Non-gaussian CMBR angular power spectra
Magueijo, J
1995-01-01
In this paper we show how the prediction of CMBR angular power spectra C_l in non-Gaussian theories is affected by a cosmic covariance problem, that is (C_l,C_{l'}) correlations impart features on any observed C_l spectrum which are absent from the average C^l spectrum. Therefore the average spectrum is rendered a bad observational prediction, and two new prediction strategies, better adjusted to these theories, are proposed. In one we search for hidden random indices conditional to which the theory is released from the correlations. Contact with experiment can then be made in the form of the conditional power spectra plus the random index distribution. In another approach we apply to the problem a principal component analysis. We discuss the effect of correlations on the predictivity of non-Gaussian theories. We finish by showing how correlations may be crucial in delineating the borderline between predictions made by non-Gaussian and Gaussian theories. In fact, in some particular theories, correlations may ...
Reconstructing the galaxy redshift distribution from angular cross power spectra
Sun, L; Tao, C
2015-01-01
The control of photometric redshift (photo-$z$) errors is a crucial and challenging task for precision weak lensing cosmology. The spacial cross-correlations (equivalently, the angular cross power spectra) of galaxies between tomographic photo-$z$ bins are sensitive to the true redshift distribution $n_i(z)$ of each bin and hence can help calibrate the photo-$z$ error distribution for weak lensing surveys. Using Fisher matrix analysis, we investigate the contributions of various components of the angular power spectra to the constraints of $n_i(z)$ parameters and demonstrate the importance of the cross power spectra therein, especially when catastrophic photo-$z$ errors are present. We further study the feasibility of reconstructing $n_i(z)$ from galaxy angular power spectra using Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation. Considering an LSST-like survey with $10$ photo-$z$ bins, we find that the underlying redshift distribution can be determined with a fractional precision ($\\sigma(\\theta)/\\theta$ for parameter $\\...
The Angular Power Spectra of Photometric SDSS LRGs
Thomas, Shaun A; Lahav, Ofer
2010-01-01
We construct new galaxy angular power spectra based on the extended, updated and final SDSS II Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) photometric redshift survey: MegaZ DR7. Encapsulating 7746 deg^{2} we utilise 723,556 photometrically determined LRGs between 0.45 < z < 0.65 in a 3.3 (Gpc h^{-1})^3 spherical harmonic analysis of the galaxy distribution. By combining four photometric redshift bins we find preliminary parameter constraints of f_{b} = \\Omega_{b}/\\Omega_{m} = 0.173 +/- 0.046 and \\Omega_{m} = 0.260 +/- 0.035 assuming H_{0} = 75 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, n_{s}=1 and \\Omega_{k} = 0. These limits are consistent with the CMB and the previous data release (DR4). The C_{\\ell} are sensitive to redshift space distortions and therefore we also recast our constraints into a measurement of \\beta ~ \\Omega_{m}^{0.55}/b in different redshift shells. The robustness of these power spectra with respect to a number of potential systematics such as extinction, photometric redshift and ANNz training set extrapolation are examined...
Estimating Discrete Power Angular Spectra in Multiprobe OTA Setups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund
2014-01-01
The letter discusses over-the-air (OTA) testing for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on estimating discrete power angular spectrum modeled at the receiver (Rx) side in the test zone. Two techniques based on a uniform circular array (UCA) are proposed to obtain...
Nonparametric Forecasts of the CMB Angular Power Spectra for the Planck Mission
Aghamousa, Amir; Souradeep, Tarun
2013-01-01
The Planck mission, designed for making measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation with unprecedented accuracy and angular resolution, is expected to release its first data set in the near future. For the first time in the CMB history, extensive measurements of the CMB polarization will be made available for the entire sky. Such precise and rich data are expected to contain a great wealth of information about the Universe. The information in the CMB data is conveniently represented in terms of angular power spectra for temperature and polarization. A proper estimation of these CMB power spectra from data is the first step in making inferences about the Universe and, in particular, cosmological parameters that govern the Universe. In this paper, we provide forecasts for the $TT$, $EE$, and $TE$ angular power spectra for the Planck mission. Our forecasts are made using synthetic data based on the best-fit $\\Lambda$CDM model while conforming to the characteristics and parameters of the Planc...
Effect of the length of inflation on angular TT and TE power spectra in power-law inflation
Hirai, S; Hirai, Shiro; Takami, Tomoyuki
2006-01-01
The effect of the length of inflation on the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations is estimated using the power-law inflation model with a scale factor of a(t) = t^q. Considering various pre-inflation models with radiation-dominated or scalar matter-dominated periods before inflation in combination with two matching conditions, the temperature angular power spectrum (TT) and temperature-polarization cross-power spectrum (TE) are calculated and a likelihood analysis is performed. It is shown that the discrepancies between the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data and the LCDM model, such as suppression of the spectrum at l = 2,3 and oscillatory behavior, may be explained by the finite length of inflation model if the length of inflation is near 60 e-folds and q > 300. The proposed models retain similar values of chi^2 to that achieved by the LCDM model with respect to fit to the WMAP data, but display different characteristics of the angular TE power spectra at l < 20.
Ponthieu, N; Tristram, M; Ade, P; Amblard, A; Ansari, R; Aumont, J; Aubourg, E; Beno^it, A; Bernard, J P; Blanchard, A; Bock, J J; Bouchet, F R; Bourrachot, A; Camus, P; Cardoso, J F; Couchot, F; De Bernardis, P
2005-01-01
We present the first measurement of temperature and polarization angular power spectra of the diffuse emission of Galactic dust at 353 GHz as seen by Archeops on 20% of the sky. The temperature angular power spectrum is compatible with that provided by the extrapolation to 353 GHz of IRAS and DIRBE maps using \\cite{fds} model number 8. For Galactic latitudes $|b| \\geq 5$ deg we report a 4 sigma detection of large scale ($3\\leq \\ell \\leq 8$) temperature-polarization cross-correlation $(\\ell+1)C_\\ell^{TE}/2\\pi = 76\\pm 21 \\mu\\rm{K_{RJ}}^2$ and set upper limits to the $E$ and $B$ modes at $11 \\mu\\rm{K_{RJ}}^2$. For Galactic latitudes $|b| \\geq 10$ deg, on the same angular scales, we report a 2 sigma detection of temperature-polarization cross-correlation $(\\ell+1)C_\\ell^{TE}/2\\pi = 24\\pm 13 \\mu\\rm{K_{RJ}}^2$. These results are then extrapolated to 100 GHz to estimate the contamination in CMB measurements by polarized diffuse Galactic dust emission. The $TE$ signal is then $1.7\\pm0.5$ and $0.5\\pm0.3 \\mu\\rm{K^2_{CM...
Smith, Robert E; Seljak, Uros
2009-01-01
We investigate the impact of nonlinear evolution of the gravitational potentials in the LCDM model on the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) contribution to the CMB temperature power spectrum, and on the cross-power spectrum of the CMB and a set of biased tracers of the mass. We use an ensemble of N-body simulations to directly follow the potentials and compare results to perturbation theory (PT). The predictions from PT match the results to high precision for k100 the departures are more significant, however the CMB signal is more than a factor 10^3 larger at this scale. Nonlinear ISW effects therefore play no role in shaping the CMB power spectrum for l<1500. We analyze the CMB--density tracer cross-spectrum using simulations and renormalized bias PT, and find good agreement. The usual assumption is that nonlinear evolution enhances the growth of structure and counteracts linear ISW on small scales, leading to a change in sign of the CMB-LSS cross-spectrum at small scales. However, PT analysis suggests that th...
Pullen, Anthony R
2013-01-01
Primordial non-Gaussianity of local type is predicted to lead to enhanced halo clustering on very large scales. Photometric quasars, which can be seen from cosmological redshifts z>2 even in wide-shallow optical surveys, are promising tracers for constraining non-Gaussianity using this effect. However, large-scale systematics can also mimic this signature of non-Gaussianity. In order to assess the contribution of systematic effects, we cross-correlate overdensity maps of photometric quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 6 (DR6) in different redshift ranges. We find that the maps are significantly correlated on large scales, even though we expect the angular distributions of quasars at different redshifts to be uncorrelated. This implies that the quasar maps are contaminated with systematic errors. We investigate the use of external templates that provide information on the spatial dependence of potential systematic errors to reduce the level of spurious clustering in the quasar data. W...
Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions
Goetz, R Esteban; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P
2016-01-01
Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on e.g. charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.
Correlation Functions and Power Spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jan
2006-01-01
The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...... and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals....... It is possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose...
Spectra: Time series power spectrum calculator
Gallardo, Tabaré
2017-01-01
Spectra calculates the power spectrum of a time series equally spaced or not based on the Spectral Correlation Coefficient (Ferraz-Mello 1981, Astron. Journal 86 (4), 619). It is very efficient for detection of low frequencies.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨圣
2015-01-01
big difference between the derived cosmic parameters and the actual counterparts. Therefore removing the systematic errors' effect for the LSS tracers on constraining primordial non-gaussianity is very meaningful so that we could get more real cosmic truth and know the early cosmology more clearly. In this paper, we will review the way how the CMB and LSS tracer's maps restrict on the cosmological parameters firstly and then we will disicuss about the systematic errors' effect on the observed angular power spectrum and also we introduce two important methods to remove the systematics. Finally, we will compare the modified parameter and the original one to discuss the goodness.
Anticipating nonresonant new physics in dilepton angular spectra at the LHC
Raj, Nirmal
2017-01-01
At the LHC, dileptonic events may turn up new physics interacting with quarks and leptons. The poster child for this scenario is a resonant Z', much anticipated in ℓ+ℓ-invariantmassspectra. However, angular spectra of dileptons may play an equal or stronger role in discovering a nonresonant species. This paper avails their LHC measurements to corner the couplings and masses of leptoquarks (LQs) that can mediate q q ¯→ℓ+ℓ-in the t channel and dramatically alter Standard Model (SM) angular spectra. Also derived are constraints from alterations to mℓℓ distributions. These dilepton probes exploiting the high rates and small uncertainties of the Drell-Yan process, rival or outdo dedicated LHC searches for LQs in single and pair production modes. The couplings of LQs with electronic interactions are best bound today by low-energy measurements of atomic parity violation, but can be probed better by ℓ+ℓ- measurements in the high luminosity runs of the LHC, with the angular spectra leading the way. This work also urges the experimental presentation of boost-invariant angular asymmetries that vanish in the SM.
Power calculation of linear and angular incremental encoders
Prokofev, Aleksandr V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Mednikov, Sergey V.; Sycheva, Elena A.
2016-04-01
Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and transmit the measured values back to the control unit. The capabilities of these systems are undergoing continual development in terms of their resolution, accuracy and reliability, their measuring ranges, and maximum speeds. This article discusses the method of power calculation of linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders, to find the optimum parameters for its components, such as light emitters, photo-detectors, linear and angular scales, optical components etc. It analyzes methods and devices that permit high resolutions in the order of 0.001 mm or 0.001°, as well as large measuring lengths of over 100 mm. In linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders optical beam is usually formulated by a condenser lens passes through the measuring unit changes its value depending on the movement of a scanning head or measuring raster. Past light beam is converting into an electrical signal by the photo-detecter's block for processing in the electrical block. Therefore, for calculating the energy source is a value of the desired value of the optical signal at the input of the photo-detecter's block, which reliably recorded and processed in the electronic unit of linear and angular incremental optoelectronic encoders. Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and
Anticipating Non-Resonant New Physics in Dilepton Angular Spectra at the LHC
Raj, Nirmal
2016-01-01
At the LHC, dileptonic events may turn up new physics interacting with quarks and leptons. The poster child for this scenario is a resonant $Z'$, much anticipated in $\\ell^+ \\ell^-$ invariant mass spectra. However, angular spectra of dileptons may play an equal or stronger role in discovering a non-resonant species. This paper avails of their LHC measurements to corner the couplings and masses of leptoquarks (LQs), that can mediate $q \\bar{q} \\rightarrow \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ in the $t$-channel and dramatically alter Standard Model angular spectra. Also derived are constraints from alterations to $m_{\\ell \\ell}$ distributions. These dilepton probes, exploiting the high rates and small uncertainties of the Drell-Yan process, rival or outdo dedicated LHC searches for LQs in single and pair production modes. The couplings of LQs with electronic interactions are best bound today by low-energy measurements of atomic parity violation, but can be probed better by $\\ell^+ \\ell^-$ measurements in the high luminosity runs of ...
Measuring the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pollock, B. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaw, J. L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marsh, K. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ralph, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chen, Y. -H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alessi, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pak, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Clayton, C. E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2014-07-22
This paper presents a new technique to measure the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator. Measurements are performed with a stacked image plates spectrometer, capable of detecting broadband x-ray radiation up to 1 MeV. It can provide measurements of the betatron x-ray spectrum at any angle of observation (within a 40 mrad cone) and of the beam profile. A detailed description of our data analysis is given, along with comparison for several shots. As a result, these measurements provide useful information on the dynamics of the electrons are they are accelerated and wiggled by the wakefield.
Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lindholm, V.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 = 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained b...
Computing High Accuracy Power Spectra with Pico
Fendt, William A
2007-01-01
This paper presents the second release of Pico (Parameters for the Impatient COsmologist). Pico is a general purpose machine learning code which we have applied to computing the CMB power spectra and the WMAP likelihood. For this release, we have made improvements to the algorithm as well as the data sets used to train Pico, leading to a significant improvement in accuracy. For the 9 parameter nonflat case presented here Pico can on average compute the TT, TE and EE spectra to better than 1% of cosmic standard deviation for nearly all $\\ell$ values over a large region of parameter space. Performing a cosmological parameter analysis of current CMB and large scale structure data, we show that these power spectra give very accurate 1 and 2 dimensional parameter posteriors. We have extended Pico to allow computation of the tensor power spectrum and the matter transfer function. Pico runs about 1500 times faster than CAMB at the default accuracy and about 250,000 times faster at high accuracy. Training Pico can be...
Impact of Wind Power on the Angular Stability of a Power System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Djemai NAIMI
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Wind energy conversion systems are very different in nature from conventional generators. Therefore dynamic studies must be addressed in order to integrate wind power into the power system. Angular stability assessment of wind power generator is one of main issues in power system security and operation. The angular stability for the wind power generator is determined by its corresponding Critical Clearing Time (CCT. In this paper, the effect of wind power on the transient fault behavior is investigated by replacing the power generated by two main types of wind turbine, increasing gradually a rate of wind power penetration and changing the location of wind resources. The simulation analysis was established on a 14 bus IEEE test system by PSAT/Matlab, which gives access to an extensive library of grid components, and relevant wind turbine model.
Bolis, Nadia; Holman, Rich
2016-01-01
We consider the effects of entanglement in the initial quantum state of scalar and tensor fluctuations during inflation. We allow the gauge-invariant scalar and tensor fluctuations to be entangled in the initial state and compute modifications to the various cosmological power spectra. We compute the angular power spectra ($C_l$'s) for some specific cases of our entangled state and discuss what signals one might expect to find in CMB data. This entanglement also can break rotational invariance, allowing for the possibility that some of the large scale anomalies in the CMB power spectrum might be explained by this mechanism.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolis, Nadia; Albrecht, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of California at Davis,One Shields Ave, Davis CA 95616 (United States); Holman, R. [Physics Department, Carnegie Mellon University,Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); College of Computational Sciences, Minerva University,1145 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 (United States)
2016-12-06
We consider the effects of entanglement in the initial quantum state of scalar and tensor fluctuations during inflation. We allow the gauge-invariant scalar and tensor fluctuations to be entangled in the initial state and compute modifications to the various cosmological power spectra. We compute the angular power spectra (C{sub l}’s) for some specific cases of our entangled state and discuss what signals one might expect to find in CMB data. This entanglement also can break rotational invariance, allowing for the possibility that some of the large scale anomalies in the CMB power spectrum might be explained by this mechanism.
Fast estimation of polarization power spectra using correlation functions
Chon, G; Prunet, S; Hivon, E; Szapudi, I; Chon, Gayoung; Challinor, Anthony; Prunet, Simon; Hivon, Eric; Szapudi, Istvan
2003-01-01
We present a fast method for estimating the cosmic microwave background polarization power spectra using unbiased estimates of heuristically-weighted correlation functions. This extends the O(N_pix^(3/2)) method of Szapudi et al. (2001) to polarized data. If the sky coverage allows the correlation functions to be estimated over the full range of angular separations, they can be inverted directly with integral transforms and clean separation of the electric (E) and magnetic (B) modes of polarization is obtained exactly in the mean. We assess the level of E-B mixing that arises from apodized integral transforms when the correlation function can only be estimated for a subset of angular scales, and show that it is significant for small-area observations. We introduce new estimators to deal with this case on the spherical sky that preserve E-B separation; their construction requires an additional integration of the correlation functions but the computational cost is negligible. We illustrate our methods with appl...
Analytical light scattering and orbital angular momentum spectra of arbitrary Vogel spirals.
Dal Negro, Luca; Lawrence, Nate; Trevino, Jacob
2012-07-30
In this paper, we present a general analytical model for light scattering by arbitrary Vogel spiral arrays of circular apertures illuminated at normal incidence. This model suffices to unveil the fundamental mathematical structure of their complex Fraunhofer diffraction patterns and enables the engineering of optical beams carrying multiple values of orbital angular momentum (OAM). By performing analytical Fourier-Hankel decomposition of spiral arrays and far field patterns, we rigorously demonstrate the ability to encode specific numerical sequences onto the OAM values of diffracted optical beams. In particular, we show that these OAM values are determined by the rational approximations (i.e., the convergents) of the continued fraction expansions of the irrational angles utilized to generate Vogel spirals. These findings open novel and exciting opportunities for the manipulation of complex OAM spectra using dielectric and plasmonic aperiodic spiral arrays for a number of emerging engineering applications in singular optics, secure communication, optical cryptography, and optical sensing.
Bumpy Power Spectra and Galaxy Clusters
Knebe, A; Silk, J; Knebe, Alexander; Islam, Ranty; Silk, Joseph
2001-01-01
The evolution of the abundance of galaxy clusters is not a reliable measure of Omega if there are features on scales of a few Mpc in the primordial power spectrum. Conversely, if we know the cosmological model parameters from other measurements, the cluster abundance evolution permits us to probe features in the power spectrum that are in the nonlinear regime at the present epoch, and hence difficult to discern directly from current epoch measurements. We have investigated the influence of an artificially introduced Gaussian feature on an otherwise unperturbed SCDM power spectrum. Using these modified spectra as an input to cosmological N-body simulations, we are able to show that in terms of the cluster abundance evolution, a SCDM model displays characteristics similar to an OCDM model. However, strong modifications would also be visible at a redshift z=0 in the dark matter power spectrum whereas minor alterations to the usual SCDM spectrum are washed away by non-linear evolution effects. We therefore conclu...
Staker, Joshua T
2013-01-01
We make numerical comparison of spectra from angular-momentum projection on Hartree-Fock states with spectra from configuration-interaction nuclear shell-model calculations, all carried out in the same model spaces (in this case the sd, lower pf, and p-sd_5/2 shells) and using the same input Hamiltonians. We find, unsurprisingly, that the low-lying excitation spectra for rotational nuclides are well reproduced, but the spectra for vibrational nuclides, and more generally the complex specta for odd-A and odd-odd nuclides are less well reproduced in detail.
Constraints on massive neutrinos from the CFHTLS angular power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Jun-Qing [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Granett, Benjamin R.; Guzzo, Luigi [INAF — Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Brera (Italy); Viel, Matteo [INAF — Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Bird, Simeon [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Haehnelt, Martin G. [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Coupon, Jean [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); McCracken, Henry Joy; Mellier, Yannick, E-mail: xia@sissa.it, E-mail: ben.granett@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: spb@ias.edu, E-mail: luigi.guzzo@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: haehnelt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: coupon@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: hjmcc@iap.fr, E-mail: mellier@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Universitè Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)
2012-06-01
We use the galaxy angular power spectrum at z ∼ 0.5–1.2 from the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Legacy Survey Wide fields (CFHTLS-Wide) to constrain separately the total neutrino mass Σm{sub ν} and the effective number of neutrino species N{sub eff}. This survey has recently benefited from an accurate calibration of the redshift distribution, allowing new measurements of the (non-linear) matter power spectrum in a unique range of scales and redshifts sensitive to neutrino free streaming. Our analysis makes use of a recent model for the effect of neutrinos on the weakly non-linear matter power spectrum derived from accurate N-body simulations. We show that CFHTLS, combined with WMAP7 and a prior on the Hubble constant provides an upper limit of Σm{sub ν} < 0.29 eV and N{sub eff} = 4.17{sup +1.62}{sub −1.26} (2 σ confidence levels). If we omit smaller scales which may be affected by non-linearities, these constraints become Σm{sub ν} < 0.41 eV and N{sub eff} = 3.98{sup +2.02}{sub −1.20} (2 σ confidence levels). Finally we show that the addition of other large scale structures probes can further improve these constraints, demonstrating that high redshift large volumes surveys such as CFHTLS are complementary to other cosmological probes of the neutrino mass.
Angular Power Spectrum and Dilatonic Inflation in Modular-Invariant Supergravity
Hayashi, M J; Okame, Y; Watanabe, T; Hayashi, Mitsuo J.; Hirai, Shiro; Okame, Yusuke; Watanabe, Tomoki
2006-01-01
The angular power spectrum is investigated in the model of supergravity, incorporating the target-space duality and the non-perturbative gaugino condensation in the hidden sector. The inflation and supersymmetry breaking occur at once by the interplay between the dilaton field as inflaton and the condensate gauge-singlet field. The model satisfies the slow-roll condition which solves the \\eta-problem. When the particle rolls down along the minimized trajectory of the potential at a duality invariant fixed point T=1, we can obtain the e-fold value \\sim 57. And then the cosmological parameters obtained from our model well match with the recent WMAP data combined with other experiments. The TT and TE angular power spectra also show that our model is compatible with the data for l > 20. However, the best fit value of \\tau in our model is smaller than that of the \\Lambda CDM model. These results suggest that, among supergravity models of inflation, the modular-invariant supergravity seems to open a hope to constru...
The angular power spectrum of radio emission at 2.3 GHz
Giardino, G; Fosalba, P; Górski, K M; Jonas, J L; O'Mullane, W; Tauber, J A
2001-01-01
We have analysed the Rhodes/HartRAO survey at 2326 MHz and derived the global angular power spectrum of Galactic continuum emission. In order to measure the angular power spectrum of the diffuse component, point sources were removed from the map by median filtering. A least-square fit to the angular power spectrum of the entire survey with a power law spectrum C_l proportional to l^{-alpha}, gives alpha = 2.43 +/- 0.01 for l = 2-100. The angular power spectrum of radio emission appears to steepen at high Galactic latitudes and for observed regions with |b| > 20 deg, the fitted spectral index is alpha = 2.92 +/- 0.07. We have extrapolated this result to 30 GHz (the lowest frequency channel of Planck) and estimate that no significant contribution to the sky temperature fluctuation is likely to come from synchrotron at degree-angular scales
First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations Angular Power Spectrum
Hinshaw, G; Verde, L; Hill, R S; Meyer, S S; Barnes, C; Bennett, C L; Halpern, M; Jarosik, N C; Kogut, A J; Komatsu, E; Limon, M; Page, L; Tucker, G S; Weiland, J; Wollack, E; Wright, E L
2003-01-01
We present the angular power spectrum derived from the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps. We study a variety of power spectrum estimation methods and data combinations and demonstrate that the results are robust. The data are modestly contaminated by diffuse Galactic foreground emission, but we show that a simple Galactic template model is sufficient to remove the signal. Point sources produce a modest contamination in the low frequency data. After masking ~700 known bright sources from the maps, we estimate residual sources contribute ~3500 uK^2 at 41 GHz, and ~130 uK^2 at 94 GHz, to the power spectrum l*(l+1)*C_l/(2*pi) at l=1000. Systematic errors are negligible compared to the (modest) level of foreground emission. Our best estimate of the power spectrum is derived from 28 cross-power spectra of statistically independent channels. The final spectrum is essentially independent of the noise properties of an individual radiometer. The resulting spectrum provides a definitive mea...
Leistedt, Boris
2014-01-01
We present optimal measurements of the angular power spectrum of the XDQSOz catalogue of photometric quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These measurements rely on a quadratic maximum likelihood estimator that simultaneously measures the auto- and cross-power spectra of four redshift samples, and provides minimum-variance, unbiased estimates even at the largest angular scales. Since photometric quasars are known to be strongly affected by systematics such as spatially-varying depth and stellar contamination, we introduce a new framework of extended mode projection to robustly mitigate the impact of systematics on the power spectrum measurements. This technique involves constructing template maps of potential systematics, decorrelating them on the sky, and projecting out modes which are significantly correlated with the data. Our method is able to simultaneously process several thousands of nonlinearly-correlated systematics, and mode projection is performed in a blind fashion. Using our final power spe...
The angular magnetothermoelectric power of a charge density wave system
Krstovska, D.; Choi, E. S.; Steven, E.; Brooks, J. S.
2012-07-01
The angular dependence of the magnetothermopower of a charge transfer organic salt α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4 below (4 K) and above (9 K) the phase transition temperature, Tp = 8 K, and under fields of 15 T and 25 T, below and above the ‘kinkfield’, has been studied. We find that for a longitudinal thermoelectric measurement both an interlayer thermopower (the Seebeck effect), Szz, and a transverse thermopower (the Nernst effect), Syz, exist in all three different B-T phases (the CDW 0, CDW x and metallic states) with large amplitude. Both thermoelectric effects display a resonant-like behavior without a sign reversal at the angles corresponding to angular magnetoresistance oscillation minima and maxima in this compound. The resonant behavior is most evident in the CDW0 state, indicating a mechanism involving the Fermi surface nesting. Angular dependences reveal different behaviors of the thermopower and Nernst effect in the high magnetic field (CDWx) state.
Full covariance of CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra
Peloton, Julien; Lewis, Antony; Carron, Julien; Zahn, Oliver
2016-01-01
CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra are powerful probes of cosmology. However they are correlated, since the CMB power spectra are lensed and the lensing reconstruction is constructed using CMB multipoles. We perform a full analysis of the auto- and cross-covariances, including polarization power spectra and minimum variance lensing estimators, and compare with simulations of idealized future CMB-S4 observations. Covariances sourced by fluctuations in the unlensed CMB and instrumental noise can largely be removed by using a realization-dependent subtraction of lensing reconstruction noise, leaving a relatively simple covariance model that is dominated by lensing-induced terms and well described by a small number of principal components. The correlations between the CMB and lensing power spectra will be detectable at the level of $\\sim 5\\sigma$ for a CMB-S4 mission, and neglecting those could underestimate some parameter error bars by several tens of percent. However we found that the inclusion of ext...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blais, N.; Podgorsak, E.B. (Montreal General Hospital, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Medical Physics)
1992-10-01
A method for determining the kinetic energy of clinical electron beams is described, based on the measurement in air of the spatial spread of a pencil electron beam which is produced from the broad clinical electron beam. As predicted by the Fermi-Eyges theory, the dose distribution measured in air on a plane, perpendicular to the incident direction of the initial pencil electron beam, is Gaussian. The square of its spatial spread is related to the mass angular scattering power which in turn is related to the kinetic energy of the electron beam. The measured spatial spread may thus be used to determine the mass angular scattering power, which is then used to determine the kinetic energy of the electron beam from the known relationship between mass angular scattering power and kinetic energy. Energies obtained with the mass angular scattering power method agree with those obtained with the electron range method. (author).
Redshift distortions in one-dimensional power spectra
Desjacques, V; Desjacques, Vincent; Nusser, Adi
2004-01-01
We present a model for one-dimensional (1D) matter power spectra in redshift space as estimated from data provided along individual lines of sight. We derive analytic expressions for these power spectra in the linear and nonlinear regimes, focusing on redshift distortions arising from peculiar velocities. In the linear regime, redshift distortions enhance the 1D power spectra only on small scales, and do not affect the power on large scales. This is in contrast to the effect of distortions on three-dimensional (3D) power spectra estimated from data in 3D space, where the enhancement is independent of scale. For CDM cosmologies, the 1D power spectra in redshift and real space are similar for wavenumbers $q<0.1h/Mpc$ where both have a spectral index close to unity, independent of the details of the 3D power spectrum. Nonlinear corrections drive the 1D power spectrum in redshift space into a nearly universal shape over scale $q<10h/Mpc$, and suppress the power on small scales as a result of the strong velo...
Whole-body angular momentum during stair walking using passive and powered lower-limb prostheses.
Pickle, Nathaniel T; Wilken, Jason M; Aldridge, Jennifer M; Neptune, Richard R; Silverman, Anne K
2014-10-17
Individuals with a unilateral transtibial amputation have a greater risk of falling compared to able-bodied individuals, and falling on stairs can lead to serious injuries. Individuals with transtibial amputations have lost ankle plantarflexor muscle function, which is critical for regulating whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance. Recently, powered prostheses have been designed to provide active ankle power generation with the goal of restoring biological ankle function. However, the effects of using a powered prosthesis on the regulation of whole-body angular momentum are unknown. The purpose of this study was to use angular momentum to evaluate dynamic balance in individuals with a transtibial amputation using powered and passive prostheses relative to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent and descent. Ground reaction forces, external moment arms, and joint powers were also investigated to interpret the angular momentum results. A key result was that individuals with an amputation had a larger range of sagittal-plane angular momentum during prosthetic limb stance compared to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent. There were no significant differences in the frontal, transverse, or sagittal-plane ranges of angular momentum or maximum magnitude of the angular momentum vector between the passive and powered prostheses during stair ascent or descent. These results indicate that individuals with an amputation have altered angular momentum trajectories during stair walking compared to able-bodied individuals, which may contribute to an increased fall risk. The results also suggest that a powered prosthesis provides no distinct advantage over a passive prosthesis in maintaining dynamic balance during stair walking.
Spectra and power of relativistic jets
Ghisellini, G
2003-01-01
The power of blazar jets rivals the power that gravity can extract from accreting matter. The mechanism launching and accelerating jets can be considered as the most efficient engine operating in radio--loud sources. It is still a matter of debate if the jet carries this power to the radio lobes, hundreds of kpc away, in the form of Poynting flux or bulk kinetic energy, or both, and if these two ingredients have relative weights changing along the way. Accordingly, there are two (or more) possible general scenarios for how the jet can dissipate part of its power into radiation. It can be through e.g. reconnection of the magnetic field in the purely electromagnetic scenario, or through internal shocks in the matter dominated picture. Ways to discriminate these ideas are welcome.
Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Soler, J. D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-02-01
The polarized thermal emission from diffuse Galactic dust is the main foreground present in measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at frequencies above 100 GHz. In this paper we exploit the uniqueness of the Planck HFI polarization data from 100 to 353 GHz to measure the polarized dust angular power spectra CℓEE and CℓBB over the multipole range 40 <ℓ< 600 well away from the Galactic plane. These measurements will bring new insights into interstellar dust physics and allow a precise determination of the level of contamination for CMB polarization experiments. Despite the non-Gaussian and anisotropic nature of Galactic dust, we show that general statistical properties of the emission can be characterized accurately over large fractions of the sky using angular power spectra. The polarization power spectra of the dust are well described by power laws in multipole, Cℓ ∝ ℓα, with exponents αEE,BB = -2.42 ± 0.02. The amplitudes of the polarization power spectra vary with the average brightness in a way similar to the intensity power spectra. The frequency dependence of the dust polarization spectra is consistent with modified blackbody emission with βd = 1.59 and Td = 19.6 K down to the lowest Planck HFI frequencies. We find a systematic difference between the amplitudes of the Galactic B- and E-modes, CℓBB/CℓEE = 0.5. We verify that these general properties are preserved towards high Galactic latitudes with low dust column densities. We show that even in the faintest dust-emitting regions there are no "clean" windows in the sky where primordial CMB B-mode polarization measurements could be made without subtraction of foreground emission. Finally, we investigate the level of dust polarization in the specific field recently targeted by the BICEP2 experiment. Extrapolation of the Planck 353 GHz data to 150 GHz gives a dust power 𝒟ℓBB ≡ ℓ(ℓ+1)CℓBB/(2π) of 1.32 × 10-2 μKCMB2 over the multipole range
Nonlinear Excitations in Inflationary Power Spectra
Miranda, Vinicius; He, Chen; Motohashi, Hayato
2016-01-01
We develop methods to calculate the curvature power spectrum in models where features in the inflaton potential nonlinearly excite modes and generate high frequency features in the spectrum. The first nontrivial effect of excitations generating further excitations arises at third order in deviations from slow roll. If these further excitations are contemporaneous, the series can be resummed, showing the exponential sensitivity of the curvature spectrum to potential features. More generally, this exponential approximation provides a power spectrum template which nonlinearly obeys relations between excitation coefficients and whose parameters may be appropriately adjusted. For a large sharp step in the potential, it greatly improves the analytic power spectrum template and its dependence on potential parameters. For axionic oscillations in the potential, it corrects the mapping between the potential and the amplitude, phase and zero point of the curvature oscillations, which might otherwise cause erroneous infe...
Power spectra of active galactic nuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG TaiShan; WU YuXiang; LIU Yuan
2009-01-01
The power spectral densities (PSDs) for a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are analyzed in both the frequency domain and the time domain. We find for each object that for broadband noise a character timescale-bifurcation timescale of Fourier and time-domain PSD exists in the 103-106 s range,below which the time-domain power spectrum is systematically higher than the corresponding Fourier spectrum. The relationship between bifurcation timescale, AGN mass and luminosity is studied. Compared with the fact that similar phenomena have been found for Galactic black hole candidates (GBHs)with bifurcation timescale ～0.1 s but not for accreting neutron stars, our finding indicates that AGNs and GBHs have common intrinsic nature in rapid X-ray variability with a character time parameter scaled with their masses.
Power spectra of active galactic nuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The power spectral densities(PSDs)for a sample of active galactic nuclei(AGNs)are analyzed in both the frequency domain and the time domain.We find for each object that for broadband noise a character timescale-bifurcation timescale of Fourier and time-domain PSD exists in the 10 3 -10 6 s range, below which the time-domain power spectrum is systematically higher than the corresponding Fourier spectrum.The relationship between bifurcation timescale,AGN mass and luminosity is studied.Compared with the fact that similar phenomena have been found for Galactic black hole candidates(GBHs) with bifurcation timescale~0.1 s but not for accreting neutron stars,our finding indicates that AGNs and GBHs have common intrinsic nature in rapid X-ray variability with a character time parameter scaled with their masses.
Angular Differential Imaging: a Powerful High-Contrast Imaging Technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marois, C; Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R; Macintosh, B; Nadeau, D
2005-11-07
Angular differential imaging is a high-contrast imaging technique that reduces speckle noise from quasi-static optical aberrations and facilitates the detection of faint nearby companions. A sequence of images is acquired with an altitude/azimuth telescope, the instrument rotator being turned off. This keeps the instrument and telescope optics aligned, stabilizes the instrumental PSF and allows the field of view to rotate with respect to the instrument. For each image, a reference PSF obtained from other images of the sequence is subtracted. All residual images are then rotated to align the field and are median combined. Observed performances are reported for Gemini Altair/NIRI data. Inside the speckle dominated region of the PSF, it is shown that quasi-static PSF noise can be reduced by a factor {approx}5 for each image subtraction. The combination of all residuals then provides an additional gain of the order of the square root of the total number of images acquired. To our knowledge, this is the first time an acquisition strategy and reduction pipeline designed for speckle attenuation and high contrast imaging is demonstrated to significantly get better detection limits with longer integration times at all angular separations. A PSF noise attenuation of 100 was achieved from 2-hour long sequences of images of Vega, reaching a 5-sigma contrast of 20 magnitudes for separations greater than 7''. This technique can be used with currently available instruments to search for {approx} 1 M{sub Jup} exoplanets with orbits of radii between 50 and 300 AU around nearby young stars. The possibility of combining the technique with other high-contrast imaging methods is briefly discussed.
Simple Emergent Power Spectra from Complex Inflationary Physics
Dias, Mafalda; Frazer, Jonathan; Marsh, M. C. David
2016-09-01
We construct ensembles of random scalar potentials for Nf-interacting scalar fields using nonequilibrium random matrix theory, and use these to study the generation of observables during small-field inflation. For Nf=O (few ), these heavily featured scalar potentials give rise to power spectra that are highly nonlinear, at odds with observations. For Nf≫1 , the superhorizon evolution of the perturbations is generically substantial, yet the power spectra simplify considerably and become more predictive, with most realizations being well approximated by a linear power spectrum. This provides proof of principle that complex inflationary physics can give rise to simple emergent power spectra. We explain how these results can be understood in terms of large Nf universality of random matrix theory.
Simple emergent power spectra from complex inflationary physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dias, Mafalda; Frazer, Jonathan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Marsh, M.C. David [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP)
2016-04-15
We construct ensembles of random scalar potentials for N{sub f} interacting scalar fields using non-equilibrium random matrix theory, and use these to study the generation of observables during small-field inflation. For N{sub f}=O(few), these heavily featured scalar potentials give rise to power spectra that are highly non-linear, at odds with observations. For N{sub f}>>1, the superhorizon evolution of the perturbations is generically substantial, yet the power spectra simplify considerably and become more predictive, with most realisations being well approximated by a linear power spectrum. This provides proof of principle that complex inflationary physics can give rise to simple emergent power spectra. We explain how these results can be understood in terms of large N{sub f} universality of random matrix theory.
Simple emergent power spectra from complex inflationary physics
Dias, Mafalda; Marsh, M C David
2016-01-01
We construct ensembles of random scalar potentials for $N_f$ interacting scalar fields using non-equilibrium random matrix theory, and use these to study the generation of observables during small-field inflation. For $N_f={\\cal O}({\\rm few})$, these heavily featured scalar potentials give rise to power spectra that are highly non-linear, at odds with observations. For $N_f\\gg 1$, the superhorizon evolution of the perturbations is generically substantial, yet the power spectra simplify considerably and become more predictive, with most realisations being well approximated by a linear power spectrum. This provides proof of principle that complex inflationary physics can give rise to simple emergent power spectra. We explain how these results can be understood in terms of large $N_f$ universality of random matrix theory.
CMB power spectra from cosmic strings: predictions for the Planck satellite and beyond
Bevis, Neil; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon
2010-01-01
We present a significant improvement over our previous calculations of the cosmic string contribution to cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra, with particular focus on sub-WMAP angular scales. These smaller scales are relevant for the now-operational Planck satellite and additional sub-orbital CMB projects that have even finer resolutions. We employ larger Abelian Higgs string simulations than before and we additionally model and extrapolate the statistical measures from our simulations to smaller length scales. We then use an efficient means of including the extrapolations into our Einstein-Boltzmann calculations in order to yield accurate results over the multipole range 2 3000 in the case of the temperature power spectrum, which then allows cautious extrapolation to even smaller scales. We find that a string contribution to the temperature power spectrum making up 10% of power at l=10 would be larger than the Silk-damped primary adiabatic contribution for l > 3500. Astrophysical contributions s...
Estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K.; Buchhave, Preben
2014-01-01
The estimation of power spectra from LDA data provides signal processing challenges for fluid dynamicists for several reasons: acquisition is dictated by randomly arriving particles, the registered particle velocities tend to be biased toward higher values, and the signal is highly intermittent...... turbulent jet. These are compared with corresponding hot-wire spectra as well as to alternative algorithms for LDA signals such as the time-slot correlation method, sample-and-hold and common weighting schemes....
Determination of Hapke's Equation Parameters Using Multi-angular Bidirectional Reflectance Spectra.
Cord, A.; Pinet, P.; Daydou, Y.; Chevrel, S.
Hapke's equation of radiative transfer provides a basic rigorous description of pho- tometric behavior of a powdered mineral mixture in terms of physically meaningful parameters characterizing multiple scattering, phase function, opposition effect, and roughness. However values of parameters involved in Hapke's equation are only par- tially known for typical planetary materials, and their complex determination hampers the quantification of materials abundance present in a multispectral scenes, when ap- plying a non linear spectral mixture. The objective of this investigation is to present a reliable method, based on a genetic algorithm, allowing to solve simultaneously all the parameters involved in Hapke's equation. This can be achieved with multi-angular hyperspectral images and do not require any a priori knowledge of the target under study. Using a spectral imaging facility, operational at the Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France and dedicated to the measurement along the 0.40 - 1.05 mm domain of the multi-angular and multispectral properties of macroscopic surfaces (200 x 200 mm) with a submillimeter spatial resolution, this new method is applied on three powdered soils with four grain sizes sorting. The first results are compared with the literature and their analysis determines the success and limitations of such an approach. A by-product of this application is the derivation of Hapke parameters that may be used in future reflectance data interpretations and acquisition (e.g. AMIE / SMART-1, Lunar A, Selene optical instruments).
Banik, Shantanu; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Desautels, J. E. L.
2010-03-01
This paper presents methods for the detection of architectural distortion in mammograms of interval-cancer cases taken prior to the diagnosis of breast cancer, using Gabor filters, phase portrait analysis, fractal dimension (FD), and analysis of the angular spread of power in the Fourier spectrum. In the estimation of FD using the Fourier power spectrum, only the distribution of power over radial frequency is considered; the information regarding the angular spread of power is ignored. In this study, the angular spread of power in the Fourier spectrum is used to generate features for the detection of spiculated patterns related to architectural distortion. Using Gabor filters and phase portrait analysis, a total of 4224 regions of interest (ROIs) were automatically obtained from 106 prior mammograms of 56 interval-cancer cases, including 301 ROIs related to architectural distortion, and from 52 mammograms of 13 normal cases. For each ROI, the FD and measures of the angular spread of power were computed. Feature selection was performed using stepwise logistic regression. The best result achieved, in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, is 0.75 +/- 0.02 with an artificial neural network including radial basis functions. Analysis of the performance of the methods with free-response receiver operating characteristics indicated a sensitivity of 0.82 at 7.7 false positives per image.
The concept of mass angular scattering power and its relation to the diffusion constant
Sandison, G A
1998-01-01
An understanding of the scattering of high energy charged particle beams by tissue is required in radiotherapy since the particle trajectories determine the pattern of radiation dose deposition in patients. Numerical calculations of radiation dose often utilize energy dependent values of the angular scattering power. However, the physics literature is replete with confused interpretations of the concept of angular scattering power and its relation to the single scattering cross section for the medium or the diffusion constant in the diffusional limit. The purpose of this article is to clarify these notions.
Full covariance of CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra
Peloton, Julien; Schmittfull, Marcel; Lewis, Antony; Carron, Julien; Zahn, Oliver
2017-02-01
CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra are powerful probes of cosmology. However, they are correlated, since the CMB power spectra are lensed, and the lensing reconstruction is constructed using CMB multipoles. We perform a full analysis of the auto- and cross-covariances, including polarization power spectra and minimum-variance lensing estimators, and compare with simulations of idealized future CMB-S4 observations. Covariances sourced by fluctuations in the unlensed CMB and instrumental noise can largely be removed by using a realization-dependent subtraction of lensing reconstruction noise, leaving a relatively simple covariance model that is dominated by lensing-induced terms and well described by a small number of principal components. The correlations between the CMB and lensing power spectra will be detectable at the level of ˜5 σ for a CMB-S4 mission, and neglecting them could underestimate some parameter error bars by several tens of percent. However, we found that the inclusion of external priors or data sets to estimate parameter error bars can make the impact of the correlations almost negligible.
Excitation spectra of a Bose-Einstein condensate with an angular spin-orbit coupling
Vasić, Ivana; Balaž, Antun
2016-09-01
A theoretical model of a Bose-Einstein condensate with angular spin-orbit coupling has recently been proposed and it has been established that a half-skyrmion represents the ground state in a certain regime of spin-orbit coupling and interaction. Here we investigate low-lying excitations of this phase by using the Bogoliubov method and numerical simulations of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find that a sudden shift of the trap bottom results in a complex two-dimensional motion of the system's center of mass that is markedly different from the response of a competing phase, and comprises two dominant frequencies. Moreover, the breathing mode frequency of the half-skyrmion is set by both the spin-orbit coupling and the interaction strength, while in the competing state it takes a universal value. Effects of interactions are especially pronounced at the transition between the two phases.
Adiabatic regularization of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation
Alinea, Allan L.
2016-10-01
We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularization on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the minimally coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of e -folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularized power spectrum tends to the ``bare'' power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularized (``bare'') power spectrum in standard calculations.
Adiabatic regularisation of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation
Alinea, Allan L
2016-01-01
We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularisation on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in \\textit{nonminimally} coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the \\textit{minimally} coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of $ e $-folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularised power spectrum tends to the "bare" power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularised ("bare") power spectrum in standard calculations.
Time series analysis : Smoothed correlation integrals, autocovariances, and power spectra
Takens, F; Dumortier, F; Broer, H; Mawhin, J; Vanderbauwhede, A; Lunel, SV
2005-01-01
In this paper we relate notions from linear time series analyses, like autocovariances and power spectra, with notions from nonlinear times series analysis, like (smoothed) correlation integrals and the corresponding dimensions and entropies. The complete proofs of the results announced in this pape
Slow-roll inflation and BB-mode angular power spectrum of CMB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malsawmtluangi, N.; Suresh, P.K. [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India)
2016-05-15
The BB-mode correlation angular power spectrum of CMB is obtained by considering the primordial gravitational waves in the squeezed vacuum state for various inflationary models and results are compared with the joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck 353 GHz data. The present results may constrain several models of inflation. (orig.)
Piezoelectric generator based on torsional modes for power harvesting from angular vibrations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zi-guang; HU Yuan-tai; YANG Jia-shi
2007-01-01
Torsional vibration of a circular piezoelectric shell of polarized ceramics mounted on a rotationally vibrating base is analyzed. The shell is properly electroded and connected to a circuit such that an electric output is generated. The structure analyzed represents a piezoelectric generator for converting mechanical energy from angular vibrations to electrical energy. Analytical expressions and numerical results for the output voltage, current, power, efficiency and power density are given.
Issues concerning loop corrections to the primordial power spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miao, S.P. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
2012-07-01
We expound ten principles in an attempt to clarify the debate over infrared loop corrections to the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra from inflation. Among other things we note that existing proposals for nonlinear extensions of the scalar fluctuation field ζ introduce new ultraviolet divergences which no one understands how to renormalize. Loop corrections and higher correlators of these putative observables would also be enhanced by inverse powers of the slow roll parameter ε. We propose an extension which should be better behaved.
Information rates and power spectra of digital codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn
1982-01-01
The encoding of independent data symbols as a sequence of discrete amplitude, real variables with given power spectrum is considered. The maximum rate of such an encoding is determined by the achievable entropy of the discrete sequence with the given constraints. An upper bound to this entropy...... have greater entropies than most codes with similar spectra that have been suggested earlier, and that they often come close to the upper bound. When the constraint on the power spectrum is replaced by a constraint On the variance of the sum of the encoded symbols, a stronger upper bound to the rate...
The characteristics of EEG power spectra changes after ACL rupture
Miao, Xin; Huang, Hongshi; Hu, Xiaoqing; Li, Dai; Yu, Yuanyuan; Ao, Yingfang
2017-01-01
Background Reestablishing knee stability is the core of the treatment of ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) injury. Some patients still have a feeling of instability of the knee after ACL injury treatment. This unstable feeling may be caused by central nervous system changes after ACL rupture. Methods To identify the central changes after ACL rupture, EEG spectra were recorded to compare ACL patients and healthy controls when they were walking, jogging, and landing. Results There was a significant increase in delta, theta, alpha and beta band power during walking, jogging and landing in ACL patients. We also found an asymmetry phenomenon of EEG only in the ACL patients, mainly in the frontal area and central-parietal area. The asymmetry of beta band power extended to the frontal and the central area during jogging and landing task. Conclusions There were significant differences in EEG power spectra between the ACL patients and healthy people. ACL patients showed high EEG band power activities and an asymmetry phenomenon. EEG power changes were affected by movements, the asymmetry extended when performing more complicated movements. PMID:28182627
Power spectra of extinction in the fossil record
Newman, M E J; Eble, Gunther J.
