced by Baranovskii et alwe have proposed one kind of localization centre with radiative and nonradiative rates. Such a modification is justifiable due to our recent experimental observations for GaInNAs alloys and allows us to explain the fast thermal quenching of localized emission from this alloy. Our simulations clearly show that the individual sharp PL lines observed at low temperatures appear for this material due to exciton hopping between localization centres. Taking into account saturation effects and the exciton dissociation phenomenon, it has been shown that the observed changes in power- and temperature dependent μ-PL spectra can be excellently reproduced by the modified model. PMID:21540495
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baranowski, M; Latkowska, M; Kudrawiec, R; Misiewicz, J, E-mail: michal.baranowski@pwr.wroc.pl [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)
2011-05-25
The model of hopping excitons in semiconductors proposed by Baranovskii et al (1998 Phys. Rev. B 58 13081) has been modified and applied to explain sharp lines observed in micro-photoluminescence ({mu}-PL) spectra of GaInNAs alloys and their changes with excitation power and temperature. Instead of two types of recombination centres (radiative and nonradiative centres) introduced by Baranovskii et alwe have proposed one kind of localization centre with radiative and nonradiative rates. Such a modification is justifiable due to our recent experimental observations for GaInNAs alloys and allows us to explain the fast thermal quenching of localized emission from this alloy. Our simulations clearly show that the individual sharp PL lines observed at low temperatures appear for this material due to exciton hopping between localization centres. Taking into account saturation effects and the exciton dissociation phenomenon, it has been shown that the observed changes in power- and temperature dependent {mu}-PL spectra can be excellently reproduced by the modified model.
Metamaterial Broadband Angular Selectivity
Shen, Yichen; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Li; Celanovic, Ivan; Ran, Lixin; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin
2014-01-01
We demonstrate how broadband angular selectivity can be achieved with stacks of one-dimensionally periodic photonic crystals, each consisting of alternating isotropic layers and effective anisotropic layers, where each effective anisotropic layer is constructed from a multilayered metamaterial. We show that by simply changing the structure of the metamaterials, the selective angle can be tuned to a broad range of angles; and, by increasing the number of stacks, the angular transmission window can be made as narrow as desired. As a proof of principle, we realize the idea experimentally in the microwave regime. The angular selectivity and tunability we report here can have various applications such as in directional control of electromagnetic emitters and detectors.
Fluidic angular velocity sensor
Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.
Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra
Corio, PL
2012-01-01
Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC
2012-02-17
We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.
Essén, H
2003-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to three parts: center of mass, rotational, plus the remaining internal energy relative to an optimally translating and rotating frame.
Imperatori, Claudio; Farina, Benedetto; Brunetti, Riccardo; Gnoni, Valentina; Testani, Elisa; Quintiliani, Maria I; Del Gatto, Claudia; Indraccolo, Allegra; Contardi, Anna; Speranza, Anna M; Della Marca, Giacomo
2013-01-01
The n-back task is widely used to investigate the neural basis of Working Memory (WM) processes. The principal aim of this study was to explore and compare the EEG power spectra during two n-back tests with different levels of difficulty (1-back vs. 3-back). Fourteen healthy subjects were enrolled (seven men and seven women, mean age 31.21 ± 7.05 years, range: 23-48). EEG was recorded while performing the N-back test, by means of 19 surface electrodes referred to joint mastoids. EEG analysis were conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution brain Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. The statistical comparison between EEG power spectra in the two conditions was performed using paired t-statistics on the coherence values after Fisher's z transformation available in the LORETA program package. The frequency bands considered were: delta (0.5-4 Hz); theta (4.5-7.5 Hz); alpha (8-12.5 Hz); beta (13-30 Hz); gamma (30.5-100 Hz). Significant changes occurred in the delta band: in the 3-back condition an increased delta power was localized in a brain region corresponding to the Brodmann Area (BA) 28 in the left posterior entorhinal cortex (T = 3.112; p < 0.05) and in the BA 35 in the left perirhinal cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus (T = 2.876; p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the right hemisphere and in the alpha, theta, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Our results indicate that the most prominent modification induced by the increased complexity of the task occur in the mesial left temporal lobe structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudio eImperatori
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The n-back task is widely used to investigate the neural basis of Working Memory (WM processes. The principal aim of this study was to explore and compare the EEG power spectra during two n-back tests with different levels of difficulty (1-back vs 3-back.Fourteen healthy subjects were enrolled (7 men and 7 women, mean age 31.21±7.05 years, range: 23-48. EEG was recorded while performing the N-back test, by means of 19 surface electrodes referred to joint mastoids. EEG analysis were conducted by means of the standardized LOw Resolution brain Electric Tomography (sLORETA software. The statistical comparison between EEG power spectra in the two conditions was performed using paired t-statistics on the coherence values after Fisher’s z transformation available in the LORETA program package. The frequency bands considered were: delta (0.5-4 Hz; theta (4.5–7.5 Hz; alpha (8–12.5 Hz; beta (13–30 Hz; gamma (30.5–100 Hz. Significant changes occurred in the delta band: in the 3-back condition an increased delta power was localized in a brain region corresponding to the Brodmann Area (BA 28 in the left posterior entorhinal cortex (T = 3.112; p<0.05 and in the BA 35 in the left peririnhal cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus (T = 2.876; p<0.05. No significant differences were observed in the right hemisphere and in the alpha, theta, beta and gamma frequency bands. Our results indicate that the most prominent modification induced by the increased complexity of the task occur in the mesial left temporal lobe structures.
Probabilistic calculation for angular dependence collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This collision probabilistic method is broadly used in cylindrical geometry (in one- or two-dimensions). It constitutes a powerful tool for the heterogeneous Response Method where, the coupling current is of the cosine type, that is, without angular dependence at azimuthal angle θ and proportional to μ (cosine of the θ polar angle). (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yura, Harold; Hanson, Steen Grüner
2012-01-01
Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set with the......Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set...... with the desired spectral distribution, after which this colored Gaussian probability distribution is transformed via an inverse transform into the desired probability distribution. In most cases the method provides satisfactory results and can thus be considered an engineering approach. Several illustrative...
Parker, G. W.
1978-01-01
Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)
Inglis, A R; Dominique, M
2014-01-01
The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra, also referred to as 'red' noise processes, are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPP is needed. Here we adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/LYRA, Fermi/GBM, Nobeyama Radioheliograph and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required in order to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately descri...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Kawazu
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We investigated the excitation power P dependence of photoluminescence (PL spectra of GaSb type-II quantum dots (QDs in GaAs grown by droplet epitaxy. We prepared two QD samples annealed at slightly different temperatures (380 oC and 400 oC and carried out PL measurements. The 20 oC increase of the annealing temperature leads to (1 about 140 and 60 times stronger wetting layer (WL luminescence at low and high P, (2 about 45% large energy shift of QD luminescence with P, and (3 the different P dependence of the PL intensity ratio between the QD and the WL. These differences of the PL characteristics are explained by the effects of the WL.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An area of concern in the study of slowing-down spectra and interaction cross sections has been the lack of adequate theoretical information on electron interaction probabilities in solids, particularly in the electron energy region below a few keV. By using previously developed models, new calculations of cross sections for ionization by electrons of inner shells in Al and O atoms and a model insulator theory used to describe the valence band in Al2O3 are discussed. These new calculations are combined with earlier work to provide an improved description of electron interactions in Al metal and in the insulator Al2O3. Some examples of mean free path, stopping power, and electron slowing-down flux calculations for these materials are described. (7 figures) (U.S.)
Mobley, Joel; Mack, Richard A; Gladden, Joseph R; Mantena, P Raju
2009-07-01
Using a broadband through-transmission technique, the attenuation coefficient and phase velocity spectra have been measured for a set of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-nylon composites (from pure nylon to 20% MWCNT by weight) in the ultrasonic frequency band from 4 to 14 MHz. The samples were found to be effectively homogeneous on spatial scales from the low end of ultrasonic wavelengths investigated and up (>0.2 mm). Using Kramers-Kronig relations, the attenuation and dispersion data were found to be consistent with a power-law attenuation model with a range of exponents from y=1.12 to y=1.19 over the measurement bandwidth. The attenuation coefficients of the respective samples are found to decrease with increasing MWCNT content and a similar trend holds also for the dispersion. In contrast, the mean phase velocities for the samples rise with increasing MWCNT content indicating an increase in the mechanical moduli.
Continuous improvement of high-efficiency high-power 800-980nm diode lasers at Spectra-Physics
Li, Hanxuan; Towe, Terry; Chyr, Irving; Jin, Xu; Miller, Robert; Romero, Oscar; Liu, Daming; Brown, Denny; Truchan, Tom; Nguyen, Touyen; Crum, Trevor; Wolak, Ed; Bullock, Robert; Mott, Jeff; Harrison, James
2009-02-01
New-generation multi-mode 9xx mini-bars used in fiber pump modules have been developed. The epitaxial designs have been improved for lower fast-axis and slow-axis divergence, higher slope efficiency and PCE by optimizing layer structures as well as minimizing internal loss. For 915nm mini-bars with 5-mm cavity length, maximum PCE is as high as ~61% for 35W operation and remains above 59% at 45W. For 808nm, a PCE of 56% at 135W CW operation has been demonstrated with 36%-fill-factor, 3-mm-cavity-length, water-cooled bars at 50°C coolant temperature. On passive-cooled standard CS heatsinks, PCE of >51% is measured for 100W operation at 50°C heatsink temperature. Leveraging these improvements has enabled low-cost bars for high-power, high-temperature applications.
Quantum Heuristics of Angular Momentum
Levy-Leblond, Jean-Marc
1976-01-01
Discusses the quantization of angular momentum components, Heisenberg-type inequalities for their spectral dispersions, and the quantization of the angular momentum modulus, without using operators or commutation relations. (MLH)
Hashimoto, Ichihiko; Taruya, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahiko; Namikawa, Toshiya; Yokoyama, Shuichiro
2016-05-01
We investigate the statistical power of higher-order statistics and cross-correlation statistics to constrain the primordial non-Gaussianity from the imaging surveys. In particular, we consider the local-type primordial non-Gaussianity and discuss how well one can tightly constrain the higher-order non-Gaussian parameters (gNL and τNL) as well as the leading-order parameter fNL from the halo/galaxy clustering and weak gravitational lensing measurements. Making use of a strong scale-dependent behavior in the galaxy/halo clustering, Fisher matrix analysis reveals that the bispectra can break the degeneracy between non-Gaussian parameters (fNL, gNL and τNL), and this will give simultaneous constraints on those three parameters. The combination of cross-correlation statistics further improves the constraints by a factor of 2. As a result, upcoming imaging surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope have the potential to improve the constraints on the primordial non-Gaussianity much tighter than those obtained from the CMB measurement by Planck, giving us an opportunity to test the single-sourced consistency relation, τNL≥(36 /25 )fNL2 .
Hashimoto, Ichihiko; Matsubara, Takahiko; Namikawa, Toshiya; Yokoyama, Shuichiro
2015-01-01
We investigate the statistical power of higher-order statistics and cross-correlation statistics to constrain the primordial non-Gaussianity from the imaging surveys. In particular, we consider the local-type primordial non- Gaussianity and discuss how well one can tightly constrain the higher-order non-Gaussian parameters ($g_{\\rm NL}$ and $\\tau_{\\rm NL}$) as well as the leading order parameter $f_{\\rm NL}$ from the halo/galaxy clustering and weak gravitational lensing measurements. Making use of a strong scale-dependent behavior in the galaxy/halo clustering, Fisher matrix analysis reveals that the bispectra can break the degeneracy between non-Gaussian parameters ($f_{\\rm NL}$, $g_{\\rm NL}$ and $\\tau_{\\rm NL}$) and this will give simultaneous constraints on those three parameters. The combination of cross-correlation statistics further improves the constraints by factor of 2. As a result, upcoming imaging surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope have the potential to improve the constraints on the ...
Angular momentum projected semiclassics
Hasse, Rainer W.
1987-06-01
By using angular momentum projected plane waves as wave functions, we derive semiclassical expressions for the single-particle propagator, the partition function, the nonlocal density matrix, the single-particle density and the one particle-one hole level density for fixed angular momentum and fixed z-component or summed over the z-components. Other quantities can be deduced from the propagator. In coordinate space ( r, r') the relevant quantities depend on |r-r'| instead of | r- r'| and in Wigner space ( R, P) they become proportional to the angular momentum constraints δ(| R × P|/ h̵-l) and δ( R × P) z/ h̵-m) . As applications we calculate the single-particle and one-particle-one hole level densities for harmonic oscillator and Hill-Wheeler box potentials and the imaginary part of the optical potential and its volume integral with an underlying harmonic oscillator potential and a zero range two-body interaction.
Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Innamorati, Marco; Farina, Benedetto; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Lamis, Dorian A; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Contardi, Anna; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo
2015-12-01
We evaluated the modifications of electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra and EEG connectivity in overweight and obese patients with elevated food addiction (FA) symptoms. Fourteen overweight and obese patients (3 men and 11 women) with three or more FA symptoms and fourteen overweight and obese patients (3 men and 11 women) with two or less FA symptoms were included in the study. EEG was recorded during three different conditions: 1) five minutes resting state (RS), 2) five minutes resting state after a single taste of a chocolate milkshake (ML-RS), and 3) five minutes resting state after a single taste of control neutral solution (N-RS). EEG analyses were conducted by means of the exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (eLORETA). Significant modification was observed only in the ML-RS condition. Compared to controls, patients with three or more FA symptoms showed an increase of delta power in the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann Area [BA] 8) and in the right precentral gyrus (BA 9), and theta power in the right insula (BA 13) and in the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47). Furthermore, compared to controls, patients with three or more FA symptoms showed an increase of functional connectivity in fronto-parietal areas in both the theta and alpha band. The increase of functional connectivity was also positively associated with the number of FA symptoms. Taken together, our results show that FA has similar neurophysiological correlates of other forms of substance-related and addictive disorders suggesting similar psychopathological mechanisms.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Burkardt, Matthias
2016-06-01
Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.
Vanston, Alex
2013-01-01
This book uses a practical, step-by-step approach, starting with how to build directives from the ground up before moving on to creating web applications comprised of multiple modules all working together to provide the best user experience possible.This book is intended for intermediate JavaScript developers who are looking to enhance their understanding of single-page web application development with a focus on AngularJS and the JavaScript MVC frameworks.It is expected that readers will understand basic JavaScript patterns and idioms and can recognize JSON formatted data.
