Existence of black holes due to concentration of angular momentum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khuri, Marcus A. [Department of Mathematics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)
2015-06-29
We present a general sufficient condition for the formation of black holes due to concentration of angular momentum. This is expressed in the form of a universal inequality, relating the size and angular momentum of bodies, and is proven in the context of axisymmetric initial data sets for the Einstein equations which satisfy an appropriate energy condition. A brief comparison is also made with more traditional black hole existence criteria based on concentration of mass.
Subjeans Condensations due to a Thermal Instability
Opher, R.; Valio, A.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Las observaciones recientes muestran que las nubes moleculares no son homogeneas, sino que tienen condensaciones. Se observa que estas condensaciones estan libres gravitacionalmente. C6mo se forman estas condensaciones? Sugerimos explicar estas conden sac jones como debidas a que la inestabilidad termica ayuda a la gravedad. Se estudi6 una funci5n de enfriamiento por gramo de la forma general A p T , en donde p y T son la densidad y la temperatura. Estamos interesados en el valor maximo de para la cual el colapso ocurre. Se estudiaron varios mode- los. Nuestros resultados indican que los valores de comparables con aquellos sugeridos por la literatura (1 son suficientes para provocar el colapso de masas inferiores a la masa de Jeans por medio de inestabilidad termica, ayudada por gravedad y asi se forman las condensaciones libres gravitacionalmente. ABSTRACT: Recent observations show that molecular clouds are not homogeneous, but clumpy. Some clumps are observed to be gravitationally unbound. How did these clumps then form? We suggest explaining these condensation as due to thermal instability aiding gravit y The cooling function per gram studied is of the general form A p T,where pand T are the density and temperature, respectively. We are interested in the maximum value of for which collapse still occurs. Various models are studied. Our results indicate that values comparable to those suggested in the literature (1 < %< 2) are sufficient to trigger the collapse of subjeans masses by thermal instability, when aided by gravity, and form the observed gravitationally unbound clumps. Keq o : HYDRODYNAMICS - INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagano, Koji, E-mail: knagano@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [KAGRA Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Enomoto, Yutaro; Nakano, Masayuki [KAGRA Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kawamura, Seiji [KAGRA Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)
2016-12-01
To observe radiation pressure noise in optical cavities consisting of suspended mirrors, high laser power is necessary. However, because the radiation pressure on the mirrors could cause an angular anti-spring effect, the high laser power could induce angular instability to the cavity. An angular control system using radiation pressure as an actuator, which was previously invented to reduce the anti-spring effect for the low power case, was applied to the higher power case where the angular instability would occur. As a result the angular instability was mitigated. It was also demonstrated that the cavity was unstable without this control system. - Highlights: • High laser power could cause angular instability to a suspended Fabry–Perot cavity. • To mitigate the instability, the control system using radiation pressure is applied. • Mitigating the radiation-pressure-induced angular instability is demonstrated. • It is also confirmed that the cavity would be unstable without the control system.
Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuya, Atsushi; Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi
2000-01-01
Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)
Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bendib, A.; Bendib, K.; Bendib, A.; Bendib, K.; Sid, A.; Bendib, K.
1997-01-01
A new Weibel source due to the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption is presented. It has been shown that in homogeneous plasmas, this mechanism may drive strong collisionless Weibel modes with growth rates of order of γ∼10 11 s -1 and negligible group velocities. In the laser-produced plasmas, for short laser wavelengths (λ L 10 14 W/cm 2 ), this Weibel source is most efficient as the ones due to the heat flux and the plasma expansion. The useful scaling law of the convective e-foldings, with respect to the laser and the plasma parameters, is also derived. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Emittance growth due to negative-mass instability above transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, King-Yuen.
1994-08-01
Due to space-charge effect, there is a growth of bunch emittance across transition as a result of negative-mass instability. The models of growth at cutoff frequency and growth from high-frequency Schottky noise are reviewed. The difficulties of performing reliable simulations are discussed. An intuitive self-bunching model for estimating emittance growth is presented
Earth's core formation due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Nakazawa, K.
1987-01-01
A protoearth accretion stage configuration consisting of an undifferentiated solid core, an intermediate metal-melt layer, and an outer silicate-melt layer, is presently taken as the initial state in an investigation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability-induced core formation. The Ida et al. (to be published) quantitative results on the instability in a self-gravitating fluid sphere are used. The instability is found to occur through the translational mode on a time-scale of about 10 hr, in the case where the metal-melt layer is greater than about 1 km; this implies that the earth's core formed due to the undifferentiated solid core's translation upon the outer layer's melting. Differentiation would then have occurred in the late accretion stage. 17 references
Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell ionization of krypton
Omidvar, K.
1977-01-01
Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3rd shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wave functions for target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3rd electrons, is widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.
Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell impact ionization of krypton
Omidvar, K.
1977-01-01
Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3d-shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wavefunctions for the target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3d electrons, are widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to the Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.
Surface and bulk MHD instabilities due to insulator coating imperfections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Zengyu; Reed, C.B.; Pan Chuanjie
2002-01-01
Experiments were performed using copper electrodes inserted into the wall of a perfectly insulated duct to simulate insulator coating flaking or cracking. The results show that surface electric potential U and MHD pressure drop ΔP exhibit a non-monotonic behavior with increasing V 0 , while the magnetic field B 0 is held constant. Additional experiments were also performed keeping all external experimental conditions fixed while measuring the change of U, V 0 , B 0 , and ΔP with increasing time. It was found that while all external experimental conditions were kept constant, the system changed by itself and U, V 0 and ΔP exhibited a non-monotonic behavior with increasing time. The results seem contrary to the law of ΔP∝V 0 B 0 n , but are consistent with conservation of energy, which implies that the change is due to some inherent feature of the system, or possibly instabilities, which may occur due to insulator coating imperfections
Anomalous plasma transport due to electron temperature gradient instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Sinji; Ito, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo.
1979-01-01
The collisionless drift wave instability driven by an electron temperature inhomogeneity (electron temperature gradient instability) and the enhanced transport processes associated with it are studied using a two-and-a-half dimensional particle simulation code. The simulation results show that quasilinear diffusion in phase space is an important mechanism for the saturation of the electron temperature gradient instability. Also, the instability yields particle fluxes toward the hot plasma regions. The heat conductivity of the electron temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field, T sub(e'), is not reduced by magnetic shear but remains high, whereas the heat conductivity of the parallel temperature, T sub(e''), is effectively reduced, and the instability stabilized. (author)
Plasma blob generation due to cooperative elliptic instability.
Manz, P; Xu, M; Müller, S H; Fedorczak, N; Thakur, S C; Yu, J H; Tynan, G R
2011-11-04
Using fast-camera measurements the generation mechanism of plasma blobs is investigated in the linear device CSDX. During the ejection of plasma blobs the plasma is dominated by an m=1 mode, which is a counterrotating vortex pair. These flows are known to be subject to the cooperative elliptic instability, which is characterized by a cooperative disturbance of the vortex cores and results in a three-dimensional breakdown of two-dimensional flows. The first experimental evidence of a cooperative elliptic instability preceding the blob-ejection is provided in terms of the qualitative evolution of the vortex geometries and internal wave patterns.
The angular gamma flux in an iron shield due to a thin slab source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penkuhn, H.
1977-04-01
The angular spectra of the gamma energy fluxes and dose rates in iron shields due to thin and thick sources are compared. The anisotropicity increases with increasing source thickness. But the changes can be ignored near the forward direction (shield axis) and moreover for all directions at deep penetrations. At low source energies the changes are smaller than at higher ones (at equal penetrations in cm)
Optical instabilities and chaos due to the virtual formation of biexcitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Trung Dan.
1994-07-01
Optical instabilities and chaos due to virtual formation of biexcitons in optically excited semiconductors are investigated. A complete linear stability analysis of steady-state bistable solutions of nonlinear coupled differential equations describing the nonlinear dynamics of semiconductors is carried out. The dynamical solutions are studied numerically using an iterative procedure. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs
Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.
Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi
2017-03-01
A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.
Suppression of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to self-radiation in a multiablation target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujioka, Shinsuke; Sunahara, Atsushi; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Shigemori, Keisuke; Nakai, Mitsuo; Ikegawa, Tadashi; Murakami, Masakatsu; Nagai, Keiji; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Azechi, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Ohnishi, Naofumi
2004-01-01
A scheme to suppress the Rayleigh-Taylor instability has been investigated for a direct-drive inertial fusion target. In a high-Z doped-plastic target, two ablation surfaces are formed separately--one driven by thermal radiation and the other driven by electron conduction. The growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is significantly suppressed on the radiation-driven ablation surface inside the target due to the large ablation velocity and long density scale length. A significant reduction of the growth rate was observed in simulations and experiments using a brominated plastic target. A new direct-drive pellet was designed using this scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fridman, A M
2008-01-01
The theory and the experimental discovery of extremely strong hydrodynamic instabilities are described, viz. the Kelvin-Helmholtz, centrifugal, and superreflection instabilities. The discovery of the last two instabilities was predicted and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in real systems was revised by us. (reviews of topical problems)
Femtosecond laser control of the angular distribution of electrons due to autoionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajema, M.L.; Jones, R.R.; Gallagher, T.F.
2004-01-01
Using two 500-fs laser pulses and a controlled time delay between them we are able to manipulate the angular distributions of the electrons ejected by autoionization of Ca atoms in the 4p 3/2 21s and 4p 3/2 19d states. Subsequent to their isolated core excitation by a 500-fs 393-nm laser pulse, Ca 4p 3/2 21s(19d) Rydberg atoms coherently evolve, via configuration interaction, into the degenerate 4p 1/2 ns(nd) states. While in the 4p 1/2 ns(nd) states atoms can be de-excited to bound 4sns(nd) levels using a 500-fs 397-nm pulse. Removing these atoms from the autoionizing states leads to a greater fraction of electrons leaving the atom along the direction of the laser polarization than is possible through direct excitation of 4 3/2 ns(nd) or 4p 1/2 ns(nd) using either the 393- or 397-nm pulse alone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nick Youssefi
2015-09-01
Conclusion:MB treatment was effective to reverse hypotension and restore hemodynamic instability caused by dimethoate poisoning. This index case may pave way to further investigation of MB therapy for OP-induced hemodynamic instabilities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. A. Valerio-Lizarraga
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The need to extract the maximum beam intensity with low transversal emittance often comes with the drawback of operating the ion source to limits where beam current instabilities arise, such fluctuations can change the beam properties producing a mismatch in the following sections of the machine. The space charge compensation (SCC generated by the beam particles colliding with the residual gas reaches a steady state after a build-up time. This paper shows how once in the steady state, the beam ends with a transversal emittance value bigger than the case without compensation. In addition, we study how the beam intensity variation can disturb the SCC dynamics and its impact on the beam properties. The results presented in this work come from 3-D simulations using tracking codes taking into account the secondary ions to estimate the degree of the emittance growth due to space charge and SCC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogasawara, Masatada; Takita, Masami.
1981-08-01
Spontaneous magnetic fields due to the temperature gradient nabla T 0 produced by a focussed laser beam on one point of a pellet are taken into account in deriving the dispersion relation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Growth rate γ decreases with time. Density fluctuation with wavelength shorter than 1.5(R/L sub(T)) x (n sub(s)/n 0 )sup(1/2) μm is remarkably stabilized, where R, L sub(T), n sub(s) and n 0 are the radius of a pellet, L sub(T)sup(-1) = + nabla T 0 /T 0 + , number densities of solid and the pellet. Validity condition of the theory is γt 0 >> 1 or in another form R >> L, where t 0 is the time of thermal expansion of a pellet and L -1 = + nabla n 0 /n 0 + . (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Řidký Václav
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The work is devoted to 3D and 2D parallel numerical computation of pressure and velocity fields around an elastically supported airfoil self-oscillating due to interaction with the airflow. Numerical solution is computed in the OpenFOAM package, an open-source software package based on finite volume method. Movement of airfoil is described by translation and rotation, identified from experimental data. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the airfoil was implemented. The results of numerical simulations (velocity are compared with data measured in a wind tunnel, where a physical model of NACA0015 airfoil was mounted and tuned to exhibit the flutter instability. The experimental results were obtained previously in the Institute of Thermomechanics by interferographic measurements in a subsonic wind tunnel in Nový Knín.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Eun-San
2003-01-01
This paper shows the results of a numerical study of the impedance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring. The longitudinal impedance in the damping ring is shown to be inductive. It is shown that the total impedance |Z || /n| is 0.23 Ω and the inductance is L = 14 nH. In the extremely low emittance beam of the damping ring, bunch lengthening is caused by both the effects of potential-well distortion and intra-beam scattering. In this paper, the bunch-lengthening due to the ring impedance is numerically investigated, and the result shows qualitative agreement with the result of an analysis performed using the bunch-length measurement. With the calculated longitudinal impedance, the instability threshold in the damping ring is estimated to be a bunch population of 3.3 x 10 10 by using both a Vlasov equation approach and a multi-particle tracking method.
Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi
2016-01-01
We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.
Instabilities due to anisotropic velocity distributions. Progress report, June 1, 1974--June 1, 1975
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, E.G.
1975-01-01
A continuing theoretical study of plasma instabilities and related phenomena including nonlinear effects, particle and energy transport and heating schemes is presented. In the past year, a study of linear resistive instabilities with applications to Tokamaks was almost completed and is being prepared for publication. A sigma stability analysis is being worked on at the present time. Some thought was given to a nonlinear resistive instability analysis but not much progress has been made. A study of equilibrium and stability of elliptical cross section Tokamaks was completed. Considerable work was completed on plasma heating by rf waves at the lower hybrid frequency and by Alfven waves. This work is continuing. A study of instabilities excited by runaway beams of electrons in Tokamaks was largly completed. Some work was done on trapped particle instabilities in Tokamaks and their relation to other instabilities driven by gradients of density or temperature. Work is underway on diffusion and thermal conduction in the bumpy torus. (U.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, Jong Chull; Do, Kyu Sik; Sheen, Cheol [Nuclear System Evaluation Dept., Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-05-15
It was found that both SG tube rupture events occurred at North Anna Unit 1 in 1987 and at Mihama Unit 2 in 1991 were caused by a high cycle fatigue due to fluid elastic instability. Therefore, with regard to nuclear safety it is important to design the SG properly in a conservative manner so that the potential for SG U-tube failures due to fluid elastic instability can be minimized. This article provides guidelines for assessing the potential for SG U-tube damage due to fluid elastic instability. This article described guidelines for safety evaluation of a potential for PWR steam generator tube failure due to fluid elastic instability. The guidelines address the requirements for realistically performing the SG thermal-hydraulic analysis and the modal analysis of tubes as well as the criteria for conservatively determining the added mass, the damping ratio and the fluid elastic instability coefficient. The guidelines can be used to predict the potential SG tubes which are susceptible to failure due to fluid elastic instability at operating nuclear power plants and also to evaluate the safety and structural integrity of new SG designs at the licensing review stage. Failure of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator (SG) tube leads to a leakage of contaminated primary coolant to the secondary system, which has serious safety implications such as the potential for direct release of radioactive fission products to the environment and the loss of coolant. Excessive tube vibration excited by dynamic forces of internal or external fluid flow is called flow-induced vibration (FIV). Among the FIV mechanisms, the so-called fluid elastic instability of SG tubes in cross flow is the most important safety issue in the design of SGs because it may cause severe tube failure in a very short time.
Kinetic Compensations due to Chronic Ankle Instability during Landing and Jumping.
Kim, Hyunsoo; Son, S Jun; Seeley, Matthew K; Hopkins, J Ty
2018-02-01
Skeletal muscles absorb and transfer kinetic energy during landing and jumping, which are common requirements of various forms of physical activity. Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is associated with impaired neuromuscular control and dynamic stability of the lower extremity. Little is known regarding an intralimb, lower-extremity joint coordination of kinetics during landing and jumping for CAI patients. We investigated the effect of CAI on lower-extremity joint stiffness and kinetic and energetic patterns across the ground contact phase of landing and jumping. One hundred CAI patients and 100 matched able-bodied controls performed five trials of a landing and jumping task (a maximal vertical forward jump, landing on a force plate with the test leg only, and immediate lateral jump toward the contralateral side). Functional analyses of variance and independent t-tests were used to evaluate between-group differences for lower-extremity net internal joint moment, power, and stiffness throughout the entire ground contact phase of landing and jumping. Relative to the control group, the CAI group revealed (i) reduced plantarflexion and knee extension and increased hip extension moments; (ii) reduced ankle and knee eccentric and concentric power, and increased hip eccentric and concentric power, and (iii) reduced ankle and knee joint stiffness and increased hip joint stiffness during the task. CAI patients seemed to use a hip-dominant strategy by increasing the hip extension moment, stiffness, and eccentric and concentric power during landing and jumping. This apparent compensation may be due to decreased capabilities to produce sufficient joint moment, stiffness, and power at the ankle and knee. These differences might have injury risk and performance implications.
Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tokluoglu, Erinc; Kaganovich, Igor D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2015-04-15
The current and charge neutralization of charged particle beams by background plasma enable ballistic beam propagation and have a wide range of applications in inertial fusion and high energy density physics. However, the beam-plasma interaction can result in the development of collective instabilities that may have deleterious effects on ballistic propagation of an ion beam. In the case of fast, light-ion beams, non-linear fields created by instabilities can lead to significant defocusing of the beam. We study an ion beam pulse propagating in a background plasma, which is subjected to two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons, using PIC code LSP. The defocusing effects of the instability on the beam can be much more pronounced in small radius beams. We show through simulations that a beamlet produced from an ion beam passed through an aperture can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of the two-stream instability and quantify its defocusing effects. The effect can be observed on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma.
Morphological Instability in InAs/GaSb Superlattices due to Interfacial Bonds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, J.H.; Moss, S.C.; Stokes, D.W.; Caha, O.; Bassler, K.E.; Ammu, S.L.; Bai, J.
2005-01-01
Synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to compare the misfit strain and composition in a self-organized nanowire array in an InAs/GaSb superlattice with InSb interfacial bonds to a planar InAs/GaSb superlattice with GaAs interfacial bonds. It is found that the morphological instability that occurs in the nanowire array results from the large misfit strain that the InSb interfacial bonds have in the nanowire array. Based on this result, we propose that tailoring the type of interfacial bonds during the epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductor films provides a novel approach for producing the technologically important morphological instability in anomalously thin layers
Blob Formation and Ejection in Coronal Jets due to the Plasmoid and Kelvin–Helmholtz Instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Zhang, Qing-Min [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Murphy, Nicholas A., E-mail: leini@ynao.ac.cn [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2017-05-20
We perform 2D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of coronal jets driven by flux emergence along the lower boundary. The reconnection layers are susceptible to the formation of blobs that are ejected in the jet. Our simulation with low plasma β (Case I) shows that magnetic islands form easily and propagate upward in the jet. These islands are multithermal and thus are predicted to show up in hot channels (335 Å and 211 Å) and the cool channel (304 Å) in observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The islands have maximum temperatures of 8 MK, lifetimes of 120 s, diameters of 6 Mm, and velocities of 200 km s{sup −1}. These parameters are similar to the properties of blobs observed in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets by AIA. The Kelvin–Helmholtz instability develops in our simulation with moderately high plasma β (Case II) and leads to the formation of bright vortex-like blobs above the multiple high magnetosonic Mach number regions that appear along the jet. These vortex-like blobs can also be identified in the AIA channels. However, they eventually move downward and disappear after the high magnetosonic Mach number regions disappear. In the lower plasma β case, the lifetime for the jet is shorter, the jet and magnetic islands are formed with higher velocities and temperatures, the current-sheet fragments are more chaotic, and more magnetic islands are generated. Our results show that the plasmoid instability and Kelvin–Helmholtz instability along the jet are both possible causes of the formation of blobs observed at EUV wavelengths.
Effective collision frequency due to ion-acoustic instability: Theory and simulations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel; Menietti, J. D.
2004-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 10 (2004), L10806 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 500; GA AV ČR IAA3042403 Grant - others:ESA PRODEX(XE) 14529/00/NL/SFe; NASA (US) NAG5-11942 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : Magnetospheric Physics: Plasma waves and instabilities * Space Plasma Physics: Kinetic and MHD theory * Space Plasma Physics: Magnetic reconnection Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.378, year: 2004
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aglitskiy, Y.; Velikovich, A.L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Pawley, C.J.; Schmitt, A.J.; Obenschain, S.P.; Mostovych, A.N.; Gardner, J.H.; Metzler, N.
2002-01-01
Perturbations that seed Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in laser-driven targets form during the early-time period. This time includes a shock wave transit from the front to the rear surface of the target, and a rarefaction wave transit in the opposite direction. During this time interval, areal mass perturbations caused by all sources of nonuniformity (laser imprint, surface ripple) are expected to oscillate. The first direct experimental observations of the areal mass oscillations due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability and feedout followed by the RT growth of areal mass modulation are discussed. The experiments were made with 40-99 μm thick planar plastic targets rippled either on the front or on the rear with a sine wave ripple with either 30 or 45 μm wavelength and with 0.5, 1, or 1.5 μm amplitude. Targets were irradiated with 4 ns long Nike KrF laser pulses at ∼50 TW/cm2. The oscillations were observed with our novel diagnostic technique, a monochromatic x-ray imager coupled to a streak camera. For the ablative RM instability (front side ripple), the mass modulation amplitude was typically observed to grow, reach a peak, and then decrease, after which the exponential RT growth started. In some cases, one phase reversal due to the ablative RM instability was observed. For the feedout geometry (rear side ripple), in all cases two phase reversals were observed: a distinct half-oscillation was followed by the onset of the RT growth, resulting in a second phase reversal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Nykyri
2006-10-01
Full Text Available On 3 July 2001, the four Cluster satellites traversed along the dawnside magnetospheric flank and observed large variations in all plasma parameters. The estimated magnetopause boundary normals were oscillating in the z-direction and the normal component of the magnetic field showed systematic 2–3 min bipolar variations for 1 h when the IMF had a small positive b_{z}-component and a Parker-spiral orientation in the x,y-plane. Brief 33 s intervals with excellent deHoffman Teller frames were observed satisfying the Walén relation. Detailed comparisons with 2-D MHD simulations indicate that Cluster encountered rotational discontinuities generated by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We estimate a wave length of 6 R_{E} and a wave vector with a significant z-component.
Luminosity Loss due to Beam Distortion and the Beam-Beam Instability
Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, Tor O; Seryi, Andrei; Sramek, Christopher K
2005-01-01
In a linear collider, sources of emittance dilution such as transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will couple the vertical phase space to the longitudinal position within the beam (the so-called banana effect'). When the Intersection Point (IP) disruption parameter is large, these beam distortions will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. We study this phenomena both analytically using linear theory and via numerical simulation. In particular, we examine the dependence of the luminosity loss on the wavelength of the beam distortions and the disruption parameter. This analysis may prove useful when optimizing the vertical disruption parameter for luminosity operation with given beam distortions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stabler, A.; Berger, H.; Lissner, J.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition (CPDD), neurologic disease, and beta 2 -microglobulin-related amyloid deposits in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis that can lead to distinct lesions of the radiocarpal ligament complex, causing rotational subluxation of the scaphoid and ulnar translocation of the carpus. The clinical and radiologic findings were analyzed in 35 patients, examined from 1985 to 1989. Degenerative changes in rotational subluxation of the scaphoid develop in three steps. First there is osteoarthritis at the styloid process, then the degeneration progresses into the central midcarpal joint, and finally it progresses to the ulnar midcarpal joint. Despite different etiologies of ligament failure, the radiologic features are very similar, because the mechanism of degeneration is identical in posttraumatic, inflammatory, neurogenic, CPDD, or beta 2 -microglobulin-related instability. However, there are some distinct radiologic differences in relation to the primary cause of the ligament defect
Stabilization of ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to change of the Atwood number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Wenhua; He, X.T.; Zhang Weiyan
2002-01-01
Recent experiment [S.G. Glendinning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3318 (1997)] showed that the measured growth rate of laser ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability with preheating is about 50% of the classic value and is reduced by about 18% compared with the simulated value obtained with the computer code LASNEX. By changing the temperature variation of the electron thermal conductivity at low temperatures, the density profile from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation is recovered in the simulation, and the simulated RT growth rate is in good agreement with the experimental value from Glendinning et al. The preheated density profile on ablative RT stablization is studied numerically. A change of the Atwood number in the preheating case also leads to RT stabilization. The RT growth formula γ=√(Akg/(1+AkL))-2kV a agrees well with experiment and simulation, and is appropriate for the preheating case
Lateral movements in Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities due to frontiers. Experimental study
Binda, L.; Fernández, D.; El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A.; D'Onofrio, A.
2018-01-01
Lateral movements of the fingers in Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface between two fluids are studied. We show that transverse movements appear when a physical boundary is present; these phenomena have not been explained until now. The boundary prevents one of the fluids from crossing it. Such frontiers can be buoyancy driven as, for example, the frontier to the passage of a less dense solution through a denser solution or when different aggregation states coexist (liquid and gaseous phases). An experimental study of the lateral movement velocity of the fingers was performed for different Rayleigh numbers (Ra), and when oscillations were detected, their amplitudes were studied. Liquid-liquid (L-L) and gas-liquid (G-L) systems were analysed. Aqueous HCl and Bromocresol Green (sodium salt, NaBCG) solutions were used in L-L experiments, and CO2 (gas) and aqueous NaOH, NaHCO3, and CaCl2 solutions were employed for the G-L studies. We observed that the lateral movement of the fingers and finger collapses near the interface are more notorious when Ra increases. The consequences of this, for each experience, are a decrease in the number of fingers and an increase in the velocity of the lateral finger movement close to the interface as time evolves. We found that the amplitude of the oscillations did not vary significantly within the considered Ra range. These results have an important implication when determining the wave number of instabilities in an evolving system. The wave number could be strongly diminished if there is a boundary.
Observations and control of beam instabilities due to higher order modes in Indus-2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arora, Rajiv K.; Prasad, M.; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.
2013-01-01
In a synchrotron radiation source (SRS), the interaction between electron beam spectra and Higher Order Modes (HOMs) of RF cavities may give rise to coupled bunch instabilities. These instabilities may limit beam current and beam lifetime. Indus-2 SRS has four RF cavities equipped with precision temperature controller of cooling system and Higher Order Mode Frequency Shifter (HOMFS) to avoid harmful HOMs. Offline (i.e. without beam) and Online (i.e. with beam) measurements, observations and analysis of HOMs have been performed. Some of the Longitudinal modes such as L1 (∼ 950 MHz), L3 (∼ 1432 MHz), L4 (∼ 1521 MHz), L5 (∼1628 MHz) were observed to be quite prominent at specific operating conditions. Based on these studies, harmful HOMs were identified and suitable methods were evolved to avoid these HOMs. Experiments were performed to achieve high beam current in Indus-2. The precision chiller temperatures and HOMFS positions were set as per theoretical estimates and were further optimized in fine steps during experiments. With the optimized settings, beam current around 200 mA at Injection energy (550 MeV) and 157 mA at 2.5 GeV has been successfully achieved. At these settings of RF cavity water temperature and HOMFS, harmful HOMs were within safe limits during regular operation of Indus-2 at 2.5 GeV/100 mA in user mode for more than one year. In this paper, important observations, analysis and experiments to avoid harmful HOMs of RF cavities are presented. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petersilge William J
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lateral instability following total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a rare condition with limited report of treatment options. The objective of this case presentation is to demonstrate the outcomes of different surgical procedures performed in a single patient with lateral collateral ligament (LCL deficiency. Case presentation We present a case of chronic lateral instability due to LCL deficiency after primary TKA in a 47-year-old Caucasian woman with an obesity problem. Multiple treatment options have been performed in order to manage this problem, including the following: ligament reconstruction; combined ligament reconstruction and constrained implant; and rotating-hinge knee prosthesis that was the most recent surgery. All ligament reconstruction procedures failed within one year. The varus-valgus constrained prosthesis provided stability for six years. Conclusions Ligament reconstruction alone cannot provide enough stability for the treatment of chronic lateral instability in patients with obesity problems and LCL deficiency. When the reconstruction fails, a salvage procedure with rotating-hinge knee is still available.
ANALYSIS OF THE INSTABILITY DUE TO GAS–DUST FRICTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shadmehri, Mohsen, E-mail: m.shadmehri@gu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan 49138-15739 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-02-01
We study the stability of a dust layer in a gaseous disk subject to linear axisymmetric perturbations. Instead of considering single-size particles, however, the population of dust particles is assumed to consist of two grain species. Dust grains exchange momentum with the gas via the drag force and their self-gravity is also considered. We show that the presence of two grain sizes can increase the efficiency of the linear growth of drag-driven instability in the protoplanetary disks (PPDs). A second dust phase with a small mass, compared to the first dust phase, would reduce the growth timescale by a factor of two or more, especially when its coupling to the gas is weak. This means that once a certain amount of large dust particles form, even though it is much smaller than that of small dust particles, the dust layer becomes more unstable and dust clumping is accelerated. Thus, the presence of dust particles of various sizes must be considered in studies of dust clumping in PPDs where both large and small dust grains are present.
A coupled bunch instability due to beam-photoelectron interactions in KEKB-LER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohmi, Kazuhito [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
1996-08-01
LER of KEKB is designed to storage the positron beam of 2.6 A with multibunch operation. Nb = 3.3 x 10{sup 10} positrons are filled in a bunch and the bunch passes every 2ns through a beam chamber. The photoelectron instability may be serious for KEKB-LER. We consider a motion of photoelectrons produced by a bunch with a computer simulation technic. A cylindrical chamber with a diameter of 10 cm was used as a model chamber. About 15 times of the photoelectrons were produced by a bunch. The wake force was calculated for the loading bunches with displacements of 0.5 mm and 1 mm. The wake characteristics seems to be caused by the trapped electrons kicked by the loading bunch. The wake was saturated with the loading displacement of 0.5 mm. We obtained a growth rate by the wake force. It is very high rate, 2500s{sup -1} which exceeds damping rates of various mechanism, radiation, head-tail and feedback. Perhaps it is essential to remove the photoelectrons around the positron beam explicitly. If we apply magnetic field fo about 20 G, the growth rate will be reduced. (S.Y.)
Ballooning mode instability due to slowed-down ALPHA -particles and associated transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Sanae; Itoh, Kimitaka; Tuda, Takashi; Tokuda, Shinji.
1982-01-01
The microscopic stability of tokamak plasma, which contains slowed-down alpha-particles and the anomalous fluxes enhanced by the fluctuation, was studied. The local maxwellian distribution with the density inhomogeneity as the equilibrium distribution of electrons, ions and alpha-particles was closen. In the zero-beta limit, two branches of eigenmodes, which are electrostatic, were obtained. The electrostatic ballooning mode became unstable by the grad B drift of particles in the toroidal plasma. It should be noted that there was no critical alpha-particle density and no critical beta-value for the onset of the instability in toroidal plasma even in the presence of the magnetic shear. When the beta-value exceeded the critical beta-value of the MHD ballooning mode, the growth rate approached to that of the MHD mode, and the mode sturcture became very close to that of the MHD mode. The unstable mode in toroidal plasma was the ballooning mode, and was unstable for all plasma parameters. The associated cross-field transport by the ballooning mode is considered. It was found that if the distribution function was assumed to be the birth distribution, the loss rate was very slow and slower than the slowing down time. The effect of alpha-particles on the large scale MHD activity of plasma is discussed. (Kato, T.)
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF ASTEROIDS HAVING SURFACE SHEDDING DUE TO ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirabayashi, Masatoshi [Research Associate, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States); Sánchez, Diego Paul [Senior Research Associate, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States); Scheeres, Daniel J., E-mail: masatoshi.hirabayashi@colorado.edu [Richard Seebass Chair, Professor, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States)
2015-07-20
Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode.
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF ASTEROIDS HAVING SURFACE SHEDDING DUE TO ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Sánchez, Diego Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.
2015-01-01
Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munshi, D.; Souradeep, T.; Starobinsky, A.A.
1995-01-01
The skewness of the temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) produced by initially Gaussian adiabatic perturbations with the flat (Harrison-Zeldovich) spectrum, which arises due to non-linear corrections to a gravitational potential at the matter-dominated stage, is calculated quantitatively. For the standard CDM model, the effect appears to be smaller than expected previously and lies below the cosmic variance limit even for small angles. The sign of the skewness is opposite to that of the skewness of density perturbations. (author)
Tao, Gang; Wei, Guohua; Wang, Xu; Kong, Ming
2018-03-01
There has been increased interest over several decades for applying ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR) for monitoring terrain displacement. GB-SAR can achieve multitemporal surface deformation maps of the entire terrain with high spatial resolution and submilimetric accuracy due to the ability of continuous monitoring a certain area day and night regardless of the weather condition. The accuracy of the interferometric measurement result is very important. In this paper, the basic principle of InSAR is expounded, the influence of the platform's instability on the interferometric measurement results are analyzed. The error sources of deformation detection estimation are analyzed using precise geometry of imaging model. Finally, simulation results demonstrates the validity of our analysis.
Measurements and modelling of fast-ion redistribution due to resonant MHD instabilities in MAST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, O M; Cecconello, M; Klimek, I; McClements, K G; Akers, R J; Keeling, D L; Meakins, A J; Sharapov, S E; Boeglin, W U; Perez, R V; Turnyanskiy, M
2015-01-01
The results of a comprehensive investigation into the effects of toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) and energetic particle modes on the NBI-generated fast-ion population in MAST plasmas are reported. Fast-ion redistribution due to frequency-chirping TAE in the range 50 kHz–100 kHz and frequency-chirping energetic particle modes known as fishbones in the range 20 kHz–50 kHz, is observed. TAE and fishbones are also observed to cause losses of fast ions from the plasma. The spatial and temporal evolution of the fast-ion distribution is determined using a fission chamber, a radially-scanning collimated neutron flux monitor, a fast-ion deuterium alpha spectrometer and a charged fusion product detector. Modelling using the global transport analysis code Transp, with ad hoc anomalous diffusion and fishbone loss models introduced, reproduces the coarsest features of the affected fast-ion distribution in the presence of energetic particle-driven modes. The spectrally and spatially resolved measurements show, however, that these models do not fully capture the effects of chirping modes on the fast-ion distribution. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Juh Yung; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The onset of flow instability (OFI) is the one of important boiling phenomena since it may induce the premature critical heat flux (CHF) at the lowest heat flux level due to sudden flow excursion in a single channel of multichannel configuration. Especially prediction of OFI for narrow rectangular channel is very crucial in relevant to thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis of open pool-type research reactors (RRs) using plate-type fuels. Based on high speed video (HSV) technique, the authors observed and determined that OFI and the minimum premature CHF in a narrow rectangular channel are induced by abrupt pressure drop fluctuation due to the mergence of facing bubble boundary layers (BLs) on opposite boiling surfaces. In this study, new mechanistic OFI model for narrow rectangular channel heated on both sides has been derived, which satisfies with the real triggering phenomena. Force balance approach was used for modeling of the maximum BLT since the quantity is comparable to the bubble departure diameter. From the validation with OFI database, it was shown that the new model fairly well predicts OFI heat flux for wide range of conditions.
Angular Acceleration without Torque?
Kaufman, Richard D.
2012-01-01
Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasmussen, D.A.
1981-01-01
The interaction of intense microwaves with an inhomogeneous plasma is studied in two experimental devices. In the first device an investigation was made of microwave absorption and electron heating due to the parametric decay of microwaves into electron plasma waves (Two Plasmon Decay instability, TPDI), modeling a process which can occur near the quarter critical surface in laser driven pellets. P-polarized microwave (f = 1.2 GHz, P 0 less than or equal to 12 kW) are applied to an essentially collisionless, inhomogeneous plasma, in an oversized waveguide, in the U.C. Davis Prometheus III device. The initial density scale length near the quarter critical surface is quite long (L/lambda/sub De/ approx. = 3000 or k 0 L approx. = 15). The observed threshold power for the TPDI is quite low (P/sub T/approx. = 0.1 kW or v/sub os//v/sub e/ approx. = 0.1). Near the threshold the decay waves only occur near the quarter critical surface. As the incident power is increased above threshold, the decay waves spread to lower densities, and for P 0 greater than or equal to lkW, (v/sub os//v/sub e/ greater than or equal to 0.3) suprathermal electron heating is strong for high powers (T/sub H/ less than or equal to 12 T/sub e/ for P 0 less than or equal to 8 kW or v/sub os//v/sub e/ less than or equal to 0.9)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirano, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)
1997-07-01
This paper describes the results of a scoping study on seismically induced resonance of nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic instability in BWRs, which was conducted by using TRAC-BF1 within a framework of a point kinetics model. As a result of the analysis, it is shown that a reactivity insertion could occur accompanied by in-surge of coolant into the core resulted from the excitation of the nuclear-coupled instability by the external acceleration. In order to analyze this phenomenon more in detail, it is necessary to couple a thermal-hydraulic code with a three-dimensional nuclear kinetics code.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dendy, R.O.; McClements, K.G.; Lashmore Davies, C.N.; Cottrell, G.A.; Majeski, R.; Cauffman, S.
1995-01-01
Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) has been observed from neutral beam heated TFTR and JET tritium experiments at sequential cyclotron harmonics of both fusion products and beam ions. The emission originates from the outer midplane plasma, where fusion products and beam ions are likely to have a drifting ring-type velocity-space distribution that is anisotropic and sharply peaked. Fusion product driven ICE can be attributed to the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, which involves the excitation of obliquely propagating waves on the fast Alfven/ion Bernstein branch at cyclotron harmonics of the fusion products. Differences between ICE observations in JET and TFTR appear to reflect the sensitivity of the instability growth rate to the ratio υ birth /c A , where υ birth is the fusion product birth speed and c A is the local Alfven speed: for fusion products in the outer midplane edge of TFTR supershots, υ birth A ; for alpha particles in the outer midplane edge of JET, the opposite inequality applies. If sub-Alfvenic fusion products are isotropic or have undergone even a moderate degree of thermalization, the magnetoacoustic instability cannot occur. In contrast, the super-Alfvenic alpha particles that are present in the outer midplane of JET can drive the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability even if they are isotropic or have a relatively broad distribution of speeds. These conclusions may account for the observation that fusion product driven ICE in JET persists for longer than fusion product driven ICE in TFTR. A separate mechanism is proposed for the excitation of beam driven ICE in TFTR: electrostatic ion cyclotron harmonic waves, supported by strongly sub-Alfvenic beam ions, can be destabilized by a low concentration of such ions with a very anrrow spread of velocities in the parallel direction. 25 refs, 14 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dendy, R.O.; Clements, K.G.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Cottrell, G.A.; Majeski, R.; Cauffman, S.
1995-06-01
Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) has been observed from neutral beam-heated TFTR and JET tritium experiments at sequential cyclotron harmonics of both fusion products and beam ions. The emission originates from the outer mid-plane plasma, where fusion products and beam ions are likely to have a drifting ring-type velocity-space distribution which is anisotropic and sharply peaked. Fusion product-driven ICE in both TFTR and JET can be attributed to the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, which involves the excitation of obliquely propagating waves on the fast Alfven/ion Bernstein branch at cyclotron harmonics of the fusion products. Differences between ICE observations in JET and TFTR appear to reflect the sensitivity of the instability growth rate to the ratio υ birth /c A , where υ birth is the fusion product birth speed and c A is the local Alfven speed:for fusion products in the outer midplane edge of TFTR, υ birth A ; for alpha-particles in the outer midplane edge of JET, the opposite inequality applies. If sub-Alfvenic fusion products are isotropic or have undergone even a moderate degree of thermalization, the magnetoacoustic instability cannot occur. In contrast, the super-Alfvenic alpha-particles which are present in the outer mid-plane of JET can drive the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability even if they are isotropic or have a relatively broad distribution of speeds. These conclusions may account for the observation that fusion product-driven ICE in JET persists for longer than fusion product-driven ICE in TFTR. (Author)
Danailov, D; O'Connor, D J
2002-01-01
Recent experiments and our molecular-dynamics simulations indicate that the main signal of the angular scattering spectra of glancing incidence scattering are not affected by the thermal motion of surface atoms and can be explained by our row-model with averaged cylindrical potentials. At the ICACS-18 Conference [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 164-165 (2000) 583] we reported good agreement between experimental and calculated multimodal azimuthal angular scattering spectra for the glancing scattering of 10 and 15 keV [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 180 (2001) 265, Appl. Surf. Sci. 171 (2001) 113] He sup 0 beam along the [1 0 0] direction on the Fe(1 0 0) face. Our simulations also predicted that in contrast to the 2D angular scattering distribution, the 1D azimuthal angular distribution of scattered particles is very sensitive to the interaction potential used. Here, we report more detailed calculations incorporating the influence of terraces and surface steps on surface channeling, which show a reduction of the angular s...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arunasalam, V.
1995-07-01
It is shown here that the marginally mirror-trapped fraction of the newly-born fusion alpha particles in the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction dominated tokamak plasmas can induce a two-stream cyclotron radiative instability for the fast Alfven waves propagating near the harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c{alpha}}. This can explain both the experimentally observed time behavior and the spatially localized origin of the fusion product ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in TFTR at frequencies {omega} {approx} m{omega}{sub c{alpha}}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arunasalam, V.