1998-01-01
Recent Fourier analyses of fossil extinction data have indicated that the power spectrum of extinction during the Phanerozoic may take the form of 1/f noise, a result which, it has been suggested, could be indicative of the presence of "critical dynamics" in the processes giving rise to extinction. In this paper we examine extinction power spectra in some detail, using family-level data from a variety of different sources. We find that although the average form of the power spectrum roughly obeys the 1/f law, the spectrum can be represented more accurately by dividing it into two regimes: a low-frequency one which is well fit by an exponential, and a high-frequency one in which it follows a power law with a 1/f^2 form. We give explanations for the occurrence of each of these behaviours and for the position of the cross-over between them.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Metzkes, J.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Stiller, N.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Karsch, L.; Schuerer, M. [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, J.; Richter, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany)
2012-12-15
In recent years, a new generation of high repetition rate ({approx}10 Hz), high power ({approx}100 TW) laser systems has stimulated intense research on laser-driven sources for fast protons. Considering experimental instrumentation, this development requires online diagnostics for protons to be added to the established offline detection tools such as solid state track detectors or radiochromic films. In this article, we present the design and characterization of a scintillator-based online detector that gives access to the angularly resolved proton distribution along one spatial dimension and resolves 10 different proton energy ranges. Conceived as an online detector for key parameters in laser-proton acceleration, such as the maximum proton energy and the angular distribution, the detector features a spatial resolution of {approx}1.3 mm and a spectral resolution better than 1.5 MeV for a maximum proton energy above 12 MeV in the current design. Regarding its areas of application, we consider the detector a useful complement to radiochromic films and Thomson parabola spectrometers, capable to give immediate feedback on the experimental performance. The detector was characterized at an electrostatic Van de Graaff tandetron accelerator and tested in a laser-proton acceleration experiment, proving its suitability as a diagnostic device for laser-accelerated protons.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmological Parameters from the 2008 Power Spectra
Dunkley, J; Sievers, J; Acquaviva, V; Ade, P A R; Aguirre, P; Amiri, M; Appel, J W; Barrientos, L F; Battistelli, E S; Bond, J R; Brown, B; Burger, B; Chervenak, J; Das, S; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S R; Doriese, W Bertrand; Dunner, R; Essinger-Hileman, T; Fisher, R P; Fowler, J W; Hajian, A; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Hilton, G C; Hilton, M; Hincks, A D; Huffenberger, K M; Hughes, D H; Hughes, J P; Infante, L; Irwin, K D; Juin, J B; Kaul, M; Klein, J; Kosowsky, A; Lau, J M; Limon, M; Lin, Y-T; Lupton, R H; Marriage, T A; Marsden, D; Mauskopf, P; Menanteau, F; Moodley, K; Moseley, H; Netterfield, C B; Niemack, M D; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L; Partridge, B; Reid, B; Sehgal, N; Sherwin, B; Spergel, D N; Staggs, S T; Swetz, D S; Switzer, E R; Thornton, R; Trac, H; Tucker, C; Warne, R; Wollack, E; Zhao, Y
2010-01-01
We present cosmological parameters derived from the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz and 218 GHz over 296 deg^2 with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) during its 2008 season. ACT measures fluctuations at scales 500
Foregrounds in Wide-Field Redshifted 21 cm Power Spectra
Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Bowman, Judd D; Barry, N; Beardsley, A P; Bernardi, G; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Carroll, P; Corey, B E; de Oliveira-Costa, A; Dillon, Joshua S; Emrich, D; Ewall-Wice, A; Feng, L; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hewitt, J N; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kim, Han-Seek; Kittiwisit, P; Kratzenberg, E; Lenc, E; Line, J; Loeb, A; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Neben, A R; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Paul, Sourabh; Pindor, B; Pober, J C; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Shankar, N Udaya; Sethi, Shiv K; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Sullivan, I S; Tegmark, M; Tingay, S J; Trott, C M; Waterson, M; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wu, C; Wyithe, J S B
2015-01-01
Detection of 21 cm emission of HI from the epoch of reionization, at redshifts z>6, is limited primarily by foreground emission. We investigate the signatures of wide-field measurements and an all-sky foreground model using the delay spectrum technique that maps the measurements to foreground object locations through signal delays between antenna pairs. We demonstrate interferometric measurements are inherently sensitive to all scales, including the largest angular scales, owing to the nature of wide-field measurements. These wide-field effects are generic to all observations but antenna shapes impact their amplitudes substantially. A dish-shaped antenna yields the most desirable features from a foreground contamination viewpoint, relative to a dipole or a phased array. Comparing data from recent Murchison Widefield Array observations, we demonstrate that the foreground signatures that have the largest impact on the HI signal arise from power received far away from the primary field of view. We identify diffu...
Estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra
Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K.; Buchhave, Preben
2014-03-01
The estimation of power spectra from LDA data provides signal processing challenges for fluid dynamicists for several reasons: acquisition is dictated by randomly arriving particles, the registered particle velocities tend to be biased toward higher values, and the signal is highly intermittent. The signal can be interpreted correctly by applying residence time weighting to all statistics and using the residence time-weighted discrete Fourier transform to compute the Fourier transform. A new spectral algorithm using the latter is applied to two experiments: a cylinder wake and an axisymmetric turbulent jet. These are compared with corresponding hot-wire spectra as well as to alternative algorithms for LDA signals such as the time-slot correlation method, sample-and-hold and common weighting schemes.
Running from Features: Optimized Evaluation of Inflationary Power Spectra
Motohashi, Hayato
2015-01-01
In models like axion monodromy, temporal features during inflation which are not associated with its ending can produce scalar, and to a lesser extent, tensor power spectra where deviations from scale-free power law spectra can be as large as the deviations from scale invariance itself. Here the standard slow-roll approach breaks down since its parameters evolve on an efolding scale $\\Delta N$ much smaller than the efolds to the end of inflation. Using the generalized slow-roll approach, we show that the expansion of observables in a hierarchy of potential or Hubble evolution parameters comes from a Taylor expansion of the features around an evaluation point that can be optimized. Optimization of the leading order expression provides a sufficiently accurate approximation for current data as long as the power spectrum can be described over the well-observed few efolds by the local tilt and running. Standard second order approaches, often used in the literature, ironically are worse than leading order approache...
WIND TURBINE SIMULATION FOR TIME-DEPENDENT ANGULAR VELOCITY, TORQUE, AND POWER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YONGHO LEE
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Albeit the prediction of time-dependent properties of wind turbines is not required for common applications, such time-varying properties may play an important role during transient operations occurring due to various reasons. Unlike the conventional numerical simulations of wind turbine rotations that fix the angular velocity to an assumed value, the present work numerically simulates the time-varying turbine rotation in both unsteady and quasi-steady operation regimes, without specifying the angular velocity of the turbine a priori, but by calculating the actual time-dependent angular velocity and aerodynamic torque along with other properties in the course of simulation. In the present work, successful results obtained by an efficient computational fluid dynamics technique are shown, as a demonstration, for a vertical-axis wind turbine with a two-dimensionalSavonius rotor, and the cycle-averaged output powers are compared with experimental power curves and a theory developed on the basis of experimental observations.
Design method for a laser line beam shaper of a general 1D angular power distribution
Oved, E.; Oved, A.
2016-05-01
Laser line is a beam of laser, spanned in one direction using a beam shaper to form a fan of light. This illumination tool is important in laser aided machine vision, 3D scanners, and remote sensing. For some applications the laser line should have a specific angular power distribution. If the distribution is nonsymmetrical, the beam shaper is required to be nonsymmetrical freeform, and its design process using optical design software is time consuming due to the long optimization process which usually converges to some local minimum. In this paper we introduce a new design method of a single element refractive beam shaper of any predefined general 1D angular power distribution. The method makes use of a notion of "prism space", a geometrical representation of all double refraction prisms, and any 1D beam shaper can be described by a continuous curve in this space. It is shown that infinitely many different designs are possible for any given power distribution, and it is explained how an optimal design is selected among them, based on criteria such as high transmission, low surface slopes, robustness to manufacturing errors etc. The method is non-parametric and hence does not require initial guess of a functional form, and the resultant optical surfaces are described by a sequence of points, rather than by an analytic function.
Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bracco, A; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; d'Orfeuil, B Rouillé; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Soler, J D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; White, M; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2016-01-01
The polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust is the main foreground present in measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at frequencies above 100GHz. We exploit the Planck HFI polarization data from 100 to 353GHz to measure the dust angular power spectra $C_\\ell^{EE,BB}$ over the range $40<\\ell<600$. These will bring new insights into interstellar dust physics and a precise determination of the level of contamination for CMB polarization experiments. We show that statistical properties of the emission can be characterized over large fractions of the sky using $C_\\ell$. For the dust, they are well described by power laws in $\\ell$ with exponents $\\alpha^{EE,BB}=-2.42\\pm0.02$. The amplitudes of the polarization $C_\\ell$ vary with the average brightness in a way similar to the intensity ones. The dust polarization frequency dependence is consistent with modified blackbody emission with $\\beta_d=1.59$ and $T_d=19.6$K. We find a systematic ratio between the amplitudes of ...
How to measure CMB power spectra without losing information
Tegmark, M
1997-01-01
A new method for estimating the angular power spectrum C_l from cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps is presented, which has the following desirable properties: (1) It is unbeatable in the sense that no other method can measure C_\\l with smaller error bars. (2) It is quadratic, which makes the statistical properties of the measurements easy to compute and use for estimation of cosmological parameters. (3) It is computationally faster than rival high-precision methods such as the nonlinear maximum-likelihood technique, with the crucial steps scaling as n^2 rather than n^3, where n is the number of map pixels. (4) It is applicable to any survey geometry whatsoever, with arbitraty regions masked out and arbitrary noise behaviour. (5) It is not a "black-box" method, but quite simple to understand intuitively: it corresponds to a high-pass filtering and edge softening of the original map followed by a straight expansion in truncated spherical-harmonics. It is argued that this method is computationally feasible e...
Individual power density spectra of Swift gamma-ray bursts
Guidorzi, C; Amati, L
2016-01-01
Timing analysis is a powerful tool with which to shed light on the still obscure emission physics and geometry of the prompt emission of GRBs. Fourier power density spectra (PDS) characterise time series as stochastic processes and can be used to search for coherent pulsations and to investigate the dominant variability timescales. Because of the limited duration and of the statistical properties, modelling the PDS of individual GRBs is challenging, and only average PDS of large samples have been discussed in the literature. We characterise the individual PDS of GRBs in terms of a stochastic process, and carry out for the first time a systematic search for periodic signals and for a link between the PDS and other observables. We present a Bayesian procedure that uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique and apply it to study 215 bright long GRBs detected with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope from January 2005 to May 2015. The PDS are modelled with a power-law either with or without a break. Two classes of GRBs...
THE EFFECT OF INTERPLANETARY SCINTILLATION ON EPOCH OF REIONIZATION POWER SPECTRA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley WA (Australia)
2015-11-20
Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) induces intensity fluctuations in small angular size astronomical radio sources via the distortive effects of spatially and temporally varying electron density associated with outflows from the Sun. These radio sources are a potential foreground contaminant signal for redshifted HI emission from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) because they yield time-dependent flux density variations in bright extragalactic point sources. Contamination from foreground continuum sources complicates efforts to discriminate the cosmological signal from other sources in the sky. In IPS, at large angles from the Sun applicable to EoR observations, weak scattering induces spatially and temporally correlated fluctuations in the measured flux density of sources in the field, potentially affecting the detectability of the EoR signal by inducing non-static variations in the signal strength. In this work, we explore the impact of interplanetary weak scintillation on EoR power spectrum measurements, accounting for the instrumental spatial and temporal sampling. We use published power spectra of electron density fluctuations and parameters of EoR experiments to derive the IPS power spectrum in the wavenumber phase space of EoR power spectrum measurements. The contrast of IPS power to expected cosmological power is used as a metric to assess the impact of IPS. We show that IPS has a spectral structure different from power from foregrounds alone, but the additional leakage into the EoR observation parameter space is negligible under typical IPS conditions, unless data are used from deep within the foreground contamination region.
Cosmological flux noise and measured noise power spectra in SQUIDs
Beck, Christian
2016-06-01
The understanding of the origin of 1/f magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDs and qubits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we discuss the possibility that a significant part of the observed low-frequency flux noise measured in these devices is ultimately seeded by cosmological fluctuations. We consider a theory where a primordial flux noise field left over in unchanged form from an early inflationary or quantum gravity epoch of the universe intrinsically influences the phase difference in SQUIDs and qubits. The perturbation seeds generated by this field can explain in a quantitatively correct way the form and amplitude of measured low-frequency flux noise spectra in SQUID devices if one takes as a source of fluctuations the primordial power spectrum of curvature fluctuations as measured by the Planck collaboration. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe.
The CMBR ISW and HI 21-cm Cross-correlation Angular Power Spectrum
Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha; Bharadwaj, Somnath
2008-01-01
The late-time growth of large scale structures (LSS) is imprinted in the CMBR anisotropy through the Integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect. This is perceived to be a very important observational probe of dark energy. Future observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution hold the potential of probing the LSS over a large redshift range. We have investigated the possibility of detecting the ISW through cross-correlations between the CMBR anisotropies and redshifted 21-cm observations. Assuming that the HI traces the dark matter, we find that the ISW-HI cross-correlation angular power spectrum at an angular multipole l is proportional to the dark matter power spectrum evaluated at the comoving wave number l/r, where r is the comoving distance to the redshift from which the HI signal originated. The amplitude of the cross-correlation signal depends on parameters related to the HI distribution and the growth of cosmological perturbations. However the cross-correla...
CMBR Weak Lensing and HI 21-cm Cross-correlation Angular Power Spectrum
Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha
2009-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing of the CMBR manifests as a secondary anisotropy in the temperature maps. The effect, quantified through the shear and convergence fields imprint the underlying large scale structure (LSS), geometry and evolution history of the Universe. It is hence perceived to be an important observational probe of cosmology. De-lensing the CMBR temperature maps is also crucial for detecting the gravitational wave generated B-modes. Future observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution hold the potential of probing the LSS over a large redshift range. We have investigated the correlation between post-reionization HI signal and weak lensing convergence field. Assuming that the HI follows the dark matter distribution, the cross-correlation angular power spectrum at a multipole \\ell is found to be proportional to the cold dark matter power spectrum evaluated at \\ell/r, where r denotes the comoving distance to the redshift where the HI is located. Th...
Matter power spectra in dynamical-Dark Energy cosmologies
Fedeli, C; Moscardini, L
2011-01-01
(abridged) We used a suite of numerical cosmological simulations in order to investigate the effect of gas cooling and star formation on the large scale matter distribution. The simulations follow the formation of cosmic structures in five different Dark Energy models: the fiducial $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology and four models where the Dark Energy density is allowed to have a non-trivial redshift evolution. For each cosmology we have a control run with dark matter only, in order to allow a direct assessment of the impact of baryonic processes. We found that the power spectra of gas and stars, as well as the total matter power spectrum, are in qualitative agreement with the results of previous works in the framework of the fiducial model, although several quantitative differences exist. We used the halo model in order to investigate the backreaction of gas and stars on the dark matter distribution, finding that it is very well reproduced by increasing the average dark matter halo concentration by 17%, irrespective o...
Efficient estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K
2010-01-01
requirements for good statistical convergence due to the random sampling of the data. In the present work, the theory for estimating burst-mode LDA spectra using residence time weighting is discussed and a practical estimator is derived and applied. A brief discussion on the self-noise in spectra...... (axisymmetric turbulent jet). The burst-mode LDA spectra are compared to corresponding spectra from hot-wire data obtained in the same experiments, and to LDA spectra produced by the sample-and-hold methodology. The spectra computed from the residence-time weighted burst-mode algorithm proposed herein compare...
Fornasa, Mattia; Zavala, Jesus; Gaskins, Jennifer M; Sanchez-Conde, Miguel A; Gomez-Vargas, German; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Linden, Tim; Prada, Francisco; Zandanel, Fabio; Morselli, Aldo
2016-01-01
The isotropic gamma-ray background arises from the contribution of unresolved sources, including members of confirmed source classes and proposed gamma-ray emitters such as the radiation induced by dark matter annihilation and decay. Clues about the properties of the contributing sources are imprinted in the anisotropy characteristics of the gamma-ray background. We use 81 months of Pass 7 Reprocessed data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to perform a measurement of the anisotropy angular power spectrum of the gamma-ray background. We analyze energies between 0.5 and 500 GeV, extending the range considered in the previous measurement based on 22 months of data. We also compute, for the first time, the cross-correlation angular power spectrum between different energy bins. We find that the derived angular spectra are compatible with being Poissonian, i.e. constant in multipole. Moreover, the energy dependence of the anisotropy suggests that the signal is due to two populations of sources, contributing, resp...
Choudhuri, Samir; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, SK Saiyad
2014-01-01
We present two estimators to quantify the angular power spectrum of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio interferometric observations. This is relevant for both the foregrounds and the cosmological 21-cm signal buried therein. The discussion here is restricted to the Galactic synchrotron radiation, the most dominant foreground component after point source removal. Our theoretical analysis is validated using simulations at 150 MHz, mainly for GMRT and also briefly for LOFAR. The Bare Estimator uses pairwise correlations of the measured visibilities, while the Tapered Gridded Estimator uses the visibilities after gridding in the uv plane. The former is very precise, but computationally expensive for large data. The latter has a lower precision, but takes less computation time which is proportional to the data volume. The latter also allows tapering of the sky response leading to sidelobe suppression, an useful ingredient for foreground removal. Both estimators avoid the positive bias ...
Power Spectra, Power Law Exponents, and Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence at Small Scales
Podesta, J. J.; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.
2006-01-01
The Wind spacecraft provides simultaneous solar wind velocity and magnetic field measurements with 3- second time resolution, roughly an order of magnitude faster than previous measurements, enabling the small scale features of solar wind turbulence to be studied in unprecedented detail. Almost the entire inertial range can now be explored (the inertial range extends from approximately 1 to 10(exp 3) seconds in the spacecraft frame) although the dissipation range of the velocity fluctuations is still out of reach. Improved measurements of solar wind turbulence spectra at 1 AU in the ecliptic plane are presented including spectra of the energy and cross-helicity, the magnetic and kinetic energies, the Alfven ratio, the normalized cross-helicity, and the Elsasser ratio. Some recent observations and theoretical challenges are discussed including the observation that the velocity and magnetic field spectra often show different power law exponents with values close to 3/2 and 5/3, respectively; the energy (kinetic plus magnetic) and cross-helicity often have approximately equal power law exponents with values intermediate between 3/2 and 5/3; and the Alfven ratio, the ratio of the kinetic to magnetic energy spectra, is often a slowly increasing function of frequency increasing from around 0.4 to 1 for frequencies in the inertial range. Differences between high- and low-speed wind are also discussed. Comparisons with phenomenological turbulence theories show that important aspects of the physics are yet unexplained.
The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich angular power spectrum as a probe of cosmological parameters
Komatsu, E; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Seljak, Uros
2002-01-01
The angular power spectrum of the SZ effect, C_l, is a powerful probe of cosmology. It is easier to detect than individual clusters in the field, is insensitive to observational selection effects and does not require a calibration between cluster mass and flux, reducing the systematic errors which dominate the cluster-counting constraints. It receives a dominant contribution from cluster region between 20-40% of the virial radius and is thus insensitive to the poorly known gas physics in the cluster centre, such as cooling or (pre)heating. In this paper we derive a refined analytic prediction for C_l using the universal gas-density and temperature profile and the dark-matter halo mass function. The predicted C_l has no free parameters and fits all of the published hydrodynamic simulation results to better than a factor of two around l=3000. We find that C_l scales as (sigma_8)^7 times (Omega_b h)^2 and is almost independent of all of the other cosmological parameters. This differs from the local cluster abund...
Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study
Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas
2011-01-01
This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Tong
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Photoacoustic Doppler (PAD power spectra showing an evident Doppler shift represent the major characteristics of the continuous wave-excited or burst wave-excited versions of PAD flow measurements. In this paper, the flow angle dependences of the PAD power spectra are investigated using an experiment setup that was established based on intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation. The setup has an overall configuration that is similar to a previously reported configuration, but is more sophisticated in that it accurately aligns the laser illumination with the ultrasound detection process, and in that it picks up the correct sample position. In the analysis of the power spectra data, we find that the background power spectra can be extracted by combining the output signals from the two channels of the lock-in amplifier, which is very useful for identification of the PAD power spectra. The power spectra are presented and analyzed in opposite flow directions, at different flow speeds, and at different flow angles. The power spectra at a 90° flow angle show the unique properties of symmetrical shapes due to PAD broadening. For the other flow angles, the smoothed power spectra clearly show a flow angle cosine relationship.
Power spectra of the natural input to the visual system.
Pamplona, D; Triesch, J; Rothkopf, C A
2013-05-03
The efficient coding hypothesis posits that sensory systems are adapted to the regularities of their signal input so as to reduce redundancy in the resulting representations. It is therefore important to characterize the regularities of natural signals to gain insight into the processing of natural stimuli. While measurements of statistical regularity in vision have focused on photographic images of natural environments it has been much less investigated, how the specific imaging process embodied by the organism's eye induces statistical dependencies on the natural input to the visual system. This has allowed using the convenient assumption that natural image data are homogeneous across the visual field. Here we give up on this assumption and show how the imaging process in a human model eye influences the local statistics of the natural input to the visual system across the entire visual field. Artificial scenes with three-dimensional edge elements were generated and the influence of the imaging projection onto the back of a spherical model eye were quantified. These distributions show a strong radial influence of the imaging process on the resulting edge statistics with increasing eccentricity from the model fovea. This influence is further quantified through computation of the second order intensity statistics as a function of eccentricity from the center of projection using samples from the dead leaves image model. Using data from a naturalistic virtual environment, which allows generation of correctly projected images onto the model eye across the entire field of view, we quantified the second order dependencies as function of the position in the visual field using a new generalized parameterization of the power spectra. Finally, we compared this analysis with a commonly used natural image database, the van Hateren database, and show good agreement within the small field of view available in these photographic images. We conclude by providing a detailed
A Chandra Study of the Image Power Spectra of 41 Cool Core and Non-Cool Core Galaxy Clusters
Zhang, Chenhao; Zhu, Zhenghao; Li, Weitian; Hu, Dan; Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; Gu, Liyi; Zhang, Zhongli; Liu, Chengze; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Xiang-Ping
2016-01-01
In this work we propose a new diagnostic to segregate cool core (CC) clusters from non-cool core (NCC) clusters by studying the two-dimensional power spectra of the X-ray images observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory. Our sample contains 41 members ($z=0.01\\sim 0.54$), which are selected from the Chandra archive when a high photon count, an adequate angular resolution, a relatively complete detector coverage, and coincident CC-NCC classifications derived with three traditional diagnostics are simultaneously guaranteed. We find that in the log-log space the derived image power spectra can be well represented by a constant model component at large wavenumbers, while at small wavenumbers a power excess beyond the constant component appears in all clusters, with a clear tendency that the excess is stronger in CC clusters. By introducing a new CC diagnostic parameter, i.e., the power excess index (PEI), we classify the clusters in our sample and compare the results with those obtained with three traditional C...
Thermocouple time constant measurement by cross power spectra
Strahle, W. C.; Muthukrishnan, M.
1976-01-01
A method of measuring thermocouple time constants is outlined which requires Fourier signal processing. In this method, two thermocouples of differing time constants are placed in a gas flow as closely as possible to one another, and the time constant of the first thermocouple is determined directly from the extremum of the imaginary part of the ratio of the ensemble averaged cross-power spectrum to the ensemble averaged auto-power spectrum of that thermocouple. A coherence function is given for assuring the quality of the data, and results are presented for an experimental test of the method. Some problems with the method are briefly noted.
Reduction of noise and bias in randomly sampled power spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara Marika
2015-01-01
We consider the origin of noise and distortion in power spectral estimates of randomly sampled data, specifically velocity data measured with a burst-mode laser Doppler anemometer. The analysis guides us to new ways of reducing noise and removing spectral bias, e.g., distortions caused by modific......We consider the origin of noise and distortion in power spectral estimates of randomly sampled data, specifically velocity data measured with a burst-mode laser Doppler anemometer. The analysis guides us to new ways of reducing noise and removing spectral bias, e.g., distortions caused...
The x ray variability of NGC6814: Power spectra
Done, C.; Madejski, G. M.; Mushotsky, R. F.; Turner, T. J.; Koyama, K.; Kunieda, H.
1992-01-01
Simulation techniques are used to obtain the X-ray variability power spectrum of unevenly sampled GINGA data from NGC6814. A simple power law is not an adequate description of the power spectrum, with the residuals showing excess power on timescales consistent with the periodicity seen in EXOSAT observations of this object. However the shape of the folded lightcurve is very different, with 3 main peaks, two of which are separated by an extremely sharp dip instead of the single peak and small harmonic structure observed by EXOSAT. Using the dip as a fiducial mark, a second GINGA observation of this source taken one year later is found to be consistent with being completely periodic and phase coherent with this first GINGA observation. Thus the period is consistent with being constant over a period of 6 years, but phase coherence is only maintained on timescales of approximately 1 year. Over 75 percent of the total source variability is due to the periodic component (r.m.s. amplitude of 36 percent). The residual variability can be described as the more usual 'flicker noise' f(exp -1.1) powerlaw. This shows no apparent high frequency break on timescales greater than 300 seconds. Subtle differences in the shape of the folded light curve with energy, and the very large amount of power in the periodic component suggest occultation as its origin, though amplification of variability from an X-ray emitting 'hot spot' at the disk inner radius through gravitational lensing is also possible. The former suffers from the very arbitrary nature of the periodic timescale, while the latter is unattractive as it cannot simply explain the lack of high frequency break in the residual power. That these models probably fail to provide an adequate explanation may be due to the added complexity of anisotropy of the X-ray emission, suggested by the discrepancy between the lack of soft photons implied by the flat spectrum and the copious source of soft photons available from reprocessing in
Distribution of Acoustic Power Spectra for an Isolated Helicopter Fuselage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kusyumov A.N.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The broadband aerodynamic noise can be studied, assuming isotropic flow, turbulence and decay. Proudman’s approach allows practical calculations of noise based on CFD solutions of RANS or URANS equations at the stage of post processing and analysis of the solution. Another aspect is the broadband acoustic spectrum and the distribution of acoustic power over a range of frequencies. The acoustic energy spectrum distribution in isotropic turbulence is non monotonic and has a maximum at a certain value of Strouhal number. In the present work the value of acoustic power peak frequency is determined using a prescribed form of acoustic energy spectrum distribution presented in papers by S. Sarkar and M. Y. Hussaini and by G. M. Lilley. CFD modelling of the flow around isolated helicopter fuselage model was considered using the HMB CFD code and the RANS equations.
Spherical Harmonic Analyses of Intensity Mapping Power Spectra
Liu, Adrian; Zhang, Yunfan; Parsons, Aaron R.
2016-12-01
Intensity mapping is a promising technique for surveying the large-scale structure of our universe from z = 0 to z ˜ 150, using the brightness temperature field of spectral lines to directly observe previously unexplored portions of our cosmic timeline. Examples of targeted lines include the 21 cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen, rotational lines of carbon monoxide, and fine-structure lines of singly ionized carbon. Recent efforts have focused on detections of the power spectrum of spatial fluctuations, but have been hindered by systematics such as foreground contamination. This has motivated the decomposition of data into Fourier modes perpendicular and parallel to the line of sight, which has been shown to be a particularly powerful way to diagnose systematics. However, such a method is well-defined only in the limit of a narrow-field, flat-sky approximation. This limits the sensitivity of intensity mapping experiments, as it means that wide surveys must be separately analyzed as a patchwork of smaller fields. In this paper, we develop a framework for analyzing intensity mapping data in a spherical Fourier-Bessel basis, which incorporates curved sky effects without difficulty. We use our framework to generalize a number of techniques in intensity mapping data analysis from the flat sky to the curved sky. These include visibility-based estimators for the power spectrum, treatments of interloper lines, and the “foreground wedge” signature of spectrally smooth foregrounds.
Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes
Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo
2008-11-01
We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times τ given by ψ(τ )∝1/τμ, with μ ≈2. The condition μ power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f )=K/fη, with η =3-μ, namely, the 1/f noise lives at border between the ergodic μ >2 and nonergodic μ legitimate by two different kinds of truncation effects: the physical and observation-induced effect. In the former case ψ(τ ) is truncated at τ ≈Tmax and L ≫Tmax ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, L ≪Tmax, is more challenging. It was already solved by Margolin and Barkai, who used time asymptotic arguments based on the ergodicity breakdown and obtained K ∝1/L2-μ, proving that the out-of-equilibrium nature of the condition μ 2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1/fη to the 1/f2 regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the L ≪Tmax or by the L ≫Tmax condition.
Spherical Harmonic Analyses of Intensity Mapping Power Spectra
Liu, Adrian; Parsons, Aaron R
2016-01-01
Intensity mapping is a promising technique for surveying the large scale structure of our Universe from $z=0$ to $z \\sim 150$, using the brightness temperature field of spectral lines to directly observe previously unexplored portions of out cosmic timeline. Examples of targeted lines include the $21\\,\\textrm{cm}$ hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen, rotational lines of carbon monoxide, and fine structure lines of singly ionized carbon. Recent efforts have focused on detections of the power spectrum of spatial fluctuations, but have been hindered by systematics such as foreground contamination. This has motivated the decomposition of data into Fourier modes perpendicular and parallel to the line-of-sight, which has been shown to be a particularly powerful way to diagnose systematics. However, such a method is well-defined only in the limit of a narrow-field, flat-sky approximation. This limits the sensitivity of intensity mapping experiments, as it means that wide surveys must be separately analyzed as a...
Observed and Simulated Power Spectra of Kinetic and Magnetic Energy retrieved with 2D inversions
Danilovic, S; van Noort, M; Cameron, R
2016-01-01
We try to retrieve the power spectra with certainty to the highest spatial frequencies allowed by current instrumentation. For this, we use 2D inversion code that were able to recover information up to the instrumental diffraction limit. The retrieved power spectra have shallow slopes extending further down to much smaller scales than found before. They seem not to show any power law. The observed slopes at subgranular scales agree with those obtained from recent local dynamo simulations. Small differences are found for vertical component of kinetic energy that suggest that observations suffer from an instrumental effect that is not taken into account.
Measurement of CIB power spectra over large sky areas from Planck HFI maps
Mak, Daisy Suet Ying; Challinor, Anthony; Efstathiou, George; Lagache, Guilaine
2017-04-01
We present new measurements of the power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using the Planck 2015 full-mission High frequency instrument data at 353, 545 and 857 GHz over 20 000 deg2. We use techniques similar to those applied for the cosmological analysis of Planck, subtracting dust emission at the power spectrum level. Our analysis gives stable solutions for the CIB power spectra with increasing sky coverage up to about 50 per cent of the sky. These spectra agree well with H I-cleaned spectra from Planck measured on much smaller areas of sky with low Galactic dust emission. At 545 and 857 GHz, our CIB spectra agree well with those measured from Herschel data. We find that the CIB spectra at ℓ ≳ 500 are well fitted by a power-law model for the clustered CIB, with a shallow index γcib = 0.53 ± 0.02. This is consistent with the CIB results at 217 GHz from the cosmological parameter analysis of Planck. We show that a linear combination of the 545 and 857 GHz Planck maps is dominated by the CIB fluctuations at multipoles ℓ ≳ 300.
Measurement of CIB power spectra over large sky areas from Planck HFI maps
Ying, Suet; Challinor, Anthony; Efstathiou, Geroge; Lagache, Guilaine
2016-01-01
We present new measurements of the power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using the Planck 2015 full-mission HFI data at 353, 545, and 857 GHz over 20000 square degrees. We use techniques similar to those applied for the cosmological analysis of Planck, subtracting dust emission at the power spectrum level. Our analysis gives stable solutions for the CIB power spectra with increasing sky coverage up to about 50% of the sky. These spectra agree well with Hi cleaned spectra from Planck measured on much smaller areas of sky with low Galactic dust emission. At 545 and 857 GHz our CIB spectra agree well with those measured from Herschel data. We find that the CIB spectra at l > 500 are well fitted by a power-law model for the clustered CIB, with a shallow index {\\gamma}^cib = 0.53\\pm0.02. This is consistent with the CIB results at 217 GHz from the cosmological parameter analysis of Planck. We show that a linear combination of the 545 and 857 GHz Planck maps is dominated by CIB fluctuati...
A Measurement of the Angular Power Spectrum of the CMB from l = 100 to 400
Miller, A D; Devlin, M J; Dorwart, W B; Herbig, T; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Puchalla, J; Torbet, E; Tran, H T
1999-01-01
We report on a measurement of the angular spectrum of the CMB between $l\\approx 100$ and $l\\approx 400$ made at 144 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Chilean altiplano. When the new data are combined with previous data at 30 and 40 GHz, taken with the same instrument observing the same section of sky, we find: 1) a rise in the angular spectrum to a maximum with $\\delta T_l \\approx 85~\\mu$K at $l\\approx 200$ and a fall at $l>300$, thereby localizing the peak near $l\\approx 200$; and 2) that the anisotropy at $l\\approx 200$ has the spectrum of the CMB.
Matter Power Spectra in Viable $f(R)$ Gravity Models with Massive Neutrinos
Geng, Chao-Qiang; Shen, Jia-Liang
2015-01-01
We investigate the matter power spectra in the power law and exponential types of viable $f(R)$ theories along with massive neutrinos. The enhancement of the matter power spectrum is found to be a generic feature in these models. In particular, we show that in the former type, such as the Starobinsky model, the spectrum is magnified much larger than the latter one, such as the exponential model. A greater scale of the total neutrino mass, $\\Sigma m_{\
Precision Predictions for the Primordial Power Spectra from f(R) Models of Inflation
Brooker, D J; Woodard, R P
2016-01-01
We study the power spectra of f(R) inflation using a new technique in which the norm-squared of the mode functions is evolved. Our technique results in excellent analytic approximations for how the spectra depend upon the function $f(R)$. Although the spectra are numerically the same in the Jordan and Einstein frames for the same wave number $k$, they depend upon the geometries of these frames in quite different ways. For example, the power spectra in the two frames are different functions of the number of e-foldings until end of inflation. We discuss how future data on reheating can be used to distinguish f(R) inflation from scalar-driven inflation.
CMB and LSS Power Spectra From Local Cosmic String Seeded Struture Formation
Contaldi, C R; Magueijo, J; Contaldi, Carlo R.; Hindmarsh, Mark; Magueijo, Joao
1998-01-01
We evaluate the two point functions of the stress energy from the largest string simulations carried out so far. The two point functions are used to calculate the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and cold dark matter (CDM) power spectra from local cosmic string models for structure formation. We find that our spectra differ significantly from those previously calculated for both global and local defects. We find a higher Doppler peak at $l=400-600$ and a less severe bias problem than for global defects. Spectra were obtained for a variety of network energy-decay mechanisms.
Fact versus formula in the power spectra of complex systems
Watkins, Nick
2016-04-01
More than 100 years ago, Thomson and Tait's classic "Treatise on Natural Philosophy" cautioned its readers against "considering the formula and not the fact as physical reality". Deciding what the facts actually _were, however, was left as an exercise for the reader ... Complex systems offer many examples [1] of the ambiguity Thomson and Tait were trying to point out. This presentation will be about a formula-the "1/f" spectral shape seen in many areas of physics including climate science; and an empirical fact-the growth of rescaled range originally seen in river time series and now known as the Hurst effect. It is well known that Mandelbrot kicked off the study of long range dependence (LRD) in the mid 1960s [2] with a stationary model for 1/f noise and the Hurst effect. This fractional Gaussian model is now so well known that it is often seen as synonymous with both 1/f noise and the Hurst effect. However Mandelbrot himself was aware that there were other models that produced 1/f noise, including a family [3-6] which he called "conditionally stationary", with power law distributions of times between switching of states. Late in his life he re-emphasised the clear contrasts between their behaviour and that of fGn. I will explain why these other models are also physically interesting, and will show why real systems including climate examples may potentially map more closely to one or the other, or may in fact combine both aspects. I will also discuss his proposals for distinguishing between the models and how they may be implemented. [1] Watkins, Bunched Black Swans, Geophys Res. Lett, 2013 [2] Graves et al, A Brief History of Long Memory, arXiv:1406.6018 [stat.OT] [3] Berger and Mandelbrot, "A New Model for Error Clustering in Telephone Circuits", IBM Technical Journal, July 1963. [4] Mandelbrot, "Self-similar error clusters in communications systems, and the concept of conditional stationarity", IEEE Trans. on Communications Technology, COM-13, 71-90, 1965. [5
Contribution of Cross-Correlations to the 21cm Angular Power Spectrum in the Epoch of Reionization
Zheng, Qian
2009-01-01
Measurement of the 21cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen provides a unique probe of the epoch of reionization and the Dark Ages. Three major mechanisms are believed to dominate the radiation process: emission from neutral hydrogen surrounding the ionized bubbles of first galaxies and/or quasars, emission from neutral hydrogen inside minihalos, and absorption of diffuse neutral hydrogen against the cosmic microwave background. In the present work, by simply combining the existing analytic models for the three mechanisms, we investigate the contribution of cross-correlation between these three components to the total 21cm angular power spectrum, in the sense that neutral hydrogen associated with different radiation processes traces the large-scale structures of underlying density perturbations. While the overall 21cm power spectrum remains almost unchanged with the inclusion of the cross-correlations, the cross-correlation may play a key role in the determination of the 21cm power spectrum during the tr...
BLAST05: Power Spectra of Bright Galactic Cirrus at Submillimeter Wavelengths
Roy, Arabindo; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V
2009-01-01
We report multi-wavelength power spectra of diffuse Galactic dust emission from BLAST observations at 250, 350, and 500 microns in Galactic Plane fields in Cygnus X and Aquila. These submillimeter power spectra statistically quantify the self-similar structure observable over a broad range of scales and can be used to assess the cirrus noise which limits the detection of faint point sources. The advent of submillimeter surveys with the Herschel Space Observatory makes the wavelength dependence a matter of interest. We show that the observed relative amplitudes of the power spectra can be related through a spectral energy distribution (SED). Fitting a simple modified black body to this SED, we find the dust temperature in Cygnus X to be 19.9 +/- 1.3 K and in the Aquila region 16.9 +/- 0.7 K. Our empirical estimates provide important new insight into the substantial cirrus noise that will be encountered in forthcoming observations.
Bonnefoy, M; Dougados, C; Kospal, A; Benisty, M; Duchene, G; Bouvier, J; Garcia, P J V; Whelan, E; Antoniucci, S; Podio, L
2016-01-01
Z CMa is a complex pre-main sequence binary with a current separation of 100 mas, known to consist of an FU Orionis star (SE component) and an embedded Herbig Be star (NW component). Immediately when the late-2008 outburst of Z CMa was announced to the community, we initiated a high angular resolution imaging campaign with VLT/NaCo, Keck/NIRC2, VLT/SINFONI, and Keck/OSIRIS which aimed at characterizing the outburst of both components of the system in the near-infrared. We confirm that the NW star dominates the system flux in the 1.1-3.8 microns range and is responsible for the photometric outburst. We extract the first medium-resolution (R=2000-4000) near-infrared (1.1-2.4 microns) spectra of the individual components during and after the outburst. The SE component has a spectrum typical of FU Orionis objects. The NW component spectrum is characteristic of embedded outbursting protostars and EX Or objects. It displays numerous emission lines during the outburst whose intensity correlates with the system activ...
Effect of transitions in the Planck mass during inflation on primordial power spectra
Ashoorioon, Amjad; Millington, Peter; Vu, Susan
2014-01-01
We study the effect of sudden transitions in the effective Planck mass during inflation on primordial power spectra. Specifically, we consider models in which this variation results from the non-minimal coupling of a Brans-Dicke type scalar field. We find that the scalar power spectra develop features at the scales corresponding to those leaving the horizon during the transition. In addition, we observe that the tensor perturbations are largely unaffected, so long as the variation of the Planck mass is below the percent level. Otherwise, the tensor power spectra exhibit damped oscillations over the same scales. Due to significant features in the scalar power spectra, the tensor-to-scalar ratio r shows variation over the corresponding scales. Thus, by studying the spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations, one can constrain sudden but small variations of the Planck mass during inflation. We illustrate these effects with a number of benchmark single- and two-field models. In addition, we comment on their ...
Fourier power spectra of the geomagnetic field for circular paths on the Earth's surface.
Alldredge, L.R.; Benton, E.R.
1986-01-01
The Fourier power spectra of geomagnetic component values, synthesized from spherical harmonic models, have been computed for circular paths on the Earth's surface. They are not found to be more useful than is the spectrum of magnetic energy outside the Earth for the purpose of separating core and crustal sources of the geomagnetic field. The Fourier power spectra of N and E geomagnetic components along nearly polar great circle paths exhibit some unusual characteristics that are explained by the geometric perspective of Fourier series on spheres developed by Yee. -Authors
Power Spectra beyond the Slow Roll Approximation in Theories with Non-Canonical Kinetic Terms
van de Bruck, Carsten
2014-01-01
We derive analytical expressions for the power spectra at the end of inflation in theories with two inflaton fields and non-canonical kinetic terms. We find that going beyond the slow-roll approximation is necessary and that the nature of the non-canonical terms have an important impact on the final power spectra at the end of inflation. We study five models numerically and find excellent agreement with our analytical results. Our results emphasise the fact that going beyond the slow-roll approximation is important in times of high-precision data coming from cosmological observations.
Werner, G R; Cerutti, B; Nalewajko, K; Begelman, M C
2014-01-01
Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron-positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations $\\sigma$ and system sizes $L$. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power law $\\gamma^{-\\alpha}$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to $\\sigma$ and $L$, respectively. For large $L$ and $\\sigma$, the power-law index $\\alpha$ approaches about 1.2.
Characterizing the peak in the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum
Knox; Page
2000-08-14
A peak has been unambiguously detected in the cosmic microwave background angular spectrum. Here we characterize its properties with fits to phenomenological models. We find that the TOCO and BOOM/NA data determine the peak location to be in the range 175-243 and 151-259, respectively (at 95% confidence) and determine the peak amplitude to be between approximately 70 and 90 &mgr;K. The peak shape is consistent with inflation-inspired flat, cold dark matter plus cosmological constant models of structure formation with adiabatic, nearly scale invariant initial conditions. It is inconsistent with open models and presents a great challenge to defect models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Djukanovic, M. (Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Sobajic, D.J.; Yohhan Pao (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Computer Engineering and Science AI WARE inc., Cleveland, OH (United States))
1992-10-01
In heavily stressed power systems, post-fault transient voltage dips can lead to undesired tripping of industrial drives and large induction motors. The lowest transient voltage dips occur when fault clearing times are less than critical ones. In this paper, we propose a new iterative analytical methodology to obtain more accurate estimates of voltage dips at maximum angular swing in direct transient stability analysis. We also propose and demonstrate the possibility of storing the results of these computations in the associative memory (AM) system, which exhibits remarkable generalization capabilities. Feature-based models stored in the AM can be utilized for fast and accurate prediction of the location, duration and the amount of the worst voltage dips, thereby avoiding the need and cost for lengthy time-domain simulations. Numerical results obtained using the example of the New England power system are presented to illustrate our approach. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imhan Khalil Ibraheem
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Laser tube bending is a new technique of laser material forming to produce a complex and accurate shape due to its flexibility and high controllability. Moreover, the defects during conventional tube forming such as thinning, wrinkling, spring back and ovalization can be avoided in laser tube bending process, because there is no external force used. In this paper an analytical investigation has been conducted to analyses the effects of average laser power and laser scanning speed on laser tube bending process, the analytical results have been verified experimentally. The model used in this study is in the same trend of the experiment. The results show that the bending angle increased with the increasing of average laser power and decreased with the increasing of angular scanning speed.
The Development of Kolmogoroff-Like Power Spectra in the Expanding Solar Wind
Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Ghosh, S.; Deane, A. E.
1998-01-01
Power spectra of the solar wind fluctuations consistently exhibit a -5/3 power-law slope consistent with the idea that the medium is undergoing a turbulent cascade as seen in ordinary fluids. This is surprising both because the radial streams and the magnetic field threading the plasma will induce anisotropies and because the expansion of the wind will tend to lead to the suppression of nonlinear cascades. These conditions violate the assumptions used by Kolmogoroff to derive the -5/3 law. We have studied this issue using a compressible IMHD code in spherical coordinates and have shown that a -5/3 spectrum results from a broad-band flat-spectrum input condition that is sheared and distorted by a current sheet as the wind expands. We determine spectra from time series taken at selected points in the domain as is done with observational spacecraft data. The spectra are very like those we have seen in nonexpanding runs and exhibit evolution and compressive characteristics very similar to those seen in observations. We will report on these results in addition to a new set of runs intended to constrain the necessary and sufficient conditions for the spectra to have this form. The simulation also allows us to examine the anisotropy for the spectra to attempt to determine why the result of an isotropic magnetofluid is obtained in a highly anisotropic situation.
A WEIGHTED FEATURE REDUCTION METHOD FOR POWER SPECTRA OF RADAR HRRPS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Feature reduction is a key process in pattern recognition. This paper deals with the feature reduction methods for a time-shift invariant feature, power spectrum, in Radar Automatic Target Recognition (RATR)using High-Resolution Range Profiles (HRRPs). Several existing feature reduction methods in pattern recognition are analyzed, and a weighted feature reduction method based on Fisher's Discriminant Ratio (FDR) is proposed in this paper. According to the characteristics of radar HRRP target recognition, this proposed method searches the optimal weight vector for power spectra of HRRPs by means of an iterative algorithm,and thus reduces feature dimensionality. Compared with the method of using raw power spectra and some existing feature reduction methods, the weighted feature reduction method can not only reduce feature dimensionality, but also improve recognition performance with low computation complexity. In the recognition experiments based on measured data, the proposed method is robust to different test data and achieves good recognition results.
Effect of microwave power on EPR spectra of natural and synthetic dental biocompatible materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adamczyk Jakub
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Paramagnetic centers in the two exemplary synthetic and natural dental biocompatible materials applied in implantology were examined by the use of an X-band (9.3 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. The EPR spectra were measured in the range of microwave power 2.2–70 mW. The aims of this work were to compare paramagnetic centers concentrations in different dental biocompatible materials and to determine the effect of microwave power on parameters of their EPR spectra. It is the very first and innovatory examination of paramagnetic centers in these materials. It was pointed out that paramagnetic centers existed in both natural (~1018 spin/g and synthetic (~1019 spin/g dental biocompatible materials, but the lower free radical concentration characterized the natural sample. Continuous microwave saturation of EPR spectra indicated that faster spin-lattice relaxation processes existed in synthetic dental biocompatible materials than in natural material. Linewidths (ΔBpp of the EPR spectra of the natural dental material slightly increased for the higher microwave powers. Such effect was not observed for the synthetic material. The broad EPR lines (ΔBpp: 2.4 mT, 3.9 mT, were measured for the natural and synthetic dental materials, respectively. Probably strong dipolar interactions between paramagnetic centers in the studied samples may be responsible for their line broadening. EPR spectroscopy is the useful experimental method in the examination of paramagnetic centers in dental biocompatible materials.