Clustering, Angular Size and Dark Energy
R.C. Santos; Lima, J. A. S.
2008-01-01
The influence of dark matter inhomogeneities on the angular size-redshift test is investigated for a large class of flat cosmological models driven by dark energy plus a cold dark matter component (XCDM model). The results are presented in two steps. First, the mass inhomogeneities are modeled by a generalized Zeldovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder (ZKDR) distance which is characterized by a smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ and a power index $\\gamma$, and, second, we provide a statistical analysis t...
Ali, A
1998-01-01
We compute the leading order (in $\\alpha_s$) perturbative QCD and power ($1/m_b^2)$ corrections to the hadronic invariant mass and hadron energy spectra in the decay $B \\to X_s \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ in standard model. This is done both by using the heavy quark expansion technique (HQET) and a perturbative-QCD improved Fermi motion (FM) model which takes into account $B$-meson wave-function effects. The corrections in the hadron energy ($E_H$) spectrum are found to be small over a good part of this spectrum in both the methods. However, the expansion in $1/m_b$ in HQET fails near the lower kinematic end-point and at the $c\\bar{c}$ threshold. The hadronic invariant mass ($S_H$) spectrum is calculable only over a limited range $S_H > \\bar{\\Lambda}m_B$ in the heavy quark expansion, where $\\bar{\\Lambda} \\simeq m_B-m_b$. We also present results for the first two hadronic moments $$ and $$, $n=1,2$, working out their sensitivity on the HQET and FM model parameters. For equivalent values of these parameters, the moments in ...
Orbital angular momentum microlaser
Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang
2016-07-01
Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.
Orbital angular momentum microlaser.
Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Feng, Liang
2016-07-29
Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes. PMID:27471299
On the relation between angular momentum and angular velocity
Silva, J. P.; Tavares, J. M.
2007-01-01
Students of mechanics usually have difficulties when they learn about the rotation of a rigid body. These difficulties are rooted in the relation between angular momentum and angular velocity, because these vectors are not parallel, and we need in general to utilize a rotating frame of reference or a time dependent inertia tensor. We discuss a series of problems that introduce both difficulties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The usual procedure for estimating the significance of a peak in a power spectrum is to calculate the probability of obtaining that value or a larger value by chance (known as the 'p-value'), on the assumption that the time series contains only noise-typically that the measurements are derived from random samplings of a Gaussian distribution. However, since the use of p-values in other contexts is known to be misleading, it seems prudent to examine the implications of using p-values for significance estimation of power spectra. We really need to know the probability that the time series is-or is not-compatible with the 'null hypothesis' that the measurements are derived from noise. This probability can be calculated by Bayesian analysis, but this requires one to specify and evaluate a second hypothesis that the time series does contain a contribution other than noise. We show that the requirement that the p-value should be identical to the probability that the null hypothesis is true leads to an unacceptable form for the likelihood function associated with this hypothesis. We claim that, for this reason, the p-value is not an acceptable method for significance estimation of a power spectrum. In order to obtain an acceptable significance estimate, it is necessary to explicitly consider a second hypothesis, and the key challenge is to identify an appropriate likelihood function for this hypothesis. We first propose four simple conditions that it seems reasonable to impose on this function. We then examine a general functional form for the function, and find the simplest form (which has one free parameter) that meets these conditions. We then define two different ways of combining information derived from two independent power estimates. One procedure is to calculate the post-probabilities of the null hypothesis, convert these to odds-values, and sum the log-odds. The second procedure is to combine the p-values using a procedure due to R.A. Fisher, and to calculate
Differential reflective fiber-optic angular displacement sensor
Shan, Mingguang; Min, Rui; Zhong, Zhi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yabin
2015-05-01
Using the characteristic that the distance apart between the emitting fiber and receiving fiber only shifts the angular-power curve, a differential reflective fiber-optic sensor for angular displacement measurement is presented through subtraction of two power signals from two receiving fibers placed on both sides of one emitting fiber. A theoretical model is established to characterize the performance of the differential reflective fiber-optic angular displacement sensor. The measurements made indicate that the general behavior of the experimental results agrees with that of the theoretical results, and the sensor can improve sensitivity by about 120%, resulting in the significant improvement of anti-interference capability, which will be more suitable for high accuracy bipolar absolute angular displacement measurement. Design guidelines are also suggested to achieve desired sensor performances.
Angular momentum in subbarrier fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have measured the ratio of the isomer to ground-state yields of 137Ce produced in the fusion reactions 128Te(12C,3n), 133Cs(7Li,3n), 136Ba(3He,2n), 136Ba(4He,3n), and 137Ba(3He,3n), from energies above the Coulomb barrier to energies typically 20--30% below the barrier by observing the delayed x- and γ-ray emission. We deduce the average angular momentum, , from the measured isomer ratios with a statistical model. In the first three reactions we observe that the values of exhibit the behavior predicted for low energies and the expected variation with the reduced mass of the entrance channel. We analyze these data and the associated cross sections with a barrier penetration model that includes the coupling of inelastic channels. Measurements of average angular momenta and cross sections made on other systems using the γ-multiplicity and fission-fragment angular correlation techniques are then analyzed in a similar way with this model. The discrepancies with theory for the γ-multiplicity data show correlations in cross section and angular momentum that suggest a valid model can be found. The measurements of angular momentum using the fission fragment angular correlation technique, however, do not appear reconcilable with the energy dependence of the cross sections. This systematic overview suggests, in particular, that our current understanding of the relationship of angular momentum and anisotropy in fission fragment angular correlations is incomplete. 26 refs
Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.
Santarelli, Vincent
1979-01-01
Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)
Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping
2016-03-21
Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780
Scalable broadband OPCPA in Lithium Niobate with signal angular dispersion
Tóth, György; Pálfalvi, László; Tokodi, Levente; Hebling, János; Fülöp, József András
2016-07-01
Angular dispersion of the signal beam is proposed for efficient, scalable high-power few-cycle pulse generation in LiNbO3 by optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) in the 1.4 to 2.1 μm wavelength range. An optimized double-grating setup can provide the required angular dispersion. Calculations predict 16.8 fs (3 cycles) pulses with 13 TW peak power. Further scalability of the scheme towards the 100-TW power level is feasible by using efficient, cost-effective, compact diode-pumped solid-state lasers for pumping directly at 1 μm, without second-harmonic generation.
Angular momentum evolution for galaxies
Pedrosa, Susana
2015-01-01
Using cosmological hydrodynamics simulations we study the angular momentum content of the simulated galaxies in relation with their morphological type. We found that not only the angular momentum of the disk component follow the expected theoretical relation, Mo, Mao & Whiye (1998), but also the spheroidal one, with a gap due to its lost of angular momentum, in agreement with Fall & Romanowsky (2013),. We also found that the galaxy size can plot in one general relation, despite the morphological type, as found by Kravtsov (2013).
Bailey, Simon
2015-01-01
This book is intended for developers who have an understanding of the basic principles behind both AngularJS and test-driven development. You, as a developer, are interested in eliminating the fear related to either introducing tests to an existing codebase or starting out testing on a fresh AngularJS application. If you're a team leader or part of a QA team with the responsibility of ensuring full test coverage of an application, then this book is ideal for you to comprehend the full testing scope required by your developers. Whether you're new to or are well versed with AngularJS, this book
The integration of angular velocity
Boyle, Michael
2016-01-01
A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical...
Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator
Bouchard, Frédéric; Mand, Harjaspreet; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W
2014-01-01
We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of \\textit{two glued hollow axicons}, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarisation into a linearly polarised input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming be...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interest in atomic spectroscopy has greatly been reinforced in the last ten years. This gain of interest is directly related to the developments in different fields of research where hot plasmas are created. These fields include in particular controlled thermonuclear fusion research by means of inertial or magnetic confinement approaches and also the most recent efforts to achieve lasers in the XUV region. The present work is based on the specific contribution of the atomic spectroscopy group at the Hebrew University. The recent development of both theoretical and experimental tools allowed us to progress in the understanding of the highly ionized states of heavy elements. In this work the low-inductance vacuum-spark developed at the Hebrew University was used as the hot plasma source. The spectra were recorded in the 7-300 A range by means of a high-resolution extreme-grazing-incidence spectrometer developed at the Racah Institute by Profs. J.L. Schwob and B.S. Fraenkel. To the extend the spectroscopic studies to higher-Z atoms, the laser-produced plasma facility at Soreq Nuclear Center was used. In this work the spectra of the sixth row elements were recorded in the x-rays by means of a crystal spectrometer. All these experimental systems are briefly described in chapter one. Chapter two deals with the theoretical methods used in the present work for the atomic calculations. Chapter three deals with the spectra of elements of the fifth row emitted from the vacuum-spark in the 30-150 A range. These spectra as experimental data were used in order to test ab-initio computations along the NiI sequence 3d-nl transitions. The results of this work are presented in chapter four. Chapter five is devoted to the measurement and analysis of spectra emitted from the vacuum-spark by rare-earth elements. (author)
Energy Extraction from a Black Hole and Its Influence on X-Ray Spectra
Huang, Chang-Yin; Gong, Xiao-Long; Wang, Ding-Xiong
2014-12-01
Taking into account the energy and angular momentum transferred from a rotating black hole (BH) to the inner accretion disk by the magnetic connection (MC) process, we simulate the x-ray spectra from the disk-corona system with two different magnetic configurations using the Monte Carlo method. The results show that the MC process reduces the ratio of the power dissipated in the corona to the total and softens the spectrum. The influence of the MC process is stronger with a higher BH spin, a larger accretion rate, and a larger and more centralized magnetic flux threading the disk. The comparison of the model spectra with the observational data suggests that large-scale magnetic fields accumulating in the inner disk could be a candidate explanation for the hard-to-soft state evolutions in BH binaries.
Factors influencing perceived angular velocity
Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.
1991-01-01
Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).
Samuel Bowles; Herbert Gintis
2007-01-01
We consider the exercise of power in competitive markets for goods, labour and credit. We offer a definition of power and show that if contracts are incomplete it may be exercised either in Pareto-improving ways or to the disadvantage of those without power. Contrasting conceptions of power including bargaining power, market power, and consumer sovereignty are considered. Because the exercise of power may alter prices and other aspects of exchanges, abstracting from power may miss essential a...
Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator
Bouchard, Frédéric; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W
2014-01-01
We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of \\textit{two glued hollow axicons}, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarisation into a linearly polarised input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarisation, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of $95\\%$ for these three different wavelengths is observed. %, which confirms its wavelen...
Angular momentum in human walking.
Herr, Hugh; Popovic, Marko
2008-02-01
Angular momentum is a conserved physical quantity for isolated systems where no external moments act about a body's center of mass (CM). However, in the case of legged locomotion, where the body interacts with the environment (ground reaction forces), there is no a priori reason for this relationship to hold. A key hypothesis in this paper is that angular momentum is highly regulated throughout the walking cycle about all three spatial directions [|Lt| approximately 0], and therefore horizontal ground reaction forces and the center of pressure trajectory can be explained predominantly through an analysis that assumes zero net moment about the body's CM. Using a 16-segment human model and gait data for 10 study participants, we found that calculated zero-moment forces closely match experimental values (Rx2=0.91; Ry2=0.90). Additionally, the centroidal moment pivot (point where a line parallel to the ground reaction force, passing through the CM, intersects the ground) never leaves the ground support base, highlighting how closely the body regulates angular momentum. Principal component analysis was used to examine segmental contributions to whole-body angular momentum. We found that whole-body angular momentum is small, despite substantial segmental momenta, indicating large segment-to-segment cancellations ( approximately 95% medio-lateral, approximately 70% anterior-posterior and approximately 80% vertical). Specifically, we show that adjacent leg-segment momenta are balanced in the medio-lateral direction (left foot momentum cancels right foot momentum, etc.). Further, pelvis and abdomen momenta are balanced by leg, chest and head momenta in the anterior-posterior direction, and leg momentum is balanced by upper-body momentum in the vertical direction. Finally, we discuss the determinants of gait in the context of these segment-to-segment cancellations of angular momentum.
Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum
Burr, A. F.
1974-01-01
Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmer, B. D.; Tyler, J. B.; Hornschemeier, A. E.;
2015-01-01
of both galaxies restricts these sources to be either low luminosity AGNs (L2-10 keV/LEdd ≲ 10-5) or non-AGNs in nature (e.g., ULXs or crowded X-ray sources that reach L2-10 keV ~ 1040 erg s-1 cannot be ruled out). Combining our constraints on the 0.3-30 keV spectra of NGC 3256 and NGC 3310...
Olympic Wrestling and Angular Momentum.
Carle, Mark
1988-01-01
Reported is the use of a wrestling photograph in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The photograph presents a maneuver that could serve as an example for a discussion on equilibrium, forces, torque, and angular motion. Provided are some qualitative thoughts as well as quantitative calculations. (YP)
Turbodrill rod angular velocity indicator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogachev, O.K.; Belozerova, L.P.; Konenkov, A.K.
1984-01-01
This paper outlines shortcomings of existing types of telemetry systems which resulted in production of the IChT-1 unit. Unit is intended for control of angular velocity of serially produced turbodrill rods, during drilling of wells up to 5000 m deep, and bottomhole temperatures to 100C. The paper provides a detailed description and diagrams for installing this unit.
The evolution of black-hole mass and angular momentum
King, A R
1999-01-01
We show that neither accretion nor angular momentum extraction are likely to lead to significant changes in the mass M_1 or angular momentum parameter a_* of a black hole in a binary system with realistic parameters. Current values of M_1 and a_* therefore probably reflect those at formation. We show further that sufficiently energetic jet ejection powered by the black hole's rotational energy can stabilize mass transfer in systems with large adverse mass ratios, and even reduce the mass transfer rate to the point where the binary becomes transient.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of nuclear stopping power and its importance to the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies was brought to general attention one year ago at Quark Matter 83 by Busza and Goldhaber. In this context, nuclear stopping power can be thought of as the rate of energy (or rapidity) loss of a proton traversing nuclear matter. It does not directly address the important question of energy deposition. Busza and Goldhaber showed that knowledge of nuclear stopping power is needed to estimate the minimum center-of-mass energy required in nucleus-nucleus collisions to ensure the production of very high temperatures at low baryon density. At cm energies of about 1 to 10 GeV/A, the stopping power is important in the estimation of the maximum baryon densities attainable in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The data presented are more relevant to this latter point
Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Bowin
2009-03-01
Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm^{2}s^{−1}. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive
Response spectra in alluvial soils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v2. Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)
Absolute angular calibration of a submarine km3 neutrino telescope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A requirement for neutrino telescope is the ability to resolve point sources of neutrinos. In order to understand its resolving power a way to perform absolute angular calibration with muons is required. Muons produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere offer an abundant calibration source. By covering a surface vessel with 200 modules of 5 m2 plastic scintillator a surface air shower array can be set up. Running this array in coincidence with a deep-sea km3 size neutrino detector, where the coincidence is defined by the absolute clock timing stamp for each event, would allow absolute angular calibration to be performed. Monte Carlo results simulating the absolute angular calibration of the km3 size neutrino detector will be presented. Future work and direction will be discussed.