1995-07-01
It is shown here that the marginally mirror-trapped fraction of the newly-born fusion alpha particles in the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction dominated tokamak plasmas can induce a two-stream cyclotron radiative instability for the fast Alfven waves propagating near the harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency ω cα . This can explain both the experimentally observed time behavior and the spatially localized origin of the fusion product ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in TFTR at frequencies ω ∼ mω cα
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sydorenko, D.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Raitses, Y.
2008-01-01
Particle-in-cell simulation of Hall thruster plasmas reveals a plasma-sheath instability manifesting itself as a rearrangement of the plasma sheath near the thruster channel walls accompanied by a sudden change of many discharge parameters. The instability develops when the sheath current as a function of the sheath voltage is in the negative conductivity regime. The major part of the sheath current is produced by beams of secondary electrons counter-streaming between the walls. The negative conductivity is the result of nonlinear dependence of beam-induced secondary electron emission on the plasma potential. The intensity of such emission is defined by the beam energy. The energy of the beam in crossed axial electric and radial magnetic fields is a quasi-periodical function of the phase of cyclotron rotation, which depends on the radial profile of the potential and the thruster channel width. There is a discrete set of stability intervals determined by the final phase of the cyclotron rotation of secondary electrons. As a result, a small variation of the thruster channel width may result in abrupt changes of plasma parameters if the plasma state jumps from one stability interval to another
Li, Xinning; Cusano, Antonio; Eichinger, Josef
2017-01-01
Shoulder dislocations are a common injury, with anterior shoulder dislocation among male patients being the most common presentation. A patient with recurrent shoulder instability, anterior-superior escape, and chronic subscapularis tendon rupture following multiple shoulder stabilization surgeries presents the surgeon with a complex and challenging case. This report describes a 40-year-old man with an extensive left shoulder history that included a failed Latarjet procedure, an irreparable, chronic subscapularis tear with grade 4 Goutallier fatty infiltration, and associated anterior-superior escape. Given his marked dysfunction, weakness, pain, and recurrent instability in the absence of glenohumeral arthritis, he underwent an open Eden-Hybinette procedure (iliac crest autograft), a pectoralis major transfer, and an anterior capsule repair. The patient returned to his previous work activities without limitations. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of anterior glenoid bone grafting with a full pectoralis major muscle transfer for a patient with chronic subscapularis rupture and anterior-superior escape after a failed Latarjet procedure with minimum glenoid bone loss. Furthermore, the authors provide a biomechanical rationale for the reconstruction used for this problem. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e182-e187.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sengupta, Tapan K., E-mail: tksen@iitk.ac.in; Bhole, Ashish; Shruti, K. S. [HPCL, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, UP (India); Sengupta, Aditi [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sharma, Nidhi [Graduate Student, HPCL, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, UP (India); Sengupta, Soumyo [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2016-09-15
Direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) between two air masses with a temperature difference of 70 K is presented using compressible Navier-Stokes formulation in a non-equilibrium thermodynamic framework. The two-dimensional flow is studied in an isolated box with non-periodic walls in both vertical and horizontal directions. The non-conducting interface separating the two air masses is impulsively removed at t = 0 (depicting a heaviside function). No external perturbation has been used at the interface to instigate the instability at the onset. Computations have been carried out for rectangular and square cross sections. The formulation is free of Boussinesq approximation commonly used in many Navier-Stokes formulations for RTI. Effect of Stokes’ hypothesis is quantified, by using models from acoustic attenuation measurement for the second coefficient of viscosity from two experiments. Effects of Stokes’ hypothesis on growth of mixing layer and evolution of total entropy for the Rayleigh-Taylor system are reported. The initial rate of growth is observed to be independent of Stokes’ hypothesis and the geometry of the box. Following this stage, growth rate is dependent on the geometry of the box and is sensitive to the model used. As a consequence of compressible formulation, we capture pressure wave-packets with associated reflection and rarefaction from the non-periodic walls. The pattern and frequency of reflections of pressure waves noted specifically at the initial stages are reflected in entropy variation of the system.
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cen, Renyue, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2015-05-20
We reason that without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold gas to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum distribution of infallen gas such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disk is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological timescales. We test this scenario using high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, without active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, assuming the angular momentum distribution of gas landing in the bulge region yields a Mestel disk that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of 0.1%–0.3% between the very low angular momentum gas that free falls to the subparsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. This ratio is found to increase with increasing redshift to within a factor of ∼2, suggesting that the SMBH-to-bulge ratio is nearly redshift independent, with a modest increase with redshift, which is a testable prediction. Furthermore, the duty cycle of AGNs with high Eddington ratios is expected to increase significantly with redshift. Finally, while SMBHs and bulges are found to coevolve on ∼30–150 Myr timescales or longer, there is indication that on still smaller timescales, the SMBH accretion and star formation may be less correlated.
Atlanto-axial malformation and instability in dogs with pituitary dwarfism due to an LHX3 mutation.
Voorbij, A M W Y; Meij, B P; van Bruggen, L W L; Grinwis, G C M; Stassen, Q E M; Kooistra, H S
2015-01-01
Canine pituitary dwarfism or combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) in shepherd dogs is associated with an LHX3 mutation and can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations. Some dogs with CPHD have neurological signs that are localized to the cervical spine. In human CPHD, caused by an LHX3 mutation, anatomical abnormalities in the atlanto-axial (C1-C2) joint have been described. To evaluate the presence of atlanto-axial malformations in dogs with pituitary dwarfism associated with an LHX3 mutation and to investigate the degree of similarity between the atlanto-axial anomalies found in canine and human CPHD patients with an LHX3 mutation. Three client-owned Czechoslovakian wolfdogs and 1 client-owned German shepherd dog, previously diagnosed with pituitary dwarfism caused by an LHX3 mutation, with neurological signs indicating a cervical spinal disorder. Radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cranial neck and skull, necropsy, and histology. Diagnostic imaging identified abnormal positioning of the dens axis and incomplete ossification of the suture lines between the ossification centers of the atlas with concurrent atlanto-axial instability and dynamic compression of the spinal cord by the dens axis. The malformations and aberrant motion at C1-C2 were confirmed at necropsy and histology. The atlanto-axial abnormalities of the dwarf dogs resemble those encountered in human CPHD patients with an LHX3 mutation. These findings suggest an association between the LHX3 mutation in dogs with CPHD and atlanto-axial malformations. Consequently, pituitary dwarfs should be monitored closely for neurological signs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Saturation of equatorial inertial instability
Kloosterziel, R.C.; Orlandi, P.; Carnevale, G.F.
2015-01-01
Inertial instability in parallel shear flows and circular vortices in a uniformly rotating system ( $f$f-plane) redistributes absolute linear momentum or absolute angular momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In previous studies we showed that, in the absence of other
Anisotropic gravitational instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.
1988-01-01
Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novelli, A.
1985-01-01
Conspicuous amounts of boric acid are normally dissolved into the moderator of a modern PWR, especially in BOL operative conditions. If the concentration of such a neutronic poison attains certain limits, the nuclear temperature coefficient of the moderator, which is highly negative in the absence of boron, may turn about and reach positive values, due to the strong thermal expansion of the water. A dynamical model of a PWR system is presented, facilitating a quick stability analysis related to the co-ordination of boric acid solution in the water and control-rod insertion in the core. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douberly, Gary E.; Liang, Tao; Raston, Paul L.; Marshall, Mark D.
2015-01-01
The T-shaped OH–C 2 H 2 complex is formed in helium droplets via the sequential pick-up and solvation of the monomer fragments. Rovibrational spectra of the a-type OH stretch and b-type antisymmetric CH stretch vibrations contain resolved parity splitting that reveals the extent to which electronic angular momentum of the OH moiety is quenched upon complex formation. The energy difference between the spin-orbit coupled 2 B 1 (A″) and 2 B 2 (A′) electronic states is determined spectroscopically to be 216 cm −1 in helium droplets, which is 13 cm −1 larger than in the gas phase [Marshall et al., J. Chem. Phys. 121, 5845 (2004)]. The effect of the helium is rationalized as a difference in the solvation free energies of the two electronic states. This interpretation is motivated by the separation between the Q(3/2) and R(3/2) transitions in the infrared spectrum of the helium-solvated 2 Π 3/2 OH radical. Despite the expectation of a reduced rotational constant, the observed Q(3/2) to R(3/2) splitting is larger than in the gas phase by ≈0.3 cm −1 . This observation can be accounted for quantitatively by assuming the energetic separation between 2 Π 3/2 and 2 Π 1/2 manifolds is increased by ≈40 cm −1 upon helium solvation
Collective instabilities of self-gravitating systems, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Takashi; Takahara, Fumio; Ikeuchi, Satoru
1975-01-01
The instability modes of rotating self-gravitating systems are investigated on the assumption of infinitely long cylinder. The systems under consideration are a collisionless stellar system with anisotropic velocity dispersion and a gaseous system with anisotropic pressure. In the collisionless stellar system, the Jeans instability mode and the Harris instability mode exist. The dispersion relation is solved numerically and the following results are obtained: the Harris instability occurs even in the region where Wu did not treat, and although its growth rate amounts to the order of angular velocity of the system for sufficient anisotropy, the Harris instability always accompanies the Jeans instability and the latter is always greater than the former in growth rate. In the gaseous system exist the Jeans instability mode and a certain overstable mode, which are different from the Harris instability mode. It is shown that the overstable mode occurs due to coupling of modes. In relation to these results, some problems in galactic structure are discussed. (auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Burkart, Joshua
2013-01-01
A weakly nonlinear fluid wave propagating within a star can be unstable to three-wave interactions. The resonant parametric instability is a well-known form of three-wave interaction in which a primary wave of frequency ω a excites a pair of secondary waves of frequency ω b + ω c ≅ ω a . Here we consider a nonresonant form of three-wave interaction in which a low-frequency primary wave excites a high-frequency p-mode and a low-frequency g-mode such that ω b + ω c >> ω a . We show that a p-mode can couple so strongly to a g-mode of similar radial wavelength that this type of nonresonant interaction is unstable even if the primary wave amplitude is small. As an application, we analyze the stability of the tide in coalescing neutron star binaries to p-g mode coupling. We find that the equilibrium tide and dynamical tide are both p-g unstable at gravitational wave frequencies f gw ≳ 20 Hz and drive short wavelength p-g mode pairs to significant energies on very short timescales (much less than the orbital decay time due to gravitational radiation). Resonant parametric coupling to the tide is, by contrast, either stable or drives modes at a much smaller rate. We do not solve for the saturation of the p-g instability and therefore we cannot say precisely how it influences the evolution of neutron star binaries. However, we show that if even a single daughter mode saturates near its wave breaking amplitude, the p-g instability of the equilibrium tide will (1) induce significant orbital phase errors (Δφ ≳ 1 radian) that accumulate primarily at low frequencies (f gw ≲ 50 Hz) and (2) heat the neutron star core to a temperature of T ∼ 10 10 K. Since there are at least ∼100 unstable p-g daughter pairs, Δφ and T are potentially much larger than these values. Tides might therefore significantly influence the gravitational wave signal and electromagnetic emission from coalescing neutron star binaries at much larger orbital separations than previously
Landi, Alessandro; Marotta, Nicola; Morselli, Carlotta; Marongiu, Alessandra; Delfini, Roberto
2013-02-01
Several techniques have been proposed for treating cervical spine instability due to rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to screen the different treatment options used in this pathology to evaluate the best form of treatment when the progression of rheumatoid disease affected the cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) stability. The most important purpose of this study was to achieve both the efficacy of occipito-cervical fusion (OCF) to stabilize the occipitocervical junction and stop pannus progression. The authors describe their case example and stress, in the light of a literature review, the hypothesis that a stable biomechanical system extended to all the spaces involved, has both direct and indirect effects on RA pannus progression and the condition responsible for its formation, such as inflammation and articular hypermobility. Hence, the aim of this study is to advance this thesis, which may be extended to a wider statistical sample, with the same characteristics. A systematic literature research of case report articles, review articles, original articles, and prospective cohort studies, published from 1978 to 2011, was performed using PUBMED to analyze the different surgical strategies of RA involving CVJ and the role of OCF in these conditions. The key words used for the search the were: "inflammatory cervical pannus regression", "rheumatoid arthritis of the cranio-cervical junction", "occipito-cervical fusion", "treatment option in rheumatoid cervical instability", "altanto-axial dislocation", "craniovertebral junction" and "surgical technique". In addition, the authors reported their experience in a patient affected by erosive rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) with an anterior and posterior pannus involving C0-C1-C2. They decided to report this exemplative case to emphasize their own assumptions concerning the association between a posterior bony fusion, the arrest of anterior pannus progression and the improvement of functional outcome, without, however
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MacDonald, J.
1983-10-01
The problem of how shear instabilities redistribute matter and angular momentum accreted by a star from a disk is considered. Necessary conditions for stability of the star to nonaxisymmetric perturbations are derived by use of the short wavelength approximation. By considering growth rates, it is shown that freshly accreted material rapidly takes up a quasi-spherical distribution due to dynamical instabilities. However, mixing inward toward the stellar interior occurs on a thermal time scale or longer.
Massive star formation by accretion. II. Rotation: how to circumvent the angular momentum barrier?
Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.; Klessen, R. S.
2017-06-01
Context. Rotation plays a key role in the star-formation process, from pre-stellar cores to pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects. Understanding the formation of massive stars requires taking into account the accretion of angular momentum during their PMS phase. Aims: We study the PMS evolution of objects destined to become massive stars by accretion, focusing on the links between the physical conditions of the environment and the rotational properties of young stars. In particular, we look at the physical conditions that allow the production of massive stars by accretion. Methods: We present PMS models computed with a new version of the Geneva Stellar Evolution code self-consistently including accretion and rotation according to various accretion scenarios for mass and angular momentum. We describe the internal distribution of angular momentum in PMS stars accreting at high rates and we show how the various physical conditions impact their internal structures, evolutionary tracks, and rotation velocities during the PMS and the early main sequence. Results: We find that the smooth angular momentum accretion considered in previous studies leads to an angular momentum barrier and does not allow the formation of massive stars by accretion. A braking mechanism is needed in order to circumvent this angular momentum barrier. This mechanism has to be efficient enough to remove more than two thirds of the angular momentum from the inner accretion disc. Due to the weak efficiency of angular momentum transport by shear instability and meridional circulation during the accretion phase, the internal rotation profiles of accreting stars reflect essentially the angular momentum accretion history. As a consequence, careful choice of the angular momentum accretion history allows circumvention of any limitation in mass and velocity, and production of stars of any mass and velocity compatible with structure equations.
Angular momentum transport by heat-driven g-modes in slowly pulsating B stars
Townsend, R. H. D.; Goldstein, J.; Zweibel, E. G.
2018-03-01
Motivated by recent interest in the phenomenon of waves transport in massive stars, we examine whether the heat-driven gravity (g) modes excited in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars can significantly modify the stars' internal rotation. We develop a formalism for the differential torque exerted by g modes, and implement this formalism using the GYRE oscillation code and the MESASTAR stellar evolution code. Focusing first on a 4.21M⊙ model, we simulate 1 000 yr of stellar evolution under the combined effects of the torque due to a single unstable prograde g mode (with an amplitude chosen on the basis of observational constraints), and diffusive angular momentum transport due to convection, overshooting, and rotational instabilities. We find that the g mode rapidly extracts angular momentum from the surface layers, depositing it deeper in the stellar interior. The angular momentum transport is so efficient that by the end of the simulation, the initially non-rotating surface layers are spun in the retrograde direction to ≈ 30 per cent of the critical rate. However, the additional inclusion of magnetic stresses in our simulations almost completely inhibits this spin-up. Expanding our simulations to cover the whole instability strip, we show that the same general behaviour is seen in all SPB stars. After providing some caveats to contextualize our results, we hypothesize that the observed slower surface rotation of SPB stars (as compared to other B-type stars) may be the direct consequence of the angular momentum transport that our simulations demonstrate.
Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks
Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe
2016-09-01
Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular
Zeeshan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Farhan; Kanwal, Darakhshan; Khalid, Qazi Saad Bin; Ahmed, Muhammad Nadeem
2009-01-01
The Guyon's canal syndrome is a well known clinical entity and may have significant impact on patient's quality of life. We report a case of 43-year-old male who presented with complaints of pain and numbness in right hand and difficulty in writing for past one month. On imaging diagnosis of Guyon's canal syndrome because of tortuous ulnar artery was made with additional findings of DeQuervain's stenosing tenosynovitis and dorsal intercalated segmental instability syndrome with ligamentous in...
Tokluoglu, Erinc K.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Carlsson, Johan A.; Hara, Kentaro; Startsev, Edward A.
2018-05-01
Propagation of charged particle beams in background plasma as a method of space charge neutralization has been shown to achieve a high degree of charge and current neutralization and therefore enables nearly ballistic propagation and focusing of charged particle beams. Correspondingly, the use of plasmas for propagation of charged particle beams has important applications for transport and focusing of intense particle beams in inertial fusion and high energy density laboratory plasma physics. However, the streaming of beam ions through a background plasma can lead to the development of two-stream instability between the beam ions and the plasma electrons. The beam electric and magnetic fields enhanced by the two-stream instability can lead to defocusing of the ion beam. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we study the scaling of the instability-driven self-electromagnetic fields and consequent defocusing forces with the background plasma density and beam ion mass. We identify plasma parameters where the defocusing forces can be reduced.
Karpov, Valeri
2015-01-01
A comprehensive guide to AngularJS, Google's open-source client-side framework for app development. Most of the existing guides to AngularJS struggle to provide simple and understandable explanations for more advanced concepts. As a result, some developers who understand all the basic concepts of AngularJS struggle when it comes to building more complex real-world applications. Professional AngularJS provides a thorough understanding of AngularJS, covering everything from basic concepts, such as directives and data binding, to more advanced concepts like transclusion, build systems, and auto
Neutron angular distribution in a plasma focus obtained using nuclear track detectors.
Castillo-Mejía, F; Herrera, J J E; Rangel, J; Golzarri, J I; Espinosa, G
2002-01-01
The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a coaxial plasma gun in which a high-density, high-temperature plasma is obtained in a focused column for a few nanoseconds. When the filling gas is deuterium, neutrons can be obtained from fusion reactions. These are partially due to a beam of deuterons which are accelerated against the background hot plasma by large electric fields originating from plasma instabilities. Due to a beam-target effect, the angular distribution of the neutron emission is anisotropic, peaked in the forward direction along the axis of the gun. The purpose of this work is to illustrate the use of CR-39 nuclear track detectors as a diagnostic tool in the determination of the time-integrated neutron angular distribution. For the case studied in this work, neutron emission is found to have a 70% contribution from isotropic radiation and a 30% contribution from anisotropic radiation.
Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio
2015-01-01
In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms. PMID:26393606
Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio
2015-09-18
In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilaria Pasciuto
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms.
Zeeshan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Farhan; Kanwal, Darakhshan; Khalid, Qazi Saad Bin; Ahmed, Muhammad Nadeem
2009-12-23
The Guyon's canal syndrome is a well known clinical entity and may have significant impact on patient's quality of life. We report a case of 43-year-old male who presented with complaints of pain and numbness in right hand and difficulty in writing for past one month. On imaging diagnosis of Guyon's canal syndrome because of tortuous ulnar artery was made with additional findings of DeQuervain's stenosing tenosynovitis and dorsal intercalated segmental instability syndrome with ligamentous injury and subsequently these were confirmed on surgery.Although it is a rare syndrome, early diagnosis and treatment prevents permanent neurological deficits and improve patient's quality of life.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferguson, A.J.
1974-01-01
An outline of the theory of angular correlations is presented, and the difference between the modern density matrix method and the traditional wave function method is stressed. Comments are offered on particular angular correlation theoretical techniques. A brief discussion is given of recent studies of gamma ray angular correlations of reaction products recoiling with high velocity into vacuum. Two methods for optimization to obtain the most accurate expansion coefficients of the correlation are discussed. (1 figure, 53 references) (U.S.)
Rotations and angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nyborg, P.; Froyland, J.
1979-01-01
This paper is devoted to the analysis of rotational invariance and the properties of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. In particular, the problem of addition of angular momenta is treated in detail, and tables of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are included
Neutron star pulsations and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindblom, L.
2001-01-01
Gravitational radiation (GR) drives an instability in certain modes of rotating stars. This instability is strong enough in the case of the r-modes to cause their amplitudes to grow on a timescale of tens of seconds in rapidly rotating neutron stars. GR emitted by these modes removes angular momentum from the star at a rate which would spin it down to a relatively small angular velocity within about one year, if the dimensionless amplitude of the mode grows to order unity. A pedagogical level discussion is given here on the mechanism of GR instability in rotating stars, on the relevant properties of the r-modes, and on our present understanding of the dissipation mechanisms that tend to suppress this instability in neutron stars. The astrophysical implications of this GR driven instability are discussed for young neutron stars, and for older systems such as low mass x-ray binaries. Recent work on the non-linear evolution of the r-modes is also presented. (author)
Tearing instabilities in turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.
2009-01-01
Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial
Relativistic gravitational instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, B.F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures
Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D.; Simons, P.; Kuchta, J.
2009-01-01
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI
Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D. (Privatpraxis fuer Upright MRT, Koeln (Germany)); Simons, P.; Kuchta, J. (Media Park Klinik, Koeln (Germany))
2009-04-15
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia Huang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports two numerical simulation methods for modeling displacement instabilities around a surface groove in a metal substrate used in nuclear power plant. The amplitude change in the groove, the downward displacement at the base node, and the groove displacement at the periphery were simulated using ABAQUS to compare the results from two methods, as well as the tangential stress in the elements at the groove base and periphery. The comparison showed that for the tangential stress two methods were in close agreement for all thermal cycles. For the amplitude change, the downward displacement, the groove displacement, and the stress distribution, the two methods were in close agreement for the first 3 to 6 thermal cycles. After that, inconsistency increased with the number of thermal cycles. It is interesting that the thermal cycle at which the discrepancy between the two methods began to occur corresponded to a thermally grown oxide (TGO thickness of 1 μm, which showed the accuracy of the present work over the classic method. It is concluded that the present work’s numerical simulation scheme worked better with a thinner TGO layer than the classic method and could overcome the limitation of TGO thickness by simulating any thickness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Leibovich de Figueroa
2007-12-01
Full Text Available La inestabilidad laboral se ha tornado uno de los estresores psicosociales más relevantes en las últimas décadas y su percepción podría generar malestar y sufrimiento, desembocando en un estado de estrés con la consecuente elevación de tensión en uno o varios de sus canales de expresión, provocando así efectos deletéreos en la salud psico-física de los trabajadores. Nos preguntamos qué aspectos personales y laborales de los trabajadores estarían vinculados a un mayor malestar debido a la inestabilidad laboral y si éste es predictor de la tensión psicológica que manifiesta el trabajador. El IMPIL, en su versión reducida, junto con otras técnicas, fue administrado a una muestra de 90 empleados en relación de dependencia. Concluimos que la inestabilidad laboral impacta negativamente en el trabajador a través de uno de los canales de expresión: el malestar, sobre todo si existe un desajuste entre el nivel de instrucción y la tarea que realiza. A su vez, corroboramos que la inestabilidad laboral y el malestar que la misma genera producen altos niveles de tensión psicológica en el trabajador.In the last decades job instability has become one of the most important psychosocial stressors and its perception could generate uneasiness and suffering, leading to a stressful state with a consequent increase of strain through one or several of its channels of expression, producing deleterious effects in the psychophysical health of workers. We wonder which workers' personal and job features could be related to a greater uneasiness due to job instability and if this job instability is a predictor of the psychological strain expressed by them. The IMPIL, in its reduced version, and other techniques were administered to a sample of 90 salaried employees. We conclude that job instability has a negative impact on the worker through one of the channels of expression: uneasiness, most of all if there exists a maladjustement between the
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burkardt Matthias
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.
Takada, Motoshi; Taruishi, Chieko; Sudani, Tomoko; Suzuki, Akira; Iida, Hiroki
2013-08-01
Evaluation of the stabilizing effect of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil against hemodynamic instability due to mesenteric traction syndrome (MTS) by continuous measurement of systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) using a FloTrac(®) sensor was evaluated. Prospective randomized trial. A single-center study performed in an educational hospital. Two prospective studies were carried out, each with 40 patients scheduled for elective open abdominal surgery. Twenty patients received 50 mg of flurbiprofen axetil after the recognition of MTS by the anesthesiologist (group FT). The remaining patients served as controls (groups CP and CT). SVRI data was collected every 20 seconds for 1 hour after starting the laparotomy. The average SVRI prior to skin incision was taken as the baseline. Following 3 values were devised to evaluate MTS: the S-value (sum total of changes in SVRI from baseline), the T-value (period during which SVRI remained 20% or more below baseline), and the M-value (maximum change in SVRI from baseline). In group FP, decrease in SVRI was smaller than in group CP, and statistical differences in the 3 values were found. In group FT, SVRI recovered earlier than in group CT, and statistical differences were found in S-value and T-value. However, the M-value had no statistical differences. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can stabilize the hemodynamic instability due to MTS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)
2016-04-01
We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.
Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayward, Sean A
2007-01-01
Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around the spacetime due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses the rate of the change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Coblenz, G.; Christopoulos, G.
2006-01-01
This review addresses the pathoanatomical basics as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of instability patterns of the wrist. Carpal instability mostly follows an injury; however, other diseases, like CPPD arthropathy, can be associated. Instability occurs either if the carpus is unable to sustain physiologic loads (''dyskinetics'') or suffers from abnormal motion of its bones during movement (''dyskinematics''). In the classification of carpal instability, dissociative subcategories (located within proximal carpal row) are differentiated from non-dissociative subcategories (present between the carpal rows) and combined patterns. It is essential to note that the unstable wrist initially does not cause relevant signs in standard radiograms, therefore being ''occult'' for the radiologic assessment. This paper emphasizes the high utility of kinematographic studies, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography for detecting these predynamic and dynamic instability stages. Later in the natural history of carpal instability, static malalignment of the wrist and osteoarthritis will develop, both being associated with significant morbidity and disability. To prevent individual and socio-economic implications, the handsurgeon or orthopedist, as well as the radiologist, is challenged for early and precise diagnosis. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arimondo, Ennio
2004-01-01
For many years the Institute of Physics has published books on hot topics based on a collection of reprints from different journals, including some remarks by the editors of each volume. The book on Optical Angular Momentum, edited by L Allen, S M Barnett and M J Padgett, is a recent addition to the series. It reproduces forty four papers originally published in different journals and in a few cases it provides direct access to works not easily accessible to a web navigator. The collection covers nearly a hundred years of progress in physics, starting from an historic 1909 paper by Poynting, and ending with a 2002 paper by Padgett, Barnett and coworkers on the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon. The field of optical angular momentum has expanded greatly, creating an interdisciplinary attraction for researchers operating in quantum optics, atomic physics, solid state physics, biophysics and quantum information theory. The development of laser optics, especially the control of single mode sources, has made possible the specific design of optical radiation modes with a high degree of control on the light angular momentum. The editors of this book are important figures in the field of angular momentum, having contributed to key progress in the area. L Allen published an historical paper in 1999, he and M J Padgett (together with M Babiker) produced few years ago a long review article which is today still the most complete basic introduction to the angular momentum of light, while S M Barnett has contributed several high quality papers to the progress of this area of physics. The editors' choice provides an excellent overview to all readers, with papers classified into eight different topics, covering the basic principles of the light and spin and orbital angular momentum, the laboratory tools for creating laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum, the optical forces and torques created by laser beams carrying angular momentum on
Angular Accelerating White Light
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2015-08-01
Full Text Available wavelength dependence. By digitally simulating free-space propagation on the SLM, The authors compare the effects of real and digital propagation on the angular rotation rates of the resulting optical fields for various wavelengths. The development...
Orbital angular momentum of photons, plasmons and neutrinos in a plasma
Mendonca, J. T.; Thidé, Bo; Then, H.; Ali, S.
2009-11-01
We study the exchange of angular momentum between electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a plasma, due to the stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscatering processes [1]. Angular momentum states for plasmon and phonon fields are introduced for the first time. We demonstrate that these states can be excited by nonlinear wave mixing, associated with the scattering processes. This could be relevant for plasma diagnostics, both in laboratory and in space. Nonlinearly coupled paraxial equations and instability growth rates are derived. The characteristic features of the plasmon modes with finite angular momentum are also discussed. The potential problem is solved and the angular momentum is explicitly calculated [2]. Finally, it is shown that an electron-neutrino beam, propagating in a background plasma, can be decomposed into orbital momentum states, similar to that of photon states. Coupling between different neutrino states, in the presence of a plasma vortex, is considered. We show that plasma vorticity can be transfered to the neutrino beam, which is relevant to the understanding of the neutrino sources in astrophysics. [1] J.T. Mendonca et al., PRL 102, 185005 (2009). [2] S. Ali and J.T. Mendonca, PoP (2009) submitted. [3] J.T. Mendonca and B. Thide, Europhys. Lett. 84, 41001 (2008).
Angular trap for macroparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aksyonov, D.S.
2013-01-01
Properties of angular macroparticle traps were investigated in this work. These properties are required to design vacuum arc plasma filters. The correlation between trap geometry parameters and its ability to absorb macroparticles were found. Calculations allow one to predict the behaviour of filtering abilities of separators which contain such traps in their design. Recommendations regarding the use of angular traps in filters of different builds are given.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Nagaria, Jabir
2009-12-15
STUDY DESIGN.: Observational study. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. OBJECTIVE.: The purpose of this article was to report long-term (minimum 7 years) clinical and radiologic outcome of our series of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis who underwent transarticular screw fixation to treat atlantoaxial subluxation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: The indications for intervention in patients with atlantoaxial instability are pain, myelopathy, and progressive neurologic deficit. The various treatment options available for these patients are isolated C1-C2 fusion, occipitocervical fusion with or without transoral surgery. Review of current literature suggests that C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation has significant functional benefits, although there is discrepancy in this literature regarding improvement in function following surgery. METHODS.: Myelopathy was assessed using Ranawat myelopathy score and Myelopathy Disability Index. Pain scores were assessed using Visual Analogue Scale. The radiologic imaging was assessed and the following data were extracted; atlanto-dens interval, space available for cord, presence of signal change on T2 weighted image, and fusion rates. RESULTS.: Thirty-seven patients, median age 56, were included in the study. Average duration of neck symptoms was 15.8 months. Average duration of rheumatoid arthritis before surgery was 20.6 years. Preoperative symptoms: suboccipital pain in 26 patients; neck pain, 32; myelopathy, 22; and 5 were asymptomatic. After surgery: suboccipital pain, 2; neck pain, 3; and myelopathy, 10. Ninety percent patients with neck and suboccipital pain improved after surgery in their Visual Analogue pain scores, with all of them having >50% improvement in VAS scores (6.94-2.12 [P < 0.05]).Preoperative Ranawat grade was as follows: grade 1 in 15 patients, grade 2 in 7, and grade 3a in 14, grade 3b in 1.After surgery: grade 1 in 27 patients, grade 2 in 7, grade 3a in 1, and grade 3b in 2. The mean
Sandoval-Ochoa, J.; Aguayo-Camargo, J.
2007-05-01
During the NOAA oceanographic delivery cruise of the US R/V "Roger Revelle" to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California in San Diego, California USA, in July 1996; a well calibrated bathymetric equipment, the SeaBeam* 2012, was tested. Good resolutions in data allowed bathymetric mapping to visualize the sea floor relief. Detailed colorful chartographic images showed a portion of the continental slope between the Balsas River Delta and the Middle America Trench and between the Balsas Canyon and La Necesidad Canyon. The surveyed area covered more than 3 000 square kilometers. After the delivery cruise, one of the goals was to measure and analyze the Morphobathymetry of the uneven lower portion of the Balsas River Submarine Delta. So far some of the findings with the morphometric analyses consist of several isolated slump scars that each comprise more than 12 cubic kilometers in volume and a multiple slump scar with an evident steep hollow about 200 cubic kilometers absent of rock. These volumes of rock apparently underwent a remobilization from the slope during the Late Quaternary. The rock detachments occured in relatively small portions but in instantaneous massive displacements because of their instability as well as other identified factors in the region. Over time more and more authors have accepted that coastal cuts or submarine slump scars have been left by sudden movements of rock and fluids. The phenomena that occur in the region in general, are accompanied on one side by potential and kinetic energies like falling bodies, flows and gravity waves, and on the other side, by mass transfer of rock and fluid mobilization like turbidity currents, accumulations, sea wave surges or tsunamis. In some cases the phenomena is produced by another natural triggering forces or by an earthquake. We propose that events like these, i.e. massive detachments and their products such as accumulations, turbidity currents and depositional debrites
Angular momentum content of galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaya, E.J.; Tully, R.B.
1984-01-01
A schema of galaxy formation is developed in which the environmental influence of large-scale structure plays a dominant role. This schema was motivated by the observation that the fraction of E and S0 galaxies is much higher in clusters than in low-density regions and by an inference that those spirals that are found in clusters probably have fallen in relatively recently from the low-density regions. It is proposed that the tidal field of the Local Supercluster acts to determine the morphology of galaxies through two complementary mechanisms. In the first place, the supercluster can apply torques to protogalaxies. Galaxies which collapsed while expanding away from the central cluster decoupled from the external tidal field and conserved the angular momentum that they acquired before collapse. Galaxies which formed in the cluster while the cluster collapsed continued to feel the tidal field. In the latter case, the spin of outer collapsing layers can be halted and reversed, and tends to cancel the spin of inner layers. The result is a reduction of the total angular momentum content of the galaxy. In addition, the supercluster tidal field can regulate accretion of fresh material onto the galaxies since the field creates a Roche limit about galaxies and material beyond this limit is lost. Any material that has not collapsed onto a galaxy by the time the galaxy falls into a cluster will be tidally stripped. The angular momentum content of that part of the protogalactic cloud which has not yet collapsed . continues to grow linearly with time due to the continued torquing by the supercluster and neighbors. Galaxies at large distances from the cluster core can continue to accrete this high angular momentum material until the present, but galaxies that enter the cluster are cut off from replenishing material
Fission fragment angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frenne, D. De
1991-01-01
Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
Electron angular distribution axial channeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khokonov, A.Kh.; Khokonov, M.Kh.
1989-01-01
Angular distributions of ultra-relativistic electrons are calculated in the assumption about presence of statistical equilibrium. Analysis is based on numerical solution of Fokker-Planck type kinetic equation. It is shown that in contrast to case of amorphous medium, the multiple scattering at axial channeling of negative particles results in self-focusing of the initial beam particles and due to it number of electrons moving at an angles to the chain, which are smaller, than critical angle of channeling, may increase by several times as compared to the initial one
Instability and star evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzoyan, L.V.
1981-01-01
The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru
Casimir effect and thermodynamics of horizon instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartnoll, Sean A.
2004-01-01
We propose a dual thermodynamic description of a classical instability of generalized black hole spacetimes. From a thermodynamic perspective, the instability is due to negative compressibility in regions where the Casimir pressure is large. The argument indicates how the correspondence between thermodynamic and classical instability for horizons may be extended to cases without translational invariance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cohen Anders
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The purpose of this study was to describe procedural details of a minimally invasive presacral approach for revision of an L5-S1 Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion rod. Case presentation A 70-year-old Caucasian man presented to our facility with marked thoracolumbar scoliosis, osteoarthritic changes characterized by high-grade osteophytes, and significant intervertebral disc collapse and calcification. Our patient required crutches during ambulation and reported intractable axial and radicular pain. Multi-level reconstruction of L1-4 was accomplished with extreme lateral interbody fusion, although focal lumbosacral symptoms persisted due to disc space collapse at L5-S1. Lumbosacral interbody distraction and stabilization was achieved four weeks later with the Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion System (TranS1 Inc., Wilmington, NC, USA and rod implantation via an axial presacral approach. Despite symptom resolution following this procedure, our patient suffered a fall six weeks postoperatively with direct sacral impaction resulting in symptom recurrence and loss of L5-S1 distraction. Following seven months of unsuccessful conservative care, a revision of the Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion rod was performed that utilized the same presacral approach and used a larger diameter implant. Minimal adhesions were encountered upon presacral re-entry. A precise operative trajectory to the base of the previously implanted rod was achieved using fluoroscopic guidance. Surgical removal of the implant was successful with minimal bone resection required. A larger diameter Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion rod was then implanted and joint distraction was re-established. The radicular symptoms resolved following revision surgery and our patient was ambulating without assistance on post-operative day one. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions The Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion distraction rod may be revised and replaced with a larger diameter rod using
Instability of equatorial protons in Jupiter's mid-magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Northrop, T.G.; Schardt, A.W.
1980-01-01
Two different models for the distribution function are fit to the Jovian protons seen by Pioneer 10 inbound. The models reproduce the observed energy and angular distributions. These models are then used to assess the collisionless mirror instability. Because of the pancake proton angular distributions in the equatorial ring current region, the ring current particle population appears to be mirror unstable at times, with instability growth rates of approx.10 min. Such a time is consistent with observed proton flux autocorrelation times. An instability such as this (there are other candidates) may be responsible for the previously established proton flux flowing parallel to the magnetic field away from the equatorial region
Angular Random Walk Estimation of a Time-Domain Switching Micromachined Gyroscope
2016-10-19
angular random walk (ARW), bias instability, and scale factor instability. While there are methods to address issues with bias and scale factor...effects. Thus, it is expected that it will have low bias and scale factor instabilities. Simulated ARW performance of a particular incarnation of the...1 2. PARAMETRIC SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION BASED ON TIME-DOMAIN SWITCHING ........ 2 3. FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF RESONATOR
Nutation instability of spinning solid rocket motor spacecraft
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan YANG
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The variation of mass, and moment of inertia of a spin-stabilized spacecraft leads to concern about the nutation instability. Here a careful analysis on the nutation instability is performed on a spacecraft propelled by solid rocket booster (SRB. The influences of specific solid propellant designs on transversal angular velocity are discussed. The results show that the typical SRB of End Burn suppresses the non-principal axial angular velocity. On the contrary, the frequently used SRB of Radial Burn could amplify the transversal angular velocity. The nutation instability caused by a design of Radial Burn could be remedied by the addition of End Burn at the same time based on the study of the combination design of both End Burn and Radial Burn. The analysis of the results proposes the design conception of how to control the nutation motion. The method is suitable to resolve the nutation instability of solid rocket motor with complex propellant patterns.
Angular momentum projected semiclassics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasse, R.W.
1986-10-01
By using angular momentum projected plane waves as wave functions, we derive semiclassical expressions for the single-particle propagator, the partition function, the nonlocal density matrix, the single-particle density and the one particle- one hole level density for fixed angular momentum and fixed z-component or summed over the z-components. Other quantities can be deduced from the propagator. In coordinate space (r, r') the relevant quantities depend on vertical stroker - r 3 vertical stroke instead of vertical stroker - r'vertical stroke and in Wigner space (R, P) they become proportional to the angular momentum constraints δ(vertical strokeRxPvertical stroke/ℎ - l) and δ((RxP) z /ℎ - m). As applications we calculate the single-particle and one particle- one hole level densities for harmonic oscillator and Hill-Wheeler box potentials and the imaginary part of the optical potential and its volume integral with an underlying harmonic oscillator potential and a zero range two-body interaction. (orig.)
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Quataert, Eliot
2018-04-01
We present unstratified 3D MHD simulations of an accretion disk with a boundary layer (BL) that have a duration ˜1000 orbital periods at the inner radius of the accretion disk. We find the surprising result that angular momentum piles up in the boundary layer, which results in a rapidly rotating belt of accreted material at the surface of the star. The angular momentum stored in this belt increases monotonically in time, which implies that angular momentum transport mechanisms in the BL are inefficient and do not couple the accretion disk to the star. This is in spite of the fact that magnetic fields are advected into the BL from the disk and supersonic shear instabilities in the BL excite acoustic waves. In our simulations, these waves only carry a small fraction (˜10%) of the angular momentum required for steady state accretion. Using analytical theory and 2D viscous simulations in the R - ϕ plane, we derive an analytical criterion for belt formation to occur in the BL in terms of the ratio of the viscosity in the accretion disk to the viscosity in the BL. Our MHD simulations have a dimensionless viscosity (α) in the BL that is at least a factor of ˜100 smaller than that in the disk. We discuss the implications of these results for BL dynamics and emission.
Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum in quantum plasmas.
Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B; Stenflo, L
2012-07-01
We investigate stimulated scattering instabilities of coherent circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons and nondegenerate ions. For this purpose, we employ the coupled equations for the CPEM wave vector potential and the driven (by the ponderomotive force of the CPEM waves) equations for the electron and ion plasma oscillations. The electrons are significantly affected by the quantum forces (viz., the quantum statistical pressure, the quantum Bohm potential, as well as the electron exchange and electron correlations due to electron spin), which are included in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamical description of the electrons. Furthermore, our investigation of the stimulated Brillouin instability of coherent CPEM waves uses the generalized ion momentum equation that includes strong ion coupling effects. The nonlinear equations for the coupled CPEM and quantum plasma waves are then analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations which exhibit stimulated Raman, stimulated Brillouin, and modulational instabilities of CPEM waves carrying OAM. The present results are useful for understanding the origin of scattered light off low-frequency density fluctuations in high-energy density plasmas where quantum effects are eminent.