Ross, Ashley J; Myers, Adam D
2008-01-01
We present a novel technique to measure $\\sigma_8$, by measuring the dependence of the second-order bias of a density field on $\\sigma_8$ using two separate techniques. Each technique employs area-averaged angular correlation functions ($\\bar{\\omega}_N$), one relying on the shape of $\\bar{\\omega}_2$, the other relying on the amplitude of $s_3$ ($s_3 =\\bar{\\omega}_3/\\bar{\\omega}_2^2$). We confirm the validity of the method by testing it on a mock catalog drawn from Millennium Simulation data and finding $\\sigma_8^{measured}- \\sigma_8^{true} = -0.002 \\pm 0.062$. We create a catalog of photometrically selected LRGs from SDSS DR5 and separate it into three distinct data sets by photometric redshift, with median redshifts of 0.47, 0.53, and 0.61. Measurements of $c_2$, and $\\sigma_8$ are made for each data set, assuming flat geometry and WMAP3 best-fit priors on $\\Omega_m$, $h$, and $\\Gamma$. We find, with increasing redshfit, $c_2 = 0.09 \\pm 0.04$, $0.09 \\pm 0.05$, and $0.09 \\pm 0.03$ and $\\sigma_8 = 0.78 \\pm 0.0...
Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun
2016-09-04
BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (PEEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands.
On the causes of spectral enhancements in solar wind power spectra
Unti, T.; Russell, C. T.
1976-01-01
Enhancements in power spectra of the solar-wind ion flux in the frequency neighborhood of 0.5 Hz had been noted by Unti et al. (1973). It was speculated that these were due to convected small-scale density irregularities. In this paper, 54 flux spectra calculated from OGO 5 data are examined. It is seen that the few prominent spectral peaks which occur were not generated by density irregularities, but were due to several different causes, including convected discontinuities and propagating transverse waves. A superposition of many spectra, however, reveals a moderate enhancement at a frequency corresponding to convected features with a correlation length of a proton gyroradius, consistent with the results of Neugebauer (1975).
Schwinger, J.
1952-01-26
The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.
Vorontsov, Sergei V
2013-01-01
We describe a global parametric model for the observed power spectra of solar oscillations of intermediate and low degree. A physically motivated parameterization is used as a substitute for a direct description of mode excitation and damping as these mechanisms remain poorly understood. The model is targeted at the accurate fitting of power spectra coming from Doppler velocity measurements and uses an adaptive response function that accounts for both the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity field on the solar surface and for possible instrumental and observational distortions. The model is continuous in frequency, can easily be adapted to intensity measurements and extends naturally to the analysis of high-frequency pseudo modes (interference peaks at frequencies above the atmospheric acoustic cutoff).
Intrinsic dendritic filtering gives low-pass power spectra of local field potentials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindén, Henrik; Pettersen, Klas H; Einevoll, Gaute T
2010-01-01
of contributions to the LFP from a single layer-5 pyramidal neuron and a single layer-4 stellate neuron receiving synaptic input. An intrinsic dendritic low-pass filtering effect of the LFP signal, previously demonstrated for extracellular signatures of action potentials, is seen to strongly affect the LFP power...... spectra, even for frequencies as low as 10 Hz for the example pyramidal neuron. Further, the LFP signal is found to depend sensitively on both the recording position and the position of the synaptic input: the LFP power spectra recorded close to the active synapse are typically found to be less low...... of the observed LFP. Two approximate schemes for calculating the LFP, the dipole approximation and the two-monopole approximation, are tested and found to be potentially useful for translating results from large-scale neural network models into predictions for results from electroencephalographic (EEG...
Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; Daughton, William; Liu, Yi-Hsin
2014-10-10
Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density σ ≡ B(2)/(4πnm(e)c(2))>1 and when the system size is sufficiently large. In the limit σ ≫ 1, the spectral index approaches p = 1 and most of the available energy is converted into nonthermal particles. A simple analytic model is proposed which explains these key features and predicts a general condition under which hard power-law spectra will be generated from magnetic reconnection.
van Engelen, A; Sehgal, N; Holder, G P; Zahn, O; Nagai, D
2013-01-01
The lensing power spectrum from cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps will be measured with unprecedented precision with upcoming experiments, including upgrades to ACT and SPT. Achieving significant improvements in cosmological parameter constraints, such as percent level errors on sigma_8 and an uncertainty on the total neutrino mass of approximately 50 meV, requires percent level measurements of the CMB lensing power. This necessitates tight control of systematic biases. We study several types of biases to the temperature-based lensing reconstruction signal from foreground sources such as radio and infrared galaxies and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters. These foregrounds bias the CMB lensing signal due to their non-Gaussian nature. Using simulations as well as some analytical models we find that these sources can substantially impact the measured signal if left untreated. However, these biases can be brought to the percent level if one masks galaxies with fluxes at 15...
Chang, Zhe
2013-01-01
Both the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and Planck observations reported the hemispherical asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuation. The hemispherical asymmetry might be stemmed from the primordial statistical anisotropy during the inflationary era of the universe. In this paper, we study possible implications of the primordial power spectra with dipolar anisotropy on the CMB temperature fluctuation and polarizations. We explicitly show that the statistical dipolar anisotropy may induce the off-diagonal (\\(\\ell'\
Alinea, Allan L.; Kubota, Takahiro; Naylor, Wade
2016-02-01
We investigate a calculation method for solving the Mukhanov-Sasaki equation in slow-roll k-inflation based on the uniform approximation (UA) in conjunction with an expansion scheme for slow-roll parameters with respect to the number of e-folds about the so-called turning point. Earlier works on this method have so far gained some promising results derived from the approximating expressions for the power spectra among others, up to second order with respect to the Hubble and sound flow parameters, when compared to other semi-analytical approaches (e.g., Green's function and WKB methods). However, a closer inspection is suggestive that there is a problem when higher-order parts of the power spectra are considered; residual logarithmic divergences may come out that can render the prediction physically inconsistent. Looking at this possibility, we map out up to what order with respect to the mentioned parameters several physical quantities can be calculated before hitting a logarithmically divergent result. It turns out that the power spectra are limited up to second order, the tensor-to-scalar ratio up to third order, and the spectral indices and running converge to all orders. This indicates that the expansion scheme is incompatible with the working equations derived from UA for the power spectra but compatible with that of the spectral indices. For those quantities that involve logarithmically divergent terms in the higher-order parts, existing results in the literature for the convergent lower-order parts calculated in the equivalent fashion should be viewed with some caution; they do not rest on solid mathematical ground.
The Power Spectra of Two Classes of Long-duration Gamma-ray Bursts
Shen, R F
2003-01-01
We have studied the averaged power density spectra (PDSs) of two classes of long-duration gamma-ray bursts in the recent classification by Balastegui et al.(2001) based on neural network analysis. Both PDSs follow a power law over a wide frequency range with approximately the same slope, which indicates that a process with a self-similar temporal property may underlie the emission mechanisms of both. The two classes of bursts are divided into groups according to their brightness and spectral hardness respectively and each group's PDS was calculated; For both classes, the PDS is found to flatten both with increasing burst brightness and with increasing hardness.
Detailed analysis of the predictions of loop quantum cosmology for the primordial power spectra
Agullo, Ivan
2015-01-01
We provide an exhaustive numerical exploration of the predictions of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) with a post-bounce phase of inflation for the primordial power spectrum of scalar and tensor perturbations. We extend previous analysis by characterizing the phenomenologically relevant parameter space and by constraining it using observations. Furthermore, we characterize the shape of LQC-corrections to observable quantities across this parameter space. Our analysis provides a framework to contrast more accurately the theory with forthcoming polarization data, and it also paves the road for the computation of other observables beyond the power spectra, such as non-Gaussianity.
The power spectra of CMB and density fluctuations seeded by local cosmic strings
Contaldi, C; Magueijo, J; Contaldi, Carlo; Hindmarsh, Mark; Magueijo, Joao
1999-01-01
We compute the power spectra in the cosmic microwave background and cold dark matter (CDM) fluctuations seeded by strings, using the largest string simulations performed so far to evaluate the two-point functions of their stress energy tensor. We find that local strings differ from global defects in that the scalar components of the stress-energy tensor dominate over vector and tensor components. This result has far reaching consequences. We find that cosmic strings exhibit a single Doppler peak of acceptable height at high although the CDM power spectrum in the ``standard'' cosmology (flat geometry, zero cosmological constant, 5% baryonic component) is the wrong shape to fit large scale structure data.
Fast modelling of spectra and stopping-power ratios using differentiated fluence pencil kernels.
Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjö, Anders
2008-08-21
Modern radiotherapy steadily utilizes more of the available degrees of freedom provided by radiotherapy equipment, raising the need for the dosimetric methods to deliver reliable measurements for situations where the spectral properties of the radiation field may also vary. A kernel-based superposition method is presented for which the spectra from any field modulation can be instantly calculated, thus facilitating the determination of dosimetric quantities at arbitrary locations. A database of fluence pencil kernels describing the fluence resulting from point monodirectional monoenergetic beams incident onto a water phantom has been calculated with the PENELOPE-2005 Monte Carlo package. Spectra calculated by means of the kernels are presented for various 6 MV fields. The spectra have been used to investigate depth and lateral variations of water-to-air stopping-power ratios. Results show that the stopping-power ratio decreases with depth, and that this effect is more pronounced for small fields. These variations are clearly connected to spectral variations. For a 10 x 10 cm(2) field, the difference between the stopping-power ratio at 2.5 cm depth and 30 cm depth is less than 0.3% while for a 0.3 x 0.3 cm(2) field this difference is 0.7%. Ratios outside the field were found to be sensitive to the collimator leakage spectral variations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Engelen, A.; Sehgal, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Bhattacharya, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Holder, G. P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Zahn, O. [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nagai, D. [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy and Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)
2014-05-01
The lensing power spectrum from cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps will be measured with unprecedented precision with upcoming experiments, including upgrades to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the South Pole Telescope. Achieving significant improvements in cosmological parameter constraints, such as percent level errors on σ{sub 8} and an uncertainty on the total neutrino mass of ∼50 meV, requires percent level measurements of the CMB lensing power. This necessitates tight control of systematic biases. We study several types of biases to the temperature-based lensing reconstruction signal from foreground sources such as radio and infrared galaxies and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters. These foregrounds bias the CMB lensing signal due to their non-Gaussian nature. Using simulations as well as some analytical models we find that these sources can substantially impact the measured signal if left untreated. However, these biases can be brought to the percent level if one masks galaxies with fluxes at 150 GHz above 1 mJy and galaxy clusters with masses above M {sub vir} = 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}. To achieve such percent level bias, we find that only modes up to a maximum multipole of l {sub max} ∼ 2500 should be included in the lensing reconstruction. We also discuss ways to minimize additional bias induced by such aggressive foreground masking by, for example, exploring a two-step masking and in-painting algorithm.
Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Roy, Nirupam; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk Saiyad
2016-06-11
It is important to correctly subtract point sources from radio-interferometric data in order to measure the power spectrum of diffuse radiation like the Galactic synchrotron or the Epoch of Reionization 21-cm signal. It is computationally very expensive and challenging to image a very large area and accurately subtract all the point sources from the image. The problem is particularly severe at the sidelobes and the outer parts of the main lobe where the antenna response is highly frequency dependent and the calibration also differs from that of the phase centre. Here, we show that it is possible to overcome this problem by tapering the sky response. Using simulated 150 MHz observations, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress the contribution due to point sources from the outer parts by using the Tapered Gridded Estimator to measure the angular power spectrum Cℓ of the sky signal. We also show from the simulation that this method can self-consistently compute the noise bias and accurately subtract it to provide an unbiased estimation of Cℓ.
Choudhuri, Samir; Roy, Nirupam; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk Saiyad
2016-01-01
It is important to correctly subtract point sources from radio-interferometric data in order to measure the power spectrum of diffuse radiation like the Galactic synchrotron or the Epoch of Reionization 21-cm signal. It is computationally very expensive and challenging to image a very large area and accurately subtract all the point sources from the image. The problem is particularly severe at the sidelobes and the outer parts of the main lobe where the antenna response is highly frequency dependent and the calibration also differs from that of the phase center. Here we show that it is possible to overcome this problem by tapering the sky response. Using simulated 150 MHz observations, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress the contribution due to point sources from the outer parts by using the Tapered Gridded Estimator to measure the angular power spectrum C_l of the sky signal. We also show from the simulation that this method can self-consistently compute the noise bias and accurately subtract it t...
Mead, Alexander; Heymans, Catherine; Joudaki, Shahab; Heavens, Alan
2015-01-01
We present an optimised variant of the halo model, designed to produce accurate matter power spectra well into the non-linear regime for a wide range of cosmological models. To do this, we introduce physically-motivated free parameters into the halo-model formalism and fit these to data from high-resolution N-body simulations. For a variety of $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM models the halo-model power is accurate to $\\simeq 5$ per cent for $k\\leq 10h\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ and $z\\leq 2$. We compare our results with recent revisions of the popular HALOFIT model and show that our predictions are more accurate. An advantage of our new halo model is that it can be adapted to account for the effects of baryonic feedback on the power spectrum. We demonstrate this by fitting the halo model to power spectra from the OWLS hydrodynamical simulation suite via parameters that govern halo internal structure. We are able to fit all feedback models investigated at the 5 per cent level using only two free parameters, and we place limi...
Effect of lensing non-Gaussianity on the CMB power spectra
Lewis, Antony
2016-01-01
Observed CMB anisotropies are lensed, and the lensed power spectra can be calculated accurately assuming the lensing deflections are Gaussian. However, the lensing deflections are actually slightly non-Gaussian due to both non-linear large-scale structure growth and post-Born corrections. We calculate the leading correction to the lensed CMB power spectra from the non-Gaussianity, which is determined by the lensing bispectrum. The lowest-order result gives $\\sim 0.3\\%$ corrections to the BB and EE polarization spectra on small-scales, however we show that the effect on EE is reduced by about a factor of two by higher-order Gaussian lensing smoothing, rendering the total effect safely negligible for the foreseeable future. We give a simple analytic model for the signal expected from skewness of the large-scale lensing field; the effect is similar to a net demagnification and hence a small change in acoustic scale (and therefore out of phase with the dominant lensing smoothing that predominantly affects the pea...
The Effect of Interplanetary Scintillation on Epoch of Reionisation Power Spectra
Trott, Cathryn M
2015-01-01
Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) induces intensity fluctuations in small angular size astronomical radio sources via the distortive effects of spatially and temporally varying electron density associated with outflows from the Sun. These radio sources are a potential foreground contaminant signal for redshifted HI emission from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) because they yield time-dependent flux density variations in bright extragalactic point sources. Contamination from foreground continuum sources complicates efforts to discriminate the cosmological signal from other sources in the sky. In IPS, at large angles from the Sun applicable to EoR observations, weak scattering induces spatially and temporally correlated fluctuations in the measured flux density of sources in the field, potentially affecting the detectability of the EoR signal by inducing non-static variations in the signal strength. In this work, we explore the impact of interplanetary weak scintillation on EoR power spectrum measurements, acc...
Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.
2016-06-01
We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.
Mead, Alexander; Lombriser, Lucas; Peacock, John; Steele, Olivia; Winther, Hans
2016-01-01
We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead (2015b). We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parameterised $w(a)$ dark energy models at the few per cent level for $k0.5\\,h\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$. An updated version of our publicly available HMcode can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/HMcode
Cui, Linyan
2015-06-01
Analytic expressions for the temporal power spectra of irradiance fluctuations and angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. In the derivation, the anisotropic non-Kolmogorov spectrum is adopted, which adopts the assumption of circular symmetry in the orthogonal plane throughout the path and the same degree of anisotropy along the propagation direction for all the turbulence cells. The final expressions consider simultaneously the anisotropic factor and general spectral power law values. When the anisotropic factor equals one (corresponding to the isotropic turbulence), the derived temporal power spectral models have good consistency with the known results for the isotropic turbulence. Numerical calculations show that the increased anisotropic factor alleviates the atmospheric turbulence's influence on the final expressions.
A Parameter-free Statistical Measurement of Halos with Power Spectra
He, P; Fang, L Z; He, Ping; Feng, Long-Long; Fang, Li-Zhi
2005-01-01
We show that, in the halo model of large-scale structure formation, the difference between the Fourier and the DWT (discrete wavelet transform) power spectra provides a statistical measurement of the halos. This statistical quantity is free from parameters related to the shape of the mass profile and the identification scheme of halos. That is, the statistical measurement is invariant in the sense that models with reasonably defined and selected parameters of the halo models should yield the same difference of the Fourier and DWT spectra. This feature is useful to extract ensemble averaged properties of halos, which cannot be obtained with the identification of individual halo. To demonstrate this point, we show with WIGEON hydrodynamical simulation samples that the spectrum difference provides a quantitative measurement of the discrepancy of the distribution of baryonic gas from that of the underlying dark matter field within halos. We also show that the mass density profile of halos in physical space can be...
Musical rhythm spectra from Bach to Joplin obey a 1/f power law.
Levitin, Daniel J; Chordia, Parag; Menon, Vinod
2012-03-06
Much of our enjoyment of music comes from its balance of predictability and surprise. Musical pitch fluctuations follow a 1/f power law that precisely achieves this balance. Musical rhythms, especially those of Western classical music, are considered highly regular and predictable, and this predictability has been hypothesized to underlie rhythm's contribution to our enjoyment of music. Are musical rhythms indeed entirely predictable and how do they vary with genre and composer? To answer this question, we analyzed the rhythm spectra of 1,788 movements from 558 compositions of Western classical music. We found that an overwhelming majority of rhythms obeyed a 1/f(β) power law across 16 subgenres and 40 composers, with β ranging from ∼0.5-1. Notably, classical composers, whose compositions are known to exhibit nearly identical 1/f pitch spectra, demonstrated distinctive 1/f rhythm spectra: Beethoven's rhythms were among the most predictable, and Mozart's among the least. Our finding of the ubiquity of 1/f rhythm spectra in compositions spanning nearly four centuries demonstrates that, as with musical pitch, musical rhythms also exhibit a balance of predictability and surprise that could contribute in a fundamental way to our aesthetic experience of music. Although music compositions are intended to be performed, the fact that the notated rhythms follow a 1/f spectrum indicates that such structure is no mere artifact of performance or perception, but rather, exists within the written composition before the music is performed. Furthermore, composers systematically manipulate (consciously or otherwise) the predictability in 1/f rhythms to give their compositions unique identities.
From the Cover: Musical rhythm spectra from Bach to Joplin obey a 1/f power law
Levitin, Daniel J.; Chordia, Parag; Menon, Vinod
2012-03-01
Much of our enjoyment of music comes from its balance of predictability and surprise. Musical pitch fluctuations follow a 1/f power law that precisely achieves this balance. Musical rhythms, especially those of Western classical music, are considered highly regular and predictable, and this predictability has been hypothesized to underlie rhythm's contribution to our enjoyment of music. Are musical rhythms indeed entirely predictable and how do they vary with genre and composer? To answer this question, we analyzed the rhythm spectra of 1,788 movements from 558 compositions of Western classical music. We found that an overwhelming majority of rhythms obeyed a 1/fβ power law across 16 subgenres and 40 composers, with β ranging from ∼0.5-1. Notably, classical composers, whose compositions are known to exhibit nearly identical 1/f pitch spectra, demonstrated distinctive 1/f rhythm spectra: Beethoven's rhythms were among the most predictable, and Mozart's among the least. Our finding of the ubiquity of 1/f rhythm spectra in compositions spanning nearly four centuries demonstrates that, as with musical pitch, musical rhythms also exhibit a balance of predictability and surprise that could contribute in a fundamental way to our aesthetic experience of music. Although music compositions are intended to be performed, the fact that the notated rhythms follow a 1/f spectrum indicates that such structure is no mere artifact of performance or perception, but rather, exists within the written composition before the music is performed. Furthermore, composers systematically manipulate (consciously or otherwise) the predictability in 1/f rhythms to give their compositions unique identities.
Simons, F. J.; Beggan, C.; Saarimaki, J.; Whaler, K. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Plattner, A.
2012-12-01
We elucidate "myths and truths concerning the estimation of power spectra", to paraphrase a paper written by G. Efstathiou. A complete theory and software are available to construct and interpret localized power spectral densities from noisy and incomplete data observed on a spherical surface, but such knowledge has not made it into mainstream geophysical practice. Key are the doubly-orthogonal spherical Slepian functions, and their Cartesian and vectorial relatives. There is confusion in the community on whether to use the Slepian functions as a basis for data approximation, as windows for regularization of power spectral estimates, or hybridly. Each of these choices is legitimate but carries consequences to be characterized statistically. We review the options and present them tutorially, to motivate the scientific analysis of the terrestrial magnetic power spectrum, and that of Mars, which follows. The power spectral density of the lithospheric magnetic field on Earth is broken down in to portions that are geographically limited to the oceans, the continents, and various portions thereof. The different overall power levels and varying character of the power spectra contain much diagnostic information about the generation and preservation of magnetic signatures in the Earth's crust. On Mars, we conducted a parameterized inversion for magnetization strength and decorrelation depth, and compared this to independent, gravity-based estimates for crustal thickness. Both the terrestrial and martian examples are different manifestations of how Slepian functions can be used for power-spectral localization, and in both cases, the uncertainty of the spectral estimates, both on the horizontal axis (degree resolution) and the vertical axis (estimation variance), is easily computed via exact and also approximate relationships. The analytical expressions that are involved may look off-puttingly complex, but the result of the theoretical analysis is a set of simple routines
Dijk, D. J.
1999-01-01
In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.
Ali, Sk Saiyad; Choudhuri, Samir; Ghosh, Abhik; Roy, Nirupam
2016-01-01
The diffuse Galactic syncrotron emission (DGSE) is the most important diffuse foreground component for future cosmological 21-cm observations. The DGSE is also an important probe of the cosmic ray electron and magnetic field distributions in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy. In this paper we briefly review the Tapered Gridded Estimator (TGE) which can be used to quantify the angular power spectrum of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio-interferometric observations. The salient features of the TGE are (1.) it deals with the gridded data which makes it computationally very fast (2.) it avoids a positive noise bias which normally arises from the system noise inherent to the visibility data, and (3.) it allows us to taper the sky response and thereby suppresses the contribution from unsubtracted point sources in the outer parts and the sidelobes of the antenna beam pattern. We also summarize earlier work where the TGE was used to measure the C_l of the DGSE using 1...
Linear power spectra in cold+hot dark matter models analytical approximations and applications
Ma Chung Pei
1996-01-01
This paper presents simple analytic approximations to the linear power spectra, linear growth rates, and rms mass fluctuations for both components in a family of cold+hot dark matter (CDM+HDM) models that are of current cosmological interest. The formulas are valid for a wide range of wavenumber, neutrino fraction, redshift, and Hubble constant: k\\lo 10\\,h Mpc^{-1}, 0.05\\lo \\onu\\lo 0.3, 0\\le z\\lo 15, and 0.5\\lo h \\lo 0.8. A new, redshift-dependent shape parameter \\Gamma_\
Chang, Zhe
2013-01-01
The recently released Planck 2013 results show that the primordial fluctuations are deviated from isotropy. The deviations from isotropy are robust against component separation algorithm, mask and frequency dependence. To incorporate the Planck's data into standard cosmological model, we propose an inflation of the very early universe in an anisotropic spacetime. A generalized Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric is presented in the Randers-Finsler spacetime. By employing the osculating Rieammian metric approach, we obtain the primordial power spectra of the scalar perturbation with direction dependence. This is in good agreement with the deviations from isotropy of the universe found by the Planck satellite.
SPEFO---A Simple, Yet Powerful Program for One-Dimensional Spectra Processing
Skoda, Petr
SPEFO is a small, yet powerful program used for processing stellar spectra at the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Ondřejov. It was originally written in 1990 by Dr. Jiři Horn for processing spectral plates obtained with the 2m telescope of the Ondřejov observatory and scanned with the local five channel microphotometer. Since then the code had been under constant improvement until the sudden death of the author in December 1994. Currently SPEFO is used mainly for the reduction of data from the Ondřejov Reticon detector (1872 pixels, 12 bit A/D), however it can process data from other instruments too, provided that they are in FITS one-dimensional format. The code was written in Turbo Pascal for MS-DOS; the size of the binaries is less than 350 KB. SPEFO will run on an ordinary PC computer with very modest hardware demands (PC AT 286, 1 MB RAM, 30 MB HD color EGA or VGA). Despite its small size the program is very powerful, and user friendly as well. The basic data reduction tasks such as derivation of the dispersion function, spectrum rectification, Fourier noise filtering, radial velocity and equivalent width measurements are performed in an easy manner, and the user can immediately see changes to the data on a screen plot (e.g., the line position is determined in the ``oscilloscopic'' mode by finding the coincidence of the displayed line and its interactively shifted mirrored profile, the continuum level spline is recalculated after fixing each new point, etc.). The main output of SPEFO is a table of radial velocities of measured stellar lines (including the atmospheric line correction), their equivalent widths and higher order moments, relative central line intensities and FWHM, together with the HPGL plot file. The program can do basic operations on spectra like comparison of two spectra, subtraction, adding, production of differential spectra or the transformation by rotational broadening. SPEFO can also deal with
Confirmation of Wide-Field Signatures in Redshifted 21 cm Power Spectra
Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Bowman, Judd D; Barry, N; Beardsley, A P; Bernardi, G; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Carroll, P; Deshpande, A A; de Oliveira-Costa, A; Dillon, Joshua S; Ewall-Wice, A; Feng, L; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hernquist, L; Hewitt, J N; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kim, Han-Seek; Kittiwisit, P; Lenc, E; Line, J; Loeb, A; Lonsdale, C J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Neben, A R; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Paul, Sourabh; Pindor, B; Pober, J C; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Shankar, N Udaya; Sethi, Shiv K; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Sullivan, I S; Tegmark, M; Tingay, S J; Trott, C M; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wyithe, J S B
2015-01-01
We confirm our recent prediction of the "pitchfork" foreground signature in power spectra of high-redshift 21 cm measurements, wherein the interferometer is sensitive to large-scale structure on all baselines. This is due to the inherent response of a wide-field instrument and is characterized by enhanced power from foreground emission in Fourier modes adjacent to those considered to be most sensitive to the cosmological HI signal. In our recent paper, many signatures from the simulation which predicted this feature were validated against Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) data but this key pitchfork signature was close to the noise level. In this paper, we improve the data sensitivity through coherent averaging of 12 independent snapshots with identical instrument settings, and provide the first confirmation of the prediction with a signal-noise ratio > 10. This wide-field effect can be mitigated by careful antenna designs that suppress sensitivity near the horizon. Simple models for antenna apertures proposed ...
Bifurcation timescales in power spectra of black hole binaries and ultraluminous X-ray sources
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
For black hole binaries(BHBs) and active galactic nuclei(AGNs),bifurcation timescales(BTs) Δtb exist,below which time-domain power is significantly higher than the corresponding Fourier power.Quasi-periodic oscillations(QPOs) are removed from the Fourier spectra of BHBs.A relationship between BT,black hole mass and bolometric luminosity is derived.Strong anti-correlation between BT and luminosity of Cyg X-1 is found.After removing the QPOs,BTs are also obtained for two ultraluminous X-ray sources(ULXs),M82 X-1 and NGC5408 X-1.The results support that they harbor intermediate mass black holes(IMBHs).
Modification of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity in autobiographical memory: a sLORETA study.
Imperatori, Claudio; Brunetti, Riccardo; Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo
2014-08-01
The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of scalp EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity during the autobiographical memory test (AM-T) and during the retrieval of an autobiographical event (the high school final examination, Task 2). Seventeen healthy volunteers were enrolled (9 women and 8 men, mean age 23.4 ± 2.8 years, range 19-30). EEG was recorded at baseline and while performing the autobiographical memory (AM) tasks, by means of 19 surface electrodes and a nasopharyngeal electrode. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized LOw Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectra and lagged EEG coherence were compared between EEG acquired during the memory tasks and baseline recording. The frequency bands considered were as follows: delta (0.5-4 Hz); theta (4.5-7.5 Hz); alpha (8-12.5 Hz); beta1 (13-17.5 Hz); beta2 (18-30 Hz); gamma (30.5-60 Hz). During AM-T, we observed a significant delta power increase in left frontal and midline cortices (T = 3.554; p < 0.05) and increased EEG connectivity in delta band in prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and for gamma bands in the left temporo-parietal regions (T = 4.154; p < 0.05). In Task 2, we measured an increased power in the gamma band located in the left posterior midline areas (T = 3.960; p < 0.05) and a significant increase in delta band connectivity in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and in the gamma band involving right temporo-parietal areas (T = 4.579; p < 0.05). These results indicate that AM retrieval engages in a complex network which is mediated by both low- (delta) and high-frequency (gamma) EEG bands.
Alsing, Justin; Jaffe, Andrew H
2016-01-01
We apply two Bayesian hierarchical inference schemes to infer shear power spectra, shear maps and cosmological parameters from the CFHTLenS weak lensing survey - the first application of this method to data. In the first approach, we sample the joint posterior distribution of the shear maps and power spectra by Gibbs sampling, with minimal model assumptions. In the second approach, we sample the joint posterior of the shear maps and cosmological parameters, providing a new, accurate and principled approach to cosmological parameter inference from cosmic shear data. As a first demonstration on data we perform a 2-bin tomographic analysis to constrain cosmological parameters and investigate the possibility of photometric redshift bias in the CFHTLenS data. Under the baseline $\\Lambda$CDM model we constrain $S_8 = \\sigma_8(\\Omega_\\mathrm{m}/0.3)^{0.5} = 0.67 ^{\\scriptscriptstyle+ 0.03 }_{\\scriptscriptstyle- 0.03 }$ $(68\\%)$, consistent with previous CFHTLenS analysis but in tension with Planck. Adding neutrino m...
Effect of neurotoxin DSP4 on EEG power spectra in the rat acute model of epilepsy.
Culić, M; Saponjić, J; Janković, B; Udović, S; Popović, S; Rakić, L
1995-08-18
The effect of the adrenergic neurotoxin N-(chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was studied in the model of epilepsy induced by systemic application of penicillin (1,000,000 IU/kg, i.p). DSP4 (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated to male Wistar rats, while the control animals were rats from the same litters. EEG activity was recorded in acute and chronic experiments 3 or 4 weeks after DSP4 treatment, before and after penicillin administration. Occasional locus coeruleus (LC) stimulation served as an electrophysiological test of DSP4 toxic effect. EEG power spectra in DSP4 treated animals showed a tendency to be greater in lower frequency bands than in controls before penicillin administration; there was almost no effect of electrical LC stimulation, regardless on penicillin treatment. In the model of epilepsy, the mean total EEG power spectra were greater in the period of 135-330 min after penicillin administration, as well as during 345-540 min, in DSP4 treated animals as compared to the controls. It seems that neurotoxin DSP4 is an optimal tool for studying the removal of LC influence in the acute model of epilepsy. It is also suggested that norepinephrine (NE) may have a modulatory role in the systemic penicillin epilepsy.
LFP power spectra in V1 cortex: the graded effect of stimulus contrast.
Henrie, J Andrew; Shapley, Robert
2005-07-01
We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and single-unit activity simultaneously in the macaque primary visual cortex (V1) and studied their responses to drifting sinusoidal gratings that were chosen to be "optimal" for the single units. Over all stimulus conditions, the LFP spectra have much greater power in the low-frequency band (< or = 10 Hz) than higher frequencies and can be described as "1/f." Analysis of the total power limited to the low, gamma (25-90 Hz), or broad (8-240 Hz) frequency bands of the LFP as a function of stimulus contrast indicates that the LFP power gradually increases with stimulus strength across a wide band in a manner roughly comparable to the increase in the simultaneously recorded spike activity. However, the low-frequency band power remains approximately constant across all stimulus contrasts. More specifically the gamma-band LFP power increases differentially more with respect to baseline than either higher or lower bands as stimulus contrast increases. At the highest stimulus contrasts, we report as others have previously, that the power spectrum of the LFP typically contains an obvious peak in the gamma-frequency band. The gamma-band peak emerges from the overall broadband enhancement in LFP power at stimulus contrasts where most single units' responses have begun to saturate. The temporal/spectral structures of the LFP located in the gamma band-which become most evident at the highest contrasts-provide additional constraints on potential mechanisms underlying the stimulus response properties of spiking neurons in V1.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grachev, V., E-mail: grachev@physics.montana.edu; Malovichko, G. [Physics Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Munro, M. [Quantel Laser, Bozeman, Montana 59715 (United States); Kokanyan, E. [Institute of Physical Researches, Ashtarak (Armenia)
2015-07-28
Two procedures for facilitation of line tracing and deciphering of complicated spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were developed: a correction of microwave frequencies for every orientation of external magnetic field on the base of known values of g-tensor components for a reference paramagnetic center and followed rectification of measured angular dependences using plots of effective deviation of g{sup 2}-factors of observed lines from effective g{sup 2}-factors of the reference center versus angles or squared cosines of angles describing magnetic field orientations. Their application to EPR spectra of nearly stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals doped with neodymium allowed identifying two axial and six different low-symmetry Nd{sup 3+} centers, to determine all components of their g-tensors, and to propose common divacancy models for a whole family of Nd{sup 3+} centers.
Coronal Fourier power spectra: implications for coronal seismology and coronal heating
Ireland, Jack; Inglis, Andrew R
2014-01-01
The dynamics of regions of the solar corona are investigated using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 171\\AA\\ and 193\\AA\\ data. The coronal emission from the quiet Sun, coronal loop footprints, coronal moss, and from above a sunspot is studied. It is shown that the mean Fourier power spectra in these regions can be described by a power law at lower frequencies that tails to flat spectrum at higher frequencies, plus a Gaussian-shaped contribution that varies depending on the region studied. This Fourier spectral shape is in contrast to the commonly-held assumption that coronal time-series are well described by the sum of a long time-scale background trend plus Gaussian-distributed noise, with some specific locations also showing an oscillatory signal. The implications of this discovery to the field of coronal seismology and the automated detections of oscillations are discussed. The power law contribution to the shape of the Fourier power spectrum is interpreted as being due to the summation of a distribution ...
The importance of the cosmic web and halo substructure for power spectra
Pace, Francesco; Bacon, David J; Crittenden, Robert; Percival, Will J
2015-01-01
In this work we study the relevance of the cosmic web and substructures on the matter and lensing power spectra measured from halo mock catalogues extracted from the N-body simulations. Since N-body simulations are computationally expensive, it is common to use faster methods that approximate the dark matter field as a set of halos. In this approximation, we replace mass concentrations in N-body simulations by a spherically symmetric Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile. We also consider the full mass field as the sum of two distinct fields: dark matter halos ($M>9\\times 10^{12}~M_{\\odot}$/h) and particles not included into halos. Mock halos reproduce well the matter power spectrum, but underestimate the lensing power spectrum on large and small scales. For sources at $z_{\\rm s}=1$ the lensing power spectrum is underestimated by up to 40% at $\\ell\\approx 10^4$ with respect to the simulated halos. The large scale effect can be alleviated by combining the mock catalogue with the dark matter distribution out...
Ali, Sk. Saiyad; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Choudhuri, Samir; Ghosh, Abhik; Roy, Nirupam
2016-12-01
The Diffuse Galactic Syncrotron Emission (DGSE) is the most important diffuse foreground component for future cosmological 21-cm observations. The DGSE is also an important probe of the cosmic ray electron and magnetic field distributions in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) of our galaxy. In this paper we briefly review the Tapered Gridded Estimator (TGE) which can be used to quantify the angular power spectrum C ℓ of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio-interferometric observations. The salient features of the TGE are: (1) it deals with the gridded data which makes it computationally very fast, (2) it avoids a positive noise bias which normally arises from the system noise inherent to the visibility data, and (3) it allows us to taper the sky response and thereby suppresses the contribution from unsubtracted point sources in the outer parts and the side lobes of the antenna beam pattern. We also summarize earlier work where the TGE was used to measure the C ℓ of the DGSE using 150 MHz GMRT data. Earlier measurements of C ℓ are restricted to ℓ ≤ ℓ _{max } ˜ 103 for the DGSE, the signal at the larger ℓ values is dominated by the residual point sources after source subtraction. The higher sensitivity of the upcoming SKA1 Low will allow the point sources to be subtracted to a fainter level than possible with existing telescopes. We predict that it will be possible to measure the C ℓ of the DGSE to larger values of ℓ _{max } with SKA1 Low. Our results show that it should be possible to achieve ℓ _{max }˜ 104 and ˜105 with 2 minutes and 10 hours of observations respectively.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sk. Saiyad Ali; Somnath Bharadwaj; Samir Choudhuri; Abhik Ghosh; Nirupam Roy
2016-12-01
The Diffuse Galactic Syncrotron Emission (DGSE) is the most important diffuse foreground component for future cosmological 21-cm observations. The DGSE is also an important probe of the cosmic ray electron and magnetic field distributions in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) of our galaxy. In this paper we briefly review the Tapered Gridded Estimator (TGE) which can be used to quantify the angular power spectrum $C_\\ell$ of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio-interferometric observations. The salient features of the TGE are: (1) it deals with the gridded data which makes it computationally very fast, (2) it avoids a positive noise bias which normally arises from the system noise inherent to the visibility data, and (3) it allows us to taper the sky response and thereby suppresses the contribution from unsubtracted point sources in the outer parts and the side lobes of the antenna beam pattern. We also summarize earlier work where the TGE was used to measure the $C_\\ell$ of the DGSE using 150 MHz GMRT data. Earlier measurements of $C_\\ell$ are restricted to $\\ell \\le \\ell _{\\max } \\sim 10^{3}$ for the DGSE, the signal at the larger $\\ell$ values is dominated by the residual point sources after source subtraction. The higher sensitivity of the upcoming SKA1 Low will allow the point sources to be subtracted to a fainter level than possible with existing telescopes. We predict that it will be possible to measure the $C_\\ell$ of the DGSE to larger values of $\\ell _{\\max }$ with SKA1 Low. Our results show that it should be possible to achieve $\\ell _{\\max }\\sim 10^{4}$ and $∼10^5$ with 2 minutes and 10 hours of observations respectively.
Origin of multiple periodicities in the Fourier power spectra of the Plasmodium falciparum genome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nunes Miriam CS
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fourier transforms and their associated power spectra are used for detecting periodicities and protein-coding genes and is generally regarded as a well established technique. Many of the periodicities which have been found with this method are quite well understood such as the periodicity of 3 nt which is associated to codon usage. But what is the origin of the peculiar frequency multiples k/21 which were reported for a tiny section of chromosome 2 in P. falciparum? Are these present in other chromosomes and perhaps in related organisms? And how should we interpret fractional periodicities in genomes? Results We applied the binary indicator power spectrum to all chromosomes of P. falciparum, and found that the frequency overtones k/21 are present only in non-coding sections. We did not find such frequency overtones in any other related genomes. Furthermore, the frequency overtones were identified as artifacts of the way the genome is encoded into a numerical sequence, that is, they are frequency aliases. By choosing a different way to encode the sequence the overtones do not appear. In view of these results, we revisited early applications of this technique to proteins where frequency overtones were reported. Conclusions Some authors hinted recently at the possibility of mapping artifacts and frequency aliases in power spectra. However, in the case of P. falciparum the frequency aliases are particularly strong and can mask the 1/3 frequency which is used for gene detecting. This shows that albeit being a well known technique, with a long history of application in proteins, few researchers seem to be aware of the problems represented by frequency aliases.
Matter power spectra in viable f(R gravity models with massive neutrinos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao-Qiang Geng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the matter power spectra in the power law and exponential types of viable f(R theories along with massive neutrinos. The enhancement of the matter power spectrum is found to be a generic feature in these models. In particular, we show that in the former type, such as the Starobinsky model, the spectrum is magnified much larger than the latter one, such as the exponential model. A greater scale of the total neutrino mass, ∑mν, is allowed in the viable f(R models than that in the ΛCDM one. We obtain the constraints on the neutrino masses by using the CosmoMC package with the modified MGCAMB. Explicitly, we get ∑mν<0.451(0.214 eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential model, while the corresponding one for the ΛCDM model is ∑mν<0.200 eV. Furthermore, by treating the effective number of neutrino species Neff as a free parameter along with ∑mν, we find that Neff=3.78−0.84+0.64(3.47−0.60+0.74 and ∑mν=0.533−0.411+0.254 (<0.386 eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential model.
Matter power spectra in viable f(R) gravity models with massive neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geng, Chao-Qiang, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Lee, Chung-Chi, E-mail: g9522545@oz.nthu.edu.tw [National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Shen, Jia-Liang, E-mail: dddirac@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China)
2015-01-05
We investigate the matter power spectra in the power law and exponential types of viable f(R) theories along with massive neutrinos. The enhancement of the matter power spectrum is found to be a generic feature in these models. In particular, we show that in the former type, such as the Starobinsky model, the spectrum is magnified much larger than the latter one, such as the exponential model. A greater scale of the total neutrino mass, ∑m{sub ν}, is allowed in the viable f(R) models than that in the ΛCDM one. We obtain the constraints on the neutrino masses by using the CosmoMC package with the modified MGCAMB. Explicitly, we get ∑m{sub ν}<0.451(0.214) eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential) model, while the corresponding one for the ΛCDM model is ∑m{sub ν}<0.200 eV. Furthermore, by treating the effective number of neutrino species N{sub eff} as a free parameter along with ∑m{sub ν}, we find that N{sub eff}=3.78{sub −0.84}{sup +0.64}(3.47{sub −0.60}{sup +0.74}) and ∑m{sub ν}=0.533{sub −0.411}{sup +0.254}(<0.386) eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential) model.
Internal and external spatial attention examined with lateralized EEG power spectra.
Van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Bundt, Carsten; Abrahamse, Elger L
2014-10-02
Several authors argued that retrieval of an item from visual short term memory (internal spatial attention) and focusing attention on an externally presented item (external spatial attention) are similar. Part of the neuroimaging support for this view may be due to the employed experimental procedures. Furthermore, as internal spatial attention may have a more induced than evoked nature some effects may not have been visible in event related analyses of the electroencephalogram (EEG), which limits the possibility to demonstrate differences. In the current study, a colored frame cued which stimulus, one out of four presented in separate quadrants, required a response, which depended on the form of the cued stimulus (circle or square). Importantly, the frame occurred either before (precue), simultaneously with (simultaneous cue), or after the stimuli (postcue). The precue and simultaneous cue condition both concern external attention, while the postcue condition implies the involvement of internal spatial attention. Event-related lateralizations (ERLs), reflecting evoked effects, and lateralized power spectra (LPS), reflecting both evoked and induced effects, were determined. ERLs revealed a posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) only in the precue condition. LPS analyses on the raw EEG showed early increased contralateral theta power at posterior sites and later increased ipsilateral alpha power at occipito-temporal sites in all cue conditions. Responses were faster when the internally or externally attended location corresponded with the required response side than when not. These findings provide further support for the view that internal and external spatial attention share their underlying mechanism.
Oscillations in the power spectra of motor unit signals caused by refractoriness variations
Hu, X. L.; Tong, K. Y.; Hung, L. K.
2004-09-01
The refractory period of a motor unit is an important mechanism that regulates the motor unit firing, and its variation has been found in many physiological cases. In this study, a new observation that an increase in the motor unit refractoriness results in an enhancement of oscillations, or ripple effects, in the motor unit output power density spectra (PDS) has been identified and studied. The effects of the refractoriness variation on the PDS of motor unit firing were investigated on three levels: theoretical modeling, simulation and electromyographic (EMG) experimentation on human subjects. Both theoretical modeling and simulation showed the enhanced oscillations, ripple effects, in MUAPT PDS, given the increase in the refractoriness. It was also found that the extent of the increment in output PDS oscillation could be related to the motor unit size and the mean firing rate of the stimulation. A needle EMG experiment on biceps brachii muscles of five healthy human subjects was carried out during isometric contraction at 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 20 s with a fatigue effort proceeded by MVC. The increased oscillations in the PDS of the real MUAPTs were observed with the rising of the motor unit refractoriness due to fatigue. The study gives new information for EMG spectra interpretation, and also provides a potential method for accessing neuromuscular transmission failure (NTF) due to fatigue during voluntary contraction.
Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters
Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlation functions of CMB temperature and polarization. They use the hybrid approach employed previously: pixel-based at low multipoles, $\\ell$, and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher $\\ell$. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization data, and more detailed foreground and instrumental models. More than doubling the data allows further checks and enhanced immunity to systematics. Progress in foreground modelling enables a larger sky fraction, contributing to enhanced precision. Improvements in processing and instrumental models further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish robustness and accuracy, from temperature, from polarization, and from their combination, and show that the {\\Lambda}CDM model continues to offer a very good fit. We further validate the likelihood against specific extensions to this baseline, suc...
Emerging spectra of singular correlation matrices under small power-map deformations
Vinayak; Schäfer, Rudi; Seligman, Thomas H.
2013-09-01
Correlation matrices are a standard tool in the analysis of the time evolution of complex systems in general and financial markets in particular. Yet most analysis assume stationarity of the underlying time series. This tends to be an assumption of varying and often dubious validity. The validity of the assumption improves as shorter time series are used. If many time series are used, this implies an analysis of highly singular correlation matrices. We attack this problem by using the so-called power map, which was introduced to reduce noise. Its nonlinearity breaks the degeneracy of the zero eigenvalues and we analyze the sensitivity of the so-emerging spectra to correlations. This sensitivity will be demonstrated for uncorrelated and correlated Wishart ensembles.
Power spectra and spectral indices of $k$-inflation: high-order corrections
Zhu, Tao; Cleaver, Gerald; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin
2014-01-01
$k$-inflation represents the most general single-field inflation, in which the perturbations usually obey an equation of motion with a time-dependent sound speed. In this paper, we study the observational predictions of the $k$-inflation by using the high-order uniform asymptotic approximation method. We calculate explicitly the slow-roll expressions of the power spectra, spectral indices, and running of the spectral indices for both the scalar and tensor perturbations. These expressions are all written in terms of the Hubble and sound speed flow parameters. It is shown that the previous results obtained by using the first-order approximation have been significantly improved by the high-order corrections of the approximations. Furthermore, we also check our results by comparing them with the ones obtained by other approximation methods, including the Green's function method, WKB approximation, and improved WKB approximation, and find the relative errors.
Deconvolution as a means of correcting turbulence power spectra measured by LDA
Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara
2014-11-01
Measurement of turbulence power spectra by means of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) has proven to be a difficult task. Among the problems affecting the shape of the spectrum are noise in the signal and changes in the sample rate caused by unintentional effects in the measuring apparatus or even in the mathematical algorithms used to evaluate the spectrum. We analyze the effect of various causes of bias in the sample rate and show that the effect is a convolution of the true spectrum with various spectral functions. We show that these spectral functions can be measured with the available data from a standard LDA processor and we use this knowledge to correct the measured spectrum by deconvolution. We present results supported by realistic computer generated data using two different spectral estimators, the so-called slotted autocovariance method and the so-called direct method.
Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development
Chuss, D T; Amiri, M; Appel, J; Bennett, C L; Colazo, F; Denis, K L; Dünner, R; Essinger-Hileman, T; Eimer, J; Fluxa, P; Gothe, D; Halpern, M; Harrington, K; Hilton, G; Hinshaw, G; Hubmayr, J; Iuliano, J; Marriage, T A; Miller, N; Moseley, S H; Mumby, G; Petroff, M; Reintsema, C; Rostem, K; U-Yen, K; Watts, D; Wagner, E; Wollack, E J; Xu, Z; Zeng, L
2015-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe $\\sim$70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) modulates the polarization at $\\sim$10 Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that span both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously d...