True CMB Power Spectrum Estimation
Paykari, P; Fadili, M J
2012-01-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum is a powerful cosmological probe as it entails almost all the statistical information of the CMB perturbations. Having access to only one sky, the CMB power spectrum measured by our experiments is only a realization of the true underlying angular power spectrum. In this paper we aim to recover the true underlying CMB power spectrum from the one realization that we have without a need to know the cosmological parameters. The sparsity of the CMB power spectrum is first investigated in two dictionaries; Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Wavelet Transform (WT). The CMB power spectrum can be recovered with only a few percentage of the coefficients in both of these dictionaries and hence is very compressible in these dictionaries. We study the performance of these dictionaries in smoothing a set of simulated power spectra. Based on this, we develop a technique that estimates the true underlying CMB power spectrum from data, i.e. without a need to know the cosmo...
AngularJS test-driven development
Chaplin, Tim
2015-01-01
This book is for developers who want to learn about AngularJS development by applying testing techniques. You are assumed to have a basic knowledge and understanding of HTML, JavaScript, and AngularJS.
Orbital angular momentum in phase space
Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.; Klimov, A. B.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.
2010-01-01
A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goal of the experiment was to obtain inclusive proton spectra over the ranges of 0 to 1 GeV/c in Psub(T) and 0 to 1 in xsub(F). The targets used were C, Al, Cu, Ag, and Pb. A limited set of data was also taken with a liquid hydrogen target in order to check some of the calibrations, but this has not yet been analyzed. All of the data from the nuclear targets has been analyzed once, but further refinement is needed. The results available now must therefore be considered preliminary and subject to change, but nevertheless the general features of the results are clear. (orig./HSI)
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayub, M. K. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-10-15
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
On Dunkl angular momenta algebra
Feigin, Misha; Hakobyan, Tigran
2015-11-01
We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl( N ) version of the subalge-bra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.
Angular momentum in QGP holography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett McInnes
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The quark chemical potential is one of the fundamental parameters describing the quark–gluon plasma produced by sufficiently energetic heavy-ion collisions. It is not large at the extremely high temperatures probed by the LHC, but it plays a key role in discussions of the beam energy scan programmes at the RHIC and other facilities. On the other hand, collisions at such energies typically (that is, in peripheral collisions give rise to very high values of the angular momentum density. Here we explain that holographic estimates of the quark chemical potential of a rotating sample of plasma can be very considerably improved by taking the angular momentum into account.
The integration of angular velocity
Boyle, Michael
2016-01-01
A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical problem of precessing black-hole binaries. It is shown that a straightforward solution directly using quaternions is most efficient and accurate, and that the norm of the quaternion is irrelevant. Integration of the generator of the rotation can also be made roughly as efficient as integration of the rotation. Both methods will typically be twice as efficient naive vector- or matrix-based methods. Implementation by means of standard general-purpose numerical integrators is stable and efficient, so that such problems can ...
Different spectra with the same neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using as source term the spectrum of a 239Pu-Be source several neutron spectra have been calculated using Monte Carlo methods. The source term was located in the centre of spherical moderators made of light water, heavy water and polyethylene of different diameters. Also a 239Pu-Be source was used to measure its neutron spectrum, bare and moderated by water. The neutron spectra were measured at 100 cm with a Bonner spheres spectrometer. Monte Carlo calculations were used to calculate the neutron spectra of bare and water-moderated spectra that were compared with those measured with the spectrometer. Resulting spectra are similar to those found in power plants with PWR, BWR and Candu nuclear reactors. Beside the spectra the dosimetric features were determined. Using moderators and a single neutron source can be produced neutron spectra alike those found in workplaces, this neutron fields can be utilized to calibrate neutron dosimeters and area monitors. (Author)
Integrating rotation from angular velocity
Zupan, Eva; Saje, Miran
2011-01-01
Abstract The integration of the rotation from a given angular velocity is often required in practice. The present paper explores how the choice of the parametrization of rotation, when employed in conjuction with different numerical time-integration schemes, effects the accuracy and the computational efficiency. Three rotation parametrizations – the rotational vector, the Argyris tangential vector and the rotational quaternion – are combined with three different numerical time-integration ...
Orbital angular momentum is dependent on polarization
Li, Chun-Fang
2009-01-01
It is shown that the momentum density of free electromagnetic field splits into two parts. One has no contribution to the net momentum due to the transversality condition. The other yields all the momentum. The angular momentum that originates from the former part is spin, and the angular momentum that originates from the latter part is orbital angular momentum. Expressions for the spin and orbital angular momentum are given in terms of the electric vector in reciprocal space. The spin and or...
Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of two glued hollow axicons, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarization into a linearly polarized input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarization, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of 95% for these three different wavelengths is observed. This device may find applications in imaging from micro- to astronomical systems where a white vortex beam is needed. (paper)
Effects of Angular Momentum on Halo Profiles
Lentz, Erik W; Rosenberg, Leslie J
2016-01-01
The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N-body simulations has proven to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. In this letter we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean ($\\lambda \\lesssim 0.20$) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large ($\\lambda \\gtrsim 0.20$) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to $\\lambda \\lesssim 0.20$. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.
AngularJS web application development
Darwin, Peter Bacon
2013-01-01
The book will be a step-by-step guide showing the readers how to build a complete web app with AngularJSJavaScript developers who want to learn AngularJS for developing web apps. Knowledge of JavaScript and HTML is expected. No knowledge of AngularJS is required.
Collective spectra along the fission barrier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pigni M. T.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Discrete and continuous spectra of fissioning nuclei at the humps of fission barriers (Bohr transition states and in the intermediate wells (superdeformed and hyperdeformed states play a key role in the calculation of fission cross sections. A theoretical evaluation of the collective parts of the spectra is possible within the framework of the dinuclear system model, which treats the wave function of the fissioning nucleus as a superposition of a mononucleus configuration and two–cluster configurations in a dynamical way, permitting exchange of upper–shell nucleons between clusters. The impact of theoretical spectra on neutron–induced fission cross sections and, in combination with an improved version of the scission–point model, on angular distribution of fission fragments is evaluated for plutonium isotopes of interest to nuclear energy applications.
LOFAR imaging of Cygnus A - Direct detection of a turnover in the hotspot radio spectra
McKean, J. P.; Godfrey, L. E. H.; Vegetti, S.; Wise, M. W.; Morganti, R.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Rafferty, D.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Blaauw, R.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Cerrigone, L.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horst, A. J. van der; Iacobelli, M.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J.. A.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Serylak, M.; Shulevski, A.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Stewart, A.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.
2016-08-01
The low-frequency radio spectra of the hotspots within powerful radio galaxies can provide valuable information about the physical processes operating at the site of the jet termination. These processes are responsible for the dissipation of jet kinetic energy, particle acceleration, and magnetic-field generation. Here we report new observations of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A using the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) between 109 and 183 MHz, at an angular resolution of ˜3.5 arcsec. The radio emission of the lobes is found to have a complex spectral index distribution, with a spectral steepening found towards the centre of the source. For the first time, a turnover in the radio spectrum of the two main hotspots of Cygnus A has been directly observed. By combining our LOFAR imaging with data from the Very Large Array at higher frequencies, we show that the very rapid turnover in the hotspot spectra cannot be explained by a low-energy cut-off in the electron energy distribution, as has been previously suggested. Thermal (free-free) absorption or synchrotron self absorption models are able to describe the low-frequency spectral shape of the hotspots, however, as with previous studies, we find that the implied model parameters are unlikely, and interpreting the spectra of the hotspots remains problematic.
Dependency injection with AngularJS
Knol, Alex
2013-01-01
This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.
Angular profile of Particle Emission from a Higher-dimensional Black Hole: Analytic Results
Kanti, Panagiota
2012-01-01
During the spin-down phase of the life of a higher-dimensional black hole, the emission of particles on the brane exhibits a strong angular variation with respect to the rotation axis of the black hole. It has been suggested that this angular variation is the observable that could disentangle the dependence of the radiation spectra on the number of extra dimensions and angular momentum of the black hole. Working in the low-energy regime, we have employed analytical formulae for the greybody factors, angular eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of fermions and gauge bosons, and studied the characteristics of the corresponding angular profiles of emission spectra in terms of only a few dominant partial modes. We have confirmed that, in the low-energy channel, the emitted gauge bosons become aligned to the rotation axis of the produced black hole while fermions form an angle with the rotation axis whose exact value depends on the angular-momentum of the black hole. In the case of scalar fields, we demonstrated the exi...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten
2016-01-01
In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...
Matter waves with angular momentum
Bracher, C; Kleber, M; Bracher, Christian; Kramer, Tobias; Kleber, Manfred
2003-01-01
An alternative description of quantum scattering processes rests on inhomogeneous terms amended to the Schr\\"odinger equation. We detail the structure of sources that give rise to multipole scattering waves of definite angular momentum, and introduce pointlike multipole sources as their limiting case. Partial wave theory is recovered for freely propagating particles. We obtain novel results for ballistic scattering in an external uniform force field, where we provide analytical solutions for both the scattering waves and the integrated particle flux. As an illustration of the theory, we predict some properties of vortex-bearing atom laser beams outcoupled from a rotating Bose--Einstein condensate under the influence of gravity.
Naturally enhanced ion-line spectra around the equatorial 150-km region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. L. Chau
2009-03-01
Full Text Available For many years strong radar echoes coming from 140–170 km altitudes at low latitudes have been associated to the existence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs (the so called 150-km echoes. In this work, we present frequency spectra as well as angular distribution of 150-km echoes. When the 150-km region is observed with beams perpendicular to the magnetic field (B the observed radar spectra are very narrow with spectral widths between 3–12 m/s. On the other hand, when few-degrees off-perpendicular beams are used, the radar spectra are wide with spectral widths comparable to those expected from ion-acoustic waves at these altitudes (>1000 m/s. Moreover the off-perpendicular spectral width increases with increasing altitude. The strength of the received echoes is one to two orders of magnitude stronger than the expected level of waves in thermal equilibrium at these altitudes. Such enhancement is not due to an increase in electron density. Except for the enhancement in power, the spectra characteristics of off-perpendicular and perpendicular echoes are in reasonable agreement with expected incoherent scatter spectra at these angles and altitudes. 150-km echoes are usually observed in narrow layers (2 to 5. Bistatic common volume observations as well as observations made few kilometers apart show that, for most of the layers, there is very high correlation on power fluctuations without a noticeable time separation between simultaneous echoes observed with Off-perpendicular and Perpendicular beams. However, in one of the central layers, the echoes are the strongest in the perpendicular beam and absent or very weak in the off-perpendicular beams, suggesting that they are generated by a plasma instability. Our results indicate that most echoes around 150-km region are not as aspect sensitive as originally thought, and they come from waves that have been enhanced above waves in thermal equilibrium.
Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Xinbing, E-mail: xbwang@hust.edu.cn; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu, Peixiang [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2015-05-21
Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.
The dijet mass spectrum and angular distributions with the D0 detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present preliminary results from an analysis of dijet data collected during the 1994-95 Tevatron Collider run with an integrated luminosity of 91 pb-1. Measurements of dijet mass spectra and dijet angular distributions in anti pp collisions at √s- = 1.8 TeV are compared with next-to-leading order QCD theory
Qureshi, Muhammad Mohsin; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Jin-Tae
2016-05-01
We have investigated ultra-narrow EIA spectral features with respect to variations of polarizations and powers of pump laser beam in a degenerate two-level system of the transition of 85 Rb D2 transition line. Polarizations of the probe laser beam in two separate experiments were fixed at right circular and horizontal linear polarizations, respectively while the polarizations of the pump lasers were varied from initial polarizations same as the probe laser beams to orthogonal to probe polarizations. One homemade laser combined with AOMs was used to the pump and probe laser beams instead of two different lasers to overcome broad linewidths of the homemade lasers. Theoretically, probe absorption coefficients have been calculated from optical Bloch equations of the degenerate two level system prepared by a pump laser beam. In the case of the circular polarization, EIA signal was obtained as expected theoretically although both pump and probe beams have same polarization. The EIA signal become smaller as power increases and polarizations of the pump and probe beams were same. When the polarization of the pump beam was linear polarization, maximum EIA signal was obtained theoretically and experimentally. Experimental EIA spectral shapes with respect to variations of the pump beam polarization shows similar trends as the theoretical results.
Hafford-Letchfield, Trish
2015-01-01
This chapter looks at the concept of power in social work by focusing on what this means as a ‘professional’ and theorizes competing discourses of empowerment in social work and its key concepts, drawing in particular on the explanatory powers of critical theorist Michel Foucault (1991). The chapter problematizes the concept of power by explicitly drawing on both users’ and carers’ accounts from the literature to demonstrate different external and internal influences on the root causes of dis...
Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.
Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A
2015-09-24
The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies. PMID:26399831
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A comprehensive temperature characterization method based on the GaNE2-high Raman mode and sapphire ruby R fluorescence lines from Raman spectra was developed to analyse the thermal distribution and heat transfer process of high-power flip-chip InGaN/GaN LEDs (FC LEDs). Our analysis demonstrated that in addition to the known problem that the edges of mesa were always the hottest point of FC LEDs, which was due to the current crowding effect, a noteworthy temperature difference was first observed between the sapphire substrate and n-GaN when the injection current was above 300 mA. A 'heat reservoir' was suggested to occur at the interface between the sapphire and n-GaN due to poor thermal conductivity of sapphire when a large amount of heat from the hottest spot cannot be effectively transferred to the Si mount via the active region under high injection currents.
Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.
2012-04-20
Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.