Thermal shrinkage for shoulder instability.
Toth, Alison P; Warren, Russell F; Petrigliano, Frank A; Doward, David A; Cordasco, Frank A; Altchek, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J
2011-07-01
Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent shoulder stabilization surgery with thermal capsular shrinkage using a monopolar radiofrequency device. Follow-up included a subjective outcome questionnaire, discussion of pain, instability, and activity level. Mean follow-up was 3.3 years (range 2.0-4.7 years). The thermal capsular shrinkage procedure failed due to instability and/or pain in 31% of shoulders at a mean time of 39 months. In patients with unidirectional anterior instability and those with concomitant labral repair, the procedure proved effective. Patients with multidirectional instability had moderate success. In contrast, four of five patients with isolated posterior instability failed. Thermal capsular shrinkage has been advocated for the treatment of shoulder instability, particularly mild to moderate capsular laxity. The ease of the procedure makes it attractive. However, our retrospective review revealed an overall failure rate of 31% in 80 patients with 2-year minimum follow-up. This mid- to long-term cohort study adds to the literature lacking support for thermal capsulorrhaphy in general, particularly posterior instability. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9187-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Optical angular momentum and atoms.
Franke-Arnold, Sonja
2017-02-28
Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Optical angular momentum and atoms
2017-01-01
Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom’s angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light’s OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light–matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069766
Vanston, Alex
2013-01-01
This book uses a practical, step-by-step approach, starting with how to build directives from the ground up before moving on to creating web applications comprised of multiple modules all working together to provide the best user experience possible.This book is intended for intermediate JavaScript developers who are looking to enhance their understanding of single-page web application development with a focus on AngularJS and the JavaScript MVC frameworks.It is expected that readers will understand basic JavaScript patterns and idioms and can recognize JSON formatted data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. G. Balázs
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We studied the complete randomness of the angular distribution of BATSE gamma-ray bursts (GRBs. Based on their durations and peak fluxes, we divided the BATSE sample into 5 subsamples (short1, short2, intermediate, long1, long2 and studied the angular distributions separately. We used three methods to search for non-randomness in the subsamples: Voronoi tesselation, minimal spanning tree, and multifractal spectra. To study any non-randomness in the subsamples we defined 13 test-variables (9 from Voronoi tesselation, 3 from the minimal spanning tree and one from the multifractal spectrum. We made Monte Carlo simulations taking into account the BATSE’s sky-exposure function. We tested therandomness by introducing squared Euclidean distances in the parameter space of the test-variables. We recognized that the short1, short2 groups deviate significantly (99.90%, 99.98% from the fully random case in the distribution of the squared Euclidean distances but this is not true for the long samples. In the intermediate group, the squared Euclidean distances also give significant deviation (98.51%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabris, J.D.
1977-01-01
The electric quadrupolar interaction in some hafnium complexes, measured at the metal nucleus level is studied. For that purpose, the technique of γ-γ perturbed angular correlation is used: the frequencies of quadrupolar interaction are compared with some hafnium α-hydroxicarboxilates, namely glycolate, lactate, mandelate and benzylate; the influence of the temperature on the quadrupolar coupling on the hafnium tetramandelate is studied; finally, the effects associated with the capture of thermal neutrons by hafnium tetramandelate are examined locally at the nuclear level. The first group of results shows significant differences in a series of complexes derived from glycolic acid. On the other hand, the substitution of the protons in hafnium tetramandelate structure by some alkaline cations permits to verify a correlation between the variations in the quadrupolar coupling and the electronegativities of the substituent elements. Measurements at high temperatures show that this complex is thermally stable at 100 and 150 0 C. It is possible to see the appearance of two distinct sites for the probe nucleus, after heating the sample at 100 0 C for prolonged time. This fact is attributed to a probable interconversion among the postulated structural isomers for the octacoordinated compounds. Finally, measurements of angular correlation on the irradiated complex show that there is an effective destruction of the target molecule by neutron capture [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, L.A.
1974-01-01
In order to test the theories which purport to explain the origin of galaxy angular momentum, this study presents new data for about 1000 individual galaxies in eight rich clusters. The clusters which are studied include Virgo, A 119, A 400, A 1656 (Coma), A 2147, A 2151 (Hercules), A 2197, and A 2199. Selected samples of these data are used to investigate systematic alignment effects in clusters of galaxies and to investigate the intrinsic ellipticities of E, SO, and spiral galaxies. The following new results are reported: Galaxies in the cluster A 2197 show a significant alignment effect (chi 2 probability less than 0.0002), and the preferential direction of alignment corresponds approximately to the major axis of the overall cluster elongation. None of the other seven clusters show any significant alignment trends. The spiral galaxy samples in four clusters (Virgo, A 1656, A 2151, and A 2197) were large enough to analyze the number distributions of forward and reverse winding spirals. Large and small spiral galaxies have identical ellipticity distributions. Large E and SO galaxies tend to be more spherical, and small E and SO galaxies more flattened. The intrinsic ellipticities of E, SO, and spiral galaxies are the same for galaxies in the ''field'' and for galaxies in rich clusters. Six models of galaxy formation are reviewed, and the major []mphasis is placed on how each model explains the origin of galaxy angular momentum. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)
Ion temperature gradient instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
Anomalous ion thermal conductivity remains an open physics issue for the present generation of high temperature Tokamaks. It is generally believed to be due to Ion Temperature Gradient Instability (η i mode). However, it has been difficult, if not impossible to identify this instability and study the anomalous transport due to it, directly. Therefore the production and identification of the mode is pursued in the simpler and experimentally convenient configuration of the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). CLM is a steady state machine which already has all the appropriate parameters, except η i . This parameter is being increased to the appropriate value of the order of 1 by 'feathering' a tungsten screen located between the plasma source and the experimental cell to flatten the density profile and appropriate redesign of heating antennas to steepen the ion temperature profile. Once the instability is produced and identified, a thorough study of the characteristics of the mode can be done via a wide range of variation of all the critical parameters: η i , parallel wavelength, etc
Bossa, Benjamin
2005-11-01
We address the problem of the free fall of a long, horizontal and narrow liquid layer squeezed in a vertical open Hele-Shaw cell. The layer destabilizes as it falls down, evolving into a series of liquid blobs linked together by thin bridges, which ultimately break, leaving the initially connex fluid layer as a set a disjointed drops. The mechanism of this instability is the onset of a vertical pressure gradient due to the curvature difference of the moving contact line between the advancing interface and the rear interface. This instability, whose growth rate scales with a non-trivial power of the capillary number, amplifies indifferently a broad band of wavenumbers because of the flat shape of its dispersion relation in the thin layer limit. We will finally comment on the nature of the final fragmentation process and drop size distributions.
Imaging of patellofemoral instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waldt, S.; Rummeny, E.J.
2012-01-01
Patellofemoral instability remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to its multifactorial genesis. The purpose of imaging is to systematically analyze predisposing factors, such as trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, rotational deformities of the lower limb and patellar tilt. In order to evaluate anatomical abnormalities with a sufficient diagnostic accuracy, standardized measurement methods and implementation of various imaging modalities are necessary. Diagnosis of acute and often overlooked lateral patellar dislocation can be established with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because of its characteristic patterns of injury. Damage to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has a significance just as high as the predisposing risk factors in relation to the cause of chronic instability. (orig.) [de
Linear waves and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1975-01-01
The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)
Ionospheric modification and parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fejer, J.A.
1979-01-01
Thresholds and linear growth rates for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering and for the parametric decay instability are derived by using arguments of energy transfer. For this purpose an expression for the ponderomotive force is derived. Conditions under which the partial pressure force due to differential dissipation exceeds the ponderomotive force are also discussed. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are weakly excited by existing incoherent backscatter radars. The parametric decay instability is strongly excited in ionospheric heating experiments. Saturation theories of the parametric decay instability are therefore described. After a brief discussion of the purely growing instability the effect of using several pumps is discussed as well as the effects of inhomogenicity. Turning to detailed theories of ionospheric heating, artificial spread F is discussed in terms of a purely growing instability where the nonlinearity is due to dissipation. Field-aligned short-scale striations are explained in terms of dissipation of the parametrically excited Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations): they might be further amplified by an explosive instability (except the magnetic equator). Broadband absorption is probably responsible for the 'overshoot' effect: the initially observed level of parametrically excited Langmuir waves is much higher than the steady state level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sender, A; Mura, A; Liduchowski, L; Zok, P; Skolik, W; Szyngiel, S; Rojek, H; Gajda, B; Major, M; Stanislawski, P; Sliwiok, H; Sikora, J
1988-10-19
Angular mining conveyor provided with a drag chain extending along the axis of its path of movement, and a corner member, inside which the drag chain is led in a forced way, characterized in that the drag chain, where its path curves around the corner member, is located by supporting of the vertical links of the chain along the required curved section of the conveyor path around said corner member, and the supporting line of the links is so chosen, that, within the said curved section of the conveyor path, a space is maintained between the vertical end surface of the scrapers and the outer curved surface of the radially inner side wall of a corner trough associated with the corner member, through which corner trough the scrapers pass. 10 figs.
Local study of helical magnetorotational instability in viscous Keplerian disks
MahdaviGharavi, M.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehidan, H.
2018-03-01
In this paper, regarding the recent detection of significant azimuthal magnetic field in some accretion disks such as protostellar (Donati et al. in Nature 438:466, 2005), the multi-fluid model has been employed to analysis the stability of Keplerian rotational viscous dusty plasma system in a current-free helical magnetic field structure. Using the fluid-Maxwell equations, the general dispersion relation of the excited modes in the system has been obtained by applying the local approximation method in the linear perturbation theory. The typical numerical analysis of the obtained dispersion relation in the high-frequency regime shows that the presence of azimuthal magnetic field component in Keplerian flow has a considerable role in the stability conditions of the system. It also shows that the magnetic field helicity has a stabilization role against the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the system due to contraction of the unstable wavelength region and decreasing the maximum growth rate of the instability. In this sense, the stabilization role of the viscosity term is more considerable for HMRI (instability in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field component) than the corresponding MRI (instability in the absence of azimuthal magnetic field component). Moreover, considering the discovered azimuthal magnetic field in these systems, the MRI can be arisen in the over-all range of dust grains construction values in contract with traditional MRI. This investigation can greatly contribute to better understanding the physics of some astrophysical phenomena, such as the main source of turbulence and angular momentum transport in protostellar and the other sufficiently ionized astrophysical disks, where the azimuthal magnetic field component in these systems can play a significant role.
Magnetic viscosity by localized shear flow instability in magnetized accretion disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, R.; Tajima, T.
1995-01-01
Differentially rotating disks are subject to the axisymmetric instability for perfectly conducting plasma in the presence of poloidal magnetic fields. For nonaxisymmetric perturbations, the authors find localized unstable eigenmodes whose eigenfunction is confined between two Alfven singularities at ω d = ± ω A , where ω d is the Doppler-shifted wave frequency, and ω A = k parallel v A is the Alfven frequency. The radial width of the unstable eigenfunction is Δx ∼ ω A /(Ak y ), where A is the Oort's constant, and k y is the azimuthal wave number. The growth rate of the fundamental mode is larger for smaller value of k y /k z . The maximum growth rate when k y /k z ∼ 0.1 is ∼ 0.2Ω for the Keplerian disk with local angular velocity Ω. It is found that the purely growing mode disappears when k y /k z > 0.12. In a perfectly conducting disk, the instability grows even when the seed magnetic field is infinitesimal. Inclusion of the resistivity, however, leads to the appearance of an instability threshold. When the resistivity η depends on the instability-induced turbulent magnetic fields δB as η([δB 2 ]), the marginal stability condition self-consistently determines the α parameter of the angular momentum transport due to the magnetic stress. For fully ionized disks, the magnetic viscosity parameter α B is between 0.001 and 1. The authors' three-dimensional MHD simulation confirms these unstable eigenmodes. It also shows that the α parameter observed in simulation is between 0.01 and 1, in agreement with theory. The observationally required smaller α in the quiescent phase of accretion disks in dwarf novae may be explained by the decreased ionization due to the temperature drop
Nonextensive GES instability with nonlinear pressure effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Munmi Gohain
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We herein analyze the instability dynamics associated with the nonextensive nonthermal gravito-electrostatic sheath (GES model for the perturbed solar plasma portraiture. The usual neutral gas approximation is herewith judiciously relaxed and the laboratory plasma-wall interaction physics is procedurally incorporated amid barotropic nonlinearity. The main motivation here stems from the true nature of the solar plasma system as a set of concentric nonlocal nonthermal sub-layers as evidenced from different multi-space satellite probes and missions. The formalism couples the solar interior plasma (SIP, bounded and solar wind plasma (SWP, unbounded via the diffused solar surface boundary (SSB formed due to an exact long-range gravito-electrostatic force-equilibration. A linear normal mode ansatz reveals both dispersive and non-dispersive features of the modified GES collective wave excitations. It is seen that the thermostatistical GES stability depends solely on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio. The damping behavior on both the scales is more pronounced in the acoustic domain, K→∞, than the gravitational domain, K→0; where, K is the Jeans-normalized angular wave number. It offers a unique quasi-linear coupling of the gravitational and acoustic fluctuations amid the GES force action. The results may be useful to see the excitation dynamics of natural normal modes in bounded nonextensive astero-environs from a new viewpoint of the plasma-wall coupling mechanism.
Nonextensive GES instability with nonlinear pressure effects
Gohain, Munmi; Karmakar, Pralay Kumar
2018-03-01
We herein analyze the instability dynamics associated with the nonextensive nonthermal gravito-electrostatic sheath (GES) model for the perturbed solar plasma portraiture. The usual neutral gas approximation is herewith judiciously relaxed and the laboratory plasma-wall interaction physics is procedurally incorporated amid barotropic nonlinearity. The main motivation here stems from the true nature of the solar plasma system as a set of concentric nonlocal nonthermal sub-layers as evidenced from different multi-space satellite probes and missions. The formalism couples the solar interior plasma (SIP, bounded) and solar wind plasma (SWP, unbounded) via the diffused solar surface boundary (SSB) formed due to an exact long-range gravito-electrostatic force-equilibration. A linear normal mode ansatz reveals both dispersive and non-dispersive features of the modified GES collective wave excitations. It is seen that the thermostatistical GES stability depends solely on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio. The damping behavior on both the scales is more pronounced in the acoustic domain, K → ∞ , than the gravitational domain, K → 0 ; where, K is the Jeans-normalized angular wave number. It offers a unique quasi-linear coupling of the gravitational and acoustic fluctuations amid the GES force action. The results may be useful to see the excitation dynamics of natural normal modes in bounded nonextensive astero-environs from a new viewpoint of the plasma-wall coupling mechanism.
Angular integrals in d dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Somogyi, Gabor
2011-01-15
We discuss the evaluation of certain d dimensional angular integrals which arise in perturbative field theory calculations. We find that the angular integral with n denominators can be computed in terms of a certain special function, the so-called H-function of several variables. We also present several illustrative examples of the general result and briefly consider some applications. (orig.)
Angular momentum in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cresswell, A.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Oregon Univ., Eugene
1986-01-01
It is argued that the correct expressions for the angular momentum flux carried by gravitational radiation should follow directly from the momentum currents. Following this approach, the authors compute the angular momentum associated with several different choices of energy-momentum prescriptions. (author)
Angular integrals in d dimensions.
Somogyi, G.
2011-01-01
We discuss the evaluation of certain d dimensional angular integrals which arise in perturbative field theory calculations. We find that the angular integral with n denominators can be computed in terms of a certain special function, the so-called H-function of several variables. We also present several illustrative examples of the general result and briefly consider some applications.
Angular integrals in d dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Somogyi, Gabor
2011-01-01
We discuss the evaluation of certain d-dimensional angular integrals which arise in perturbative field theory calculations. We find that the angular integral with n denominators can be computed in terms of a certain special function, the so-called H-function of several variables. We also present several illustrative examples of the general result and briefly consider some applications.
Angular integrals in d dimensions
Somogyi, Gábor
2011-08-01
We discuss the evaluation of certain d-dimensional angular integrals which arise in perturbative field theory calculations. We find that the angular integral with n denominators can be computed in terms of a certain special function, the so-called H-function of several variables. We also present several illustrative examples of the general result and briefly consider some applications.
Angular integrals in d dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Somogyi, Gabor
2011-01-01
We discuss the evaluation of certain d dimensional angular integrals which arise in perturbative field theory calculations. We find that the angular integral with n denominators can be computed in terms of a certain special function, the so-called H-function of several variables. We also present several illustrative examples of the general result and briefly consider some applications. (orig.)
A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Zhao
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2. Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability.
Angular Momentum in Dwarf Galaxies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Del Popolo A.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We study the “angular momentum catastrophe” in the framework of interaction among baryons and dark matter through dynamical friction. By means of Del Popolo (2009 model we simulate 14 galaxies similar to those investigated by van den Bosch, Burkert and Swaters (2001, and calculate the distribution of their spin parameters and the angular momenta. Our model gives the angular momentum distribution which is in agreement with the van den Bosch et al. observations. Our result shows that the “angular momentum catastrophe” can be naturally solved in a model that takes into account the baryonic physics and the exchange of energy and angular momentum between the baryonic clumps and dark matter through dynamical friction.
Theory of the rippling instability in toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogister, A.
1985-04-01
The theory of the rippling instability is developed for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas including ion viscosity and parallel electron heat conduction, but assuming that the growth rate is small compared to the wave angular frequency. Parallel electron heat conduction is stabilizing but ion viscosity broadens the instability domain. Under certain conditions, an important top-bottom asymmetry of the density fluctuation spectrum may arise. (orig./GG)
Natural roller bearing fault detection by angular measurement of true instantaneous angular speed
Renaudin, L.; Bonnardot, F.; Musy, O.; Doray, J. B.; Rémond, D.
2010-10-01
The challenge in many production activities involving large mechanical devices like power transmissions consists in reducing the machine downtime, in managing repairs and in improving operating time. Most online monitoring systems are based on conventional vibration measurement devices for gear transmissions or bearings in mechanical components. In this paper, we propose an alternative way of bearing condition monitoring based on the instantaneous angular speed measurement. By the help of a large experimental investigation on two different applications, we prove that localized faults like pitting in bearing generate small angular speed fluctuations which are measurable with optical or magnetic encoders. We also emphasize the benefits of measuring instantaneous angular speed with the pulse timing method through an implicit angular sampling which ensures insensitivity to speed fluctuation. A wide range of operating conditions have been tested for the two applications with varying speed, load, external excitations, gear ratio, etc. The tests performed on an automotive gearbox or on actual operating vehicle wheels also establish the robustness of the proposed methodology. By the means of a conventional Fourier transform, angular frequency channels kinematically related to the fault periodicity show significant magnitude differences related to the damage severity. Sideband effects are evidently seen when the fault is located on rotating parts of the bearing due to load modulation. Additionally, slip effects are also suspected to be at the origin of enlargement of spectrum peaks in the case of double row bearings loaded in a pure radial direction.
Pearling Instabilities of a Viscoelastic Thread
Deblais, A.; Velikov, K. P.; Bonn, D.
2018-05-01
Pearling instabilities of slender viscoelastic threads have received much attention, but remain incompletely understood. We study the instabilities in polymer solutions subject to uniaxial elongational flow. Two distinctly different instabilites are observed: beads on a string and blistering. The beads-on-a-string structure arises from a capillary instability whereas the blistering instability has a different origin: it is due to a coupling between stress and polymer concentration. By varying the temperature to change the solution properties we elucidate the interplay between flow and phase separation.
Radiation-induced instability of human genome
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryabchenko, N.N.; Demina, Eh.A.
2014-01-01
A brief review is dedicated to the phenomenon of radiation-induced genomic instability where the increased level of genomic changes in the offspring of irradiated cells is characteristic. Particular attention is paid to the problems of genomic instability induced by the low-dose radiation, role of the bystander effect in formation of radiation-induced instability, and its relationship with individual radiosensitivity. We believe that in accordance with the paradigm of modern radiobiology the increased human individual radiosensitivity can be formed due to the genome instability onset and is a significant risk factor for radiation-induced cancer
Ion-cyclotron instability in magnetic mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearlstein, L.D.
1987-01-01
This report reviews the role of ion-cyclotron frequency instability in magnetic mirrors. The modes discussed here are loss-cone or anisotropy driven. The discussion includes quasilinear theory, explosive instabilities of 3-wave interaction and non-linear Landau damping, and saturation due to non-linear orbits
Angular momentum of dwarf galaxies
Kurapati, Sushma; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Pustilnik, Simon; Kamphuis, Peter
2018-05-01
Mass and specific angular momentum are two fundamental physical parameters of galaxies. We present measurements of the baryonic mass and specific angular momentum of 11 void dwarf galaxies derived from neutral hydrogen (HI) synthesis data. Rotation curves were measured using 3D and 2D tilted ring fitting routines, and the derived curves generally overlap within the error bars, except in the central regions where, as expected, the 3D routines give steeper curves. The specific angular momentum of void dwarfs is found to be high compared to an extrapolation of the trends seen for higher mass bulge-less spirals, but comparable to that of other dwarf irregular galaxies that lie outside of voids. As such, our data show no evidence for a dependence of the specific angular momentum on the large scale environment. Combining our data with the data from the literature, we find a baryonic threshold of ˜109.1 M⊙ for this increase in specific angular momentum. Interestingly, this threshold is very similar to the mass threshold below which the galaxy discs start to become systematically thicker. This provides qualitative support to the suggestion that the thickening of the discs, as well as the increase in specific angular momentum, are both results of a common physical mechanism, such as feedback from star formation. Quantitatively, however, the amount of star formation observed in our dwarfs appears insufficient to produce the observed increase in specific angular momentum. It is hence likely that other processes, such as cold accretion of high angular momentum gas, also play a role in increasing the specific angular momentum.
Angular correlation in positron annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arponen, J.; Pajanne, E.
1978-01-01
The angular correlation of the two gamma quanta emitted when a thermalized positron annihilates with metallic conduction electrons is investigated by applying the newly developed theory of electron gas as a system of interacting collective excitations. The method leads in a natural way to the appearance of high-momentum components (i.e. pair momentum p>psub(F) in the annihilation radiation already in the case of annihilation with conduction electrons only. The amount of these components is significant approximately (10 %) in a dilute electron gas (like alkali metals), but fairly irrelevant for higher densities. The momentum-dependence of the enhancement factor for a dense system (with rsub(s) approximately equal to 2) agrees well both with the earlier theories due to Kahana and others, and also with recent accurate experimental observations. As rsub(s) increases into the alkali-metal region, the enhancement factor for p< psub(F) becomes relatively more and more constant, in contrast with the trend in the Kahana theory. In this density regime the experimental results seem to vary widely, although most of them desagree with the present prediction. We discuss the possible discrepancy and try to account for the effects of the core annihilation by a simple model. (author)
Bailey, Simon
2015-01-01
This book is intended for developers who have an understanding of the basic principles behind both AngularJS and test-driven development. You, as a developer, are interested in eliminating the fear related to either introducing tests to an existing codebase or starting out testing on a fresh AngularJS application. If you're a team leader or part of a QA team with the responsibility of ensuring full test coverage of an application, then this book is ideal for you to comprehend the full testing scope required by your developers. Whether you're new to or are well versed with AngularJS, this book
Instabilities of higher dimensional compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accetta, F.S.
1987-02-01
Various schemes for cosmological compactification of higher dimensional theories are considered. Possible instabilities which drive the ground state with static internal space to de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions are discussed. These instabilities are due to semiclassical barrier penetration and classical thermal fluctuations. For the case of the ten dimensional Chapline-Manton action, it is possible to avoid such difficulties by balancing one-loop Casimir corrections against monopole contributions from the field strength H/sub MNP/ and fermionic condensates. 10 refs
Angular momentum from tidal torques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, J.; Efstathiou, G.; Cambridge Univ., England)
1987-01-01
The origin of the angular momentum of bound objects in large N-body simulations is studied using three sets of models. One model with white-noise initial conditions is analyzed as well as two in which the initial conditions have more power on large scales, as predicted in models with cold dark matter. The growth and distribution of angular momentum in individual objects is studied and it is found that the specific angular momentum distribution of bound clumps increases in a near linear fashion with radius while the orientation of the angular momentum in the inner high-density regions is often poorly correlated with that of the outer parts. It is also found that the dimensionless spin parameter is insensitive to the initial perturbation spectrum and has a median value of about 0.05. 61 references
Lidar Orbital Angular Momentum Sensor
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recognition in recent decades that electromagnetic fields have angular momentum (AM) in the form of not only polarization (or spin AM) but also orbital (OAM) has...
Electrothermal instability growth in magnetically driven pulsed power liners
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, Kyle J.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Yu, Edmund P.; Herrmann, Mark C.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Smith, Ian C.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Nakhleh, Charles
2012-01-01
This paper explores the role of electro-thermal instabilities on the dynamics of magnetically accelerated implosion systems. Electro-thermal instabilities result from non-uniform heating due to temperature dependence in the conductivity of a material. Comparatively little is known about these types of instabilities compared to the well known Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. We present simulations that show electrothermal instabilities form immediately after the surface material of a conductor melts and can act as a significant seed to subsequent MRT instability growth. We also present the results of several experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator to investigate signatures of electrothermal instability growth on well characterized initially solid aluminum and copper rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns risetime current pulse. These experiments show excellent agreement with electrothermal instability simulations and exhibit larger instability growth than can be explained by MRT theory alone.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias
2010-01-01
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered a key process for driving efficient angular momentum transport in astrophysical disks. Understanding its nonlinear saturation constitutes a fundamental problem in modern accretion disk theory. The large dynamical range in physical conditions...
Uncertainty principle for angular position and angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Barnett, Stephen M; Yao, Eric; Leach, Jonathan; Courtial, Johannes; Padgett, Miles
2004-01-01
The uncertainty principle places fundamental limits on the accuracy with which we are able to measure the values of different physical quantities (Heisenberg 1949 The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory (New York: Dover); Robertson 1929 Phys. Rev. 34 127). This has profound effects not only on the microscopic but also on the macroscopic level of physical systems. The most familiar form of the uncertainty principle relates the uncertainties in position and linear momentum. Other manifestations include those relating uncertainty in energy to uncertainty in time duration, phase of an electromagnetic field to photon number and angular position to angular momentum (Vaccaro and Pegg 1990 J. Mod. Opt. 37 17; Barnett and Pegg 1990 Phys. Rev. A 41 3427). In this paper, we report the first observation of the last of these uncertainty relations and derive the associated states that satisfy the equality in the uncertainty relation. We confirm the form of these states by detailed measurement of the angular momentum of a light beam after passage through an appropriate angular aperture. The angular uncertainty principle applies to all physical systems and is particularly important for systems with cylindrical symmetry
Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovsky, A.B.
1983-01-01
The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)
Ji, H.; Burin, M.; Schartman, E.; Goodman, J.; Liu, W.
2006-01-01
Two plausible mechanisms have been proposed to explain rapid angular momentum transport during accretion processes in astrophysical disks: nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities and magnetorotational instability (MRI). A laboratory experiment in a short Taylor-Couette flow geometry has been constructed in Princeton to study both mechanisms, with novel features for better controls of the boundary-driven secondary flows (Ekman circulation). Initial results on hydrodynamic stability have shown negligible angular momentum transport in Keplerian-like flows with Reynolds numbers approaching one million, casting strong doubt on the viability of nonlinear hydrodynamic instability as a source for accretion disk turbulence.
Angular Position Tracking Control of a Quadcopter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. V. Glazkov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper dwells on tracking the quad-copter angular position with desired quality parameters of transient processes. The aerial vehicle is considered as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom. A full rigid body quad-copter mathematical model is considered without the assumption of smallness of the Euler angles.Among the most well known methods of non-linear stabilization are feedback linearization and backstepping. The backstepping approach allows us to have an effective solution of the stabilization problems with uncertainties available in the system. However, in synthesis of the feedback through backstepping, there is still an urgent issue: how to ensure desirable quality of transients in the closed-loop system. The paper presents a solution of this problem using as an example the tracking a given (programmed change of the angular position of a quad-copter.The control algorithms obtained in this paper are implemented using the Rolling Spider MATLAB Toolbox (ROSMAT tool package on the Parrot Rolling Spider quad-copter. A numerical simulation and experiments have shown the efficiency of obtained control laws, with the transient processes taking into account the desired quality indicators. However, the experiments showed that lack of terms in the mathematical model to describe the aerodynamic effects, resulted in the instability of the quad-copter flight near the obstacle (the effect of the reflected airflow.Further research can be aimed at solving the control problem in question using a mathematical model of the quad-copter motion that takes into account various aerodynamic effects.One of the potential application areas for the theoretical results, obtained in the paper, is to solve the problems of automatic control of unmanned aerial vehicles.
High Angular Momentum Rydberg Wave Packets
Wyker, Brendan
2011-12-01
High angular momentum Rydberg wave packets are studied. Application of carefully tailored electric fields to low angular momentum, high- n (n ˜ 300) Rydberg atoms creates coherent superpositions of Stark states with near extreme values of angular momentum, ℓ. Wave packet components orbit the parent nucleus at rates that depend on their energy, leading to periods of localization and delocalization as the components come into and go out of phase with each other. Monitoring survival probability signals in the presence of position dependent probing leads to observation of characteristic oscillations based on the composition of the wave packet. The discrete nature of electron energy levels is observed through the measurement of quantum revivals in the wave packet localization signal. Time-domain spectroscopy of these signals allows determination of both the population and phase of individual superposition components. Precise manipulation of wave packets is achieved through further application of pulsed electric fields. Decoherence effects due to background gas collisions and electrical noise are also detailed. Quantized classical trajectory Monte-Carlo simulations are introduced and agree remarkably well with experimental results.
Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation
Coles, Matt M.; Andrews, David L.
2012-06-01
This paper develops, in precise quantum electrodynamic terms, photonic attributes of the “optical chirality density,” one of several measures long known to be conserved quantities for a vacuum electromagnetic field. The analysis lends insights into some recent interpretations of chiroptical experiments, in which this measure, and an associated chirality flux, have been treated as representing physically distinctive “superchiral” phenomena. In the fully quantized formalism the chirality density is promoted to operator status, whose exploration with reference to an arbitrary polarization basis reveals relationships to optical angular momentum and helicity operators. Analyzing multimode beams with complex wave-front structures, notably Laguerre-Gaussian modes, affords a deeper understanding of the interplay between optical chirality and optical angular momentum. By developing theory with due cognizance of the photonic character of light, it emerges that only the spin-angular momentum of light is engaged in such observations. Furthermore, it is shown that these prominent measures of the helicity of chiral electromagnetic radiation have a common basis in differences between the populations of optical modes associated with angular momenta of opposite sign. Using a calculation of the rate of circular dichroism as an example, with coherent states to model the electromagnetic field, it is discovered that two terms contribute to the differential effect. The primary contribution relates to the difference in left- and right-handed photon populations; the only other contribution, which displays a sinusoidal distance dependence corresponding to the claim of nodal enhancements, is connected with the quantum photon number-phase uncertainty relation. From the full analysis, it appears that the term “superchiral” can be considered redundant.
Investigation of angular and axial smoothing of PET data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Carson, R.E.
1996-01-01
Radial filtering of emission and transmission data is routinely performed in PET during reconstruction in order to reduce image noise. Angular smoothing is not typically done, due to the introduction of a non-uniform resolution loss; axial filtering is also not usually performed on data acquired in 2D mode. The goal of this paper was to assess the effects of angular and axial smoothing on noise and resolution. Angular and axial smoothing was incorporated into the reconstruction process on the Scanditronix PC2048-15B brain PET scanner. In-plane spatial resolution and noise reduction were measured for different amounts of radial and angular smoothing. For radial positions away from the center of the scanner, noise reduction and degraded tangential resolution with no loss of radial resolution were seen. Near the center, no resolution loss was observed, but there was also no reduction in noise for angular filters up to a 7 degrees FWHM. These results can be understood by considering the combined effects of smoothing projections across rows (angles) and then summing (backprojecting). Thus, angular smoothing is not optimal due to its anisotropic noise reduction and resolution degradation properties. However, uniform noise reduction comparable to that seen with radial filtering can be achieved with axial smoothing of transmission data. The axial results suggest that combined radial and axial transmission smoothing could lead to improved noise characteristics with more isotropic resolution degradation
The INCAS Project: An Innovative Contact-Less Angular Sensor
Ghislanzoni, L.; Di Cintio, A.; Solimando, M.; Parzianello, G.
2013-09-01
Angular Positions sensors are widely used in all spacecrafts, including re-entry vehicles and launchers, where mechanisms and pointing-scanning devices are required. The main applications are on mechanisms for TeleMeasure (TM) related to the release and deployment of devices, or on rotary mechanisms such as Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) and Antenna Pointing Mechanism (APM). Longer lifetime (up to 7- 10 years) is becoming a new driver for the coming missions and contact technology sensors often incur in limitations due to the wear of the contacting parts [1].A Self-Compensating Absolute Angular Encoder was developed and tested in the frame of an ESA's ARTES 5.2 project, named INCAS (INnovative Contact-less Angular Sensor). More in particular, the INCAS sensor addresses a market need for contactless angular sensors aimed at replacing the more conventional rotary potentiometers, while featuring the same level of accuracy performances and extending the expected lifetime.
Efficient evaluation of angular power spectra and bispectra
Assassi, Valentin; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2017-11-01
Angular statistics of cosmological observables are hard to compute. The main difficulty is due to the presence of highly-oscillatory Bessel functions which need to be integrated over. In this paper, we provide a simple and fast method to compute the angular power spectrum and bispectrum of any observable. The method is based on using an FFTlog algorithm to decompose the momentum-space statistics onto a basis of power-law functions. For each power law, the integrals over Bessel functions have a simple analytical solution. This allows us to efficiently evaluate these integrals, independently of the value of the multipole l. In particular, this method significantly speeds up the evaluation of the angular bispectrum compared to existing methods. To illustrate our algorithm, we compute the galaxy, lensing and CMB temperature angular power spectrum and bispectrum.
Menard, Dan
2013-01-01
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in an easytoread style, with a strong emphasis on realworld, practical examples. Stepbystep explanations are provided for performing important tasks.This book is for web developers familiar with JavascriptIt doesn't cover the history of AngularJS, and it's not a pitch to convince you that AngularJS is the best framework on the entire web. It's a guide to help you learn everything you need to know about AngularJS in as few pa
Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)
2012-02-01
The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is
A statistical model for instable thermodynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommer, Jens-Uwe
2003-01-01
A generic model is presented for statistical systems which display thermodynamic features in contrast to our everyday experience, such as infinite and negative heat capacities. Such system are instable in terms of classical equilibrium thermodynamics. Using our statistical model, we are able to investigate states of instable systems which are undefined in the framework of equilibrium thermodynamics. We show that a region of negative heat capacity in the adiabatic environment, leads to a first order like phase transition when the system is coupled to a heat reservoir. This phase transition takes place without a phase coexistence. Nevertheless, all intermediate states are stable due to fluctuations. When two instable system are brought in thermal contact, the temperature of the composed system is lower than the minimum temperature of the individual systems. Generally, the equilibrium states of instable system cannot be simply decomposed into equilibrium states of the individual systems. The properties of instable system depend on the environment, ensemble equivalence is broken
Automated Angular Momentum Recoupling Algebra
Williams, H. T.; Silbar, Richard R.
1992-04-01
We present a set of heuristic rules for algebraic solution of angular momentum recoupling problems. The general problem reduces to that of finding an optimal path from one binary tree (representing the angular momentum coupling scheme for the reduced matrix element) to another (representing the sub-integrals and spin sums to be done). The method lends itself to implementation on a microcomputer, and we have developed such an implementation using a dialect of LISP. We describe both how our code, called RACAH, works and how it appears to the user. We illustrate the use of RACAH for several transition and scattering amplitude matrix elements occurring in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics.
Niggemann, Pascal; Kuchta, Johannes; Beyer, Hans-Konrad; Grosskurth, D; Schulze, Thorsten; Delank, Karl-Stefan
2011-10-15
Imaging study with an evaluation of incidences and clinical correlation. To evaluate the incidence of 3 different types of instabilities in patients with spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis. Clinical findings are correlated with imaging findings, and the imaging findings are analyzed with regard to their clinical implications. Spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis are common disorders. An unstable slip is the most well-known form of instability, but other forms also exist. However, the incidence of these instabilities and their clinical implications are yet unclear. A total of 140 patients with 141 levels of spondylolysis identified by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were included in this study. Using positional MRI, the instability of the slip, an increased angular movement, and movement in the spondylolytic cleft were assessed. On the basis of clinical findings, the patients were classified as presenting with either radicular or nonradicular symptoms. The incidence of the instabilities was recorded and correlated with the incidence of radicular symptoms. Fifteen patients had an unstable slip (anterior instability); 35, an increased angular movement (angular instability); and 34 patients, a movement in the spondylolytic cleft (posterior instability). All forms of instability could be found together. No instability at all was found in 76 patients. Radicular symptoms were found significantly more often in patients with one or more of the described instabilities compared with patients without instability. All 3 described forms of instability are common in spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis and associated with radicular pain. This finding stresses the value of positional MRI in the evaluation of patients with spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis, especially if radicular symptoms are present.
Prevalence of knee instability in relation to sports activity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten Ingemann
2001-01-01
to be positively associated with female gender and different features of occupational work. In conclusion, knee instability is a commonly reported phenomenon among active athletes. It was found to be independent of the type and the amount of sports activity but highly dependent on female gender, type and amount......The objective was to estimate the prevalence of knee instability among active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. Based on a questionnaire, 339 athletes provided information about different features of occupation, sports activity...... and knee instability. The 12-month period prevalence of knee instability and constant or recurrent knee instability, and absence from sport and absence from work due to knee instability, was 22%, 14%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Knee instability as such, and constant or recurrent knee instability were found...
High angular resolution at LBT
Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.
2015-12-01
High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.
Angular momentum projection with Pfaffian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oi, M.
2011-01-01
Recent developments to rewrite the Onishi formula for an evaluation of the so-called norm overlap kernel necessary in angular momentum projection are to be discussed. The essential ingredients in the development, that is, the Fermion coherent states, the Grassmann numbers, and the Pfaffian, are explained. (author)
Angular overlap model in actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gajek, Z.; Mulak, J.
1991-01-01
Quantitative foundations of the Angular Overlap Model in actinides based on ab initio calculations of the crystal field effect in the uranium (III) (IV) and (V) ions in various crystals are presented. The calculations justify some common simplifications of the model and fix up the relations between the AOM parameters. Traps and limitations of the AOM phenomenology are discussed
Angular overlap model in actinides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gajek, Z.; Mulak, J. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw (PL). Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych)
1991-01-01
Quantitative foundations of the Angular Overlap Model in actinides based on ab initio calculations of the crystal field effect in the uranium (III) (IV) and (V) ions in various crystals are presented. The calculations justify some common simplifications of the model and fix up the relations between the AOM parameters. Traps and limitations of the AOM phenomenology are discussed.
On the instability regime of the rotating Kerr spacetime to massive scalar perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hod, Shahar
2012-01-01
The instability of rotating Kerr black holes due to massive scalar perturbations is investigated. It is well known that a bosonic field impinging on a Kerr black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole. This superradiant scattering occurs for frequencies in the range ω< mΩ, where Ω is the angular frequency of the black hole and m is the azimuthal harmonic index of the mode. If the incident field has a non-zero rest mass, μ, then the mass term effectively works as a mirror, reflecting the scattered wave back towards the black hole. The wave may bounce back and forth between the black hole and some turning point amplifying itself each time. This may lead to a dynamical instability of the system, a phenomena known as a “black-hole bomb”. In this work we provide a bound on the instability regime of rotating Kerr spacetimes. In particular, we show that Kerr black holes are stable to massive perturbations in the regime μ⩾√(2)mΩ.
Finite temperature instability for compactification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accetta, F.S.; Kolb, E.W.
1986-03-01
We consider finite temperature effects upon theories with extra dimensions compactified via vacuum stress energy (Casimir) effects. For sufficiently high temperature, a static configuration for the internal space is impossible. At somewhat lower temperatures, there is an instability due to thermal fluctuations of radius of the compact dimensions. For both cases, the Universe can evolve to a de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions. Stability to late times constrains the initial entropy of the universe. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
Faraday instability in deformable domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pucci, G.
2013-01-01
Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.
Angular momentum in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prior, C.R.
1977-01-01
The definition of angular momentum proposed in part I of this series (Prior. Proc. R. Soc. Lond.; A354:379 (1977)) is investigated when applied to rotating black holes. It is shown how to use the formula to evaluate the angular momentum of a stationary black hole. This acts as a description of a background space on which the effect of first matter and then gravitational perturbations is considered. The latter are of most interest and the rate of change of angular momentum, dJ/dt, is found as an expression in the shear induced in the event horizon by the perturbation and in its time integral. Teukolsky's solutions (Astrophys. J.; 185:635 (1973)) for the perturbed component of the Weyl tensor are then used to find this shear and hence to give an exact answer for dJ/dt. One of the implications of the result is a direct verification of Bekenstein's formula (Phys. Rev.; 7D:949 (1973)) relating in a simple way the rate of change of angular momentum to the rate of change of mass caused by a plane wave. A more general expression is also given for dM/dt. Considering only stationary perturbations, it is shown how to generalize the definition of angular momentum so as to include information about its direction as well. Three problems are particularly discussed - a single moon, two or more moons and a ring of matter causing the perturbation - since they provide illustrations of all the main features of the black hole's behaviour. In every case it is found that the black hole realigns its axis of rotation so that the final configuration is axisymmetric if possible; otherwise is slows down completely to reach a static state. (author)
Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darryl Blalock
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.