Sielaff, Hendrik; Martin, James; Singh, Dhirendra; Biuković, Goran; Grüber, Gerhard; Frasch, Wayne D
2016-12-02
The angular velocities of ATPase-dependent power strokes as a function of the rotational position for the A-type molecular motor A3B3DF, from the Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A-ATP synthase, and the thermophilic motor α3β3γ, from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (formerly known as Bacillus PS3) F-ATP synthase, are resolved at 5 μs resolution for the first time. Unexpectedly, the angular velocity profile of the A-type was closely similar in the angular positions of accelerations and decelerations to the profiles of the evolutionarily distant F-type motors of thermophilic and mesophilic origins, and they differ only in the magnitude of their velocities. M. mazei A3B3DF power strokes occurred in 120° steps at saturating ATP concentrations like the F-type motors. However, because ATP-binding dwells did not interrupt the 120° steps at limiting ATP, ATP binding to A3B3DF must occur during the catalytic dwell. Elevated concentrations of ADP did not increase dwells occurring 40° after the catalytic dwell. In F-type motors, elevated ADP induces dwells 40° after the catalytic dwell and slows the overall velocity. The similarities in these power stroke profiles are consistent with a common rotational mechanism for A-type and F-type rotary motors, in which the angular velocity is limited by the rotary position at which ATP binding occurs and by the drag imposed on the axle as it rotates within the ring of stator subunits.
On Integral Upper Limits Assuming Power-law Spectra and the Sensitivity in High-energy Astronomy
Ahnen, Max L.
2017-02-01
The high-energy non-thermal universe is dominated by power-law-like spectra. Therefore, results in high-energy astronomy are often reported as parameters of power-law fits, or, in the case of a non-detection, as an upper limit assuming the underlying unseen spectrum behaves as a power law. In this paper, I demonstrate a simple and powerful one-to-one relation of the integral upper limit in the two-dimensional power-law parameter space into the spectrum parameter space and use this method to unravel the so-far convoluted question of the sensitivity of astroparticle telescopes.
A method for the estimation of p-mode parameters from averaged solar oscillation power spectra
Reiter, J; Kosovichev, A G; Schou, J; Scherrer, P H; Larson, T P
2015-01-01
A new fitting methodology is presented which is equally well suited for the estimation of low-, medium-, and high-degree mode parameters from $m$-averaged solar oscillation power spectra of widely differing spectral resolution. This method, which we call the "Windowed, MuLTiple-Peak, averaged spectrum", or WMLTP Method, constructs a theoretical profile by convolving the weighted sum of the profiles of the modes appearing in the fitting box with the power spectrum of the window function of the observing run using weights from a leakage matrix that takes into account both observational and physical effects, such as the distortion of modes by solar latitudinal differential rotation. We demonstrate that the WMLTP Method makes substantial improvements in the inferences of the properties of the solar oscillations in comparison with a previous method that employed a single profile to represent each spectral peak. We also present an inversion for the internal solar structure which is based upon 6,366 modes that we ha...
Sturrock, P A
2003-01-01
It is often necessary to compare the power spectra of two or more time series: one may, for instance, wish to estimate what the power spectrum of the combined data sets might have been, or one may wish to estimate the significance of a particular peak that shows up in two or more power spectra. Also, one may occasionally need to search for a complex of peaks in a single power spectrum, such as a fundamental and one or more harmonics, or a fundamental plus sidebands, etc. Visual inspection can be revealing, but it can also be misleading. This leads one to look for one or more ways of forming statistics, which readily lend themselves to significance estimation, from two or more power spectra. The familiar chi-square statistic provides a convenient mechanism for combining variables drawn from normal distributions, and one may generalize the chi-square statistic to be any function of any number of variables with arbitrary distributions. In dealing with power spectra, we are interested mainly in exponential distri...
Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters
Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-09-01
This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlationfunctions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations that account for relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. They are based on the same hybrid approach used for the previous release, i.e., a pixel-based likelihood at low multipoles (ℓpower spectra at higher multipoles. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization information, along with more detailed models of foregrounds and instrumental uncertainties. The increased redundancy brought by more than doubling the amount of data analysed enables further consistency checks and enhanced immunity to systematic effects. It also improves the constraining power of Planck, in particular with regard to small-scale foreground properties. Progress in the modelling of foreground emission enables the retention of a larger fraction of the sky to determine the properties of the CMB, which also contributes to the enhanced precision of the spectra. Improvements in data processing and instrumental modelling further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish the robustness and accuracy of the likelihood results, from temperature alone, from polarization alone, and from their combination. For temperature, we also perform a full likelihood analysis of realistic end-to-end simulations of the instrumental response to the sky, which were fed into the actual data processing pipeline; this does not reveal biases from residual low-level instrumental systematics. Even with the increase in precision and robustness, the ΛCDM cosmological model continues to offer a very good fit to the Planck data. The slope of the primordial scalar fluctuations, ns, is confirmed smaller than unity at more than 5σ from Planck alone. We further validate the robustness of the likelihood results against specific extensions to the baseline
Cusp-latitude Pc3 spectra: band-limited and power-law components
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Ponomarenko
Full Text Available This work attempts to fill a gap in comparative studies of upstream-generated Pc3–4 waves and broad band ULF noise observed at cusp latitudes. We performed a statistical analysis of the spectral properties of three years of cusp-latitude ground magnetometer data, finding that the average daytime Pc3–4 spectra are characterized by two principal components: an upstream-related band-limited enhancement (‘signal’ and a power-law background (‘noise’ with S(f a f ^{-4} . Based on this information we developed an algorithm allowing for the deconvolution of these two components in the spectral domain. The frequency of the signal enhancement increases linearly with IMF magnitude as f [mHz] ~ 4.4 | B_{IMF} | [nT], and its power maximizes around IMF cone angles q_{xB} ~ 20 and 160° and at 10:30–11:00 MLT. Both spectral components exhibit similar semiannual variations with equinoctial maxima. The back-ground noise power grows with increasing southward B_{z} and remains nearly constant for northward B_{z} . Its diurnal variation resembles that of Pc5 field-line resonance power, with a maximum near 09:00 MLT. Both the band-limited signal and broad band noise components show power-law growth with solar wind velocity a V ^{5.71}_{sw} and a V ^{4.12}_{sw}, respectively. Thus, the effective signal-to-noise ratio increases with in-creasing V_{sw}. The observations suggest that the noise generation is associated with reconnection processes.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind magnetosphere interactions
On X-ray tube spectra, the dependence on the angular and electron energy of X-rays from the targets
Shaltout, A. A.
2007-03-01
An algorithm was developed for the theoretical intensities of both X-ray continuum and characteristic K-radiation (K{α 1}, K{α 2}, K{α }, K{β 1}, K{β 2}, K{β 3}, K{β 13}, K{β 4} and K{β 5}) of different target materials (Cr, Cu, Rh, Mo, W, Ag and Au) at different electron incidence angles (0.01circ 90circ), different take-off angles of the photon emission (0.01circ 90circ) and different X-ray tube voltages. It was found that the intensities of continuum and characteristic X-rays increase with increasing take-off angle and the take-off angle is inversely proportional to the absorption path of X-rays in the target. At take-off angles of 20circ or more, the flux of the X-ray spectra remains practically independent of the take-off angle. Furthermore, at the optimum electron incidence angle and take-off angle of emitted X-ray photons, the dependence of X-ray tube spectra on applied voltage was also investigated.
Inflation after WMAP3: Confronting the Slow-Roll and Exact Power Spectra to CMB Data
Martín, J; Martin, Jerome; Ringeval, Christophe
2006-01-01
The implications of the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) third year data for inflation are investigated using both the slow-roll approximation and an exact numerical integration of the inflationary power spectra including a phenomenological modelling of the reheating era. At slow-roll leading order, the constraints epsilon1 0 is observed. With regards to the exact numerical integration, large field models, V(phi) \\propto phi^p, with p > 3.1 are now excluded at 95% CL. Small field models, V(phi) \\propto 1-(phi/mu)^p, are still compatible with the data for all values of p. However, if mu/Mpl 1MeV at 95% CL and T_reh > 1TeV at 68% CL. Hybrid models are disfavoured by the data, the best fit model having \\Delta chi^2 = +5 with two extra parameters in comparison with large field models. Running mass models remain compatible, but no prior independent constraints can be obtained. Finally, superimposed oscillations of trans-Planckian origin are studied. The vanilla slow-roll model is still the most probab...
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.
2015-12-01
In this study, a novel ab initio cosmic ray (CR) modulation code that solves a set of stochastic transport equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation, and that uses output from a turbulence transport code as input for the diffusion tensor, is introduced. This code is benchmarked with a previous approach to ab initio modulation. The sensitivity of computed galactic CR proton spectra at Earth to assumptions made as to the low-wavenumber behavior of the two-dimensional (2D) turbulence power spectrum is investigated using perpendicular mean free path expressions derived from two different scattering theories. Constraints on the low-wavenumber behavior of the 2D power spectrum are inferred from the qualitative comparison of computed CR spectra with spacecraft observations at Earth. Another key difference from previous studies is that observed and inferred CR intensity spectra at 73 AU are used as boundary spectra instead of the usual local interstellar spectrum. Furthermore, the results presented here provide a tentative explanation as to the reason behind the unusually high galactic proton intensity spectra observed in 2009 during the recent unusual solar minimum.
A High-Frequency Doppler Feature in the Power Spectra of Simulated GRMHD Black Hole Accretion Disks
Wellons, Sarah; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E
2013-01-01
Black hole binaries exhibit a wide range of variability phenomena, from large-scale state changes to broadband noise and quasi-periodic oscillations, but the physical nature of much of this variability is poorly understood. We examine the variability properties of three GRMHD simulations of thin accretion disks around black holes of varying spin, producing light curves and power spectra as would be seen by observers. We find that the simulated power spectra show a broad feature at high frequency, which increases in amplitude with the inclination of the observer. We show that this high-frequency feature is a product of the Doppler effect and that its location is a function of the mass and spin of the black hole. This Doppler feature demonstrates that power spectral properties of the accretion disk can be tied to, and potentially used to determine, physical properties of the black hole.
Measuring x-ray spectra of flash radiographic sources [PowerPoint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gehring, Amanda Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Espy, Michelle A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haines, Todd Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mendez, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moir, David C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sedillo, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shurter, Roger P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Volegov, Petr Lvovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Webb, Timothy J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-11-02
The x-ray spectra of flash radiographic sources are difficult to measure. The sources measured were Radiographic Integrated Test Stand-6 (370 rad at 1 m; 50 ns pulse) and Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) (550 rad at 1 m; 50 ns pulse). Features of the Compton spectrometer are described, and spectra are shown. Additional slides present data on instrumental calibration.
THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM OF DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES AND ITS IMPACT ON SUNYAEV ZEL'DOVICH STUDIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Montaña
2011-01-01
Full Text Available En este trabajo medimos el espectro angular de potencias de la población de galaxias milimétricas (SMGs a partir de observaciones a 1.1 mm realizadas con la cámara AzTEC en el Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE y el James Clerk Maxwell Telecope (JCMT. La muestra de campos observados nos permite comparar el espectro angular de potencias de las SMGs medido en la dirección de regiones del Universo sin sesgo y otras sobre densas. Nuestras mediciones permiten acotar el impacto que tiene la población de SMGs en mediciones del espectro de potencias de las fluctuaciones primarias y secundarias del fondo cósmico de radiación de microndas (CMB, que actualmente están siendo medidas por una nueva generación de experimentos con resoluciones espaciales del orden de minutos de arco y que operan a longitudes de onda milimétricas.
Kohn, S A; Nunhokee, C; Bernardi, G; Pober, J; Ali, Z; Bradley, R; Carilli, C; DeBoer, D; Gugliucci, N; Jacobs, D; Klima, P; MacMahon, D; Manley, J; Moore, D; Parsons, A; Stefan, I; Walbrugh, W
2016-01-01
Current-generation low frequency interferometers constructed with the objective of detecting the high-redshift 21 cm background, aim to generate power spectra of the brightness-temperature contrast of neutral hydrogen in primordial intergalactic medium. Two-dimensional power spectra (power in Fourier modes parallel and perpendicular to the line of sight) formed from interferometric visibilities have been shown to delineate a boundary between spectrally-smooth foregrounds (known as the wedge) and spectrally-structured 21 cm background emission (the EoR-window). However, polarized foregrounds are known to possess spectral structure due to Faraday rotation, which can leak into the EoR window. In this work, we create and analyze 2D power spectra from the PAPER-32 imaging array in Stokes I, Q, U and V. These allow us to observe and diagnose systematic effects in our calibration at high signal-to-noise within the Fourier space most relevant to EoR experiments. We observe well-defined windows in the Stokes visibilit...
Moore, David; Parsons, Aaron; Ali, Zaki; Bradley, Richard; Carilli, Chris; DeBoer, David; Dexter, Matthew; Gugliucci, Nicole; Jacobs, Daniel; Klima, Pat; Liu, Adrian; MacMahon, David; Manley, Jason; Pober, Jonathan; Stefan, Irina; Walbrugh, William
2015-01-01
Polarized foreground emission is a potential contaminant of attempts to measure the fluctuation power spectrum of highly redshifted 21 cm H{\\sc i} emission from the epoch of reionization, yet observational constraints on the level of polarized emission are poor. Using the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), we present the first limits on the power spectra of all four Stokes parameters in two frequency bands, centered at 126 MHz ($z=10.3$) and 164 MHz ($z=7.66$). This data comes from from a three-month observing campaign of a 32-antenna deployment, for which unpolarized power spectrum results have been reported at $z=7.7$ (Parsons et al 2014) and $7.5 < z < 10.5$ (Jacobs et al 2014). The power spectra in this paper are processed in the same way, and show no definitive detection of polarized power. The limits are sufficiently low that we are able to show that the excess unpolarized power reported in those works is not due to leakage of Faraday-rotated polarized ...
Practical considerations for noise power spectra estimation for clinical CT scanners.
Dolly, Steven; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Anastasio, Mark; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua
2016-05-08
Local noise power spectra (NPS) have been commonly calculated to represent the noise properties of CT imaging systems, but their properties are significantly affected by the utilized calculation schemes. In this study, the effects of varied calculation parameters on the local NPS were analyzed, and practical suggestions were provided regarding the estimation of local NPS for clinical CT scanners. The uniformity module of a Catphan phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64 slice CT simulator with varied scanning protocols. Images were reconstructed using FBP and iDose4 iterative reconstruction with noise reduction levels 1, 3, and 6. Local NPS were calculated and compared for varied region of interest (ROI) locations and sizes, image background removal methods, and window functions. Additionally, with a predetermined NPS as a ground truth, local NPS calculation accuracy was compared for computer simulated ROIs, varying the aforementioned parameters in addition to ROI number. An analysis of the effects of these varied calculation parameters on the magnitude and shape of the NPS was conducted. The local NPS varied depending on calculation parameters, particularly at low spatial frequencies below ~ 0.15 mm-1. For the simulation study, NPS calculation error decreased exponentially as ROI number increased. For the Catphan study the NPS magnitude varied as a function of ROI location, which was better observed when using smaller ROI sizes. The image subtraction method for background removal was the most effective at reducing low-frequency background noise, and produced similar results no matter which ROI size or window function was used. The PCA background removal method with a Hann window function produced the closest match to image subtraction, with an average percent difference of 17.5%. Image noise should be analyzed locally by calculating the NPS for small ROI sizes. A minimum ROI size is recommended based on the chosen radial bin size and image pixel
Esposito, M.; Carotenuto, M.
2014-01-01
Background: The role of sleep in cognitive processes has been confirmed by a growing number of reports for all ages of life. Analysing sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra may be useful to study cortical organisation in individuals with Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF), as seen in other disturbances even if it is not considered a…
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)
Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Denis, Kevin; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward
2016-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).
Image simulation and a model of noise power spectra across a range of mammographic beam qualities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mackenzie, Alistair, E-mail: alistairmackenzie@nhs.net; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Diaz, Oliver [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, United Kingdom and Computer Vision and Robotics Research Institute, University of Girona, Girona 17071 (Spain)
2014-12-15
Purpose: The aim of this work is to create a model to predict the noise power spectra (NPS) for a range of mammographic radiographic factors. The noise model was necessary to degrade images acquired on one system to match the image quality of different systems for a range of beam qualities. Methods: Five detectors and x-ray systems [Hologic Selenia (ASEh), Carestream computed radiography CR900 (CRc), GE Essential (CSI), Carestream NIP (NIPc), and Siemens Inspiration (ASEs)] were characterized for this study. The signal transfer property was measured as the pixel value against absorbed energy per unit area (E) at a reference beam quality of 28 kV, Mo/Mo or 29 kV, W/Rh with 45 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) at the tube head. The contributions of the three noise sources (electronic, quantum, and structure) to the NPS were calculated by fitting a quadratic at each spatial frequency of the NPS against E. A quantum noise correction factor which was dependent on beam quality was quantified using a set of images acquired over a range of radiographic factors with different thicknesses of PMMA. The noise model was tested for images acquired at 26 kV, Mo/Mo with 20 mm PMMA and 34 kV, Mo/Rh with 70 mm PMMA for three detectors (ASEh, CRc, and CSI) over a range of exposures. The NPS were modeled with and without the noise correction factor and compared with the measured NPS. A previous method for adapting an image to appear as if acquired on a different system was modified to allow the reference beam quality to be different from the beam quality of the image. The method was validated by adapting the ASEh flat field images with two thicknesses of PMMA (20 and 70 mm) to appear with the imaging characteristics of the CSI and CRc systems. Results: The quantum noise correction factor rises with higher beam qualities, except for CR systems at high spatial frequencies, where a flat response was found against mean photon energy. This is due to the dominance of secondary quantum noise
Sato, Haruo
2016-01-01
Peak delay and envelope broadening of an S-wavelet with travel distance increasing are seen in short-period seismograms of small earthquakes. Those phenomena are results of scattering by random velocity inhomogeneities in the earth medium. As shown in sonic well-log data we may suppose that random velocity fluctuation has power-law spectra even in the seismic spectral range. As a simple mathematical model, we study how the envelope of a scalar wavelet varies in von Kármán-type random media, which have power-law spectra at large wavenumbers. Since the centre wavenumber of a wavelet is a unique scale in the power-law spectral range, using it as a reference, we divide the random media into the low-wavenumber spectral (long-scale) component and the high-wavenumber spectral (short-scale) component. For the wave propagation through the long-scale component of random media, we may apply the parabolic approximation to the wave equation. Using the Markov approximation, which is a stochastic extension of the phase screen method, we directly synthesize the energy density, which is the mean-square (MS) envelope of a wavelet in a given frequency band. The envelope duration increases according to the second power of travel distance. There is an additional factor, the wandering effect which increases the envelope duration according to the traveltime fluctuation. Wide angle scattering caused by the short-scale component of random media attenuates wave amplitude with travel distance increasing. We use the total scattering coefficient of the short-scale component as a measure of scattering attenuation per distance, which is well described by the Born approximation. Multiplying the exponential scattering attenuation factor by the MS envelope derived by the Markov approximation, we can synthesize the MS envelope reflecting all the spectral components of random media. When the random medium power spectra have a steep role-off at large wavenumbers, the envelope broadening is small and
Spectra of symmetric powers of graphs and the Weisfeiler-Lehman refinements
Alzaga, Alfredo; Pignol, Ricardo
2008-01-01
The k-th power of a n-vertex graph X is the iterated cartesian product of X with itself. The k-th symmetric power of X is the quotient graph of certain subgraph of its k-th power by the natural action of the symmetric group. It is natural to ask if the spectrum of the k-th power --or the spectrum of the k-th symmetric power-- is a complete graph invariant for small values of k, for example, for k=O(1) or k=O(log n). In this paper, we answer this question in the negative: we prove that if the well known 2k-dimensional Weisfeiler-Lehman method fails to distinguish two given graphs, then their k-th powers --and their k-th symmetric powers-- are cospectral. As it is well known, there are pairs of non-isomorphic n-vertex graphs which are not distinguished by the k-dim WL method, even for k=Omega(n). In particular, this shows that for each k, there are pairs of non-isomorphic n-vertex graphs with cospectral k-th (symmetric) powers.
Lin, Y T; Lin, Yen-Ting; Wandelt, Benjamin D.
2004-01-01
We present here a detailed, self--contained treatment of the mathematical formalism for describing the theory of polarized anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background. This didactic review is aimed at researchers who are new to the field. We first develop the mathematical tools for describing polarized scattering of CMB photons. Then we take the reader through a detailed derivation of the line-of-sight formalism, explaining the calculation of both temperature and polarization power spectra due to the scalar and tensor perturbations in a flat Universe.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Hai; LIU JinSong; L(U) JianTao; WANG KeJia
2009-01-01
Polarization-dependent difference of the power spectra from a set of two-dimensional (2D) passive random media is investigated by simultaneously solving Maxwell's equations for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) fields. The random media have the same random constitution but different shapes. Results show that both two polarized states are morphology dependent,and the variety of the shapes has more influence on the selection of TM polarized modes than that of TE polarized modes. Such polarization-dependent difference of morphology property presents a new modeselecting technique for random lasers.
Spectra power and bandwidth of fiber Bragg grating under influence of gradient strain
Liu, Qinpeng; Qiao, Xueguang; Jia, Zhen'an; Fu, Haiwei
2016-12-01
The reflective spectrum power and the bandwidth of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) under gradient strain are researched and experimentally demonstrated. The gradient strain is applied on the FBG, which can induce FBG bandwidth broadening, resulting in the variation of reflective power. Based on the coupled-mode theory and transfer matrix method, the segmental linear relationship between the gradient strain, the reflective power, and the bandwidth is simulated and analyzed, and the influence of the FBG length on the reflective spectrum is analyzed. In the experiment, the strict gradient stain device is designed; the experimental results indicate that the reflective optic power and the bandwidth of the FBG under gradient stain are concerned with the length of the FBG. Experimental results are well consistent with the theoretical analysis, which have important guiding significance in the FBG dynamic sensing.
Broadband shifts in LFP power spectra are correlated with single-neuron spiking in humans
Manning, Jeremy R.; Jacobs, Joshua; Fried, Itzhak; Kahana, Michael J.
2010-01-01
A fundamental question in neuroscience concerns the relation between the spiking of individual neurons and the aggregate electrical activity of neuronal ensembles as seen in local-field potentials (LFPs). Because LFPs reflect both spiking activity and subthreshold events, this question is not simply one of data aggregation. Recording from 20 neurosurgical patients, we directly examined the relation between LFPs and neuronal spiking. Examining 2,030 neurons in widespread brain regions, we found that firing rates were positively correlated with broadband (2 – 150 Hz) shifts in the LFP power spectrum. In contrast, narrowband oscillations correlated both positively and negatively with firing rates at different recording sites. Broadband power shifts were a more-reliable predictor of neuronal spiking than narrowband power shifts. These findings suggest that broadband LFP power provides valuable information concerning neuronal activity beyond that contained in narrowband oscillations. PMID:19864573
Spectra power and bandwidth of fiber Bragg grating under influence of gradient strain
Liu, Qinpeng; Qiao, Xueguang; Jia, Zhen'an; Fu, Haiwei
2016-09-01
The reflective spectrum power and the bandwidth of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) under gradient strain are researched and experimentally demonstrated. The gradient strain is applied on the FBG, which can induce FBG bandwidth broadening, resulting in the variation of reflective power. Based on the coupled-mode theory and transfer matrix method, the segmental linear relationship between the gradient strain, the reflective power, and the bandwidth is simulated and analyzed, and the influence of the FBG length on the reflective spectrum is analyzed. In the experiment, the strict gradient stain device is designed; the experimental results indicate that the reflective optic power and the bandwidth of the FBG under gradient stain are concerned with the length of the FBG. Experimental results are well consistent with the theoretical analysis, which have important guiding significance in the FBG dynamic sensing.
Koch, Michael; Denzler, Joachim; Redies, Christoph
2010-08-19
Art images and natural scenes have in common that their radially averaged (1D) Fourier spectral power falls according to a power-law with increasing spatial frequency (1/f(2) characteristics), which implies that the power spectra have scale-invariant properties. In the present study, we show that other categories of man-made images, cartoons and graphic novels (comics and mangas), have similar properties. Further on, we extend our investigations to 2D power spectra. In order to determine whether the Fourier power spectra of man-made images differed from those of other categories of images (photographs of natural scenes, objects, faces and plants and scientific illustrations), we analyzed their 2D power spectra by principal component analysis. Results indicated that the first fifteen principal components allowed a partial separation of the different image categories. The differences between the image categories were studied in more detail by analyzing whether the mean power and the slope of the power gradients from low to high spatial frequencies varied across orientations in the power spectra. Mean power was generally higher in cardinal orientations both in real-world photographs and artworks, with no systematic difference between the two types of images. However, the slope of the power gradients showed a lower degree of mean variability across spectral orientations (i.e., more isotropy) in art images, cartoons and graphic novels than in photographs of comparable subject matters. Taken together, these results indicate that art images, cartoons and graphic novels possess relatively uniform 1/f(2) characteristics across all orientations. In conclusion, the man-made stimuli studied, which were presumably produced to evoke pleasant and/or enjoyable visual perception in human observers, form a subset of all images and share statistical properties in their Fourier power spectra. Whether these properties are necessary or sufficient to induce aesthetic perception remains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Koch
Full Text Available Art images and natural scenes have in common that their radially averaged (1D Fourier spectral power falls according to a power-law with increasing spatial frequency (1/f(2 characteristics, which implies that the power spectra have scale-invariant properties. In the present study, we show that other categories of man-made images, cartoons and graphic novels (comics and mangas, have similar properties. Further on, we extend our investigations to 2D power spectra. In order to determine whether the Fourier power spectra of man-made images differed from those of other categories of images (photographs of natural scenes, objects, faces and plants and scientific illustrations, we analyzed their 2D power spectra by principal component analysis. Results indicated that the first fifteen principal components allowed a partial separation of the different image categories. The differences between the image categories were studied in more detail by analyzing whether the mean power and the slope of the power gradients from low to high spatial frequencies varied across orientations in the power spectra. Mean power was generally higher in cardinal orientations both in real-world photographs and artworks, with no systematic difference between the two types of images. However, the slope of the power gradients showed a lower degree of mean variability across spectral orientations (i.e., more isotropy in art images, cartoons and graphic novels than in photographs of comparable subject matters. Taken together, these results indicate that art images, cartoons and graphic novels possess relatively uniform 1/f(2 characteristics across all orientations. In conclusion, the man-made stimuli studied, which were presumably produced to evoke pleasant and/or enjoyable visual perception in human observers, form a subset of all images and share statistical properties in their Fourier power spectra. Whether these properties are necessary or sufficient to induce aesthetic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;
2016-01-01
is +/-0.29 x 10(-2) mu K-CMB(2) and there is an additional uncertainty (+0.28, -0.24) x 10(-2) mu K-CMB(2) from the extrapolation. This level is the same magnitude as reported by BICEP2 over this l range, which highlights the need for assessment of the polarized dust signal even in the cleanest windows...... dust column densities. We show that even in the faintest dust-emitting regions there are no "clean" windows in the sky where primordial CMB B-mode polarization measurements could be made without subtraction of foreground emission. Finally, we investigate the level of dust polarization in the specific...... field recently targeted by the BICEP2 experiment. Extrapolation of the Planck 353 GHz data to 150 GHz gives a dust power D-l(BB) equivalent to l(l + 1)C-l(BB)/(2 pi) of 1.32 x 10(-2) mu K-CMB(2) over the multipole range of the primordial recombination bump (40
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Bernardis, P.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill,J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Contaldi, C.R.; Crill, B.P.; De Troia, G.; Farese, P.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Lange, A.E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason, P.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Polenta,G.; Pongetti, F.; Prunet, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scaramuzzi, F.
2001-05-17
Three peaks and two dips have been detected in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background from the BOOMERANG experiment, at {ell} {approx} 210, 540, 840 and {ell} {approx} 420, 750, respectively. Using model-independent analyses, we find that all five features are statistically significant and we measure their location and amplitude. These are consistent with the adiabatic inflationary model. We also calculate the mean and variance of the peak and dip locations and amplitudes in a large 7-dimensional parameter space of such models, which gives good agreement with the model-independent estimates, and forecast where the next few peaks and dips should be found if the basic paradigm is correct. We test the robustness of our results by comparing Bayesian marginalization techniques on this space with likelihood maximization techniques applied to a second 7-dimensional cosmological parameter space, using an independent computational pipeline, and find excellent agreement: {Omega}{sub tot} = 1.02{sub -0.05}{sup +0.06} vs. 1.04 {+-} 0.05, {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2} = 0.022{sub -0.003}{sup +0.004} vs. 0.019{sub -0.004}{sup +0.005}, and n{sub s} = 0.96{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10} vs. 0.90 {+-} 0.08. The deviation in primordial spectral index n{sub s} is a consequence of the strong correlation with the optical depth.
Bolliet, B; Stahl, C; Linsefors, L; Barrau, A
2015-01-01
Loop quantum cosmology tries to capture the main ideas of loop quantum gravity and to apply them to the Universe as a whole. Two main approaches within this framework have been considered to date for the study of cosmological perturbations: the dressed metric approach and the deformed algebra approach. They both have advantages and drawbacks. In this article, we accurately compare their predictions. In particular, we compute the associated primordial tensor power spectra. We show -- numerically and analytically -- that the large scale behavior is similar for both approaches and compatible with the usual prediction of general relativity. The small scale behavior is, the other way round, drastically different. Most importantly, we show that in a range of wavenumbers explicitly calculated, both approaches do agree on predictions that, in addition, differ from standard general relativity and do not depend on unknown parameters. These features of the power spectrum at intermediate scales might constitute a univers...
Krause, Elisabeth
2009-01-01
It is usually assumed that the ellipticity power spectrum measured in weak lensing observations can be expressed as an integral over the underlying matter power spectrum. This is true at second order in the gravitational potential. We extend the standard calculation, constructing all corrections to fourth order in the gravitational potential. There are four types of corrections: corrections to the lensing shear due to multiple-deflections; corrections due to the fact that shape distortions probe the reduced shear $\\gamma/(1-\\kappa)$ rather than the shear itself; corrections associated with the non-linear conversion of reduced shear to mean ellipticity; and corrections due to the fact that observational galaxy selection and shear measurement is based on galaxy brightnesses and sizes which have been (de)magnified by lensing. We show how the previously considered corrections to the shear power spectrum correspond to terms in our analysis, and highlight new terms that were not previously identified. All correctio...
Li, Guang-Xing; Burkert, Andreas
2017-02-01
Gravity plays a determining role in the evolution of the molecular ISM. In 2016, we proposed a measure called gravitational energy spectrum to quantify the importance of gravity on multiple physical scales. In this paper, using a wavelet-based decomposition technique, we derive the gravitational energy spectra of the Orion A and the Orion B molecular cloud from observational data. The gravitational energy spectra exhibit power-law-like behaviours. From a few parsec down to ˜0.1 pc scale, the Orion A and Orion B molecular cloud have Ep(k) ˜ k-1.88 and Ep(k) ˜ k-2.09, respectively. These scaling exponents are close to the scaling exponents of the kinetic energy power spectrum of compressible turbulence (where E ˜ k-2), with a near-equipartition of turbulent versus gravitational energy on multiple scales. This provides a clear evidence that gravity is able to counteract effectively against turbulent motion for these length-scales. The results confirm our earlier analytical estimates. For the Orion A molecular cloud, gravity inevitably dominates turbulence inside the cloud. Our results provide a clear observational proof that gravity is playing a determining role in the evolution these molecular clouds from the cloud scale down to ˜ 0.1 pc. However, turbulence is likely to dominate in clouds such as California. The method is general and should be applicable to all the astrophysical problems where gravity plays a role.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Munk, Emil Gammelmark Schreiner; Peppard, Paul E.
2015-01-01
stages in NC versus controls. Methods: EEG power spectral density (PSD) was computed in 136 NC patients and 510 sex- and agematched controls. Features reflecting differences in PSD curves were computed. A Lasso-regularized regression model was used to find an optimal feature subset, which was validated...
The Effect of a Finite Measurement Volume on Power Spectra from a Burst Type LDA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara Marika; K. George, William
2014-01-01
We analyze the effects of a finite size measurement volume on the power spectrum computed fromdata acquired with a burst-type laser Doppler anemometer. The finite measurement volume causes temporal distortions in acquisition of the data resulting in phenomena such as finite processing time and de...
Effect of clomipramine on sleep and EEG power spectra in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus
Dijk, D.J.; Strijkstra, A.; Daan, S.; Beersma, D.G.M.; Hoofdakker, R.H. van den
1991-01-01
Sleep was recorded in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus, chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes. The tricyclic antidepressant drug clomipramine suppressed the duration of REM sleep and EEG power density in the frequencies between 1.5 and 13.5 Hz in nonREM sleep. During the administrat
Carrano, Charles S.; Rino, Charles L.
2016-06-01
We extend the power law phase screen theory for ionospheric scintillation to account for the case where the refractive index irregularities follow a two-component inverse power law spectrum. The two-component model includes, as special cases, an unmodified power law and a modified power law with spectral break that may assume the role of an outer scale, intermediate break scale, or inner scale. As such, it provides a framework for investigating the effects of a spectral break on the scintillation statistics. Using this spectral model, we solve the fourth moment equation governing intensity variations following propagation through two-dimensional field-aligned irregularities in the ionosphere. A specific normalization is invoked that exploits self-similar properties of the structure to achieve a universal scaling, such that different combinations of perturbation strength, propagation distance, and frequency produce the same results. The numerical algorithm is validated using new theoretical predictions for the behavior of the scintillation index and intensity correlation length under strong scatter conditions. A series of numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the morphologies of the intensity spectrum, scintillation index, and intensity correlation length as functions of the spectral indices and strength of scatter; retrieve phase screen parameters from intensity scintillation observations; explore the relative contributions to the scintillation due to large- and small-scale ionospheric structures; and quantify the conditions under which a general spectral break will influence the scintillation statistics.
The Impact of Modeling Errors on Interferometer Calibration for 21 cm Power Spectra
Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Liu, Adrian; Hewitt, Jacqueline
2016-01-01
We study the impact of sky-based calibration errors from source mismodeling on 21 cm power spectrum measurements with an interferometer and propose a method for suppressing their effects. While emission from faint sources that are not accounted for in calibration catalogs is believed to be spectrally smooth, deviations of true visibilities from model visibilities are not, due to the inherent chromaticity of the interferometer's sky-response (the "wedge"). Thus, unmodeled foregrounds at the $\\approx 1$ mJy level introduce frequency structure into gain solutions on the same line-of-sight scales on which we hope to observe the cosmological signal. We derive analytic expressions describing these errors using linearized approximations of the calibration equations and determine the impact of this bias on measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Given our current precision in primary beam and foreground modeling, this noise will significantly impact the sensitivity of existing...
Cuoco, E; Fabbroni, L; Losurdo, G; Mazzoni, M; Stanga, R M; Vetrano, F
2001-01-01
In this paper we address both to the problem of identifying the noise Power Spectral Density of interferometric detectors by parametric techniques and to the problem of the whitening procedure of the sequence of data. We will concentrate the study on a Power Spectral Density like the one of the Italian-French detector VIRGO and we show that with a reasonable finite number of parameters we succeed in modeling a spectrum like the theoretical one of VIRGO, reproducing all its features. We propose also the use of adaptive techniques to identify and to whiten on line the data of interferometric detectors. We analyze the behavior of the adaptive techniques in the field of stochastic gradient and in the Least Squares ones.
Planck 2015 results: XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.;
2016-01-01
This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlationfunctions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations that account for relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. They are based...... information, along with more detailed models of foregrounds and instrumental uncertainties. The increased redundancy brought by more than doubling the amount of data analysed enables further consistency checks and enhanced immunity to systematic effects. It also improves the constraining power of Planck...
Driving the atom by atomic fluorescence: Analytic results for the power and noise spectra
2000-01-01
We study how the spectral properties of resonance fluorescence propagate through a two-atom system. Within the weak-driving-field approximation we find that, as we go from one atom to the next, the power spectrum exhibits both subnatural linewidth narrowing and large asymmetries while the noise spectrum of the squeezed quadrature narrows but remains otherwise unchanged. Analytical results for the observed spectral features of the fluorescence are provided and their origin is thoroughly discus...
Spectra and fast multi-wavelength variability of compact jets powered by internal shocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malzac Julien
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The emission of steady compact jets observed in the hard spectral state of X-ray binaries is likely to be powered by internal shocks caused by fluctuations of the outflow velocity. The dynamics of the internal shocks and the resulting spectral energy distribution (SED of the jet is very sensitive to the shape of the Power Spectral Density (PSD of the fluctuations of the jet Lorentz factor. I used both Monte-Carlo simulations and semi-analytical methods to investigate this dependence. It turns out that Lorentz factor fluctuations injected at the base of the jet with a flicker noise power spectrum (i.e. P(f 1/f naturally produce the canonical flat SED observed from radio to IR band in X-ray binary systems in the hard state. This model also predicts a strong, wavelength dependent, variability that resembles the observed one. In particular, strong sub-second variability is predicted in the infrared and optical bands. The complex timing correlations observed between the IR/optical light curves and the X-rays can then be used to probe the accretion/ejection connection on short time-scales.
Franz, Robert; Kolbeck, Jonathan; Anders, André
2016-01-01
The ion energies and fluxes in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma from a Nb target were analysed angularly resolved along the tangential direction of the racetrack. A reactive oxygen-containing atmosphere was used as such discharge conditions are typically employed for the synthesis of thin films. Asymmetries in the flux distribution of the recorded ions as well as their energies and charge states were noticed when varying the angle between mass-energy analyser and target surface. More positively charged ions with higher count rates in the medium energy range of their distributions were detected in $+\\mathbf{E}\\times \\mathbf{B}$ than in $-\\mathbf{E}\\times \\mathbf{B}$ direction, thus confirming the notion that ionisation zones are associated with moving potential humps. The motion of the recorded negatively charged high-energy oxygen ions was unaffected. NbO$_x$ thin films at different angles and positions were synthesised and analysed as to their structure and properties in order to correlate ...
Magnetic and Kinetic Power Spectra as a Tool to Probe the Turbulent Dynamo
Abramenko, V I; Goode, P R
2011-01-01
Generation and diffusion of the magnetic field on the Sun is a key mechanism responsible for solar activity on all spatial and temporal scales - from the solar cycle down to the evolution of small-scale magnetic elements in the quiet Sun. The solar dynamo operates as a non-linear dynamical process and is thought to be manifest in two types: as a global dynamo responsible for the solar cycle periodicity, and as a small-scale turbulent dynamo responsible for the formation of magnetic carpet in the quiet Sun. Numerous MHD simulations of the solar turbulence did not yet reach a consensus as to the existence of a turbulent dynamo on the Sun. At the same time, high-resolution observations of the quiet Sun from Hinode instruments suggest possibilities for the turbulent dynamo. Analysis of characteristics of turbulence derived from observations would be beneficial in tackling the problem. We analyse magnetic and velocity energy spectra as derived from Hinode/SOT, SOHO/MDI, SDO/HMI and the New Solar Telescope (NST) of...
A Mexican Hat with holes: calculating low resolution power spectra from data with gaps
Arevalo, P; Zhuravleva, I; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Revnivtsev, M
2012-01-01
A simple method for calculating a low-resolution power spectrum from data with gaps is described. The method is a modification of the $\\Delta$-variance method previously described by Stutzki and Ossenkopf. A Mexican Hat filter is used to single out fluctuations at a given spatial scale and the variance of the convolved image is calculated. The gaps in the image, defined by the mask, are corrected for by representing the Mexican Hat filter as a difference between two Gaussian filters with slightly different widths, convolving the image and mask with these filters and dividing the results before calculating the final filtered image. This method cleanly compensates for data gaps even if these have complicated shapes and cover a significant fraction of the data. The method was developed to deal with problematic 2D images, where irregular detector edges and masking of contaminating sources compromise the power spectrum estimates, but it can also be straightforwardly applied to 1D timing analysis or 3D data cubes f...
The Jubilee ISW Project I: simulated ISW and weak lensing maps and initial power spectra results
Watson, W A; Gottlöber, S; Iliev, I T; Knebe, A; Martínez-González, E; Yepes, G; Barreiro, R B; González-Nuevo, J; Hotchkiss, S; Marcos-Caballero, A; Nadathur, S; Vielva, P; .,
2013-01-01
We present initial results from the Jubilee ISW project, which models the expected \\LambdaCDM Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect in the Jubilee simulation. The simulation volume is (6 Gpc/h)^3, allowing power on very large-scales to be incorporated into the calculation. Haloes are resolved down to a mass of 1.5x10^12 M_sun/h, which allows us to derive a catalogue of mock Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) for cross-correlation analysis with the ISW signal. We find the ISW effect observed on a projected sky to grow stronger at late times with the evolution of the ISW power spectrum matching expectations from linear theory. Maps of the gravitational lensing effect, including the convergence and deflection fields, are calculated using the same potential as for the ISW. We calculate the redshift dependence of the ISW-LRG cross-correlation signal for a full sky survey with no noise considerations. For l 30 the signal is best observed with surveys covering z ~ 0.6-1.0.
Emission spectra from direct current and microwave powered Hg lamps at very high pressure
Hamady, M.; Lister, G. G.; Stafford, L.
2013-11-01
Discharge lamps containing mercury at pressures above 100 bar are commercially used in data projectors and television projector systems. Due to their small size, these lamps are difficult to investigate experimentally, but spectral measurements, combined with radiation transport calculations, have provided useful information on the visible spectrum. However, classical spectral line broadening theory is inadequate to describe the UV portion of the spectrum, so self-consistent modelling of these discharges is not possible at present. This paper discusses the differences between discharges containing electrodes and discharges sustained by a microwave (mw) electromagnetic field, on the basis of the experimentally measured temperature profile in an electroded discharge, and a temperature profile computed from a 1D power balance model for a microwave discharge. A model based on the ray-tracing method is employed to simulate the radiation transport in these lamps. The model has been validated by comparing the emission spectrum from dc discharge lamps with those obtained experimentally. The output flux, luminous flux, luminous efficacy, the correlated colour temperature, the chromaticity coordinates and photometric curves of the lamp were then obtained. These results were also compared with those of a theoretically calculated temperature profile for the same lamp, excited by microwave power in the TM010 mode.
CMB and matter power spectra with non-linear dark-sector interactions
vom Marttens, R. F.; Casarini, L.; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Zimdahl, W.
2017-01-01
An interaction between dark matter and dark energy, proportional to the product of their energy densities, results in a scaling behavior of the ratio of these densities with respect to the scale factor of the Robertson-Walker metric. This gives rise to a class of cosmological models which deviate from the standard model in an analytically tractable way. In particular, it becomes possible to quantify the role of potential dark-energy perturbations. We investigate the impact of this interaction on the structure formation process. Using the (modified) CAMB code we obtain the CMB spectrum as well as the linear matter power spectrum. It is shown that the strong degeneracy in the parameter space present in the background analysis is considerably reduced by considering Planck data. Our analysis is compatible with the ΛCDM model at the 2σ confidence level with a slightly preferred direction of the energy flow from dark matter to dark energy.
CMB and matter power spectra with non-linear dark-sector interactions
Marttens, R F vom; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W S; Zimdahl, W
2016-01-01
An interaction between dark matter and dark energy, proportional to the product of their energy densities, results in a scaling behavior of the ratio of these densities with respect to the scale factor of the Robertson-Walker metric. This gives rise to a class of cosmological models which deviate from the standard model in an analytically tractable way. In particular, it becomes possible to quantify the role of potential dark-energy perturbations. We investigate the impact of this interaction on the structure formation process. Using the (modified) CAMB code we obtain the CMB spectrum as well as the linear matter power spectrum. It is shown that the strong degeneracy in the parameter space present in the background analysis is considerably reduced by considering \\textit{Planck} data. Our analysis is compatible with the $\\Lambda$CDM model at the $2\\sigma$ confidence level with a slightly preferred direction of the energy flow from dark matter to dark energy.
An improved sample-and-hold reconstruction procedure for estimation of power spectra from LDA data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simon, Laurent [Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine, UMR-CNRS 6613, Avenue Messiaen, 72085, Le Mans (France); Fitzpatrick, John [Mechanical Engineering Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2004-08-01
Techniques for deriving the auto or power spectrum (PSD) of turbulence from laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements are reviewed briefly. The low pass filter and step noise errors associated with the sample-and-hold process are considered and a discrete version of the low pass filter for the resampled signal is derived. This is then used to develop a procedure by which the PSD estimates obtained from sample and hold measurements can be corrected. The application of the procedures is examined using simulated data and the results show that the frequency range of the analysis can be extended beyond the Nyquist frequency based on the mean sample rate. The results are shown to be comparable to those obtained using the method of Nobach et al. (1998) but the new procedures are more straightforward to implement. The technique is then used to determine the PSD of real LDA data and the results are compared with those from a hot wire anemometer. (orig.)
On the power spectra of the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2
Orlandini, Mauro; Morfill, G. E.
1992-01-01
A phenomenological model of accretion which is applied to the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2 is developed, assuming that the accretion onto the neutron star does not occur from a continuous flux of plasma, but from blobs of matter which are threaded by the magnetic field lines onto the magnetic polar caps of the neutron star. These 'lumps' are produced at the magnetospheric limit by magnetohydrodynamical instability, introducing a 'noise' in the accretion process, due to the discontinuity in the flux of matter onto the neutron star. This model is able to describe the change of slope observed in the continuum component of the power spectra of the X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2, in the frequency range 0.01 - 0.1 Hz. The physical properties of the infalling blobs derived in the model are in agreement with the constraints imposed by observations.
Voráč, Jan; Synek, Petr; Potočňáková, Lucia; Hnilica, Jaroslav; Kudrle, Vít
2017-02-01
Power modulated microwave plasma jet operating in argon at atmospheric pressure was studied by spatio-temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in order to clarify the influence of modulation on plasma parameters. OES was carried out in OH, NH, N2 and {{{N}}}2+ spectral regions using a spectrometer with intensified CCD detector synchronised with 101–103 Hz sine modulating signal. A special software, able to fit even the overlapping spectra, was developed to batch process the massive datasets produced by this spatio-temporal study. Results show that studied species with the exception of {{{N}}}2+ have balanced rotational and vibrational temperatures across the modulation frequencies. Significant influence of modulation can be clearly observed on temperature spatial gradients. Whereas for low modulation frequencies where the temperatures reach sharp maxima upon discharge tip, the high frequency modulation produces thermally homogeneous plasma.
Becker, Matthew R.
2013-10-01
I present a new algorithm, Curved-sky grAvitational Lensing for Cosmological Light conE simulatioNS (CALCLENS), for efficiently computing weak gravitational lensing shear signals from large N-body light cone simulations over a curved sky. This new algorithm properly accounts for the sky curvature and boundary conditions, is able to produce redshift-dependent shear signals including corrections to the Born approximation by using multiple-plane ray tracing and properly computes the lensed images of source galaxies in the light cone. The key feature of this algorithm is a new, computationally efficient Poisson solver for the sphere that combines spherical harmonic transform and multigrid methods. As a result, large areas of sky (˜10 000 square degrees) can be ray traced efficiently at high resolution using only a few hundred cores. Using this new algorithm and curved-sky calculations that only use a slower but more accurate spherical harmonic transform Poisson solver, I study the convergence, shear E-mode, shear B-mode and rotation mode power spectra. Employing full-sky E/B-mode decompositions, I confirm that the numerically computed shear B-mode and rotation mode power spectra are equal at high accuracy (≲1 per cent) as expected from perturbation theory up to second order. Coupled with realistic galaxy populations placed in large N-body light cone simulations, this new algorithm is ideally suited for the construction of synthetic weak lensing shear catalogues to be used to test for systematic effects in data analysis procedures for upcoming large-area sky surveys. The implementation presented in this work, written in C and employing widely available software libraries to maintain portability, is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/calclens.