Gaspari, M; Nagai, D; Lau, E T; Zhuravleva, I
2014-01-01
Exploring the ICM power spectrum can help us to probe the physics of galaxy clusters. Using high-resolution 3D plasma simulations, we study the statistics of the velocity field and its relation with the thermodynamic perturbations. The normalization of the ICM spectrum (density, entropy, or pressure) is linearly tied to the level of large-scale motions, which excite both gravity and sound waves due to stratification. For low 3D Mach number M~0.25, gravity waves mainly drive entropy perturbations, traced by preferentially tangential turbulence. For M>0.5, sound waves start to significantly contribute, passing the leading role to compressive pressure fluctuations, associated with isotropic turbulence (or a slight radial bias). Density and temperature fluctuations are then characterized by the dominant process: isobaric (low M), adiabatic (high M), or isothermal (strong conduction). Most clusters reside in the intermediate regime, showing a mixture of gravity and sound waves, hence drifting towards isotropic vel...
Hayes, A C
2016-01-01
We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.
Krachmalnicoff, N; Aumont, J; Bersanelli, M; Mennella, A
2015-01-01
We quantify the contamination from polarized diffuse Galactic synchrotron and thermal dust emissions to the B-modes of the CMB anisotropies on the degree angular scale, using data from the Planck and WMAP satellites. We compute power spectra of foreground polarized emissions in 352 circular sky patches located at Galactic latitude |b|>20{\\deg}, each of which covering a fraction of the sky of about 1.5%. We make use of the spectral properties derived from Planck and WMAP data to extrapolate, in frequency, the amplitude of synchrotron and thermal dust B-modes spectra in the multipole bin centered at $\\ell\\simeq80$. In this way we estimate, for each analyzed region, the amplitude and frequency of the foreground minimum. We detect both dust and synchrotron signal, at degree angular scale and at 3 confidence level, in 28 regions. Here the minimum of the foreground emission is found at frequencies between 60 and 100 GHz with an amplitude,expressed in terms of the equivalent tensor-to-scalar ratio, r_FG, between ~0....
Fujáková, Michaela; Páleníček, Tomáš; Brunovský, Martin; Gorman, Ingmar; Tylš, Filip; Kubešová, Anna; Řípová, Daniela; Krajča, Vladimír; Horáček, Jiří
2014-07-01
In the present study we investigated the potential antipsychotic effects of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 on changes in EEG power spectra and coherence in the ketamine model of psychosis. In order to use behaviorally active drug doses, experiments detecting changes in locomotor activity and sensorimotor gating were also conducted. In EEG experiments, adult male Wistar rats were injected with ketamine 30 mg/kg i.p. and LY379268 3 mg/kg i.p. Cortical EEG was recorded from twelve (2 × 6) electrodes placed homolaterally on each hemisphere. To avoid interference with the behavioral hyperactivity of ketamine challenge, the behavioral activity of animals was simultaneously registered at the time of recording. Subsequent power spectral and coherence analyses were assessed in epochs corresponding to behavioral inactivity. Analysis of segments with behavioral activity compared to inactivity was also performed. The effects of LY379268 3 mg/kg i.p. on the deficits in sensorimotor processing and on hyperlocomotion induced by ketamine were evaluated in the test of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI ASR) and in the open field. LY379268 reversed the ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion but had no effect on ketamine-induced PPI deficits. In EEG epochs corresponding to behavioral inactivity ketamine decreased the power in the delta band, induced a power increase in the high frequency bands and globally decreased EEG coherence. Pretreatment with the LY379268 completely reversed the ketamine-induced power increase in high frequency bands and had a partial effect on EEG coherence. LY379268 alone induced a decrease of beta, high beta and low-gamma power, and an increase in coherence in high frequency bands. Additional analysis revealed that behavioral activity increases power as well as coherence in most frequency bands. In conclusion, agonism of mGlu2/3 receptors was effective in reversing most of the changes induced by ketamine, however due to the lack of effectiveness
Constantin, Anca; Ho, Luis C; Barth, Aaron J; Filippenko, Alexei V; Castillo, Christopher A
2015-01-01
Using a sample of ~100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of H_alpha and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which Transition Objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at <10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The Transition Objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad H_...
The difficulty of measuring orbital angular momentum
Preece, D; Nieminen, T. A.; Asavei, T.; Heckenberg, N. R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.
2011-01-01
Light can carry angular momentum as well as energy and momentum; the transfer of this angular momentum to an object results in an optical torque. The development of a rotational analogue to the force measurement capability of optical tweezers is hampered by the difficulty of optical measurement of orbital angular momentum. We present an experiment with encouraging results, but emphasise the difficulty of the task.
The difficulty of measuring orbital angular momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Preece
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Light can carry angular momentum as well as energy and momentum; the transfer of this angular momentum to an object results in an optical torque. The development of a rotational analogue to the force measurement capability of optical tweezers is hampered by the difficulty of optical measurement of orbital angular momentum. We present an experiment with encouraging results, but emphasise the difficulty of the task.
Orbital angular momentum and the parton model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ratcliffe, P.G.
1987-06-25
The role of orbital angular momentum is discussed within the framework of the parton model. It is shown that a consistent interpretation of the Altarelli-Parisi equations governing the Q/sup 2/-evolution of helicity-weighted parton distributions necessitates the assumption that partons carry a large orbital angular momentum, contrary to popular belief. In developing the arguments presented, the Altarelli-Parisi formalism is extended to include orbital angular momentum dependence.
Photoionization with Orbital Angular Momentum Beams
Picón, A.; Mompart, J.; de Aldana, J. R. Vázquez; Plaja, L.; Calvo, G. F.; Roso, L.
2010-01-01
Intense laser ionization expands Einstein's photoelectric effect rules giving a wealth of phenomena widely studied over the last decades. In all cases, so far, photons were assumed to carry one unit of angular momentum. However it is now clear that photons can possess extra angular momentum, the orbital angular momentum (OAM), related to their spatial profile. We show a complete description of photoionization by OAM photons, including new selection rules involving more than one unit of angula...
Quantum formulation of fractional orbital angular momentum
Götte, Jörg B; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Zambrini, Roberta; Barnett, Stephen M.
2007-01-01
The quantum theory of rotation angles (S. M. Barnett and D. T. Pegg, Phys. Rev. A, 41, 3427-3425 (1990)) is generalised to non-integer values of the orbital angular momentum. This requires the introduction of an additional parameter, the orientation of a phase discontinuity associated with fractional values of the orbital angular momentum. We apply our formalism to the propagation of light modes with fractional orbital angular momentum in the paraxial and non-paraxial regime.
Orbital angular momentum induced beam shifts
Hermosa N.; Merano M.; Aiello A.; Woerdman J.P.
2011-01-01
We present experiments on Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) induced beam shifts in optical reflection. Specifically, we observe the spatial Goos-H\\"anchen shift in which the beam is displaced parallel to the plane of incidence and the angular Imbert-Fedorov shift which is a transverse angular deviation from the geometric optics prediction. Experimental results agree well with our theoretical predictions. Both beam shifts increase with the OAM of the beam; we have measured these for OAM indices u...
The spectra and dynamics of diatomic molecules
Lefebvre-Brion, Helene
2004-01-01
This book is written for graduate students just beginning research, for theorists curious about what experimentalists actually can and do measure, and for experimentalists bewildered by theory. It is a guide for potential users of spectroscopic data, and uses language and concepts that bridge the frequency-and time-domain spectroscopic communities. Key topics, concepts, and techniques include: the assignment of simple spectra, basic experimental techniques, definition of Born-Oppenheimer and angular momentum basis sets and the associated spectroscopic energy level patterns (Hund's ca
Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.
Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim
2010-01-01
Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.
Magnetic Modulation of Stellar Angular Momentum Loss
Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer
2014-01-01
Angular Momentum Loss is important for understanding astrophysical phenomena such as stellar rotation, magnetic activity, close binaries, and cataclysmic variables. Magnetic breaking is the dominant mechanism in the spin down of young late-type stars. We have studied angular momentum loss as a function of stellar magnetic activity. We argue that the complexity of the field and its latitudinal distribution are crucial for angular momentum loss rates. In this work we discuss how angular momentum is modulated by magnetic cycles, and how stellar spin down is not just a simple function of large scale magnetic field strength.
The Angular Momentum of the Solar System
Cang, Rongquin; Guo, Jianpo; Hu, Juanxiu; He, Chaoquiong
2016-05-01
The angular momentum of the Solar System is a very important physical quantity to the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Previously, the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets were only taken into consideration, when researchers calculated the angular momentum of the Solar System. Nowadays, it seems narrow and conservative. Using Eggleton's code, we calculate the rotational inertia of the Sun. Furthermore, we obtain that the spin angular momentum of the Sun is 1.8838 x 10^41 kg m^2 s^-1. Besides the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets, we also account for the orbital angular momentum of the Asteroid Belt, the Kuiper Belt, the Oort Cloud, the Ninth Giant Planet and the Solar Companion. We obtain that the angular momentum of the whole Solar System is 3.3212 x 10^45 kg m^2 s^-1.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姚诚; 刘广孚; 李忠国; 陶凤阳
2011-01-01
潜油电泵偏磨故障的诊断对于油田的安全生产具有重要意义.根据潜油电泵碰磨的理论分析,观察了振动信号小波系数的特点,提出了采用小波分解系数功率谱的层内最大值作为特征参数进行偏磨诊断的思想.通过交叉验证,以5次测试的平均识别率作为评价指标,使用改进粒子群算法对支持向量机的参数进行了优化.在径向基宽度为-0.310 9,惩罚参数C为429.127 8时,平均识别率最高为90％.研究结果表明,在潜油电泵偏磨故障的诊断中,小波系数功率谱优于小波分解后层内系数的傅里叶变换最大值和层内系数的方差.使用小波系数功率谱参数可以成功地实现潜油电泵偏磨诊断.%Diagnosing the partial friction fault of Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) is very important in oil field. Ac-cording to the theoretic analysis of ESP collision and friction, after observing the wavelet coefficient characters of vi-bration signal, a diagnosis idea is proposed, which uses the maximums of wavelet coefficient power spectra in every layer as the features to diagnose the partial friction of ESP. With cross-validation, the average recognition rate of five tests is taken as the evaluation indicator, and improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of support vector machine (SVM). The highest average recognition rate is as high as 90% when radial basis function width is -0. 310 9 and penalty parameter is 429. 127 8. Research results indicate that the wavelet co-efficient power spectra are more competent for partial friction diagnosis than the maximums of wavelet coefficient Fast Fourier Transform ( FFT) and the variances of wavelet coefficients in every layer. Wavelet coefficient power spectrum parameters can achieve good performance in partial friction fault diagnosis of ESP.
Differing self-similarity in light scattering spectra: A potential tool for pre-cancer detection
Ghosh, Sayantan; Purwar, Harsh; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K
2011-01-01
The fluctuations in the elastic light scattering spectra of normal and dysplastic human cervical tissues analyzed through wavelet transform based techniques reveal clear signatures of self-similar behavior in the spectral fluctuations. Significant differences in the power law behavior ascertained through the scaling exponent was observed in these tissues. The strong dependence of the elastic light scattering on the size distribution of the scatterers manifests in the angular variation of the scaling exponent. Interestingly, the spectral fluctuations in both these tissues showed multi-fractality (non-stationarity in fluctuations), the degree of multi-fractality being marginally higher in the case of dysplastic tissues. These findings using the multi-resolution analysis capability of the discrete wavelet transform can contribute to the recent surge in the exploration for non-invasive optical tools for pre-cancer detection.
Realistic neutron spectra for radiation protection and other applications at AERI, Budapest
Pálfalvi, J; Sajo-Bohus, L
2002-01-01
The reconstruction of the Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) gave a good possibility to develop mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields for different applications like: simulation of operational spectra at power reactors, dosimeter development, neutron radiography, biological experiments. Recently, there are 3 horizontal channels available. In addition, isotopic neutron sources are in use in a separate laboratory. In a rotatable holder 4 different sources can be stored and automatically moved into irradiation position. There are changeable collimators and absorbers to modify the spectrum. In the large hall there are possibilities to study the room scatter, angular dependence of detectors, phantom albedo effect etc. Recently available sources are different Pu-Be (from 10 sup 5 -10 sup 7 n/s yield), Ra-Be and Cf. 76.
Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties
Angular momentum of non-paraxial light beam: Dependence of orbital angular momentum on polarization
Li, Chun-Fang
2009-01-01
It is shown that the momentum density of free electromagnetic field splits into two parts. One has no contribution to the net momentum due to the transversality condition. The other yields all the momentum. The angular momentum that is associated with the former part is spin, and the angular momentum that is associated with the latter part is orbital angular momentum. Expressions for the spin and orbital angular momentum are given in terms of the electric vector in reciprocal space. The spin ...
Angular correlations of α-particles from decay of 40Ca following fusion of 28Si + 12C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angular correlations of α-particles from decay of 40Ca following fusion of 28Si + 12C were measured. The results for events leading to the ground state of 32S were quantitatively analysed, using the statistical model. Angular correlations in appropriate experimental conditions permitted to verify angular momentum selection predictions for each of the steps involved. Whereas the mean behaviour is well reproduced, more detailed comparison shows significant disagreement. Strongly structured coincident energy spectra were observed. It is shown that these structures are not compatible with standard statistical level densities
Orbital angular momentum control by a multihelicoidal fibre with a twist defect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have theoretically demonstrated that by creating a controllable twist defect in an l-helicoidal fibre one can control the orbital angular momentum of the generated beam at a constant power. We have studied the passage of the Gaussian beam through such a defect fibre and shown that by varying the twist defect angle one can change the total orbital angular momentum of the generated optical field from 0 to l (in dimensionless units). We have also studied the distribution of the angular momentum density in the cross-section of the generated optical field. (paper)
Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.;
2015-01-01
Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...
Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements
Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.
1998-01-01
In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.
Exposing Library Services with AngularJS
Jakob Voß; Moritz Horn
2014-01-01
This article provides an introduction to the JavaScript framework AngularJS and specific AngularJS modules for accessing library services. It shows how information such as search suggestions, additional links, and availability can be embedded in any website. The ease of reuse may encourage more libraries to expose their services via standard APIs to allow usage in different contexts.
Concepts of radial and angular kinetic energies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W.P.
2002-01-01
We consider a general central-field system in D dimensions and show that the division of the kinetic energy into radial and angular parts proceeds differently in the wave-function picture and the Weyl-Wigner phase-space picture, Thus, the radial and angular kinetic energies are different quantities...
Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.
Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.
1981-01-01
Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)
Angular Momentum Distribution in the Transverse Plane
Adhikari, Lekha
2016-01-01
Several possibilities to relate the $t$-dependence of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) to the distribution of angular momentum in the transverse plane are discussed. Using a simple spectator model we demonstrate that non of them correctly describes the orbital angular momentum distribution that for a longitudinally polarized nucleon obtained directly from light-front wavefunctions.