Joint instability and osteoarthritis.
Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi
2015-01-01
Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.
Ultraspinning instability of rotating black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Oscar J. C.; Figueras, Pau; Monteiro, Ricardo; Santos, Jorge E.
2010-01-01
Rapidly rotating Myers-Perry black holes in d≥6 dimensions were conjectured to be unstable by Emparan and Myers. In a previous publication, we found numerically the onset of the axisymmetric ultraspinning instability in the singly spinning Myers-Perry black hole in d=7, 8, 9. This threshold also signals a bifurcation to new branches of axisymmetric solutions with pinched horizons that are conjectured to connect to the black ring, black Saturn and other families in the phase diagram of stationary solutions. We firmly establish that this instability is also present in d=6 and in d=10, 11. The boundary conditions of the perturbations are discussed in detail for the first time, and we prove that they preserve the angular velocity and temperature of the original Myers-Perry black hole. This property is fundamental to establishing a thermodynamic necessary condition for the existence of this instability in general rotating backgrounds. We also prove a previous claim that the ultraspinning modes cannot be pure gauge modes. Finally we find new ultraspinning Gregory-Laflamme instabilities of rotating black strings and branes that appear exactly at the critical rotation predicted by the aforementioned thermodynamic criterium. The latter is a refinement of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture.
Generalized laser filamentation instability coupled to cooling instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, E.P.; Wong, J.; Garrison, J.
1984-01-01
We consider the propagation of laser light in an initially slightly nonuniform plasma. The classical dispersion relation for the laser filamentation growth rate (see e.g., B. Langdon, in the 1980 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laser Program Annual Report, pp. 3-56, UCRL-50021-80, 1981) can be generalized to include other acoustical effects. For example, we find that the inclusion of potential imbalances in the heating and cooling rates of the ambient medium due to density and temperature perturbations can cause the laser filamentation mode to bifurcate into a cooling instability mode at long acoustic wavelengths. We also attempt to study semi-analytically the nonlinear evolution of this and related instabilities. These results have wide applications to a variety of chemical gas lasers and phenomena related to laser-target interactions (e.g., jet-like behavior)
Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, N.M.
1994-01-01
This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability
On Dunkl angular momenta algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feigin, Misha [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Glasgow,15 University Gardens, Glasgow G12 8QW (United Kingdom); Hakobyan, Tigran [Yerevan State University,1 Alex Manoogian, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2015-11-17
We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl(N) version of the subalgebra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.
Angular momentum in QGP holography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett McInnes
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The quark chemical potential is one of the fundamental parameters describing the quark–gluon plasma produced by sufficiently energetic heavy-ion collisions. It is not large at the extremely high temperatures probed by the LHC, but it plays a key role in discussions of the beam energy scan programmes at the RHIC and other facilities. On the other hand, collisions at such energies typically (that is, in peripheral collisions give rise to very high values of the angular momentum density. Here we explain that holographic estimates of the quark chemical potential of a rotating sample of plasma can be very considerably improved by taking the angular momentum into account.
Angular dependence of shallow dose
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, J.L.
1986-01-01
The theoretical response of a detector is discussed and compared to measurements of shallow dose with tissue and phantom response detectors. A definite energy dependent angular response of dose and measurement was observed which could not be explained by simple trigonometric arguments. The response is back scatter dependent and must be considered in detector design and dose measurements. It is not possible for standard detectors to follow this response
AngularJS test-driven development
Chaplin, Tim
2015-01-01
This book is for developers who want to learn about AngularJS development by applying testing techniques. You are assumed to have a basic knowledge and understanding of HTML, JavaScript, and AngularJS.
Genomic instability following irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacker-Klom, U.B.; Goehde, W.
2001-01-01
Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)
Bugli, M.; Guilet, J.; Müller, E.; Del Zanna, L.; Bucciantini, N.; Montero, P. J.
2018-03-01
Geometrically thick tori with constant specific angular momentum have been widely used in the last decades to construct numerical models of accretion flows on to black holes. Such discs are prone to a global non-axisymmetric hydrodynamic instability, known as Papaloizou-Pringle instability (PPI), which can redistribute angular momentum and also lead to an emission of gravitational waves. It is, however, not clear yet how the development of the PPI is affected by the presence of a magnetic field and by the concurrent development of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). We present a numerical analysis using three-dimensional GRMHD simulations of the interplay between the PPI and the MRI considering, for the first time, an analytical magnetized equilibrium solution as initial condition. In the purely hydrodynamic case, the PPI selects as expected the large-scale m = 1 azimuthal mode as the fastest growing and non-linearly dominant mode. However, when the torus is threaded by a weak toroidal magnetic field, the development of the MRI leads to the suppression of large-scale modes and redistributes power across smaller scales. If the system starts with a significantly excited m = 1 mode, the PPI can be dominant in a transient phase, before being ultimately quenched by the MRI. Such dynamics may well be important in compact star mergers and tidal disruption events.
Experimental study on low pressure flow instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Wu Shaorong; Bo Jinhai; Zhang Youjie
1997-05-01
The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The flow behavior for a wide range of inlet subcooling, in which the flow undergoes from single phase to two phase, is described in a natural circulation system at low pressure (p = 0.1, 0.24 MPa). Several kinds of flow instability, e.g. subcooled boiling instability, subcooled boiling induced flashing instability, pure flashing instability as well as flashing coupled density wave instability and high frequency flow oscillation, are investigated. The mechanism of flashing and flashing concerned flow instability, which has never been studied well in this field, is especially interpreted. The experimental results show that, firstly, for a low pressure natural circulation system the two phase flow is unstable in most of inlet subcooling conditions, the two phase stable flow can only be reached at very low inlet subcooling; secondly, at high inlet subcooling the flow instability is dominated by subcooled boiling in the heated section, and at middle inlet subcooling is dominated by void flashing in the adiabatic long riser; thirdly, in two phase stable flow region the condition for boiling out of the core, namely, single phase flow in the heated section, two phase flow in the riser due to vapor flashing, can be realized. The experimental results are very important for the design and accident analysis of the vessel and swimming pool type natural circulation nuclear heating reactor. (7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.)
Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation
Guazzelli, Élisabeth
2011-01-21
This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Angular-momentum transport in nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolschin, G.; Ayik, S.; Noerenberg, W.
1978-01-01
Among the various relaxation processes that can be observed in heavy-ion collisions, the dissipation of relative angular momentum into intrinsic angular momentum of the fragments attracts increasing attention. Here we present a transport theoretical description of angular-momentum and mass transport that allows for a transparent interpretation of the data. (orig.) [de
AngularJS web application development
Darwin, Peter Bacon
2013-01-01
The book will be a step-by-step guide showing the readers how to build a complete web app with AngularJSJavaScript developers who want to learn AngularJS for developing web apps. Knowledge of JavaScript and HTML is expected. No knowledge of AngularJS is required.
Orbital angular momentum of general astigmatic modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, Jorrit; Nienhuis, Gerard
2004-01-01
We present an operator method to obtain complete sets of astigmatic Gaussian solutions of the paraxial wave equation. In case of general astigmatism, the astigmatic intensity and phase distribution of the fundamental mode differ in orientation. As a consequence, the fundamental mode has a nonzero orbital angular momentum, which is not due to phase singularities. Analogous to the operator method for the quantum harmonic oscillator, the corresponding astigmatic higher-order modes are obtained by repeated application of raising operators on the fundamental mode. The nature of the higher-order modes is characterized by a point on a sphere, in analogy with the representation of polarization on the Poincare sphere. The north and south poles represent astigmatic Laguerre-Gaussian modes, similar to circular polarization on the Poincare sphere, while astigmatic Hermite-Gaussian modes are associated with points on the equator, analogous to linear polarization. We discuss the propagation properties of the modes and their orbital angular momentum, which depends on the degree of astigmatism and on the location of the point on the sphere
Acoustic Virtual Vortices with Tunable Orbital Angular Momentum for Trapping of Mie Particles
Marzo, Asier; Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W.
2018-01-01
Acoustic vortices can transfer angular momentum and trap particles. Here, we show that particles trapped in airborne acoustic vortices orbit at high speeds, leading to dynamic instability and ejection. We demonstrate stable trapping inside acoustic vortices by generating sequences of short-pulsed vortices of equal helicity but opposite chirality. This produces a "virtual vortex" with an orbital angular momentum that can be tuned independently of the trapping force. We use this method to adjust the rotational speed of particles inside a vortex beam and, for the first time, create three-dimensional acoustics traps for particles of wavelength order (i.e., Mie particles).
Sheared Electroconvective Instability
Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon
2012-11-01
Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Müller, Kathrin, E-mail: k.mueller@fz-juelich.de; Fedosov, Dmitry A., E-mail: d.fedosov@fz-juelich.de; Gompper, Gerhard, E-mail: g.gompper@fz-juelich.de
2015-01-15
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier–Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor–Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.
On the complex angular momentum theory of scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thylwe, K.-E.
1983-01-01
A contribution to the theory of complex angular momentum techniques in the field of atomic and molecular collisions is given. A new, flexible representation of the scattering amplitude on the basis of realistic assumptions for the behaviour of the S matrix in the complex angular momentum plane is derived. The representation has the form of a sum of steepest-descent integrals, S-matrix residue terms and a symmetry-type background integral. The flexibility is due to the presence of two integer parameters which may be chosen conveniently so as to make the residue sums sufficiently convergent and to minimise the total number of important terms. (author)
On the Angular Momentum Loss of Tropical Cyclones: An f-Plane Approximation
Kang, Hyun-Gyu; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin; Kim, Won-Ho
2018-02-01
The angular momentum for ideal axisymmetric tropical cyclones on the f-plane is investigated with a focus on the total-volume integrated quantity. Budget analysis of the momentum equation at cylindrical coordinates shows that a tropical cyclone loses angular momentum during its development and mature stages due to the dynamical difference between the viscous inward-flow near the surface and the angular momentum conserving outward-flow aloft. The total relative angular momentum of a tropical cyclone, as a result, can be negative (i.e., implying anticyclonic rotation as a whole) despite intense cyclonic wind in the tropospheric layers. This anticyclonic rotation was measured in terms of the super-rotation ratio, the ratio of total relative angular momentum to the planetary angular momentum. Simulations with the numerical model of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) version 3.4.1 was found to be in favor of the theoretical angular-momentum budget analysis. It was revealed in the numerical simulations that the super-rotation ratio was negative, indicating a sub-rotation, as was predicted by analysis. The sub-rotation ratio was found to be less than one percent for typical tropical cyclones. To show the angular momentum decrease even in the decaying stage, numerical simulations where the thermal forcing by sea surface temperature switched off in the mature stage were carried out. In support of the angular momentum budget analysis, the results indicated that the angular momentum also decreases for a while soon after the forcing was eliminated.
Instability Versus Equilibrium Propagation of Laser Beam in Plasma
Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.
2003-01-01
We obtain, for the first time, an analytic theory of the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering instability of a spatially and temporally incoherent laser beam, that controls the transition between statistical equilibrium and non-equilibrium (unstable) self-focusing regimes of beam propagation. The stability boundary may be used as a comprehensive guide for inertial confinement fusion designs. Well into the stable regime, an analytic expression for the angular diffusion coefficient is obtain...
Character of decay instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polovin, R.V.; Demutskii, V.P.
1981-01-01
If the initial wave is unstable in the upper half plane Im ω>0 and there are no branch points of the quasiwave number, or if waves traveling in the same direction coalesce at a branch point, the instability is convective. On the other hand, if a branch point k(ω) does exist in the upper half-plane Im ω>0, and not all the waves that merge at this point travel in the same direction, the instability is absolute. A Green's function that describes the evolution of the perturbations of the initial wave in space and in time is constructed. The growth rates of the decay instability of the harmonics are determined. The produced waves are richer in harmonics than the initial waves. It is shown that the decay instability of an Alfven wave is absolute
Buneman instability in hot electron plasma (Te>>Ti)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, S.M.; Sayed, Y.A.; Sayed, R.A.
1986-07-01
We shall investigate the linear excitation of electrostatic current Buneman instability in both unmagnetized and magnetized homogeneous plasma. The frequency, growth rate and conditions of excitation of such instability are obtained analytically. We consider that the current velocity u (due to relative streaming of ions and electrons) slightly exceeds the instability threshold velocity u cr and that the electron temperature is much higher than the ion temperature (T e >>T i ). (author)
Sociopolitical Instability and Economic Growth Empirical Evidence from Sri Lanka
Changsheng Xu; Santhirasegaram Selvarathinam; Wen X. Li
2007-01-01
Sociopolitical instability severely affects economic growth in short and long run. This study analyzes that sociopolitical instability measured by proxy measure; annual growth rate of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka during 1960-2005 adversely affects economic growth. Our empirical findings based on ordinary lease square econometric estimation, show that sociopolitical instability negatively and significantly affect economic growth. Reduction of economic growth rate (-0.032) due to the sociopoli...
Streaming gravity mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shui.
1989-05-01
In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs
Genomic instability and radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Little, John B [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)
2003-06-01
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)
Genomic instability and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Little, John B
2003-01-01
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)
Centrifugally Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Scase, Matthew; Hill, Richard
2017-11-01
The instability that develops at the interface between two fluids of differing density due to the rapid rotation of the system may be considered as a limit of high-rotation rate Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Previously the authors have considered the effect of rotation on a gravitationally dominated Rayleigh-Taylor instability and have shown that some growth modes of instability may be suppressed completely by the stabilizing effect of rotation (Phys. Rev. Fluids 2:024801, Sci. Rep. 5:11706). Here we consider the case of very high rotation rates and a negligible gravitational field. The initial condition is of a dense inner cylinder of fluid surrounded by a lighter layer of fluid. As the system is rotated about the generating axis of the cylinder, the dense inner fluid moves away from the axis and the familiar bubbles and spikes of Rayleigh-Taylor instability develop at the interface. The system may be thought of as a ``fluid-fluid centrifuge''. By developing a model based on an Orr-Sommerfeld equation, we consider the effects of viscosity, surface tension and interface diffusion on the growth rate and modes of instability. We show that under particular circumstances some modes may be stabilized. School of Mathematical Sciences.
Parametric instabilities in advanced gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gras, S; Zhao, C; Blair, D G; Ju, L
2010-01-01
As the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors have finished gathering a large observational data set, an intense effort is underway to upgrade these observatories to improve their sensitivity by a factor of ∼10. High circulating power in the arm cavities is required, which leads to the possibility of parametric instability due to three-mode opto-acoustic resonant interactions between the carrier, transverse optical modes and acoustic modes. Here, we present detailed numerical analysis of parametric instability in a configuration that is similar to Advanced LIGO. After examining parametric instability for a single three-mode interaction in detail, we examine instability for the best and worst cases, as determined by the resonance condition of transverse modes in the power and signal recycling cavities. We find that, in the best case, the dual recycling detector is substantially less susceptible to instability than a single cavity, but its susceptibility is dependent on the signal recycling cavity design, and on tuning for narrow band operation. In all cases considered, the interferometer will experience parametric instability at full power operation, but the gain varies from 3 to 1000, and the number of unstable modes varies between 7 and 30 per test mass. The analysis focuses on understanding the detector complexity in relation to opto-acoustic interactions, on providing insights that can enable predictions of the detector response to transient disturbances, and of variations in thermal compensation conditions.
Topographic-driven instabilities in terrestrial bodies
Vantieghem, S.; Cebron, D.; Herreman, W.; Lacaze, L.
2013-12-01
Models of internal planetary fluid layers (core flows, subsurface oceans) commonly assume that these fluid envelopes have a spherical shape. This approximation however entails a serious restriction from the fluid dynamics point of view. Indeed, in the presence of mechanical forcings (precession, libration, nutation or tides) due to gravitational interaction with orbiting partners, boundary topography (e.g. of the core-mantle boundary) may excite flow instabilities and space-filling turbulence. These phenomena may affect heat transport and dissipation at the main order. Here, we focus on instabilities driven by longitudinal libration. Using a suite of theoretical tools and numerical simulations, we are able to discern a parameter range for which instability may be excited. We thereby consider deformations of different azimuthal order. This study gives the first numerical evidence of the tripolar instability. Furthermore, we explore the non-linear regime and investigate the amplitude as well as the dissipation of the saturated instability. Indeed, these two quantities control the torques on the solid layers and the thermal transport. Furthermore, based on this results, we address the issue of magnetic field generation associated with these flows (by induction or by dynamo process). This instability mechanism applies to both synchronized as non-synchronized bodies. As such, our results show that a tripolar instability might be present in various terrestrial bodies (Early Moon, Gallilean moons, asteroids, etc.), where it could participate in dynamo action. Simulation of a libration-driven tripolar instability in a deformed spherical fluid layer: snapshot of the velocity magnitude, where a complex 3D flow pattern is established.
Systematics of shoulder instability; Systematik der Schulterinstabilitaet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreitner, K.F.; Maehringer-Kunz, A. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Mainz (Germany)
2015-03-01
Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to the causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options. Instabilities are classified into traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome and into microtraumatic instabilities. For diagnostics plain radiographs (''trauma series'') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful repositioning. Direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation of the different injury patterns of the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast computed tomography (CT) arthrography with the use of multidetector CT scanners represents an alternative imaging modality; however, MR imaging should be preferred in the work-up of shoulder instabilities due to the mostly younger age of patients. (orig.) [German] Unter einer Schulterinstabilitaet versteht man jede zu Beschwerden fuehrende Translation des Humeruskopfs in Relation zur Gelenkpfanne waehrend einer aktiven Bewegung der Schulter. Glenohumerale Instabilitaeten werden heute nach ihrer Aetiologie eingeteilt, da bei der Wahl der Therapie der Entstehungsmechanismus der Instabilitaet eine wichtige Rolle spielt. Danach unterscheidet man primaer traumatisch von atraumatisch entstandenen Instabilitaeten sowie Mikroinstabilitaeten. Bei der Diagnostik dienen konventionelle Roentgenuebersichtsaufnahmen nur noch zur Dokumentation einer Luxation und zur Beurteilung der Reposition. Die durch eine Instabilitaet hervorgerufenen Verletzungsfolgen am labroligamentaeren Komplex und den knoechernen Strukturen werden heute bevorzugt mit der direkten MR-Arthrographie dargestellt. Hierbei koennen unterschiedliche Verletzungsmuster dargestellt werden. Nach
Instability of enclosed horizons
Kay, Bernard S.
2015-03-01
We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.
Angular Positioning Sensor for Space Mechanisms
Steiner, Nicolas; Chapuis, Dominique
2013-09-01
Angular position sensors are used on various rotating mechanisms such as solar array drive mechanisms, antenna pointing mechanisms, scientific instruments, motors or actuators.Now a days, potentiometers and encoders are mainly used for angular measurement purposes. Both of them have their own pros and cons.As alternative, Ruag Space Switzerland Nyon (RSSN) is developing and qualifying two innovative technologies of angular position sensors which offer easy implementation, medium to very high lifetime and high flexibility with regards to the output signal shape/type.The Brushed angular position sensor uses space qualified processes which are already flying on RSSN's sliprings for many years. A large variety of output signal shape can be implemented to fulfill customer requirements (digital, analog, customized, etc.).The contactless angular position sensor consists in a new radiation hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) based on the Hall effect and providing the angular position without complex processing algorithm.
Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.
Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim
2010-01-01
Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.
Angular distributions as lifetime probes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dror, Jeff Asaf; Grossman, Yuval [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
2014-06-27
If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. The amount of depolarization can be used to probe the lifetime in the problematic region. In this paper we apply this method to a realistic scenario of a top-like particle that can be produced at the LHC. We study how depolarization affects the angular distributions of the decay products and derive an equation for the distributions that is sensitive to the lifetime.
Orbital angular momentum in phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L.L.; Klimov, A.B.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We propose a comprehensive Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum. → We present a simple and useful toolkit for the practitioner. → We derive simple evolution equations in terms of a star product in the semiclassical limit. - Abstract: A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.
Management of Angular Cheilitis in children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fajriani Fajriani
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Objective : Angular cheilitis is a type of oral soft tissue disease that can occur in children and adults, the condition is characterized by cracks and inflammation on both corners of the mouth. Although this disease can not cause severe disorder, it quite disturbs one's activity and physical appearance. Mild Angular cheilitis will recover itself over times. However severe conditions can cause pain and bleeding. This paper aims to inform colleagues about management of angular cheilitis in children.
Management of angular cheilitis for children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fajriani Fajriani
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Angular cheilitis is one type of oral soft tissue disease that can occur in both children and adults, the condition is characterized by cracks and inflammation in both corners of the mouth. Although this disease does not cause severe disruption but quite disturbing activity and also one's physical appearance. Angular cheilitis light will disappear on their own over time.Severe conditions that can cause pain and bleading. aims to give feedback on peers about managment angular cheilitis in children.
THE EFFECTS OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM ON HALO PROFILES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lentz, Erik W; Rosenberg, Leslie J [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Quinn, Thomas R, E-mail: lentze@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: ljrosenberg@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: trq@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)
2016-05-10
The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N -body simulations proved to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. Here we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean ( λ ≲ 0.20) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large ( λ ≳ 0.20) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to λ ≲ 0.20. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.
AngularJS Performance: A Survey Study
Ramos, Miguel; Valente, Marco Tulio; Terra, Ricardo
2017-01-01
AngularJS is a popular JavaScript MVC-based framework to construct single-page web applications. In this paper, we report the results of a survey with 95 professional developers about performance issues of AngularJS applications. We report common practices followed by developers to avoid performance problems (e.g., use of third-party or custom components), the general causes of performance problems in AngularJS applications (e.g., inadequate architecture decisions taken by AngularJS users), a...
Instability of flat space at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.; Perry, M.J.; Yaffe, L.G.
1982-01-01
The instabilities of quantum gravity are investigated using the path-integral formulation of Einstein's theory. A brief review is given of the classical gravitational instabilities, as well as the stability of flat space. The Euclidean path-integral representation of the partition function is employed to discuss the instability of flat space at finite temperature. Semiclassical, or saddle-point, approximations are utilized. We show how the Jeans instability arises as a tachyon in the graviton propagator when small perturbations about hot flat space are considered. The effect due to the Schwarzschild instanton is studied. The small fluctuations about this instanton are analyzed and a negative mode is discovered. This produces, in the semiclassical approximation, an imaginary part of the free energy. This is interpreted as being due to the metastability of hot flat space to nucleate black holes. These then evolve by evaporation or by accretion of thermal gravitons, leading to the instability of hot flat space. The nucleation rate of black holes is calculated as a function of temperature
Radiation loss driven instabilities in laser heated plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, R.G.
1985-01-01
Any plasma in which a significant part of the power balance is due to optically thin radiative losses may be subject to a radiation cooling instability. A simple analytical model gives the dispersion relation for the instability and inclusion of a realistic radiation loss term in a two dimensional hydrodynamic simulation shows that ''jet'' like features form in moderate to high Z plasmas
Plasma physics and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashmore-Davies, C.N.
1981-01-01
These lectures procide an introduction to the theory of plasmas and their instabilities. Starting from the Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, and Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of kinetic equations, the additional concept of self-consistent fields leads to the fundamental Vlasov equation and hence to the warm two-fluid model and the one-fluid MHD, or cold, model. The properties of small-amplitude waves in magnetized (and unmagnetized) plasmas, and the instabilities to which they give rise, are described in some detail, and a complete chapter is devoted to Landau damping. The linear theory of plasma instabilities is illustrated by the current-driven electrostatic kind, with descriptions of the Penrose criterion and the energy principle of ideal MHD. There is a brief account of the application of feedback control. The non-linear theory is represented by three examples: quasi-linear velocity-space instabilities, three-wave instabilities, and the stability of an arbitrarily largeamplitude wave in a plasma. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pogorelov, N. V.; Heerikhuisen, J. [Department of Space Science, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Roytershteyn, V. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Burlaga, L. F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S., E-mail: nikolai.pogorelov@uah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)
2017-08-10
The heliosphere is formed due to interaction between the solar wind (SW) and local interstellar medium (LISM). The shape and position of the heliospheric boundary, the heliopause, in space depend on the parameters of interacting plasma flows. The interplay between the asymmetrizing effect of the interstellar magnetic field and charge exchange between ions and neutral atoms plays an important role in the SW–LISM interaction. By performing three-dimensional, MHD plasma/kinetic neutral atom simulations, we determine the width of the outer heliosheath—the LISM plasma region affected by the presence of the heliosphere—and analyze quantitatively the distributions in front of the heliopause. It is shown that charge exchange modifies the LISM plasma to such extent that the contribution of a shock transition to the total variation of plasma parameters becomes small even if the LISM velocity exceeds the fast magnetosonic speed in the unperturbed medium. By performing adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we show that a distinct boundary layer of decreased plasma density and enhanced magnetic field should be observed on the interstellar side of the heliopause. We show that this behavior is in agreement with the plasma oscillations of increasing frequency observed by the plasma wave instrument onboard Voyager 1. We also demonstrate that Voyager observations in the inner heliosheath between the heliospheric termination shock and the heliopause are consistent with dissipation of the heliospheric magnetic field. The choice of LISM parameters in this analysis is based on the simulations that fit observations of energetic neutral atoms performed by Interstellar Boundary Explorer .
Fingerprints of dynamical instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.
1993-01-01
It is explained why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. It is shown that the introduction of this stochastic dynamics leads to a predictive theory in a statistical sens whatever the individual trajectories are characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations, instabilities or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, the spinodal instability is discussed. In such a critical situation, the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment is studied. It is shown that the fingerprints of these instabilities are kept during the evolution because of the relatively long recombination time compared with the typical time scales imposed by the Coulomb repulsion and the possible collective expansion. (author) 5 refs., 12 figs
Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bliokh, Konstantin Y., E-mail: k.bliokh@gmail.com [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nonlinear Physics Centre, RSPhysE, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nori, Franco [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)
2015-08-26
We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel
2015-01-01
function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make......Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus...
Instabilities and nonequilibrium structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tirapegui, E.; Villarroel, D.
1987-01-01
Physical systems can be studied both near to and far from equilibrium where instabilities appear. The behaviour in these two regions is reviewed in this book, from both the theoretical and application points of view. The influence of noise in these situations is an essential feature which cannot be ignored. It is therefore discussed using phenomenological and theoretical approaches for the numerous problems which still remain in the field. This volume should appeal to mathematicians and physicists interested in the areas of instability, bifurcation theory, dynamical systems, pattern formation, nonequilibrium structures and statistical mechanics. (Auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stupakov, G V [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
1996-08-01
The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)
Experimental determination of high angular momentum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barreto, J.L.V.
1985-01-01
The current knowledge of the atomic nucleus structure is summarized. A short abstract of the nuclear properties at high angular momentum and a more detailed description of the experimental methods used in the study of high angular momenta is made. (L.C.) [pt
Exposing Library Services with AngularJS
Jakob Voß; Moritz Horn
2014-01-01
This article provides an introduction to the JavaScript framework AngularJS and specific AngularJS modules for accessing library services. It shows how information such as search suggestions, additional links, and availability can be embedded in any website. The ease of reuse may encourage more libraries to expose their services via standard APIs to allow usage in different contexts.
Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Schulze, C
2015-04-01
Full Text Available . As the angular acceleration takes place in a bounded space, the azimuthal degree of freedom, such fields accelerate periodically as they propagate. Notably, the amount of angular acceleration is not limited by paraxial considerations, may be tailored for large...
Responsive web design with AngularJS
Patel, Sandeep Kumar
2014-01-01
If you are an AngularJS developer who wants to learn about responsive web application development, this book is ideal for you. Responsive Web Design with AngularJS is intended for web developers or designers with a basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.
Angular momentum projected wave-functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bengtsson, R.; Haakansson, H.B.
1978-01-01
Angular momentum projection has become a vital link between intrinsic model-wavefunctions and the physical states one intends to describe. We discuss in general terms some aspects of angular momentum projection and present results from projection on e.g. cranking wavefunctions. Mass densities and spectroscopic factors are also presented for some cases. (author)
Concepts of radial and angular kinetic energies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W.P.
2002-01-01
We consider a general central-field system in D dimensions and show that the division of the kinetic energy into radial and angular parts proceeds differently in the wave-function picture and the Weyl-Wigner phase-space picture, Thus, the radial and angular kinetic energies are different quantities...
Data compilation of angular distributions of sputtered atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamura, Yasunori; Takiguchi, Takashi; Tawara, Hiro.
1990-01-01
Sputtering on a surface is generally caused by the collision cascade developed near the surface. The process is in principle the same as that causing radiation damage in the bulk of solids. Sputtering has long been regarded as an undesirable dirty effect which destroys the cathodes and grids in gas discharge tubes or ion sources and contaminates plasma and the surrounding walls. However, sputtering is used today for many applications such as sputter ion sources, mass spectrometers and the deposition of thin films. Plasma contamination and the surface erosion of first walls due to sputtering are still the major problems in fusion research. The angular distribution of the particles sputtered from solid surfaces can possibly provide the detailed information on the collision cascade in the interior of targets. This report presents a compilation of the angular distribution of sputtered atoms at normal incidence and oblique incidence in the various combinations of incident ions and target atoms. The angular distribution of sputtered atoms from monatomic solids at normal incidence and oblique incidence, and the compilation of the data on the angular distribution of sputtered atoms are reported. (K.I.)
Angular momentum transport and evolution of lopsided galaxies
Saha, Kanak; Jog, Chanda J.
2014-10-01
The surface brightness distribution in the majority of stellar galactic discs falls off exponentially. Often what lies beyond such a stellar disc is the neutral hydrogen gas whose distribution also follows a nearly exponential profile at least for a number of nearby disc galaxies. Both the stars and gas are commonly known to host lopsided asymmetry especially in the outer parts of a galaxy. The role of such asymmetry in the dynamical evolution of a galaxy has not been explored so far. Following Lindblad's original idea of kinematic density waves, we show that the outer part of an exponential disc is ideally suitable for hosting lopsided asymmetry. Further, we compute the transport of angular momentum in the combined stars and gas disc embedded in a dark matter halo. We show that in a pure star and gas disc, there is a transition point where the free precession frequency of a lopsided mode, Ω - κ, changes from retrograde to prograde and this in turn reverses the direction of angular momentum flow in the disc leading to an unphysical behaviour. We show that this problem is overcome in the presence of a dark matter halo, which sets the angular momentum flow outwards as required for disc evolution, provided the lopsidedness is leading in nature. This, plus the well-known angular momentum transport in the inner parts due to spiral arms, can facilitate an inflow of gas from outside perhaps through the cosmic filaments.
Perturbed angular correlations and distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makaryunas, K.
1976-01-01
The present index comprises original works and review papers on the perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and distributions (PAD). The articles published in the Soviet and foreign journals as well as the materials of conferences, monographs and collections published in the USSR and abroad, the preprints produced by various institutes and abstracts of disertations are included from 1948 up to 1973. The whole material compiled in this index is divided into three parts. Part one is a bibliographic index. All papers in this part are divided into three sections. Section one comprises the papers devoted to the theoretical works on PAC, review papers, monographs, materials of conferences. Section two deals with the works of methodical character where correlation spectrometers as well as the treatment of experimental data are described. In section three experimental works with concrete nuclei are compiled. Part two gives the characteristic of works performed with concrete nuclei. This part is presented in the form of the table in which the works are systematized according to the chemical elements and isotopes. The table shows the characteristics of the nuclear levels used in the investigations by PAC as well as brief characteristics of experiments and results obtained. Part three - appendix contains alphabetic index of the authors, the list of the used editions with the abbreviations of the titles of these editions. The lists indicating the dynamic of the quantity of works on PAC and the distribution according to the literature sources are also given
Dynamo generated by the centrifugal instability
Marcotte, Florence; Gissinger, Christophe
2016-10-01
We present a scenario for magnetic field amplification where an electrically conducting fluid is confined in a differentially rotating, spherical shell with thin aspect ratio. When the angular momentum sufficiently decreases outwards, a hydrodynamic instability develops in the equatorial region, characterized by pairs of counter-rotating toroidal vortices similar to those observed in cylindrical Couette flow. These spherical Taylor-Couette vortices generate a subcritical dynamo magnetic field dominated by nonaxisymmetric components. We show that the critical magnetic Reynolds number seems to reach a constant value at large Reynolds number and that the global rotation can strongly decrease the dynamo onset. Our numerical results are understood within the framework of a simple dynamical system, and we propose a low-dimensional model for subcritical dynamo bifurcations. Implications for both laboratory dynamos and astrophysical magnetic fields are finally discussed.
Buneman instability and Pierce instability in a collisionless bounded plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iizuka, Satoru; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshisuke
1983-01-01
A systematic experiment is performed on the Buneman instability and the Pierce instability in a bounded plasma consisting of beam electrons and stationary ions. Current fluctuations are confirmed to be induced by the Buneman instability. On the other hand, the Pierce instability gives rise to a current limitation. The phenomena are well explained by Mikhailovskii's theory taking account of ion motion in a bounded plasma. (author)
Jeans instability of self-gravitating magnetized strongly coupled plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prajapati, R P; Sharma, P K; Sanghvi, R K; Chhajlani, R K
2012-01-01
We investigate the Jeans instability of self-gravitating magnetized strongly coupled plasma. The equations of the problem are formulated using the generalized hydrodynamic model and a general dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode analysis. This dispersion relation is discussed for transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained for magnetized strongly coupled plasma. We find that strong coupling of plasma particles modify the fundamental criterion of Jeans gravitational instability. In transverse mode it is found that Jeans instability criterion gets modified due to the presence of magnetic field, shear viscosity and fluid viscosity but in longitudinal mode it is unaffected due to the presence of magnetic field. From the curves we found that all these parameters have stabilizing influence on the growth rate of Jeans instability.
Incompressible Modes Excited by Supersonic Shear in Boundary Layers: Acoustic CFS Instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belyaev, Mikhail A., E-mail: mbelyaev@berkeley.edu [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2017-02-01
We present an instability for exciting incompressible modes (e.g., gravity or Rossby modes) at the surface of a star accreting through a boundary layer. The instability excites a stellar mode by sourcing an acoustic wave in the disk at the boundary layer, which carries a flux of energy and angular momentum with the opposite sign as the energy and angular momentum density of the stellar mode. We call this instability the acoustic Chandrasekhar–Friedman–Schutz (CFS) instability, because of the direct analogy to the CFS instability for exciting modes on a rotating star by emission of energy in the form of gravitational waves. However, the acoustic CFS instability differs from its gravitational wave counterpart in that the fluid medium in which the acoustic wave propagates (i.e., the accretion disk) typically rotates faster than the star in which the incompressible mode is sourced. For this reason, the instability can operate even for a non-rotating star in the presence of an accretion disk. We discuss applications of our results to high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting black hole and neutron star systems and dwarf nova oscillations in cataclysmic variables.
Assessment of Flow Instability in Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) Using RELAP5
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong; Kim, Han-Gon [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
In this study, the occurrence possibility of both instabilities in PAFS is assessed with the best-estimate thermal hydraulic code, RELAP5. From the RELAP5 code analysis, the Ledinegg instability might not occur in PAFS. The DWO might occur in PAFS but the effect of the oscillation on the heat removal capacity of PAFS was not large. Therefore, it is concluded that PAFS is safe in terms of flow instabilities. Since PAFS is two-phase flow system, flow instabilities may occur. Flow instabilities may cause the severe deterioration of heat removal capability of PAFS due to the reduction of the condensate flow. For the reliable operation of PAFS, it is required to assess the flow instabilities in PAFS. The Ledinegg-type instability and the Density Wave Oscillation (DWO) are the representative static flow instability and the dynamic flow instability, respectively.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole
1994-01-01
The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...
Structural and Material Instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cifuentes, Gustavo Cifuentes
This work is a small contribution to the general problem of structural and material instability. In this work, the main subject is the analysis of cracking and failure of structural elements made from quasi-brittle materials like concrete. The analysis is made using the finite element method. Three...
Agricultural Markets Instability
Garrido, A.; Brümmer, B.; M'Barek, R.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Morales-Opazo, C.
2016-01-01
Since the financial and food price crises of 2007, market instability has been a topic of major concern to agricultural economists and policy professionals. This volume provides an overview of the key issues surrounding food prices volatility, focusing primarily on drivers, long-term implications of
Comment on critical instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, S.F.; Suzuki, Mahiko
1992-01-01
We discuss the problem of the mass splitting between top and bottom quarks, within the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type models involving top and bottom quark condensates. We interpret the phenomenon of 'critical instability' recently proposed to account for such a mass splitting as the fine-tuning of two vacuum expectation values in a composite two-Higgs doublet model. (orig.)
Angular distributions of particles sputtered from polycrystalline platinum by low-energy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernysh, V.S.; Eckstein, W.; Haidarov, A.A.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.
2000-01-01
The results of an experimental study and a computer simulation with the TRIM.SP code of the angular distributions of atoms sputtered from polycrystalline platinum under 3-9 keV Ne + bombardment at normal ion incidence are presented. It was found that angular distributions of sputtered atoms are overcosine and that their shape is practically independent of an ion energy. Comparison with the previously obtained data for He + and Ar + ions have shown that the shape of the angular distribution does not depend on the bombarding ion species. Good agreement between experimental results and computer simulation data was found. Computer simulations of the partial angular distributions of Pt atoms ejected due to various sputtering mechanisms for Ne ion bombardment were performed and the comparison with corresponding data for He and Ar bombarding was made. The role of different mechanisms in the formation of angular distributions of sputtered atoms has been analyzed
Coherent Instabilities of ILC Damping Ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heifets, S.; Stupakov, G.; Bane, K.; /SLAC
2006-09-27
The paper presents the first attempt to estimates the ILC damping ring impedance and compare thresholds of the classical instabilities for several designs initially proposed for the DR. The work was carried out in the spring of 2006. Since then the choice of the DR is narrowed. Nevertheless, the analysis described may be useful for the next iterations of the beam stability. Overall, the conventional instabilities will have little impact on the ring performance provided the careful design of the ring minimizes the impedance below acceptable level indicated above. The only exception is the transverse CB instability. The longitudinal CB is less demanding. However, even the transverse CB instability would have threshold current above nominal provided the aperture in the wigglers is increased from 8 mm to 16 mm. The microwave instability needs more studies. Nevertheless, we should remember that the ILC DR is different from existing high-current machines at least in two respects: absence of the beam-beam tune spread stabilizing beams in colliders, and unusual strict requirements for low emittance. That may cause new problems such as bunch emittance dilution due to high-frequency wakes (BPMs, grooves), etc. Even if such a possibility exists, it probably universal for all machines and ought be addressed in the design of vacuum components rather than have effect on the choice of the machine design.
Inertioelastic Flow Instability at a Stagnation Point
Burshtein, Noa; Zografos, Konstantinos; Shen, Amy Q.; Poole, Robert J.; Haward, Simon J.
2017-10-01
A number of important industrial applications exploit the ability of small quantities of high molecular weight polymer to suppress instabilities that arise in the equivalent flow of Newtonian fluids, a particular example being turbulent drag reduction. However, it can be extremely difficult to probe exactly how the polymer acts to, e.g., modify the streamwise near-wall eddies in a fully turbulent flow. Using a novel cross-slot flow configuration, we exploit a flow instability in order to create and study a single steady-state streamwise vortex. By quantitative experiment, we show how the addition of small quantities (parts per million) of a flexible polymer to a Newtonian solvent dramatically affects both the onset conditions for this instability and the subsequent growth of the axial vorticity. Complementary numerical simulations with a finitely extensible nonlinear elastic dumbbell model show that these modifications are due to the growth of polymeric stress within specific regions of the flow domain. Our data fill a significant gap in the literature between the previously reported purely inertial and purely elastic flow regimes and provide a link between the two by showing how the instability mode is transformed as the fluid elasticity is varied. Our results and novel methods are relevant to understanding the mechanisms underlying industrial uses of weakly elastic fluids and also to understanding inertioelastic instabilities in more confined flows through channels with intersections and stagnation points.
Tracking Code for Microwave Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heifets, S.; SLAC
2006-01-01
To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability
Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.
1978-01-01
Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness
Fragile black holes and an angular momentum cutoff in peripheral heavy ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McInnes, Brett, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECs), Valdivia (Chile); National University of Singapore (Singapore)
2012-08-11
In collisions of heavy ions at extremely high energies, it is possible for a significant quantity of angular momentum to be deposited into the Quark-Gluon Plasma which is thought to be produced. We develop a simple geometric model of such a system, and show that it is dual, in the AdS/CFT sense, to a rotating AdS black hole with a topologically planar event horizon. However, when this black hole is embedded in string theory, it proves to be unstable, for all non-zero angular momenta, to a certain non-perturbative effect: the familiar planar black hole, as used in most AdS/CFT analyses of QGP physics, is 'fragile'. The upshot is that the AdS/CFT duality apparently predicts that the QGP should always become unstable when it is produced in peripheral collisions. However, we argue that holography indicates that relatively low angular momenta delay the development of the instability, so that in practice it may be observable only for peripheral collisions involving favorable impact parameters, generating extremely large angular momenta. In principle, the result may be holographic prediction of a cutoff for the observable angular momenta of the QGP, or perhaps of an analogous phenomenon in condensed matter physics.