Non-linear power spectra of dark and luminous matter in halo model of structure formation
Kulinich, Yurij; Apunevych, Stepan
2012-01-01
The paper represents a comprehensive treatment of late stages of large-scale structure evolution within the framework of halo model. A number of modifications to basic theory are suggested. We have engineered simple yet accurate approximation to relate the amplitude of non-linear spherical density perturbation to the one of the linear. The theory for final stages of spherical overdensity evolution is revised in order to re-evaluate the dependences of collapse and critical overdensity parameters, $\\delta_{col}$, $\\delta_{ta}$ and $\\delta_{min}$, on redshift and other cosmological parameters. A new technique is proposed for straightforward computation of halo concentration parameter, $c$, without need to evaluate the $z_{col}$. Validity of the technique is proved for a number of $\\Lambda$CDM and $\\Lambda$WDM cosmologies. The parameters for Sheth-Tormen mass function are estimated, as well as new approximation is constructed for the dependence of subhalo mass function on initial power spectrum. The modified and ...
Signatures of X-ray reverberation in the power spectra of AGN
Papadakis, I; Dovciak, M; Epitropakis, A; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Karas, V
2016-01-01
We compute fully relativistic disc response functions in the case of the "lamp-post" geometry using the full observed reflection spectrum for various X-ray source heights, disc inclination, and spin values of the central black hole. Since the observed PSD is equal to the product of the intrinsic power spectrum with the "transfer function" (i.e. the Fourier transform of the disc response function), we are able to predict the observed PSDs in the case of X-ray illumination of the inner disc. The observed PSD should show a prominent dip at high frequencies and an oscillatory behaviour, with a decreasing amplitude, at higher frequencies. The reverberation "echo" features should be more prominent in energy bands where the reflection component is more pronounced. The frequency of the dip is independent of energy, and it is mainly determined by the black hole mass and the X-ray source height. The amplitude of the dip increases with increasing black hole spin and inclination angle, as long as the height of the "lamp"...
Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development
Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.
2016-08-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe ˜ 70 % of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at ˜ 10 Hz to suppress the 1/ f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.
Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development
Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.
2015-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.
The power spectra of non-circular motions in disk galaxies
Westfall, Kyle; Laws, Anna S. E.; MaNGA Team
2016-01-01
Using data from the first year of the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, we present a preliminary study of the amplitude of non-circular motions in a sample of disk galaxies. We select galaxies that have either a visual classification as a spiral galaxy by the Galaxy Zoo project (Lintott et al. 2011) and/or a measured Sersic index of less than 2.5 from the NASA-Sloan Atlas (nsatlas.org). We also remove high-inclination systems by selecting galaxies with isophotal ellipticity measurements of less than 0.6, implying an inclination of less than 65 degrees. For each galaxy, we fit a tilted-disk model to the observed line-of-sight velocities (Andersen & Bershady 2013). The geometric projection of the circularly rotating disk is simultaneously fit to both the ionized-gas (H-alpha) and stellar kinematics, whereas the rotation curves of the two dynamical tracers are allowed to be independent. We deproject the residuals of the velocity-field fit to the disk-plane polar coordinates and select a radial region that is fully covered in aziumuth, yet not undersampled by the on-sky spaxel. Similar to the approach taken by Bovy et al. (2015) for the Milky Way, we then compute the two-dimensional power spectrum of this velocity-residual map, which provides the amplitude of non-circular motions at all modes probed by the data. Our preliminary analysis reveals disk-plane non-circular motions in both the stars and ionized-gas with typical peak amplitudes of approximately 20 km/s. Additionally, our initial findings appear to demonstrate that non-circular motions in barred galaxies are stronger in the ionized gas than in the stars, a trend not seen in unbarred galaxies.
Zhuravleva, I; Schekochihin, A A; Lau, E T; Nagai, D; Gaspari, M; Allen, S W; Nelson, K; Parrish, I J
2014-01-01
We address the problem of evaluating the power spectrum of the velocity field of the ICM using only information on the plasma density fluctuations, which can be measured today by Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories. We argue that for relaxed clusters there is a linear relation between the rms density and velocity fluctuations across a range of scales, from the largest ones, where motions are dominated by buoyancy, down to small, turbulent scales: $(\\delta\\rho_k/\\rho)^2 = \\eta_1^2 (V_{1,k}/c_s)^2$, where $\\delta\\rho_k/\\rho$ is the spectral amplitude of the density perturbations at wave number $k$, $V_{1,k}^2=V_k^2/3$ is the mean square component of the velocity field, $c_s$ is the sound speed, and $\\eta_1$ is a dimensionless constant of order unity. Using cosmological simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters, we calibrate this relation and find $\\eta_1\\approx 1 \\pm 0.3$. We argue that this value is set at large scales by buoyancy physics, while at small scales the density and velocity power spectra are proporti...
Ferreira, P G; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Magueijo, Joao
1997-01-01
Gaussian cosmic microwave background skies are fully specified by the power spectrum. The conventional method of characterizing non-Gaussian skies is to evaluate higher order moments, the n-point functions and their Fourier transforms. We argue that this method is inefficient, due to the redundancy of information existing in the complete set of moments. In this paper we propose a set of new statistics or non-Gaussian spectra to be extracted out of the angular distribution of the Fourier transform of the temperature anisotropies in the small field limit. These statistics complement the power spectrum and act as localization, shape, and connectedness statistics. They quantify generic non-Gaussian structure, and may be used in more general image processing tasks. We concentrate on a subset of these statistics and argue that while they carry no information in Gaussian theories they may be the best arena for making predictions in some non-Gaussian theories. As examples of applications we consider superposed Gaussi...
Sato, Haruo; Fehler, Michael C.
2016-10-01
The envelope broadening and the peak delay of the S-wavelet of a small earthquake with increasing travel distance are results of scattering by random velocity inhomogeneities in the earth medium. As a simple mathematical model, Sato proposed a new stochastic synthesis of the scalar wavelet envelope in 3-D von Kármán type random media when the centre wavenumber of the wavelet is in the power-law spectral range of the random velocity fluctuation. The essential idea is to split the random medium spectrum into two components using the centre wavenumber as a reference: the long-scale (low-wavenumber spectral) component produces the peak delay and the envelope broadening by multiple scattering around the forward direction; the short-scale (high-wavenumber spectral) component attenuates wave amplitude by wide angle scattering. The former is calculated by the Markov approximation based on the parabolic approximation and the latter is calculated by the Born approximation. Here, we extend the theory for the envelope synthesis of a wavelet in 2-D random media, which makes it easy to compare with finite difference (FD) simulation results. The synthetic wavelet envelope is analytically written by using the random medium parameters in the angular frequency domain. For the case that the power spectral density function of the random velocity fluctuation has a steep roll-off at large wavenumbers, the envelope broadening is small and frequency independent, and scattering attenuation is weak. For the case of a small roll-off, however, the envelope broadening is large and increases with frequency, and the scattering attenuation is strong and increases with frequency. As a preliminary study, we compare synthetic wavelet envelopes with the average of FD simulation wavelet envelopes in 50 synthesized random media, which are characterized by the RMS fractional velocity fluctuation ε = 0.05, correlation scale a = 5 km and the background wave velocity V0 = 4 km s-1. We use the radiation
Bischoff, C; Buder, I; Chinone, Y; Cleary, K; Dumoulin, R N; Kusaka, A; Monsalve, R; Næss, S K; Newburgh, L B; Reeves, R; Smith, K M; Wehus, I K; Zuntz, J A; Zwart, J T L; Bronfman, L; Bustos, R; Church, S E; Dickinson, C; Eriksen, H K; Ferreira, P G; Gaier, T; Gundersen, J O; Hasegawa, M; Hazumi, M; Huffenberger, K M; Jones, M E; Kangaslahti, P; Kapner, D J; Lawrence, C R; Limon, M; May, J; McMahon, J J; Miller, A D; Nguyen, H; Nixon, G W; Pearson, T J; Piccirillo, L; Radford, S J E; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Samtleben, D; Seiffert, M; Shepherd, M C; Staggs, S T; Tajima, O; Thompson, K L; Vanderlinde, K; Williamson, R; Winstein, B
2010-01-01
The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) employs coherent receivers at 43GHz and 95GHz, operating on the Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert in Chile, to measure the anisotropy in the polarization of the CMB. QUIET primarily targets the B modes from primordial gravitational waves. The combination of these frequencies gives sensitivity to foreground contributions from diffuse Galactic synchrotron radiation. Between 2008 October and 2010 December, >10,000hours of data were collected, first with the 19-element 43GHz array (3458hours) and then with the 90-element 95GHz array. Each array observes the same four fields, selected for low foregrounds, together covering ~1000deg^2. This paper reports initial results from the 43GHz receiver which has an array sensitivity to CMB fluctuations of 69uK sqrt(s). The data were extensively studied with a large suite of null tests before the power spectra, determined with two independent pipelines, were examined. Analysis choices, including data selection, were modified until th...
Karpov, Valeri
2015-01-01
A comprehensive guide to AngularJS, Google's open-source client-side framework for app development. Most of the existing guides to AngularJS struggle to provide simple and understandable explanations for more advanced concepts. As a result, some developers who understand all the basic concepts of AngularJS struggle when it comes to building more complex real-world applications. Professional AngularJS provides a thorough understanding of AngularJS, covering everything from basic concepts, such as directives and data binding, to more advanced concepts like transclusion, build systems, and auto
Non-Gaussian spectra and the search for cosmic strings
Magueijo, Joao; Lewin, Alex
1997-01-01
We present a new tool for relating theory and experiment suited for non-Gaussian theories: non-Gaussian spectra. It does for non-Gaussian theories what the angular power spectrum $C_\\ell$ does for Gaussian theories. We then show how previous studies of cosmic strings have over rated their non-Gaussian signature. More realistic maps are not visually stringy. However non-Gaussian spectra will accuse their stringiness. We finally summarise the steps of an undergoing experimental project aiming a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)
1995-02-01
This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.
Jang, Si Young; Liu, H Helen; Mohan, Radhe; Siebers, Jeffrey V
2007-04-01
Because of complex dose distributions and dose gradients that are created in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), photon- and electron-energy spectra might change significantly with spatial locations and doses. This study examined variations in photon- and electron-energy spectra in 3D-CRT and IMRT photon fields. The effects of spectral variations on water-to-material stopping-power ratios used in Monte Carlo treatment planning systems and the responses of energy-dependent dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and radiographic films were further studied. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code was used to simulate megavoltage 3D-CRT and IMRT photon fields. The photon- and electron-energy spectra were calculated in 3D water phantoms and anthropomorphic phantoms based on the fluence scored in voxel grids. We then obtained the water-to-material stopping-power ratios in the local voxels using the Spencer-Attix cavity theory. Changes in the responses of films and TLDs were estimated based on the calculated local energy spectra and published data on the dosimeter energy dependency. Results showed that the photon-energy spectra strongly depended on spatial positions and doses in both the 3D-CRT and IMRT fields. The relative fraction of low-energy photons (stopping-power ratio over the range of calculated dose for both 3D-CRT and IMRT was negligible (< 1.0%) for ICRU tissue, cortical bone, and soft bone and less than 3.6% for dry air and lung. Because of spectral softening at low doses, radiographic films in the phantoms could over-respond to dose by more than 30%, whereas the over-response of TLDs was less than 10%. Thus, spatial variations of the photon- and electron-energy spectra should be considered as important factors in 3D-CRT and IMRT dosimetry.
Ecklund, W. L.; Balsley, B. B.; Crochet, M.; Carter, D. A.; Riddle, A. C.; Garello, R.
1983-01-01
A joint France/U.S. experiment was conducted near the mouth of the Rhone river in southern France as part of the ALPEX program. This experiment used 3 vertically directed 50 MHz radars separated by 4 to 6 km. The main purpose of this experiment was to study the spatial characteristics of gravity waves. The good height resolution (750 meters) and time resolution (1 minute) and the continuous operation over many weeks have yielded high resolution vertical wind speed power spectra under a variety of synoptic conditions. Vertical spectra obtained during very quiet (low wind) conditions in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from a single site are presented.
Angular dependent light emission from planar waveguides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peter, Jaison, E-mail: jaison.peter@gmail.com [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India); CRE" +E, IDEAS Research Institute, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ (United Kingdom); Prabhu, Radhakrishna [CRE" +E, IDEAS Research Institute, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ (United Kingdom); Radhakrishnan, P.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Kailasnath, M. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India)
2015-01-07
We have investigated the angular dependence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and laser emission from an asymmetric and free-standing polymer thin films doped with rhodamine 6G, which is transversely pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A semi-leaky waveguide or quasi-waveguide structure has been developed by spin coating technique. In these waveguides, the light was confined by the film/air-film/glass substrate interfaces. At the film/substrate interface, a portion of light will reflect back into the film (guided mode) and the remaining refracted to the substrate resulting in cutoff modes. A blue-shift in ASE has been observed when the pump power was increased from 8 to 20 mW allowing a limited range of tuning of emission wavelength. To study the directionality of the ASE from the waveguide, we have measured the output intensity and FWHM of emission spectra as a function of viewing angle (θ) from the plane parallel to film. From the detailed examination of the output emission spectra, as +θ increases from 0° there has been an initial decrease in output intensity, but at a particular angle ≈10° an increase in output intensity was observed. This additional peak in output intensity as +θ is a clear indication of coexistence of the cutoff mode. We also present a compact solid-state laser based on leaky mode propagation from the dye-doped polymer free-standing film (∼50 μm thickness) waveguide. The partial reflections from the broad lateral surfaces of the free-standing films provided the optical feedback for the laser emission with high directionality. For a pump power of 22 mW, an intense line with FWHM <0.2 nm was observed at 578 nm.
Study on the factors of the angular dispersion power for the triple prism%三棱镜角色散性能的影响因素研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王玉梅
2013-01-01
In this paper, the refractive index of visible light in the triple prism was measured by the methord of minimum deviation. Based on the expirical foumula of Cauchy, the experimental data was investigated in Origin software, and the dispersion curvers of the triple prism were obtained. The parameters A0 and B0 of the ZF1 optical glass and the K9 optical glass were determined and the angular diapersion power of two optical glass were obtained. The experimental results show that the angular dispersion power of triple prism related to not only prism materials but also the wave length of the incident light. The angular dispersion power increases with the increase of refraction index and increases with the decrease of wave length.%用最小偏向角法测定了可见光中不同波长的光在三棱镜中的折射率,按照Cauchy经验公式用Origin软件拟合实验数据,得出了三棱镜材料的色散关系曲线;确定了玻璃ZF1和玻璃K9色散关系中的参量A0、B0值;确定了两种玻璃棱镜的角色散本领;分析得出了三棱镜的角色散本领与棱镜材料的折射率及入射波的波长有关,三棱镜的角色散本领随棱镜材料折射率的增大而增大,随入射波波长的减小而增大.
Li, Guang-Xing
2016-01-01
Gravity plays a determining role in the evolution of the molecular ISM. In Li \\& Burkert. (2016), we proposed a measure called gravitational energy spectra to quantify the importance of gravity on multiple physical scales. In this work, using a wavelet-based decomposition technique, we derive the gravitational energy spectra of the Orion A and the Orion B molecular cloud from observational data. The gravitational energy spectra are found to exhibit power-law-like behaviors. At sub-parsec scale, the Orion A and Orion B molecular cloud have $E_{\\rm p}(k)\\sim k^{-1.88}$ and $E_{\\rm p}(k)\\sim k^{-2.09}$, respectively. These scaling exponents are close to the scaling exponents of the kinetic energy power spectra of compressible turbulence (where $E\\sim k^{-2}$), with near-equipartition of turbulent versus gravitational energy on multiple scales. This provides a clear evidence that gravity is able to counteract effectively against turbulent motion for these length scales. The results confirm our earlier analyti...
Imperatori, Claudio; Farina, Benedetto; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Onofri, Antonio; Castelli Gattinara, Paola; Lepore, Marta; Gnoni, Valentina; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo
2014-10-01
The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity of resting state (RS) condition in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventeen patients and seventeen healthy subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled. EEG was recorded during 5min of RS. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (sLORETA). In power spectra analysis PTSD patients showed a widespread increase of theta activity (4.5-7.5Hz) in parietal lobes (Brodmann Area, BA 7, 4, 5, 40) and in frontal lobes (BA 6). In the connectivity analysis PTSD patients also showed increase of alpha connectivity (8-12.5Hz) between the cortical areas explored by Pz-P4 electrode. Our results could reflect the alteration of memory systems and emotional processing consistently altered in PTSD patients.
Siddiqui, Imran; Khan, Shamim; Windholz, Laurentius
2016-03-01
We present 39 even and 60 odd parity newly discovered fine structure levels of Pr I with angular momentum quantum numbers J = 7 / 2, 9/2, 11/2 and 13/2. Spectral lines in the wavelength range of 4200 Å to 7500 Å were investigated experimentally using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy or optogalvanic spectroscopy. Free Pr atoms were produced in a hollow cathode discharge. A high resolution Fourier transform spectrum of Pr was used to extract excitation wavelengths. From an analysis of the recorded hyperfine patterns, together with excitation and fluorescence wavelengths, we were able to find the unknown levels involved in the formation of the investigated lines. More than 500 spectral lines could be classified by the new levels. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-60485-2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yonghoon, E-mail: yhlee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Kyung-Sik [Department of Food Engineering, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Song-Hee [Division of Maritime Transportation System, Mokpo National Maritime University, Jeonnam 530-729 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jonghyun, E-mail: jyoo@appliedspectra.com [Applied Spectra, Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Jeong, Sungho [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-11-01
We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results. - Highlights: • Broadband LIBS spectra of various edible sea salts were obtained. • Intensity correlation of emission lines of the elements in edible sea salts was analyzed. • The elements were categorized into three groups with independent discriminating power. • The effective combination of a few lines can provide dependable classification models.
Lee, Yonghoon; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Han, Song-Hee; Yoo, Jonghyun; Jeong, Sungho
2014-11-01
We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡云; 王大辉; 赵学庆
2016-01-01
In high power excimer laser system, angular multiplexing technique is employed to achieve both high energy and narrow pulse output. In this article, angular multiplexing technique was introduced, and a multiplexing encoding method was presented. This method encoded seed beam in two steps by sequential amplitude splitting. The optical elements were arranged in rectangle arrays and piled by layers. A specific optical design was made for XeCl high power excimer laser system in this laboratory. This method of angular multiplexing encoding has advantages of compacted space, small encoding error, good compatibility with alignment and measurement, and is also easy to fabricate and assemble. This design is adopted in the system and performs well.%在高功率准分子激光系统中，一般采用光学角多路技术来获得高能量窄脉冲输出。文中介绍了角多路技术原理，提出了一种采用矩形阵列和空间层叠光路结构的连续分振幅两次编码方式，并针对该实验室的XeCl高功率准分子激光系统进行了具体的编码光路设计，给出了设计实例。该方法具有编码结构紧凑，编码精度高，与光路准直、激光参数测量系统等兼容性好，便于加工制作和安装调节等优点，目前已在系统中应用，效果良好。
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burkardt Matthias
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.
Ramos, Paweł; Pieprzyca, Małgorzata; Pilawa, Barbara
2016-01-01
Complex free radical system in thermally sterilized acidum boricum (AB) was studied. Acidum boricum was sterilized at temperatures and times given by pharmaceutical norms: 160 degrees C and 120 min, 170 degrees C and 60 min and 180 degrees C and 30 min. The advanced spectroscopic tests were performed. The EPR spectra of free radicals were measured as the first derivatives with microwaves of 9.3 GHz frequency and magnetic modulation of 100 kHz. The Polish X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer of Radiopan (Poznań) was used. EPR lines were not observed for the nonheated AB. The broad EPR asymmetric lines were obtained for all the heated AB samples. The influence of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on the shape of EPR spectra of the heated drug samples was tested. The following asymmetry parameters: A1/A2, A1-A2, B1/B2, and B1-B2, were analyzed. The changes of these parameters with microwave power were observed. The strong dependence of shape and its parameters on microwave power proved the complex character of free radical system in thermally sterilized AB. Changes of microwave power during the detection of EPR spectra indicated complex character of free radicals in AB sterilized in hot air under all the tested conditions. Thermolysis, interactions between free radicals and interactions of free radicals with oxygen may be responsible for the complex free radicals system in thermally treated AB. Usefulness of continuous microwave saturation of EPR lines and shape analysis to examine free radicals in thermally sterilized drugs was confirmed.
Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon
1993-01-01
Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.
Bartelmann, Matthias; Berg, Daniel; Kozlikin, Elena; Lilow, Robert; Viermann, Celia
2014-01-01
We use the non-equlibrium statistical field theory for classical particles, recently developed by Mazenko and Das and Mazenko, together with the free generating functional we have previously derived for point sets initially correlated in phase space, to calculate the time evolution of power spectra in the free theory, i.e. neglecting particle interactions. We provide expressions taking linear and quadratic momentum correlations into account. Up to this point, the expressions are general with respect to the free propagator of the microscopic degrees of freedom. We then specialise the propagator to that expected for particles in cosmology treated within the Zel'dovich approximation and show that, to linear order in the momentum correlations, the linear growth of the cosmological power spectrum is reproduced. Quadratic momentum correlations return a first contribution to the non-linear evolution of the power spectrum, for which we derive a simple closed expression valid for arbitrary wave numbers. This expressio...
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Two-Season ACTPol Spectra and Parameters
Louis, Thibaut; Hasselfield, Matthew; Lungu, Marius; Maurin, Loïc; Addison, Graeme E; Ade, Peter A R; Aiola, Simone; Allison, Rupert; Amiri, Mandana; Angile, Elio; Battaglia, Nicholas; Beall, James A; de Bernardis, Francesco; Bond, J Richard; Britton, Joe; Calabrese, Erminia; Cho, Hsiao-mei; Choi, Steve K; Coughlin, Kevin; Crichton, Devin; Crowley, Kevin; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Ferraro, Simone; Fox, Anna E; Gallardo, Patricio; Gralla, Megan; Halpern, Mark; Henderson, Shawn; Hill, J Colin; Hilton, Gene C; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Ho, S P Patty; Huang, Zhiqi; Hubmayr, Johannes; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Irwin, Kent; Kasanda, Simon Muya; Klein, Jeff; Koopman, Brian; Kosowsky, Arthur; Li, Dale; Madhavacheril, Mathew; Marriage, Tobias A; McMahon, Jeff; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Munson, Charles; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Nibarger, John; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Nuñez, Carolina; Page, Lyman A; Pappas, Christine; Partridge, Bruce; Rojas, Felipe; Schaan, Emmanuel; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Simon, Sara; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Trac, Hy; Treu, Jesse; Tucker, Carole; Van Engelen, Alexander; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J
2016-01-01
We present the temperature and polarization angular power spectra measured by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol). We analyze night-time data collected during 2013-14 using two detector arrays at 149 GHz, from 548 deg$^2$ of sky on the celestial equator. We use these spectra, and the spectra measured with the MBAC camera on ACT from 2008-10, in combination with Planck and WMAP data to estimate cosmological parameters from the temperature, polarization, and temperature-polarization cross-correlations. We find the new ACTPol data to be consistent with the LCDM model. The ACTPol temperature-polarization cross-spectrum now provides stronger constraints on multiple parameters than the ACTPol temperature spectrum, including the baryon density, the acoustic peak angular scale, and the derived Hubble constant. Adding the new data to planck temperature data tightens the limits on damping tail parameters, for example reducing the joint uncertainty on the number of neutrino species and the primordial he...
Large-scale CMB temperature and polarization cross-spectra likelihoods
Mangilli, A; Tristram, M
2015-01-01
One of the main challenges left for the present and future Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments is the high precision measurement of the CMB polarization anisotropies at large angular scales. The reionization bump in the CMB polarization power spectra encodes unique informations about the reionization history of the Universe and the inflationary epoch. Such valuable information can be accessed only with an unprecedented accuracy and care on each step of the data analysis and its interpretation. In this paper we present a cross-spectra based approach for the analysis of the CMB data at large angular scales to constrain the reionization optical depth, the tensor to scalar ratio and the amplitude of the primordial scalar perturbations. Using cross-spectra has the advantage to eliminate spurious noise bias and to give a better handle of residual systematics with respect to the pixel-based approach used so far, allowing to efficiently combine the cosmological information encoded in cross-frequency or cros...
Recurrence of angular cheilitis.
Ohman, S C; Jontell, M; Dahlen, G
1988-08-01
The incidence of recurrence of angular cheilitis following a successful antimicrobial treatment was studied in 48 patients. Clinical assessments including a microbial examination were carried out 8 months and 5 yr after termination of treatment. Eighty percent of the patients reported recurrence of their angular cheilitis on one or more occasions during the observation period. Patients with cutaneous disorders associated with dry skin or intraoral leukoplakia had an increased incidence of recrudescence. Neither the presence of denture stomatitis nor the type of microorganisms isolated from the original lesions of angular cheilitis, i.e. Candida albicans and/or Staphylococcus aureus, were associated with the number of recurrences. The present observations indicate that treatment of the majority of patients with angular cheilitis should be considered in a longer perspective than previously supposed, due to the short lasting therapeutic effects of the antimicrobial therapy.
[Malignant angular cheilitis].
Seoane, J; Vázquez, J; Cazenave, A; de la Cruz Mera, A; Argila, F; Aguado, A
1996-01-01
A case of chronic angular cheilitis is reported. Candida albicans was isolated repeatedly and the process developed into epitheliomatous carcinoma. The etiopathogenic role of Candida albicans and possible mechanism of action are discussed.
Gema Nazriyanti
2008-01-01
Angular cheilitis adalah inflamasi akut atau kronis pada sudut mulut yang ditandai dengan adanya flsur-fisur, retak-retak pada sudut bibir, berwarna kemerahan, mengalami ulserasi disertai rasa terbakar, nyeri dan rasa kering pada sudut mulut. Dapat mengenai orang tua, dewasa dan anak-anak. Banyak pendapat yang mengemukakan tentang etiologi dari angular cheilitis, antara lain defisiensi vitamin B kompleks, denture soremouth, defisiensi besi, kebiasaan bernafas melalui mulut, membasahi bib...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmer, B. D.; Tyler, J. B.; Hornschemeier, A. E.;
2015-01-01
We present nearly simultaneous Chandra and NuSTAR observations of two actively star-forming galaxies within 50 Mpc: NGC 3256 and NGC 3310. Both galaxies are significantly detected by both Chandra and NuSTAR, which together provide the first-ever spectra of these two galaxies spanning 0.3-30 ke...... with equivalent measurements for nearby star-forming galaxies M83 and NGC 253, we analyze the star formation rate (SFR) normalized spectra of these starburst galaxies. The spectra of all four galaxies show sharply declining power-law slopes at energies above 3-6 keV primarily due to ULX populations. Our......-Eddington accreting ULXs that have been studied individually in a targeted NuSTAR ULX program. We also find that NGC 3310 exhibits a factor of ≈3-10 elevation of X-ray emission over the other star-forming galaxies due to a corresponding overabundance of ULXs. We argue that the excess of ULXs in NGC 3310 is most...
Optical orbital angular momentum
Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.
2017-01-01
We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069775
Optical orbital angular momentum
Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.
2017-02-01
We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Denskat, K. U.; Beinroth, H. J.; Neubauer, F. M.
HELIOS-2 observations of the interplanetary vector magnetic field are used to obtain power spectral density estimates from 2.4 x 10 to the -5th Hz up to 470 Hz. The instrumentation, measuring method, and raw data analysis are briefly described, and a short summary of the algorithm used for the computation of the density estimates from flux-gate magnetometer data is given. Examples are presented of magnetic field power spectra observed at different heliocentric distances as well as the variation of the spectra in the course of a high-speed stream. The observed spectra are interpreted in terms of waves and of MHD turbulence.
Parker, G. W.
1978-01-01
Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)
"Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.
da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus
2014-03-17
Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.
"Angular" plasma cell cheilitis
da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nadia Aparecida; Netto, Jose Fillus
2014-01-01
Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yura, Harold; Hanson, Steen Grüner
2012-01-01
Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set with the......Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set...... with the desired spectral distribution, after which this colored Gaussian probability distribution is transformed via an inverse transform into the desired probability distribution. In most cases the method provides satisfactory results and can thus be considered an engineering approach. Several illustrative...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alina Bey
Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS holds promise as a non-invasive therapy for the treatment of neurological disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, tinnitus, and epilepsy. Complex interdependencies between stimulus duration, frequency and intensity obscure the exact effects of rTMS stimulation on neural activity in the cortex, making evaluation of and comparison between rTMS studies difficult. To explain the influence of rTMS on neural activity (e.g. in the motor cortex, we use a neuronal network model. The results demonstrate that the model adequately explains experimentally observed short term effects of rTMS on the band power in common frequency bands used in electroencephalography (EEG. We show that the equivalent local field potential (eLFP band power depends on stimulation intensity rather than on stimulation frequency. Additionally, our model resolves contradictions in experiments.
Imperatori, Claudio; Farina, Benedetto; Brunetti, Riccardo; Gnoni, Valentina; Testani, Elisa; Quintiliani, Maria I; Del Gatto, Claudia; Indraccolo, Allegra; Contardi, Anna; Speranza, Anna M; Della Marca, Giacomo
2013-01-01
The n-back task is widely used to investigate the neural basis of Working Memory (WM) processes. The principal aim of this study was to explore and compare the EEG power spectra during two n-back tests with different levels of difficulty (1-back vs. 3-back). Fourteen healthy subjects were enrolled (seven men and seven women, mean age 31.21 ± 7.05 years, range: 23-48). EEG was recorded while performing the N-back test, by means of 19 surface electrodes referred to joint mastoids. EEG analysis were conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution brain Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. The statistical comparison between EEG power spectra in the two conditions was performed using paired t-statistics on the coherence values after Fisher's z transformation available in the LORETA program package. The frequency bands considered were: delta (0.5-4 Hz); theta (4.5-7.5 Hz); alpha (8-12.5 Hz); beta (13-30 Hz); gamma (30.5-100 Hz). Significant changes occurred in the delta band: in the 3-back condition an increased delta power was localized in a brain region corresponding to the Brodmann Area (BA) 28 in the left posterior entorhinal cortex (T = 3.112; p < 0.05) and in the BA 35 in the left perirhinal cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus (T = 2.876; p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the right hemisphere and in the alpha, theta, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Our results indicate that the most prominent modification induced by the increased complexity of the task occur in the mesial left temporal lobe structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudio eImperatori
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The n-back task is widely used to investigate the neural basis of Working Memory (WM processes. The principal aim of this study was to explore and compare the EEG power spectra during two n-back tests with different levels of difficulty (1-back vs 3-back.Fourteen healthy subjects were enrolled (7 men and 7 women, mean age 31.21±7.05 years, range: 23-48. EEG was recorded while performing the N-back test, by means of 19 surface electrodes referred to joint mastoids. EEG analysis were conducted by means of the standardized LOw Resolution brain Electric Tomography (sLORETA software. The statistical comparison between EEG power spectra in the two conditions was performed using paired t-statistics on the coherence values after Fisher’s z transformation available in the LORETA program package. The frequency bands considered were: delta (0.5-4 Hz; theta (4.5–7.5 Hz; alpha (8–12.5 Hz; beta (13–30 Hz; gamma (30.5–100 Hz. Significant changes occurred in the delta band: in the 3-back condition an increased delta power was localized in a brain region corresponding to the Brodmann Area (BA 28 in the left posterior entorhinal cortex (T = 3.112; p<0.05 and in the BA 35 in the left peririnhal cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus (T = 2.876; p<0.05. No significant differences were observed in the right hemisphere and in the alpha, theta, beta and gamma frequency bands. Our results indicate that the most prominent modification induced by the increased complexity of the task occur in the mesial left temporal lobe structures.
Bessaa, Assia; Djebli, Mourad
2017-02-01
We present a numerical analysis of several phase transitions which take place in the eigenmode spectrum of a two-dimensional (2D) logarithmic cluster subjected to an anisotropic power law confinement. Varying the anisotropy in a non-parabolic soft confinement drives the system to undergo structural phase transitions of first order, while for a hard wall confinement this variation affects strongly the eigenmode spectrum and breaks the symmetry of the system due to the removal of degeneracy and the coupling between some normal modes.
Electron energy and angular distributions in radiotherapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deasy, J.O.
1992-01-01
Electron energy and angular distributions and associated effects for radiotherapy accelerators and beta-ray ophthalmic applicators have been measured and modeled. Ophthalmic applicator extrapolation chamber calibration geometries were studied using Monte Carlo calculations and analytic methods. A large interface effect increases the surface dose by a factor of about 1.5 and makes very small gap width measurements necessary (0.1--0.2 mm). Dose deposition in tissue near the surface was simulated using the Monte Carlo technique. Charge collection in the extrapolation chamber was analytically modeled on the basis of ionized free electrons back-diffusing into the cathode, while taking into account attachment to O[sub 2] ions. Two small, portable, magnetic spectrometers for the measurement of clinical radiotherapy electron beams were constructed. One employs film as a spectrograph and is suitable for routine measurements; the second is a 90[degree] single-focusing spectrometer and uses fast pulse counting electrons and pulse-height analysis. Spectra were measured for the University of Louisville's Theratronics T20 and Philips SL25 linear accelerators. The T20 spectra were all Gaussian with energy widths of about 5%. The SL25 energy spectra were of varied shapes, with energy widths of 10--20%. Evidence of 3--7% shifts in the average energy of the SL25 beams was observed. Angular measurements were made which showed the Gaussian angular spread of the incident beam. The Monte Carlo code CYLTRAN and measured spectra were used to reconstruct depth dose curves. The peak energy structure only marginally affects the shape of the depth-dose curve, and some features of the depth-dose curves must be affected by incident straggled or widely-scattered electrons. In the absence of lower energy straggled electrons, the range parameters and the maximum dose gradient depend on the mean energy of the peak electrons.
Li, Jianbo; Lin, Gao; Liu, Jun; Li, Zhiyuan
2017-01-01
Consideration of the dynamic effects of the site and structural parameter uncertainty is required by the standards for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in most countries. The anti-seismic standards provide two basic methods to analyze parameter uncertainty. Directly manually dealing with the calculated floor response spectra (FRS) values of deterministic approaches is the first method. The second method is to perform probability statistical analysis of the FRS results on the basis of the Monte Carlo method. The two methods can only reflect the overall effects of the uncertain parameters, and the results cannot be screened for a certain parameter's influence and contribution. In this study, based on the dynamic analyses of the floor response spectra of NPPs, a comprehensive index of the assessed impact for various uncertain parameters is presented and recommended, including the correlation coefficient, the regression slope coefficient and Tornado swing. To compensate for the lack of guidance in the NPP seismic standards, the proposed method can effectively be used to evaluate the contributions of various parameters from the aspects of sensitivity, acuity and statistical swing correlations. Finally, examples are provided to verify the set of indicators from systematic and intuitive perspectives, such as the uncertainty of the impact of the structure parameters and the contribution to the FRS of NPPs. The index is sensitive to different types of parameters, which provides a new technique for evaluating the anti-seismic parameters required for NPPs.
Power density and temperature effects on the photoluminescence spectra of InAlAs/GaAlAs quantum dots
Ben Daly, A.; Riahi, H.; Bernardot, F.; Barisien, T.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Maaref, M. A.; Testelin, C.
2017-04-01
Photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurement techniques are used to characterize the size and the density of In1-xAlxAs/Ga0.67Al0.33As quantum dots (QDs) for different QD aluminium compositions. The integrated photoluminescence intensity (IPL) depends on an excitation light power, decreases with increasing the aluminium proportion emphasizing the QDs surface density decreasing. In TRPL experiments, the influence of QD lateral coupling is evidence in high QD density sample, the radiative lifetime increases with increasing temperatures for sample with a low aluminium proportion, instead, the observed radiative lifetime keep constant for samples with a high aluminium proportions in agreement with the QD zero-dimensional confinement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Kawazu
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We investigated the excitation power P dependence of photoluminescence (PL spectra of GaSb type-II quantum dots (QDs in GaAs grown by droplet epitaxy. We prepared two QD samples annealed at slightly different temperatures (380 oC and 400 oC and carried out PL measurements. The 20 oC increase of the annealing temperature leads to (1 about 140 and 60 times stronger wetting layer (WL luminescence at low and high P, (2 about 45% large energy shift of QD luminescence with P, and (3 the different P dependence of the PL intensity ratio between the QD and the WL. These differences of the PL characteristics are explained by the effects of the WL.
Mobley, Joel; Mack, Richard A; Gladden, Joseph R; Mantena, P Raju
2009-07-01
Using a broadband through-transmission technique, the attenuation coefficient and phase velocity spectra have been measured for a set of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-nylon composites (from pure nylon to 20% MWCNT by weight) in the ultrasonic frequency band from 4 to 14 MHz. The samples were found to be effectively homogeneous on spatial scales from the low end of ultrasonic wavelengths investigated and up (>0.2 mm). Using Kramers-Kronig relations, the attenuation and dispersion data were found to be consistent with a power-law attenuation model with a range of exponents from y=1.12 to y=1.19 over the measurement bandwidth. The attenuation coefficients of the respective samples are found to decrease with increasing MWCNT content and a similar trend holds also for the dispersion. In contrast, the mean phase velocities for the samples rise with increasing MWCNT content indicating an increase in the mechanical moduli.
Makovetskii, D N
2012-01-01
A problem of self-organized motions in solid-state nonequilibrium media has been studied experimentally using methods of quantum acoustics. Generalized Poincare cross-sections of microwave power spectra (MPS) have been obtained in an optical-wavelengths acoustic laser (paramagnetic phaser) based on ruby crystal. Considerable narrowing of MPS and their autowave-like superslow motion have been observed under conditions of periodical pump modulation beyond the region of the phaser relaxation resonance. Some preliminar experimental results of this work were published in: Solid State Communications, Vol.90, No.8, P.501 (1994). An interpretation of the experimental data see arXiv:1101.0482v1 ; arXiv:cond-mat/0410460v1 ; arXiv:cond-mat/0303188v1 .
Angular cheilitis after tonsillectomy.
England, R J; Lau, M; Ell, S R
1999-08-01
The operation of tonsillectomy requires the oral cavity to be held open mechanically in an unconscious patient, and intra-oral instrumentation to occur. Angular cheilitis may arise as a result of this after operation. This can cause morbidity and delay the re-establishment of a normal diet. The aim of this study was to identify what factors increase the likelihood of developing this problem postoperatively. Sixty patients were randomly selected in a prospective manner. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative variables were recorded. The frequency of development of postoperative angular cheilitis was recorded. The prevalence of the condition was related to the prerecorded variables. Parametric analysis showed that the chance of developing angular cheilitis was directly related to the use of diathermy haemostasis (P = 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of developing this complication if diathermy was used is 3.5 (95% confidence intervals 0.99, 12.4) and operation difficulty may also be a relevant variable. No other recorded variables were found to be significant.
Quantum Heuristics of Angular Momentum
Levy-Leblond, Jean-Marc
1976-01-01
Discusses the quantization of angular momentum components, Heisenberg-type inequalities for their spectral dispersions, and the quantization of the angular momentum modulus, without using operators or commutation relations. (MLH)
Learning from observations of the microwave background at small angular scales
Sáez, D
1996-01-01
In this paper, we focus our attention on the following question: How well can we recover the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background from the maps of a given experiment?. Each experiment is described by a a pixelization scale, a beam size, a noise level and a sky coverage. We use accurate numerical simulations of the microwave sky and a cold dark matter model for structure formation in the universe. Angular scales smaller than those of previous simulations are included. The spectrum obtained from the simulated maps is appropriately compared with the theoretical one. Relative deviations between these spectra are estimated. Various contributions to these deviations are analyzed. The method used for spectra comparisons is discussed.
Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra
Corio, PL
2012-01-01
Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
言杰; 刘荣; 蒋励; 鹿心鑫; 朱通华; 林菊芳; 王玫; 温中伟; 汪一夫
2011-01-01
基于反冲质子法建立了一种测量D-T中子与平板型宏观样品作用的次级中子角度谱的实验方法.为保证探测器的能量线性并在较低的中子有效测量下阈（0.5MeV）情况下获得好的中子-伽马射线甄别性能,采用高、低能段分别测量的方法.采用事件记录法,同时记录了次级中子和伴随伽马射线的脉冲形状甄别和脉冲幅度二维信息,利用基于ROOT数据分析平台编写的离线数据分析程序,完成了伴随伽马射线的挑选和扣除,以及高、低两能段反冲质子谱的拼接,并成功的将神经网络技术应用于中子能谱的解谱,获得了D-T中子与9和18cm厚平板型聚乙烯材料作用的0.5—15MeV的次级中子角度谱实验结果.实验模型的MC模拟由MCNP5完成,数据库采用ENDF-VI,实验结果和MC计算结果在实验不确定度范围内一致.%An experimental method of measuring the secondary neutron angular spectrum from polyethylene slab assembly with D-T neutron source based on the proton-recoil method is developed.In order to ensure the energy linearity of the detector and obtain a good neutron-gamma discrimination capability in the case of a low effective neutron threshold（0.5MeV）,neutron energy spectrum is measured in two parts：one is in a high energy region and the other in a lower energy region.The pulse shape discrimination（PSD） and the pulse height distribution（PH） two-dimensional information of the secondary neutron and the associated gamma rays are recorded event-by-event simultaneously.The selection and the deduction of the gamma ray events and the joining of the two-segment energy spectra are carried out by using the off-line data analysis programs written in the ROOT data analysis framework.Furthermore,an artificial neural network technique is used to accomplish the unfolding of the neutron spectra successfully.The experimental results of the second neutron angular spectra from 9cm and 18cm thick
Hashimoto, Ichihiko; Matsubara, Takahiko; Namikawa, Toshiya; Yokoyama, Shuichiro
2015-01-01
We investigate the statistical power of higher-order statistics and cross-correlation statistics to constrain the primordial non-Gaussianity from the imaging surveys. In particular, we consider the local-type primordial non- Gaussianity and discuss how well one can tightly constrain the higher-order non-Gaussian parameters ($g_{\\rm NL}$ and $\\tau_{\\rm NL}$) as well as the leading order parameter $f_{\\rm NL}$ from the halo/galaxy clustering and weak gravitational lensing measurements. Making use of a strong scale-dependent behavior in the galaxy/halo clustering, Fisher matrix analysis reveals that the bispectra can break the degeneracy between non-Gaussian parameters ($f_{\\rm NL}$, $g_{\\rm NL}$ and $\\tau_{\\rm NL}$) and this will give simultaneous constraints on those three parameters. The combination of cross-correlation statistics further improves the constraints by factor of 2. As a result, upcoming imaging surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope have the potential to improve the constraints on the ...
He, Xiaozhou; van Gils, Dennis P M; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Ahlers, Guenter
2014-05-02
We report measurements of the temperature variance σ(2)(z,r) and frequency power spectrum P(f,z,r) (z is the distance from the sample bottom and r the radial coordinate) in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) for Rayleigh numbers Ra = 1.6 × 10(13) and 1.1 × 10(15) and for a Prandtl number Pr ≃ 0.8 for a sample with a height L = 224 cm and aspect ratio D/L=0.50 (D is the diameter). For z/L ≲ 0.1 σ(2)(z,r) was consistent with a logarithmic dependence on z, and there was a universal (independent of Ra, r, and z) normalized spectrum which, for 0.02 ≲ fτ(0) ≲ 0.2, had the form P(fτ(0)) = P(0)(fτ(0))(-1) with P(0) = 0.208 ± 0.008 a universal constant. Here τ(0) = sqrt[2R] where R is the radius of curvature of the temperature autocorrelation function C(τ) at τ = 0. For z/L ≃ 0.5 the measurements yielded P(fτ(0))∼(fτ(0))(-α) with α in the range from 3/2 to 5/3. All the results are similar to those for velocity fluctuations in shear flows at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, suggesting the possibility of an analogy between the flows that is yet to be determined in detail.
Zhao, W; Ji, W G; Rowlands, J A
2001-10-01
The effects of K fluorescence on the imaging performance of photoconductor-based x-ray imaging systems are investigated. A cascaded linear systems model was developed, where a parallel cascaded process was implemented to take into account the effect of K-fluorescence reabsorption on the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and the spatial frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency [DQE(f)] of an imaging system. The investigation was focused on amorphous selenium (a-Se), which is the most highly developed photoconductor material for x-ray imaging. The results were compared to those obtained with Monte Carlo simulation using the same imaging condition and detector parameters, so that the validity of the cascaded linear system model could be confirmed. Our results revealed that K-fluorescence reabsorption in a-Se is responsible for a 18% drop in NPS at high spatial frequencies with an incident x-ray photon energy of E=20 keV (which is just above the K edge of 12.5 keV). When E increases to 60 keV, the effects of K-fluorescence reabsorption on NPS decrease to approximately 12% at high spatial frequencies. Because the high frequency drop is present in both MTF and NPS, the effect of K fluorescence on DQE(f) is minimal, especially for E that is much higher than the K edge. We also applied the cascaded linear system model to a newly developed compound photoconductor, lead iodide (PbI2), and found that at 60 keV there is a high frequency drop in NPS of 19%. The calculated NPS were compared to previously published measurements of PbI2 detectors.
Vanston, Alex
2013-01-01
This book uses a practical, step-by-step approach, starting with how to build directives from the ground up before moving on to creating web applications comprised of multiple modules all working together to provide the best user experience possible.This book is intended for intermediate JavaScript developers who are looking to enhance their understanding of single-page web application development with a focus on AngularJS and the JavaScript MVC frameworks.It is expected that readers will understand basic JavaScript patterns and idioms and can recognize JSON formatted data.
Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Innamorati, Marco; Farina, Benedetto; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Lamis, Dorian A; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Contardi, Anna; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo
2015-12-01
We evaluated the modifications of electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra and EEG connectivity in overweight and obese patients with elevated food addiction (FA) symptoms. Fourteen overweight and obese patients (3 men and 11 women) with three or more FA symptoms and fourteen overweight and obese patients (3 men and 11 women) with two or less FA symptoms were included in the study. EEG was recorded during three different conditions: 1) five minutes resting state (RS), 2) five minutes resting state after a single taste of a chocolate milkshake (ML-RS), and 3) five minutes resting state after a single taste of control neutral solution (N-RS). EEG analyses were conducted by means of the exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (eLORETA). Significant modification was observed only in the ML-RS condition. Compared to controls, patients with three or more FA symptoms showed an increase of delta power in the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann Area [BA] 8) and in the right precentral gyrus (BA 9), and theta power in the right insula (BA 13) and in the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47). Furthermore, compared to controls, patients with three or more FA symptoms showed an increase of functional connectivity in fronto-parietal areas in both the theta and alpha band. The increase of functional connectivity was also positively associated with the number of FA symptoms. Taken together, our results show that FA has similar neurophysiological correlates of other forms of substance-related and addictive disorders suggesting similar psychopathological mechanisms.
Orbital angular momentum microlaser
Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang
2016-07-01
Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.
Okumura, Eiichiro; Kawashita, Ikuo; Ishida, Takayuki
2014-07-01
We have been developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pneumoconiosis based on a rule-based plus artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of power spectra. In this study, we have developed three enhancement methods for the abnormal patterns to reduce false-positive and false-negative values. The image database consisted of 2 normal and 15 abnormal chest radiographs. The International Labour Organization standard chest radiographs with pneumoconiosis were categorized as subcategory, size, and shape of pneumoconiosis. Regions of interest (ROIs) with a matrix size of 32 × 32 were selected from normal and abnormal lungs. Three new enhanced methods were obtained by window function, top-hat transformation, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix analysis. We calculated the power spectrum (PS) of all ROIs by Fourier transform. For the classification between normal and abnormal ROIs, we applied a combined analysis using the ruled-based plus the ANN method. To evaluate the overall performance of this CAD scheme, we employed ROC analysis for distinguishing between normal and abnormal ROIs. On the chest radiographs of the highest categories (severe pneumoconiosis) and the lowest categories (early pneumoconiosis), this CAD scheme achieved area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.93 ± 0.02 and 0.72 ± 0.03. The combined rule-based plus ANN method with the three new enhanced methods obtained the highest classification performance for distinguishing between abnormal and normal ROIs. Our CAD system based on the three new enhanced methods would be useful in assisting radiologists in the classification of pneumoconiosis.