Orbital Angular Momentum in the Nucleon
Garvey, Gerald T.
2010-01-01
Analysis of the measured value of the integrated \\bar{d}-\\bar{u} asymmetry (Ifas = 0.147+-0.027) in the nucleon show it to arise from nucleon fluctuations into baryon plus pion. Requiring angular momentum conservation in these fluctuations shows the associated orbital angular momentum is equal to the value of the flavor asymmetry.
Detecting orbital angular momentum in radio signals
Then, H.; Thidé, B.; Mendonça, J T; Carozzi, T.D.; Bergman, J.; Baan, W. A.; Mohammadi, S. (Siawoosh); Eliasson, B.
2008-01-01
Electromagnetic waves with an azimuthal phase shift are known to have a well defined orbital angular momentum. Different methods that allow for the detection of the angular momentum are proposed. For some, we discuss the required experimental setup and explore the range of applicability.
Responsive web design with AngularJS
Patel, Sandeep Kumar
2014-01-01
If you are an AngularJS developer who wants to learn about responsive web application development, this book is ideal for you. Responsive Web Design with AngularJS is intended for web developers or designers with a basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.
Angular momentum decomposition of Richardson's pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The angular momentum decomposition of pairs obtained using Richardson's exact solution of the pairing Hamiltonian for the deformed 174Yb nucleus are displayed. The probabilities for low angular momenta of the collective pairs are strikingly different from the ones obtained in the BCS ground state
General Notes on Processes and Their Spectra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustav Cepciansky
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The frequency spectrum performs one of the main characteristics of a process. The aim of the paper is to show the coherence between the process and its own spectrum and how the behaviour and properties of a process itself can be deduced from its spectrum. Processes are categorized and general principles of their spectra calculation and recognition are given. The main stress is put on power spectra of electric and optic signals, as they also perform a kind of processes. These spectra can be directly measured, observed and examined by means of spectral analyzers and they are very important characteristics which can not be omitted at transmission techniques in telecommunication technologies. Further, the paper also deals with non electric processes, mainly with processes and spectra at mass servicing and how these spectra can be utilised in praxis.
Time-delay cosmography: increased leverage with angular diameter distances
Jee, I.; Komatsu, E.; Suyu, S. H.; Huterer, D.
2016-04-01
Strong lensing time-delay systems constrain cosmological parameters via the so-called time-delay distance and the angular diameter distance to the lens. In previous studies, only the former information was used in forecasting cosmographic constraints. In this paper, we show that the cosmological constraints improve significantly when the latter information is also included. Specifically, the angular diameter distance plays a crucial role in breaking the degeneracy between the curvature of the Universe and the time-varying equation of state of dark energy. Using a mock sample of 55 bright quadruple lens systems based on expectations for ongoing/future imaging surveys, we find that adding the angular diameter distance information to the time-delay distance information and the Planck's measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies improves the constraint on the constant equation of state by 30%, on the time variation in the equation of state by a factor of two, and on the Hubble constant in the flat ΛCDM model by a factor of two. Therefore, previous forecasts for the statistical power of time-delay systems were overly pessimistic, i.e., time-delay systems are more powerful than previously appreciated.
Does high harmonic generation conserve angular momentum?
Fleischer, Avner; Diskin, Tzvi; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren
2013-01-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) is a unique and useful process in which infrared or visible radiation is frequency up converted into the extreme ultraviolet and x ray spectral regions. As a parametric process, high harmonic generation should conserve the radiation energy, momentum and angular momentum. Indeed, conservation of energy and momentum have been demonstrated. Angular momentum of optical beams can be divided into two components: orbital and spin (polarization). Orbital angular momentum is assumed to be conserved and recently observed deviations were attributed to propagation effects. On the other hand, conservation of spin angular momentum has thus far never been studied, neither experimentally nor theoretically. Here, we present the first study on the role of spin angular momentum in extreme nonlinear optics by experimentally generating high harmonics of bi chromatic elliptically polarized pump beams that interact with isotropic media. While observing that the selection rules qualitatively correspond...
Physical Angular Momentum Separation for QED
Sun, Weimin
2016-01-01
We study the non-uniqueness problem of the gauge-invariant angular momentum separation for the case of QED, which stems from the recent controversy concerning the proper definitions of the orbital angular momentum and spin operator of the individual parts of a gauge field system. For the free quantum electrodynamics without matter, we show that the basic requirement of Euclidean symmetry selects a unique physical angular momentum separation scheme from the multitude of the possible angular momentum separation schemes constructed using the various Gauge Invariant Extentions. Based on these results, we propose a set of natural angular momentum separation schemes for the case of interacting QED by invoking the formalism of asymptotic fields. Some perspectives on such a problem for the case of QCD are briefly discussed.
Quark angular momentum in a spectator model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the quark angular momentum in a model with the nucleon being a quark and a spectator. Both scalar and axial-vector spectators are included. We perform the calculations in the light-cone formalism where the parton concept is well defined. We calculate the quark helicity and canonical orbital angular momentum. Then we calculate the gravitational form factors which are often related to the kinetic angular momentums, and find that even in a no gauge field model we cannot identify the canonical angular momentums with half the sum of gravitational form factors. In addition, we examine the model relation between the orbital angular momentum and pretzelosity, and find it is violated in the axial-vector case
CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor
Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakla, John; Kogut, Alan J; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen
2014-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravita-tional-wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70\\% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low $\\ell$. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of $r=0.01$ and make a cosmi...
CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor
Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward
2014-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Angular velocity and centripetal acceleration relationship
Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.; Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen
2014-05-01
During the last few years, the growing boom of smartphones has given rise to a considerable number of applications exploiting the functionality of the sensors incorporated in these devices. A sector that has unexpectedly taken advantage of the power of these tools is physics teaching, as reflected in several recent papers. In effect, the use of smartphones has been proposed in several physics experiments spanning mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, oscillations, and waves, among other subjects. Although mechanical experiments have received considerable attention, most of them are based on the use of the accelerometer. An aspect that has received less attention is the use of rotation sensors or gyroscopes. An additional advance in the use of these devices is given by the possibility of obtaining data using the accelerometer and the gyroscope simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to consider the relation between the centripetal acceleration and the angular velocity. Instead of using a formal laboratory setup, in this experiment a smartphone is attached to the floor of a merry-go-round, found in many playgrounds. Several experiments were performed with the roundabout rotating in both directions and with the smart-phone at different distances from the center. The coherence of the measurements is shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)
Cosmological forecasts from photometric measurements of the angular correlation function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study forecasts for the accuracy of the determination of cosmological parameters from future large-scale photometric surveys obtained using the full shape of the 2-point galaxy angular correlation function. The effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift Gaussian errors, galaxy bias and nonlinearities in the power spectrum are included on our analysis. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, including the correlation between nearby redshift shells arising from the photometric redshift error. We show that under some reasonable assumptions, a survey such as the imminent Dark Energy Survey should be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w and the cold dark matter density Ωcdm with a precision of the order of 20% and 13%, respectively, from the full shape of the angular correlation function alone. When combined with priors from other observations the precision in the determination of these parameters improve to 8% and 4%, respectively.
Cosmological forecasts from photometric measurements of the angular correlation function
Sobreira, F; Rosenfeld, R; da Costa, L A N; Maia, M A G; Makler, M
2011-01-01
We study forecasts for the accuracy of the determination of cosmological parameters from future large scale photometric surveys obtained using the full shape of the 2-point galaxy angular correlation function. The effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift gaussian errors, galaxy bias and non-linearities in the power spectrum are included on our analysis. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, including the correlation between nearby redshift shells arising from the photometric redshift error. We show that under some reasonable assumptions, a survey such as the imminent Dark Energy Survey should be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w and the cold dark matter density \\Omega_{cdm} with a precison of the order of 20% and 13% respectively from the full shape of the angular correlation function alone. When combined with priors from other observations the precision in the determination of these parameters improve to 8% and 4% ...
Coohill, T P
1991-11-01
Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates
Power Spectra of Multipath Faded Pulse Trains
Ridolfi, Andrea; Win, Moe
2005-01-01
We address the problem of modeling received pulse trains in a multipath fading channel and of computing their exact spectrum. We propose a model based on point processes. Such model is very general, simple and tractable and it allows to account for various phenomena that affect the transmission. We then give the exact spectrum of the output of such a model. Spectral formula of specific configurations are then derived from a singular general formula, where the various features of the channe...
Angular momentum conservation for dynamical black holes
Hayward, Sean A.
2006-01-01
Angular momentum can be defined by rearranging the Komar surface integral in terms of a twist form, encoding the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass, and an axial vector. If the axial vector is a coordinate vector and has vanishing transverse divergence, it can be uniquely specified under certain generic conditions. Along a trapping horizon, a conservation law expresses the rate of change of angular momentum of a general black hole in terms of angular momentum densities of ma...
Quartz angular rate sensor for automotive navigation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nozoe, Toshiyuki; Ichinose, Toshihiko; Kawasaki, Syusaku; Hatanaka, Masakazu; Kuroda, Keisuke [Matsushita Electronic Components Co. Ltd. (Japan); Yamamoto, Kohji; Ogata, Motoki; Takeno, Shoichi [Fukui Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd. (Japan); Ishihara, Minoru; Ishii, Tadashi; Umeki, Mitoshi [Nihonn Denpa Kogyo Co. Ltd. (Japan)
1999-07-01
Many of the recent automotive navigation systems are introducing an angular rate sensor that detect vehicle yaw in their system due to the advantage of higher accuracy, in addition to a conventional GPS (Global Positioning System) and vehicle speed signals. Though there are a couple of other methods to get a vehicle direction information, the angular rate sensor is the most suitable device as a gyro in accuracy and reliability point of view. Matsushita developed a new compact angular rate sensor using quartz crystal for automotive navigation systems. The sensor's operation is based upon Coriolis force imposed on a vibrating quartz tuning fork. (orig.)
Angular velocity: a new dimension in nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.
1984-08-09
Nuclei can be studied from their ground states (approx.O(h/2..pi..)) up to angular momenta of order 100 (h/2..pi..), where they are literally pulled apart by centrifugal effects. This range of angular momenta can be viewed as resulting from cranking the nucleus around a rotation axis, where the critical variable is the cranking velocity. The calculated response of nuclei to such an imposed angular velocity corresponds well with recent observations, and includes a rich and varied interplay of collective and single-particle phenomena.
Nonlinear FMR spectra in yttrium iron garnet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu.M. Bunkov, P.M. Vetoshko, I.G. Motygullin, T.R. Safin, M.S. Tagirov, N.A. Tukmakova
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Results of demagnetizing effect studies in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 thin films are reported. Experiments were performed on X-Band of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at room temperature. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra were obtained for one-layer single crystal YIG films for different values of the applied microwave power. Nonlinear FMR spectra transformation by the microwave power increasing in various directions of magnetic field sweep was observed. It is explained by the influence of the demagnetization action of nonequilibrium magnons.
Angular momentum projection for a Nilsson mean-field plus pairing model
Wang, Yin; Pan, Feng; Launey, Kristina D.; Luo, Yan-An; Draayer, J. P.
2016-06-01
The angular momentum projection for the axially deformed Nilsson mean-field plus a modified standard pairing (MSP) or the nearest-level pairing (NLP) model is proposed. Both the exact projection, in which all intrinsic states are taken into consideration, and the approximate projection, in which only intrinsic states with K = 0 are taken in the projection, are considered. The analysis shows that the approximate projection with only K = 0 intrinsic states seems reasonable, of which the configuration subspace considered is greatly reduced. As simple examples for the model application, low-lying spectra and electromagnetic properties of 18O and 18Ne are described by using both the exact and approximate angular momentum projection of the MSP or the NLP, while those of 20Ne and 24Mg are described by using the approximate angular momentum projection of the MSP or NLP.
Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Yavorsky, M. A. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Universite Bordeaux and CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, FR-33400 Talence (France)
2011-12-15
We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.
Rotationally Invariant Hamiltonians for Nuclear Spectra Based on Quantum Algebras
Bonatsos, D; Raychev, P P; Terziev, P A; Bonatsos, Dennis
2002-01-01
The rotational invariance under the usual physical angular momentum of the SUq(2) Hamiltonian for the description of rotational nuclear spectra is explicitly proved and a connection of this Hamiltonian to the formalisms of Amal'sky and Harris is provided. In addition, a new Hamiltonian for rotational spectra is introduced, based on the construction of irreducible tensor operators (ITO) under SUq(2) and use of q-deformed tensor products and q-deformed Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. The rotational invariance of this SUq(2) ITO Hamiltonian under the usual physical angular momentum is explicitly proved, a simple closed expression for its energy spectrum (the ``hyperbolic tangent formula'') is introduced, and its connection to the Harris formalism is established. Numerical tests in a series of Th isotopes are provided.
Spectra of stable sonoluminescence
Lewia, Stephen D.
1992-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The continuous emission of picosecond pulses of light has been observed to originate from a bubble trapped at the pressure antinode of a resonant sound field in water and in water/glycerin mixtures. The spectra of this light in several solutions has been measured with a scanning monochrometer/photomultiplier detector system. The spectra are broadband and show strong emission in the UV region. A comparison of this measurement to two ...
Angular Momentum Acquisition in Galaxy Halos
Stewart, Kyle R; Bullock, James S; Maller, Ariyeh H; Diemand, Juerg; Wadsley, James; Moustakas, Leonidas A
2013-01-01
We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky Way sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with ~70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by \\lambda~0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms "cold flow disks". We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.
Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo
2015-01-01
Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.
The physics of angular momentum radio
Thidé, B; Then, H; Someda, C G; Ravanelli, R A
2014-01-01
Wireless communications, radio astronomy and other radio science applications are mainly implemented with techniques built on top of the electromagnetic linear momentum (Poynting vector) physical layer. As a supplement and/or alternative to this conventional approach, techniques rooted in the electromagnetic angular momentum physical layer have been advocated, and promising results from proof-of-concept radio communication experiments using angular momentum were recently published. This sparingly exploited physical observable describes the rotational (spinning and orbiting) physical properties of the electromagnetic fields and the rotational dynamics of the pertinent charge and current densities. In order to facilitate the exploitation of angular momentum techniques in real-world implementations, we present a systematic, comprehensive theoretical review of the fundamental physical properties of electromagnetic angular momentum observable. Starting from an overview that puts it into its physical context among ...
Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia
2016-02-01
Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.