Parametric instabilities excited by localized pumps near the lower-hybrid frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, Y.Y.; Chen, L.
1976-04-01
Parametric instabilities excited in non-uniform plasmas by spatially localized pump fields oscillating near the local lower-hybrid frequency are analytically investigated. Corresponding threshold conditions, temporal growth rates, and spatial amplification factors are obtained for the oscillating-two-stream instability and the decay instabilities due to nonlinear electron and ion Landau dampings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endal, A.S.; Sofia, S.
1980-01-01
A number of astronomical observations show that solar-type stars begin the main-sequence stage with surface rotation rates which are much greater than that of the sun. The subsequent decrease in the surface rotation rate is due to the braking torque exerted by magnetically-coupled mass loss (the solar wind). The direct braking action of the solar wind should be confined to the convective envelope so the rotation of the radiative interior remains an open question. After reviewing the relevant astronomical data, we describe how angular momentum could be transported out of the radiative interior by fluid instabilities and estimate the time scales for such transport. This picture is used to construct an evolutionary model of the sun, which predicts the present rotation of the radiative interior. The results of such a model are interpreted in terms of the measured oblateness of the solar surface
Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard
2014-01-01
Transverse mode instability (TMI) in rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers operating above an average power threshold is caused by intermodal stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering due to quantum defect heating. We investigate thermally induced longitudinal waveguide perturbations causing power...
Midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement: a review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramappa Manjunath
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement (TKR is an evolving concept. Successful treatment of instability requires an understanding of the different types of instability. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify information pertinent to midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement, utilising PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched included Embase, Medline, All of the Cochrane Library, PubMed and cross references. Results: Three factors, i.e., elevated joint line, multiradii femoral component and medial collateral ligament (MCL laxity, were identified to influence midflexion instability. Literature suggested mediolateral instability at 30–60° of flexion as diagnostic of midflexion instability. Literature search also revealed paucity in clinical studies analysing midflexion instability. Most of the evidence was obtained from cadaveric studies for elevated joint line and MCL laxity. Clinical studies on multiradii femoral component were limited by their small study size and early followup period. Conclusion: Elevated joint line, multiradii femoral component and MCL laxity have been suggested to cause midflexion laxity in primary TKR. Due to limitations in available evidence, this review was unable to raise the strength of overall evidence. Future well-designed clinical studies are essential to make definitive conclusions. This review serves as a baseline for future researchers and creates awareness for routine assessment of midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement.
Option price and market instability
Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao
2017-04-01
An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.
Beta limit due to resistive instabilities in T-10
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kislov, D.A.; Esipchuk, Yu.V.; Kirneva, N.
2001-01-01
Soft beta limiting phenomena have been observed in T-10 in ECRH heated plasmas. Neoclassical tearing modes are supposed to be responsible for the beta limitation. The MHD onset was observed at high β p but low β N values. Critical β has been found to be almost independent of collisionality parameter ν e *. Sawtooth stabilization by ECCD does not result in an increase of critical β. Dependence of the critical β on the q(r) profile (modified by ECCD) has been observed. (author)
An Instability in Stratified Taylor-Couette Flow
Swinney, Harry
2015-11-01
In the late 1950s Russell Donnelly began conducting experiments at the University of Chicago on flow between concentric rotating cylinders, and his experiments together with complementary theory by his collaborator S. Chandrasekhar did much to rekindle interest in the flow instability discovered and studied by G.I. Taylor (1923). The present study concerns an instability in a concentric cylinder system containing a fluid with an axial density gradient. In 2005 Dubrulle et al. suggested that a `stratorotational instability' (SRI) in this system could provide insight into instability and angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks. In 2007 the stratorotational instability was observed in experiments by Le Bars and Le Gal. We have conducted an experiment on the SRI in a concentric cylinder system (radius ratio η = 0 . 876) with buoyancy frequency N / 2 π = 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75 Hz. For N = 0.75 Hz we observe the SRI onset to occur for Ωouter /Ωinner > η , contrary to the prediction of Shalybkov and Rüdiger. Research conducted with Bruce Rodenborn and Ruy Ibanez.
Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.
1975-01-01
A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)
Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. III. Angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
2015-01-01
Helicons are electromagnetic waves with helical phase fronts propagating in the whistler mode in magnetized plasmas and solids. They have similar properties to electromagnetic waves with angular momentum in free space. Helicons are circularly polarized waves carrying spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum due to their propagation around the ambient magnetic field B 0 . These properties have not been considered in the community of researchers working on helicon plasma sources, but are the topic of the present work. The present work focuses on the field topology of helicons in unbounded plasmas, not on helicon source physics. Helicons are excited in a large uniform laboratory plasma with a magnetic loop antenna whose dipole axis is aligned along or across B 0 . The wave fields are measured in orthogonal planes and extended to three dimensions (3D) by interpolation. Since density and B 0 are uniform, small amplitude waves from loops at different locations can be superimposed to generate complex antenna patterns. With a circular array of phase shifted loops, whistler modes with angular and axial wave propagation, i.e., helicons, are generated. Without boundaries radial propagation also arises. The azimuthal mode number m can be positive or negative while the field polarization remains right-hand circular. The conservation of energy and momentum implies that these field quantities are transferred to matter which causes damping or reflection. Wave-particle interactions with fast electrons are possible by Doppler shifted resonances. The transverse Doppler shift is demonstrated. Wave-wave interactions are also shown by showing collisions between different helicons. Whistler turbulence does not always have to be created by nonlinear wave-interactions but can also be a linear superposition of waves from random sources. In helicon collisions, the linear and/or orbital angular momenta can be canceled, which results in a great variety of field topologies. The work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Saha, Kanak
2011-01-01
The origin of hydrodynamic turbulence in rotating shear flow is a long standing puzzle. Resolving it is especially important in astrophysics when the flow's angular momentum profile is Keplerian which forms an accretion disk having negligible molecular viscosity. Hence, any viscosity in such systems must be due to turbulence, arguably governed by magnetorotational instability, especially when temperature T > or approx. 10 5 . However, such disks around quiescent cataclysmic variables, protoplanetary and star-forming disks, and the outer regions of disks in active galactic nuclei are practically neutral in charge because of their low temperature, and thus are not expected to be coupled with magnetic fields enough to generate any transport due to the magnetorotational instability. This flow is similar to plane Couette flow including the Coriolis force, at least locally. What drives their turbulence and then transport, when such flows do not exhibit any unstable mode under linear hydrodynamic perturbation? We demonstrate that the three-dimensional secondary disturbance to the primarily perturbed flow that triggers elliptical instability may generate significant turbulent viscosity in the range 0.0001 ∼ t ∼< 0.1, which can explain transport in accretion flows.
Effect of magnetic field on the Rayleigh Taylor instability of rotating and stratified plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, PK; Tiwari, Anita; Argal, Shraddha
2017-01-01
In the present study the effect of magnetic field and rotation have been carried out on the Rayleigh Taylor instability of conducting and rotating plasma, which is assumed to be incompressible and confined between two rigid planes z = 0 and z = h. The dispersion relation of the problem is obtained by solving the basic MHD equations of the problem with the help normal mode technique and appropriate boundary conditions. The dispersion relation of the medium is analysed and the effect of magnetic field and angular velocity (rotation effect) have been examined on the growth rate of Rayleigh Taylor instability. It is found that the magnetic field and angular velocity (rotation effect) have stabilizing influence on the Rayleigh Taylor instability. (paper)
Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2012-05-01
Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.
Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filipič, Metka
2012-01-01
Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.
Conditions for l =1 Pomeranchuk instability in a Fermi liquid
Wu, Yi-Ming; Klein, Avraham; Chubukov, Andrey V.
2018-04-01
We perform a microscopic analysis of how the constraints imposed by conservation laws affect q =0 Pomeranchuk instabilities in a Fermi liquid. The conventional view is that these instabilities are determined by the static interaction between low-energy quasiparticles near the Fermi surface, in the limit of vanishing momentum transfer q . The condition for a Pomeranchuk instability is set by Flc (s )=-1 , where Flc (s ) (a Landau parameter) is a properly normalized partial component of the antisymmetrized static interaction F (k ,k +q ;p ,p -q ) in a charge (c) or spin (s) subchannel with angular momentum l . However, it is known that conservation laws for total spin and charge prevent Pomeranchuk instabilities for l =1 spin- and charge-current order parameters. Our study aims to understand whether this holds only for these special forms of l =1 order parameters or is a more generic result. To this end we perform a diagrammatic analysis of spin and charge susceptibilities for charge and spin density order parameters, as well as perturbative calculations to second order in the Hubbard U . We argue that for l =1 spin-current and charge-current order parameters, certain vertex functions, which are determined by high-energy fermions, vanish at Fl=1 c (s )=-1 , preventing a Pomeranchuk instability from taking place. For an order parameter with a generic l =1 form factor, the vertex function is not expressed in terms of Fl=1 c (s ), and a Pomeranchuk instability may occur when F1c (s )=-1 . We argue that for other values of l , a Pomeranchuk instability may occur at Flc (s )=-1 for an order parameter with any form factor.
Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas
Kalman, G J
2003-01-01
The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.
Precessional Instability in Binary Black Holes with Aligned Spins.
Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Klein, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Sperhake, Ulrich; Trifirò, Daniele
2015-10-02
Binary black holes on quasicircular orbits with spins aligned with their orbital angular momentum have been test beds for analytic and numerical relativity for decades, not least because symmetry ensures that such configurations are equilibrium solutions to the spin-precession equations. In this work, we show that these solutions can be unstable when the spin of the higher-mass black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum and the spin of the lower-mass black hole is antialigned. Spins in these configurations are unstable to precession to large misalignment when the binary separation r is between the values r(ud±)=(√(χ(1))±√(qχ(2)))(4)(1-q)(-2)M, where M is the total mass, q≡m(2)/m(1) is the mass ratio, and χ(1) (χ(2)) is the dimensionless spin of the more (less) massive black hole. This instability exists for a wide range of spin magnitudes and mass ratios and can occur in the strong-field regime near the merger. We describe the origin and nature of the instability using recently developed analytical techniques to characterize fully generic spin precession. This instability provides a channel to circumvent astrophysical spin alignment at large binary separations, allowing significant spin precession prior to merger affecting both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signatures of stellar-mass and supermassive binary black holes.
Orphans and political instability.
Breuning, Marijke; Ishiyama, John
2011-01-01
This study investigates the security implications of growing orphan populations, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Little has been written about the security implications of this especially vulnerable group of children. Are growing orphan populations associated with increases in political instability as has been suggested? Using data from several sources, we employ regression analysis to test whether Sub-Saharan African countries with larger proportions of orphans and those with increasing orphan populations experience higher rates of political instability. We find that the increase in the orphan population is related to an increasing incidence of civil conflict, but do not find a similar relationship for the proportion of orphans. In addition, we find that the causes of orphanhood matter. We conclude that increases in orphan populations (rather than simple proportions) are destabilizing. We suggest possible avenues for mediating the security risks posed by growing orphan populations.
Instability and internet design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Braman
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Instability - unpredictable but constant change in one’s environment and the means with which one deals with it - has replaced convergence as the focal problem for telecommunications policy in general and internet policy in particular. Those who designed what we now call the internet during the first decade of the effort (1969-1979, who in essence served simultaneously as its policy-makers, developed techniques for coping with instability of value for network designers today and for those involved with any kind of large-scale sociotechnical infrastructure. Analysis of the technical document series that was medium for and record of that design process reveals coping techniques that began with defining the problem and went on to include conceptual labour, social practices, and technical approaches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorfi, E.A.; Drury, L.O.
1985-01-01
The interaction between energetic charged particles and thermal plasma, which forms the basis of diffusive shock acceleration, leads also to interesting dynamical phenomena. For a compressional mode propagating in a system with homoeneous energetic particle pressure it is well known that friction with the energetic particles leads to damping. The linear theory of this effect has been analyzed in detail by Ptuskin. Not so obvious is that a non-uniform energetic particle pressure can in addition amplify compressional disturbances. If the pressure gradient is sufficiently steep this growth can dominate the frictional damping and lead to an instability. It is important to not that this effect results from the collective nature of the interaction between the energetic particles and the gas and is not connected with the Parker instability, nor with the resonant amplification of Alfven waves
Hydromagnetic instability in a stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruskal, M D; Gottlieb, M B; Johnson, J L; Goldman, L M [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)
1958-07-01
It was noted that when there is a uniform externally imposed longitudinal field much larger than the field of the discharge current, one should expect instabilities in the form of a lateral displacement of the plasma column into a helix of large pitch. At the wavelength of fastest growth the e-folding time approximates the time it takes a sound wave in the plasma to traverse the radius of the plasma column. This problem has been re-examines under the conditions which might be expected to occur in the stellarator during ohmic heating, including the presence of external conductors. The theory is applied to the stellarator; and it is shown that the external conductors are in fact unimportant. The important effects due to the finite length of the Machine are discussed and the effects of more general current distributions are considered. The results from the experiments are given.
Instability in dynamic fracture
Fineberg, J.; Marder, M.
1999-05-01
The fracture of brittle amorphous materials is an especially challenging problem, because the way a large object shatters is intimately tied to details of cohesion at microscopic scales. This subject has been plagued by conceptual puzzles, and to make matters worse, experiments seemed to contradict the most firmly established theories. In this review, we will show that the theory and experiments fit within a coherent picture where dynamic instabilities of a crack tip play a crucial role. To accomplish this task, we first summarize the central results of linear elastic dynamic fracture mechanics, an elegant and powerful description of crack motion from the continuum perspective. We point out that this theory is unable to make predictions without additional input, information that must come either from experiment, or from other types of theories. We then proceed to discuss some of the most important experimental observations, and the methods that were used to obtain the them. Once the flux of energy to a crack tip passes a critical value, the crack becomes unstable, and it propagates in increasingly complicated ways. As a result, the crack cannot travel as quickly as theory had supposed, fracture surfaces become rough, it begins to branch and radiate sound, and the energy cost for crack motion increases considerably. All these phenomena are perfectly consistent with the continuum theory, but are not described by it. Therefore, we close the review with an account of theoretical and numerical work that attempts to explain the instabilities. Currently, the experimental understanding of crack tip instabilities in brittle amorphous materials is fairly detailed. We also have a detailed theoretical understanding of crack tip instabilities in crystals, reproducing qualitatively many features of the experiments, while numerical work is beginning to make the missing connections between experiment and theory.
Relativistic centrifugal instability
Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.
2018-03-01
Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Tatsuoki
1985-01-01
In this article analyses of the MHD stabilities which govern the global behavior of a fusion plasma are described from the viewpoint of the numerical computation. First, we describe the high accuracy calculation of the MHD equilibrium and then the analysis of the linear MHD instability. The former is the basis of the stability analysis and the latter is closely related to the limiting beta value which is a very important theoretical issue of the tokamak research. To attain a stable tokamak plasma with good confinement property it is necessary to control or suppress disruptive instabilities. We, next, describe the nonlinear MHD instabilities which relate with the disruption phenomena. Lastly, we describe vectorization of the MHD codes. The above MHD codes for fusion plasma analyses are relatively simple though very time-consuming and parts of the codes which need a lot of CPU time concentrate on a small portion of the codes, moreover, the codes are usually used by the developers of the codes themselves, which make it comparatively easy to attain a high performance ratio on the vector processor. (author)
On the observability of the quark orbital angular momentum distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courtoy, Aurore, E-mail: aurore.courtoy@ulg.be [IFPA, AGO Department, Université de Liège, Bât. B5, Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Goldstein, Gary R., E-mail: gary.goldstein@tufts.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Osvaldo Gonzalez Hernandez, J., E-mail: jog4m@virginia.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) – Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Liuti, Simonetta, E-mail: sl4y@virginia.edu [University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Rajan, Abha, E-mail: ar5xc@virginia.edu [University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)
2014-04-04
We argue that due to parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions – the generalized transverse momentum distributions – that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light-cone operators projections in the transverse direction, or they appear in the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude at twist three. Orbital angular momentum or the spin structure of the nucleon was a major reason for these various distributions and amplitudes to have been introduced. We show that the twist three contributions associated with orbital angular momentum are related to the target-spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, already measured at HERMES.
Staggering of angular momentum distribution in fission
Tamagno, Pierre; Litaize, Olivier
2018-03-01
We review here the role of angular momentum distributions in the fission process. To do so the algorithm implemented in the FIFRELIN code [?] is detailed with special emphasis on the place of fission fragment angular momenta. The usual Rayleigh distribution used for angular momentum distribution is presented and the related model derivation is recalled. Arguments are given to justify why this distribution should not hold for low excitation energy of the fission fragments. An alternative ad hoc expression taking into account low-lying collectiveness is presented as has been implemented in the FIFRELIN code. Yet on observables currently provided by the code, no dramatic impact has been found. To quantify the magnitude of the impact of the low-lying staggering in the angular momentum distribution, a textbook case is considered for the decay of the 144Ba nucleus with low excitation energy.
Amplitude damping channel for orbital angular momentum
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Since the pioneering work on the entanglement of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light, much attention has been devoted to the subject, with particular attention into the quantum aspects of information processing using OAM. Furthermore...
Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.
2015-01-01
The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...
Orbital-angular-momentum entanglement in turbulence
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Hamadou Ibrahim, A
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The turbulence-induced decay of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) entanglement between two photons is investigated numerically and experimentally. To compare our resultswith previouswork,we simulate the turbulent atmosphere with a single phase screen...
Staggering of angular momentum distribution in fission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamagno Pierre
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We review here the role of angular momentum distributions in the fission process. To do so the algorithm implemented in the FIFRELIN code [?] is detailed with special emphasis on the place of fission fragment angular momenta. The usual Rayleigh distribution used for angular momentum distribution is presented and the related model derivation is recalled. Arguments are given to justify why this distribution should not hold for low excitation energy of the fission fragments. An alternative ad hoc expression taking into account low-lying collectiveness is presented as has been implemented in the FIFRELIN code. Yet on observables currently provided by the code, no dramatic impact has been found. To quantify the magnitude of the impact of the low-lying staggering in the angular momentum distribution, a textbook case is considered for the decay of the 144Ba nucleus with low excitation energy.
QCD angular correlations for muon pair production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kajantie, K.; Raitio, R.; Lindfors, J.
1978-01-01
Angular distributions of muons are discussed in the framework of a QCD treatment of muon pair production in hadron-hadron collisions. The predicted angular effects are independent of the infrared behavior of QCD. Measuring them will permit one to determine whether the origin of the large transverse momentum of the pair is in the quark transverse momenta or in a constituent-constituent subprocess. (author)
Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers
Majid, Mohammad Wadood
2015-01-01
This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.
Angular Spectra of Polarized Galactic Foregrounds
Cho, Jung; Lazarian, A.
2003-01-01
It is believed that magnetic field lines are twisted and bend by turbulent motions in the Galaxy. Therefore, both Galactic synchrotron emission and thermal emission from dust reflects statistics of Galactic turbulence. Our simple model of Galactic turbulence, motivated by results of our simulations, predicts that Galactic disk and halo exhibit different angular power spectra. We show that observed angular spectra of synchrotron emission are compatible with our model. We also show that our mod...
Adiabatic instability in coupled dark energy/dark matter models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Trodden, Mark
2008-01-01
We consider theories in which there exists a nontrivial coupling between the dark matter sector and the sector responsible for the acceleration of the Universe. Such theories can possess an adiabatic regime in which the quintessence field always sits at the minimum of its effective potential, which is set by the local dark matter density. We show that if the coupling strength is much larger than gravitational, then the adiabatic regime is always subject to an instability. The instability, which can also be thought of as a type of Jeans instability, is characterized by a negative sound speed squared of an effective coupled dark matter/dark energy fluid, and results in the exponential growth of small scale modes. We discuss the role of the instability in specific coupled cold dark matter and mass varying neutrino models of dark energy and clarify for these theories the regimes in which the instability can be evaded due to nonadiabaticity or weak coupling.
Interplay between parametric instabilities in fusion - relevant laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huller, St.
2003-01-01
The control of parametric instabilities plays an important role in laser fusion. They are driven by the incident laser beams in the underdense plasma surrounding a fusion capsule and hinder the absorption process of incident laser light which is necessary to heat the fusion target. Due to its high intensity and power, the laser light modifies the plasma density dynamically, such that two or more parametric instabilities compete, in particular stimulated Brillouin scattering and the filamentation instability. The complicated interplay between these parametric instabilities is studied in detail by developing an adequate model accompanied by numerical simulations with multidimensional codes. The model is applied to generic and to smoothed laser beams, which are necessary to limit parametric instabilities, with parameters close to experimental conditions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saray, O.; Purcek, G.; Karaman, I.; Neindorf, T.; Maier, H.J.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → IF-steel sheets can successfully be processed in the continuous manner using the equal-channel angular sheet extrusion (ECASE). → The ECASE produces the microstructures including dislocation cell and micro-shear bands inside the grains with mainly low-angle grain boundaries. → The ECASE results in a considerable increase in the strength but limited ductility. → A good strength-ductility balance in the ECASE-processed IF-steel sheets can be managed with a suitable annealing parameters. - Abstract: Interstitial-free steel (IF-steel) sheets were processed at room temperature using a continuous severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique called equal-channel angular sheet extrusion (ECASE). After processing, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties have been systematically investigated. To be able to directly compare the results with those from the same material processed using discontinuous equal channel angular extrusion, the sheets were ECASE processed up to eight passes. The microstructural investigations revealed that the processed sheets exhibited a dislocation cell and/or subgrain structures with mostly low angle grain boundaries. The grains after processing have relatively high dislocation density and intense micro-shear band formation. The electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) examination showed that the processed microstructure is not fully homogeneous along the sheet thickness due probably to the corner angle of 120 deg. in the ECASE die. It was also observed that the strengths of the processed sheets increase with the number of ECASE passes, and after eight passes following route-A and route-C, the yield strengths reach 463 MPa and 459 MPa, respectively, which is almost 2.5 times higher than that of the initial material. However, the tensile ductility considerably dropped after the ECASE. The limited ductility was attributed to the early plastic instability in the tensile samples due to the inhomogeneous
Beam Angular Divergence Effects in Ion Implantation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horsky, T. N.; Hahto, S. K.; Bilbrough, D. G.; Jacobson, D. C.; Krull, W. A.; Goldberg, R. D.; Current, M. I.; Hamamoto, N.; Umisedo, S.
2008-01-01
An important difference between monomer ion beams and heavy molecular beams is a significant reduction in beam angular divergence and increased on-wafer angular accuracy for molecular beams. This advantage in beam quality stems from a reduction in space-charge effects within the beam. Such improved angular accuracy has been shown to have a significant impact on the quality and yield of transistor devices [1,12]. In this study, B 18 H x + beam current and angular divergence data collected on a hybrid scanned beam line that magnetically scans the beam across the wafer is presented. Angular divergence is kept below 0.5 deg from an effective boron energy of 200 eV to 3000 eV. Under these conditions, the beam current is shown analytically to be limited by space charge below about 1 keV, but by the matching of the beam emittance to the acceptance of the beam line above 1 keV. In addition, results of a beam transport model which includes variable space charge compensation are presented, in which a drift mode B 18 H x + beam is compared to an otherwise identical boron beam after deceleration. Deceleration is shown to introduce significant space-charge blow up resulting in a large on-wafer angular divergence. The divergence effects introduced by wafer charging are also discussed.
Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark.
Wadhwa, N; Mathew, B B; Jatawa, S K; Tiwari, A
2013-01-01
Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair (MMR) system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.
Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N Wadhwa
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA mismatch repair (MMR system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.
Revised conditions for MRI due to isorotation theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni
2017-01-01
We re-analyze the physical conditions for Magneto-rotational Instability (MRI) within a steady axisymmetric stratified disk of plasma, in order to account for the so-called isorotation theory (the spatial profile of differential angular velocity depends on the magnetic flux surface). We develop the study of linear stability around an astrophysical background configuration, following the original derivation in , but implementing the isorotation condition as the orthogonality between the background magnetic field and the angular velocity gradient. We demonstrate that a dependence on the background magnetic field direction is restored in the dispersion relation and, hence, the emergence of MRI is also influenced by field orientation.
Revised conditions for MRI due to isorotation theorem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cianfrani, Francesco [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, Pl. Maksa Borna 9, Pl-50-204 Wrocław (Poland); Montani, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.montani@enea.it [ENEA, Fusion and Nuclear Safety Department, C.R. Frascati - Via E. Fermi, 45 (00044) Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Physics Department, “Sapienza” University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 (Roma) (Italy)
2017-06-10
We re-analyze the physical conditions for Magneto-rotational Instability (MRI) within a steady axisymmetric stratified disk of plasma, in order to account for the so-called isorotation theory (the spatial profile of differential angular velocity depends on the magnetic flux surface). We develop the study of linear stability around an astrophysical background configuration, following the original derivation in , but implementing the isorotation condition as the orthogonality between the background magnetic field and the angular velocity gradient. We demonstrate that a dependence on the background magnetic field direction is restored in the dispersion relation and, hence, the emergence of MRI is also influenced by field orientation.
Pump instability phenomena generated by fluid forces
Gopalakrishnan, S.
1985-01-01
Rotor dynamic behavior of high energy centrifugal pumps is significantly affected by two types of fluid forces; one due to the hydraulic interaction of the impeller with the surrounding volute or diffuser and the other due to the effect of the wear rings. The available data on these forces is first reviewed. A simple one degree-of-freedom system containing these forces is analytically solved to exhibit the rotor dynamic effects. To illustrate the relative magnitude of these phenomena, an example of a multistage boiler feed pump is worked out. It is shown that the wear ring effects tend to suppress critical speed and postpone instability onset. But the volute-impeller forces tend to lower the critical speed and the instability onset speed. However, for typical boiler feed pumps under normal running clearances, the wear ring effects are much more significant than the destabilizing hydraulic interaction effects.
Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids
Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier
2016-07-01
Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced
Doǧan, S.; Nixon, C. J.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.
2018-05-01
Accretion discs are generally warped. If a warp in a disc is too large, the disc can `break' apart into two or more distinct planes, with only tenuous connections between them. Further, if an initially planar disc is subject to a strong differential precession, then it can be torn apart into discrete annuli that precess effectively independently. In previous investigations, torque-balance formulae have been used to predict where and when the disc breaks into distinct parts. In this work, focusing on discs with Keplerian rotation and where the shearing motions driving the radial communication of the warp are damped locally by turbulence (the `diffusive' regime), we investigate the stability of warped discs to determine the precise criterion for an isolated warped disc to break. We find and solve the dispersion relation, which, in general, yields three roots. We provide a comprehensive analysis of this viscous-warp instability and the emergent growth rates and their dependence on disc parameters. The physics of the instability can be understood as a combination of (1) a term that would generally encapsulate the classical Lightman-Eardley instability in planar discs (given by ∂(νΣ)/∂Σ < 0) but is here modified by the warp to include ∂(ν1|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0, and (2) a similar condition acting on the diffusion of the warp amplitude given in simplified form by ∂(ν2|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0. We discuss our findings in the context of discs with an imposed precession, and comment on the implications for different astrophysical systems.
Analysis of angular momentum properties of photons emitted in fundamental atomic processes
Zaytsev, V. A.; Surzhykov, A. S.; Shabaev, V. M.; Stöhlker, Th.
2018-04-01
Many atomic processes result in the emission of photons. Analysis of the properties of emitted photons, such as energy and angular distribution as well as polarization, is regarded as a powerful tool for gaining more insight into the physics of corresponding processes. Another characteristic of light is the projection of its angular momentum upon propagation direction. This property has attracted a special attention over the past decades due to studies of twisted (or vortex) light beams. Measurements being sensitive to this projection may provide valuable information about the role of angular momentum in the fundamental atomic processes. Here we describe a simple theoretical method for determination of the angular momentum properties of the photons emitted in various atomic processes. This method is based on the evaluation of expectation value of the total angular momentum projection operator. To illustrate the method, we apply it to the textbook examples of plane-wave, spherical-wave, and Bessel light. Moreover, we investigate the projection of angular momentum for the photons emitted in the process of the radiative recombination with ionic targets. It is found that the recombination photons do carry a nonzero projection of the orbital angular momentum.
Chromosomal Instability in Gastric Cancer Biology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saffiyeh Saboor Maleki
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is the fifth most common cancer in the world and accounts for 7% of the total cancer incidence. The prognosis of GC is dismal in Western countries due to late diagnosis: approximately 70% of the patients die within 5 years following initial diagnosis. Recently, integrative genomic analyses led to the proposal of a molecular classification of GC into four subtypes, i.e.,microsatellite-instable, Epstein-Barr virus–positive, chromosomal-instable (CIN, and genomically stable GCs. Molecular classification of GC advances our knowledge of the biology of GC and may have implications for diagnostics and patient treatment. Diagnosis of microsatellite-instable GC and Epstein-Barr virus–positive GC is more or less straightforward. Microsatellite instability can be tested by immunohistochemistry (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6 and/or molecular-biological analysis. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GC can be tested by in situ hybridization (Epstein-Barr virus encoded small RNA. However, with regard to CIN, testing may be more complicated and may require a more in-depth knowledge of the underlying mechanism leading to CIN. In addition, CIN GC may not constitute a distinct subgroup but may rather be a compilation of a more heterogeneous group of tumors. In this review, we aim to clarify the definition of CIN and to point out the molecular mechanisms leading to this molecular phenotype and the challenges faced in characterizing this type of cancer.
Control of Coherent Instabilities by Linear Coupling
Cappi, R; Möhl, D
2001-01-01
One of the main challenges in the design of high-energy colliders is the very high luminosity necessary to provide significant event rates. This imposes strong constraints to achieve and preserve beams of high brightness, i.e. intensity to emittance ratio, all along the injector chain. Amongst the phenomena that can blow up and even destroy the beam are transverse coherent instabilities. Two methods are widely used to damp these instabilities. The first one is Landau damping by non-linearities. The second consists in using an electronic feedback system. However, non-linearities are harmful to single-particle motion due to resonance phenomena, and powerful wideband feedback systems are expensive. It is shown in this paper that linear coupling is a further method that can be used to damp transverse coherent instabilities. The theory of collective motion is outlined, including the coupling of instability rise and damping rates, chromaticity and Landau damping. Experimental results obtained at the CERN PS are rep...
System Detects Vibrational Instabilities
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1990-01-01
Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.
Evaporation and Antievaporation Instabilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Addazi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We review (antievaporation phenomena within the context of quantum gravity and extended theories of gravity. The (antievaporation effect is an instability of the black hole horizon discovered in many different scenarios: quantum dilaton-gravity, f ( R -gravity, f ( T -gravity, string-inspired black holes, and brane-world cosmology. Evaporating and antievaporating black holes seem to have completely different thermodynamical features compared to standard semiclassical black holes. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to conceptual and technical aspects of (antievaporation effects, while discussing problems that are still open.
Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Annulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman; Akira Kageyama
2001-01-01
Although the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been widely accepted as a powerful accretion mechanism in magnetized accretion disks, it has not been realized in the laboratory. The possibility of studying MRI in a rotating liquid-metal annulus (Couette flow) is explored by local and global stability analysis and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Stability diagrams are drawn in dimensionless parameters, and also in terms of the angular velocities at the inner and outer cylinders. It is shown that MRI can be triggered in a moderately rapidly rotating table-top apparatus, using easy-to-handle metals such as gallium. Practical issues of this proposed experiment are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanghera, G.S.
1999-01-01
The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described
Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.
2018-04-01
We identify and study a number of new, rapidly growing instabilities of dust grains in protoplanetary disks, which may be important for planetesimal formation. The study is based on the recognition that dust-gas mixtures are generically unstable to a Resonant Drag Instability (RDI), whenever the gas, absent dust, supports undamped linear modes. We show that the "streaming instability" is an RDI associated with epicyclic oscillations; this provides simple interpretations for its mechanisms and accurate analytic expressions for its growth rates and fastest-growing wavelengths. We extend this analysis to more general dust streaming motions and other waves, including buoyancy and magnetohydrodynamic oscillations, finding various new instabilities. Most importantly, we identify the disk "settling instability," which occurs as dust settles vertically into the midplane of a rotating disk. For small grains, this instability grows many orders of magnitude faster than the standard streaming instability, with a growth rate that is independent of grain size. Growth timescales for realistic dust-to-gas ratios are comparable to the disk orbital period, and the characteristic wavelengths are more than an order of magnitude larger than the streaming instability (allowing the instability to concentrate larger masses). This suggests that in the process of settling, dust will band into rings then filaments or clumps, potentially seeding dust traps, high-metallicity regions that in turn seed the streaming instability, or even overdensities that coagulate or directly collapse to planetesimals.
Malmberg, J.-A.; Brunsell, P. R.
2002-01-01
Observations of resistive wall instabilities and tearing mode dynamics in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell (τw=6 ms) reversed field pinch are described. A nonresonant mode (m=1,n=-10) with the same handedness as the internal field grows nearly exponentially with an average growth time of about 2.6 ms (less than 1/2 of the shell time) consistent with linear stability theory. The externally nonresonant unstable modes (m=1,n>0), predicted by linear stability theory, are observed to have only low amplitudes (in the normal low-Θ operation mode of the device). The radial field of the dominant internally resonant tearing modes (m=1,n=-15 to n=-12) remain low due to spontaneous fast mode rotation, corresponding to angular phase velocities up to 280 krad/s. Phase aligned mode structures are observed to rotate toroidally with an average angular velocity of 40 krad/s, in the opposite direction of the plasma current. Toward the end of the discharge, the radial field of the internally resonant modes grows as the modes slow down and become wall-locked, in agreement with nonlinear computations. Fast rotation of the internally resonant modes has been observed only recently and is attributed to a change of the front-end system (vacuum vessel, shell, and TF coil) of the device.
Convective instability of RCP modes for a magnetized chiral plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres-Silva, Hector; Sakanaka, P.H.; Reggiani, N.
1998-01-01
Using the Maxwell's equations and the proposed constitutive relations for a chiral plasma medium, the dispersion relations for right circularly polarized waves, (RCP), depending on the characteristics of the distribution, a new mode conversion and instabilities are found due to the chiral effect. From the dispersion relations and considering that the chirowave magnetic field may be important when the condition of velocity isotropy is dropped, we find that growing modes (instabilities) can occur at resonance and for frequencies below the electron gyrofrequency. We study, in this paper, the convective instability of RCP waves in a two-component bi-Lorentzian chiroplasma which can model the solar wind particle distributions. (author)
Charge density wave instabilities and incommensurate structural phase transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axe, J.D.
1977-10-01
Incommensurate structural phase transformations involve the appearance of modulated atomic displacements with spatial periodicity unrelated to the fundamental periodicity of the basic lattice. In the case of some quasi one- or two-dimensional metals such transformations are the result of Fermi-surface instabilities that also produce electronic charge density waves (CDW's) and soft phonon modes due to metallic electron screening singularities. Incommensurate soft mode instabilities have been found in insulators as well. Recent neutron scattering studies of both the statics and dynamics of incommensurate structural instabilities will be reviewed
Feedback stabilization of plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cap, F.F.
1977-01-01
This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental aspects of feedback stabilization. After giving an outline of a general theoretical model for electrostatic instabilities the author provides a theoretical analysis of the suppression of various types of instability. Experiments which have been carried out on the feedback stabilization of various types of plasma instability are reported. An extensive list of references is given. (B.R.H.)
Thermal Shrinkage for Shoulder Instability
Toth, Alison P.; Warren, Russell F.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Doward, David A.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Altchek, David W.; O’Brien, Stephen J.
2010-01-01
Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent...
Political Instability and Economic Growth
Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel
1992-01-01
This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Sen, Manibrata [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai, 400005 (India); Mirizzi, Alessandro, E-mail: bdasgupta@theory.tifr.res.in, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: manibrata.sen@gmail.com [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' , Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)
2017-02-01
It has been recently pointed out that neutrino fluxes from a supernova can show substantial flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Using linear stability analyses and numerical solutions of the fully nonlinear equations of motion, we perform a detailed study of these fast conversions , focussing on the region just above the supernova core. We carefully specify the instabilities for evolution in space or time, and find that neutrinos travelling towards the core make fast conversions more generic, i.e., possible for a wider range of flux ratios and angular asymmetries that produce a crossing between the zenith-angle spectra of ν {sub e} and ν-bar {sub e} . Using fluxes and angular distributions predicted by supernova simulations, we find that fast conversions can occur within tens of nanoseconds, only a few meters away from the putative neutrinospheres. If these fast flavor conversions indeed take place, they would have important implications for the supernova explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis.
BAO from Angular Clustering: Optimization and Mitigation of Theoretical Systematics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crocce, M.; et al.
2018-01-13
We study the theoretical systematics and optimize the methodology in Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) detections using the angular correlation function with tomographic bins. We calibrate and optimize the pipeline for the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 dataset using 1800 mocks. We compare the BAO fitting results obtained with three estimators: the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), Profile Likelihood, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The MLE method yields the least bias in the fit results (bias/spread $\\sim 0.02$) and the error bar derived is the closest to the Gaussian results (1% from 68% Gaussian expectation). When there is mismatch between the template and the data either due to incorrect fiducial cosmology or photo-$z$ error, the MLE again gives the least-biased results. The BAO angular shift that is estimated based on the sound horizon and the angular diameter distance agree with the numerical fit. Various analysis choices are further tested: the number of redshift bins, cross-correlations, and angular binning. We propose two methods to correct the mock covariance when the final sample properties are slightly different from those used to create the mock. We show that the sample changes can be accommodated with the help of the Gaussian covariance matrix or more effectively using the eigenmode expansion of the mock covariance. The eigenmode expansion is significantly less susceptible to statistical fluctuations relative to the direct measurements of the covariance matrix because the number of free parameters is substantially reduced [$p$ parameters versus $p(p+1)/2$ from direct measurement].
Angular distributions in quasi-fission reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luetzenkirchen, K.; Kratz, J.V.; Lucas, R.; Poitou, J.; Gregoire, C.; Wirth, G.; Bruechle, W.; Suemmerer, K.
1985-10-01
Angular distributions for fission-like fragments were measured in the systems 50 Ti, 56 Fe + 208 Pb by applying an off-line KX-ray activation technique. The distributions d 2 sigma/dTHETAdZ exhibit forward-backward asymmetries that are strongly Z-dependent. They result from a process (quasi-fission) which yields nearly symmetric masses in times comparable to the rotational period of the composite system. A method for obtaining the variance of the tilting angular momentum, K 0 2 , from these skewed, differential angular distributions is described. The results indicate that the tilting mode is not fully excited in quasi-fission reactions. The results are compared to the sum of the variances of all statistical spin components, measured via γ-multiplicities. Integration of the angular distributions d 2 sigma/dTHETAdZ over all values of Z yields integral angular distributions dsigma/dTHETA and dsigma/dΩ symmetric around 90 0 . The associated unusually large anisotropies do not at all provide an adequate basis for tests or modifications of the transition state theory. A deconvolution of d 2 sigma/dTHETAdZ is performed with gaussian distributions depending on rotational angles ΔTHETA extending over a range of up to 540 0 . From the mean values a time scale for the evolution of K 0 is calculated. (orig.)
Angular distribution of oriented nucleus fission neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.
1982-01-01
Calculations of anisotropy of angular distribution of oriented 235 U nuclei thermal fission neutrons have been carried out. the neutrons were assumed to evaporate isotropically by completely accelerated fragements in the fragment system with only its small part, i. e. fission-producing neutrons, emitted at the moment of neck break. It has been found out that at low energies of neutrons Esub(n)=1-2 MeV the sensitivity of the angular distribution anisotropy to variations of spectrum of neutron evaporation from fragments and the magnitude of a share of fission-producing neutrons reaches approximately 100%, which at high energies, Esub(n) > 5 MeV it does not exceed approximately 20%. Therefore the angular distribution of fast neutrons to a greater degree of confidence may be used for restoring the angular distribution anisotropy of fragments while the angular distribution of low energy neutrons may be used for deriving information on the fission process, but only in case 6f the experiment accuracy is better than approximately 3%
Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals
Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen
2018-01-01
Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.
Angular cheilitis: A clinical and microbial study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nirima Oza
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine clinical types and microbiological flora isolated from angular chelitis. Materials and Methods: An eroded and/or erythematous, with or without fissure formation, nonvesicular lesion radiating from the angle of the mouth was considered to be angular chelitis. A sample of the present study comprised of 40 patients having unilateral or bilateral angular chelitis and 20 healthy individuals without any lip lesions. Clinical examination was done. In both test and control groups, the sample for microbial analysis was obtained from angle of the mouth. Results: Clinically, four types of angular cheilitis lesions were found, Type I, II, III, and IV. The most common type of lesion found was Type I lesion. Microorganisms isolated from the lesion were Staphylococcus aureus, Candida or Streptococci in 33 (82.5% cases either in pure culture or mixed culture. Among these 33 patients, S. aureus was found in 25 (75.5% cases, Candida in 16 (48.4% cases, and Streptococci in 5 (13.5% cases, respectively. Out of 16 cases positive for Candida, in 13 cases further isolation of Candida was possible. Candida albicans was found in 6 cases and Candida stellastodia in 7 cases. In majority of the dentulous and edentulous patients, S. aureus showed profuse growth. Conclusions: There are microorganisms associated with angular cheilitis.
Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: gorji@ipm.ir, E-mail: shosseini@shahroodut.ac.ir, E-mail: shossein@ipm.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161 Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-07-01
We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.
Data-oriented development with AngularJS
Waikar, Manoj
2015-01-01
This book helps beginner-level AngularJS developers organize AngularJS applications by discussing important AngularJS concepts and best practices. If you are an experienced AngularJS developer but haven't written directives or haven't created custom HTML controls before, then this book is ideal for you.
Unified formulation for inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silveira, O.J.G.; Ziebell, L.F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, Peter H.
2002-01-01
A local dispersion relation that describes inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range is derived following a procedure that correctly describes energy exchange between waves and particles in inhomogeneous media, correcting some inherent ambiguities associated with the standard formalism found in the literature. Numerical solutions of this improved dispersion relation show that it constitutes a unified formulation for the instabilities in the lower-hybrid range, describing the so-called modified two-stream instability, excited by the ion cross-field drift, including the ion Weibel instability, and also describing the lower-hybrid drift instability, which is due to inhomogeneity effects on the electron population
On the instability of a quasivacuum regime in a plasma diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zharinov, A.V.; Chikhachev, A.S.
1978-01-01
Instability of the plasma diode stationary state developing in the quasivacuum overcompensated regime is investigated by the method of plasma simulation with the charged sheet system. It is shown that instability developes during the time of the order of the electron transit time through the interelectrode space and is due to electron motion. Specific scale of growings disturbances decreases with current increase of electron emission and diminution of compensating parameter. Instability develops at current value exceeding critical one. The results obtained show, that instability under investigation is analogous to the Pierse instability
Sausage instability threshold in a low energy plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakaullah, M.; Nasir, M.; Khattak, F.Y.; Murtaza, G.
1993-01-01
Development of sausage instability (m = 0 mode) is studied in a small low energy Mather-type plasma focus. A shadow graphic study of the current sheath has shown that the focused plasma necks off during the radial phase before the maximum compression. This may indicate the lowering of the instability threshold. Three hook-type structures are observed which may not be due to the multifoci formation. The bubble shape structure is observed to be developed in the expansion phase. (author)
Du, Minglong; Yang, Lijun
2017-10-01
A linear analysis method was used to investigate the mechanics of radiation heat loss and mass transfer in the porous wall of premixed annular flames and their effect on thermodiffusive instability. The dispersion relation between the disturbance wave growth rate and wavenumber was calculated numerically. Results showed that radiation heat loss elevated the annular flame slightly away from the porous wall. In the annular flame with small Lewis numbers, radiation heat loss changed the thermodiffusive instability from a pulsating to a cellular state, while for the large Lewis numbers, only the pulsating instability was represented. Increasing radiation heat loss and the radius of the porous wall enhanced the instability of the annular flames. Heat losses decreased with the continued increase in thickness of the porous wall and the decrease in porosity. Annular flames with long-wave mode along the angular direction were more unstable than the shortwave mode.
Instability characteristics of fluidelastic instability of tube rows in crossflow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.
1986-04-01
An experimental study is reported to investigate the jump phenomenon in critical flow velocities for tube rows with different pitch-to-diameter ratios and the excited and intrinsic instabilities for a tube row with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.75. The experimental data provide additional insights into the instability phenomena of tube arrays in crossflow. 9 refs., 10 figs
Spatial and Angular Resolution Enhancement of Light Fields Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Gul, M. Shahzeb Khan; Gunturk, Bahadir K.
2018-05-01
Light field imaging extends the traditional photography by capturing both spatial and angular distribution of light, which enables new capabilities, including post-capture refocusing, post-capture aperture control, and depth estimation from a single shot. Micro-lens array (MLA) based light field cameras offer a cost-effective approach to capture light field. A major drawback of MLA based light field cameras is low spatial resolution, which is due to the fact that a single image sensor is shared to capture both spatial and angular information. In this paper, we present a learning based light field enhancement approach. Both spatial and angular resolution of captured light field is enhanced using convolutional neural networks. The proposed method is tested with real light field data captured with a Lytro light field camera, clearly demonstrating spatial and angular resolution improvement.
Angular correlations and high energy evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael
2011-01-01
We address the question of to what extent JIMWLK evolution is capable of taking into account angular correlations in a high energy hadronic wave function. Our conclusion is that angular (and indeed other) correlations in the wave function cannot be reliably calculated without taking into account Pomeron loops in the evolution. As an example we study numerically the energy evolution of angular correlations between dipole scattering amplitudes in the framework of the large N c approximation to JIMWLK evolution (the 'projectile dipole model'). Target correlations are introduced via averaging over an (isotropic) ensemble of anisotropic initial conditions. We find that correlations disappear very quickly with rapidity even inside the saturation radius. This is in accordance with our physical picture of JIMWLK evolution. The actual correlations inside the saturation radius in the target QCD wave function, on the other hand, should remain sizable at any rapidity.
Angular distributions in pre-equilibrium reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatterjee, A.; Gupta, S.K.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay
1982-10-01
A new model is proposed for calculating angular distributions in preequilibrium reactions. In this model, as in the model of Feshbach et al. the system consisting of target plus projectile initially branches into two sets of states with either no particle in the continuum (multistep compound states) or with at least one particle in the continuum (multistep direct states). The two chains of states are treated independently by solving two sets of master equations. The multistep compound emission is assumed to be isotropic while the angular distribution of the multistep direct emission is described using the fast particle model of Mantzouranis et al. The angular distributions for 14.6 MeV neutrons calculated using this model are found to be in better agreement with the data than the fast particle model. (author)
Angular momentum alignment in molecular beam scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treffers, M.A.
1985-01-01
It is shown how the angular momentum alignment in a molecular beam can be determined using laser-induced fluorescence in combination with precession of the angular momenta in a magnetic field. After a general analysis of the method, some results are presented to illustrate the possibilities of the method. Experimental data are presented on the alignment production for Na 2 molecules that made a collision induced angular momentum transition. Magnitude as well as direction of the alignment have been determined for scattering with several scattering partners and for a large number of scattering angles and transitions. The last chapter deals with the total alignment production in a final J-state, i.e. without state selection of the initial rotational state. (orig.)
Problems due to icing of overhead lines - Part II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Havard, D.G.; Pon, C.J.; Krishnasamy, S.G.
1985-01-01
A companion paper describes uncertainties in overhead line design due to the variability of ice and wind loads. This paper reviews two other effects due to icing; conductor galloping and torsional instability, which require further study. (author)
Ghost Imaging Using Orbital Angular Momentum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵生妹; 丁建; 董小亮; 郑宝玉
2011-01-01
We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum. In the signal arm, object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix. For an N-grey-scale object, different phase matrices, varying from 0 to K with increment n/N, are used for different greyscales, and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator. According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system, these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement, and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm. By simulations and experiments, the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively. Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum, our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.%We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum.In the signal arm,object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix.For an N-grey-scale object,different phase matrices,varying from 0 to π with increment π/N,are used for different greyscales,and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator.According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system,these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement,and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm.By simulations and experiments,the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively.Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum,our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagano, Koji, E-mail: knagano@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Enomoto, Yutaro; Nakano, Masayuki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kawamura, Seiji [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)
2016-03-06
In experiments with Fabry–Perot cavities consisting of suspended mirrors, an angular antispring effect on the mirror of the cavity is caused by radiation pressure from resonant light in the cavity. A new method was invented to measure the effect precisely with remote excitation on the mirror using the radiation pressure. This method was found to be available for the suspended 23 mg mirror and improved the measurement accuracy by a factor of two, compared with the previous method. This result leads to stable control systems to eliminate the angular instability of the mirror caused by the effect. - Highlights: • A method to measure an angular antispring effect on a suspended mirror was proposed. • Remote excitation on the mirror with radiation pressure of resonant light is used. • This method provides better measurement accuracy compared with the previous method.
Kinetic instabilities in relativistic plasmas: the Harris instability revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tautz, R.C.
2008-01-01
Plasma instabilities that generate aperiodic fluctuations are of outstanding importance in the astrophysical context. Two prominent examples are the electromagnetic Weibel instability and the electrostatic Harris instability, which operate in initially non-magnetized and magnetized plasmas, respectively. In this talk, the original formulation of the Harris instability will be reviewed and generalizations will be presented such as the inclusion of (1) relativistic effects, (2) ion effects, and (3) mode coupling. It will be shown that, with these modifications, a powerful method has been developed for the determination of both the existence and the growth rate of low-frequency instabilities. Applications can be found in astrophysical jets, where the rest frame can be used and so no parallel motion is present. At the end of the talk, how the particle composition of gamma-ray burst jets can be predicted using the Harris technique. (author)
Angular correlation in the two-electron continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kheifets, A. S.; Bray, I.
2006-01-01
Following absorption of a single photon, angles of simultaneous emission of two electrons from a He(n 1 S) atom become more correlated with increasing n. We find that the strength of this correlation is due to the two-electron continuum of the electron-impact ionization of the He + (ns) ion. The strength is determined by the width of the momentum profile of the ionic ns state but not the strength of the electron correlation in the He initial state. This can explain the increasing (over He) angular correlation strength found in double photoionization of targets such as Be, Ne, and H 2
Analysis of beam transverse instability in electron linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondrus, I.N.; Shenderovich, A.M.
1990-01-01
Dispersion equations describing transverse beam instability in a single resonator section and in an accelerator comprising a sequence of resonator sections are derived. It is shown that close to parametric resonance of any multiplicity a reduction of cumulative instability incoherent takes place between nonsymmetric defocusing wave frequency and the frequency of accelerator cluster transport. Under exact resonance the increment equals to zero and under misalignment due to resonance depending on its sign and disturbance frequency an instability of either fast or slow wave takes place. It is shown that this effect leads to beam instability suppression of sections with the opposite sign of misalignment due to resonance are located in turn. The results obtained show that application of a parametric resonance through reducing slight the single section absolute instability threshold current, allows one to effectively suppress cumulative instability. The requirement to the accuracy of tuning to a resonance of identical sections is substantially reduced under the alternation of sections with different sign misalignment due to resonance and can be easily realized in practice
Total angular momentum from Dirac eigenspinors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szabados, Laszlo B
2008-01-01
The eigenvalue problem for Dirac operators, constructed from two connections on the spinor bundle over closed spacelike 2-surfaces, is investigated. A class of divergence-free vector fields, built from the eigenspinors, are found, which, for the lowest eigenvalue, reproduce the rotation Killing vectors of metric spheres, and provide rotation BMS vector fields at future null infinity. This makes it possible to introduce a well-defined, gauge invariant spatial angular momentum at null infinity, which reduces to the standard expression in stationary spacetimes. The general formula for the angular momentum flux carried away by the gravitational radiation is also derived
Studying AGN Jets At Extreme Angular Resolution
Bruni, Gabriele
2016-10-01
RadioAstron is a 10m antenna orbiting on the Russian Speckt-R spacecraft, launched in 2011. Performing radio interferometry with a global array of ground telescopes, it is providing record angular resolution. The Key Science Project on AGN polarization is exploiting it to study in great detail the configuration of magnetic fields in AGN jets, and understand their formation and collimation. To date, the project has already achieved the highest angular resolution image ever obtained in Astronomy, and detected brightness temperatures exceeding the ones predicted by theory of AGN.
Factorial correlators: angular scaling within QCD jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peschanski, R.
2001-01-01
Factorial correlators measure the amount of dynamical correlation in the multiplicity between two separated phase-space windows. We present the analytical derivation of factorial correlators for a QCD jet described at the double logarithmic (DL) accuracy. We obtain a new angular scaling property for properly normalized correlators between two solid-angle cells or two rings around the jet axis. Normalized QCD factorial correlators scale with the angular distance and are independent of the window size. Scaling violations are expected beyond the DL approximation, in particular from the subject structure. Experimental tests are feasible, and thus would be welcome. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carroll, Sean M.; Dulaney, Timothy R.; Gresham, Moira I.; Tam, Heywood
2009-01-01
We investigate the stability of theories in which Lorentz invariance is spontaneously broken by fixed-norm vector 'aether' fields. Models with generic kinetic terms are plagued either by ghosts or by tachyons, and are therefore physically unacceptable. There are precisely three kinetic terms that are not manifestly unstable: a sigma model (∂ μ A ν ) 2 , the Maxwell Lagrangian F μν F μν , and a scalar Lagrangian (∂ μ A μ ) 2 . The timelike sigma-model case is well defined and stable when the vector norm is fixed by a constraint; however, when it is determined by minimizing a potential there is necessarily a tachyonic ghost, and therefore an instability. In the Maxwell and scalar cases, the Hamiltonian is unbounded below, but at the level of perturbation theory there are fewer degrees of freedom and the models are stable. However, in these two theories there are obstacles to smooth evolution for certain choices of initial data.
Posterolateral elbow joint instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Nielsen, K K
1998-01-01
Thirty-five osteoligamentous elbows were included in a study on the kinematics of posterolateral elbow joint instability during the pivot shift test (PST) before and after separate ligament cuttings in the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC). Division of the annular ligament or the lateral...... ulnar collateral ligament caused no laxity during the PST. Division of the lateral collateral ligament caused maximal laxity of 4 degrees and 23 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. Cutting of the LCLC at the ulnar or the humeral insertion was necessary...... for any PST stressed elbow joint laxity to occur. Total division of the LCLC induced a maximal laxity of 7.9 degrees and 37 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be the primary soft tissue constraint...
Instabilities in electromagnetic quasilevitation.
Spragg, Kirk; Letout, Sebastien; Ernst, R; Sneyd, Alfred; Fautrelle, Yves
2014-05-01
We investigate free-surface instabilities occurring in various industrial processes involving liquid metal. Of particular interest is the behavior of the free surface of a pool of liquid metal when it is submitted to an alternating magnetic field. Experimentally, we study the effect of a vertical alternating medium-frequency magnetic field on an initially circular pool. We observe various types of behavior according to magnetic field amplitude, e.g., axisymmetric deformations, azimuthal mode structures, slow radial oscillation of the pool perimeter, and random rotation of the pool around its center. Drop rotation could be attributed to nonsymmetric shape deformations. The effect of oxidation leads to drastic changes in pool behavior. The experimental results are then compared to a linear stability analysis of the free surface of a circular liquid drop.
From instabilities to multifragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, P.; Jacquot, B.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.
1994-01-01
The main purpose of this article is to show that, in many physical situations, the spinodal decomposition of unstable systems can be correctly described by stochastic mean-field approaches. Such theories predict that the occurrence of spinodal instability leading the multifragmentation of an expended nuclear system, can be signed through the observation of time scales for the fragment formation of the order of 100 fm/c and of typical fragment size around A=20. We will finally discuss the fact that these fragments are formed at finite temperature and so can subsequently decay in flight. Finally, we will give some hints about possible experimental signals of such first order phase transitions. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs
From instabilities to multifragmentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, P.; Jacquot, B. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)
1994-12-31
The main purpose of this article is to show that, in many physical situations, the spinodal decomposition of unstable systems can be correctly described by stochastic mean-field approaches. Such theories predict that the occurrence of spinodal instability leading the multifragmentation of an expended nuclear system, can be signed through the observation of time scales for the fragment formation of the order of 100 fm/c and of typical fragment size around A=20. We will finally discuss the fact that these fragments are formed at finite temperature and so can subsequently decay in flight. Finally, we will give some hints about possible experimental signals of such first order phase transitions. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs.
Beam instability studies at the APS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teng, L.C.
1994-01-01
The Argonne Advanced Photon Source, APS (Fig. 1), is a 7-GeV positron storage ring with a circumference of 1104 m. It has a ''third generation, DBA or Chasman-Green'' lattice composed of 40 sectors each having a ∼6 m long zero-dispersion straight-section for accommodating insertion devices. Neighboring straight-sections are connected by a 360 degrees/40 = 9 degrees double-bend-achromatic bending section designed to produce the smallest emittance attainable with reasonable component parameter values and dynamic apertures. Thus, it is a very strongly focusing lattice with v x = 35.22 and v y = 14.30. The beam chamber of the storage ring including all rf, vacuum and photon beam components is designed to ensure that a beam current > 100 mA can be stably stored. We expect that the maximum stable beam current could be as high as 300 mA. This paper will give some details of the studies and computations to ensure the stability of such a beam. The discussions will be organized in the following three parts: Coupled-bunch instability caused by the higher-order modes (HOMs) of the rf cavities; Single-bunch instability due to the resistive wall impedance; and Single-bunch instability due to broadband impedances arising from beam chamber irregularities
Internal rotor friction instability
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1990-01-01
The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.
Kinetic theory of instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Lominadze, J.G.; Churikov, A.P.; Pustovitov, V.D.; Erokhin, N.N.; Konovalov, S.V.
2008-01-01
The problem of instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in collisionless laboratory rotating plasma is investigated. It is shown that the standard mechanism of driving the magnetorotational instability (MRI), due to negative rotation frequency gradient, disappears in such a plasma. Instead of it, a new driving mechanism due to plasma pressure gradient is predicted
Dynamical Instability and Soliton Concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kartavenko, V.G.
1994-01-01
The problem of dynamical instability and clustering (stable fragments formation) in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of the soliton concept. It is noted that the volume (spinodal) instability can be associated with nonlinear terms, and the surface (Rayleigh-Taylor type) instability, with the dispersion terms in the evolution equations. The spinodal instability and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may compensate each other and lead to stable quasi-soliton type objects. The simple analytical model is presented to illustrate this physical picture. The time evolution of an initially compressed cold nuclear system is analysed in the framework of the inverse mean-field method. It is demonstrated that the nonlinearity and dispersion terms of the evolution equations can lead to clusterization in the final channel. 8 p
Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-01-01
The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions
Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.
Electron/electron acoustic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary, S.P.
1987-01-01
The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma
Canonical three-body angular basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matveenko, A.V.
2001-01-01
Three-body problems are basic for the quantum mechanics of molecular, atomic, or nuclear systems. We demonstrate that their variational solution for rotational states can be greatly simplified. A special choice of coordinates (hyperspherical) and of the kinematics (body-fixed coordinate frame) allows one to choose basis functions in a form that makes the angular coupling trivial. (author)
Probabilistic calculation for angular dependence collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villarino, E.A.
1990-01-01
This collision probabilistic method is broadly used in cylindrical geometry (in one- or two-dimensions). It constitutes a powerful tool for the heterogeneous Response Method where, the coupling current is of the cosine type, that is, without angular dependence at azimuthal angle θ and proportional to μ (cosine of the θ polar angle). (Author) [es
Wigner Functions and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mukherjee Asmita
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Wigner distributions contain combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs. We report on a recent model calculation of the Wigner distributions for the quark and their relation to the orbital angular momentum.
Wigner Functions and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Mukherjee, Asmita; Nair, Sreeraj; Ojha, Vikash Kumar
2014-01-01
Wigner distributions contain combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs). We report on a recent model calculation of the Wigner distributions for the quark and their relation to the orbital angular momentum.
Angular-momentum-bearing modes in fission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moretto, L.G.; Peaslee, G.F.; Wozniak, G.J.
1989-03-01
The angular-momentum-bearing degrees of freedom involved in the fission process are identified and their influence on experimental observables is discussed. The excitation of these modes is treated in the ''thermal'' limit, and the resulting distributions of observables are calculated. Experiments demonstrating the role of these modes are presented and discussed. 61 refs., 12 figs
Angular and linear momentum of excited ferromagnets
Yan, P.; Kamra, A.; Cao, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2013-01-01
The angular momentum vector of a Heisenberg ferromagnet with isotropic exchange interaction is conserved, while under uniaxial crystalline anisotropy the projection of the total spin along the easy axis is a constant of motion. Using Noether's theorem, we prove that these conservation laws persist
Angular distribution in ternary cold fission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delion, D.S.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Sandulescu, A.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Greiner, W.
2003-01-01
We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of 252 Cf, accompanied by 4 He, 10 Be and 14 C. The light cluster decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb potential plus a harmonic oscillator potential. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. (author)
Heteromodal conceptual processing in the angular gyrus.
Bonner, Michael F; Peelle, Jonathan E; Cook, Philip A; Grossman, Murray
2013-05-01
Concepts bind together the features commonly associated with objects and events to form networks in long-term semantic memory. These conceptual networks are the basis of human knowledge and underlie perception, imagination, and the ability to communicate about experiences and the contents of the environment. Although it is often assumed that this distributed semantic information is integrated in higher-level heteromodal association cortices, open questions remain about the role and anatomic basis of heteromodal representations in semantic memory. Here we used combined neuroimaging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the cortical networks underlying concept representation. Using a lexical decision task, we examined the processing of concepts in four semantic categories that varied on their sensory-motor feature associations (sight, sound, manipulation, and abstract). We found that the angular gyrus was activated across all categories regardless of their modality-specific feature associations, consistent with a heteromodal account for the angular gyrus. Exploratory analyses suggested that categories with weighted sensory-motor features additionally recruited modality-specific association cortices. Furthermore, DTI tractography identified white matter tracts connecting these regions of modality-specific functional activation with the angular gyrus. These findings are consistent with a distributed semantic network that includes a heteromodal, integrative component in the angular gyrus in combination with sensory-motor feature representations in modality-specific association cortices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ANGULAR MOMENTUM ACQUISITION IN GALAXY HALOS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, Kyle R.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Bullock, James S.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Diemand, Jürg; Wadsley, James; Moustakas, Leonidas A.
2013-01-01
We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky-Way-sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with ∼70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by λ ∼ 0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms ''cold flow disks.'' We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.
W UMa stars and angular momentum loss
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilhu, O.; Rahunen, T.
1980-01-01
The structure and evolution of W UMa stars is still unsolved although considerable progress has been achieved in recent years. The authors aim is to find out whether it is possible to obtain more extreme mass ratios, what is the angular momentum needed and what is the time scale. (Auth.)
On the angular momentum in star formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horedt, G.P.
1978-01-01
The author discusses the rotation of interstellar clouds which are in a stage immediately before star formation. Cloud collisions seem to be the principal cause of the observed rotation of interstellar clouds. The rotational motion of the clouds is strongly influenced by turbulence. Theories dealing with the resolution of the angular momentum problem in star formation are classified into five major groups. The old idea that the angular momentum of an interstellar cloud passes during star formation into the angular momentum of double star systems and/or circumstellar clouds, is developed. It is suggested that a rotating gas cloud contracts into a ring-like structure which fragments into self-gravitating subcondensations. By collisions and gas accretion these subcondensations accrete into binary systems surrounded by circumstellar clouds. Using some rough approximations the authors find analytical expressions for the semi-major axis of the binary system and for the density of the circumstellar clouds as a function of the initial density and of the initial angular velocity of an interstellar cloud. The obtained values are well within the observational limits. (Auth.)
Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system
Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob
2018-04-01
The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.
POET: Planetary Orbital Evolution due to Tides
Penev, Kaloyan
2014-08-01
POET (Planetary Orbital Evolution due to Tides) calculates the orbital evolution of a system consisting of a single star with a single planet in orbit under the influence of tides. The following effects are The evolutions of the semimajor axis of the orbit due to the tidal dissipation in the star and the angular momentum of the stellar convective envelope by the tidal coupling are taken into account. In addition, the evolution includes the transfer of angular momentum between the stellar convective and radiative zones, effect of the stellar evolution on the tidal dissipation efficiency, and stellar core and envelope spins and loss of stellar convective zone angular momentum to a magnetically launched wind. POET can be used out of the box, and can also be extended and modified.
Variation in angular velocity and angular acceleration of a particle in rectilinear motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mashood, K K; Singh, V A
2012-01-01
We discuss the angular velocity and angular acceleration associated with a particle in rectilinear motion with constant acceleration. The discussion was motivated by an observation that students and even teachers have difficulty in ascribing rotational motion concepts to a particle when the trajectory is a straight line. We present some details of our observations. A formal derivation of ω and α is presented which reveals ‘surprising’ and non-intuitive aspects, namely non-monotonic behaviour with an associated extremum. The special case of constant velocity is studied and we find that angular acceleration associated with it also has an extremum. We discuss a plausible source of difficulty. (paper)
Core sizes and dynamical instabilities of giant vortices in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuopanportti, Pekko; Lundh, Emil; Huhtamaeki, Jukka A. M.; Pietilae, Ville; Moettoenen, Mikko
2010-01-01
Motivated by a recent demonstration of cyclic addition of quantized vorticity into a Bose-Einstein condensate, the vortex pump, we study dynamical instabilities and core sizes of giant vortices. The core size is found to increase roughly as a square-root function of the quantum number of the vortex, whereas the strength of the dynamical instability either saturates to a fairly low value or increases extremely slowly for large quantum numbers. Our studies suggest that giant vortices of very high angular momenta may be achieved by gradually increasing the operation frequency of the vortex pump.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios
2006-01-01
stresses during the late times of the exponential growth of the instability is determined only by the local shear and does not depend on the initial spectrum of perturbations or the strength of the seed magnetic. Even though we derived these properties of the stress tensors for the exponential growth...... of the instability, the mean (averaged over the disc scale-height) Reynolds stress is always positive, the mean Maxwell stress is always negative, and hence the mean total stress is positive and leads to a net outward flux of angular momentum. More importantly, we show that the ratio of the Maxwell to the Reynolds...
Simple model with damping of the mode-coupling instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pestrikov, D V [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki
1996-08-01
In this paper we use a simple model to study the suppression of the transverse mode-coupling instability. Two possibilities are considered. One is due to the damping of particular synchrobetatron modes, and another - due to Landau damping, caused by the nonlinearity of betatron oscillations. (author)
Functional Instability of the Ankle Joint: Etiopathogenesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aydan ÖRSÇELİK
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Ankle sprain is one of the most common sports injuries. Chronic ankle instability is a common complication of ankle sprains. Two causes of chronic ankle instability are mechanical instability and functional instability. It is important to understand functional instability etiopathogenesis of the ankle joint in order to guide diagnosis and treatment. This article aims to understand the etiopathogenesis of functional ankle instability.
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial fusion, astrophysical plasma and flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bychkov, V; Modestov, M; Akkerman, V; Eriksson, L-E
2007-01-01
Previous results are reviewed and new results are presented on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confined fusion, flames and supernovae including gravitational and thermonuclear explosion mechanisms. The instability couples micro-scale plasma effects to large-scale hydrodynamic phenomena. In inertial fusion the instability reduces target compression. In supernovae the instability produces large-scale convection, which determines the fate of the star. The instability is often accompanied by mass flux through the unstable interface, which may have either a stabilizing or a destabilizing influence. Destabilization happens due to the Darrieus-Landau instability of a deflagration front. Still, it is unclear whether the instabilities lead to well-organized large-scale structures (bubbles) or to relatively isotropic turbulence (mixing layer)
Clinical forms of shoulder instability in pediatric patients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaroslav N. Proshchenko
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Background. The recurrence rate of adolescent chronic shoulder instability is approximately 56%–68%. However, this pathology is often missed in childhood and adolescence. Aim. To identify the clinical forms of shoulder joint instability in pediatric patients. Materials and methods. The authors present the data from 57 pediatric patients aged 3−17 years with a total of 61 unstable shoulder joints. All patients were divided into groups according to the form of instability. Traumatic chronic shoulder instability was identified in 40 patients (Bankart and Hill–Sachs injuries. Of these, non-traumatic shoulder instability was diagnose in 17, including five with recurrent dislocation, and spontaneous shoulder dislocation due to dysplasia of glenoid and labrum was diagnosed in 12. Of the 57 patients in the study cohort, 53 underwent surgery. Postoperatively, two patients developed recurrent shoulder dislocation (Andreev–Boichev technique due type III shoulder dysplasia in the first patient and multidirectional injury in the second. Conclusions. Shoulder joint instability should be considered as the traumatic or non-traumatic form. Treatment decisions should be based on anatomical characteristics that predispose to recurrent dislocation.
Canonical momenta and numerical instabilities in particle codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godfrey, B.B.
1975-01-01
A set of warm plasma dispersion relations appropriate to a large class of electromagnetic plasma simulation codes is derived. The numerical Cherenkov instability is shown by analytic and numerical analysis of these dispersion relations to be the most significant nonphysical effect involving transverse electromagnetic waves. The instability arises due to a spurious phase shift between resonant particles and light waves, caused by a basic incompatibility between the Lagrangian treatment of particle positions and the Eulerian treatment of particle velocities characteristic of most PIC--CIC algorithms. It is demonstrated that, through the use of canonical momentum, this mismatch is alleviated sufficiently to completely eliminate the Cherenkov instability. Collateral effects on simulation accuracy and on other numerical instabilities appear to be minor
Faraday instability of crystallization waves in 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, H; Ueda, T; Morikawa, M; Saitoh, Y; Nomura, R; Okuda, Y
2007-01-01
Periodic modulation of the gravity acceleration makes a flat surface of a fluid unstable and standing waves are parametrically excited on the surface. This phenomenon is called Faraday instability. Since a crystal-superfluid interface of 4 He at low temperatures is very mobile and behaves like a fluid surface, Saarloos and Weeks predicted that Faraday instability of the crystallization waves exists in 4 He and that the threshold excitation for the instability depends on the crystal growth coefficient. We successfully observed the Faraday instability of the crystal-liquid interface at 160 mK. Faraday waves were parametrically generated at one half of the driving frequency 90 Hz. Amplitude of the Faraday wave becomes smaller at higher temperature due to decrease of the crystal growth coefficient and disappears above 200 mK
CHF Enhancement by Surface Patterning based on Hydrodynamic Instability Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
If the power density of a device exceeds the CHF point, bubbles and vapor films will be covered on the whole heater surface. Because vapor films have much lower heat transfer capabilities compared to the liquid layer, the temperature of the heater surface will increase rapidly, and the device could be damaged due to the heater burnout. Therefore, the prediction and the enhancement of the CHF are essential to maximizing the efficient heat removal region. Numerous studies have been conducted to describe the CHF phenomenon, such as hydrodynamic instability theory, macrolayer dryout theory, hot/dry spot theory, and bubble interaction theory. The hydrodynamic instability model, proposed by Zuber, is the predominant CHF model that Helmholtz instability attributed to the CHF. Zuber assumed that the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability wavelength is related to the Helmholtz wavelength. Lienhard and Dhir proposed a CHF model that Helmholtz instability wavelength is equal to the most dangerous RT wavelength. In addition, they showed the heater size effect using various heater surfaces. Lu et al. proposed a modified hydrodynamic theory that the Helmholtz instability was assumed to be the heater size and the area of the vapor column was used as a fitting factor. The modified hydrodynamic theories were based on the change of Helmholtz wavelength related to the RT instability wavelength. In the present study, the change of the RT instability wavelength, based on the heater surface modification, was conducted to show the CHF enhancement based on the heater surface patterning in a plate pool boiling. Sapphire glass was used as a base heater substrate, and the Pt film was used as a heating source. The patterning surface was based on the change of RT instability wavelength. In the present work the study of the CHF was conducted using bare Pt and patterned heating surfaces.
Simulation and experimental studies of a double-fiber angular displacement sensor
Zhu, Ruixue; Jing, Ruiping; Cheng, Yongjin
2017-03-01
A novel optical fiber angular displacement sensor is reported in this study. It gets the rotating angle of an object by means of the intensity modulation of a reflected light. The sensor probe, which is composed of an emitting fiber and a receiving fiber that are aligned along the vertical direction closely, is fixed directly on the rotating object. The measurements for axial displacement and angular displacement were operated separately. In particular, measurements for angular displacement were performed when the reflector is placed at different distances from the sensor probe separately. There is an excellent linearity between the angular displacement and the sensor output power. The results indicate that the larger the distance between the sensor probe and the reflector, the higher sensitivity the angular displacement sensor has. A theoretical model of the sensor is also developed and the simulate computation demonstrates that the theoretical results are in accordance with the experimental ones. The linear sensing range is ±7.2°, and the maximum sensitivity is 13.71%/deg. Furthermore, the hysteresis and the reproducibility of the measurement of the sensor are investigated. The designed sensor provides a kind of simple and effective method for measuring the angular displacement of a shaft system in practice due to its small size, light weight, good linearity and reproducibility.
Instability of drift Alfven wave accompanying polar magnetic storm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higuchi, Yoshihiro
1974-01-01
As the micro plasma instability due to the plasma non-uniformity in magnetosphere, there is the instability of drift Alfven wave. With the data obtained with the network of multiple observation points for geomagnetism, attempt was made to prove the hypothesis that the instability of drift Alfven wave due to the electron temperature gradient at the inner boundary of plasma sheet may be one of the causes for the geomagnetic pulsation (Pi 1) accompanying polar magnetic storm. Up to date, final conclusion is yet impossible as to the problems in it due to the discussion based on the data from widely separated observation points. The installation of economically efficient multi-point observation network is necessary for the solution. (Mori, K.)
Size effects on cavitation instabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo
2006-01-01
growth is here analyzed for such cases. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is applied for a power-law hardening material, and the numerical analyses are carried out for an axisymmetric unit cell containing a spherical void. In the range of high stress...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...... as the void grows to a size well above the characteristic material length....
Resistive instabilities in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutherford, P.H.
1985-10-01
Low-m tearing modes constitute the dominant instability problem in present-day tokamaks. In this lecture, the stability criteria for representative current profiles with q(0)-values slightly less than unit are reviewed; ''sawtooth'' reconnection to q(0)-values just at, or slightly exceeding, unity is generally destabilizing to the m = 2, n = 1 and m = 3, n = 2 modes, and severely limits the range of stable profile shapes. Feedback stabilization of m greater than or equal to 2 modes by rf heating or current drive, applied locally at the magnetic islands, appears feasible; feedback by island current drive is much more efficient, in terms of the radio-frequency power required, then feedback by island heating. Feedback stabilization of the m = 1 mode - although yielding particularly beneficial effects for resistive-tearing and high-beta stability by allowing q(0)-values substantially below unity - is more problematical, unless the m = 1 ideal-MHD mode can be made positively stable by strong triangular shaping of the central flux surfaces. Feedback techniques require a detectable, rotating MHD-like signal; the slowing of mode rotation - or the excitation of non-rotating modes - by an imperfectly conducting wall is also discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiayu Zhang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The Semi-Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SSINS provides a new solution to attitude measurement of a high-speed rotating missile. However, micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS inertial measurement unit (MIMU outputs are corrupted by significant sensor errors. In order to improve the navigation precision, a rotation modulation technology method called Rotation Semi-Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (RSSINS is introduced into SINS. In fact, the stability of the modulation angular rate is difficult to achieve in a high-speed rotation environment. The changing rotary angular rate has an impact on the inertial sensor error self-compensation. In this paper, the influence of modulation angular rate error, including acceleration-deceleration process, and instability of the angular rate on the navigation accuracy of RSSINS is deduced and the error characteristics of the reciprocating rotation scheme are analyzed. A new compensation method is proposed to remove or reduce sensor errors so as to make it possible to maintain high precision autonomous navigation performance by MIMU when there is no external aid. Experiments have been carried out to validate the performance of the method. In addition, the proposed method is applicable for modulation angular rate error compensation under various dynamic conditions.
Differences in kinematic control of ankle joint motions in people with chronic ankle instability.
Kipp, Kristof; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M
2013-06-01
People with chronic ankle instability display different ankle joint motions compared to healthy people. The purpose of this study was to investigate the strategies used to control ankle joint motions between a group of people with chronic ankle instability and a group of healthy, matched controls. Kinematic data were collected from 11 people with chronic ankle instability and 11 matched control subjects as they performed a single-leg land-and-cut maneuver. Three-dimensional ankle joint angles were calculated from 100 ms before, to 200 ms after landing. Kinematic control of the three rotational ankle joint degrees of freedom was investigated by simultaneously examining the three-dimensional co-variation of plantarflexion/dorsiflexion, toe-in/toe-out rotation, and inversion/eversion motions with principal component analysis. Group differences in the variance proportions of the first two principal components indicated that the angular co-variation between ankle joint motions was more linear in the control group, but more planar in the chronic ankle instability group. Frontal and transverse plane motions, in particular, contributed to the group differences in the linearity and planarity of angular co-variation. People with chronic ankle instability use a different kinematic control strategy to coordinate ankle joint motions during a single-leg landing task. Compared to the healthy group, the chronic ankle instability group's control strategy appeared to be more complex and involved joint-specific contributions that would tend to predispose this group to recurring episodes of instability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenzel, R.L.; Whelan, D.A.
1982-01-01
This chapter investigates the mechanism by which unstable electrostatic waves of an electron-beam plasma system are converted into observed electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic radiation arises from both natural beam-plasma systems (e.g., type III solar bursts and kilometric radiation), and from man-made electron beams injected from rockets and spacecraft. A pulsed magnetized discharge plasma is produced with a 1 m diam. oxide-coated cathode and the discussed experiment is performed in the quiescent afterglow. The primary beam-plasma instability involves the excitation of electrostatic plasma waves. Electromagnetic radiation from the beam-plasma system is observed with microwave antennas outside the plasma (all probes removed) or with coax-fed dipoles which can be inserted radially and axially into the plasma. The physical process of mode coupling by which electromagnetic radiation is generated in an electrostatic beam-plasma instability is identified. The results are relevant to beam injection experiments from rockets or satellites into space plasmas. The limited penetration of the beam current into the plasma due to instabilities is demonstrated
Topographic instability of flow in a rotating fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. I. Patarashvili
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Here are presented the results of experimental and theoretical studies on a stability of zonal geostrophic flows in the rotating layer of the shallow water. In the experiments, a special apparatus by Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory Georgian Academy of Science was used. This apparatus represents a paraboloid of rotation, which can be set in a regulable rotation around the vertical axis. Maximal diameter of the paraboloid is 1.2 m, radius of curvature in the pole is 0.698 m. In the paraboloid, water spreads on walls as a layer uniform on height under the period of rotation 1.677 s. Against a background of the rotating fluid, the zonal flows are formed by the source-sink system. It consists of two concentric circular perforations on the paraboloid bottom (width is 0.3 cm, radiuses are 8.4 and 57.3 cm, respectively; water can be pumped through them with various velocities and in all directions. It has been established that under constant vertical depth of the rotating fluid the zonal flows are stable. There are given the measurements of the radial profiles for the water level and velocity in the stationary regime. It has been found that zonal flows may lose stability under the presence of the radial gradient of full depth formed by a change of angular velocity of paraboloid rotation. An instability origin results in the loss of flow axial symmetry and in the appearance of self-excited oscillations in the zonal flow. At the given angular velocity of rotation, instability is observed only in the definite range of intensities of the source-sink system. The theoretical estimations are performed in the framework of the equations of the shallow water theory, including the terms describing the bottom friction. It has been shown that the instability of zonal flows found experimentally has a topographical nature and is related with non-monotone dependence of the potential vorticity on radius.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moretto, L.G.
1979-01-01
The angular momentum effects in deep inelastic processes and fission have been studied in the limit of statistical equilibrium. The model consists of two touching liquid drop spheres. Angular momentum fractionation has been found to occur along the mass asymmetry coordinate. If neutron competition is included (i.e., in compound nucleus formation and fission), the fractionation occurs only to a slight degree, while extensive fractionation is predicted if no neutron competition occurs (i.e., in fusion--fission without compound nucleus formation). Thermal fluctuations in the angular momentum are predicted to occur due to degrees of freedom which can bear angular momentum, like wriggling, tilting, bending, and twisting. The coupling of relative motion to one of the wriggling modes, leading to fluctuations between orbital and intrinsic angular momentum, is considered first. Next the effect of the excitation of all the collective modes on the fragment spin is treated. General expressions for the first and second moments of the fragment spins are derived as a function of total angular momentum and the limiting behavior at large and small total angular momentum is examined. Furthermore, the effect of collective mode excitation on the fragment spin alignment is explored and is discussed in light of recent experiments. The relevance of the present study to the measured first and second moments of the γ-ray multiplicities as well as to sequential fission angular distributions is illustrated by applying the results of the theory to a well studied heavy ion reaction
Multichannel system for angular distribution measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Putz, K.
A description is given of the individual blocks of the spectrometric apparatus used for measuring the angular distribution of particle spectra and excitation functions of (d,p) reactions at an electrostatic accelerator and the U-120 M cyclotron, both operating at the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences at Rez. Main attention was devoted to attaining maximum energy resolution at a high measurement efficiency, this by installing 8 independent spectrometric chains allowing simultaneous measurement of angular distribution in 8 points of the beam. The semiconductor detectors were cooled to -40 degC to -60 degC, which significantly reduced the level of inherent detector noise. An energy resolution of 13 keV was attained using Tesla detectors at a particle energy of 11 MeV. A brief review of data processing and software is given. (B.S.)
Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta.
Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Plick, William N; Krenn, Mario; Schaeff, Christoph; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton
2012-11-02
Single photons with helical phase structures may carry a quantized amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM), and their entanglement is important for quantum information science and fundamental tests of quantum theory. Because there is no theoretical upper limit on how many quanta of OAM a single photon can carry, it is possible to create entanglement between two particles with an arbitrarily high difference in quantum number. By transferring polarization entanglement to OAM with an interferometric scheme, we generate and verify entanglement between two photons differing by 600 in quantum number. The only restrictive factors toward higher numbers are current technical limitations. We also experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement of very high OAM can improve the sensitivity of angular resolution in remote sensing.
Parametric decay instabilities in ECR heated plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porkolab, M.
1982-01-01
The possibility of parametric excitation of electron Bernstein waves and low frequency ion oscillations during ECR heating at omega/sub o/ approx. = l omega/sub ce/, l = 1,2 is examined. In particular, the thresholds for such instabilities are calculated. It is found that Bernstein waves and lower hybrid quasi-modes have relatively low homogeneous where T/sub e/ approx. = T/sub i/. Thus, these processes may lead to nonlinear absorption and/or scattering of the incident pump wave. The resulting Bernstein waves may lead to either more effective heating (especially during the start-up phase) or to loss of microwave energy if the decay waves propagate out of the system before their energy is absorbed by particles. While at omega/sub o/ = omega/sub UH/ the threshold is reduced due to the WKB enhancement of the pump wave, (and this instability may be important in tokamaks) in EBT's and tandem mirrors the instability at omega /sub o/ greater than or equal to 2 omega/sub ce/ may be important. The instability may persist even if omega > 2 omega/sub ce/ and this may be the case during finite beta depression of the magnetic field in which case the decay waves may be trapped in the local magnetic well so that convective losses are minimized. The excited fluctuations may lead to additional scattering of the ring electrons and the incident microwave fields. Application of these calculations to ECR heating of tokamaks, tandem mirrors, and EBT's will be examined
Tunnelling instability via perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graffi, S. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Grecchi, V. (Moderna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Jona-Lasinio, G. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies)
1984-10-21
The semiclassical limit of low lying states in a multiwell potential is studied by rigorous perturbative techniques. In particular tunnelling instability and localisation of wave functions is obtained in a simple way under small deformations of symmetric potentials.
Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation
Guazzelli, É lisabeth; Hinch, John
2011-01-01
This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations
Edge instabilities of topological superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)
2016-07-01
Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.
Instability of ties in compression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius
2013-01-01
Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...... exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie...
Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chasman, R.
1976-01-01
A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at Brookhaven, August 9-13, 1976. About a dozen outside accelerator experts, both from Europe and the U.S.A., joined the local staff for discussions of longitudinal instabilities in ISABELLE. An agenda of talks was scheduled for the first day of the workshop. Later during the week, a presentation was given on the subject ''A more rigorous treatment of Landau damping in longitudinal beam instabilities''. A few progress meetings were held in which disagreements regarding calculations of coupling impedances were clarified. A summary session was held on the last day. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber.
Predicting Catastrophic BGP Routing Instabilities
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Nguyen, Lien
2004-01-01
.... Currently, this critical function is performed by the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) version 4 RF01771. Like all routing protocols, BGP is vulnerable to instabilities that reduce its effectiveness...
WELLBORE INSTABILITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borivoje Pašić
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.
Behavior of nuclei at high angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephens, F.S.
1982-07-01
The present report begins with a brief overview of nuclear shapes and level structures at high-spin values. The new spectroscopy associated with angular-momentum alignments is described, and some of the exciting possibilities of this spectroscopy are explored. Nuclear moments of inertia are discussed and a somewhat different one is defined, together with a method for measuring it and some early results. Finally a few comments on the future prospects for high-spin physics are offered
Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms
Hockett, Paul; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas
2015-01-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the cohere...
Adaptive Angular Sampling for SPECT Imaging
Li, Nan; Meng, Ling-Jian
2011-01-01
This paper presents an analytical approach for performing adaptive angular sampling in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. It allows for a rapid determination of the optimum sampling strategy that minimizes image variance in regions-of-interest (ROIs). The proposed method consists of three key components: (a) a set of close-form equations for evaluating image variance and resolution attainable with a given sampling strategy, (b) a gradient-based algor...
Angular distribution of laser ablation plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Dabrowski, R.; Okamura, M.
2010-01-01
An expansion of a laser induced plasma is fundamental and important phenomena in a laser ion source. To understand the expanding direction, an array of Langmuir probes were employed. The chosen ion for the experiment was Ag 1+ which was created by a second harmonics of a Nd-YAG laser. The obtained angular distribution was about ±10 degree. This result also indicates a proper positioning of a solenoid magnet which enhances ion beam current.
Coincident-inclusive electrofission angular correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arruda Neto, J.D.T.
1983-08-01
A method for the joint analysis of coincident and inclusive electrofission data, in order to minimize effects of the model dependence of data interpretation, is developed. Explicit calculations of the (e,e'f) angular correlations are presented. The potentialities of the method to the study of sub- and near-barrier properties of the fission process, and to the study of the giant resonances fission mode, are discussed. (Author) [pt
Genomic instability and radiation effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christian Streffer
2007-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Cancer, genetic mutations and developmental abnormalities are apparently associated with an increased genomic instability. Such phenomena have been frequently shown in human cancer cells in vitro and in situ. It is also well-known that individuals with a genetic predisposition for cancer proneness, such as ataxia telangiectesia, Fanconi anaemia etc. demonstrate a general high genomic instability e.g. in peripheral lymphocytes before a cancer has developed. Analogous data have been found in mice which develop a specific congenital malformation which has a genetic background. Under these aspects it is of high interest that ionising radiation can increase the genomic instability of mammalian cells after exposures in vitro an in vivo. This phenomenon is expressed 20 to 40 cell cycles after the exposure e.g. by de novo chromosomal aberrations. Such effects have been observed with high and low LET radiation, high LET radiation is more efficient. With low LET radiation a good dose response is observed in the dose range 0.2 to 2.0 Gy, Recently it has been reported that senescence and genomic instability was induced in human fibroblasts after 1 mGy carbon ions (1 in 18 cells are hit), apparently bystander effects also occurred under these conditions. The instability has been shown with DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutation and cell death. It is also transferred to the next generation of mice with respect to gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and congenital malformations. Several mechanisms have been discussed. The involvement of telomeres has gained interest. Genomic instability seems to be induced by a general lesion to the whole genome. The transmission of one chromosome from an irradiated cell to an non-irradiated cell leads to genomic instability in the untreated cells. Genomic instability increases mutation rates in the affected cells in general. As radiation late effects (cancer, gene mutations and congenital
Aerodynamic instability: A case history
Eisenmann, R. C.
1985-01-01
The identification, diagnosis, and final correction of complex machinery malfunctions typically require the correlation of many parameters such as mechanical construction, process influence, maintenance history, and vibration response characteristics. The progression is reviewed of field testing, diagnosis, and final correction of a specific machinery instability problem. The case history presented addresses a unique low frequency instability problem on a high pressure barrel compressor. The malfunction was eventually diagnosed as a fluidic mechanism that manifested as an aerodynamic disturbance to the rotor assembly.
Surgical treatment of chest instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitka, M.; Masek, M.
2015-01-01
Fractures of the ribs is the most common thoracic injury after blunt trauma. Chest wall instability (flail chest) is a common occurrence in the presence of multiple ribs fracture. Unilateral or bilateral fractures more ribs anteriorly or posteriorly will produce enough instability that paradoxical respiratory motion results in hypoventilation of an unacceptable degree. Open approach and surgical stabilisation of the chest preserved pulmonary function, improved pain control, minimized posttraumatic deformities and shorter back to work time. (author)
Beam Instabilities in Hadron Synchrotrons
Métral, E; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Buffat, X; Esteban Muller, J F; Herr, W; Iadarola, G; Lasheen, A; Li, K; Oeftiger, A; Pieloni, T; Quartullo, D; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Schenk, M; Shaposhnikova, E; Tambasco, C; Timko, H; Zannini, C; Burov, A; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Mounet, N; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Niedermayer, U; Kornilov, V; White, S
2016-01-01
Beam instabilities cover a wide range of effects in particle accelerators and they have been the subjects of intense research for several decades. As the machines performance was pushed new mechanisms were revealed and nowadays the challenge consists in studying the interplays between all these intricate phenomena, as it is very often not possible to treat the different effects separately. The aim of this paper is to review the main mechanisms, discussing in particular the recent developments of beam instability theories and simulations.
Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K
1993-01-01
Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....
Waves and instabilities in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L.
1987-01-01
The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations
Instability following total knee arthroplasty.
Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos
2011-10-01
Background Knee prosthesis instability (KPI) is a frequent cause of failure of total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, the degree of constraint required to achieve immediate and long-term stability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is frequently debated. Questions This review aims to define the problem, analyze risk factors, and review strategies for prevention and treatment of KPI. Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2000 to 2010 was performed using two key words: TKA and instability. One hundred and sixty-five initial articles were identified. The most important (17) articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed and provided solutions to the diagnosis and treatment of KPI. Results Patient-related risk factors predisposing to post-operative instability include deformity requiring a large surgical correction and aggressive ligament release, general or regional neuromuscular pathology, and hip or foot deformities. KPI can be prevented in most cases with appropriate selection of implants and good surgical technique. When ligament instability is anticipated post-operatively, the need for implants with a greater degree of constraint should be anticipated. In patients without significant varus or valgus malalignment and without significant flexion contracture, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be retained. However, the PCL should be sacrificed when deformity exists particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy, previous high tibial osteotomy or distal femoral osteotomy, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis with disruption of the PCL. In most cases, KPI requires revision surgery. Successful outcomes can only be obtained if the cause of KPI is identified and addressed. Conclusions Instability following TKA is a common cause of the need for revision. Typically, knees with deformity, rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy or high tibial osteotomy, and
Positron annihilation and perturbed angular correlation studies of radiation damage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jiazheng; Li Anli; Xu Yongjun; Wang Zhiqiang; Zhou Dongmei; Zheng Yongnan; Zhu Shengyun; Iwata, T.
2002-01-01
The positron annihilation and perturbed angular correlation techniques have been employed to study radiation damage in Si and Nb. The results obtained by the positron annihilation are consistent with those given by the perturbed angular correlation
Sorting and quantifying orbital angular momentum of laser beams
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Schulze, C
2013-10-01
Full Text Available We present a novel tool for sorting the orbital angular momentum and to determine the orbital angular momentum density of laser beams, which is based on the use of correlation filters....
Verification of angular dependence in MOSFET detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza, Clayton H.; Shorto, Julian M.B.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Nunes, Maíra G.; Silva Junior, Iremar A.; Yoriyaz, Hélio, E-mail: chsouza@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-01
In vivo dosimetry is an essential tool for quality assurance programs, being a procedure commonly performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) or diodes. However, a type of dosimeter that has increasing popularity in recent years is the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detector. MOSFET dosimeters fulfill all the necessary characteristics to realize in vivo dosimetry since it has a small size, good precision and feasibility of measurement, as well as easy handling. Nevertheless, its true differential is to allow reading of the dose in real time, enabling immediate intervention in the correction of physical parameters deviations and anticipation of small anatomical changes in a patient during treatment. In order for MOSFET dosimeter to be better accepted in clinical routine, information reporting performance should be available frequently. For this reason, this work proposes to verify reproducibility and angular dependence of a standard sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter (TN-502RD-H) for Cs-137 and Co-60 sources. Experimental data were satisfactory and MOSFET dosimeter presented a reproducibility of 3.3% and 2.7% (1 SD) for Cs-137 and Co-60 sources, respectively. In addition, an angular dependence of up to 6.1% and 16.3% for both radioactive sources, respectively. It is conclusive that MOSFET dosimeter TN-502RD-H has satisfactory reproducibility and a considerable angular dependence, mainly for the Co-60 source. This means that although precise measurements, special attention must be taken for applications in certain anatomical regions in a patient. (author)
Physics from angular projection of rectangular grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Ashmeet
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a mathematical model for the angular projection of a rectangular arrangement of points in a grid. This simple yet interesting, problem has both scholarly value and applications for data extraction techniques to study the physics of various systems. Our work may help undergraduate students to understand subtle points in the angular projection of a grid and describes various quantities of interest in the projection with completeness and sufficient rigour. We show that for certain angular ranges, the projection has non-distinctness, and calculate the details of such angles, and correspondingly, the number of distinct points and the total projected length. We focus on interesting trends obtained for the projected length of the grid elements and present a simple application of the model to determine the geometry of an unknown grid whose spatial extensions are known, using measurement of the grid projection at two angles only. Towards the end, our model is shown to have potential applications in various branches of physical sciences, including crystallography, astrophysics, and bulk properties of materials. (paper)
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)
Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe;
2016-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor
Harrington, Kathleen; Marriage, Tobias; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John; Bennett, Charles; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe;
2016-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from inflation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).
A neural circuit for angular velocity computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel B Snider
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly-tunable wing-steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuro-mechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob.
Continuous particle spectra and their angular distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sastry, Ch.V.; Jain, R.K.; Rama Rao, J.; Ernst, J.; Machner, H.
1996-01-01
The angular distribution of continuous particle spectra in pre-equilibrium reactions is still an unsolved problem, particularly so at forward angles. In the present work, the angular distributions of alpha particles emitted in (α, α',x) reactions in the target elements gold and rhodium have been studied in detail. Alpha particle beams of energy 60 MeV from the Variable Energy Cyclotron of Calcutta were used in these experiments. The theoretical calculations were done using an extended exciton model of Kalbach incorporated into the Computer Code PRECO-D2. The formalism used in the exciton model was modified to include division of pre equilibrium cross section into multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components. These MSD and MSC cross sections were used to calculate the angular distributions in terms of Legendre polynomials whose coefficients are given by simple phenomenological relations. Even with a reasonable set of parameters, the agreement between theory and experiment was far from satisfactory at forward angles. Similar conclusion was also drawn in the case of continuous particle spectra of deuterons in (d, d'x) reactions at 25 MeV in various targets. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs
Verification of angular dependence in MOSFET detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, Clayton H.; Shorto, Julian M.B.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Nunes, Maíra G.; Silva Junior, Iremar A.; Yoriyaz, Hélio
2017-01-01
In vivo dosimetry is an essential tool for quality assurance programs, being a procedure commonly performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) or diodes. However, a type of dosimeter that has increasing popularity in recent years is the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detector. MOSFET dosimeters fulfill all the necessary characteristics to realize in vivo dosimetry since it has a small size, good precision and feasibility of measurement, as well as easy handling. Nevertheless, its true differential is to allow reading of the dose in real time, enabling immediate intervention in the correction of physical parameters deviations and anticipation of small anatomical changes in a patient during treatment. In order for MOSFET dosimeter to be better accepted in clinical routine, information reporting performance should be available frequently. For this reason, this work proposes to verify reproducibility and angular dependence of a standard sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter (TN-502RD-H) for Cs-137 and Co-60 sources. Experimental data were satisfactory and MOSFET dosimeter presented a reproducibility of 3.3% and 2.7% (1 SD) for Cs-137 and Co-60 sources, respectively. In addition, an angular dependence of up to 6.1% and 16.3% for both radioactive sources, respectively. It is conclusive that MOSFET dosimeter TN-502RD-H has satisfactory reproducibility and a considerable angular dependence, mainly for the Co-60 source. This means that although precise measurements, special attention must be taken for applications in certain anatomical regions in a patient. (author)
Linearization instability for generic gravity in AdS spacetime
Altas, Emel; Tekin, Bayram
2018-01-01
In general relativity, perturbation theory about a background solution fails if the background spacetime has a Killing symmetry and a compact spacelike Cauchy surface. This failure, dubbed as linearization instability, shows itself as non-integrability of the perturbative infinitesimal deformation to a finite deformation of the background. Namely, the linearized field equations have spurious solutions which cannot be obtained from the linearization of exact solutions. In practice, one can show the failure of the linear perturbation theory by showing that a certain quadratic (integral) constraint on the linearized solutions is not satisfied. For non-compact Cauchy surfaces, the situation is different and for example, Minkowski space having a non-compact Cauchy surface, is linearization stable. Here we study, the linearization instability in generic metric theories of gravity where Einstein's theory is modified with additional curvature terms. We show that, unlike the case of general relativity, for modified theories even in the non-compact Cauchy surface cases, there are some theories which show linearization instability about their anti-de Sitter backgrounds. Recent D dimensional critical and three dimensional chiral gravity theories are two such examples. This observation sheds light on the paradoxical behavior of vanishing conserved charges (mass, angular momenta) for non-vacuum solutions, such as black holes, in these theories.
Subcritical saturation of the magnetorotational instability through mean magnetic field generation
Xie, Jin-Han; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar
2018-03-01
The magnetorotational instability is widely believed to be responsible for outward angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion discs. The efficiency of this transport depends on the amplitude of this instability in the saturated state. We employ an asymptotic expansion based on an explicit, astrophysically motivated time-scale separation between the orbital period, Alfvén crossing time and viscous or resistive dissipation time-scales, originally proposed by Knobloch and Julien, to formulate a semi-analytical description of the saturated state in an incompressible disc. In our approach a Keplerian shear flow is maintained by the central mass but the instability saturates via the generation of a mean vertical magnetic field. The theory assumes that the time-averaged angular momentum flux and the radial magnetic flux are constant and determines both self-consistently. The results predict that, depending on parameters, steady saturation may be supercritical or subcritical, and in the latter case that the upper (lower) solution branch is always stable (unstable). The angular momentum flux is always outward, consistent with the presence of accretion, and for fixed wavenumber peaks in the subcritical regime. The limit of infinite Reynolds number at large but finite magnetic Reynolds number is also discussed.
History of shoulder instability surgery.
Randelli, Pietro; Cucchi, Davide; Butt, Usman
2016-02-01
The surgical management of shoulder instability is an expanding and increasingly complex area of study within orthopaedics. This article describes the history and evolution of shoulder instability surgery, examining the development of its key principles, the currently accepted concepts and available surgical interventions. A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed using PubMed. The reference lists of reviewed articles were also scrutinised to ensure relevant information was included. The various types of shoulder instability including anterior, posterior and multidirectional instability are discussed, focussing on the history of surgical management of these topics, the current concepts and the results of available surgical interventions. The last century has seen important advancements in the understanding and treatment of shoulder instability. The transition from open to arthroscopic surgery has allowed the discovery of previously unrecognised pathologic entities and facilitated techniques to treat these. Nevertheless, open surgery still produces comparable results in the treatment of many instability-related conditions and is often required in complex or revision cases, particularly in the presence of bone loss. More high-quality research is required to better understand and characterise this spectrum of conditions so that successful evidence-based management algorithms can be developed. IV.
Erosion waves: Transverse instabilities and fingering
Malloggi, F.; Lanuza, J.; Andreotti, B.; Clément, E.
2006-09-01
Two laboratory scale experiments of dry and underwater avalanches of non-cohesive granular materials are investigated. We trigger solitary waves and study the conditions under which the front is transversally stable. We show the existence of a linear instability followed by a coarsening dynamics and finally the onset of a fingering pattern. Due to the different operating conditions, both experiments strongly differ by the spatial and time scales involved. Nevertheless, the quantitative agreement between the stability diagram, the wavelengths selected and the avalanche morphology suggest a common scenario for an erosion/deposition process.
Angular distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leong L.S.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Above 1 MeV of incident neutron energy the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD has generally a strong anisotropic behavior due to the combination of the incident orbital momentum and the intrinsic spin of the fissioning nucleus. This effect has to be taken into account for the efficiency estimation of devices used for fission cross section measurements. In addition it bears information on the spin deposition mechanism and on the structure of transitional states. We designed and constructed a detection device, based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC, for measuring the fission fragment angular distributions of several isotopes, in particular 232Th. The measurement has been performed at n_TOF at CERN taking advantage of the very broad energy spectrum of the neutron beam. Fission events were recognized by back to back detection in coincidence in two position-sensitive detectors surrounding the targets. The detection efficiency, depending mostly on the stopping of fission fragments in backings and electrodes, has been computed with a Geant4 simulation and validated by the comparison to the measured case of 235U below 3 keV where the emission is isotropic. In the case of 232Th, the result is in good agreement with previous data below 10 MeV, with a good reproduction of the structures associated to vibrational states and the opening of second chance fission. In the 14 MeV region our data are much more accurate than previous ones which are broadly scattered.
Turbulence in Accretion Discs. The Global Baroclinic Instability
Klahr, Hubert; Bodenheimer, Peter
The transport of angular momentum away from the central object is a sufficient condition for a protoplanetary disk to accrete matter onto the star and spin it down. Magnetic fields cannot be of importance for this process in a large part of the cold and dusty disk where the planets supposedly form. Our new hypothesis on the angular momentum transport based on radiation hydro simulations is as follows: We present the global baroclinic instability as a source for vigorous turbulence leading to angular momentum transport in Keplerian accretion disks. We show by analytical considerations and three-dimensional radiation hydro simulations that, in particular, protoplanetary disks have a negative radial entropy gradient, which makes them baroclinic. Two-dimensional numerical simulations show that this baroclinic flow is unstable and produces turbulence. These findings are currently tested for numerical effects by performing barotropic simulations which show that imposed turbulence rapidly decays. The turbulence in baroclinic disks draws energy from the background shear, transports angular momentum outward and creates a radially inward bound accretion of matter, thus forming a self consistent process. Gravitational energy is transformed into turbulent kinetic energy, which is then dissipated, as in the classical accretion paradigm. We measure accretion rates in 2D and 3D simulations of dot M= - 10-9 to -10-7 Msolar yr-1 and viscosity parameters of α = 10-4 - 10-2, which fit perfectly together and agree reasonably with observations. The turbulence creates pressure waves, Rossby waves, and vortices in the (r-φ) plane of the disk. We demonstrate in a global simulation that these vortices tend to form out of little background noise and to be long-lasting features, which have already been suggested to lead to the formation of planets.
Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p43s2) 1D in Li+-Ne collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oud, M.; Pas, S.F. te; Westerveld, W.B.; Niehaus, A.
1993-01-01
Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p 4 3s 2 ) 1 D due to Li + -Ne collisions measured in coincidence with the scattered projectile ions are presented. The measurements are performed at four different collision energies between 1.0 keV and 3.0 keV, and the complex population amplitudes for the excited 1 D state are determined. A nearly pure M = O sublevel population is found with respect to an axis coinciding with the direction of the angular distribution. The direction of the angular distribution is found to deviate from the final direction of the asymptotic internuclear axis. (author)
Damage instability and Earthquake nucleation
Ionescu, I. R.; Gomez, Q.; Campillo, M.; Jia, X.
2017-12-01
Earthquake nucleation (initiation) is usually associated to the loss of the stability of the geological structure under a slip-weakening friction acting on the fault. The key parameters involved in the stability of the fault are the stress drop, the critical slip distance but also the elastic stiffness of the surrounding materials (rocks). We want to explore here how the nucleation phenomena are correlated to the material softening during damage accumulation by dynamic and/or quasi-static processes. Since damage models are describing micro-cracks growth, which is generally an unstable phenomenon, it is natural to expect some loss of stability on the associated micro-mechanics based models. If the model accurately captures the material behavior, then this can be due to the unstable nature of the brittle material itself. We obtained stability criteria at the microscopic scale, which are related to a large class of damage models. We show that for a given continuous strain history the quasi-static or dynamic problems are instable or ill-posed (multiplicity of material responses) and whatever the selection rule is adopted, shocks (time discontinuities) will occur. We show that the quasi-static equilibria chosen by the "perfect delay convention" is always stable. These stability criteria are used to analyze how NIC (Non Interacting Crack) effective elasticity associated to "self similar growth" model work in some special configurations (one family of micro-cracks in mode I, II and III and in plane strain or plain stress). In each case we determine a critical crack density parameter and critical micro-crack radius (length) which distinguish between stable and unstable behaviors. This critical crack density depends only on the chosen configuration and on the Poisson ratio.
Angular-contact ball-bearing internal load estimation algorithm using runtime adaptive relaxation
Medina, H.; Mutu, R.
2017-07-01
An algorithm to estimate internal loads for single-row angular contact ball bearings due to externally applied thrust loads and high-operating speeds is presented. A new runtime adaptive relaxation procedure and blending function is proposed which ensures algorithm stability whilst also reducing the number of iterations needed to reach convergence, leading to an average reduction in computation time in excess of approximately 80%. The model is validated based on a 218 angular contact bearing and shows excellent agreement compared to published results.
Critical gravitational collapse with angular momentum. II. Soft equations of state
Gundlach, Carsten; Baumgarte, Thomas W.
2018-03-01
We study critical phenomena in the collapse of rotating ultrarelativistic perfect fluids, in which the pressure P is related to the total energy density ρ by P =κ ρ , where κ is a constant. We generalize earlier results for radiation fluids with κ =1 /3 to other values of κ , focusing on κ power-law scalings of the black-hole mass. We do see systematic effects in the black-hole angular momentum, but it is not clear yet if these are due to the predicted nontrivial scaling functions, or to nonlinear effects at sufficiently large initial angular momentum (which we do not account for in our theoretical model).
Resonant structure of the 3d electron's angular distribution in a free Mn+Ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Y.; Dolmatov, V.K.
1995-01-01
The 3d-electron angular anisotropy parameter of the free Mn + ion is calculated using the open-quotes spin-polarizedclose quotes random-phase approximation with exchange. Strong resonance structure is discovered, which is due to interference with the powerful 3p → 3d discrete excitation. The effect of the 3p → 4s transition is also noticeable. The ordering of these respective resonances with phonon energy increase proved to be opposite in angular anisotropy parameter to that in 3d-photoionization cross section. A paper describing these results was published
Transfer of orbital angular momentum to an optically trapped low-index particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garces-Chavez, V.; Sibbett, W.; Dholakia, K.; Volke-Sepulveda, K.; Chavez-Cerda, S.
2002-01-01
We demonstrate the transfer of orbital angular momentum from a light beam to a trapped low-index particle. The particle is trapped in a dark annular region of a high-order Bessel beam and rotates around the beam axis due to scattering from the helical wave fronts of the light beam. A general theoretical geometrical optics model is developed that, applied to our specific situation, corroborates tweezing and transfer of orbital angular momentum to the low-index particle. Good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment for particle rotation rates is observed
Angular dispersion and deflection function for heavy ion elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai Zhen; Han Jianlong; Hu Zhengguo; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
2007-01-01
The differential cross sections for elastic scattering products of 17 F on 208 Pb have been measured. The angular dispersion plots of ln(dσ/dθ) versus θ 2 are obtained from the angular distribution of the elastic scattering differential cross sections. Systematical analysis on the angular dispersion for the available experimental data indicates that there is an angular dispersion turning angle at forward angular range within the grazing angle. This turning angle can be clarified as nuclear rainbow in classical deflection function. The exotic behaviour of the nuclear rainbow angle offers a new probe to investigate the halo and skin phenomena. (authors)
Angular Momentum and Galaxy Formation Revisited
Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael
2012-12-01
Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j sstarf and mass M sstarf (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j sstarf reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j sstarf in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of ~100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j sstarf versus M sstarf. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j sstarf-M sstarf tracks, with log-slopes of ~0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of ~3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and ~7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j sstarf-M sstarf trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j sstarf
Kinetic theory of tearing instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.
1977-01-01
The transition of the tearing instability from the collisional to the collisionless regime is investigated kinetically using a Fokker--Planck collision operator to represent electron-ion collisions. As a function of the collisionality of the plasma, the tearing instability falls into three regions, which are referred to as collisionless, semi-collisional, and collisional. The width Δ of the singular layer around kxB 0 =0 is limited by electron thermal motion along B 0 in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes and is typically smaller than rho/sub i/, the ion Larmor radius. Previously accepted theories, which are based on the assumption Δvery-much-greater-thanrho/sub i/, are found to be valid only in the collisional regime. The effects of density and temperature gradients on the instabilities are also studied. The tearing instability is only driven by the temperature gradient in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes. Numerical calculations indicate that the semi-collisional tearing instability is particularly relevant to present day high temperature tokamak discharges
Radiation-induced chromosomal instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritter, S.
1999-01-01
Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/μm) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)
Faraday instability on patterned surfaces
Feng, Jie; Rubinstein, Gregory; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard
2013-11-01
We show how micro-scale surface patterning can be used to control the onset of the Faraday instability in thin liquid films. It is well known that when a liquid film on a planar substrate is subject to sufficient vibrational accelerations, the free surface destabilizes, exhibiting a family of non-linear standing waves. This instability remains a canonical problem in the study of spontaneous pattern formation, but also has practical uses. For example, the surface waves induced by the Faraday instability have been studied as a means of enhanced damping for mechanical vibrations (Genevaux et al. 2009). Also the streaming within the unstable layer has been used as a method for distributing heterogeneous cell cultures on growth medium (Takagi et al. 2002). In each of these applications, the roughness of the substrate significantly affects the unstable flow field. We consider the effect of patterned substrates on the onset and behavior of the Faraday instability over a range of pattern geometries and feature heights where the liquid layer is thicker than the pattern height. Also, we describe a physical model for the influence of patterned roughness on the destabilization of a liquid layer in order to improve the design of practical systems which exploit the Faraday instability.
Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-11-04
Nov 4, 2016 ... In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma ... pling of self-generated magnetic field with the laser wave field. This is ... To describe fully ionized plasma where the interac-.
The angular momentum of isolated white dwarfs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brassard P.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This is a very brief report on an ongoing program aimed at mapping the internal rotation profiles of stars through asteroseismology. Three years ago, we developed and applied successfully a new technique to the pulsating GW Vir white dwarf PG 1159−035, and were able to infer that it rotates very slowly and rigidly over some 99% of its mass. We applied the same approach to the three other GW Vir pulsators with available rotational splitting data, and found similar results. We discuss the implications of these findings on the question of the angular momentum of white dwarfs resulting from single star evolution.
Projection of angular momentum via linear algebra
Johnson, Calvin W.; O'Mara, Kevin D.
2017-12-01
Projection of many-body states with good angular momentum from an initial state is usually accomplished by a three-dimensional integral. We show how projection can instead be done by solving a straightforward system of linear equations. We demonstrate the method and give sample applications to 48Cr and 60Fe in the p f shell. This new projection scheme, which is competitive against the standard numerical quadrature, should also be applicable to other quantum numbers such as isospin and particle number.
Angular Position Tracking Control of a Quadcopter
T. V. Glazkov; A. E. Golubev
2017-01-01
The paper dwells on tracking the quad-copter angular position with desired quality parameters of transient processes. The aerial vehicle is considered as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom. A full rigid body quad-copter mathematical model is considered without the assumption of smallness of the Euler angles.Among the most well known methods of non-linear stabilization are feedback linearization and backstepping. The backstepping approach allows us to have an effective solution of the s...
Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Trichili, A
2016-06-01
Full Text Available :27674 | DOI: 10.1038/srep27674 www.nature.com/scientificreports Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum Abderrahmen Trichili1, Carmelo Rosales-Guzmán2, Angela Dudley2,3, Bienvenu Ndagano2, Amine Ben Salem1, Mourad Zghal1,4 & Andrew Forbes2 Mode....rosalesguzman@wits.ac.za) received: 29 March 2016 Accepted: 24 May 2016 Published: 10 June 2016 OPEN www.nature.com/scientificreports/ 2Scientific RepoRts | 6:27674 | DOI: 10.1038/srep27674 Results Consider a LG mode in cylindrical coordinates, at its waist plane (z = 0), described...
Angular momentum in multi-step photoionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Tadashi; Adachi, Hajime; Kuwako, Akira; Nittoh, Koichi; Araki, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takashi; Yoguchi, Itaru.
1995-01-01
The effect of the angular momenta on the multi-step laser-ionization efficiency was investigated numerically for cases with and without the hyperfine interactions. For either cases the ionization efficiency proved to depend appreciably on the values of J in the excitation ladder. In this respect, we elaborated a simple and efficient method of determining J, which was based on the laser polarization dependence of the excitation rate. Application of this method to a couple of real excitation ladders proved its usefulness and reliability. (author)
Statistical analysis of angular correlation measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, R.A.A.M. de.
1986-01-01
Obtaining the multipole mixing ratio, δ, of γ transitions in angular correlation measurements is a statistical problem characterized by the small number of angles in which the observation is made and by the limited statistic of counting, α. The inexistence of a sufficient statistics for the estimator of δ, is shown. Three different estimators for δ were constructed and their properties of consistency, bias and efficiency were tested. Tests were also performed in experimental results obtained in γ-γ directional correlation measurements. (Author) [pt
Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre
2009-01-01
This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. Such measurement settings find applications in medical and geophysical imaging. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain
Angular momentum effects in subbarrier fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halbert, M.L.; Beene, J.R.; Hensley, D.C.; Honkanen, K.; Semkow, T.M.; Abenante, V.; Sarantites, D.G.; Li, Z.
1987-01-01
The authors discuss angular-momentum distributions σ l for the compound nucleus 164 Yb deduced from measurements of γ-ray multiplicity for all significant evaporation residues from fusion of 64 Ni and 100 Mo and 16 O + 148 Sm. At the lowest bombarding energies the σ l extend to higher l values than do predictions that include coupling of the principal inelastic channels, even if the coupling strengths are increased to match the experimental excitation function. Likewise, σ l from an energy-dependent real potential fitted to the excitation function fails to reproduce the experimental σ l distribution. No effects attributed to superdeformation were observed
Energy flow in angularly dispersive optical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ware, M.; Dibble, W. E.; Glasgow, S. A.; Peatross, J.
2001-01-01
Light-pulse propagation in angularly dispersive systems is explored in the context of a center-of-mass definition of energy arrival time. In this context the time of travel is given by a superposition of group delays weighted by the spectral content of the pulse. With this description the time of travel from one point to the next for a pulse is found to be completely determined by the spectral content, independent of the state of chirp. The effect of sensor orientation on arrival time is also considered. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America
Angular Speed of a Compact Disc
Sawicki, Mikolaj ``Mik''
2006-09-01
A spinning motion of a compact disc in a CD player offers an interesting and challenging problem in rotational kinematics with a nonconstant angular acceleration that can be incorporated into a typical introductory physics class for engineers and scientists. It can be used either as an example presented during the lecture, emphasizing application of calculus, or as a homework assignment that could be handled easily with the help of a spreadsheet, thus eliminating the calculus aspect altogether. I tried both approaches, and the spreadsheet study was favored by my students.
Simultaneous weak measurement of angular and spatial Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts
Prajapati, Chandravati; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.
2017-10-01
We propose and demonstrate the weak measurement scheme to simultaneously measure the amplified angular and spatial contributions to the Goos-Hänchen (GH) and Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts, due to transmission through a glass plate. We have studied two cases of post-selection using a polarizer in the first case and a quarter-wave plate (QWP)-polarizer combination in the second case. The two cases are analyzed theoretically using Jones calculus of polarization formalism and the results are verified experimentally. In the first case of post-selection, the projection of the polarizer at +/- {{Δ }} away from the crossed position amplifies the angular GH and IF shifts, while in the second case of post-selection, the projection of QWP at +/- {{Δ }} and polarizer kept fixed measures the polarization ellipticity in the beam and thus amplifies the spatial shift along with the angular shift simultaneously, for {{Δ }}\\ll 1.
Computer simulations of electromagnetic cool ion beam instabilities. [in near earth space
Gary, S. P.; Madland, C. D.; Schriver, D.; Winske, D.
1986-01-01
Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities driven by cool ion beams at propagation parallel or antiparallel to a uniform magnetic field are studied using computer simulations. The elements of linear theory applicable to electromagnetic ion beam instabilities and the simulations derived from a one-dimensional hybrid computer code are described. The quasi-linear regime of the right-hand resonant ion beam instability, and the gyrophase bunching of the nonlinear regime of the right-hand resonant and nonresonant instabilities are examined. It is detected that in the quasi-linear regime the instability saturation is due to a reduction in the beam core relative drift speed and an increase in the perpendicular-to-parallel beam temperature; in the nonlinear regime the instabilities saturate when half the initial beam drift kinetic energy density is converted to fluctuating magnetic field energy density.
Mechanical evidence of the orbital angular momentum to energy ratio of vortex beams.
Demore, Christine E M; Yang, Zhengyi; Volovick, Alexander; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P; Spalding, Gabriel C
2012-05-11
We measure, in a single experiment, both the radiation pressure and the torque due to a wide variety of propagating acoustic vortex beams. The results validate, for the first time directly, the theoretically predicted ratio of the orbital angular momentum to linear momentum in a propagating beam. We experimentally determine this ratio using simultaneous measurements of both the levitation force and the torque on an acoustic absorber exerted by a broad range of helical ultrasonic beams produced by a 1000-element matrix transducer array. In general, beams with helical phase fronts have been shown to contain orbital angular momentum as the result of the azimuthal component of the Poynting vector around the propagation axis. Theory predicts that for both optical and acoustic helical beams the ratio of the angular momentum current of the beam to the power should be given by the ratio of the beam's topological charge to its angular frequency. This direct experimental observation that the ratio of the torque to power does convincingly match the expected value (given by the topological charge to angular frequency ratio of the beam) is a fundamental result.
Design, Development and Testing of a Semicircular Type Capacitive Angular Position Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikhil GAURAV
2011-06-01
Full Text Available A low cost semicircular type capacitive angular position sensor has been designed, developed and tested. It is made of two semicircular parallel plates where one plate is fixed and another plate is connected with the rotor whose angular position is to be measured. When the angular position of the rotor changes with respect to the fixed plate, the overlapping area between the two plates of the capacitor is varied causing a change in capacitance value. Capacitance variation obtained due to the change in angular position is in the nano farad range. For signal conditioning, series R-L-C resonating circuit instead of conventional bridge circuit has been used to convert the sensor capacitance variation in to voltage. Experimental result shows that the capacitance for change in angular position 0º-180º increases linearly and for 180º-360º it decreases linearly. To get a linearly increasing response of same slope for the full scale of 0º-360º, a suitable linearising circuit has been designed, developed and tested. Sensor output along with the signal conditioning shows good linearity and repeatability.
Streaming instabilities in a collisional dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.
2000-01-01
A pair of low-frequency electrostatic modes, which are very similar to those experimentally observed by Praburam and Goree [Phys. Plasmas 3, 1212 (1996)], are found to exist in a dusty plasma with a significant background neutral pressure and background ion streaming. One of these two modes is the dust-acoustic mode and the other one is a new mode which is due to the combined effects of the ion streaming and ion--neutral collisions. It has been shown that in the absence of the ion streaming, the dust-acoustic mode is damped due to the combined effects of the ion--neutral and dust--neutral collisions and the electron--ion recombination onto the dust grain surface. This result disagrees with Kaw and Singh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 423 (1997)], who reported collisional instability of the dust-acoustic mode in such a dusty plasma. It has also been found that a streaming instability with the growth rate of the order of the dust plasma frequency is triggered when the background ion streaming speed relative to the charged dust particles is comparable or higher than the ion--thermal speed. This point completely agrees with Rosenberg [J. Vac. Soc. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)
Angular correlation of annihilation photons in ice single crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, O. E.; Kvajic, G.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard
1971-01-01
-lattice vectors g⃗ on the direction perpendicular to the slits and the sample surface. The relative area of the central plus the side peaks was (15.2 ± 0.4)% for all curves. All the peaks are interpreted as due to parapositronium annihilation. The side peaks are explained as evidence for the positronium center......Linear-slit angular-correlation curves were obtained at - 148 °C for the [0001], [10¯10], and [11¯20] directions in single crystals of ice. Besides the narrow central peak, pronounced narrow side peaks were also observed. They occurred at angles θ=2πℏgz/mc, where gz is the projection of reciprocal...
Leader, Elliot
2018-04-01
The expression for the total angular momentum carried by a laser optical vortex beam, splits, in the paraxial approximation, into two terms which seem to represent orbital and spin angular momentum respectively. There are, however, two very different competing versions of the formula for the spin angular momentum, one based on the use of the Poynting vector, as in classical electrodynamics, the other related to the canonical expression for the angular momentum which occurs in Quantum Electrodynamics. I analyze the possibility that a sufficiently sensitive optical measurement could decide which of these corresponds to the actual physical angular momentum carried by the beam.
Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Takanaka
2003-10-01
Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.
Dietary factors and microsatellite instability in sporadic colon carcinomas
Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.
2003-01-01
Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in 10-20% of the sporadic colon carcinomas and appears to be primarily due to alterations in hMLH1 and hMSH2. Little is known about the role of diet in MSI-related colon carcinogenesis. We used data from a Dutch population-based case-control study on sporadic
Dietary factors and microsatellite instability in sporadic colon carcinomas.
Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.
2003-01-01
Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in 10-20% of the sporadic colon carcinomas and appears to be primarily due to alterations in hMLH1 and hMSH2. Little is known about the role of diet in MSI-related colon carcinogenesis. We used data from a Dutch population-based case-control study on sporadic
Kinetic theory of tearing instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Dobrott, D.; Wang, T.S.
1975-01-01
The guiding-center kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term is used to study, in cylindrical geometry, a class of dissipative instabilities of which the classical tearing mode is an archetype. Variational solution of the kinetic equation obviates the use of an approximate Ohm's law or adiabatic assumption, as used in previous studies, and it provides a dispersive relation which is uniformly valid for any ratio of wave frequency to collision frequency. One result of using the rigorous collision operator is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is predicted to occur under the long mean-free path conditions of present tokamak experiments, and has significant features in common with the kink-like oscillations observed in such experiments
Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haan, S.W.