γ - γ Angular Correlation Measurements With GRIFFIN
Maclean, Andrew; Griffin Collaboration
2015-10-01
When an excited nuclear state emits successive γ-rays causing a γ - γ cascade an anisotropy is found in the spatial distribution of γ2 with respect to γ1. Defining the direction of γ1 as the z-axis, the intermediate level, in general will have an uneven distribution of m-states. This causes an anisotropy in the angular correlation of the second γ-ray with respect to the first. These angular correlations are expressed by the W (θ) that depends on numerical coefficients described by the sequence of spin-parity values for the nuclear states involved, the multipolarities and mixing ratios. Angular correlations can be used for the assignment of spins and parities for the nuclear states, and thus provide a powerful means to elucidate the structure of nuclei far from stability through β - γ - γ coincidence measurements. In order to explore the sensitivity of the new 16 clover-detector GRIFFIN γ-ray spectrometer at TRIUMF-ISAC to such γ - γ angular correlations, and to optimize its performance for these measurements we have studied a well known γ - γ cascade from 60Co decay through both experimental measurements and Geant4 simulation. Results will be shown in this talk. Work supported by the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the National Research Council of Canada.
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-03-01
Inequality indices are widely applied in economics and in the social sciences as quantitative measures of the socioeconomic inequality of human societies. The application of inequality indices extends to size-distributions at large, where these indices can be used as general gauges of statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, as inequality indices are plentiful, arrays of such indices facilitate high-detail quantification of statistical heterogeneity. In this paper we elevate from arrays of inequality indices to inequality spectra: continuums of inequality indices that are parameterized by a single control parameter. We present a general methodology of constructing Lorenz-based inequality spectra, apply the general methodology to establish four sets of inequality spectra, investigate the properties of these sets, and show how these sets generalize known inequality gauges such as: the Gini index, the extended Gini index, the Rényi index, and hill curves.
Electron Energy and Angular Distributions in Radiotherapy.
Deasy, Joseph Owen
1992-01-01
Electron energy and angular distributions and associated effects for radiotherapy accelerators and beta -ray ophthalmic applicators have been measured and modeled. Ophthalmic applicator extrapolation chamber calibration geometries were studied using Monte Carlo calculations and analytic methods. A large interface effect increases the surface dose by a factor of about 1.5 and makes very small gap width measurements necessary (0.1-0.2 mm). Dose deposition in tissue near the surface was simulated using the Monte Carlo technique. Charge collection in the extrapolation chamber was analytically modeled on the basis of ionized free electrons back-diffusing into the cathode, while taking into account attachment to O_2 ions. Previous models underpredict the charge loss, mainly because they assume that all the charge carriers are ions. Two small, portable, magnetic spectrometers for the measurement of clinical radiotherapy electron beams were constructed. One employs film as a spectrograph and is suitable for routine measurements; the second is a 90^circ single-focusing spectrometer and uses fast pulse counting electronics and pulse-height analysis. Tests with monoenergetic electron beams at the National Research Council of Canada's electron linear accelerator showed that the system is free from spectral distortion and verified the spectrometers' energy calibrations. Spectra were measured for the University of Louisville's Theratronics T20 and Philips SL25 linear accelerators. The T20 spectra were all nearly Gaussian in shape with energy widths of about 5%. The SL25 energy spectra were of varied shapes, with energy widths of 10-20%. Evidence of 3-7% shifts in the average energy of the SL25 beams was observed. Angular measurements were made which showed the Gaussian angular spread of the incident beam. The Monte Carlo code CYLTRAN and measured spectra were used to reconstruct depth dose curves. Comparisons with measured depth dose curves show that the peak energy structure
Angular integrals in d dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Somogyi, Gabor
2011-01-15
We discuss the evaluation of certain d dimensional angular integrals which arise in perturbative field theory calculations. We find that the angular integral with n denominators can be computed in terms of a certain special function, the so-called H-function of several variables. We also present several illustrative examples of the general result and briefly consider some applications. (orig.)
Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.
Santarelli, Vincent
1979-01-01
Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)
On Angular Sampling Methods for 3-D Spatial Channel Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fan, Wei; Jämsä, Tommi; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum
2015-01-01
This paper discusses generating three dimensional (3D) spatial channel models with emphasis on the angular sampling methods. Three angular sampling methods, i.e. modified uniform power sampling, modified uniform angular sampling, and random pairing methods are proposed and investigated in detail....... The random pairing method, which uses only twenty sinusoids in the ray-based model for generating the channels, presents good results if the spatial channel cluster is with a small elevation angle spread. For spatial clusters with large elevation angle spreads, however, the random pairing method would fail...... and the other two methods should be considered....
Angular momentum of sound pulses.
Lekner, John
2006-07-05
Three-dimensionally localized acoustic pulses in an isotropic fluid medium necessarily have transverse components of momentum density. Those with an azimuthal component of momentum density can carry angular momentum. The component of total pulse angular momentum along the direction of the total momentum is an invariant (constant in time and independent of choice of origin). The pulse energy, momentum and angular momentum are evaluated analytically for a family of localized solutions of the wave equation. In the limit where the pulses have many oscillations within their spatial extent ([Formula: see text], where k is the wavenumber and a determines the size of a pulse), the energy, momentum and angular momentum are consistent with a multiphonon representation of the pulse, each phonon having energy [Formula: see text], momentum [Formula: see text] and angular momentum [Formula: see text] (with integer m).
Bailey, Simon
2015-01-01
This book is intended for developers who have an understanding of the basic principles behind both AngularJS and test-driven development. You, as a developer, are interested in eliminating the fear related to either introducing tests to an existing codebase or starting out testing on a fresh AngularJS application. If you're a team leader or part of a QA team with the responsibility of ensuring full test coverage of an application, then this book is ideal for you to comprehend the full testing scope required by your developers. Whether you're new to or are well versed with AngularJS, this book
Fitting PAC spectra with a hybrid algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alves, M. A., E-mail: mauro@sepn.org [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (Brazil); Carbonari, A. W., E-mail: carbonar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil)
2008-01-15
A hybrid algorithm (HA) that blends features of genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) was implemented for simultaneous fits of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra. The main characteristic of the HA is the incorporation of a selection criterion based on SA into the basic structure of GA. The results obtained with the HA compare favorably with fits performed with conventional methods.
High orbital angular momentum harmonic generation
Vieira, J; Alves, E P; Fonseca, R A; Mendonça, J T; Bingham, R; Norreys, P; Silva, L O
2016-01-01
We identify and explore a high orbital angular momentum (OAM) harmonics generation and amplification mechanism that manipulates the OAM independently of any other laser property, by preserving the initial laser wavelength, through stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma. The high OAM harmonics spectra can extend at least up to the limiting value imposed by the paraxial approximation. We show with theory and particle-in-cell simulations that the orders of the OAM harmonics can be tuned according to a selection rule that depends on the initial OAM of the interacting waves. We illustrate the high OAM harmonics generation in a plasma using several examples including the generation of prime OAM harmonics. The process can also be realised in any nonlinear optical Kerr media supporting three-wave interactions.
High Orbital Angular Momentum Harmonic Generation
Vieira, J.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Alves, E. P.; Fonseca, R. A.; Mendonça, J. T.; Bingham, R.; Norreys, P.; Silva, L. O.
2016-12-01
We identify and explore a high orbital angular momentum (OAM) harmonics generation and amplification mechanism that manipulates the OAM independently of any other laser property, by preserving the initial laser wavelength, through stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma. The high OAM harmonics spectra can extend at least up to the limiting value imposed by the paraxial approximation. We show with theory and particle-in-cell simulations that the orders of the OAM harmonics can be tuned according to a selection rule that depends on the initial OAM of the interacting waves. We illustrate the high OAM harmonics generation in a plasma using several examples including the generation of prime OAM harmonics. The process can also be realized in any nonlinear optical Kerr media supporting three-wave interactions.
Menard, Dan
2013-01-01
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in an easytoread style, with a strong emphasis on realworld, practical examples. Stepbystep explanations are provided for performing important tasks.This book is for web developers familiar with JavascriptIt doesn't cover the history of AngularJS, and it's not a pitch to convince you that AngularJS is the best framework on the entire web. It's a guide to help you learn everything you need to know about AngularJS in as few pa
Angular momentum in human walking.
Herr, Hugh; Popovic, Marko
2008-02-01
Angular momentum is a conserved physical quantity for isolated systems where no external moments act about a body's center of mass (CM). However, in the case of legged locomotion, where the body interacts with the environment (ground reaction forces), there is no a priori reason for this relationship to hold. A key hypothesis in this paper is that angular momentum is highly regulated throughout the walking cycle about all three spatial directions [|Lt| approximately 0], and therefore horizontal ground reaction forces and the center of pressure trajectory can be explained predominantly through an analysis that assumes zero net moment about the body's CM. Using a 16-segment human model and gait data for 10 study participants, we found that calculated zero-moment forces closely match experimental values (Rx2=0.91; Ry2=0.90). Additionally, the centroidal moment pivot (point where a line parallel to the ground reaction force, passing through the CM, intersects the ground) never leaves the ground support base, highlighting how closely the body regulates angular momentum. Principal component analysis was used to examine segmental contributions to whole-body angular momentum. We found that whole-body angular momentum is small, despite substantial segmental momenta, indicating large segment-to-segment cancellations ( approximately 95% medio-lateral, approximately 70% anterior-posterior and approximately 80% vertical). Specifically, we show that adjacent leg-segment momenta are balanced in the medio-lateral direction (left foot momentum cancels right foot momentum, etc.). Further, pelvis and abdomen momenta are balanced by leg, chest and head momenta in the anterior-posterior direction, and leg momentum is balanced by upper-body momentum in the vertical direction. Finally, we discuss the determinants of gait in the context of these segment-to-segment cancellations of angular momentum.
Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum
Burr, A. F.
1974-01-01
Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten
2016-01-01
In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...
Olympic Wrestling and Angular Momentum.
Carle, Mark
1988-01-01
Reported is the use of a wrestling photograph in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The photograph presents a maneuver that could serve as an example for a discussion on equilibrium, forces, torque, and angular motion. Provided are some qualitative thoughts as well as quantitative calculations. (YP)
True CMB Power Spectrum Estimation
Paykari, P; Fadili, M J
2012-01-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum is a powerful cosmological probe as it entails almost all the statistical information of the CMB perturbations. Having access to only one sky, the CMB power spectrum measured by our experiments is only a realization of the true underlying angular power spectrum. In this paper we aim to recover the true underlying CMB power spectrum from the one realization that we have without a need to know the cosmological parameters. The sparsity of the CMB power spectrum is first investigated in two dictionaries; Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Wavelet Transform (WT). The CMB power spectrum can be recovered with only a few percentage of the coefficients in both of these dictionaries and hence is very compressible in these dictionaries. We study the performance of these dictionaries in smoothing a set of simulated power spectra. Based on this, we develop a technique that estimates the true underlying CMB power spectrum from data, i.e. without a need to know the cosmo...
CMB anisotropies: Total angular momentum method
Hu, Wayne; White, Martin
1997-07-01
A total angular momentum representation simplifies the radiation transport problem for temperature and polarization anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Scattering terms couple only the quadrupole moments of the distributions and each moment corresponds directly to the observable angular pattern on the sky. We develop and employ these techniques to study the general properties of anisotropy generation from scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations to the metric and the matter, both in the cosmological fluids and from any seed perturbations (e.g., defects) that may be present. The simpler, more transparent form and derivation of the Boltzmann equations brings out the geometric and model-independent aspects of temperature and polarization anisotropy formation. Large angle scalar polarization provides a robust means to distinguish between isocurvature and adiabatic models for structure formation in principle. Vector modes have the unique property that the CMB polarization is dominated by magnetic-type parity at small angles (a factor of 6 in power compared with 0 for the scalars and 8/13 for the tensors) and hence potentially distinguishable independent of the model for the seed. The tensor modes produce a different sign from the scalars and vectors for the temperature-polarization correlations at large angles. We explore conditions under which one perturbation type may dominate over the others including a detailed treatment of the photon-baryon fluid before recombination.
Angular dependent study on ferromagnetic resonance and spin excitations by spin rectification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yichao; Fan, Xiaolong, E-mail: fanxiaolong@lzu.edu.cn; Zhao, Xiaobing; Rao, Jinwei; Zhou, Hengan; Guo, Dangwei; Xue, Desheng [The Key Lab for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)
2015-01-14
We report angular dependent spin rectification spectra which are applied to studying spin excitations in single permalloy stripe. Based on planar Hall effect, those spin excitations generate special resonant dc Hall voltages, which have been characterized as functions of the amplitude and direction of applied magnetic field. Through high angular resolution 2D mappings, the evolutions of different spin excitation can be directly presented, and the dynamic magnetic parameters such as the gyromagnetic ratio, effective exchange field, as well as the quantized numbers of standing spin waves can be accurately determined through fitting the angular evolution of each resonance.
Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Bowin
2009-03-01
Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm^{2}s^{−1}. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayub, M. K. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-10-15
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
Angular momentum in QGP holography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett McInnes
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The quark chemical potential is one of the fundamental parameters describing the quark–gluon plasma produced by sufficiently energetic heavy-ion collisions. It is not large at the extremely high temperatures probed by the LHC, but it plays a key role in discussions of the beam energy scan programmes at the RHIC and other facilities. On the other hand, collisions at such energies typically (that is, in peripheral collisions give rise to very high values of the angular momentum density. Here we explain that holographic estimates of the quark chemical potential of a rotating sample of plasma can be very considerably improved by taking the angular momentum into account.
The integration of angular velocity
Boyle, Michael
2016-01-01
A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical problem of precessing black-hole binaries. It is shown that a straightforward solution directly using quaternions is most efficient and accurate, and that the norm of the quaternion is irrelevant. Integration of the generator of the rotation can also be made roughly as efficient as integration of the rotation. Both methods will typically be twice as efficient naive vector- or matrix-based methods. Implementation by means of standard general-purpose numerical integrators is stable and efficient, so that such problems can ...
AngularJS test-driven development
Chaplin, Tim
2015-01-01
This book is for developers who want to learn about AngularJS development by applying testing techniques. You are assumed to have a basic knowledge and understanding of HTML, JavaScript, and AngularJS.
Effects of Angular Momentum on Halo Profiles
Lentz, Erik W; Rosenberg, Leslie J
2016-01-01
The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N-body simulations has proven to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. In this letter we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean ($\\lambda \\lesssim 0.20$) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large ($\\lambda \\gtrsim 0.20$) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to $\\lambda \\lesssim 0.20$. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.
The Angular Trispectrum of the CMB
Hu, W
2001-01-01
We study the general properties of the CMB temperature four-point function, specifically its harmonic analogue the angular trispectrum, and illustrate its utility in finding optimal quadratic statistics through the weak gravitational lensing effect. We determine the general form of the trispectrum, under the assumptions of rotational, permutation, and parity invariance, its estimators on the sky, and their Gaussian noise properties. The signal-to-noise in the trispectrum can be highly configuration dependent and any quadratic statistic used to compress the information to a manageable two-point level must be carefully chosen. Through a systematic study, we determine that for the case of lensing a specific statistic, the divergence of a filtered temperature-weighted temperature-gradient map, contains the maximal signal-to-noise and reduces the variance of estimates of the large-scale convergence power spectrum by over an order of magnitude over previous gradient-gradient techniques. The total signal-to-noise fo...
Moon influence on equatorial atmospheric angular momentum
Bizouard, Christian; Zotov, Leonid; Sidorenkov, Nikolay
2014-05-01
The variation of the equatorial atmospheric angular momentum function, coordinated with respect to a star-fixed system, is investigated in relation with the lunar tide. We isolate the rapid fluctuations, below 30 days, where Moon motion has a possible influence. First we notice that pressure term and wind term are almost proportional, by contrast to celestial seasonal band (S1). This would mean that, in this frequency band, the torque of the atmosphere on the solid Earth mostly results from the equatorial bulge. Spectrum reveals sharp lunar tidal peaks at 13.66 days (O1 diurnal tide in the terrestrial frame) and 13.63 days, reflecting the Moon influence on meridional circulation. We also observe powerful episodic fluctuations between 5 and 8 days (up to 10 mas), possibly resulting from non linear effect of the O1 tide, or tidal waves 2Q1 (6.86 days) and σ1 (7.095 days).
Optical angular momentum in dispersive media
Philbin, T G
2012-01-01
The angular momentum density and flux of light in a dispersive, rotationally symmetric medium are derived from Noether's theorem. Optical angular momentum in a dispersive medium has no simple relation to optical linear momentum, even if the medium is homogeneous. A circularly polarized monochromatic beam in a homogeneous, dispersive medium carries a spin angular momentum per unit energy of $\\pm\\omega^{-1}$, as in vacuum. This result demonstrates the non-trivial interplay of dispersive contributions to optical angular momentum and energy.
Scikit-spectra: Explorative Spectroscopy in Python
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Hughes
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Scikit-spectra is an intuitive framework for explorative spectroscopy in Python. Scikit-spectra leverages the Pandas library for powerful data processing to provide datastructures and an API designed for spectroscopy. Utilizing the new IPython Notebook widget system, scikit-spectra is headed towards a GUI when you want it, API when you need it approach to spectral analysis. As an application, analysis is presented of the surface-plasmon resonance shift in a solution of gold nanoparticles induced by proteins binding to the gold’s surface. Please refer to the scikit-spectra website for full documentation and support: http://hugadams.github.io/scikit-spectra/
AngularJS web application development
Darwin, Peter Bacon
2013-01-01
The book will be a step-by-step guide showing the readers how to build a complete web app with AngularJSJavaScript developers who want to learn AngularJS for developing web apps. Knowledge of JavaScript and HTML is expected. No knowledge of AngularJS is required.
Hayes, A. C.; Vogel, Petr
2016-01-01
We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we ...
Tracing the Angular Dependence of the CGM
Nattinger, Michael; Christensen, Charlotte
2017-01-01
The circumgalactic media (CGM) is enriched with metals through a process called the baryon cycle, which may play a significant role in the regulation of star formation. While the relationship between the CGM’s baryonic makeup and impact parameter is well documented, the relationship between the baryonic distribution of the CGM and the azimuthal angle out of the plane of the galaxy remains an open question. We investigated the angular distribution of baryons in the CGM by creating mock-absorption line spectra for a high-resolution simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy at redshift zero. By comparison with data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph-Halos survey, we determined that our equivalent widths of HI, MgII, CIII, SiII, and SiIII are consistent with observations. Using our data, we found that low ionization state material is more prevalent at low azimuthal angles and that high ionization state material is more prevalent at high angles within the virial radius. We attributed this increased ionization to higher temperatures at high angles. We also found that the highest metallicity levels appear at high and low azimuthal angles, with lower metallicities at middle angles. This evidence supports the recycled accretion model of CGM baryon flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM); Phelan, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Van Zuiden, Don M. (Albuquerque, NM)
1997-01-21
A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughn, M.R.; Robinett, R.D. III; Phelan, J.R.; Zuiden, D.M. Van
1997-01-21
A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors is described. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation. 11 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, N.; Barik, B.K. (Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India). Dept. of Physics)
1981-12-01
It is shown that a non-relativistic power-law potential model for the heavy quarks in the form V(r) = Arsup(..nu..) + V/sub 0/, (A,..nu..>0) acquires relativistic consistency in generating Dirac bound states of Q anti Q-system in agreement with the Schroedinger spectroscopy if the interaction is modelled by equally mixed scalar and vector parts as suggested by the phenomenology of fine-hyperfine splittings of heavy quarkonium systems in a non-relativistic perturbative approach.
Angular profile of Particle Emission from a Higher-dimensional Black Hole: Analytic Results
Kanti, Panagiota
2012-01-01
During the spin-down phase of the life of a higher-dimensional black hole, the emission of particles on the brane exhibits a strong angular variation with respect to the rotation axis of the black hole. It has been suggested that this angular variation is the observable that could disentangle the dependence of the radiation spectra on the number of extra dimensions and angular momentum of the black hole. Working in the low-energy regime, we have employed analytical formulae for the greybody factors, angular eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of fermions and gauge bosons, and studied the characteristics of the corresponding angular profiles of emission spectra in terms of only a few dominant partial modes. We have confirmed that, in the low-energy channel, the emitted gauge bosons become aligned to the rotation axis of the produced black hole while fermions form an angle with the rotation axis whose exact value depends on the angular-momentum of the black hole. In the case of scalar fields, we demonstrated the exi...
The Suzaku Discovery of A Hard Power-Law Component in the Spectra of Short Bursts from SGR 0501+4516
Nakagawa, Yujin E; Enoto, Teruaki
2011-01-01
Using data with the Suzaku XIS and HXD, spectral studies of short bursts from the soft gamma repeater SGR 0501+4516 were performed. In total, 32 bursts were detected during the ~60 ks of observation conducted in the 2008 August activity. Excluding the strongest one, the remaining 31 bursts showed an average 2--40 keV fluence of 1.0(-0.5,+0.3)*10^-9 erg cm^-2. A 1--40 keV spectrum summed over them leaves significant positive residuals in the HXD-PIN band with chi^2/d.o.f. = 74/50, when fitted with a two-blackbody function. By adding a power law model, the fit became acceptable with chi^2/d.o.f. = 56/48, yielding a photon index of Gamma=1.0(-0.3,+0.4). This photon index is comparable to Gamma=1.33(-0.16,+0.23) (Enoto et al. 2010a) for the persistent emission of the same object obtained with Suzaku. The two-blackbody components showed very similar ratios, both in the temperature and the emission radii, to those comprising the persistent emission. However, the power-law to two-blackbody flux ratio was possibly hi...
Qureshi, Muhammad Mohsin; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Jin-Tae
2016-05-01
We have investigated ultra-narrow EIA spectral features with respect to variations of polarizations and powers of pump laser beam in a degenerate two-level system of the transition of 85 Rb D2 transition line. Polarizations of the probe laser beam in two separate experiments were fixed at right circular and horizontal linear polarizations, respectively while the polarizations of the pump lasers were varied from initial polarizations same as the probe laser beams to orthogonal to probe polarizations. One homemade laser combined with AOMs was used to the pump and probe laser beams instead of two different lasers to overcome broad linewidths of the homemade lasers. Theoretically, probe absorption coefficients have been calculated from optical Bloch equations of the degenerate two level system prepared by a pump laser beam. In the case of the circular polarization, EIA signal was obtained as expected theoretically although both pump and probe beams have same polarization. The EIA signal become smaller as power increases and polarizations of the pump and probe beams were same. When the polarization of the pump beam was linear polarization, maximum EIA signal was obtained theoretically and experimentally. Experimental EIA spectral shapes with respect to variations of the pump beam polarization shows similar trends as the theoretical results.
Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.
2012-04-20
Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.
SimBAL: A Spectral Synthesis Approach to Analyzing Broad Absorption Line Quasar Spectra
Terndrup, Donald M.; Leighly, Karen; Gallagher, Sarah; Richards, Gordon T.
2017-01-01
Broad Absorption Line quasars (BALQSOs) show blueshifted absorption lines in their rest-UV spectra, indicating powerful winds emerging from the central engine. These winds are essential part of quasars: they can carry away angular momentum and thus facilitate accretion through a disk, they can distribute chemically-enriched gas through the intergalactic medium, and they may inject kinetic energy to the host galaxy, influencing its evolution. The traditional method of analyzing BALQSO spectra involves measuring myriad absorption lines, computing the inferred ionic column densities in each feature, and comparing with the output of photonionization models. This method is inefficient and does not handle line blending well. We introduce SimBAL, a spectral synthesis fitting method for BALQSOs, which compares synthetic spectra created from photoionization model results with continuum-normalized observed spectra using Bayesian model calibration. We find that we can obtain an excellent fit to the UV to near-IR spectrum of the low-redshift BALQSO SDSS J0850+4451, including lines from diverse ionization states such as PV, CIII*, SIII, Lyalpha, NV, SiIV, CIV, MgII, and HeI*.
Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Xinbing, E-mail: xbwang@hust.edu.cn; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu, Peixiang [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2015-05-21
Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.
Gaspari, M; Nagai, D; Lau, E T; Zhuravleva, I
2014-01-01
Exploring the ICM power spectrum can help us to probe the physics of galaxy clusters. Using high-resolution 3D plasma simulations, we study the statistics of the velocity field and its relation with the thermodynamic perturbations. The normalization of the ICM spectrum (density, entropy, or pressure) is linearly tied to the level of large-scale motions, which excite both gravity and sound waves due to stratification. For low 3D Mach number M~0.25, gravity waves mainly drive entropy perturbations, traced by preferentially tangential turbulence. For M>0.5, sound waves start to significantly contribute, passing the leading role to compressive pressure fluctuations, associated with isotropic turbulence (or a slight radial bias). Density and temperature fluctuations are then characterized by the dominant process: isobaric (low M), adiabatic (high M), or isothermal (strong conduction). Most clusters reside in the intermediate regime, showing a mixture of gravity and sound waves, hence drifting towards isotropic vel...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Constantin, Anca; Castillo, Christopher A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States); Shields, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)
2015-12-01
Using a sample of ∼100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of Hα and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which transition objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at ≲10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The transition objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad Hα emission in the high-resolution data, as well as the strongest density gradients, supporting the composite model for these systems as accreting sources surrounded by star-forming activity. The narrow-line LINERs appear to be the weaker counterparts of the Type 1 LINERs, where the low accretion rates cause the disappearance of the broad-line component. The enhanced sensitivity of the HST observations reveals a 30% increase in the incidence of accretion-powered systems at z ≈ 0. A comparison of the strength of the broad-line emission detected at different epochs implies potential broad-line variability on a decade-long timescale, with at least a factor of three in amplitude.
Collective spectra along the fission barrier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pigni M. T.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Discrete and continuous spectra of fissioning nuclei at the humps of fission barriers (Bohr transition states and in the intermediate wells (superdeformed and hyperdeformed states play a key role in the calculation of fission cross sections. A theoretical evaluation of the collective parts of the spectra is possible within the framework of the dinuclear system model, which treats the wave function of the fissioning nucleus as a superposition of a mononucleus configuration and two–cluster configurations in a dynamical way, permitting exchange of upper–shell nucleons between clusters. The impact of theoretical spectra on neutron–induced fission cross sections and, in combination with an improved version of the scission–point model, on angular distribution of fission fragments is evaluated for plutonium isotopes of interest to nuclear energy applications.
Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light
Bliokh, Konstantin Y
2015-01-01
We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin...
Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.
Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim
2010-01-01
Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.
Angular Distributions as Lifetime Probes
Dror, Jeff Asaf
2013-01-01
If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. The amount of depolarization can be used to probe the lifetime in the problematic region. In this paper we apply this method to a realistic scenario of a top-like particle that can be produced at the LHC. We study how depolarization affects the angular distributions of the decay products and derive an equation for the distributions that is sensitive to the lifetime.
Polnikov, Vlad
2014-01-01
With the aim to show explicitly the non stationarity of the Zakharov spectra, obtained analytically as the stationary solution of the four-wave kinetic equation for stochastic nonlinear surface gravity waves[1,2], we have calculated directly the proper kinetic integral by means of two independent algorithms[3,4] both for an isotropic and anisotropic angular distribution of spectra given on the restricted frequency band.
Fujáková, Michaela; Páleníček, Tomáš; Brunovský, Martin; Gorman, Ingmar; Tylš, Filip; Kubešová, Anna; Řípová, Daniela; Krajča, Vladimír; Horáček, Jiří
2014-07-01
In the present study we investigated the potential antipsychotic effects of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 on changes in EEG power spectra and coherence in the ketamine model of psychosis. In order to use behaviorally active drug doses, experiments detecting changes in locomotor activity and sensorimotor gating were also conducted. In EEG experiments, adult male Wistar rats were injected with ketamine 30 mg/kg i.p. and LY379268 3 mg/kg i.p. Cortical EEG was recorded from twelve (2 × 6) electrodes placed homolaterally on each hemisphere. To avoid interference with the behavioral hyperactivity of ketamine challenge, the behavioral activity of animals was simultaneously registered at the time of recording. Subsequent power spectral and coherence analyses were assessed in epochs corresponding to behavioral inactivity. Analysis of segments with behavioral activity compared to inactivity was also performed. The effects of LY379268 3 mg/kg i.p. on the deficits in sensorimotor processing and on hyperlocomotion induced by ketamine were evaluated in the test of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI ASR) and in the open field. LY379268 reversed the ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion but had no effect on ketamine-induced PPI deficits. In EEG epochs corresponding to behavioral inactivity ketamine decreased the power in the delta band, induced a power increase in the high frequency bands and globally decreased EEG coherence. Pretreatment with the LY379268 completely reversed the ketamine-induced power increase in high frequency bands and had a partial effect on EEG coherence. LY379268 alone induced a decrease of beta, high beta and low-gamma power, and an increase in coherence in high frequency bands. Additional analysis revealed that behavioral activity increases power as well as coherence in most frequency bands. In conclusion, agonism of mGlu2/3 receptors was effective in reversing most of the changes induced by ketamine, however due to the lack of effectiveness
Cosmic microwave background power spectrum estimation with the destriping technique
Poutanen, T.; Maino, D.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Keihänen, E.; Hivon, E.
2004-09-01
Extraction of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum is a challenging task for current and future CMB experiments due to the large data sets involved. Here we describe an implementation of Monte Carlo apodized spherical transform estimator (MASTER) described in Hivon et al., which exploits the destriping technique as a map-making method. In this method a noise estimate based on destriped noise-only Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is subtracted from the pseudo-angular power spectrum. As a working case we use realistic simulations of the Planck low-frequency instrument (LFI). We found that the effect of destriping on a pure sky signal is minimal and requires no correction. Instead we found an effect related to the distribution of detector pointings, which affects the high-l part of the power spectrum. We correct for this by subtracting a `signal bias' estimated by MC simulations. We also give analytical estimates for this signal bias. Our method is fast and accurate enough (the estimator is unbiased and errors are close to theoretical expectations for maximal accuracy) to estimate the CMB angular power spectra for current and future CMB space missions. This study is related to Planck LFI activities.
Constantin, Anca; Ho, Luis C; Barth, Aaron J; Filippenko, Alexei V; Castillo, Christopher A
2015-01-01
Using a sample of ~100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of H_alpha and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which Transition Objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at <10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The Transition Objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad H_...
Chirality and the angular momentum of light
Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.; Yao, Alison M.
2017-02-01
Chirality is exhibited by objects that cannot be rotated into their mirror images. It is far from obvious that this has anything to do with the angular momentum of light, which owes its existence to rotational symmetries. There is nevertheless a subtle connection between chirality and the angular momentum of light. We demonstrate this connection and, in particular, its significance in the context of chiral light-matter interactions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor
Hao Zhao; Hao Feng
2015-01-01
Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it h...
Magnetic Modulation of Stellar Angular Momentum Loss
Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer
2014-01-01
Angular Momentum Loss is important for understanding astrophysical phenomena such as stellar rotation, magnetic activity, close binaries, and cataclysmic variables. Magnetic breaking is the dominant mechanism in the spin down of young late-type stars. We have studied angular momentum loss as a function of stellar magnetic activity. We argue that the complexity of the field and its latitudinal distribution are crucial for angular momentum loss rates. In this work we discuss how angular momentum is modulated by magnetic cycles, and how stellar spin down is not just a simple function of large scale magnetic field strength.
Naturally enhanced ion-line spectra around the equatorial 150-km region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. L. Chau
2009-03-01
Full Text Available For many years strong radar echoes coming from 140–170 km altitudes at low latitudes have been associated to the existence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs (the so called 150-km echoes. In this work, we present frequency spectra as well as angular distribution of 150-km echoes. When the 150-km region is observed with beams perpendicular to the magnetic field (B the observed radar spectra are very narrow with spectral widths between 3–12 m/s. On the other hand, when few-degrees off-perpendicular beams are used, the radar spectra are wide with spectral widths comparable to those expected from ion-acoustic waves at these altitudes (>1000 m/s. Moreover the off-perpendicular spectral width increases with increasing altitude. The strength of the received echoes is one to two orders of magnitude stronger than the expected level of waves in thermal equilibrium at these altitudes. Such enhancement is not due to an increase in electron density. Except for the enhancement in power, the spectra characteristics of off-perpendicular and perpendicular echoes are in reasonable agreement with expected incoherent scatter spectra at these angles and altitudes. 150-km echoes are usually observed in narrow layers (2 to 5. Bistatic common volume observations as well as observations made few kilometers apart show that, for most of the layers, there is very high correlation on power fluctuations without a noticeable time separation between simultaneous echoes observed with Off-perpendicular and Perpendicular beams. However, in one of the central layers, the echoes are the strongest in the perpendicular beam and absent or very weak in the off-perpendicular beams, suggesting that they are generated by a plasma instability. Our results indicate that most echoes around 150-km region are not as aspect sensitive as originally thought, and they come from waves that have been enhanced above waves in thermal equilibrium.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dolly, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Chen, H; Anastasio, M; Mutic, S; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: Local noise power spectrum (NPS) properties are significantly affected by calculation variables and CT acquisition and reconstruction parameters, but a thoughtful analysis of these effects is absent. In this study, we performed a complete analysis of the effects of calculation and imaging parameters on the NPS. Methods: The uniformity module of a Catphan phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64-slice CT simulator using various scanning protocols. Images were reconstructed using both FBP and iDose4 reconstruction algorithms. From these images, local NPS were calculated for regions of interest (ROI) of varying locations and sizes, using four image background removal methods. Additionally, using a predetermined ground truth, NPS calculation accuracy for various calculation parameters was compared for computer simulated ROIs. A complete analysis of the effects of calculation, acquisition, and reconstruction parameters on the NPS was conducted. Results: The local NPS varied with ROI size and image background removal method, particularly at low spatial frequencies. The image subtraction method was the most accurate according to the computer simulation study, and was also the most effective at removing low frequency background components in the acquired data. However, first-order polynomial fitting using residual sum of squares and principle component analysis provided comparable accuracy under certain situations. Similar general trends were observed when comparing the NPS for FBP to that of iDose4 while varying other calculation and scanning parameters. However, while iDose4 reduces the noise magnitude compared to FBP, this reduction is spatial-frequency dependent, further affecting NPS variations at low spatial frequencies. Conclusion: The local NPS varies significantly depending on calculation parameters, image acquisition parameters, and reconstruction techniques. Appropriate local NPS calculation should be performed to capture spatial variations of
Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bliokh, Konstantin Y., E-mail: k.bliokh@gmail.com [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nonlinear Physics Centre, RSPhysE, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nori, Franco [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)
2015-08-26
We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.
Quantum Correlation Coefficients for Angular Coherent States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Wei; HE Yan; GUO Hao
2009-01-01
Quantum covariance and correlation coefficients of angular or SU(2) coherent states are directly calculated for all irreducible unitary representations.These results explicitly verify that the angular coherent states minimize the Robertson-Schrodinger uncertainty relation for all spins, which means that they are the so-called intelligent states.The same results can be obtained by the Schwinger representation approach.
Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.
Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.
1981-01-01
Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)
Responsive web design with AngularJS
Patel, Sandeep Kumar
2014-01-01
If you are an AngularJS developer who wants to learn about responsive web application development, this book is ideal for you. Responsive Web Design with AngularJS is intended for web developers or designers with a basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.
Angular Momentum Distribution in the Transverse Plane
Adhikari, Lekha
2016-01-01
Several possibilities to relate the $t$-dependence of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) to the distribution of angular momentum in the transverse plane are discussed. Using a simple spectator model we demonstrate that non of them correctly describes the orbital angular momentum distribution that for a longitudinally polarized nucleon obtained directly from light-front wavefunctions.
CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor
Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakla, John; Kogut, Alan J; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen
2014-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravita-tional-wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70\\% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low $\\ell$. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of $r=0.01$ and make a cosmi...
Angular velocity and centripetal acceleration relationship
Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.; Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen
2014-05-01
During the last few years, the growing boom of smartphones has given rise to a considerable number of applications exploiting the functionality of the sensors incorporated in these devices. A sector that has unexpectedly taken advantage of the power of these tools is physics teaching, as reflected in several recent papers. In effect, the use of smartphones has been proposed in several physics experiments spanning mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, oscillations, and waves, among other subjects. Although mechanical experiments have received considerable attention, most of them are based on the use of the accelerometer. An aspect that has received less attention is the use of rotation sensors or gyroscopes. An additional advance in the use of these devices is given by the possibility of obtaining data using the accelerometer and the gyroscope simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to consider the relation between the centripetal acceleration and the angular velocity. Instead of using a formal laboratory setup, in this experiment a smartphone is attached to the floor of a merry-go-round, found in many playgrounds. Several experiments were performed with the roundabout rotating in both directions and with the smart-phone at different distances from the center. The coherence of the measurements is shown.
CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor
Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward
2014-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Time-delay cosmography: increased leverage with angular diameter distances
Jee, I.; Komatsu, E.; Suyu, S. H.; Huterer, D.
2016-04-01
Strong lensing time-delay systems constrain cosmological parameters via the so-called time-delay distance and the angular diameter distance to the lens. In previous studies, only the former information was used in forecasting cosmographic constraints. In this paper, we show that the cosmological constraints improve significantly when the latter information is also included. Specifically, the angular diameter distance plays a crucial role in breaking the degeneracy between the curvature of the Universe and the time-varying equation of state of dark energy. Using a mock sample of 55 bright quadruple lens systems based on expectations for ongoing/future imaging surveys, we find that adding the angular diameter distance information to the time-delay distance information and the Planck's measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies improves the constraint on the constant equation of state by 30%, on the time variation in the equation of state by a factor of two, and on the Hubble constant in the flat ΛCDM model by a factor of two. Therefore, previous forecasts for the statistical power of time-delay systems were overly pessimistic, i.e., time-delay systems are more powerful than previously appreciated.
Primordial power spectrum from Planck
Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Souradeep, Tarun
2014-01-01
Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near $\\ell\\sim750-850$ represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near $\\ell\\sim1800-2000$ is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2$\\sigma$ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the...
Physical Angular Momentum Separation for QED
Sun, Weimin
2016-01-01
We study the non-uniqueness problem of the gauge-invariant angular momentum separation for the case of QED, which stems from the recent controversy concerning the proper definitions of the orbital angular momentum and spin operator of the individual parts of a gauge field system. For the free quantum electrodynamics without matter, we show that the basic requirement of Euclidean symmetry selects a unique physical angular momentum separation scheme from the multitude of the possible angular momentum separation schemes constructed using the various Gauge Invariant Extentions. Based on these results, we propose a set of natural angular momentum separation schemes for the case of interacting QED by invoking the formalism of asymptotic fields. Some perspectives on such a problem for the case of QCD are briefly discussed.
Measurement of polarization with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer.
Leitch, E M; Kovac, J M; Pryke, C; Carlstrom, J E; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Dragovan, M; Reddall, B; Sandberg, E S
Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation can reveal with remarkable precision the conditions of the Universe when it was approximately 400,000 years old. The three most fundamental properties of the CMB are its frequency spectrum (which determines the temperature), and the fluctuations in both the temperature and polarization across a range of angular scales. The frequency spectrum has been well determined, and considerable progress has been made in measuring the power spectrum of the temperature fluctuations. But despite many efforts to measure the polarization, detection of this property of the CMB has hitherto been beyond the reach of even the most sensitive observations. Here we describe the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), an array of radio telescopes, which for the past two years has conducted polarization-sensitive observations of the CMB from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station.
Hayes, A C
2016-01-01
We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.
The spectra and dynamics of diatomic molecules
Lefebvre-Brion, Helene
2004-01-01
This book is written for graduate students just beginning research, for theorists curious about what experimentalists actually can and do measure, and for experimentalists bewildered by theory. It is a guide for potential users of spectroscopic data, and uses language and concepts that bridge the frequency-and time-domain spectroscopic communities. Key topics, concepts, and techniques include: the assignment of simple spectra, basic experimental techniques, definition of Born-Oppenheimer and angular momentum basis sets and the associated spectroscopic energy level patterns (Hund's ca
Differing self-similarity in light scattering spectra: A potential tool for pre-cancer detection
Ghosh, Sayantan; Purwar, Harsh; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K
2011-01-01
The fluctuations in the elastic light scattering spectra of normal and dysplastic human cervical tissues analyzed through wavelet transform based techniques reveal clear signatures of self-similar behavior in the spectral fluctuations. Significant differences in the power law behavior ascertained through the scaling exponent was observed in these tissues. The strong dependence of the elastic light scattering on the size distribution of the scatterers manifests in the angular variation of the scaling exponent. Interestingly, the spectral fluctuations in both these tissues showed multi-fractality (non-stationarity in fluctuations), the degree of multi-fractality being marginally higher in the case of dysplastic tissues. These findings using the multi-resolution analysis capability of the discrete wavelet transform can contribute to the recent surge in the exploration for non-invasive optical tools for pre-cancer detection.
Vyas, Urvi; Christensen, Douglas A
2011-11-01
The angular spectrum method is an accurate and computationally efficient method for modeling acoustic wave propagation. The use of the typical 2D fast Fourier transform algorithm makes this a fast technique but it requires that the source pressure (or velocity) be specified on a plane. Here the angular spectrum method is extended to calculate pressure from a spherical transducer-as used extensively in applications such as magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery-to a plane. The approach, called the Ring-Bessel technique, decomposes the curved source into circular rings of increasing radii, each ring a different distance from the intermediate plane, and calculates the angular spectrum of each ring using a Fourier series. Each angular spectrum is then propagated to the intermediate plane where all the propagated angular spectra are summed to obtain the pressure on the plane; subsequent plane-to-plane propagation can be achieved using the traditional angular spectrum method. Since the Ring-Bessel calculations are carried out in the frequency domain, it reduces calculation times by a factor of approximately 24 compared to the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method and about 82 compared to the Field II technique, while maintaining accuracies of better than 96% as judged by those methods for cases of both solid and phased-array transducers.
Novel Detection of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum
2014-11-16
Spreeuw, J. P . Woerdman, “ Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A, 45(11), 8185-8189...AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS TR-2014-0045 TR-2014-0045 Novel Detection of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum David Voelz Klipsch... Orbital Angular Momentum FA9451-13-1-0261 GR0004113 David Voelz Klipsch School of ECE New Mexico State University MSC 3-O, PO Box 30001 Las Cruces, NM
General Notes on Processes and Their Spectra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustav Cepciansky
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The frequency spectrum performs one of the main characteristics of a process. The aim of the paper is to show the coherence between the process and its own spectrum and how the behaviour and properties of a process itself can be deduced from its spectrum. Processes are categorized and general principles of their spectra calculation and recognition are given. The main stress is put on power spectra of electric and optic signals, as they also perform a kind of processes. These spectra can be directly measured, observed and examined by means of spectral analyzers and they are very important characteristics which can not be omitted at transmission techniques in telecommunication technologies. Further, the paper also deals with non electric processes, mainly with processes and spectra at mass servicing and how these spectra can be utilised in praxis.
Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.
2015-01-01
The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...
Angular dependence of primordial trispectra and CMB spectral distortions
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Bartolo, Nicola; Liguori, Michele
2016-10-01
Under the presence of anisotropic sources in the inflationary era, the trispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation has a very specific angular dependence between each wavevector that is distinguishable from the one encountered when only scalar fields are present, characterized by an angular dependence described by Legendre polynomials. We examine the imprints left by curvature trispectra on the TTμ bispectrum, generated by the correlation between temperature anisotropies (T) and chemical potential spectral distortions (μ) of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Due to the angular dependence of the primordial signal, the corresponding TTμ bispectrum strongly differs in shape from TTμ sourced by the usual gNL or τNL local trispectra, enabling us to obtain an unbiased estimation. From a Fisher matrix analysis, we find that, in a cosmic-variance-limited (CVL) survey of TTμ, a minimum detectable value of the quadrupolar Legendre coefficient is d2 ~ 0.01, which is 4 orders of magnitude better than the best value attainable from the TTTT CMB trispectrum. In the case of an anisotropic inflationary model with a f(phi)F2 interaction (coupling the inflaton field phi with a vector kinetic term F2), the size of the curvature trispectrum is related to that of quadrupolar power spectrum asymmetry, g*. In this case, a CVL measurement of TTμ makes it possible to measure g* down to 10‑3.
Angular Fock coefficients. Fixing the errors, and further development
Liverts, Evgeny Z
2015-01-01
The angular coefficients $\\psi_{k,p}(\\alpha,\\theta)$ of the Fock expansion characterizing the S-state wave function of the two-electron atomic system, are calculated in hyperspherical angular coordinates $\\alpha$ and $\\theta$. To solve the problem the Fock recurrence relations separated into the independent individual equations associated with definite power $j$ of the nucleus charge $Z$, are applied. The "pure" $j$-components of the angular Fock coefficients, orthogonal to of the hyperspherical harmonics $Y_{kl}$, are found for even values of $k$. To this end, the specific coupling equation is proposed and applied. Effective techniques for solving the individual equations with simplest nonseparable and separable right-hand sides are proposed. Some mistakes/misprints made earlier in representations of $\\psi_{2,0}$, were noted and corrected. All $j$-components of $\\psi_{4,1}$ and the majority of components and subcomponents of $\\psi_{3,0}$ are calculated and presented for the first time. All calculations were ...
Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Angular Momentum
Bosso, Pasquale
2016-01-01
Various models of quantum gravity suggest a modification of the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, to the so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle, between position and momentum. In this work we show how this modification influences the theory of angular momentum in Quantum Mechanics. In particular, we compute Planck scale corrections to angular momentum eigenvalues, the Hydrogen atom spectrum, the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. We also examine effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on multi-particle systems.
Angular distribution in complex oscillation theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Shengjian
2005-01-01
Let f1 and f2 be two linearly independent solutions of the differential equation f" + Af =0,where A is an entire function.Set E-f1f2.In this paper,we shall study the angular distribution of E and establish a relation between zero accumulation rays and Borel directions of E.Consequently we can obtain some results in the complex differential equation by using known results in angular distribution theory of meromorphic functions.
Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers
Majid, Mohammad Wadood
2015-01-01
This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.
Geometric absorption of electromagnetic angular momentum
Konz, C.; Benford, Gregory
2003-10-01
Circularly polarized electromagnetic fields carry both energy and angular momentum. We investigate the conditions under which a circularly polarized wave field transfers angular momentum to a perfectly conducting macroscopic object, using exact electromagnetic wave theory in a steady-state calculation. We find that axisymmetric perfect conductors cannot absorb or radiate angular momentum when illuminated. However, any asymmetry allows absorption. A rigorous, steady-state solution of the boundary value problem for the reflection from a perfectly conducting infinite wedge shows that waves convey angular momentum at the edges of asymmetries. Conductors can also radiate angular momentum, so their geometric absorption coefficient for angular momentum can be negative. Such absorption or radiation depends solely on the specific geometry of the conductor. The geometric absorption coefficient can be as high as 0.8, and the coefficient for radiation can be -0.4, larger than typical material absorption coefficients. We apply the results to recent experiments which spun roof-shaped aluminum sheets with polarized microwave beams. Applications of geometric, instead of material, absorption can be quite varied. Though experiments testing these ideas will be simpler at microwavelengths, the ideas work for optical ones as well.