Angular dependence of primordial trispectra and CMB spectral distortions
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Bartolo, Nicola; Liguori, Michele
2016-10-01
Under the presence of anisotropic sources in the inflationary era, the trispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation has a very specific angular dependence between each wavevector that is distinguishable from the one encountered when only scalar fields are present, characterized by an angular dependence described by Legendre polynomials. We examine the imprints left by curvature trispectra on the TTμ bispectrum, generated by the correlation between temperature anisotropies (T) and chemical potential spectral distortions (μ) of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Due to the angular dependence of the primordial signal, the corresponding TTμ bispectrum strongly differs in shape from TTμ sourced by the usual gNL or τNL local trispectra, enabling us to obtain an unbiased estimation. From a Fisher matrix analysis, we find that, in a cosmic-variance-limited (CVL) survey of TTμ, a minimum detectable value of the quadrupolar Legendre coefficient is d2 ~ 0.01, which is 4 orders of magnitude better than the best value attainable from the TTTT CMB trispectrum. In the case of an anisotropic inflationary model with a f(phi)F2 interaction (coupling the inflaton field phi with a vector kinetic term F2), the size of the curvature trispectrum is related to that of quadrupolar power spectrum asymmetry, g*. In this case, a CVL measurement of TTμ makes it possible to measure g* down to 10‑3.
Angular Fock coefficients. Fixing the errors, and further development
Liverts, Evgeny Z
2015-01-01
The angular coefficients $\\psi_{k,p}(\\alpha,\\theta)$ of the Fock expansion characterizing the S-state wave function of the two-electron atomic system, are calculated in hyperspherical angular coordinates $\\alpha$ and $\\theta$. To solve the problem the Fock recurrence relations separated into the independent individual equations associated with definite power $j$ of the nucleus charge $Z$, are applied. The "pure" $j$-components of the angular Fock coefficients, orthogonal to of the hyperspherical harmonics $Y_{kl}$, are found for even values of $k$. To this end, the specific coupling equation is proposed and applied. Effective techniques for solving the individual equations with simplest nonseparable and separable right-hand sides are proposed. Some mistakes/misprints made earlier in representations of $\\psi_{2,0}$, were noted and corrected. All $j$-components of $\\psi_{4,1}$ and the majority of components and subcomponents of $\\psi_{3,0}$ are calculated and presented for the first time. All calculations were ...
Topological Orbital Angular Momentum Hall Current
Hu, Jiangping
2005-01-01
We show that there is a fundamental difference between spin Hall current and orbital angular momentum Hall current in Rashba- Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling systems. The orbital angular momentum Hall current has a pure topological contribution which is originated from the existence of magnetic flux in momentum space while there is no such topological nature for the spin Hall current. Moreover, we show that the orbital Hall conductance is always larger than the spin Hall conductance in the pr...
Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Angular Momentum
Bosso, Pasquale
2016-01-01
Various models of quantum gravity suggest a modification of the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, to the so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle, between position and momentum. In this work we show how this modification influences the theory of angular momentum in Quantum Mechanics. In particular, we compute Planck scale corrections to angular momentum eigenvalues, the Hydrogen atom spectrum, the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. We also examine effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on multi-particle systems.
Integrating rotation and angular velocity from curvature
Saje, Miran; Treven, Anita
2016-01-01
The problem of integrating the rotational vector from a given angular velocity vector is met in such diverse fields as the navigation, robotics, computer graphics, optical tracking and non-linear dynamics of flexible beams. For example, if the numerical formulation of non-linear dynamics of flexible beams is based on the interpolation of curvature, one needs to derive the rotation from the assumed curvature field. The relation between the angular velocity and the rotation is described by the ...
Angular velocity nonlinear observer from vector measurements
Magnis, Lionel; Petit, Nicolas
2015-01-01
The paper proposes a technique to estimate the angular velocity of a rigid body from vector measurements. Compared to the approaches presented in the literature, it does not use attitude information nor rate gyros as inputs. Instead, vector measurements are directly filtered through a nonlinear observer estimating the angular velocity. Convergence is established using a detailed analysis of the linear-time varying dynamics appearing in the estimation error equation. This equation stems from t...
Multipolar expansion of orbital angular momentum modes
Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2008-01-01
In this letter a general method for expanding paraxial beams into multipolar electromagnetic fields is presented. This method is applied to the expansion of paraxial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM), showing how the paraxial OAM is related to the general angular momentum of an electromagnetic wave. This method can be extended to quasi-paraxial beams, i.e. highly focused laser beams. Some applications to the control of electronic transitions in atoms are discussed.
Orbital angular momentum in the nucleons
Lorcé, Cédric
2014-01-01
In the last decade, it has been realized that the orbital angular momentum of partons inside the nucleon plays a major role. It contributes significantly to nucleon properties and is at the origin of many asymmetries observed in spin physics. It is therefore of paramount importance to determine this quantity if we want to understand the nucleon internal structure and experimental observables. This triggered numerous discussions and controversies about the proper definition of orbital angular ...
Orbital angular momentum of partially coherent beams
Serna Galán, Julio; Movilla Serrano, Jesús María
2001-01-01
The definition of the orbital angular momentum established for coherent beams is extended to partially coherent beams, expressed in terms of two elements of the beam matrix. This extension is justified by use of the Mercer expansion of partially coherent fields. General Gauss-Schell-model fields are considered, and the relation between the twist; parameter and the orbital angular momentum is analyzed. © 2001 Optical Society of America.
Entanglement of Polarization and Orbital Angular Momentum
Bhatti, Daniel; von Zanthier, Joachim; Agarwal, Girish S.
2015-01-01
We investigate two-photon entangled states using two important degrees of freedom of the electromagnetic field, namely orbital angular momentum (OAM) and spin angular momentum. For photons propagating in the same direction we apply the idea of $\\textit{entanglement duality}$ and develop schemes to do $\\textit{entanglement sorting}$ based either on OAM or polarization. In each case the entanglement is tested using appropriate witnesses. We finally present generalizations of these ideas to thre...
Radio beam vorticity and orbital angular momentum
Thidé, Bo; Tamburini, Fabrizio; Mari, Elettra; Romanato, Filippo; Barbieri, Cesare
2011-01-01
It has been known for a century that electromagnetic fields can transport not only energy and linear momentum but also angular momentum. However, it was not until twenty years ago, with the discovery in laser optics of experimental techniques for the generation, detection and manipulation of photons in well-defined, pure orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, that twisted light and its pertinent optical vorticity and phase singularities began to come into widespread use in science and technol...
Pretzelosity TMD and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Lorce, Cédric; Pasquini, B.
2015-01-01
We study the connection between the quark orbital angular momentum and the pretzelosity transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution function. We discuss the origin of this relation in quark models, identifying as key ingredient for its validity the assumption of spherical symmetry for the nucleon in its rest frame. Finally we show that the individual quark contributions to the orbital angular momentum obtained from this relation can not be interpreted as the intrinsic contributions, but...
Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers
Majid, Mohammad Wadood
2015-01-01
This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.
Recovering 3D clustering information with angular correlations
Asorey, Jacobo; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Lewis, Antony
2012-01-01
We study how to recover the full 3D clustering information of P(\\vec{k},z), including redshift space distortions (RSD), from 2D tomography using the angular auto and cross spectra of different redshift bins C_\\ell(z,z'). We focus on quasilinear scales where the minimum scale \\lambda_{min} or corresponding maximum wavenumber k_{max}= 2\\pi/\\lambda_{min} is targeted to be between k_{max}={0.05-0.2} h/Mpc. For spectroscopic surveys, we find that we can recover the full 3D clustering information when the redshift bin width \\Delta z used in the 2D tomography is similar to the targeted minimum scale, i.e. \\Delta z ~ {0.6-0.8} \\lambda_{min} H(z)/c which corresponds to \\Delta z ~ 0.01-0.05 for z\\Delta z and most radial information is intrinsically lost. The remaining information can be recovered from the 2D tomography if we use \\Delta z ~ 2\\sigma_z. While 3D and 2D analysis are shown here to be equivalent, the advantage of using angular positions and redshifts is that we do not need a fiducial cosmology to convert to ...
Digital angular position sensor using wavelength division multiplexing
Fritsch, Klaus; Beheim, Glenn; Sotomayor, Jorge
1990-01-01
Future aircraft will use fly-by-light control systems with fiber-linked optical sensors for such measurands as temperature, pressure, and linear and angular position. A digital optical sensor is described which was developed to transmit the angular position of such slowly rotating parts as a throttle of fuel flow control valve on an aircraft. The sensor employs a reflective code plate with ten channels providing a resolution of 0.35 degrees. Two light-emitting diodes with overlapping spectra are used as light sources. A single microoptic multiplexer-demultiplexer composed of a GRIN rod lens and a miniature grating is used to disperse the spectrum and recombine the spectral components from each channel after reflection by the code plate. The results of preliminary environmental tests of this unit are discussed. The sensor has been operated for brief periods of time between -60 C and +125 without adverse effects. Preliminary vibration tests indicate that the unit will work properly at the maximum vibration levels expected in a jet-engine environment.
Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junfang Fan
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.
Effect of Coma Aberration on Orbital Angular Momentum Spectrum of Vortex Beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zi-Yang; PU Ji-Xiong
2009-01-01
Spiral spectra of vortex beams with coma aberration are studied.It is shown that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of vortex beams with coma aberration are different from those aberration-free vortex beams.Spiral spectra of beams with coma aberration are spreading.It is found that in the presence of coma aberration,the vortex beams contain not only the original OAM component but also other components.A larger coma aberration coefficient and/or a larger beam waist will lead to a wider spreading of the spiral spectrum. The results may have potential applications in information encoding and transmittance.
Effects of PSDF forms on floor response spectra generation in direct solution methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several reported power spectra, compatible with US NRC RG 1.60 spectra, differ widely in their definitions and power contents. Through the study of an example, the effects of PSDF (Power Spectral Density Function) forms on floor response spectra generation are examined using direct solution method. It is shown that total power and magnitude of power in high frequency band have great influence on floor spectra. Among those PSDFs studied, which are compatible with US NRC RG 1.60 spectra, the PSDF of US NRC SRP 3.7.1 yields the best result. (author)
Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine
2013-12-14
The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He)200, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe200 studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.
RAMAN-SPECTRA OF HUMAN DENTAL CALCULUS
TSUDA, H; ARENDS, J
1993-01-01
Raman spectra of human dental calculus have been observed for the first time by use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The spectral features of calculus were influenced easily by heating caused by laser irradiation. Therefore, the measurements were carried out at relatively low power (5 mW, 1-mu m spot si
Crawford-Uranga, Alison; Mowbray, Duncan John; Kurth, Stefan; Rubio, Angel
2014-01-01
Using time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) we examine the energy, angular and time-resolved photoelectron spectra (TRPES) of ethylene in a pump-probe setup. To simulate TRPES we expose ethylene to an ultraviolet (UV) femtosecond pump pulse, followed by a time delayed extreme ultraviolet (XUV) probe pulse. Studying the photoemission spectra as a function of this delay provides us direct access to the dynamic evolution of the molecule's electronic levels. Further, by including the nuclei's motion, we provide direct chemical insight into the chemical reactivity of ethylene. These results show how angular and energy resolved TRPES could be used to directly probe electron and nucleus dynamics in molecules.
Golyshev, V
2008-01-01
This is a blend of two informal reports on the activities of the seminar on Galois representations and mirror symmetry given at the Conference on classification problems and mirror duality at the Steklov Institute, in March 2006, and at the Seminar on Algebra, Geometry and Physics at MPI, in November 2007. We assess where we are on the issue of the spectra of Fano varieties, and state problems. We introduce higher dimensional irreducible analogues of dessins, the low ramified sheaves, and hypothesize that Fano spectra relate to their geometric conductors. We give a recipe to a physicist.
Ultrafast angular momentum transfer in multisublattice ferrimagnets.
Bergeard, N; López-Flores, V; Halté, V; Hehn, M; Stamm, C; Pontius, N; Beaurepaire, E; Boeglin, C
2014-03-11
Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to induce ultrafast changes of the magnetization in magnetic materials. However, one of the unsolved questions is that of conservation of the total angular momentum during the ultrafast demagnetization. Here we report the ultrafast transfer of angular momentum during the first hundred femtoseconds in ferrimagnetic Co0.8Gd0.2 and Co0.74Tb0.26 films. Using time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism allowed for time-resolved determination of spin and orbital momenta for each element. We report an ultrafast quenching of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and show that at early times the demagnetization in ferrimagnetic alloys is driven by the local transfer of angular momenta between the two exchange-coupled sublattices while the total angular momentum stays constant. In Co0.74Tb0.26 we have observed a transfer of the total angular momentum to an external bath, which is delayed by ~150 fs.
An orbital angular momentum spectrometer for electrons
Harvey, Tyler; Grillo, Vincenzo; McMorran, Benjamin
2016-05-01
With the advent of techniques for preparation of free-electron and neutron orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, a basic follow-up question emerges: how do we measure the orbital angular momentum state distribution in matter waves? Control of both the energy and helicity of light has produced a range of spectroscopic applications, including molecular fingerprinting and magnetization mapping. Realization of an analogous dual energy-OAM spectroscopy with matter waves demands control of both initial and final energy and orbital angular momentum states: unlike for photons, final state post-selection is necessary for particles that cannot be annihilated. We propose a magnetic field-based mechanism for quantum non-demolition measurement of electron OAM. We show that OAM-dependent lensing is produced by an operator of form U =exp iLzρ2/ℏb2 where ρ =√{x2 +y2 } is the radial position operator, Lz is the orbital angular momentum operator along z, and b is the OAM dispersion length. We can physically realize this operator as a term in the time evolution of an electron in magnetic round lens. We discuss prospects and practical challenges for implementation of a lensing orbital angular momentum measurement. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under the Early Career Research Program Award # DE-SC0010466.