1991-01-01
This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs
[Patellar instability : diagnosis and treatment].
Ngo, Trieu Hoai Nam; Martin, Robin
2017-12-13
The aim of this paper is to present recent advances in surgical management of patellar instability. Several anatomical factors were reported to promote instability. We propose to classify them in two groups. Extra articular factors are valgus and torsion deformity. Articular factors include trochlea and patella dysplasia, tibial tubercle lateralization and medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) insufficiency. Acute patellar dislocations are treated conservatively, with exception for osteochondral and MPFL avulsion fractures that require acute reinsertion. Surgery is considered for recurrent instability. As we aim for a correction of all contributing elements, we prefer a two stages approach. Extra articular factors are treated first by osteotomy, followed by articular factors after 4-6 months. This allows separate rehabilitation protocols.
Pierce instability and bifurcating equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godfrey, B.B.
1981-01-01
The report investigates the connection between equilibrium bifurcations and occurrence of the Pierce instability. Electrons flowing from one ground plane to a second through an ion background possess a countable infinity of static equilibria, of which only one is uniform and force-free. Degeneracy of the uniform and simplest non-uniform equilibria at a certain ground plan separation marks the onset of the Pierce instability, based on a newly derived dispersion relation appropriate to all the equilibria. For large ground plane separations the uniform equilibrium is unstable and the non-uniform equilibrium is stable, the reverse of their stability properties at small separations. Onset of the Pierce instability at the first bifurcation of equilibria persists in more complicated geometries, providing a general criterion for marginal stability. It seems probable that bifurcation analysis can be a useful tool in the overall study of stable beam generation in diodes and transport in finite cavities
Performance through Deformation and Instability
Bertoldi, Katia
2015-03-01
Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.
[Sensitivity of four representative angular cephalometric measures].
Xü, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S
2000-05-01
Examined the sensitivity of four representative cephalometric angles to the detection of different vectors of craniofacial growth. Landmark coordinate data from a stratified random sample of 48 adolescent subjects were used to calculate conventional values for changes between the pretreatment and end-of-treatment lateral cephalograms. By modifying the end-of-treatment coordinate values appropriately, the angular changes could be recalculated reflecting three hypothetical situations: Case 1. What if there were no downward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 2. What if there were no forward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 3. What if there were no Nasion change? These questions were asked for four representative cephalometric angles: SNA, ANB, NAPg and UI-SN. For Case 1, the associations (r) between the baseline and the modified measure for the three angles were very highly significant (P < 0.001) with r2 values no lower than 0.94! For Case 2, however, the associations were much weaker and no r value reached significance. These angular measurements are less sensitive for measuring downward landmark displacement than they are for measuring forward landmark displacement.
Electromagnetic angular positioner based on DC micromotor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bodnicki Maciej
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The presented works concerned launching of an angular positioner powered by an electromagnetic actuator, designed for performing angular micromovements within a range of few microradians. The principle of operation is based on balancing the electromagnetic torque of the motor with a torque that is twisting a compliant element. As electrodynamic actuators have no distinguished controlled positions, therefore in typical positioning systems desired positions are obtained applying a closed-loop position control. Usually, such systems employ also a feedback (dumping related to velocity of the moving elements, what simplifies forming of dynamics of the system. The design of the physical model employs a DC micromotor, whose rotor is coupled with a torsional torquemeter. A feedback signal is generated by resistive strain gauges. The paper presents a mathematical model of the positioning system, results of simulation study as well as results of experimental study. The simulation study indicates that it is possible to select such design features and such type of the micoromotor that a high dynamics of positioning is ensured.
Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Dongsheng; Zhang Jingtao; Xu Zhizhan; Li Xiaofeng; Fu Panming; Freeman, R.R.
2003-01-01
A practical scaling law that predicts photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) is derived using angular distribution formulas which explicitly contain spontaneous emission. The scaling law is used to analyze recent PAD measurements in above-threshold ionization, and to predict results of future experiments. Our theoretical and numerical studies show that, in the non-relativistic regime and long-wavelength approximation, the shapes of PADs are determined by only three dimensionless numbers: (1) u p ≡U p /(ℎ/2π)ω, the ponderomotive number (ponderomotive energy in units of laser photon energy); (2) ε b ≡E b /(ℎ/2π)ω, the binding number (atomic binding energy in units of the laser photon energy); (3) j, the absorbed-photon number. The scaling law is shown to be useful in predictions of results from strong-field Kapitza-Dirac effect measurements; specifically, the application of this scaling law to recently reported Kapitza-Dirac diffraction is discussed. Possible experimental tests to verify the scaling law are suggested
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)
Cleary, Joseph
2018-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of four telescopes designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. CLASS aims to detect the B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves predicted by cosmic inflation theory, as well as the imprint left by reionization upon the CMB E-mode polarization. This will be achieved through a combination of observing strategy and state-of-the-art instrumentation. CLASS is observing 70% of the sky to characterize the CMB at large angular scales, which will measure the entire CMB power spectrum from the reionization peak to the recombination peak. The four telescopes operate at frequencies of 38, 93, 145, and 217 GHz, in order to estimate Galactic synchrotron and dust foregrounds while avoiding atmospheric absorption. CLASS employs rapid polarization modulation to overcome atmospheric and instrumental noise. Polarization sensitive cryogenic detectors with low noise levels provide CLASS the sensitivity required to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to levels of r ~ 0.01 while also measuring the optical depth the reionization to sample-variance levels. These improved constraints on the optical depth to reionization are required to pin down the mass of neutrinos from complementary cosmological data. CLASS has completed a year of observations at 38 GHz and is in the process of deploying the rest of the telescope array. This poster provides an overview and update on the CLASS science, hardware and survey operations.
Radiation-induced transgenerational instability.
Dubrova, Yuri E
2003-10-13
To date, the analysis of mutation induction has provided an irrefutable evidence for an elevated germline mutation rate in the parents directly exposed to ionizing radiation and a number of chemical mutagens. However, the results of numerous publications suggest that radiation may also have an indirect effect on genome stability, which is transmitted through the germ line of irradiated parents to their offspring. This review describes the phenomenon of transgenerational instability and focuses on the data showing increased cancer incidence and elevated mutation rates in the germ line and somatic tissues of the offspring of irradiated parents. The possible mechanisms of transgenerational instability are also discussed.
Taming Instabilities in Plasma Discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klinger, T.; Krahnstover, N. O.; Mausbach, T.; Piel, A.
2000-01-01
Recent experimental work on taming instabilities in plasma discharges is discussed. Instead of suppressing instabilities, it is desired to achieve control over their dynamics, done by perturbing appropriately the current flow in the external circuit of the discharge. Different discrete and continuous feedback as well as open-loop control schemes are applied. Chaotic oscillations in plasma diodes are controlled using the OGY discrete feedback scheme. This is demonstrated both in experiment and computer simulation. Weakly developed ionization wave turbulence is tamed by continuous feedback control. Open-loop control of stochastic fluctuations - stochastic resonance - is demonstrated in a thermionic plasma diode. (author)
Helical instability in film blowing process: Analogy to buckling instability
Lee, Joo Sung; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun
2017-12-01
The film blowing process is one of the most important polymer processing operations, widely used for producing bi-axially oriented film products in a single-step process. Among the instabilities observed in this film blowing process, i.e., draw resonance and helical motion occurring on the inflated film bubble, the helical instability is a unique phenomenon portraying the snake-like undulation motion of the bubble, having the period on the order of few seconds. This helical instability in the film blowing process is commonly found at the process conditions of a high blow-up ratio with too low a freezeline position and/or too high extrusion temperature. In this study, employing an analogy to the buckling instability for falling viscous threads, the compressive force caused by the pressure difference between inside and outside of the film bubble is introduced into the simulation model along with the scaling law derived from the force balance between viscous force and centripetal force of the film bubble. The simulation using this model reveals a close agreement with the experimental results of the film blowing process of polyethylene polymers such as low density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene.
ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND LACK OF FRAGMENTATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING ACCRETION FLOWS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Begelman, Mitchell C.; Shlosman, Isaac
2009-01-01
Rapid inflows associated with early galaxy formation lead to the accumulation of self-gravitating gas in the centers of proto-galaxies. Such gas accumulations are prone to nonaxisymmetric instabilities, as in the well known Maclaurin sequence of rotating ellipsoids, which are accompanied by a catastrophic loss of angular momentum (J). Self-gravitating gas is also intuitively associated with star formation. However, recent simulations of the infall process display highly turbulent continuous flows. We propose that J-transfer, which enables the inflow, also suppresses fragmentation. Inefficient J loss by the gas leads to decay of turbulence, triggering global instabilities and renewed turbulence driving. Flow regulated in this way is stable against fragmentation, while staying close to the instability threshold for bar formation-thick self-gravitating disks are prone to global instabilities before they become unstable locally. On smaller scales, the fraction of gravitationally unstable matter swept up by shocks in such a flow is a small and decreasing function of the Mach number. We conclude counterintuitively that gas able to cool down to a small fraction of its virial temperature will not fragment as it collapses. This provides a venue for supermassive black holes to form via direct infall, without the intermediary stage of forming a star cluster. Some black holes could have formed or grown in massive halos at low redshifts. Thus the fragmentation is intimately related to J redistribution within the system: it is less dependent on the molecular/metal cooling but is conditioned by the ability of the flow to develop virial, supersonic turbulence.
Instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Lominadze, J.G.; Churikov, A.P.; Erokhin, N.N.; Pustovitov, V.D.; Konovalov, S.V.
2008-01-01
Instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma are investigated. It is shown that the plasma compressibility gives a new driving mechanism in addition to the known Velikhov effect due to the negative rotation frequency gradient. This new mechanism is related to the perpendicular plasma pressure gradient, while the density gradient gives an additional drive depending also on the pressure gradient. It is shown that these new effects can manifest themselves even in the absence of the equilibrium magnetic field, which corresponds to nonmagnetic instabilities
Jeans instability of rotating magnetized quantum plasma: Influence of radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joshi, H., E-mail: hjoshi8525@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Raj.) India (India); Pensia, R. K. [Department of Physics, Govt. Girls College, Neemuch (M.P.) India (India)
2015-07-31
The effect of radiative heat-loss function and rotation on the Jeans instability of quantum plasma is investigated. The basic set of equations for this problem is constructed by considering quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. Using normal mode analysis, the general dispersion relation is obtained. This dispersion relation is studied in both, longitudinal and transverse direction of propagations. In both case of longitudinal and transverse direction of propagation, the Jeans instability criterion is modified due to presence of radiative heat-loss function and quantum correction.
Magneto-rotational instability in differentially rotating liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikhov, E.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Lakhin, V.P.; Serebrennikov, K.S.
2006-01-01
We study the stability of Couette flow between two cylinders in the presence of axial magnetic field in local WKB approximation. We find the analytical expression of the critical angular velocity minimized over the wave number and the imposed magnetic field as a function of the measure of deviation of the rotation law from the Rayleigh line. The result found is in a good agreement with the previously known numerical results based on the global analysis. We perform a minimization of the critical Reynolds number over the wave number at fixed magnetic field both analytically and numerically. We show that a compromise between resistive suppression of magneto-rotational instability at weak magnetic field and the increase of the critical Reynolds number with the increase of magnetic field is possible. It takes place at moderate values of magnetic field of order 3x10 2 gauss giving the critical Reynolds number of order 4x10 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhajlenko, V.S.; Stepanov, K.N.
1981-01-01
Ion cyclotron instability saturation is considered in terms of the turbulence theory when there is a beam of heavy ions with large thermal longitudinal velocity spread. The instability excitation is due to a cyclotron interaction with ions of the beam under the anomalous Doppler effect. The instability is shown to be saturated due to an induced plasma ion scattering of ion cyclotron waves when the beam ion charge number Zsub(b) is approximately 1. Decay processes, wave scattering by virtual wave polarization clouds and resonance broadening due to random walk of plasma ions in turbulent instability fields appear to be unimportant. For Zsub(b)>>1 the induced wave scattering by the beam ions is the main process determining the nonlinear stage of the instability. Estimates are given for the oscillation energy density in the instability saturation state and for the turbulent heating rate of plasma and beam ions [ru
Perturbation of the γ angular distribution due to vacancy-induced quadrupole interaction in metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abromeit, C.
1976-01-01
This paper presents an investigation of the influence of diffusing vacancies on the results of PAC/PAD experiments. The fluctuating hyperfine interaction process, caused by thermal hopping of the vacancies, is described by a stochastic model, and the mean value of the density matrix time development operator of the probe nucleus. First, the nuclear perturbation factors, containing all information about the interaction of the nuclear spin system with the environment, are defined. The stochastic process of vacancy diffusion in a discrete lattice is presented, and approximation methods are given leading to a significant simplification and in some cases even make possible an evaluation at all. The problem of vacancy preparation at the initial stage of the PAC/PAD-experiment is studied. For the electric field gradients produced by the vacancies at the position of the probe nucleus, an empirical ansatz is given. For different lattice structures, numerical results for integral and differential measurements with and without an applied external magnetic field are presentd. These results are discussed in view of the approximations made and compared with the experiment. Also, the influence of the initial vacancy distribution on the calculated perturbation factors is investigated. The results show good agreement with experimental data. (orig./HPOE) [de
On the conventive instability evolution in a rotating gas disk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikonov, S.V.; Solov'ev, L.S.
1986-01-01
The mechanism of formation of spiral configuration in a rotating gravitating gas disk, caused by the nonlinear development of the convective instability, is considered. The mechanism suggested may be considered as the model of formation of the galaxy spiral configuration in a rotating pregalactic gas disk due to the development of the convective instability. Unlike the popular at present conception of ''density waves'', formation of the spiral configuration, from this point of view, is the single process of the development of instability in the pregalactic gas cloud. The further advantageous star formation in the vicinity of the central region, in a strip and sleeves is caused by higher concentration of gas density and temperature in these regions
Sedimentation and gravitational instability of Escherichia coli Suspension
Salin, Dominique; Douarche, Carine
2017-11-01
The successive runs and tumbles of Escherichia coli bacteria provide an active matter suspension of rod-like particles with a large swimming, Brownian like, diffusion. As opposed to inactive elongated particles, this diffusion prevents clustering of the particles and hence instability in the gravity field. We measure the time dependent E . coli concentration profile during their sedimentation. After some hours, due to the dioxygen consumption, a motile / non-motile front forms leading to a Rayleigh-Taylor type gravitational instability. Analysing both sedimentation and instability in the framework of active particle suspensions, we can measure the relevant bacteria hydrodynamic characteristics such as its single particle sedimentation velocity and its hindrance volume. Comparing these quantities to the ones of equivalent passive particles (ellipsoid, rod) we tentatively infer the effective shape and size of the bacteria involved in its buoyancy induced advection and diffusion. Laboratoire FAST University Paris Saclay France.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mixing in SN 1987A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebisuzaki, T.; Shigeyama, T.; Nomoto, K.
1989-01-01
The stability of the supernova ejecta is compared with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for a realistic model of SN 1987A. A linear analysis indicates that the layers around the composition interface between the hydrogen-rich and helium zones, and become Rayleigh-Taylor unstable between the helium and metal zones. In these layers, the pressure increases outward because of deceleration due to the reverse shock which forms when the blast shock hits the massive hydrogen-rich envelope. On the contrary, the density steeply decreases outward because of the preexisting nuclear burning shell. Then, these layers undergo the Raleigh-Taylor instability because of the opposite signs of the pressure and density gradients. The estimated growth rate is larger than the expansion rate of the supernova. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability near the composition interface is likely to induce mixing, which has been strongly suggested from observations of SN 1987A. 25 refs
Cavitation instabilities between fibres in a metal matrix composite
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo
2016-01-01
induced by bonding to the ceramics that only show elastic deformation. In an MMC the stress state in the metal matrix is highly non-uniform, varying between regions where shear stresses are dominant and regions where hydrostatic tension is strong. An Al–SiC whisker composite with a periodic pattern......Short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are studied here to investigate the possibility that a cavitation instability can develop in the metal matrix. The high stress levels needed for a cavitation instability may occur in metal–ceramic systems due to the constraint on plastic flow...... of transversely staggered fibres is here modelled by using an axisymmetric cell model analysis. First the critical stress level is determined for a cavitation instability in an infinite solid made of the Al matrix material. By studying composites with different distributions and aspect ratios of the fibres...
Lending sociodynamics and economic instability
Hawkins, Raymond J.
2011-11-01
We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich’s sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.
Kinetic theory of Jeans instability
Trigger, S.A.; Ershkovic, A.I.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Schram, P.P.J.M.
2004-01-01
Kinetic treatment of the Jeans gravitational instability, with collisions taken into account, is presented. The initial-value problem for the distribution function which obeys the kinetic equation, with the collision integral conserving the number of particles, is solved. Dispersion relation is
Cinerama sickness and postural instability.
Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F
2013-01-01
Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.
Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujimoto, Y
2013-01-01
Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines, hydro turbines and turbopump inducers, are reviewed focusing on the cause of instabilities. One-dimensional model of hydro turbine system shows that the overload surge is caused by the diffuser effect of the draft tube. Experiments show that this effect also causes the surge mode oscillations at part load. One dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that the mass flow gain factor, representing the cavity volume increase caused by the incidence angle increase is the cause of cavitation surge and rotating cavitation. Two dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that various modes of cavitation instabilities start to occur when the cavity length becomes about 65% of the blade spacing. This is caused by the interaction of the local flow near the cavity trailing edge with the leading edge of the next blade. It was shown by a 3D CFD that this is true also for real cases with tip cavitation. In all cases, it was shown that cavitation instabilities are caused by the fundamental characteristics of cavities that the cavity volume increases with the decrease of ambient pressure or the increase of the incidence angle
The Hall instability of unsteady inhomogeneous axially symmetric magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shtemler, Yuri M.; Mond, Michael; Liverts, Edward
2004-01-01
The Hall instability in cylindrically symmetric resistive magnetized plasmas in vacuum is investigated. The unperturbed self-similar equilibrium solutions for imploding Z-pinches with time-dependent total current I t ∼t S ,S>1/3, are subjected by short-wave sausage perturbations. The instability criterion is derived in slow-time, frozen-radius approximation. In cylindrically symmetric configurations the instability is driven by the magnetic field curvature. The near-axis and near-edge branches of the neutral curve in the plane of the inverse Hall parameter and phase velocity with the frozen radial coordinate as a parameter are separated by the critical point, where the modified gradient from the unperturbed number density changes sign. The critical radius may be treated as a new characteristic size of the Z-pinch that emerges due to the instability: the pinch is envisaged restructured by the short-scale high-frequency Hall instability, in which a central stable core is surrounded by an outer shell. Such a modified equilibrium may explain the observed enhanced stability against magnetohydrodynamic modes
Study of impurity-defect interaction by perturbed angular correlations: 111Cd in silver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sage, Francoise.
1975-01-01
The quadrupole interaction of 111 Cd nuclei following the decay of 111 In implanted by the 109 Ag(α,2n) 111 In reaction into a cubic Ag lattice was measured using the time-differential perturbed-angular correlation technique. A non vanishing quadrupole interaction corresponding to a distribution of electric field gradients was observed, due to the interaction between the 111 Cd impurity and the defects created during the recoil of 111 In nuclei. For low temperature (77 K) irradiations, it has been shown that i) the angular correlation pattern depends on the intensity of α beam current, due to the interaction between defect cascades at high α beam intensity; and ii) it also depends on the annealing of the irradiated sample at different temperatures; the change in the defect configuration around the impurities is then due to the mobility of the various defects [fr
Target-fragment angular distributions for the interaction of 86 MeV/A 12C with 197Au
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Loveland, W.; McGaughey, P.L.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morita, Y.; Hageboe, E.; Haldorsen, I.R.; Sugihara, T.T.
1985-01-01
Target-fragment angular distributions were measured using radiochemical techniques for 69 different fragments (44 12 C with 197 Au. The angular distributions in the laboratory system are forward-peaked with some distributions also showing a backward peaking. The shapes of the laboratory system distributions were compared with the predictions of the nuclear firestreak model. The measured angular distributions differed markedly from the predictions of the firestreak model in most cases. This discrepancy could be due, in part, to overestimation of the transferred longitudinal momentum by the firestreak model, the assumption of isotropic angular distributions for fission and particle emission in the moving frame and incorrect assumptions about how the lightest (A 145) fragment distributions were symmetric about 90 0 . (orig.)
A new unity for angular measurements in strabismus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harley E. A. Bicas
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The practical advantages of quantifying an angle by a ratio of linear lengths instead of arcs of circles has led to the definition of the prism-diopter, a conventional unity for numbering prisms and measuring strabismic deviations. However, a major inconvenience of using prism-diopter unities to express angular measurements is the non-linearity of the scale, which reaches an infinite value for the angle of 90º, then becomes negative, with decreasing magnitudes for increasing angles between 90º and 180º. As a consequence, arithmetical operations and comparisons of angles measured by such unities present errors of very great magnitudes. In order to retain the advantages of defining an angle by straight line dimensions but to diminish the severe inconveniences of this method, a new definition of the prism-diopter is proposed. Here, instead of defining the prism-diopter by the asymmetrical condition, the conception of this new unity is based on a geometrically symmetrical condition; that of the relationship of an isosceles triangle (where the leg is perpendicular to the bisector of the angle and the bisector itself . The condition of symmetry for the definition of the new unity represents a conceptual advance because it reproduces the already well accepted, conventional criteria for quantifying the value of a prism, that of its minimum deviation. Furthermore, it corresponds to the most commonly observed clinical conditions of binocular balance. The absolute differences between the unitary values of the prism-diopter and that of the new unity are negligible (0.0025%, but the scale of values expressed by the new unity is closer to the ideal scale of angular measurements. (With the new unity, the infinite value is only reached for an angle of 180º and the errors due to arithmetical operations are much smaller. Numerical examples showing the advantages of using the new unity of angular measurements instead of the prism-diopter are presented. A
A new unity for angular measurements in strabismus.
Bicas, Harley E A
2014-10-01
The practical advantages of quantifying an angle by a ratio of linear lengths instead of arcs of circles has led to the definition of the prism-diopter, a conventional unity for numbering prisms and measuring strabismic deviations. However, a major inconvenience of using prism-diopter unities to express angular measurements is the non-linearity of the scale, which reaches an infinite value for the angle of 90º, then becomes negative, with decreasing magnitudes for increasing angles between 90º and 180º. As a consequence, arithmetical operations and comparisons of angles measured by such unities present errors of very great magnitudes. In order to retain the advantages of defining an angle by straight line dimensions but to diminish the severe inconveniences of this method, a new definition of the prism-diopter is proposed. Here, instead of defining the prism-diopter by the asymmetrical condition, the conception of this new unity is based on a geometrically symmetrical condition; that of the relationship of an isosceles triangle (where the leg is perpendicular to the bisector of the angle and the bisector itself ). The condition of symmetry for the definition of the new unity represents a conceptual advance because it reproduces the already well accepted, conventional criteria for quantifying the value of a prism, that of its minimum deviation. Furthermore, it corresponds to the most commonly observed clinical conditions of binocular balance. The absolute differences between the unitary values of the prism-diopter and that of the new unity are negligible (0.0025%), but the scale of values expressed by the new unity is closer to the ideal scale of angular measurements. (With the new unity, the infinite value is only reached for an angle of 180º and the errors due to arithmetical operations are much smaller.) Numerical examples showing the advantages of using the new unity of angular measurements instead of the prism-diopter are presented. A mathematical
Untangling Galaxy Components - The Angular Momentum Parameter
Tabor, Martha; Merrifield, Michael; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso
2017-06-01
We have developed a new technique to decompose Integral Field spectral data cubes into separate bulge and disk components, allowing us to study the kinematic and stellar population properties of the individual components and how they vary with position. We present here the application of this method to a sample of fast rotator early type galaxies from the MaNGA integral field survey, and demonstrate how it can be used to explore key properties of the individual components. By extracting ages, metallicities and the angular momentum parameter lambda of the bulges and disks, we show how this method can give us new insights into the underlying structure of the galaxies and discuss what this can tell us about their evolution history.
Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light–matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable. (paper)
Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms
Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.
2015-11-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.
Angular biasing in implicit Monte-Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmerman, G.B.
1994-01-01
Calculations of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion target experiments require an integrated approach in which laser irradiation and radiation transport in the hohlraum are solved simultaneously with the symmetry, implosion and burn of the fuel capsule. The Implicit Monte Carlo method has proved to be a valuable tool for the two dimensional radiation transport within the hohlraum, but the impact of statistical noise on the symmetric implosion of the small fuel capsule is difficult to overcome. We present an angular biasing technique in which an increased number of low weight photons are directed at the imploding capsule. For typical parameters this reduces the required computer time for an integrated calculation by a factor of 10. An additional factor of 5 can also be achieved by directing even smaller weight photons at the polar regions of the capsule where small mass zones are most sensitive to statistical noise
Angular filter refractometry analysis using simulated annealing.
Angland, P; Haberberger, D; Ivancic, S T; Froula, D H
2017-10-01
Angular filter refractometry (AFR) is a novel technique used to characterize the density profiles of laser-produced, long-scale-length plasmas [Haberberger et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056304 (2014)]. A new method of analysis for AFR images was developed using an annealing algorithm to iteratively converge upon a solution. A synthetic AFR image is constructed by a user-defined density profile described by eight parameters, and the algorithm systematically alters the parameters until the comparison is optimized. The optimization and statistical uncertainty calculation is based on the minimization of the χ 2 test statistic. The algorithm was successfully applied to experimental data of plasma expanding from a flat, laser-irradiated target, resulting in an average uncertainty in the density profile of 5%-20% in the region of interest.
Intrinsic Orbital Angular Momentum States of Neutrons
Cappelletti, Ronald L.; Jach, Terrence; Vinson, John
2018-03-01
It has been shown that single-particle wave functions, of both photons and electrons, can be created with a phase vortex, i.e., an intrinsic orbital angular momentum (OAM). A recent experiment has claimed similar success using neutrons [C. W. Clark et al., Nature, 525, 504 (2015), 10.1038/nature15265]. We show that their results are insufficient to unambiguously demonstrate OAM, and they can be fully explained as phase contrast interference patterns. Furthermore, given the small transverse coherence length of the neutrons in the original experiment, the probability that any neutron was placed in an OAM state is vanishingly small. We highlight the importance of the relative size of the coherence length, which presents a unique challenge for neutron experiments compared to electron or photon work, and we suggest improvements for the creation of neutron OAM states.
Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balbutsev, E. B., E-mail: balbuts@theor.jinr.ru; Molodtsova, I. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schuck, P. [Université Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3–CNRS (France)
2017-01-15
The coupled dynamics of low-lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time-Dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin–orbit potential plus quadrupole–quadrupole and spin–spin interactions is considered. New low-lying spin-dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.
Angular Spectrum Simulation of Pulsed Ultrasound Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2009-01-01
frequencies must be performed. Combining it with Field II, the generation of non-linear simulation for any geometry with any excitation array transducer becomes feasible. The purpose of this paper is to make a general pulsed simulation software using the modified ASA. Linear and phased array transducers......The optimization of non-linear ultrasound imaging should in a first step be based on simulation, as this makes parameter studies considerably easier than making transducer prototypes. Such a simulation program should be capable of simulating non-linear pulsed fields for arbitrary transducer...... geometries for any kind of focusing and apodization. The Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) is capable of simulating monochromatic non-linear acoustic wave propagation. However, for ultrasound imaging the time response of each specific point in space is required, and a pulsed ASA simulation with multi temporal...
Angular momentum of dark matter black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frampton, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.frampton@gmail.com
2017-04-10
We provide strongly suggestive evidence that the halo constituents of dark matter are Primordial Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (PIMBHs). PIMBHs are described by a Kerr metric with two parameters, mass M and angular momentum J. There has been little discussion of J since it plays no role in the upcoming attempt at PIMBH detection by microlensing. Nevertheless J does play a central role in understanding their previous lack of detection, especially by CMB distortion. We explain why bounds previously derived from lack of CMB distortion are too strong for PIMBHs with J non-vanishing and that, provided almost no dark matter black holes originate from stellar collapse, excessive CMB distortion is avoided.
Angular reduction in multiparticle matrix elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehman, D.R.; Parke, W.C.
1989-01-01
A general method for reduction of coupled spherical harmonic products is presented. When the total angular coupling is zero, the reduction leads to an explicitly real expression in the scalar products of the unit vector arguments of the spherical harmonics. For nonscalar couplings, the reduction gives Cartesian tensor forms for the spherical harmonic products; tensors built from the physical vectors in the original expression. The reduction for arbitrary couplings is given in closed form, making it amenable to symbolic manipulation on a computer. The final expressions do not depend on a special choice of coordinate axes, nor do they contain azimuthal quantum number summations, or do they have complex tensor terms for couplings to a scalar; consequently, they are easily interpretable from the properties of the physical vectors they contain
Angular discretization errors in transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, P.; Yu, F.
1992-01-01
Elements of the information-based complexity theory are computed for several types of information and associated algorithms for angular approximations in the setting of a on-dimensional model problem. For point-evaluation information, the local and global radii of information are computed, a (trivial) optimal algorithm is determined, and the local and global error of a discrete ordinates algorithm are shown to be infinite. For average cone-integral information, the local and global radii of information are computed, the local and global error tends to zero as the underlying partition is indefinitely refined. A central algorithm for such information and an optimal partition (of given cardinality) are described. It is further shown that the analytic first-collision source method has zero error (for the purely absorbing model problem). Implications of the restricted problem domains suitable for the various types of information are discussed
Topological photonic orbital-angular-momentum switch
Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei
2018-04-01
The large number of available orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) states of photons provides a unique resource for many important applications in quantum information and optical communications. However, conventional OAM switching devices usually rely on precise parameter control and are limited by slow switching rate and low efficiency. Here we propose a robust, fast, and efficient photonic OAM switch device based on a topological process, where photons are adiabatically pumped to a target OAM state on demand. Such topological OAM pumping can be realized through manipulating photons in a few degenerate main cavities and involves only a limited number of optical elements. A large change of OAM at ˜10q can be realized with only q degenerate main cavities and at most 5 q pumping cycles. The topological photonic OAM switch may become a powerful device for broad applications in many different fields and motivate a topological design of conventional optical devices.
Angular response of hot wire probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Mare, L; Jelly, T O; Day, I J
2017-01-01
A new equation for the convective heat loss from the sensor of a hot-wire probe is derived which accounts for both the potential and the viscous parts of the flow past the prongs. The convective heat loss from the sensor is related to the far-field velocity by an expression containing a term representing the potential flow around the prongs, and a term representing their viscous effect. This latter term is absent in the response equations available in the literature but is essential in representing some features of the observed response of miniature hot-wire probes. The response equation contains only four parameters but it can reproduce, with great accuracy, the behaviour of commonly used single-wire probes. The response equation simplifies the calibration the angular response of rotated slanted hot-wire probes: only standard King’s law parameters and a Reynolds-dependent drag coefficient need to be determined. (paper)
Numerical modeling of flow boiling instabilities using TRACE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kommer, Eric M.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • TRACE was used to realistically model boiling instabilities in single and parallel channel configurations. • Model parameters were chosen to exactly mimic other author’s work in order to provide for direct comparison of results. • Flow stability maps generated by the model show unstable flow at operating points similar to other authors. • The method of adjudicating when a flow is “unstable” is critical in this type of numerical study. - Abstract: Dynamic flow instabilities in two-phase systems are a vitally important area of study due to their effects on a great number of industrial applications, including heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. Several next generation nuclear reactor designs incorporate once through steam generators which will exhibit boiling flow instabilities if not properly designed or when operated outside design limits. A number of numerical thermal hydraulic codes attempt to model instabilities for initial design and for use in accident analysis. TRACE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s newest thermal hydraulic code is used in this study to investigate flow instabilities in both single and dual parallel channel configurations. The model parameters are selected as to replicate other investigators’ experimental and numerical work in order to provide easy comparison. Particular attention is paid to the similarities between analysis using TRACE Version 5.0 and RELAP5/MOD3.3. Comparison of results is accomplished via flow stability maps non-dimensionalized via the phase change and subcooling numbers. Results of this study show that TRACE does indeed model two phase flow instabilities, with the transient response closely mimicking that seen in experimental studies. When compared to flow stability maps generated using RELAP, TRACE shows similar results with differences likely due to the somewhat qualitative criteria used by various authors to determine when the flow is truly unstable
Supramolecular architectures constructed using angular bipyridyl ligands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnett, Sarah Ann
2003-01-01
This work details the synthesis and characterization of a series of coordination frameworks that are formed using bidentate angular N-donor ligands. Pyrimidine was reacted with metal(ll) nitrate salts. Reactions using Cd(NO 3 ) 2 receive particular focus and the analogous reactions using the linear ligand, pyrazine, were studied for comparison. In all cases, two-dimensional coordination networks were prepared. Structural diversity is observed for the Cd(ll) centres including metal-nitrate bridging. In contrast, first row transition metal nitrates form isostructural one-dimensional chains with only the bridging N-donor ligands generating polymeric propagation. The angular ligand, 2,4-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (dpt), was reacted with Cd(NO 3 ) 2 and Zn(NO 3 ) 2 . Whereas Zn(NO 3 ) 2 compounds exhibit solvent mediated polymorphism, a range of structures were obtained for the reactions with Cd(NO 3 ) 2 , including the first example of a doubly parallel interpenetrated 4.8 2 net. 4,7-phenanthroline, was reacted with various metal(ll) nitrates as well as cobalt(ll) and copper(ll) halides. The ability of 4,7-phenanthroline to act as both a N-donor ligand and a hydrogen bond acceptor has been discussed. Reactions of CuSCN with pyrimidine yield an unusual three-dimensional structure in which polymeric propagation is not a result of ligand bridging. The reaction of CuSCN with dpt yielded structural supramolecular isomers. (author)
Angular momentum of circularly polarized light in dielectric media
Mansuripur, Masud
2014-01-01
A circularly polarized plane-wave is known to have no angular momentum when examined through Maxwell's equations. This, however, contradicts the experimentally observed facts, where finite segments of plane waves are known to be capable of imparting angular momentum to birefringent platelets. Using a superposition of four plane-waves propagating at slightly different angles to a common direction, we derive an expression for the angular momentum density of a single plane-wave in the limit when...
2008-11-01
This project considered stream instability countermeasures used by the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) to protect the highway infrastructure at stream crossings from changes due to the dynamic nature of streams. Site visits were made to 13...
Effects of mass transfer on a resonance instability in the laminar ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
pressible boundary layer flow due to a rotating-disk is investigated in this paper based on the linear stability theory. The possible .... Reynolds number limit to the inviscid modes strongly suggests that the resonance instability identified here ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiranuma, Yasunari; Atsumi, Takashi; Kajiwara, Toshihisa; Tamaoki, Satoshi; Asakura, Yasuhiro
2009-01-01
Transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy results in improvement of joint congruity and prevention of progressive collapse and osteoarthritic changes in patients with femoral head osteonecrosis. However, this procedure remains controversial for patients with extensive collapse due to potential osteoarthritis caused by postoperative instability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hip instability after osteotomy and determine the relation between instability and radiological and clinical outcomes. In all, 27 hips of 24 patients that were followed up for a mean period of 3.8 years were included. Instability was defined as more than 1 mm translation of the femoral head in transverse computed tomography scans obtained at 0 deg and 45 deg flexion of the hip joint. Hips were divided into instability and stability groups. Eleven hips (40%) developed instability after surgery. Osteophytes on the femoral head in 10 hips of the instability group and 2 hips of the stability group had increased in size at follow-up. There was a significant relation between postoperative instability and osteophyte formation. Joint space narrowing was not seen in any of the cases. There was no significant difference between the groups in either the postoperative intact ratio of the femoral head or the Japanese Orthopaedic Association hip score. Neither instability nor osteophyte formation on the femoral head after transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy correlated with progressive osteoarthritic changes or clinical outcome in the presence of an adequate femoral head intact ratio facing the weight-bearing area. (author)
Angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan.
Kumar, Rahul; Wassgren, Carl
2013-03-01
In this work, a single tablet model and a discrete element method (DEM) computer simulation are developed to obtain the angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan for range of vibration frequencies and amplitudes. The models identify three important dimensionless parameters that influence the speed of the tablets: the dimensionless amplitude ratio (a/R), the Froude number (aω2/g), and the tablet-wall friction coefficient, where a is the peak vibration amplitude at the drum center, ω is the vibration angular frequency, R is the drum radius, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The models predict that the angular circulation speed of tablets increases with an increase in each of these parameters. The rate of increase in the angular circulation speed is observed to decrease for larger values of a/R. The angular circulation speed reaches an asymptote beyond a tablet-wall friction coefficient value of about 0.4. Furthermore, it is found that the Froude number should be greater than one for the tablets to start circulating. The angular circulation speed increases as Froude number increases but then does not change significantly at larger values of the Froude number. Period doubling, where the motion of the bed is repeated every two cycles, occurs at a Froude number larger than five. The single tablet model, although much simpler than the DEM model, is able to predict the maximum circulation speed (the limiting case for a large value of tablet-wall friction coefficient) as well as the transition to period doubling.
Nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCarthy, D.; Drake, J.F.
1991-01-01
An investigation of the nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability is presented in a simple one-dimensional magnetized plasma. It is shown that the radiative condensation is typically a nonlinear instability---the growth of the instability is stronger once the disturbance reaches finite amplitude. Moreover, classical parallel thermal conduction is insufficient by itself to saturate the instability. Radiative collapse continues until the temperature in the high density condensation falls sufficiently to reduce the radiation rate
Dynamic ultrasound of peroneal tendon instability.
Pesquer, Lionel; Guillo, Stéphane; Poussange, Nicolas; Pele, Eric; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudière, Benjamin
2016-07-01
Ankle snapping may be caused by peroneal tendon instability. Anterior instability occurs after traumatic superior peroneal retinaculum injury, whereas peroneal tendon intrasheath subluxation is atraumatic. Whereas subluxation is mainly dynamic, ultrasound allows for the diagnosis and classification of peroneal instability because it allows for real-time exploration. The purpose of this review is to describe the anatomic and physiologic bases for peroneal instability and to heighten the role of dynamic ultrasound in the diagnosis of snapping.
A general approach to optomechanical parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, M.; Barsotti, L.; Fritschel, P.
2010-01-01
We present a simple feedback description of parametric instabilities which can be applied to a variety of optical systems. Parametric instabilities are of particular interest to the field of gravitational-wave interferometry where high mechanical quality factors and a large amount of stored optical power have the potential for instability. In our use of Advanced LIGO as an example application, we find that parametric instabilities, if left unaddressed, present a potential threat to the stability of high-power operation.
Ionising radiation and trans-generational instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vrhovac, I.; Niksic, G.
2007-01-01
Indirect monitoring of the impact posed by ionising radiation to the genome instability of the descendants, consequent to the irradiation of one of their parents, boils down to the investigation of changes occurring exclusively in the mini-satellite loci of the cells constituting the gametal developmental line. The resultant mini-satellite mutations are expressed in their percentages, and equal to the ratio of the number of mutated alleles in that particular generation over the total number of alleles present. The impact of ionising radiation to the irradiated parent's offspring was first noticed on haematopoietic mouse stem-cells. Even though an irradiated cell of a female parent lacks any mutations whatsoever, daughter cells present with the increased mutation rates. The observed phenomenon of the so called trans-generational instability has been defined as the occurrence of mutations in the genome of individuals originating from the irradiated ancestors. Due to the aforementioned, one can conclude that these mutations need not be present in the irradiated parental cells, and do not necessarily vanish in the next few generations, but may result in the increase in mutation rates observed in the latter. The results of the investigations performed on the animal model, as well as of those carried out in human population, point to the occurrence of significant changes to be found on mini-satellite loci of the descending generation, while the mechanism underlying those changes hasn't been completely clarified yet, and, therefore, calls for the further investigation. (author)
Raman sidescatter instability in a nonuniform plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mostrom, M.A.
1977-01-01
In the various laser-fusion concepts, an intense electromagnetic wave (the laser) must propagate through an under-dense plasma region where it could decay, via the stimulated Raman instability, into a Langmuir plasma wave and a scattered electromagnetic wave. This process could, therefore, scatter a significant fraction of the laser energy before it could be deposited in the plasma. A density gradient, in the direction of laser incidence, localizes the instability to a narrow resonance zone where the local plasma wave frequency approximately equals the difference-frequency between the incident and scattered electromagnetic waves. The narrowness of this zone can strongly inhibit the growth of back- or oblique-scattered electromagnetic waves since they quickly propagate out of their resonance region; however, the density gradient has a much weaker effect on side-scattered waves (which propagate perpendicular to the density gradient) since they remain in their resonance zone until refraction bends them out or they exit through the side of the finite diameter laser beam. Thus, we place particular emphasis on evaluating, in a manner valid for the side scattered electromagnetic waves (which are at their turning point), the level of exponentiation at which the growth is linearly saturated due to convection of the waves out of their resonance zone. We also determine the general nature and propagation of the scattered electromagnetic waves and obtain approximate values for the resonance zone size and the time required for the above saturation