Plasmonic angular tunability of gold nanoparticles generated by fs laser ablation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pace, M.L.; Guarnaccio, A.; Ranù, F. [CNR, ISM UOS Tito Scalo, Zona Industriale, Tito Scalo (PZ) 85050 (Italy); Trucchi, D. [CNR, ISM UOS Montelibretti, Via Salaria km 29.300, Monterotondo Scalo, (RM) 00015 (Italy); Orlando, S., E-mail: stefano.orlando@ism.cnr.it [CNR, ISM UOS Tito Scalo, Zona Industriale, Tito Scalo (PZ) 85050 (Italy); Mollica, D.; Parisi, G.P. [CNR, ISM UOS Tito Scalo, Zona Industriale, Tito Scalo (PZ) 85050 (Italy); Medici, L.; Lettino, A. [CNR, IMAA, Area della Ricerca di Potenza -Zona Industriale, Tito Scalo, (PZ) 85050 (Italy); De Bonis, A.; Teghil, R. [Dipart. di Scienze,Università della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, Potenza, 85100 (Italy); Santagata, A. [CNR, ISM UOS Tito Scalo, Zona Industriale, Tito Scalo (PZ) 85050 (Italy)
2016-06-30
Highlights: • fs pulsed laser ablation as a technique to produce nanoparticles. • Nanoparticle distribution as an evidence for plasmonic tunable resonances. • Correlation between angular distribution of deposited nanoparticles and specific plasmonic resonances. - Abstract: With the aim to study the influence of deposition parameters on the plasmonic properties of gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) deposited by ultra-short ablation, we have focused our attention in evaluating how their size distribution can be varied. In this work, the role played by the NPs’ angular distribution, agglomeration and growth is related to the resulting optical properties. UV–vis-NIR absorption spectra together with Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray microdiffraction observations are presented in order to show how the angular distribution of fs laser ablation and deposition of Au NPs provides different plasmonic properties which can be beneficial for several aims, from optoelectronic to biosensor applications.
Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Yavorsky, M. A. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Universite Bordeaux and CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, FR-33400 Talence (France)
2011-12-15
We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.
Angular momentum projection for a Nilsson mean-field plus pairing model
Wang, Yin; Pan, Feng; Launey, Kristina D.; Luo, Yan-An; Draayer, J. P.
2016-06-01
The angular momentum projection for the axially deformed Nilsson mean-field plus a modified standard pairing (MSP) or the nearest-level pairing (NLP) model is proposed. Both the exact projection, in which all intrinsic states are taken into consideration, and the approximate projection, in which only intrinsic states with K = 0 are taken in the projection, are considered. The analysis shows that the approximate projection with only K = 0 intrinsic states seems reasonable, of which the configuration subspace considered is greatly reduced. As simple examples for the model application, low-lying spectra and electromagnetic properties of 18O and 18Ne are described by using both the exact and approximate angular momentum projection of the MSP or the NLP, while those of 20Ne and 24Mg are described by using the approximate angular momentum projection of the MSP or NLP.
Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junfang Fan
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.
Recovering 3D clustering information with angular correlations
Asorey, Jacobo; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Lewis, Antony
2012-01-01
We study how to recover the full 3D clustering information of P(\\vec{k},z), including redshift space distortions (RSD), from 2D tomography using the angular auto and cross spectra of different redshift bins C_\\ell(z,z'). We focus on quasilinear scales where the minimum scale \\lambda_{min} or corresponding maximum wavenumber k_{max}= 2\\pi/\\lambda_{min} is targeted to be between k_{max}={0.05-0.2} h/Mpc. For spectroscopic surveys, we find that we can recover the full 3D clustering information when the redshift bin width \\Delta z used in the 2D tomography is similar to the targeted minimum scale, i.e. \\Delta z ~ {0.6-0.8} \\lambda_{min} H(z)/c which corresponds to \\Delta z ~ 0.01-0.05 for z\\Delta z and most radial information is intrinsically lost. The remaining information can be recovered from the 2D tomography if we use \\Delta z ~ 2\\sigma_z. While 3D and 2D analysis are shown here to be equivalent, the advantage of using angular positions and redshifts is that we do not need a fiducial cosmology to convert to ...
Effect of Coma Aberration on Orbital Angular Momentum Spectrum of Vortex Beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zi-Yang; PU Ji-Xiong
2009-01-01
Spiral spectra of vortex beams with coma aberration are studied.It is shown that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of vortex beams with coma aberration are different from those aberration-free vortex beams.Spiral spectra of beams with coma aberration are spreading.It is found that in the presence of coma aberration,the vortex beams contain not only the original OAM component but also other components.A larger coma aberration coefficient and/or a larger beam waist will lead to a wider spreading of the spiral spectrum. The results may have potential applications in information encoding and transmittance.
Nonlinear FMR spectra in yttrium iron garnet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu.M. Bunkov, P.M. Vetoshko, I.G. Motygullin, T.R. Safin, M.S. Tagirov, N.A. Tukmakova
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Results of demagnetizing effect studies in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 thin films are reported. Experiments were performed on X-Band of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at room temperature. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra were obtained for one-layer single crystal YIG films for different values of the applied microwave power. Nonlinear FMR spectra transformation by the microwave power increasing in various directions of magnetic field sweep was observed. It is explained by the influence of the demagnetization action of nonequilibrium magnons.
An orbital angular momentum spectrometer for electrons
Harvey, Tyler; Grillo, Vincenzo; McMorran, Benjamin
2016-05-01
With the advent of techniques for preparation of free-electron and neutron orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, a basic follow-up question emerges: how do we measure the orbital angular momentum state distribution in matter waves? Control of both the energy and helicity of light has produced a range of spectroscopic applications, including molecular fingerprinting and magnetization mapping. Realization of an analogous dual energy-OAM spectroscopy with matter waves demands control of both initial and final energy and orbital angular momentum states: unlike for photons, final state post-selection is necessary for particles that cannot be annihilated. We propose a magnetic field-based mechanism for quantum non-demolition measurement of electron OAM. We show that OAM-dependent lensing is produced by an operator of form U =exp iLzρ2/ℏb2 where ρ =√{x2 +y2 } is the radial position operator, Lz is the orbital angular momentum operator along z, and b is the OAM dispersion length. We can physically realize this operator as a term in the time evolution of an electron in magnetic round lens. We discuss prospects and practical challenges for implementation of a lensing orbital angular momentum measurement. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under the Early Career Research Program Award # DE-SC0010466.
Ultrafast angular momentum transfer in multisublattice ferrimagnets.
Bergeard, N; López-Flores, V; Halté, V; Hehn, M; Stamm, C; Pontius, N; Beaurepaire, E; Boeglin, C
2014-03-11
Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to induce ultrafast changes of the magnetization in magnetic materials. However, one of the unsolved questions is that of conservation of the total angular momentum during the ultrafast demagnetization. Here we report the ultrafast transfer of angular momentum during the first hundred femtoseconds in ferrimagnetic Co0.8Gd0.2 and Co0.74Tb0.26 films. Using time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism allowed for time-resolved determination of spin and orbital momenta for each element. We report an ultrafast quenching of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and show that at early times the demagnetization in ferrimagnetic alloys is driven by the local transfer of angular momenta between the two exchange-coupled sublattices while the total angular momentum stays constant. In Co0.74Tb0.26 we have observed a transfer of the total angular momentum to an external bath, which is delayed by ~150 fs.
Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine
2013-12-14
The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He)200, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe200 studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J. Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine [LCAR-IRSAMC, Université Toulouse 3 - Paul Sabatier and CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)
2013-12-14
The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He){sub 200}, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe{sub 200} studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.
Data-oriented development with AngularJS
Waikar, Manoj
2015-01-01
This book helps beginner-level AngularJS developers organize AngularJS applications by discussing important AngularJS concepts and best practices. If you are an experienced AngularJS developer but haven't written directives or haven't created custom HTML controls before, then this book is ideal for you.
Rotationally Invariant Hamiltonians for Nuclear Spectra Based on Quantum Algebras
Bonatsos, D; Raychev, P P; Terziev, P A; Bonatsos, Dennis
2002-01-01
The rotational invariance under the usual physical angular momentum of the SUq(2) Hamiltonian for the description of rotational nuclear spectra is explicitly proved and a connection of this Hamiltonian to the formalisms of Amal'sky and Harris is provided. In addition, a new Hamiltonian for rotational spectra is introduced, based on the construction of irreducible tensor operators (ITO) under SUq(2) and use of q-deformed tensor products and q-deformed Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. The rotational invariance of this SUq(2) ITO Hamiltonian under the usual physical angular momentum is explicitly proved, a simple closed expression for its energy spectrum (the ``hyperbolic tangent formula'') is introduced, and its connection to the Harris formalism is established. Numerical tests in a series of Th isotopes are provided.
Localizing the Angular Momentum of Linear Gravity
Butcher, Luke M; Hobson, Michael; 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.084012
2012-01-01
In a previous article [Phys. Rev. D 82 104040 (2010)], we derived an energy-momentum tensor for linear gravity that exhibited positive energy density and causal energy flux. Here we extend this framework by localizing the angular momentum of the linearized gravitational field, deriving a gravitational spin tensor which possesses similarly desirable properties. By examining the local exchange of angular momentum (between matter and gravity) we find that gravitational intrinsic spin is localized, separately from orbital angular momentum, in terms of a gravitational spin tensor. This spin tensor is then uniquely determined by requiring that it obey two simple physically motivated algebraic conditions. Firstly, the spin of an arbitrary (harmonic-gauge) gravitational plane wave is required to flow in the direction of propagation of the wave. Secondly, the spin tensor of any transverse-traceless gravitational field is required to be traceless. (The second condition ensures that local field redefinitions suffice to ...
Physics from Angular Projection of Rectangular Grids
Singh, Ashmeet
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a mathematical model for the angular projection of a rectangular arrangement of points in a grid. This simple, yet interesting problem, has both a scholarly value and applications for data extraction techniques to study the physics of various systems. Our work can interest undergraduate students to understand subtle points in the angular projection of a grid and describes various quantities of interest in the projection with completeness and sufficient rigour. We show that for certain angular ranges, the projection has non-distinctness, and calculate the details of such angles, and correspondingly, the number of distinct points and the total projected length. We focus on interesting trends obtained for the projected length of the grid elements and present a simple application of the model to determine the geometry of an unknown grid whose spatial extensions are known, using measurement of the grid projection at two angles only. Towards the end, our model is shown to have potential ap...
Angular momentum transport in protostellar discs
Salmeron, Roberto Aureliano; Wardle, M; Salmeron, Raquel; Konigl, Arieh; Wardle, Mark
2006-01-01
Angular momentum transport in protostellar discs can take place either radially, through turbulence induced by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), or vertically, through the torque exerted by a large-scale magnetic field that threads the disc. Using semi-analytic and numerical results, we construct a model of steady-state discs that includes vertical transport by a centrifugally driven wind as well as MRI-induced turbulence. We present approximate criteria for the occurrence of either one of these mechanisms in an ambipolar diffusion-dominated disc. We derive ``strong field'' solutions in which the angular momentum transport is purely vertical and ``weak field'' solutions that are the stratified-disc analogues of the previously studied MRI channel modes; the latter are transformed into accretion solutions with predominantly radial angular-momentum transport when we implement a turbulent-stress prescription based on published results of numerical simulations. We also analyze ``intermediate field strength'...
Surface angular momentum of light beams.
Ornigotti, Marco; Aiello, Andrea
2014-03-24
Traditionally, the angular momentum of light is calculated for "bullet-like" electromagnetic wave packets, although in actual optical experiments "pencil-like" beams of light are more commonly used. The fact that a wave packet is bounded transversely and longitudinally while a beam has, in principle, an infinite extent along the direction of propagation, renders incomplete the textbook calculation of the spin/orbital separation of the angular momentum of a light beam. In this work we demonstrate that a novel, extra surface part must be added in order to preserve the gauge invariance of the optical angular momentum per unit length. The impact of this extra term is quantified by means of two examples: a Laguerre-Gaussian and a Bessel beam, both circularly polarized.
Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B S Tomar; K Surendra Babu; K Sudarshan; R Tripathi; A Goswami
2005-02-01
Isomeric cross-section ratios of evaporation residues formed in 12C+93Nb and 16O + 89Y reactions were measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line -ray spectrometry in the beam energy range of 55.7-77.5 MeV for 12C and 68-81 MeV for 16O. The isomeric cross-section ratios were resolved into that for complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical angular momentum for complete fusion, indicating the deeper interpenetration of projectile and target nuclei than that in peripheral collisions.
1986-11-30
17), Raman spectra, plus a , . theoretical treatment of the data, f complex fluorozirconate 14 I anions in ZBLAN glasses and melts (16), and...based ZBLAN glasses ) 17. ICORS (International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy) Proceedings, London, England. Conferencf 5-9 Sep 88. (Molten silica...RESEARCH FINAL REPORT DTIC CONTRACT N00014-81-K-0501 &JELECTE 1 MAY 81 -- 30 NOV 86 EJJAN041989 V "RAMAN SPECTRA OF GLASSES " 0 During the five years of the
Energy and angular distributions of atmospheric muons at the Earth
Shukla, Prashant
2016-01-01
A fair knowledge of the atmospheric muon distributions at Earth is a prerequisite for the simulations of cosmic ray setups and rare event search detectors. A modified power law is proposed for atmospheric muon energy distribution which gives good description of the cosmic muon data in low as well as high energy regime. Using this distribution, analytical forms for zenith angle ($\\theta$) distribution are obtained. Assuming a flat Earth, it leads to the $\\cos^{n-1}\\theta$ form where it is shown that the parameter $n$ is nothing but the power of the energy distribution. A new analytical form for zenith angle distribution is obtained without assuming a flat Earth which gives an improved description of the data at all angles even above $70^o$. These distributions are tested with the available atmospheric muon data of energy and angular distributions. The parameters of these distributions can be used to characterize the cosmic muon data as a function of energy, angle and altitude.
Ghost Imaging Using Orbital Angular Momentum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵生妹; 丁建; 董小亮; 郑宝玉
2011-01-01
We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum. In the signal arm, object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix. For an N-grey-scale object, different phase matrices, varying from 0 to K with increment n/N, are used for different greyscales, and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator. According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system, these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement, and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm. By simulations and experiments, the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively. Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum, our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.%We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum.In the signal arm,object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix.For an N-grey-scale object,different phase matrices,varying from 0 to π with increment π/N,are used for different greyscales,and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator.According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system,these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement,and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm.By simulations and experiments,the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively.Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum,our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.
A perturbed angular correlation spectrometer for material science studies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C C Dey
2008-05-01
A four-detector perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectrometer has been developed with ultra-fast BaF2 detectors to acquire four coincidence spectra simultaneously, two at 180° and two at 90°. This spectrometer has double efficiency compared to that of a three-detector set-up. Higher efficiency is desirable for PAC studies in solid state physics where large number of coincidences are required to obtain the PAC spectra with good statistics and is particularly useful when the half-lives of the parent probe nuclei used for PAC measurements are ∼ 2-3 days or less as in 111In (2.8 d), 99Mo (2.7 d) and 140La (1.7 d). The performance of the spectrometer has been tested for the HfO2 monoclinic crystal in the temperature range from 77 to 873 K and for the HfF4.3H2O crystal at room temperature. The polycrystalline HfO2 has been synthesized from Hf metal by heating in air. The hydrated hafnium fluoride has been crystallized by dissolving Hf metal in 40% HF and drying slowly at room temperature.
On the vector model of angular momentum
Saari, Peeter
2016-09-01
Instead of (or in addition to) the common vector diagram with cones, we propose to visualize the peculiarities of quantum mechanical angular momentum by a completely quantized 3D model. It spotlights the discrete eigenvalues and noncommutativity of components of angular momentum and corresponds to outcomes of measurements—real or computer-simulated. The latter can be easily realized by an interactive worksheet of a suitable program package of algebraic calculations. The proposed complementary method of visualization helps undergraduate students to better understand the counterintuitive properties of this quantum mechanical observable.
Concepts of radial and angular kinetic energies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W.P.
2002-01-01
We consider a general central-field system in D dimensions and show that the division of the kinetic energy into radial and angular parts proceeds differently in the wave-function picture and the Weyl-Wigner phase-space picture, Thus, the radial and angular kinetic energies are different quantiti...... in the two pictures, containing different physical information, but the relation between them is well defined. We discuss this relation and illustrate its nature by examples referring to a free particle and to a ground-state hydrogen atom....
Angular momentum and the electromagnetic top
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
GIANFRANCO SPAVIERI; GEORGE T GILLIES
2016-08-01
The electric charge–magnetic dipole interaction is considered. If $\\Gamma_{\\rm em}$ is the electromagnetic and $\\Gamma_{\\rm mech}$ the mechanical angular momentum, the conservation law for the total angular momentum $\\Gamma_{\\rm tot}$ holds: $\\Gamma_{\\rm tot}$ =$\\Gamma_{\\rm em}$ + $\\Gamma_{\\rm mech}$ = ${\\rm const.}$, but when the dipole moment varies with time, $\\Gamma_{\\rm mech}$ is not conserved. We show that the non-conserved $\\Gamma_{\\rm mech}$ of such a macroscopic isolated system might be experimentally observable. With advanced technology, the strength of the interaction hints to the possibility of novel applications for gyroscopes, such as the electromagnetic top.
Orbital angular momentum in the nucleons
Lorcé, Cédric
2014-01-01
In the last decade, it has been realized that the orbital angular momentum of partons inside the nucleon plays a major role. It contributes significantly to nucleon properties and is at the origin of many asymmetries observed in spin physics. It is therefore of paramount importance to determine this quantity if we want to understand the nucleon internal structure and experimental observables. This triggered numerous discussions and controversies about the proper definition of orbital angular momentum and its extraction from experimental data. We summarize the present situation and discuss recent developments in this field.
Angular gyrus syndrome mimicking depressive pseudodementia.
Nagaratnam, Nages; Phan, Tai Anh; Barnett, Claire; Ibrahim, Neamat
2002-09-01
A 67-year-old left-handed woman with a diagnosis of pseudodementia was being treated for depression with little benefit. Neuropsychological evaluations revealed features of angular gyrus syndrome, namely, agraphia, alexia, Gerstmann's syndrome and behavioural manifestations such as depression, poor memory, frustration and irritability. A computed tomographic scan showed a right occipito-temporal infarction, which had occurred 18 months earlier. The patient demonstrated aspects of language dysfunction associated with the syndrome and showed reversed lateralization of cerebral functions. Recognizing and distinguishing between angular gyrus syndrome and depression is important because the appropriate therapies differ. The use of the term pseudodementia can be misleading.
Simulation and experimental studies of a double-fiber angular displacement sensor
Zhu, Ruixue; Jing, Ruiping; Cheng, Yongjin
2017-03-01
A novel optical fiber angular displacement sensor is reported in this study. It gets the rotating angle of an object by means of the intensity modulation of a reflected light. The sensor probe, which is composed of an emitting fiber and a receiving fiber that are aligned along the vertical direction closely, is fixed directly on the rotating object. The measurements for axial displacement and angular displacement were operated separately. In particular, measurements for angular displacement were performed when the reflector is placed at different distances from the sensor probe separately. There is an excellent linearity between the angular displacement and the sensor output power. The results indicate that the larger the distance between the sensor probe and the reflector, the higher sensitivity the angular displacement sensor has. A theoretical model of the sensor is also developed and the simulate computation demonstrates that the theoretical results are in accordance with the experimental ones. The linear sensing range is ±7.2°, and the maximum sensitivity is 13.71%/deg. Furthermore, the hysteresis and the reproducibility of the measurement of the sensor are investigated. The designed sensor provides a kind of simple and effective method for measuring the angular displacement of a shaft system in practice due to its small size, light weight, good linearity and reproducibility.
Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong
2017-01-01
Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people’s health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity. PMID:28317861
Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong
2017-03-01
Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people’s health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity.
Penland, Cecile; Ghil, Michael; Weickmann, Klaus M.
1991-01-01
The spectral resolution and statistical significance of a harmonic analysis obtained by low-order MEM can be improved by subjecting the data to an adaptive filter. This adaptive filter consists of projecting the data onto the leading temporal empirical orthogonal functions obtained from singular spectrum analysis (SSA). The combined SSA-MEM method is applied both to a synthetic time series and a time series of AAM data. The procedure is very effective when the background noise is white and less so when the background noise is red. The latter case obtains in the AAM data. Nevertheless, reliable evidence for intraseasonal and interannual oscillations in AAM is detected. The interannual periods include a quasi-biennial one and an LF one, of 5 years, both related to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. In the intraseasonal band, separate oscillations of about 48.5 and 51 days are ascertained.
Method for fast computation of angular light scattering spectra from 2D periodic arrays
Pomplun, J; Zschiedrich, L; Gutsche, P; Schmidt, F
2016-01-01
An efficient numerical method for computing angle-resolved light scattering off periodic arrays is presented. The method combines finite-element discretization with a Schur complement solver. A significant speed-up of the computations in comparison to standard finite-element method computations is observed.
RAMAN-SPECTRA OF HUMAN DENTAL CALCULUS
TSUDA, H; ARENDS, J
1993-01-01
Raman spectra of human dental calculus have been observed for the first time by use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The spectral features of calculus were influenced easily by heating caused by laser irradiation. Therefore, the measurements were carried out at relatively low power (5 mW, 1-mu m spot si
Angular and linear momentum of excited ferromagnets
Yan, P.; Kamra, A.; Cao, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2013-01-01
The angular momentum vector of a Heisenberg ferromagnet with isotropic exchange interaction is conserved, while under uniaxial crystalline anisotropy the projection of the total spin along the easy axis is a constant of motion. Using Noether's theorem, we prove that these conservation laws persist i
A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Zhao
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2. Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability.
A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor.
Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao
2015-07-03
Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s(-2)). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability.
Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
E. Pessah, Martin; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios;
2007-01-01
if the resolution were set equal to the natural dissipation scale in astrophysical disks. We conclude that, in order for MRI-driven turbulent angular momentum transport to be able to account for the large value of the effective alpha viscosity inferred observationally, the disk must be threaded by a significant...
ANGULAR MOMENTUM ACQUISITION IN GALAXY HALOS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stewart, Kyle R. [Department of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, California Baptist University, 8432 Magnolia Ave., Riverside, CA 92504 (United States); Brooks, Alyson M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bullock, James S. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Maller, Ariyeh H. [Department of Physics, New York City College of Technology, 300 Jay St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Diemand, Juerg [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057, Zurich (Switzerland); Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Main Street West, Hamilton L85 4M1 (Canada); Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
2013-05-20
We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky-Way-sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with {approx}70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by {lambda} {approx} 0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms ''cold flow disks.'' We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.
Critical gravitational collapse with angular momentum
Gundlach, Carsten
2016-01-01
We derive a theoretical model of mass and angular momentum scaling in type-II critical collapse with rotation. We focus on the case where the critical solution has precisely one, spherically symmetric, unstable mode. We demonstrate excellent agreement with numerical results for critical collapse of a rotating radiation fluid, which falls into this case.
A new method for angular displacement measurement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Caini Zhang(张彩妮); Xiangzhao Wang(王向朝)
2003-01-01
We describe a new method for angular displacement measurements that is based on a Fabry-Perot inter-ferometer. A measurement accuracy of 10-s rad is obtained by use of the sinusoidal phase modulatinginterferometry. Another Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to obtain the key initial angle of incidence.
Optical angular momentum conversion in a nanoslit
Chimento, P.F.; Alkemade, P.F.A.; T Hooft, G.W.; Eliel, E.R.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate partial conversion of circularly polarized light into orbital angular momentum-carrying vortex light with opposite-handed circular polarization. This conversion is accomplished in a novel manner using the birefringent properties of a circular subwavelength slit in a thin metal film. O
Wigner Functions and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mukherjee Asmita
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Wigner distributions contain combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs. We report on a recent model calculation of the Wigner distributions for the quark and their relation to the orbital angular momentum.
On the quantisation of the angular momentum
Ho, V B
1994-01-01
When a hydrogen-like atom is treated as a two dimensional system whose configuration space is multiply connected, then in order to obtain the same energy spectrum as in the Bohr model the angular momentum must be half-integral.
Oral medicine in practice: angular cheilitis.
Lamey, P J; Lewis, M A
1989-07-08
In a series of twelve articles the authors aim to cover the more common oral medicine problems likely to be encountered in dental practice. Whenever possible, clinical photographs have been used to illustrate important points, and the text is deliberately succinct and without references. In the first article, the pathogenesis, investigation and management of angular cheilitis is reviewed.
Angular vibration measurement using grating and laser interferometer
Zhang, Li; Peng, Jun
2006-06-01
Primary angular acceleration calibration standard is developed by CIMM to generate standard rotational angle, angular velocity and angular acceleration, which are traceable to the International System of Units (SI). It can be used to calibrate angular transducers, i.e. angular accelerometer, angular velocity transducer, and rotational angle transducer to obtain amplitude sensitivity and phase shift by sinusoidal vibration. The measurement systems based on grating and laser interferometers are introduced in this paper. The measurement system based on PXI bus instrument is used to control the angular exciter, measure the output signal of the laser interferometers and the transducer to be calibrated synchronously. The methods for calculating the amplitude and phase of sinusoidal angular movement are investigated and high performance has been achieved. It shows the standard can be used in angular movement calibration in the frequency range from 0.1Hz to 200Hz.
Golyshev, V
2008-01-01
This is a blend of two informal reports on the activities of the seminar on Galois representations and mirror symmetry given at the Conference on classification problems and mirror duality at the Steklov Institute, in March 2006, and at the Seminar on Algebra, Geometry and Physics at MPI, in November 2007. We assess where we are on the issue of the spectra of Fano varieties, and state problems. We introduce higher dimensional irreducible analogues of dessins, the low ramified sheaves, and hypothesize that Fano spectra relate to their geometric conductors. We give a recipe to a physicist.
Strong Clustering of Faint Galaxies at Small Angular Scales
Infante, L; Menanteau, F
1996-01-01
The 2-point angular correlation function of galaxies, \\wt, has been computed on equatorial fields observed with the CTIO 4m prime focus, within a total area of 2.31 deg$^2$. In the magnitude range $19\\le m_R \\le 21.5$, corresponding to $\\approx 0.35$, we find an excess of power in \\wt at scales $2''\\le\\theta larger $\\theta$. The significance of this excess is $\\approx 5\\sigma$. At larger scales, $6''< \\theta \\le 24''$, the amplitude of \\wt is 1.6 times smaller than the standard no evolutionary model. At these scales there is remarkable agreement between the present data and Infante \\& Pritchet (1995). At large angular scales ($6''< \\theta \\le 24''$) the data is best described by a model where clustering evolution in $\\xi(r,z)$ has taken place. Strong luminosity evolution cannot be ruled out with the present data. At smaller scales, $2''\\le \\theta \\le 6''$, our data are formally fit by models where $(Ømega=0.2, \\epsilon=0)$. If the mean redshift of our sample is 0.35 then our data show a clear detec...
Measuring angular diameter distances of strong gravitational lenses
Jee, Inh; Suyu, Sherry H
2014-01-01
The distance-redshift relation plays a fundamental role in constraining cosmological models. In this paper, we show that measurements of positions and time delays of strongly lensed images of a background galaxy, as well as those of the velocity dispersion and mass profile of a lens galaxy, can be combined to extract the angular diameter distance of the lens galaxy. Physically, as the velocity dispersion and the time delay give a gravitational potential ($GM/r$) and a mass ($GM$) of the lens, respectively, dividing them gives a physical size ($r$) of the lens. Comparing the physical size with the image positions of a lensed galaxy gives the angular diameter distance to the lens. A mismatch between the exact locations at which these measurements are made can be corrected by measuring a local slope of the mass profile. We expand on the original idea put forward by Paraficz and Hjorth, who analyzed singular isothermal lenses, by allowing for an arbitrary slope of a power-law spherical mass density profile, an ex...
SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access) This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王大辉; 赵军; 赵学庆; 黄珂; 孙昱薇; 张永生; 郑国鑫; 胡云
2011-01-01
Angular multiplexing excimer master oscillator power-amplifier laser (MOPA) system is simplified by object-image conjugate structure. Relations between the drifts of optical components and the deviation of corresponding imaging plane are derived by transfer matrix and ray tracing. The index weight is determined by improved analytic hierarchy process according to nine scale evaluation matrix, and the beam positioning stability requirement of optical components which affects system stability is acquired. Results show that the error budget values of optical components is related to the focus of image-relaying and the distance from object plane. The values change conversely with the focuses. The optical components stability in laboratory environment is measured and compared with those of error budget.%对角多路准分子激光主振荡器功率放大(MOPA)系统进行物像共轭结构简化.利用传输矩阵和光线追迹,推导出了像传递光路中光学元件扰动与相应像面光束定位误差之间关系式.根据九标度赋值矩阵,采用改进层次分析法确定指标权重系数,得到了影响系统稳定性的光学元件光束定位指标要求.结果表明,光学元件分配指标大小和像传递结构焦距、光学元件(反射镜)距离像传递结构物面距离有关,焦距越大指标越小,距离越远指标越大.测量了实验室环境下光学元件的稳定性,对测量结果和定位误差进行了分析,并在此基础上提出了光路设计和光路优化的建议.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Yang; ZHANG JingYe; LONG GuiLu; WU ChengLi
2009-01-01
Angular-momentum-projected energy surface calculations for A ≈ 110 nuclei indicate three distinct energy minima occurring at different angular-momenta. These correspond to normal, super-, and hy-per-deformed shapes coexisting in one nucleus. 110Pd is studied in detail, with a quantitative prediction on super- and hyper-deformed spectra by the Projected Shell Model calculation. It is found that several other neighboring nuclei in the A-110 mass region, with the neutron number around 64, also exhibit clear super- and hyper-deformation minima in the projected calculation.
Algorithms for classification of astronomical object spectra
Wasiewicz, P.; Szuppe, J.; Hryniewicz, K.
2015-09-01
Obtaining interesting celestial objects from tens of thousands or even millions of recorded optical-ultraviolet spectra depends not only on the data quality but also on the accuracy of spectra decomposition. Additionally rapidly growing data volumes demands higher computing power and/or more efficient algorithms implementations. In this paper we speed up the process of substracting iron transitions and fitting Gaussian functions to emission peaks utilising C++ and OpenCL methods together with the NOSQL database. In this paper we implemented typical astronomical methods of detecting peaks in comparison to our previous hybrid methods implemented with CUDA.
Unusual features of proton and -spectra from low-energy heavy-ion reactions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D R Chakrabarty
2010-07-01
Proton and -particle spectra have been measured in low-energy 12C and 16O-induced reactions on Nb and Y targets with the primary aim of measuring the excitation energy and angular momentum dependence of nuclear level density. In the -multiplicity gated spectra, an unusual feature of a broad structure at high particle energies is observed in all the cases. In the case of proton spectra, the structures have compound nuclear origin and point towards an excitation energy and angular momentum-dependent enhancement which is beyond the conventional level density prescription. The broad structures in the -spectra cannot be fully explained within the statistical model even with the enhanced level density. In this case, other reaction mechanisms like the transfer of or 8Be to the target could also be important.
Zhang, Zijing; Qiao, Tianyuan; Ma, Kun; Cen, Longzhu; Zhang, Jiandong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuan
2016-08-15
Photon orbital angular momentum has led to many novel insights and applications in quantum measurement. Photon orbital angular momentum can increase the resolution and sensitivity of angular rotation measurement. However, quantum measurement strategy can further surpass this limit and improve the resolution of angular rotation measurement. This Letter proposes and demonstrates a parity measurement method in angular rotation measurement scheme for the first time. Parity measurement can make the resolution superior to the limit of the existing method. The sensitivity can be improved with higher orbital angular momentum photons. Moreover, this Letter gives a detailed discussion of the change of resolution and sensitivity in the presence of photon loss.
Mass and Angular Momentum in General Relativity
Jaramillo, J L
2010-01-01
We present an introduction to mass and angular momentum in General Relativity. After briefly reviewing energy-momentum for matter fields, first in the flat Minkowski case (Special Relativity) and then in curved spacetimes with or without symmetries, we focus on the discussion of energy-momentum for the gravitational field. We illustrate the difficulties rooted in the Equivalence Principle for defining a local energy-momentum density for the gravitational field. This leads to the understanding of gravitational energy-momentum and angular momentum as non-local observables that make sense, at best, for extended domains of spacetime. After introducing Komar quantities associated with spacetime symmetries, it is shown how total energy-momentum can be unambiguously defined for isolated systems, providing fundamental tests for the internal consistency of General Relativity as well as setting the conceptual basis for the understanding of energy loss by gravitational radiation. Finally, several attempts to formulate q...
Angular MET sensor for precise azimuth determination
Zaitsev, Dmitry; Antonov, Alexander; Krishtop, Vladimir
2016-12-01
This paper describes using a MET-based low-noise angular motion sensor to precisely determine azimuth direction in a dynamic-scheme method of measuring Earth's rotation velocity vector. The scheme includes installing a sensor on a rotating platform so that it could scan a space and seek for the position of highest Earth's rotation vector projection on its axis. This method is very efficient provided a low-noise sensor is used. We take a low-cost angular sensor based on MET (molecular electronic transduction) technology. Sensors of this kind were originally developed for the seismic activity monitoring and are well-known for very good noise performance and high sensitivity. This approach, combined with use of special signal processing algorithms, allowed for reaching the accuracy of 0.07° for a measurement time of 200 seconds.
Angular momentum in cluster Spherical Collapse Model
Cupani, Guido; Mardirossian, Fabio
2011-01-01
Our new formulation of the Spherical Collapse Model (SCM-L) takes into account the presence of angular momentum associated with the motion of galaxy groups infalling towards the centre of galaxy clusters. The angular momentum is responsible for an additional term in the dynamical equation which is useful to describe the evolution of the clusters in the non-equilibrium region which is investigated in the present paper. Our SCM-L can be used to predict the profiles of several strategic dynamical quantities as the radial and tangential velocities of member galaxies, and the total cluster mass. A good understanding of the non-equilibrium region is important since it is the natural scenario where to study the infall in galaxy clusters and the accretion phenomena present in these objects. Our results corroborate previous estimates and are in very good agreement with the analysis of recent observations and of simulated clusters.
CMB Anisotropies Total Angular Momentum Method
Hu, W; Hu, Wayne; White, Martin
1997-01-01
A total angular momentum representation simplifies the radiation transport problem for temperature and polarization anisotropy in the CMB. Scattering terms couple only the quadrupole moments of the distributions and each moment corresponds directly to the observable angular pattern on the sky. We develop and employ these techniques to study the general properties of anisotropy generation from scalar, vector and tensor perturbations to the metric and the matter, both in the cosmological fluids and from any seed perturbations (e.g.~defects) that may be present. The simpler, more transparent form and derivation of the Boltzmann equations brings out the geometric and model-independent aspects of temperature and polarization anisotropy formation. Large angle scalar polarization provides a robust means to distinguish between isocurvature and adiabatic models for structure formation in principle. Vector modes have the unique property that the CMB polarization is dominated by magnetic type parity at small angles and ...
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor
Marriage, Tobias; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.
2014-01-01
Some of the most compelling inflation models predict a background of primordial gravitational waves (PGW) detectable by their imprint of a curl-like "B-mode" pattern in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a novel array of telescopes to measure the B-mode signature of the PGW. By targeting the largest angular scales (>2°) with a multifrequency array, novel polarization modulation and detectors optimized for both control of systematics and sensitivity, CLASS sets itself apart in the field of CMB polarization surveys and opens an exciting new discovery space for the PGW and inflation. This poster presents an overview of the CLASS project.
Quantum Entanglement of Very High Angular Momenta
Fickler, Robert; Plick, William N; Krenn, Mario; Schaeff, Christoph; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton
2012-01-01
Single photons with helical phase structure may carry a quantized amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM) and are of great interest in quantum information science and fundamental tests of quantum theory. Since there is no theoretical upper limit on how many quanta of OAM a single photon can carry, those systems offer the possibility to create superpositions for one particle and entanglement between two particles with an arbitrary high difference in the quantum number. By transferring polarization entanglement to the OAM degree-of-freedom with an interferometric scheme, we created and observed entanglement up to $600\\bar{h}$ difference in the orbital angular momentum. To our knowledge, we have thus demonstrated entanglement of the highest quantum number in any experiment so far. The only restrictive factor towards even higher numbers arises due to current technical limitations. Furthermore, we show experimentally that the entanglement of very high OAM can be used to improve applications, like the sensitivity ...
Bell inequalities with continuous angular variables
Borges, Carolina V S; Keller, Arne
2011-01-01
We consider bipartite quantum systems characterized by a continuous angular variable \\theta \\in [-\\pi, \\pi[, representing, for instance, the position of a particle on a circle. We show how to reveal non-locality on this type of system using inequalities similar to CHSH ones, originally derived for bipartite spin 1/2 like systems. Such inequalities involve correlated measurement of continuous angular functions and are equivalent to the continuous superposition of CHSH inequalities acting on bidimensional subspaces of the infinite dimensional Hilbert space. As an example, we discuss in detail one application of our results, and we derive inequalities based on orientation correlation measurements. The introduced Bell-type inequalities open the perspective of new and simpler experiments to test non locality on a variety of quantum systems described by continuous variables.
Instability in the dense supernova neutrino gas with flavor-dependent angular distributions.
Mirizzi, Alessandro; Serpico, Pasquale Dario
2012-06-08
The usual description of self-induced flavor conversions for neutrinos (ν's) in supernovae is based on the simplified assumption that all the ν's of the different species are emitted "half-isotropically" by a common neutrinosphere, in analogy to a blackbody emission. However, realistic supernova simulations show that ν angular distributions at decoupling are far from being half-isotropic and, above all, are flavor dependent. We show that flavor-dependent angular distributions may lead to crossing points in the angular spectra of different ν species (where F(ν(e))=F(ν(x)) and F(ν(e))=F(ν(x))) around which a new multiangle instability can develop. To characterize this effect, we carry out a linearized flavor stability analysis for different supernova neutrino angular distributions. We find that this instability can shift the onset of the flavor conversions toward low radii and produce a smearing of the splitting features found with trivial ν emission models. As a result the spectral differences among ν's of different flavors could be strongly reduced.
Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms
Hockett, Paul; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas
2015-01-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the cohere...
Angular resolution of stacked resistive plate chambers
Samuel, Deepak; Murgod, Lakshmi P
2016-01-01
We present here detailed derivations of mathematical expressions for the angular resolution of a set of stacked resistive plate chambers (RPCs). The expressions are validated against experimental results using data collected from the prototype detectors (without magnet) of the upcoming India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). In principle, these expressions can be used for any other detector with an architecture similar to that of RPCs.
Angular Momentum Sharing in Dissipative Collisions
Casini, G.; Poggi, G.; Bini, M.; Calamai, S.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Taccetti, N.; Steckmeyer, J. C.; Laforest, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.
1999-09-01
Light charged particles emitted by the projectilelike fragment were measured in the direct and reverse collision of 93Nb and 116Sn at 25A MeV. The experimental multiplicities of hydrogen and helium particles as a function of the primary mass of the emitting fragment show evidence for a correlation with net mass transfer. The ratio of hydrogen and helium multiplicities points to a dependence of the angular momentum sharing on the net mass transfer.
Angular momentum sharing in dissipative collisions
Casini, G; Bini, M; Calamai, S; Maurenzig, P R; Olmi, A; Pasquali, G; Stefanini, A A; Taccetti, N; Steckmeyer, J C; Laforest, R; Saint-Laurent, F
1999-01-01
Light charged particles emitted by the projectile-like fragment were measured in the direct and reverse collision of $^{93}$Nb and $^{116}$Sn at 25 AMeV. The experimental multiplicities of Hydrogen and Helium particles as a function of the primary mass of the emitting fragment show evidence for a correlation with net mass transfer. The ratio of Hydrogen and Helium multiplicities points to a dependence of the angular momentum sharing on the net mass transfer.
Angular cheilitis, part 1: local etiologies.
Park, Kelly K; Brodell, Robert T; Helms, Stephen E
2011-06-01
Angular cheilitis (AC) is a common condition characterized by erythema, moist maceration, ulceration, and crusting at the corners of the mouth. This article focuses on the common local factors that act alone and in combination to produce AC. These factors are categorized as irritant, allergic, and infectious causes. Identifying the underlying etiology of AC is a critical step in developing an effective treatment plan for this condition.
Miller, N J; Marriage, T A; Wollack, E J; Appel, J W; Bennett, C L; Eimer, J; Essinger-Hileman, T; Fixsen, D J; Harrington, K; Moseley, S H; Rostem, K; Switzer, E R; Watts, D J
2015-01-01
Polarimetric surveys of the microwave sky at large angular scales are crucial in testing cosmic inflation, as inflation predicts a divergence-free $B$-mode angular power spectrum that extends to the largest scales on the sky. A promising technique for realizing such large surveys is through the use of rapid polarization modulation to mitigate variations in the atmosphere, coupling to the environment, and drifts in instrumental response. VPMs change the state of polarization by introducing a controlled, adjustable delay between orthogonal linear polarizations resulting in transformations between linear and circular polarization states. VPMs are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that...
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor
Harrington, Kathleen; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Dahal, Sumit; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fluxa, Pedro; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Hubmayr, Johannes; Iuliano, Jeffery; Karakla, John; McMahon, Jeff; Miller, Nathan T; Moseley, Samuel H; Palma, Gonzalo; Parker, Lucas; Petroff, Matthew; Pradenas, Bastián; Rostem, Karwan; Sagliocca, Marco; Valle, Deniz; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen
2016-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from inflation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70\\% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad f...
A neural circuit for angular velocity computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel B Snider
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly-tunable wing-steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuro-mechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob.
Angular cheilitis: a clinical and microbial study.
Ohman, S C; Dahlén, G; Möller, A; Ohman, A
1986-04-01
The purpose of this prospective study was to re-examine the relative importance of various factors in the pathogenesis of angular cheilitis. Sixty-four patients with cheilitis were examined clinically and microbiologically. In addition, a subsample of 23 patients was examined for serum iron and transferrin. The clinical appearance of the lip lesions fell into 4 categories. A ground rhagad at the corner of the mouth involving adjacent skin, was the most frequent type among dentate patients, whereas among denture wearers a deep lesion following the labial marginal sulcus was frequently observed. Dentate patients and denture wearers with cheilitis often had atopic constitution or cutaneous diseases. Pathogenic microorganisms were cultured from the lesions in all 64 patients; Staphylococcus aureus in 40 patients and Candida albicans in 45. The results of this study indicate a correlation between angular cheilitis and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, among dentate patients, a correlation exists between cutaneous discomfort and angular cheilitis. Other etiological factors suggested for this disorder were found to be of subordinate importance.
SRD 100 Database for Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA)Database for Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) (PC database for purchase) This database has been designed to facilitate quantitative interpretation of Auger-electron and X-ray photoelectron spectra and to improve the accuracy of quantitation in routine analysis. The database contains all physical data needed to perform quantitative interpretation of an electron spectrum for a thin-film specimen of given composition. A simulation module provides an estimate of peak intensities as well as the energy and angular distributions of the emitted electron flux.
Symmetries in the angular distribution of exclusive semileptonic B decays
Egede, Ulrik; Matias, Joaquim; Ramon, Marc; Reece, Will
2010-01-01
We discuss a method to construct observables protected against QCD uncertainties based on the angular distribution of the exclusive Bd -> K(*0}(-> Kpi) l+ l- decay. We focus on the identification and the interpretation of all the symmetries of the distribution. They constitute a key ingredient to construct a set of so-called transverse observables. We work in the framework of QCD factorization at NLO supplemented by an estimate of power-suppressed Lambda/mb corrections. A discussion of the new physics properties of two of the transverse asymmetries, AT^{(2)} and AT^{(5)}, is presented. A comparison between the transverse asymmetry AT^{(2)} and the forward-backward asymmetry shows that AT^{(2)} emerges as an improved version of it.
Theoretical prediction on vibrational spectra of [Ar…Ar-H]+
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Wei(李巍); ZHAO; Xinsheng(赵新生)
2003-01-01
Centrosymmetric linear [Ar-H-Ar]+ and asymmetric linear [Ar…Ar-H]+ are two stable configurations of [Ar2H]+. Based on the global potential energy surface of [Ar2H]+ provided by our group recently, we calculated the vibrational spectra of [Ar…Ar-H]+ with total angular momentum J = 0 by time-dependent quantum mechanical method, and the influence of quantum tunneling effect on vibrational spectra was found. With the help of the observation on the eigenstate functions and the modified potential energy surface, assignments were made to the spectra. The strong coupling between the excited bending mode of [Ar-H-Ar]+ and the vibrational states of [Ar…Ar-H]+ was discussed.
Angular momentum of a brane-world model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
In this paper we discuss the properties of the general covariant angular momentum of a fivedimensional brane-world model. Through calculating the total angular momentum of this model, we are able to analyze the properties of the total angular momentum in the inflationary RS model. We show that the space-like components of the total angular momentum of the inflationary RS model are all zero while the others are non-zero, which agrees with the results from ordinary RS model.
Localization of angular momentum in optical waves propagating through turbulence.
Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W
2011-12-01
This is the first in a series of papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. The scope of this first paper is much narrower. Here, we demonstrate that atmospheric turbulence can impart non-trivial angular momentum to beams and that this non-trivial angular momentum is highly localized. Furthermore, creation of this angular momentum is a normal part of propagation through atmospheric turbulence.
Study of the Angular Distribution of Scintillation Photons
Fornaro, Giulia Alice; Ghezzi, Alessio; Knapitsch, Arno; Modrzynski, Pawel; Pizzichemi, Marco; Lecoq, Paul; Auffray, Etiennette
2014-01-01
This paper presents a characterization method to experimentally determine the angular distribution of scintillation light. By exciting LYSO crystals with a radioactive source, we measured the light angular profiles obtained with samples of different geometries in different conditions of wrapping. We also measured the angular distribution of light emitting in glue and compared it with the one emitting in air. Angular distribution of light output of photonic crystals is also provided. Consistency of the measurements is verified with conventional light output measurements.
Angular Momentum of a Brane-world Model
Jia, Bei; Zhang, Peng-Ming
2008-01-01
In this paper we discuss the properties of the general covariant angular momentum of a five-dimensional brane-world model. Through calculating the total angular momentum of this model, we are able to analyze the properties of the total angular momentum in the inflationary RS model. We show that the space-like components of the total angular momentum of are all zero while the others are non-zero, which agrees with the results from ordinary RS model.
Angular momentum flux of nonparaxial acoustic vortex beams and torques on axisymmetric objects.
Zhang, Likun; Marston, Philip L
2011-12-01
An acoustic vortex in an inviscid fluid and its radiation torque on an axisymmetric absorbing object are analyzed beyond the paraxial approximation to clarify an analogy with an optical vortex. The angular momentum flux density tensor from the conservation of angular momentum is used as an efficient description of the transport of angular momentum. Analysis of a monochromatic nonparaxial acoustic vortex beam indicates that the local ratio of the axial (or radial) flux density of axial angular momentum to the axial (or radial) flux density of energy is exactly equal to the ratio of the beam's topological charge l to the acoustic frequency ω. The axial radiation torque exerted by the beam on an axisymmetric object centered on the beam's axis due to the transfer of angular momentum is proportional to the power absorbed by the object with a factor l/ω, which can be understood as a result of phonon absorption from the beam. Depending on the vortex's helicity, the torque is parallel or antiparallel to the beam's axis.