Angular distribution of oriented nucleus fission neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calculations of anisotropy of angular distribution of oriented 235U nuclei thermal fission neutrons have been carried out. the neutrons were assumed to evaporate isotropically by completely accelerated fragements in the fragment system with only its small part, i. e. fission-producing neutrons, emitted at the moment of neck break. It has been found out that at low energies of neutrons Esub(n)=1-2 MeV the sensitivity of the angular distribution anisotropy to variations of spectrum of neutron evaporation from fragments and the magnitude of a share of fission-producing neutrons reaches approximately 100%, which at high energies, Esub(n) > 5 MeV it does not exceed approximately 20%. Therefore the angular distribution of fast neutrons to a greater degree of confidence may be used for restoring the angular distribution anisotropy of fragments while the angular distribution of low energy neutrons may be used for deriving information on the fission process, but only in case 6f the experiment accuracy is better than approximately 3%
Dirac Green function for angular projection potentials
Zeller, Rudolf
2015-11-01
The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it is shown that the angular dependence of the Dirac Green function can be described analytically for potentials with non-local dependence on the angular variables if they are chosen as projection potentials in angular momentum space. Because the local dependence on the radial variable can be treated to any precision with present computing capabilities, this means that the Green function can be calculated practically exactly. Second, it is shown that a result of this kind not only holds for a single angular projection potential but also more generally, for instance if space is divided into non-overlapping cells and a separate angular projection potential is used in each cell. This opens the way for relativistic density-functional calculations within a different perspective than the conventional one. Instead of trying to obtain the density for a given potential approximately as well as possible, the density is determined exactly for non-local potentials which can approximate arbitrary local potentials as well as desired.
Data-oriented development with AngularJS
Waikar, Manoj
2015-01-01
This book helps beginner-level AngularJS developers organize AngularJS applications by discussing important AngularJS concepts and best practices. If you are an experienced AngularJS developer but haven't written directives or haven't created custom HTML controls before, then this book is ideal for you.
Variation in Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration of a Particle in Rectilinear Motion
Mashood, K. K.; Singh, V. A.
2012-01-01
We discuss the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) associated with a particle in rectilinear motion with constant acceleration. The discussion was motivated by an observation that students and even teachers have difficulty in ascribing rotational motion concepts to a particle when the trajectory is a…
A perturbed angular correlation spectrometer for material science studies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C C Dey
2008-05-01
A four-detector perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectrometer has been developed with ultra-fast BaF2 detectors to acquire four coincidence spectra simultaneously, two at 180° and two at 90°. This spectrometer has double efficiency compared to that of a three-detector set-up. Higher efficiency is desirable for PAC studies in solid state physics where large number of coincidences are required to obtain the PAC spectra with good statistics and is particularly useful when the half-lives of the parent probe nuclei used for PAC measurements are ∼ 2-3 days or less as in 111In (2.8 d), 99Mo (2.7 d) and 140La (1.7 d). The performance of the spectrometer has been tested for the HfO2 monoclinic crystal in the temperature range from 77 to 873 K and for the HfF4.3H2O crystal at room temperature. The polycrystalline HfO2 has been synthesized from Hf metal by heating in air. The hydrated hafnium fluoride has been crystallized by dissolving Hf metal in 40% HF and drying slowly at room temperature.
SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access) This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.
Large-Angular Scales CMB Anisotropy from Excited Initial Mode
Sojasi, A; Yusofi, E
2015-01-01
According to the inflationary cosmology, the CMB anisotropy gives an opportunity to test predictions of the new physics hypothesis. Initial state of quantum fluctuations is one of the important options at high energy scale, which can affect on the observables such as CMB power spectrum. In this study a quasi-de Sitter inflationary background with approximate de Sitter mode function built over the Bunch-Davies mode is applied to investigate the scale-dependency of the CMB anisotropy. Indeed, considering the recent Planck constraint on spectral index, motivated us to examine the effect of new excited mode function (instead of pure de Sitter mode) on the CMB anisotropy in large-angular scales. In so doing, it was revealed that the angular scale-invariance in the CMB temperature fluctuations is broken and in the limit $ \\ell<200 $ the tiny deviation is appeared. Also, it was shown that the power spectrum of CMB anisotropy is dependent on the slow-roll parameter $\\epsilon $.
Physics from Angular Projection of Rectangular Grids
Singh, Ashmeet
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a mathematical model for the angular projection of a rectangular arrangement of points in a grid. This simple, yet interesting problem, has both a scholarly value and applications for data extraction techniques to study the physics of various systems. Our work can interest undergraduate students to understand subtle points in the angular projection of a grid and describes various quantities of interest in the projection with completeness and sufficient rigour. We show that for certain angular ranges, the projection has non-distinctness, and calculate the details of such angles, and correspondingly, the number of distinct points and the total projected length. We focus on interesting trends obtained for the projected length of the grid elements and present a simple application of the model to determine the geometry of an unknown grid whose spatial extensions are known, using measurement of the grid projection at two angles only. Towards the end, our model is shown to have potential ap...
Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation
Coles, Matt M
2012-01-01
This paper develops, in precise quantum electrodynamic terms, photonic attributes of the "optical chirality density", one of several measures long known to be conserved quantities for a vacuum electromagnetic field. The analysis lends insights into some recent interpretations of chiroptical experiments, in which this measure, and an associated chirality flux, have been treated as representing physically distinctive "superchiral" phenomena. In the fully quantized formalism the chirality density is promoted to operator status, whose exploration with reference to an arbitrary polarization basis reveals relationships to optical angular momentum and helicity operators. Analyzing multi-mode beams with complex wave-front structures, notably Laguerre-Gaussian modes, affords a deeper understanding of the interplay between optical chirality and optical angular momentum. By developing theory with due cognizance of the photonic character of light, it emerges that only the spin angular momentum of light is engaged in such...
Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B S Tomar; K Surendra Babu; K Sudarshan; R Tripathi; A Goswami
2005-02-01
Isomeric cross-section ratios of evaporation residues formed in 12C+93Nb and 16O + 89Y reactions were measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line -ray spectrometry in the beam energy range of 55.7-77.5 MeV for 12C and 68-81 MeV for 16O. The isomeric cross-section ratios were resolved into that for complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical angular momentum for complete fusion, indicating the deeper interpenetration of projectile and target nuclei than that in peripheral collisions.
Radio beam vorticity and orbital angular momentum
Thidé, Bo; Mari, Elettra; Romanato, Filippo; Barbieri, Cesare
2011-01-01
It has been known for a century that electromagnetic fields can transport not only energy and linear momentum but also angular momentum. However, it was not until twenty years ago, with the discovery in laser optics of experimental techniques for the generation, detection and manipulation of photons in well-defined, pure orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, that twisted light and its pertinent optical vorticity and phase singularities began to come into widespread use in science and technology. We have now shown experimentally how OAM and vorticity can be readily imparted onto radio beams. Our results extend those of earlier experiments on angular momentum and vorticity in radio in that we used a single antenna and reflector to directly generate twisted radio beams and verified that their topological properties agree with theoretical predictions. This opens the possibility to work with photon OAM at frequencies low enough to allow the use of antennas and digital signal processing, thus enabling software con...
Surface angular momentum of light beams.
Ornigotti, Marco; Aiello, Andrea
2014-03-24
Traditionally, the angular momentum of light is calculated for "bullet-like" electromagnetic wave packets, although in actual optical experiments "pencil-like" beams of light are more commonly used. The fact that a wave packet is bounded transversely and longitudinally while a beam has, in principle, an infinite extent along the direction of propagation, renders incomplete the textbook calculation of the spin/orbital separation of the angular momentum of a light beam. In this work we demonstrate that a novel, extra surface part must be added in order to preserve the gauge invariance of the optical angular momentum per unit length. The impact of this extra term is quantified by means of two examples: a Laguerre-Gaussian and a Bessel beam, both circularly polarized.
Quark orbital angular momentum from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathur, N.; Dong, S. J.; Liu, K. F.; Mankiewicz, L.; Mukhopadhyay, N. C.
2000-12-01
We calculate the quark orbital angular momentum of the nucleon from the quark energy-momentum tensor form factors on the lattice with the quenched approximation. The disconnected insertion is estimated stochastically which employs the Z{sub 2} noise with an unbiased subtraction. This reduced the error by a factor of 3--4 with negligible overhead. The total quark contribution to the proton spin is found to be 0.30{+-}0.07. From this and the quark spin content we deduce the quark orbital angular momentum to be 0.17{+-}0.06 which is {approx}34% of the proton spin. We further predict that the gluon angular momentum is 0.20{+-}0.07; i.e., {approx}40% of the proton spin is due to the glue.
Quark orbital angular momentum from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, K.F.
2000-01-10
The authors calculate the quark orbital angular momentum of the nucleon from the quark energy-momentum tensor form factors on the lattice. The disconnected insertion is estimated stochastically which employs the Z{sub 2} noise with an unbiased subtraction. This reduced the error by a factor of 4 with negligible overhead. The total quark contribution to the proton spin is found to be 0.30{+-}0.07. From this and the quark spin content the authors deduce the quark orbital angular momentum to be 0.17{+-}0.06 which is {approximately} 34% of the proton spin. The authors further predict that the gluon angular momentum to be 0.20{+-}0.07, i. e. {approximately} 40% of the proton spin is due to the glue.
Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra
Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.
1986-01-01
Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.
Method for fast computation of angular light scattering spectra from 2D periodic arrays
Pomplun, J; Zschiedrich, L; Gutsche, P; Schmidt, F
2016-01-01
An efficient numerical method for computing angle-resolved light scattering off periodic arrays is presented. The method combines finite-element discretization with a Schur complement solver. A significant speed-up of the computations in comparison to standard finite-element method computations is observed.
Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian-Zhong Fan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and latissimus dorsi (LD bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Conclusion. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity.
Ghost Imaging Using Orbital Angular Momentum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵生妹; 丁建; 董小亮; 郑宝玉
2011-01-01
We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum. In the signal arm, object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix. For an N-grey-scale object, different phase matrices, varying from 0 to K with increment n/N, are used for different greyscales, and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator. According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system, these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement, and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm. By simulations and experiments, the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively. Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum, our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.%We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum.In the signal arm,object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix.For an N-grey-scale object,different phase matrices,varying from 0 to π with increment π/N,are used for different greyscales,and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator.According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system,these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement,and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm.By simulations and experiments,the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively.Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum,our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.
Energy and angular distributions of atmospheric muons at the Earth
Shukla, Prashant
2016-01-01
A fair knowledge of the atmospheric muon distributions at Earth is a prerequisite for the simulations of cosmic ray setups and rare event search detectors. A modified power law is proposed for atmospheric muon energy distribution which gives good description of the cosmic muon data in low as well as high energy regime. Using this distribution, analytical forms for zenith angle ($\\theta$) distribution are obtained. Assuming a flat Earth, it leads to the $\\cos^{n-1}\\theta$ form where it is shown that the parameter $n$ is nothing but the power of the energy distribution. A new analytical form for zenith angle distribution is obtained without assuming a flat Earth which gives an improved description of the data at all angles even above $70^o$. These distributions are tested with the available atmospheric muon data of energy and angular distributions. The parameters of these distributions can be used to characterize the cosmic muon data as a function of energy, angle and altitude.
Angular momentum and the electromagnetic top
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
GIANFRANCO SPAVIERI; GEORGE T GILLIES
2016-08-01
The electric charge–magnetic dipole interaction is considered. If $\\Gamma_{\\rm em}$ is the electromagnetic and $\\Gamma_{\\rm mech}$ the mechanical angular momentum, the conservation law for the total angular momentum $\\Gamma_{\\rm tot}$ holds: $\\Gamma_{\\rm tot}$ =$\\Gamma_{\\rm em}$ + $\\Gamma_{\\rm mech}$ = ${\\rm const.}$, but when the dipole moment varies with time, $\\Gamma_{\\rm mech}$ is not conserved. We show that the non-conserved $\\Gamma_{\\rm mech}$ of such a macroscopic isolated system might be experimentally observable. With advanced technology, the strength of the interaction hints to the possibility of novel applications for gyroscopes, such as the electromagnetic top.
Time-resolved orbital angular momentum spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyan, Mehmet A.; Kikkawa, James M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)
2015-07-20
We introduce pump-probe magneto-orbital spectroscopy, wherein Laguerre-Gauss optical pump pulses impart orbital angular momentum to the electronic states of a material and subsequent dynamics are studied with 100 fs time resolution. The excitation uses vortex modes that distribute angular momentum over a macroscopic area determined by the spot size, and the optical probe studies the chiral imbalance of vortex modes reflected off the sample. First observations in bulk GaAs yield transients that evolve on time scales distinctly different from population and spin relaxation, as expected, but with surprisingly large lifetimes.
Time-resolved orbital angular momentum spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce pump-probe magneto-orbital spectroscopy, wherein Laguerre-Gauss optical pump pulses impart orbital angular momentum to the electronic states of a material and subsequent dynamics are studied with 100 fs time resolution. The excitation uses vortex modes that distribute angular momentum over a macroscopic area determined by the spot size, and the optical probe studies the chiral imbalance of vortex modes reflected off the sample. First observations in bulk GaAs yield transients that evolve on time scales distinctly different from population and spin relaxation, as expected, but with surprisingly large lifetimes
Wilson lines and orbital angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an explicit realization of the Chen et al. approach to the proton spin decomposition in terms of Wilson lines, generalizing the light-front gauge-invariant extensions discussed recently by Hatta. Particular attention is drawn to the residual gauge freedom by further separating the pure-gauge term into contour and residual terms. We show that the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator can be expressed in terms of the Wigner operator only when the momentum variable is integrated over. Finally, we confirm from twist-2 arguments that the advanced, retarded and antisymmetric light-front canonical orbital angular momenta are the same
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum from Lattice QCD
N. Mathur; Dong, S. J.; Liu, K. F.; Mankiewicz, L.; Mukhopadhyay, N. C.
1999-01-01
We calculate the quark orbital angular momentum of the nucleon from the quark energy-momentum tensor form factors on the lattice. The disconnected insertion is estimated stochastically which employs the $Z_2$ noise with an unbiased subtraction. This reduced the error by a factor of 4 with negligible overhead. The total quark contribution to the proton spin is found to be $0.30 \\pm 0.07$. From this and the quark spin content we deduce the quark orbital angular momentum to be $0.17 \\pm 0.06$ wh...
Wilson lines and orbital angular momentum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorcé, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.lorce@googlemail.com [IPNO, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay (France); LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91406 Orsay (France)
2013-02-12
We present an explicit realization of the Chen et al. approach to the proton spin decomposition in terms of Wilson lines, generalizing the light-front gauge-invariant extensions discussed recently by Hatta. Particular attention is drawn to the residual gauge freedom by further separating the pure-gauge term into contour and residual terms. We show that the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator can be expressed in terms of the Wigner operator only when the momentum variable is integrated over. Finally, we confirm from twist-2 arguments that the advanced, retarded and antisymmetric light-front canonical orbital angular momenta are the same.