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor
Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Dahal, Sumit; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fluxa, Pedro; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Iuliano, Jeffrey; Karakla, John; Marriage, Tobias; McMahon, Jeff; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Palma, Gonzalo; Parker, Lucas; Petroff, Matthew; Pradenas, Bastián; Rostem, Karwan; Sagliocca, Marco; Valle, Deniz; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen
2017-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveryor (CLASS) is a ground based telescope array designed to measure the large-angular scale polarization signal of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The large-angular scale CMB polarization measurement is essential for a precise determination of the optical depth to reionization (from the E-mode polarization) and a characterization of inflation from the predicted polarization pattern imprinted on the CMB by gravitational waves in the early universe (from the B-mode polarization). CLASS will characterize the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, to 0.01 (95% CL).CLASS is uniquely designed to be sensitive to the primordial B-mode signal across the entire range of angular scales where it could possibly dominate over the lensing signal that converts E-modes to B-modes while also making multi-frequency observations both high and low of the frequency where the CMB-to-foreground signal ratio is at its maximum. The design enables CLASS to make a definitive cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to scattering from reionization.CLASS is an array of 4 telescopes operating at approximately 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz. CLASS is located high in the Andes mountains in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. The location of the CLASS site at high altitude near the equator minimizes atmospheric emission while allowing for daily mapping of ~70% of the sky.A rapid front end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM) and low noise Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detectors allow for a high sensitivity and low systematic error mapping of the CMB polarization at large angular scales. The VPM, detectors and their coupling structures were all uniquely designed and built for CLASS.We present here an overview of the CLASS scientific strategy, instrument design, and current progress. Particular attention is given to the development and status of the Q-band receiver currently surveying the sky from the Atacama Desert and the development of
Angular Goos-Hänchen effect in curved dielectric microstructures.
Tran, N H; Dutriaux, L; Balcou, P; Floch, A L; Bretenaker, F
1995-06-01
A macroscopic angular Goos-Hänchen effect at total reflection on curved interfaces is studied experimentally. The results are compared with the complex-angular-momentum model of quasi-critical scattering. An extremum in angular deflection, which has not yet been predicted by any theory other than exact Mie scattering computations, is identified at low size parameters.
Progress Toward A Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS)
Korendyke, Clarence M.; Vourlidas, A.; Landi, E.; Seely, J.; Klimchuck, J.
2007-07-01
Recent imaging at arcsecond (TRACE) and sub-arcsecond (VAULT) spatial resolution clearly show that structures with fine spatial scales play a key role in the physics of the upper solar atmosphere. Both theoretical and observational considerations point to the importance of small spatial scales, impulsive energy release, strong dynamics, and extreme plasma nonuniformity. Fundamental questions regarding the nature, structure, properties and dynamics of loops and filamentary structures in the upper atmosphere have been raised. To address these questions, we are developing a next generation, VEry high angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) as a sounding rocket instrument. VERIS will obtain the necessary high spatial resolution, high fidelity measurements of plasma temperatures, densities and velocities. With broad simultaneous temperature coverage, the VERIS observations will directly address unresolved issues relating to interconnections of various temperature solar plasmas. VERIS will provide the first ever subarcsecond spectra of transition region and coronal structures. It will do so with a sufficient spectral resolution of to allow centroided Doppler velocity determinations to better than 3 km/s. VERIS uses a novel two element, normal incidence optical design with highly reflective EUV coatings to access a spectral range with broad temperature coverage (0.03-15 MK) and density-sensitive line ratios. Finally, in addition to the spectra, VERIS will simultaneously obtain spectrally pure slot images (10x150 arcsec) in the +/-1 grating orders, which can be combined to make instantaneous line-of-sight velocity maps with 8km/s accuracy over an unprecedented field of view. The VERIS program is beginning the second year of its three year development cycle. All design activities and reviews are complete. Fabrication of all major components has begun. Brassboard electronics cards have been fabricated, assembled and tested. The paper presents the essential scientific
Power Budget Analysis for Waveguide-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.
Wang, Zilong; Pearce, Stuart J; Lin, Yung-Chun; Zervas, Michalis N; Bartlett, Philip N; Wilkinson, James S
2016-08-01
Waveguide-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (WERS) is emerging as an attractive alternative to plasmonic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy approaches as it can provide more reproducible quantitative spectra on a robust chip without the need for nanostructured plasmonic materials. Realizing portable WERS systems with high sensitivity using low-cost laser diodes and compact spectrometers requires a detailed analysis of the power budget from laser to spectrometer chip. In this paper, we describe theoretical optimization of planar waveguides for maximum Raman excitation efficiency, demonstrate WERS for toluene on a silicon process compatible high index contrast tantalum pentoxide waveguide, measure the absolute conversion efficiency from pump power to received power in an individual Raman line, and compare this with a power budget analysis of the complete system including collection with an optical fiber and interfacing to a compact spectrometer. Optimized 110 nm thick Ta2O5 waveguides on silica substrates excited at a wavelength of 637 nm are shown experimentally to yield overall system power conversion efficiency of ∼0.5 × 10(-12) from the pump power in the waveguide to the collected Raman power in the 1002 cm(-1) Raman line of toluene, in comparison with a calculated efficiency of 3.9 × 10(-12) Collection efficiency is dictated by the numerical and physical apertures of the spectral detection system but may be improved by further engineering the spatial and angular Raman scattering distributions.
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Sen, Manibrata
2017-02-01
It has been recently pointed out that neutrino fluxes from a supernova can show substantial flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Using linear stability analyses and numerical solutions of the fully nonlinear equations of motion, we perform a detailed study of these fast conversions, focussing on the region just above the supernova core. We carefully specify the instabilities for evolution in space or time, and find that neutrinos travelling towards the core make fast conversions more generic, i.e., possible for a wider range of flux ratios and angular asymmetries that produce a crossing between the zenith-angle spectra of νe and bar nue. Using fluxes and angular distributions predicted by supernova simulations, we find that fast conversions can occur within tens of nanoseconds, only a few meters away from the putative neutrinospheres. If these fast flavor conversions indeed take place, they would have important implications for the supernova explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis.
Single-shot measurement of the orbital-angular-momentum spectrum of partially coherent fields
Kulkarni, Girish; Magana-Loaiza, Omar S; Boyd, Robert W; Jha, Anand K
2016-01-01
We propose an image inversion-based interferometric technique for measuring the orbital-angular- momentum (OAM) spectrum of a field that is an incoherent mixture of OAM eigenstates. The tech- nique directly encodes the angular correlation function of the input field in the azimuthal intensity profile of the output interferogram. We show that for an input field with a symmetric spectrum, a single-shot acquisition of this interferogram is sufficient to measure its OAM spectrum. We first present a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of this technique for laboratory-produced partially coherent fields with known OAM spectra. We then use this technique to measure the intrinsic OAM spectrum of the signal-idler field from parametric down-conversion over an unprece- dented range of more than 150 modes. This technique therefore surpasses all other existing mea- surement schemes in terms of efficiency and spectral range, and can have significant implications for high-dimensional optical information processing pr...
Svoboda, J; Goosmann, R W; Karas, V
2009-01-01
Spin of an accreting black hole can be determined by spectroscopy of the emission and absorption features produced in the inner regions of an accretion disc. We discuss the method employing the relativistic line profiles of iron in the X-ray domain, where the emergent spectrum is blurred by general relativistic effects. Precision of spectra fitting procedure could be compromised by inappropriate account of the angular distribution of the disc emission. Often a unique profile is assumed, invariable over the entire range of radii in the disc and energy in the spectral band. We study how sensitive the spin determination is to the assumptions about the intrinsic angular distribution of the emitted photons. We find that the uncertainty of the directional emission distribution translates to 20% uncertainty in determination of the marginally stable orbit. By assuming a rotating black hole in the centre of an accretion disc, we perform radiation transfer computations of an X-ray irradiated disc atmosphere to determin...
High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra
Carleo, I; Gratton, R; Benatti, S; Bonavita, M; Oliva, E; Origlia, L; Desidera, S; Claudi, R; Sissa, E
2016-01-01
Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 micron) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the v...
A critique of the angular momentum sum rules and a new angular momentum sum rule
Bakker, B L G; Trueman, T L
2004-01-01
We show that the expressions in the literature for the tensorial structure of the hadronic matrix elements of the angular momentum operators J are incorrect. Given this disagreement with the published results, we have taken pains to derive the correct expressions in three different ways, two involving explicit physical wave packets and the third, totally independent, based upon the rotational properties of the state vectors. Surprisingly it turns out that the results are very sensitive to the type of relativistic spin state used to describe the motion of the particle i.e. whether a canonical (i.e. boost) state or a helicity state is utilized. We present results for the matrix elements of the angular momentum operators, valid in an arbitrary Lorentz frame, both for helicity states and canonical states. These results are relevant for the construction of angular momentum sum rules, relating the angular momentum of a nucleon to the spin and orbital angular momentum of its constituents. Moreover, we show that it i...
The Schiff angular bremsstrahlung distribution from composite media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, M.L., E-mail: michael.taylor@rmit.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Dalton, B.; Franich, R.D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia)
2012-12-15
The Schiff differential for the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung is widely employed, but calculations involving composite materials (i.e. compounds and mixtures) are often undertaken in a somewhat ad hoc fashion. In this work, we suggest an alternative approach to power-law estimates of the effective atomic number utilising Seltzer and Berger's combined approach in order to generate single-valued effective atomic numbers applicable over a large energy range (in the worst case deviation from constancy of about 2% between 10 keV and 1 GeV). Differences with power-law estimates of Z for composites are potentially significant, particularly for low-Z media such as biological or surrogate materials as relevant within the context of medical physics. As an example, soft tissue differs by >70% and cortical bone differs by >85%, while for high-Z composites such as a tungsten-rhenium alloy the difference is of the order of 1%. Use of the normalised Schiff formula for shape only does not exhibit strong Z dependence. Consequently, in such contexts the differences are negligible - the power-law approach overestimates the magnitude by 1.05% in the case of water and underestimates it by <0.1% for the high-Z alloys. The differences in the distribution are most pronounced for small angles and where the bremsstrahlung quanta are low energy.
Angular Dispersion and Deflection Function for Heavy Ion Elastic Scattering
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAI Zhen; MAO Rui-Shi; YUAN Xiao-Hua; Xu Zhi-Guo; ZHANG Hong-Bin; XU Hua-Gen; QI Hui-Rong; WANG Yue; JIA Fei; WU Li-Jie; DING Xian-Li; WANG Qi; GAO Qi; GAO Hui; LI Song-Lin; LI Jun-Qing; ZHANG Ya-Peng; XIAO Guo-Qing; JIN Gen-Ming; REN Zhong-Zhou; ZHOU Shan-Gui; XU Wang; HAN Jian-Long; Fan Gong-Tao; ZHANG Shuang-Quan; PANG Dan-Yang; SERGEY Yu-Kun; XIAO Zhi-Gang; XU Hu-Shan; SUN Zhi-Yu; HU Zheng-Guo; ZHANG Xue-Ying; WANG Hong-Wei
2007-01-01
The differential cross sections for elastic scattering products of17 F on 208 Pb have been measured.The angular dispersion plots of In(dσ/dθ)versus θ2 are obtained from the angular distribution of the elastic scattering differential cross sections.Systematical analysis on the angular dispersion for the available experimental data indicates that there is an angular dispersion turning angle at forward angular range within the grazing angle.This turning angle can be clarified as nuclear rainbow in classical deflection function.The exotic behaviour of the nuclear rainbow angle offers a new probe to investigate the halo and skin phenomena.
Angular momentum evolution in laser-plasma accelerators
Thaury, C; Corde, S; Lehe, R; Bouteiller, M Le; Phuoc, K Ta; Davoine, X; Rax, J -M; Rousse, A; Malka, V
2013-01-01
The transverse properties of an electron beam are characterized by two quantities, the emittance which indicates the electron beam extend in the phase space and the angular momentum which allows for non-planar electron trajectories. Whereas the emittance of electron beams produced in laser- plasma accelerator has been measured in several experiments, their angular momentum has been scarcely studied. It was demonstrated that electrons in laser-plasma accelerator carry some angular momentum, but its origin was not established. Here we identify one source of angular momentum growth and we present experimental results showing that the angular momentum content evolves during the acceleration.
Angular-momentum evolution in laser-plasma accelerators.
Thaury, C; Guillaume, E; Corde, S; Lehe, R; Le Bouteiller, M; Ta Phuoc, K; Davoine, X; Rax, J M; Rousse, A; Malka, V
2013-09-27
The transverse properties of an electron beam are characterized by two quantities, the emittance which indicates the electron beam extent in the phase space and the angular momentum which allows for nonplanar electron trajectories. Whereas the emittance of electron beams produced in a laser-plasma accelerator has been measured in several experiments, their angular momentum has been scarcely studied. It was demonstrated that electrons in a laser-plasma accelerator carry some angular momentum, but its origin was not established. Here we identify one source of angular-momentum growth and we present experimental results showing that the angular-momentum content evolves during the acceleration.
Angular-Momentum Evolution in Laser-Plasma Accelerators
Thaury, C; Corde, S; Lehe, R; Le Bouteiller, M; Ta Phuoc, K; Davoine, X; Rax, J M; Rousse, A; Malka, V; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.135002
2013-01-01
The transverse properties of an electron beam are characterized by two quantities, the emittance which indicates the electron beam extent in the phase space and the angular momentum which allows for nonplanar electron trajectories. Whereas the emittance of electron beams produced in a laser-plasma accelerator has been measured in several experiments, their angular momentum has been scarcely studied. It was demonstrated that electrons in a laser-plasma accelerator carry some angular momentum, but its origin was not established. Here we identify one source of angular-momentum growth and we present experimental results showing that the angular-momentum content evolves during the acceleration.
Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.
Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M
2014-04-01
The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent.
New relativistic Hamiltonian: the angular magnetoelectric coupling
Paillard, Charles; Mondal, Ritwik; Berritta, Marco; Dkhil, Brahim; Singh, Surendra; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Bellaiche, Laurent
2016-10-01
Spin-Orbit Coupling (SOC) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the spintronics area, as it plays a major role in allowing for enhancing many well-known phenomena, such as the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the Rashba effect, etc. However, the usual expression of the SOC interaction ħ/4m2c2 [E×p] • σ (1) where p is the momentum operator, E the electric field, σ the vector of Pauli matrices, breaks the gauge invariance required by the electronic Hamiltonian. On the other hand, very recently, a new phenomenological interaction, coupling the angular momentum of light and magnetic moments, has been proposed based on symmetry arguments: ξ/2 [r × (E × B)] M, (2) with M the magnetization, r the position, and ξ the interaction strength constant. This interaction has been demonstrated to contribute and/or give rise, in a straightforward way, to various magnetoelectric phenomena,such as the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), the planar Hall effect and Rashba-like effects, or the spin-current model in multiferroics. This last model is known to be the origin of the cycloidal spin arrangement in bismuth ferrite for instance. However, the coupling of the angular momentum of light with magnetic moments lacked a fundamental theoretical basis. Starting from the Dirac equation, we derive a relativistic interaction Hamiltonian which linearly couples the angular momentum density of the electromagnetic (EM) field and the electrons spin. We name this coupling the Angular MagnetoElectric (AME) coupling. We show that in the limit of uniform magnetic field, the AME coupling yields an interaction exactly of the form of Eq. (2), thereby giving a firm theoretical basis to earlier works. The AME coupling can be expressed as: ξ [E × A] • σ (3) with A being the vector potential. Interestingly, the AME coupling was shown to be complementary to the traditional SOC, and together they restore the gauge invariance of the
Angular Momentum of Dark Matter Black Holes
Frampton, Paul H
2016-01-01
The putative black holes which may constitute all the dark matter are described by a Kerr metric with only two parameters, mass M and angular momentum J. There has been little discussion of J since it plays no role in the upcoming attempt at detection by microlensing. Nevertheless J does play a central role in understanding the previous lack of detection, especially of CMB distortion. We explain why bounds previously derived from lack of CMB distortion are too strong for primordial black holes with J non-vanishing. Almost none of the dark matter black holes can be from stellar collapse, and nearly all are primordial, to avoid excessive CMB distortion.
Angular Distributions of Discrete Mesoscale Mapping Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kroszczyński Krzysztof
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analyses of numerical experiments concerning GPS signal propagation delays in the atmosphere and the discrete mapping functions defined on their basis. The delays were determined using data from the mesoscale non-hydrostatic weather model operated in the Centre of Applied Geomatics, Military University of Technology. A special attention was paid to investigating angular characteristics of GPS slant delays for low angles of elevation. The investigation proved that the temporal and spatial variability of the slant delays depends to a large extent on current weather conditions
Angular momentum evolution of galaxies in EAGLE
Lagos, Claudia del P; Stevens, Adam R H; Cortese, Luca; Padilla, Nelson D; Davis, Timothy A; Contreras, Sergio; Croton, Darren
2016-01-01
We use EAGLE to study the specific angular momentum of galaxies, j, at z1.2, and then increase as lstars~a. Galaxy mergers reduce lstars by a factor of 2-3. These tracks are driven by both the evolution of the total jstars but also its radial distribution. Regardless of the aperture used to measure j, two distinct channels leading to low jstars in galaxies at z=0 are identified: (i) galaxy mergers, and (ii) early formation of most of the stars.
Angular momentum sensitive two-center interference.
Ilchen, M; Glaser, L; Scholz, F; Walter, P; Deinert, S; Rothkirch, A; Seltmann, J; Viefhaus, J; Decleva, P; Langer, B; Knie, A; Ehresmann, A; Al-Dossary, O M; Braune, M; Hartmann, G; Meissner, A; Tribedi, L C; AlKhaldi, M; Becker, U
2014-01-17
In quantum mechanics the Young-type double-slit experiment can be performed with electrons either traveling through a double slit or being coherently emitted from two inversion symmetric molecular sites. In the latter one the valence photoionization cross sections of homonuclear diatomic molecules were predicted to oscillate over kinetic energy almost 50 years ago. Beyond the direct proof of the oscillatory behavior of these photoionization cross sections σ, we show that the angular distribution of the emitted electrons reveals hitherto unexplored information on the relative phase shift between the corresponding partial waves through two-center interference patterns.
Lunar influence on equatorial atmospheric angular momentum
Bizouard, C.; Zotov, L.; Sidorenkov, N.
2015-08-01
This study investigates the relationship between the equatorial atmospheric angular momentum oscillation in the non-rotating frame and lunar tidal potential. Between 2 and 30 days, the corresponding equatorial component is mostly constituted of prograde circular motions, especially of a harmonic at 13.6 days, and of a weekly broad band variation. A simple equilibrium tide model explains the 13.6-day pressure term as result of the O1 lunar tide; the tidal lunar origin of the whole band from 2 to 30 days is attested by specific features, not occurring for seasonal band dominated by the solar thermal effect.
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)
Eimer, Joseph; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Marriage, T.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.
2014-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of telescopes designed to search for the signature of inflation in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). By combining the strategy of targeting large scales (>2 deg) with novel front-end polarization modulation and novel detectors at multiple frequencies, CLASS will pioneer a new frontier in ground-based CMB polarization surveys. In this talk, I give an overview of the CLASS instrument, survey, and outlook on setting important new limits on the energy scale of inflation.
Angular Momentum Sensitive Two-Center Interference
Ilchen, M.; Glaser, L.; Scholz, F.; Walter, P.; Deinert, S.; Rothkirch, A.; Seltmann, J.; Viefhaus, J.; Decleva, P.; Langer, B.; Knie, A.; Ehresmann, A.; Al-Dossary, O. M.; Braune, M.; Hartmann, G.; Meissner, A.; Tribedi, L. C.; AlKhaldi, M.; Becker, U.
2014-01-01
In quantum mechanics the Young-type double-slit experiment can be performed with electrons either traveling through a double slit or being coherently emitted from two inversion symmetric molecular sites. In the latter one the valence photoionization cross sections of homonuclear diatomic molecules were predicted to oscillate over kinetic energy almost 50 years ago. Beyond the direct proof of the oscillatory behavior of these photoionization cross sections σ, we show that the angular distribution of the emitted electrons reveals hitherto unexplored information on the relative phase shift between the corresponding partial waves through two-center interference patterns.
Angular processes related to Cauchy random walks
Cammarota, Valemtina
2011-01-01
We study the angular process related to random walks in the Euclidean and in the non-Euclidean space where steps are Cauchy distributed. This leads to different types of non-linear transformations of Cauchy random variables which preserve the Cauchy density. We give the explicit form of these distributions for all combinations of the scale and the location parameters. Continued fractions involving Cauchy random variables are analyzed. It is shown that the $n$-stage random variables are still Cauchy distributed with parameters related to Fibonacci numbers. This permits us to show the convergence in distribution of the sequence to the golden ratio.
Angular Anisotropy of the Fission Fragments in the Dinuclear System Mo del
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
T. M. Shneidman; A. V. Andreev; C. Massimi; M. T. Pigni; G. Vannini; A. Ventura; S. G. Zhou
2015-01-01
A theoretical evaluation of the collective excitation spectra of nucleus at large deformations is possible within the framework of the dinuclear system (DNS) model, which treats the wave function of the fissioning nucleus as a superposition of a mononucleus configuration and two-cluster configurations in a dynamical way, permitting exchange of nucleons between clusters. In this work the method of calculation of the potential energy and the collective spectrum of fissioning nucleus at scission point is presented. Combining the DNS model calculations and the statistical model of fission we calculate the angular distribution of fission fragments for the neutron–induced fission of 239Pu.
Meteors and meteorites spectra
Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Gorková, S.; Lenža, L.; Ferus, M.; Civiš, S.; Knížek, A.; Kubelík, P.; Kaiserová, T.; Váňa, P.
2016-01-01
The main goal of our meteor spectroscopy project is to better understand the physical and chemical properties of meteoroids. Astrometric and spectral observations of real meteors are obtained via spectroscopic CCD video systems. Processed meteor data are inserted to the EDMOND database (European viDeo MeteOr Network Database) together with spectral information. The fully analyzed atmospheric trajectory, orbit and also spectra of a Leonid meteor/meteoroid captured in November 2015 are presented as an example. At the same time, our target is the systematization of spectroscopic emission lines for the comparative analysis of meteor spectra. Meteoroid plasma was simulated in a laboratory by laser ablation of meteorites samples using an (ArF) excimer laser and the LIDB (Laser Induced Dielectric Breakdown) in a low pressure atmosphere and various gases. The induced plasma emissions were simultaneously observed with the Echelle Spectrograph and the same CCD video spectral camera as used for real meteor registration. Measurements and analysis results for few selected meteorite samples are presented and discussed.
Power Spectrum Analysis of Polarized Emission from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey
Stutz, R A; Kothes, R; Landecker, T
2014-01-01
Angular power spectra are calculated and presented for the entirety of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey polarization dataset at 1.4 GHz covering an area of 1060 deg$^2$. The data analyzed are a combination of data from the 100-m Effelsberg Telescope, the 26-m Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, and the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, allowing all scales to be sampled down to arcminute resolution. The resulting power spectra cover multipoles from $\\ell \\approx 60$ to $\\ell \\approx 10^4$ and display both a power-law component at low multipoles and a flattening at high multipoles from point sources. We fit the power spectrum with a model that accounts for these components and instrumental effects. The resulting power-law indices are found to have a mode of 2.3, similar to previous results. However, there are significant regional variations in the index, defying attempts to characterize the emission with a single value. The power-law index is found to ...
Supramolecular architectures constructed using angular bipyridyl ligands
Barnett, S A
2003-01-01
This work details the synthesis and characterization of a series of coordination frameworks that are formed using bidentate angular N-donor ligands. Pyrimidine was reacted with metal(ll) nitrate salts. Reactions using Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 receive particular focus and the analogous reactions using the linear ligand, pyrazine, were studied for comparison. In all cases, two-dimensional coordination networks were prepared. Structural diversity is observed for the Cd(ll) centres including metal-nitrate bridging. In contrast, first row transition metal nitrates form isostructural one-dimensional chains with only the bridging N-donor ligands generating polymeric propagation. The angular ligand, 2,4-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (dpt), was reacted with Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 and Zn(NO sub 3) sub 2. Whereas Zn(NO sub 3) sub 2 compounds exhibit solvent mediated polymorphism, a range of structures were obtained for the reactions with Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 , including the first example of a doubly parallel interpenetrated 4.8 sup...
Detection and recognition of angular frequency patterns.
Wilson, Hugh R; Propp, Roni
2015-05-01
Previous research has extensively explored visual encoding of smoothly curved, closed contours described by sinusoidal variation of pattern radius as a function of polar angle (RF patterns). Although the contours of many biologically significant objects are curved, we also confront shapes with a more jagged and angular appearance. To study these, we introduce here a novel class of visual stimuli that deform smoothly from a circle to an equilateral polygon with N sides (AF patterns). Threshold measurements reveal that both AF and RF patterns can be discriminated from circles at the same deformation amplitude, approximately 18.0arcsec, which is in the hyperacuity range. Thresholds were slightly higher for patterns with 3.0 cycles than for those with 5.0 cycles. Discrimination between AF and RF patterns was 75% correct at an amplitude that was approximately 3.0 times the threshold amplitude, which implies that AF and RF patterns activate different neural populations. Experiments with jittered patterns in which the contour was broken into several pieces and shifted inward or outward had much less effect on AF patterns than on RF patterns. Similarly, thresholds for single angles of AF patterns showed no significant difference from thresholds for the entire AF pattern. Taken together, these results imply that the visual system incorporates angles explicitly in the representation of closed object contours, but it suggests that angular contours are represented more locally than are curved contours.
The angular momentum of a relative equilibrium
Chenciner, Alain
2011-01-01
There are two main reasons why relative equilibria of N point masses under the influence of Newton attraction are mathematically more interesting to study when space dimension is at least 4: On the one hand, in a higher dimensional space, a relative equilibrium is determined not only by the initial configuration but also by the choice of a complex structure on the space where the motion takes place; in particular, its angular momentum depends on this choice; On the other hand, relative equilibria are not necessarily periodic: if the configuration is "balanced" but not central, the motion is in general quasi-periodic. In this exploratory paper we address the following question, which touches both aspects: what are the possible frequencies of the angular momentum of a given central (or balanced) configuration and at what values of these frequencies bifurcations from periodic to quasi-periodic relative equilibria do occur ? We give a full answer for relative equilibrium motions in dimension 4 and conjecture that...
Information Content of the Angular Multipoles of Redshift-Space Galaxy Bispectrum
Gagrani, Praful
2016-01-01
The redshift-space bispectrum (three point statistics) of galaxies depends on the expansion rate, the growth rate, and geometry of the Universe, and hence can be used to measure key cosmological parameters. In a homogeneous Universe the bispectrum is a function of five variables and unlike its two point statistics counterpart -- the power spectrum, which is a function of only two variables -- is difficult to analyse unless the information is somehow reduced. The most commonly considered reduction schemes rely on computing angular integrals over possible orientations of the bispectrum triangle, thus reducing it to sets of function of only three variables describing the triangle shape. We use Fisher information formalism to study the information loss associated with this angular integration. Without any reduction, the bispectrum alone can deliver constraints on the growth rate parameter $f$ that are better by a factor of $2.5$ compared to the power spectrum, for a sample of luminous red galaxies expected from n...
Power-Law Template for Infrared Point-Source Clustering
Addison, Graeme E; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Page, Lyman A.; Reese, Erik D.; Scott, Douglas; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Wollack, Edward
2012-01-01
We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 approx law of the form C(sup clust)(sub l) varies as l (sub -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, ?(sup Beta)B(?, T(sub eff) ), with a single emissivity index Beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T(sub eff) = 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha(sub 150-220) = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.
Power-Law Template for IR Point Source Clustering
Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Page, Lyman A.; Reese, Erik D.; Scott, Douglass; Spergel, David N.; Staggs,Suzanne T.; Wollack, Edward
2011-01-01
We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217,353,545 and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 law of the form C_l\\propto I(sup -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, nu(sup beta) B(nu,T_eff), with a single emissivity index beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T_eff= 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha_150-220 = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.
An EM Induction Hi-Speed Rotation Angular Rate Sensor.
Li, Kai; Li, Yuan; Han, Yan
2017-03-17
A hi-speed rotation angular rate sensor based on an electromagnetic induction signal is proposed to provide a possibility of wide range measurement of high angular rates. An angular rate sensor is designed that works on the principle of electromagnetism (EM) induction. In addition to a zero-phase detection technique, this sensor uses the feedback principle of magnetic induction coils in response to a rotating magnetic field. It solves the challenge of designing an angular rate sensor that is suitable for both low and high rotating rates. The sensor was examined for angular rate measurement accuracy in simulation tests using a rotary table. The results show that it is capable of measuring angular rates ranging from 1 rps to 100 rps, with an error within 1.8‰ of the full scale (FS). The proposed sensor is suitable to measurement applications where the rotation angular rate is widely varied, and it contributes to design technology advancements of real-time sensors measuring angular acceleration, angular rate, and angular displacement of hi-speed rotary objects.
Gukov, Sergei; Saberi, Ingmar; Stosic, Marko; Sulkowski, Piotr
2015-01-01
This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar\\'e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular $S$-matrix. This leads to the identifi...
Time-resolved angular distributions of plume ions from silver at low and medium laser fluence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen
in a vacuum chamber (~ 10-7 mbar) with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm and made detailed measurements of the time-resolved angular distribution. The ion flow in different directions has been measured with a hemispherical array of Langmuir probes, by which the time-of-flight spectra, as well...... 70 eV up to 145 eV in a direction normal to the target surface with increasing fluence. With increasing observation angle the time-of-flight spectra exhibit a peak at longer flight times, i.e. at a lower kinetic energy. At the highest fluence the ionized fraction of the ablated particles exceeds 0.5....
Similarity spectra analysis of high-performance jet aircraft noise.
Neilsen, Tracianne B; Gee, Kent L; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M
2013-04-01
Noise measured in the vicinity of an F-22A Raptor has been compared to similarity spectra found previously to represent mixing noise from large-scale and fine-scale turbulent structures in laboratory-scale jet plumes. Comparisons have been made for three engine conditions using ground-based sideline microphones, which covered a large angular aperture. Even though the nozzle geometry is complex and the jet is nonideally expanded, the similarity spectra do agree with large portions of the measured spectra. Toward the sideline, the fine-scale similarity spectrum is used, while the large-scale similarity spectrum provides a good fit to the area of maximum radiation. Combinations of the two similarity spectra are shown to match the data in between those regions. Surprisingly, a combination of the two is also shown to match the data at the farthest aft angle. However, at high frequencies the degree of congruity between the similarity and the measured spectra changes with engine condition and angle. At the higher engine conditions, there is a systematically shallower measured high-frequency slope, with the largest discrepancy occurring in the regions of maximum radiation.
Angular momentum distribution during the collapse of primordial star-forming clouds
Dutta, Jayanta
2016-01-01
It is generally believed that angular momentum is distributed during the gravitational collapse of the primordial star forming cloud. However, so far there has been little understanding of the exact details of the distribution. We use the modified version of the Gadget-2 code, a three-dimensional smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulation, to follow the evolution of the collapsing gas in both idealized as well as more realistic minihalos. We find that, despite the lack of any initial turbulence and magnetic fields in the clouds the angular momentum profile follows the same characteristic power-law that has been reported in studies that employed fully self-consistent cosmological initial conditions. The fit of the power-law appears to be roughly constant regardless of the initial rotation of the cloud. We conclude that the specific angular momentum of the self-gravitating rotating gas in the primordial minihalos maintains a scaling relation with the gas mass as L ∝ M^{1.125}. We also discuss the plausible mechanisms for the power-law distribution.
Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables.
Leach, Jonathan; Jack, Barry; Romero, Jacqui; Jha, Anand K; Yao, Alison M; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Ireland, David G; Boyd, Robert W; Barnett, Stephen M; Padgett, Miles J
2010-08-06
Entanglement of the properties of two separated particles constitutes a fundamental signature of quantum mechanics and is a key resource for quantum information science. We demonstrate strong Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen correlations between the angular position and orbital angular momentum of two photons created by the nonlinear optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The discrete nature of orbital angular momentum and the continuous but periodic nature of angular position give rise to a special sort of entanglement between these two variables. The resulting correlations are found to be an order of magnitude stronger than those allowed by the uncertainty principle for independent (nonentangled) particles. Our results suggest that angular position and orbital angular momentum may find important applications in quantum information science.
Creating high-harmonic beams with controlled orbital angular momentum.
Gariepy, Genevieve; Leach, Jonathan; Kim, Kyung Taec; Hammond, T J; Frumker, E; Boyd, Robert W; Corkum, P B
2014-10-10
A beam with an angular-dependant phase Φ = ℓϕ about the beam axis carries an orbital angular momentum of ℓℏ per photon. Such beams are exploited to provide superresolution in microscopy. Creating extreme ultraviolet or soft-x-ray beams with controllable orbital angular momentum is a critical step towards extending superresolution to much higher spatial resolution. We show that orbital angular momentum is conserved during high-harmonic generation. Experimentally, we use a fundamental beam with |ℓ| = 1 and interferometrically determine that the harmonics each have orbital angular momentum equal to their harmonic number. Theoretically, we show how any small value of orbital angular momentum can be coupled to any harmonic in a controlled manner. Our results open a route to microscopy on the molecular, or even submolecular, scale.
The SKA as a Doorway to Angular Momentum
Obreschkow, D; Popping, A; Power, C; Quinn, P; Staveley-Smith, L
2015-01-01
Angular momentum is one of the most fundamental physical quantities governing galactic evolution. Differences in the colours, morphologies, star formation rates and gas fractions amongst galaxies of equal stellar/baryon mass M are potentially widely explained by variations in their specific stellar/baryon angular momentum j. The enormous potential of angular momentum science is only just being realised, thanks to the emergence of the first simulations of galaxies with converged spins, paralleled by a dramatic increase in kinematic observations. Such observations are still challenged by the fact that most of the stellar/baryon angular momentum resides at large radii. In fact, the radius that maximally contributes to the angular momentum of an exponential disk (3Re-4Re) is twice as large as the radius that maximally contributes to the disk mass; thus converged measurements of angular momentum require either extremely deep IFS data or, alternatively, kinematic measurements of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI), which ...
Orbital angular momentum photonic quantum interface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhi-Yuan Zhou; Yan Li; Dong-Sheng Ding; Wei Zhang; Shuai Shi; Bao-Sen Shi; Guang-Can Guo
2016-01-01
Light-carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has great potential in enhancing the information channel capacity in both classical and quantum optical communications.Long distance optical communication requires the wavelengths of light are situated in the low-loss communication windows,but most quantum memories currently being developed for use in a quantum repeater work at different wavelengths,so a quantum interface to bridge the wavelength gap is necessary.So far,such an interface for OAM-carried light has not been realized yet.Here,we report the first experimental realization of a quantum interface for a heralded single photon carrying OAM using a nonlinear crystal in an optical cavity.The spatial structures of input and output photons exhibit strong similarity.More importantly,single-photon coherence is preserved during up-conversion as demonstrated.
Four-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement
Hiesmayr, B C; Löffler, W
2015-01-01
Quantum entanglement shared between more than two particles is essential to foundational questions in quantum mechanics, and upcoming quantum information technologies. So far, up to 14 two-dimensional qubits have been entangled, and an open question remains if one can also demonstrate entanglement of higher-dimensional discrete properties of more than two particles. A promising route is the use of the photon orbital angular momentum (OAM), which enables implementation of novel quantum information protocols, and the study of fundamentally new quantum states. To date, only two of such multidimensional particles have been entangled albeit with ever increasing dimensionality. Here we use pulsed spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) to produce photon quadruplets that are entangled in their OAM, or transverse-mode degrees of freedom; and witness genuine multipartite Dicke-type entanglement. Apart from addressing foundational questions, this could find applications in quantum metrology, imaging, and secret sh...
Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum
Trichili, Abderrahmen; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew
2016-06-01
Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission rate, more degrees of freedom are required to form a densely packed mode space. Here we move beyond OAM and demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing using both the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom. We achieve this with a holographic approach that allows over 100 modes to be encoded on a single hologram, across a wide wavelength range, in a wavelength independent manner. Our results offer a new tool that will prove useful in realizing higher bit rates for next generation optical networks.
Angular response of hot wire probes
di Mare, L.; Jelly, T. O.; Day, I. J.
2017-03-01
A new equation for the convective heat loss from the sensor of a hot-wire probe is derived which accounts for both the potential and the viscous parts of the flow past the prongs. The convective heat loss from the sensor is related to the far-field velocity by an expression containing a term representing the potential flow around the prongs, and a term representing their viscous effect. This latter term is absent in the response equations available in the literature but is essential in representing some features of the observed response of miniature hot-wire probes. The response equation contains only four parameters but it can reproduce, with great accuracy, the behaviour of commonly used single-wire probes. The response equation simplifies the calibration the angular response of rotated slanted hot-wire probes: only standard King’s law parameters and a Reynolds-dependent drag coefficient need to be determined.
Orbital angular momentum photonic quantum interface
Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2014-01-01
High dimensional orbital angular momentum (OAM) light states are very important in enhancing the information carrying capacity in optical communications and quantum key distributions. Light at wavelengths of fiber communication windows or free space communication windows are suitable for long distance quantum communication, but most quantum processing tasks are performed in the visible wavelength ranges. The interface to bridge the wavelength gap of single photon with Gaussian shape has been realized, however, to create such interface for OAM-carrying light is a great challenge. We report the demonstration of such an interface to frequency up-conversion of herald single photon OAM state from 1560nm to 525nm with high efficiency by using nonlinear crystal in an external cavity. We show that different single photon OAM light shapes are observed directly by using single photon counting camera and the single photon entangled property is retained in the conversion process.
Sharepoint Extranet AngularJS:llä
2016-01-01
Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee Sharepoint-ratkaisua AngularJS-ohjelmistokehyksen avulla. Työn tarkoituksena oli toteuttaa uusi sivusto Sharepoint-dokumenttikirjastoja varten. Tämä työ tehtiin toimeksiantona Visualweb Oy:lle. Tavoitteena oli tehdä Sharepoint-sivusto, joka toimisi varsinaisen Sharepoint-palvelimen etusivuna ja käyttöliittymänä. Sivusto toimii asiakkaalla käyttöliittymänä dokumenttikirjastoon. Käyn työssä läpi ne teknologiat, joita projektissa käytettiin. Työssä esitellään A...
Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms
Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.
2015-11-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.
Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms
Hockett, Paul; Baumert, Thomas
2015-01-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.
Angular momentum of dark matter black holes
Frampton, Paul H.
2017-04-01
We provide strongly suggestive evidence that the halo constituents of dark matter are Primordial Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (PIMBHs). PIMBHs are described by a Kerr metric with two parameters, mass M and angular momentum J. There has been little discussion of J since it plays no role in the upcoming attempt at PIMBH detection by microlensing. Nevertheless J does play a central role in understanding their previous lack of detection, especially by CMB distortion. We explain why bounds previously derived from lack of CMB distortion are too strong for PIMBHs with J non-vanishing and that, provided almost no dark matter black holes originate from stellar collapse, excessive CMB distortion is avoided.
Angular Spectrum Simulation of Pulsed Ultrasound Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2009-01-01
The optimization of non-linear ultrasound imaging should in a first step be based on simulation, as this makes parameter studies considerably easier than making transducer prototypes. Such a simulation program should be capable of simulating non-linear pulsed fields for arbitrary transducer...... geometries for any kind of focusing and apodization. The Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) is capable of simulating monochromatic non-linear acoustic wave propagation. However, for ultrasound imaging the time response of each specific point in space is required, and a pulsed ASA simulation with multi temporal....... The RMS error of the pulses for all points in the simulated plane is 10.9%. The good agreement between ASA and Field II simulation for the pulsed ultrasound fields obtained in this paper makes it possible to expand Field II to non-linear pulsed fields....
Orbital angular momentum-entanglement frequency transducer
Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Dong, Ming-Xin; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
Entanglement is a vital resource for realizing many tasks such as teleportation, secure key distribution, metrology and quantum computations. To effectively build entanglement between different quantum systems and share information between them, a frequency transducer to convert between quantum states of different wavelengths while retaining its quantum features is indispensable. Information encoded in the photons orbital angular momentum OAM degrees of freedom is preferred in harnessing the information carrying capacity of a single photon because of its unlimited dimensions. A quantum transducer, which operates at wavelengths from 1558.3 nm to 525 nm for OAM qubits, OAMpolarization hybrid entangled states, and OAM entangled states, is reported for the first time. Nonclassical properties and entanglements are demonstrated following the conversion process by performing quantum tomography, interference, and Bell inequality measurements. Our results demonstrate the capability to create an entanglement link betwe...
Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta
Balbutsev, E B; Schuck, P
2016-01-01
The coupled dynamics of low lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time Dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin-orbit potential plus quadrupole-quadrupole and spin-spin interactions is considered. New low lying spin dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.
IDENTIFIKASI MIKROORGANISE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS PADA PENDERITA ANGULAR CHEILITIS
MINARTI, NURHAERATUL
2012-01-01
2011 Pada suatu penelitian tentang Angular cheilitis ditemukan Staphylococcus aureus hampir dua kali dari candida albicans. Oleh karena itu tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh Staphylococcus aureus pada penyakit Angular cheilitis. Sampel penelitian adalah 30 pasien yang datang ke Rumah Sakit Gigi dan Mulut Halimah Daeng Sikati Kandea Bagian Penyakit Gigi dan Mulut dalam periode waktu bulan Oktober-November 2011. Apusan pada permukaan lesi angular cheilitis dima...
On the identification of the angular position of gears for the diagnostics of planetary gearboxes
D'Elia, G.; Mucchi, E.; Cocconcelli, M.
2017-01-01
Generally, in planetary gearbox diagnostics, vibration transducers are placed on the gearbox case near the ring gear. The relative angular position of the planet gears with respect to the transducer is a useful information for the evaluation of vibration signals related to planet/sun gears. This angular position is usually unknown, or it is known with a large tolerance causing serious difficulties in both gears and bearing diagnostics. In fact, noise and spurious component from healthy planets could overhang the informative content about incipient faults. The present work seeks to propose two alternative methods for the identification of the angular position of the planet gears with respect to the transducer. The first one is based on the study of how the power flows inside the Time Synchronous Average of the ring gear, whilst the second method is based on a modified statistical parameter such as the Crest Factor. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed on the basis of actual vibration signals acquired from a faulty planetary gearbox. The knowledge of the exact angular position of the planet gears allows the diagnostics of both gears and bearings, as proven by extensive experimental activities reported in the paper.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobreira, F.; Rosenfeld, R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. Fisica Teorica; Simoni, F. de; Costa, L.A.N. da; Gaia, M.A.G.; Ramos, B.; Ogando, R.; Makler, M. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text: We study the cosmological constraints expected for the upcoming project Dark Energy Survey (DES) with the full functional form of the 2-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation function model applied in this work includes the effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift errors (assumed to be Gaussian) and non-linearities prevenient from gravitational infall. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, which takes the correlation between nearby redshift shells in a proper manner. The survey was sliced into 20 redshift shells in the range 0:4 {<=} z {<=} 1:40 with a variable angular scale in order to search only the scale around the signal from the baryon acoustic oscillation, therefore well within the validity of the non-linear model employed. We found that under those assumptions and with a flat {Lambda}CDM WMAP7 fiducial model, the DES will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w with a precision of {approx} 20% and the cold dark matter with {approx} 11% when marginalizing over the other 25 parameters (bias is treated as a free parameter for each shell). When applying WMAP7 priors on {Omega}{sub baryon}, {Omega} c{sub dm}, n{sub s}, and HST priors on the Hubble parameter, w is constrained with {approx} 9% precision. This shows that the full shape of the angular correlation function with DES data will be a powerful probe to constrain cosmological parameters. (author)
Measurement and analysis of angular velocity variations of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft
Bulatović, Ž. M.; Štavljanin, M. S.; Tomić, M. V.; Knežević, D. M.; Biočanin, S. Lj.
2011-11-01
This paper presents the procedures for measuring and analyzing the angular velocity variation of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft on its free end and on the power-output end. In addition, the paper deals with important aspects of the measurement of crankshaft torsional oscillations. The method is based on digital encoders placed at two distances, and one of them is a sensor not inserted directly on the shaft, i.e. a non-contact method with a toothed disc is used. The principle based on toothed disc is also used to measure the actual camshaft angular velocity of in-line compact high-pressure pump the engine is equipped with, and this paper aims to demonstrate the possibility of measuring the actual angular velocity of any rotating shaft in the engine, on which it is physically possible to mount a toothed disc. The method was created completely independently during long-range development and research tests of V46 family engines. This method is specific for its particular adaptability for use on larger engines with extensive vibrations and torsional oscillations. The main purpose of this paper is a practical contribution to all the more interesting research of the use of engine crankshaft angular velocity as a diagnostic tool for identifying the engine irregular running.
Calculation of multiple-scattering angular distributions of electrons and positrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negreanu, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Laussane (Switzerland); Llovet, X. [Serveis Cientifico-Tecnics, Universitat de Barcelona, Societat Catalana de Fisica (IEC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1-3, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Laussane (Switzerland); Salvat, F. [Facultat de Fisica (ECM), Universitat de Barcelona, Societat Catalana de Fisica (IEC), Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cesc@ecm.ub.es
2005-12-15
A robust numerical algorithm for the calculation of multiple-scattering angular distributions of high-energy electrons and positrons is described. This algorithm implements the multiple-scattering theories of Goudsmit-Saunderson, which disregards energy losses, and of Lewis, which accounts for energy losses within the continuous slowing down approximation. We have used partial-wave elastic scattering differential cross sections, generated with a recently developed program ELSEPA, in the calculations. The contribution of inelastic collisions to multiple-scattering angular distributions is treated in detail using inelastic scattering angular differential cross sections obtained from the Sternheimer-Liljequist generalised oscillator strength model. The stopping powers adopted in the calculations are consistent with the values recommended in the ICRU 37 report. The coefficients in the Legendre expansion of the single-scattering distribution are calculated by using the N-point Gauss-Legendre integration formula, coded in such a way that it allows the generation of a large number of expansion coefficients simultaneously. A computer program has been written to calculate angular multiple-scattering distributions for given path lengths, which can be readily adopted for class I Monte Carlo simulations.
Solar Energetic Particle Spectra Measured with PAMELA
Ryan, James; Bruno, Alessandro; Boezio, Mirko; Bravar, Ulisse; Christian, Eric; Georgia, De Nolfo; Martucci, Matteo; Merge, Matteo; Munini, Riccardo; Sparvoli, Roberta; Stochaj, Steven; Pamela Collaboration
2017-01-01
We have measured the event integrated spectra from several SEP events from 2006 to 2014 in the energy range starting at 80 MeV and extending well above the neutron monitor threshold. The PAMELA instrument is in a high inclination, low Earth orbit and has access to SEPs when at high geographic latitudes. This means that the spectra have been assembled from regularly spaced measurements with gaps during the course of the event. Furthermore, the field of view of PAMELA is small and during the high latitude passes it scans a wide range of asymptotic directions as the spacecraft moves. Correcting for data gaps and solid angle effects, we have compiled event-integrated intensity spectra that typically exhibit power law shapes in energy with an exponential roll over. The events analyzed include two, maybe three, GLEs. In those cases the roll over energy lies above the neutron monitor threshold (1 GV) while the others are lower. We see no qualitative difference between the spectra of GLE vs. non-GLE events. National Science Foundation, NASA, Italian Space Agency, Russian Space Agency.
Temporal Evolution of Solar Energetic Particle Spectra
Doran, Donald J.; Dalla, Silvia
2016-08-01
During solar flares and coronal mass ejections, Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) may be released into the interplanetary medium and near-Earth locations. The energy spectra of SEP events at 1 AU are typically averaged over the entire event or studied in a few snapshots. In this article we analyze the time evolution of the energy spectra of four large selected SEP events using a large number of snapshots. We use a multi-spacecraft and multi-instrument approach for the observations, obtained over a wide SEP energy range. We find large differences in the spectra at the beginning of the events as measured by different instruments. We show that over time, a wave-like structure is observed traveling through the spectra from the highest energies to the lowest energies, creating an "arch" shape that then straightens into a power law later in the event, after times on the order of 10 hours. We discuss the processes that determine SEP intensities and their role in shaping the spectral time evolution.