On the vector model of angular momentum
Saari, Peeter
2016-09-01
Instead of (or in addition to) the common vector diagram with cones, we propose to visualize the peculiarities of quantum mechanical angular momentum by a completely quantized 3D model. It spotlights the discrete eigenvalues and noncommutativity of components of angular momentum and corresponds to outcomes of measurements—real or computer-simulated. The latter can be easily realized by an interactive worksheet of a suitable program package of algebraic calculations. The proposed complementary method of visualization helps undergraduate students to better understand the counterintuitive properties of this quantum mechanical observable.
Unusual features of proton and -spectra from low-energy heavy-ion reactions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D R Chakrabarty
2010-07-01
Proton and -particle spectra have been measured in low-energy 12C and 16O-induced reactions on Nb and Y targets with the primary aim of measuring the excitation energy and angular momentum dependence of nuclear level density. In the -multiplicity gated spectra, an unusual feature of a broad structure at high particle energies is observed in all the cases. In the case of proton spectra, the structures have compound nuclear origin and point towards an excitation energy and angular momentum-dependent enhancement which is beyond the conventional level density prescription. The broad structures in the -spectra cannot be fully explained within the statistical model even with the enhanced level density. In this case, other reaction mechanisms like the transfer of or 8Be to the target could also be important.
Algorithms for classification of astronomical object spectra
Wasiewicz, P.; Szuppe, J.; Hryniewicz, K.
2015-09-01
Obtaining interesting celestial objects from tens of thousands or even millions of recorded optical-ultraviolet spectra depends not only on the data quality but also on the accuracy of spectra decomposition. Additionally rapidly growing data volumes demands higher computing power and/or more efficient algorithms implementations. In this paper we speed up the process of substracting iron transitions and fitting Gaussian functions to emission peaks utilising C++ and OpenCL methods together with the NOSQL database. In this paper we implemented typical astronomical methods of detecting peaks in comparison to our previous hybrid methods implemented with CUDA.
SRD 100 Database for Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA)Database for Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) (PC database for purchase) This database has been designed to facilitate quantitative interpretation of Auger-electron and X-ray photoelectron spectra and to improve the accuracy of quantitation in routine analysis. The database contains all physical data needed to perform quantitative interpretation of an electron spectrum for a thin-film specimen of given composition. A simulation module provides an estimate of peak intensities as well as the energy and angular distributions of the emitted electron flux.
Mechanical Evidence of the Orbital Angular Momentum to Energy Ratio of Vortex Beams
Demore, Christine E. M.; Yang, Zhengyi; Volovick, Alexander; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P.; Spalding, Gabriel C.
2012-05-01
We measure, in a single experiment, both the radiation pressure and the torque due to a wide variety of propagating acoustic vortex beams. The results validate, for the first time directly, the theoretically predicted ratio of the orbital angular momentum to linear momentum in a propagating beam. We experimentally determine this ratio using simultaneous measurements of both the levitation force and the torque on an acoustic absorber exerted by a broad range of helical ultrasonic beams produced by a 1000-element matrix transducer array. In general, beams with helical phase fronts have been shown to contain orbital angular momentum as the result of the azimuthal component of the Poynting vector around the propagation axis. Theory predicts that for both optical and acoustic helical beams the ratio of the angular momentum current of the beam to the power should be given by the ratio of the beam’s topological charge to its angular frequency. This direct experimental observation that the ratio of the torque to power does convincingly match the expected value (given by the topological charge to angular frequency ratio of the beam) is a fundamental result.
Mechanical evidence of the orbital angular momentum to energy ratio of vortex beams.
Demore, Christine E M; Yang, Zhengyi; Volovick, Alexander; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P; Spalding, Gabriel C
2012-05-11
We measure, in a single experiment, both the radiation pressure and the torque due to a wide variety of propagating acoustic vortex beams. The results validate, for the first time directly, the theoretically predicted ratio of the orbital angular momentum to linear momentum in a propagating beam. We experimentally determine this ratio using simultaneous measurements of both the levitation force and the torque on an acoustic absorber exerted by a broad range of helical ultrasonic beams produced by a 1000-element matrix transducer array. In general, beams with helical phase fronts have been shown to contain orbital angular momentum as the result of the azimuthal component of the Poynting vector around the propagation axis. Theory predicts that for both optical and acoustic helical beams the ratio of the angular momentum current of the beam to the power should be given by the ratio of the beam's topological charge to its angular frequency. This direct experimental observation that the ratio of the torque to power does convincingly match the expected value (given by the topological charge to angular frequency ratio of the beam) is a fundamental result. PMID:23003045
Conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results of a conceptual design for an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF are presented. Optical designs, amplifier scaling with a KrF kinetics code and limitations imposed by pulsed power technology are described
Theoretical prediction on vibrational spectra of [Ar…Ar-H]+
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李巍; 赵新生
2003-01-01
Centrosymmetric linear [Ar-H-Ar]+ and asymmetric linear [Ar…Ar-H]+ are two stable configurations of [Ar2H]+. Based on the global potential energy surface of [Ar2H]+ provided by our group recently, we calculated the vibrational spectra of [Ar…Ar-H]+ with total angular momentum J = 0 by time-dependent quantum mechanical method, and the influence of quantum tunneling effect on vibrational spectra was found. With the help of the observation on the eigenstate functions and the modified potential energy surface, assignments were made to the spectra. The strong coupling between the excited bending mode of [Ar-H-Ar]+ and the vibrational states of [Ar…Ar-H]+ was discussed.
Angular-momentum-bearing modes in fission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The angular-momentum-bearing degrees of freedom involved in the fission process are identified and their influence on experimental observables is discussed. The excitation of these modes is treated in the ''thermal'' limit, and the resulting distributions of observables are calculated. Experiments demonstrating the role of these modes are presented and discussed. 61 refs., 12 figs
Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
E. Pessah, Martin; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios;
2007-01-01
if the resolution were set equal to the natural dissipation scale in astrophysical disks. We conclude that, in order for MRI-driven turbulent angular momentum transport to be able to account for the large value of the effective alpha viscosity inferred observationally, the disk must be threaded by a significant...
On the quantisation of the angular momentum
Ho, V B
1994-01-01
When a hydrogen-like atom is treated as a two dimensional system whose configuration space is multiply connected, then in order to obtain the same energy spectrum as in the Bohr model the angular momentum must be half-integral.
Angular and linear momentum of excited ferromagnets
Yan, P.; Kamra, A.; Cao, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2013-01-01
The angular momentum vector of a Heisenberg ferromagnet with isotropic exchange interaction is conserved, while under uniaxial crystalline anisotropy the projection of the total spin along the easy axis is a constant of motion. Using Noether's theorem, we prove that these conservation laws persist i
Critical gravitational collapse with angular momentum
Gundlach, Carsten
2016-01-01
We derive a theoretical model of mass and angular momentum scaling in type-II critical collapse with rotation. We focus on the case where the critical solution has precisely one, spherically symmetric, unstable mode. We demonstrate excellent agreement with numerical results for critical collapse of a rotating radiation fluid, which falls into this case.
Optical angular momentum conversion in a nanoslit
Chimento, P.F.; Alkemade, P.F.A.; T Hooft, G.W.; Eliel, E.R.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate partial conversion of circularly polarized light into orbital angular momentum-carrying vortex light with opposite-handed circular polarization. This conversion is accomplished in a novel manner using the birefringent properties of a circular subwavelength slit in a thin metal film. O
Wigner Functions and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mukherjee Asmita
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Wigner distributions contain combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs. We report on a recent model calculation of the Wigner distributions for the quark and their relation to the orbital angular momentum.
A new method for angular displacement measurement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Caini Zhang(张彩妮); Xiangzhao Wang(王向朝)
2003-01-01
We describe a new method for angular displacement measurements that is based on a Fabry-Perot inter-ferometer. A measurement accuracy of 10-s rad is obtained by use of the sinusoidal phase modulatinginterferometry. Another Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to obtain the key initial angle of incidence.
Quantum Entanglement of High Angular Momenta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of single photons represents a relatively novel optical degree of freedom for the entanglement of photons. One physical realization of OAM carrying light beams are the so called Laguerre-Gaussian modes which have the required helical phase structure. One big advantage over the well-known polarization degree of freedom is the possibility of realizing entanglement between two photons with very high quantum numbers and momenta respectively. However, the creation of photonic OAM entanglement by the widely used spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) process is limited by the strongly reduced efficiency for higher momenta. We have realized a novel method to create entanglement between two photons which is not constrained by the SPDC efficiency or conservation law for the OAM degree of freedom. We created and measured the entanglement of two photons with up to 600ħ difference in their angular momentum by transferring the polarization entanglement to the orbital angular momentum degree of freedom within an interferometric scheme. Additionally, we used hybrid entangled biphoton states between polarization and OAM to show the angular resolution enhancement in possible remote sensing applications. (author)
Wigner Functions and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Mukherjee Asmita; Nair Sreeraj; Ojha Vikash Kumar
2014-01-01
Wigner distributions contain combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs). We report on a recent model calculation of the Wigner distributions for the quark and their relation to the orbital angular momentum.
Photon Orbital Angular Momentum in Astrophysics
Harwit, Martin
2003-01-01
Astronomical observations of the orbital angular momentum of photons, a property of electromagnetic radiation that has come to the fore in recent years, have apparently never been attempted. Here, I show that measurements of this property of photons have a number of astrophysical applications.
High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra
Carleo, I; Gratton, R; Benatti, S; Bonavita, M; Oliva, E; Origlia, L; Desidera, S; Claudi, R; Sissa, E
2016-01-01
Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 micron) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the v...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavallaro, M., E-mail: manuela.cavallaro@lns.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Linares, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro 24210-340 (Brazil); Pereira, D.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chen, R. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou (China)
2011-08-21
The {sup 16}O+{sup 27}Al elastic and inelastic angular distributions have been measured in a broad angular range (13{sup o}<{theta}{sub lab}<52{sup o}) at about 100 MeV incident energy. The use of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer and of the ray-reconstruction analysis technique has been crucial in order to provide, in the same experiment, high-resolution energy spectra and cross-section measurements distributed over more than seven orders of magnitude down to hundreds of nb/sr.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Yang; ZHANG JingYe; LONG GuiLu; WU ChengLi
2009-01-01
Angular-momentum-projected energy surface calculations for A ≈ 110 nuclei indicate three distinct energy minima occurring at different angular-momenta. These correspond to normal, super-, and hy-per-deformed shapes coexisting in one nucleus. 110Pd is studied in detail, with a quantitative prediction on super- and hyper-deformed spectra by the Projected Shell Model calculation. It is found that several other neighboring nuclei in the A-110 mass region, with the neutron number around 64, also exhibit clear super- and hyper-deformation minima in the projected calculation.
Resonant structure of the 3d electron's angular distribution in a free Mn+Ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 3d-electron angular anisotropy parameter of the free Mn+ ion is calculated using the open-quotes spin-polarizedclose quotes random-phase approximation with exchange. Strong resonance structure is discovered, which is due to interference with the powerful 3p → 3d discrete excitation. The effect of the 3p → 4s transition is also noticeable. The ordering of these respective resonances with phonon energy increase proved to be opposite in angular anisotropy parameter to that in 3d-photoionization cross section. A paper describing these results was published
Strong Clustering of Faint Galaxies at Small Angular Scales
Infante, L; Menanteau, F
1996-01-01
The 2-point angular correlation function of galaxies, \\wt, has been computed on equatorial fields observed with the CTIO 4m prime focus, within a total area of 2.31 deg$^2$. In the magnitude range $19\\le m_R \\le 21.5$, corresponding to $\\approx 0.35$, we find an excess of power in \\wt at scales $2''\\le\\theta larger $\\theta$. The significance of this excess is $\\approx 5\\sigma$. At larger scales, $6''< \\theta \\le 24''$, the amplitude of \\wt is 1.6 times smaller than the standard no evolutionary model. At these scales there is remarkable agreement between the present data and Infante \\& Pritchet (1995). At large angular scales ($6''< \\theta \\le 24''$) the data is best described by a model where clustering evolution in $\\xi(r,z)$ has taken place. Strong luminosity evolution cannot be ruled out with the present data. At smaller scales, $2''\\le \\theta \\le 6''$, our data are formally fit by models where $(Ømega=0.2, \\epsilon=0)$. If the mean redshift of our sample is 0.35 then our data show a clear detec...
Drell-Yan Lepton Angular Distribution at Small Transverse Momentum
Boer, D; Boer, Daniel; Vogelsang, Werner
2006-01-01
We investigate the dependence of the Drell-Yan cross section on lepton polar and azimuthal angles, as generated by the lowest-order QCD annihilation and Compton processes. We focus in particular on the azimuthal-angular distributions, which are of the form cos(phi) and cos(2phi). At small transverse momentum q_T of the lepton pair, q_T << Q, with Q the pair mass, these terms are known to be suppressed relative to the phi-independent part of the Drell-Yan cross section by one or two powers of the transverse momentum. Nonetheless, as we show, like the phi-independent part they are subject to large logarithmic corrections, whose precise form however depends on the reference frame chosen. These logarithmic contributions ultimately require resummation to all orders in the strong coupling. We discuss the potential effects of resummation on the various angular terms in the cross section and on the Lam-Tung relation.
Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra
Zhang, Zijing; Qiao, Tianyuan; Ma, Kun; Cen, Longzhu; Zhang, Jiandong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuan
2016-08-15
Photon orbital angular momentum has led to many novel insights and applications in quantum measurement. Photon orbital angular momentum can increase the resolution and sensitivity of angular rotation measurement. However, quantum measurement strategy can further surpass this limit and improve the resolution of angular rotation measurement. This Letter proposes and demonstrates a parity measurement method in angular rotation measurement scheme for the first time. Parity measurement can make the resolution superior to the limit of the existing method. The sensitivity can be improved with higher orbital angular momentum photons. Moreover, this Letter gives a detailed discussion of the change of resolution and sensitivity in the presence of photon loss.
Zhang, Zijing; Qiao, Tianyuan; Ma, Kun; Cen, Longzhu; Zhang, Jiandong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuan
2016-08-15
Photon orbital angular momentum has led to many novel insights and applications in quantum measurement. Photon orbital angular momentum can increase the resolution and sensitivity of angular rotation measurement. However, quantum measurement strategy can further surpass this limit and improve the resolution of angular rotation measurement. This Letter proposes and demonstrates a parity measurement method in angular rotation measurement scheme for the first time. Parity measurement can make the resolution superior to the limit of the existing method. The sensitivity can be improved with higher orbital angular momentum photons. Moreover, this Letter gives a detailed discussion of the change of resolution and sensitivity in the presence of photon loss. PMID:27519107